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  1. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  2. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  3. High Blood Cholesterol

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    ... To Health Topics / High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is ... Lipid panel tests to check for healthy blood cholesterol levels Doctors use lipid panels to check whether ...

  4. [Abnormality of blood coagulation indexes in patients with de novo acute leukemia and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang-Fang; Hu, Kai-Xun; Guo, Mei; Qiao, Jian-Hui; Sun, Qi-Yun; Ai, Hui-Sheng; Yu, Chang-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To explore hemorrhage risk and the clinical significance of abnormal change of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), plasma fibrinogen (FIB), plasma thrombin time (TT) and d-dimer (D-D) in de novo acute leukemia (except for APL), the different bleeding manifestations of 114 cases of de novo acute leukemia with different coagulation indexes were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between these blood coagulation indexes and the possible correlative clinical characteristics were analysed, including age, sex, type of acute leukemia, initial white blood cell(WBC) and platelet(Plt) count, the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow and cytogenetic abnormality of patients at diagnosis. The results indicated that the incidence of abnormal blood coagulation was as high as 78.1% for de novo AL patients. These patients with 5 normal blood coagulation indexes may have mild bleeding manifestation, but the more abnormal indexes, the more severe bleeding. Both PT and D-D were sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Incidence of abnormal blood coagulation significantly correlates with the proportion of blast cells in bone marrow (χ(2) = 4.184, OR = 1.021, P coagulation. It is concluded that the coagulation and fibrinolysis are abnormal in most patients with de novo acute leukemia. More abnormal indexes indicate more severe bleeding, and both PT and D-D are sensitive indexes for diagnosis of level II bleeding. Higher proportion of blast cells in bone marrow predicts higher incidence of abnormal blood clotting. Acute leukemia with elderly age, high white blood cell count and adverse cytogenetics do not predict severer abnormal blood clotting. Detection of PT, APTT, TT, FIB, and D-D may help to judge whether the patients are in a state of hypercoagulability or disseminated intravenous coagulation, which will provide experiment evidences for early intervention and medication.

  5. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  6. Locating abnormalities in brain blood vessels using parallel computing architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeshina, A M; Hashim, R; Khalid, N E A; Abidin, S Z Z

    2012-09-01

    CT and MRI scans are widely used in medical diagnosis procedures, but they only produce 2-D images. However, the human anatomical structure, the abnormalities, tumors, tissues and organs are in 3-D. 2-D images from these devices are difficult to interpret because they only show cross-sectional views of the human structure. Consequently, such circumstances require doctors to use their expert experiences in the interpretation of the possible location, size or shape of the abnormalities, even for large datasets of enormous amount of slices. Previously, the concept of reconstructing 2-D images to 3-D was introduced. However, such reconstruction model requires high performance computation, may either be time-consuming or costly. Furthermore, detecting the internal features of human anatomical structure, such as the imaging of the blood vessels, is still an open topic in the computer-aided diagnosis of disorders and pathologies. This paper proposes a volume visualization framework using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), augmenting the widely proven ray casting technique in terms of superior qualities of images but with slow speed. Considering the rapid development of technology in the medical community, our framework is implemented on Microsoft.NET environment for easy interoperability with other emerging revolutionary tools. The framework was evaluated with brain datasets from the department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, United States, containing around 109 MRA datasets. Uniquely, at a reasonably cheaper cost, our framework achieves immediate reconstruction and obvious mappings of the internal features of human brain, reliable enough for instantaneous locations of possible blockages in the brain blood vessels.

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. High Blood Pressure Facts

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  10. High Blood Pressure

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    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  11. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abnormal haemoglobin variants ( HbSS,AS,AC,SC,etc) have been known to be common among blacks. Patients with sickle cell disease are often faced with the risk of alloimmunization from allogeneic blood transfusion. Objectives: The study was designed to sample students population of African descents for ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. High blood pressure medications

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  4. High blood pressure - children

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  9. Preventing High Blood Pressure

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    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. High Blood Pressure

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    ... effects on blood pressure. Finding out what genetic patterns contribute to high blood pressure risk. NHLBI-funded researchers identified dozens of ... whether a low-sodium and low-calorie eating pattern, along with aerobic exercise, can improve blood pressure in patients who do not respond to ...

  15. Undiagnosed abnormal postpartum blood loss: Incidence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Sentilhes, Loic; Maillard, Françoise; Goffinet, François

    2018-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the incidence of undiagnosed abnormal postpartum blood loss (UPPBL) after vaginal delivery, identify the risk factors and compare them to those of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Method The study population included women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of women with singleton low-risk pregnancy who delivered vaginally after 35 weeks’ gestation (n = 3917). Clinical PPH was defined as postpartum blood loss ≥ 500 mL measured by using a collector bag and UPPBL was defined by a peripartum change in haemoglobin ≥ 2 g/dL in the absence of clinical PPH. Risk factors were assessed by multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results The incidence of UPPBL and PPH was 11.2% and 11.0% of vaginal deliveries, respectively. The median peripartum change in Hb level was comparable between UPPBL and PPH groups (2.5 g/dL interquartile range [2.2–3.0] and 2.4 g/dL IQR [1.5–3.3]). Risk factors specifically associated with UPPBL were Asian geographical origin (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–4.2; p = 0.009), previous caesarean section (aOR 3.4, 2.1–5.5; p<0.001) and episiotomy (aOR 2.6, 1.8–3.6; p<0.001). Risk factors for both UPPBL and PPH were primiparity, long duration of labour, instrumental delivery and retained placenta. Conclusion Undiagnosed abnormal postpartum blood loss is frequent among women giving birth vaginally and has specific risk factors. The clinical importance of this entity needs further confirmation, and the benefit of systematic or targeted prevention strategies needs to be assessed. PMID:29320553

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cermik, Tevfik F. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Trakya Universitesi Hastanesi, Nukleer Tip Anabilim Dali, Gullapoglu Yerleskesi, Edirne (Turkey); Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N. [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Edirne (Turkey); Ugur-Altun, Betuel [Hospital of the University of Trakya, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 {+-} 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 {+-} 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermik, Tevfik F.; Kaya, Meryem; Bedel, Deniz; Berkarda, Sakir; Yigitbasi, Oemer N.; Ugur-Altun, Betuel

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) before parathyroidectomy by semiquantitative analysis of brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Included in this prospective study were 14 patients (mean age 47.6 ± 10.4 years; 3 male, 11 female) and 10 control subjects (mean age 36.0 ± 8.5 years, 6 male, 4 female) were SPECT imaging was performed using a dual-headed gamma camera 60-90 min after intravenous administration of 925 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO. The corticocerebellar rCBF ratios were calculated from 52 brain areas and reference lower values (RLVs) were calculated from the rCBF ratios of control subjects. The regional ratios that were below the corresponding RLV were considered abnormal (hypoperfused). Hypoperfusion was shown in 171 out of 728 regions (23%) and there was a significant correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions in the patient group (R = 0.75 and P = 0.001, and R = 0.75, P = 0.001, respectively). Significantly reduced rCBF were found in the following cortical regions: bilateral cingulate cortex, superior and inferior frontal cortex, anterior temporal cortex, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parietal cortex, and right posterior temporal cortex. Our results indicate that alterations in rCBF in patients with PHP can be demonstrated with brain SPECT. The correlation between serum calcium, PTH levels and the sum of hypoperfused regions indicates that there may be a strong relationship between rCBF abnormalities and increased levels of serum calcium and PTH. In addition, the degree of rCBF abnormalities could be determined by brain SPECT in PHP patients with or without psychiatric symptoms. (orig.)

  19. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

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    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  6. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease.To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction.The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo. ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF<0.50%.Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001. Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002 and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001. Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker, intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities. ECG was sensitive (92% for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99% for ruling out LV dysfunction.ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors

  7. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi Seropositive and Seronegative Former Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Sabino, Ester C.; Marcolino, Milena S.; Salemi, Vera M. C.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M.; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Eduard L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. Objectives To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. Methods The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Results Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients −0.159,p<0.0003, and −0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. Conclusions ECG abnormalities are more frequent in

  8. Abnormality in cerebellar blood flow in solo vertigo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahori, Takeshi; Nishijima, Michiharu; Endo, Shunro; Takaku, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system as a cause of vertigo and dizziness. We used Xe-CT to study cerebellar blood flow in 53 patients who ranged in age from 35 to 85 years. The patients were divided into two groups. One of them was the vertigo group that comprised 28 patients with rotatory sensation, and the other, the non-vertigo group of 25 patients with a sensation other than rotation. At the stage of severe symptoms, there was decreased cerebellar blood flow in all patients of both, the vertigo and the non-vertigo groups, and a decrease in the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere was observed in five patients and in a unilateral hemisphere in three patients of the vertigo group. By comparison, in the non-vertigo group, unilateral decrease of cerebellar blood flow was observed in only one patient, and a bilateral decrease in five. At the stage of severe symptoms, the mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 40.5±8.0 ml/100 g/min (n=16 sides) in the vertigo group and 45.3±9.5 ml/100 g/min (n=12 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the stage of moderate symptoms, blood flow image was normal in four of 14 vertigo patients and in seven of 12 non-vertigo patients. The mean regional blood flow was 47.8±8.6 ml/100 g/min (n=28 sides) in the vertigo group and 47.1±5.1 ml/100 g/min (n=24 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the asymptomatic stage, a high proportion of normal blood flow images (nine of 16 vertigo patients and 10 of 10 non-vertigo patients) was observed. The mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 51.6±10.7 ml/100 g/min (n=32 sides) in the vertigo group and 52.8±8.5 ml/100 g/min (n=20 sides) in the non-vertigo group. This study demonstrates that a unilateral or bilateral decrease in blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system may cause vertigo and dizziness. It also shows that Xe-CT of the cerebellum may be a valuable examination modality for the diagnosis and treatment of vertigo and dizziness. (author)

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  10. High Blood Pressure

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    ... can help you control high blood pressure. These habits include: Healthy eating Being physically active Maintaining a healthy weight Limiting alcohol intake Managing and coping with stress To help make lifelong lifestyle changes, try making ...

  11. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOEε4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the ε4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single ε4 allele. On the contrary the relation of ε4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection or statistical parametric mapping

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for ... control your blood pressure before and during the pregnancy. Some women develop high blood pressure during pregnancy. ...

  15. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...... megakaryocytopoesis, wide, pericyte-coated and morphologically aberrant vessels were detected. MVD was significantly greater in bone marrow and spleen samples from animals with myelofibrosis than in wild-type mice. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that angiogenesis is similarly abnormal in human and murine...... myelofibrosis with intense pericyte coating, presumably related to abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis....

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes ... Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  19. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  20. Proof of concept in cardiovascular risk: the paradoxical findings in blood pressure and lipid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs FD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flavio Danni Fuchs, Sandra Costa Fuchs, Leila Beltrami Moreira, Miguel GusDivision of Cardiology and Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilAbstract: High blood pressure and lipoprotein abnormalities were identified by many cohort studies as the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory experiments apparently confirmed their role in the causation of atherosclerosis, but a proof of concept requires the corroboration by clinical trials in human beings. The size of benefit in clinical trials regarding the control of high blood pressure was within the estimations of risk provided by cohort studies. For a reduction of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure, the relative risk reduction of coronary heart disease was 22% (95% confidence interval 27%–17% in a meta-analysis of clinical trials, close to the estimation of reduction of 25% (95% confidence interval 23%–27% provided by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The corresponding values for stroke were 41% (95% confidence interval 33%–48% in clinical trials compared to a cohort risk prediction of 36% (95% confidence interval 34%–38%. This efficacy was shared by all blood pressure-lowering drugs. The same figure has not paradoxically happened with drugs that act over abnormalities of cholesterol and lipoproteins. Only statins, which have other beneficial actions as well, have consistently lowered the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, an efficacy that was not reproduced by older and newer quite potent lipid drugs. The adverse effects of these drugs may nullify their beneficial effects over lipoproteins and abnormalities of lipoproteins may only be surrogate markers of the underlying real risks.Keywords: proof of concept, hypertension, lipoproteins, clinical trials

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure. Primary High Blood Pressure Primary, ... plan based on whether you were diagnosed with primary or secondary high blood pressure and if there is a ...

  4. Blood Pressure Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the effect of posture on blood pressure in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with that of age-matched controls. The design is a case control study. Blood pressure was recorded manually in the seated position with Accossons® mercury sphygmomanometer in 30 consecutive patients with PD on ...

  5. Uterine artery blood flow in patients with copper intrauterine device-induced abnormal uterine bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama M. Fouda

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study confirm the hypothesis that there is an increase in the uterine blood flow (as indicated by decreased PI and RI in uterine artery in women with CIUD-induced abnormal uterine bleeding.

  6. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological examination of HFD-induced obese rats revealed fat droplets in acinar cells, but these alterations were ... Conclusion: RBE consumption may attenuate pancreatic abnormalities by inhibiting fat accumulation, as well as enhancing ..... bran, its soluble and fiber fractions on blood glucose levels and serum lipid ...

  7. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... treatment plans for high blood pressure that include lifelong lifestyle changes and medicines to control high blood ... Managing and coping with stress To help make lifelong lifestyle changes, try making one healthy lifestyle change ...

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... of physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk ... for high blood pressure and may run in families. Genetic causes of this condition are why family ...

  9. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunosuppressant medicines Anxiety, depression and mental health Kidney rejection Lifestyle changes Donate a kidney Being a living ... take a blood pressure medicine. There are many types of blood pressure medicine and you may need to take ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ... cannot release all the ketones and they build up in your blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, . In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

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    Full Text Available ... system activity , and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study ... and Your Heart U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Maintaining ...

  15. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  16. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - diet ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ... DIET The low-salt Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is proven to help lower blood ...

  17. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming

  18. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is ... are the symptoms of high blood pressure and kidney disease? Most people with high blood pressure do not ...

  19. Cerebral blood flow is an earlier indicator of perfusion abnormalities than cerebral blood volume in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lacalle-Aurioles, María; Mateos-Pérez, José M; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; Olazarán, Javier; Cruz-Orduña, Isabel; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Martino, María-Elena; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) can better characterize perfusion abnormalities in predementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than cerebral blood volume (CBV) and whether cortical atrophy is more associated with decreased CBV or with decreased CBF. We compared measurements of CBV, CBF, and mean cortical thickness obtained from magnetic resonance images in a group of healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted t...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Awareness ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health Insurance Update The Health Insurance ...

  5. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis or to prevent rejection after a transplant Steroids such as prednisone that ... LDL cholesterol levels . Read more Levels of one type of blood fat can signal your risk of developing heart ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... may make your blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor ...

  7. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... your doctor may change the amount of your medication or insulin or possibly the timing of when ...

  8. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. ... blood, which can lead to ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis is life-threatening and needs immediate treatment. Symptoms include: Shortness ...

  9. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney function and levels of calcium in your urine. Your provider may do other tests to further assess your condition, such as checking your blood levels of phosphorus (a mineral). Imaging studies also may be helpful, ...

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Honorees How We Fund Research Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral ... someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... blood glucose level go even higher. You'll need to work with your doctor to find the ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  14. Performance of the CellaVision ® DM96 system for detecting red blood cell morphologic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Horn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red blood cell (RBC analysis is a key feature in the evaluation of hematological disorders. The gold standard light microscopy technique has high sensitivity, but is a relativity time-consuming and labor intensive procedure. This study tested the sensitivity and specificity of gold standard light microscopy manual differential to the CellaVision ® DM96 (CCS; CellaVision, Lund, Sweden automated image analysis system, which takes digital images of samples at high magnification and compares these images with an artificial neural network based on a database of cells and preclassified according to RBC morphology. Methods: In this study, 212 abnormal peripheral blood smears within the Calgary Laboratory Services network of hospital laboratories were selected and assessed for 15 different RBC morphologic abnormalities by manual microscopy. The same samples were reassessed as a manual addition from the instrument screen using the CellaVision ® DM96 system with 8 microscope high power fields (×100 objective and a 22 mm ocular. The results of the investigation were then used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the CellaVision ® DM96 system in reference to light microscopy. Results: The sensitivity ranged from a low of 33% (RBC agglutination to a high of 100% (sickle cells, stomatocytes. The remainder of the RBC abnormalities tested somewhere between these two extremes. The specificity ranged from 84% (schistocytes to 99.5% (sickle cells, stomatocytes. Conclusions: Our results showed generally high specificities but variable sensitivities for RBC morphologic abnormalities.

  15. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site ... Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... work with your doctor to find the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the safest way for you to lower your blood glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your dietitian to make changes in your meal plan. If exercise and changes in your diet ...

  19. Managing High Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing High Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Jan 10,2018 When your doctor ... checkup. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  20. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling hypertension ... when you wake up. For people with very high blood pressure, this is when they are most at risk ... 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed ...

  1. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  2. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure and Women Updated:Jan 29,2018 Pregnancy and ... Women . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  3. Computed aided system for separation and classification of the abnormal erythrocytes in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.

  4. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section High ...

  5. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  7. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physical activity Drinking too much alcohol Stress Family History A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of ... Genetic causes of this condition are why family history is a risk factor for this condition. Screening ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... management techniques include: Being physically active Listening to music or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing ... multidisciplinary researchers on June 10, 2016, to share current scientific k... View all events on High Blood ...

  10. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Hypertension tends to worsen with age and you cannot ...

  11. Right-sided phase abnormalities on gated blood pool ventriculography: Demonstration of six different patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, R.H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Ziada, G.; Al-Suhali, A.; Constantinides, C.; Nair, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Phase pattern abnormalities on multiple gated blood pool ventriculography are better reported for the left ventricle (LV) than for the right side of the heart. In a study of 92 patients who also underwent contrast ventriculography, the authors identified six different patterns of right-sided phase abnormalities and their causes: right bundle-branch block, causing delayed phase in the entire right ventricle (RV); ischemic right coronary artery disease, causing delayed phase in the inferior RV wall; pericardial effusion, causing an L-shaped area of delayed phase to the right of the septum and below the LV; pulmonary hypertension, causing delayed phase in the pulmonary infundibulum; tricuspid regurgitation, causing a crescentic area of delayed phase around and below the right RV and extending below the LV as well, and atrial septal defect causing an abnormally large auricular phase

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth / For Parents / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... Is High Blood Pressure Treated? Print What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  13. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too High KidsHealth / For Teens / When Blood ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ...

  14. Data on copper level in the blood of patients with normal and abnormal angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we measured the levels of copper in the blood of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The samples were taken from patients with cardiovascular disease in Bushehr׳s university hospital, Iran. Patients were divided in two groups: normal angiography and abnormal angiography. After the chemical digestion of samples, the concentration levels of Cu in both groups were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES.

  15. Abnormal blood flow and red blood cell deformability in severe malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dondorp, A. M.; Kager, P. A.; Vreeken, J.; White, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    Obstruction of the microcirculation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of severe malaria. Here, Arjen Dondorp and colleagues describe the various contributors to impaired microcirculatory flow in falciparum malaria: sequestration, rosetting and recent findings regarding impaired red blood

  16. High blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  17. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  18. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) ...

  19. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  20. Determinants of abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Munley, B.M.; Hadjimiltiades, S.; Meissner, M.D.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study assessed the determinants of exercise-induced abnormal systolic blood pressure (BP) response in 127 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Three types of systolic BP response to exercise were identified: an increase by more than 20 mm Hg (group I, n = 74); an increase by 20 mm Hg or less (group II, n = 36); and a decrease of at least 10 mm Hg (group III, n = 17). The 3 groups were not significantly different in age, gender or medications. The number of segments with perfusion defects was significantly higher in groups II and III than group I (group III, 2.9 +/- 1.5; group II, 2.9 +/- 2.1; and group I, 1.8 +/- 1.4, p = 0.009). Prior myocardial infarction, abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, and multivessel CAD were more common in group III than in groups I and II. Stepwise discriminant analysis of 15 relevant clinical, angiographic and exercise scintigraphic descriptors showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects, abnormal LV ejection fraction at rest and multivessel CAD to be important predictors of hypotensive BP response. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects was the only important predictor of the hypotensive response. Thus, it is the functional significance of CAD assessed by the extent of thallium perfusion abnormalities rather than the extent of CAD or left ventricular dysfunction at rest that determines the systolic BP response to exercise

  1. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  2. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  3. Abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in uterine endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, K; Sakayori, M; Arai, H; Yamaoka, K; Kurihara, S; Nozawa, S

    1991-08-01

    The expression of A, B, and H group antigens, Lewis group antigens (Lewis(a), Lewis(b), Lewis(x), and Lewis(y)), and Lc4 and nLc4 antigens, the precursor antigens of both groups, was examined immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in 9 normal endometria, 6 endometrial hyperplasias, and 31 endometrial cancers. 1) A, B and/or H antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at an incidence of 51.6%, while no distinct localization of these antigens was observed in normal endometria. H antigen, the precursor of A and B antigens, was particularly frequently detected in endometrial cancers. 2) An increased rate of expression of Lewis group antigens, particularly Lewis(b) antigen, was observed in endometrial cancers compared with its expression in normal endometria. 3) Lc4 and nLc4 antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at rates of 41.9% and 38.7%, respectively, these expressions being increased compared with those in normal endometria. 4) These results suggest that a highly abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in endometrial cancers occurs not only at the level of A, B, and H antigens and Lewis group antigens, but also at the level of their precursor Lc4 and nLc4 antigens. 5) Lewis(a), Lewis(b), and Lc4 antigens, built on the type-1 chain, are more specific to endometrial cancers than their respective positional isomers, Lewis(x), Lewis(y), and nLc4 antigens, built on the type-2 chain.

  4. Relationship between blood lead level and abnormal eye blinking in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Du

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the relationship between blood lead level and abnormal eye blinking in children. METHODS: The patients with chief complaint of frequent eye blinking, whose diagnosis of abnormal eye blinking, were randomized to experimental group. The patients in this group carried out vision and the slit-lamp examination, detected corneal fluorescein staining and tear break-up time, and improved the level of blood lead and trace elements examination. The patients in control group with chief complaint of health physical examination in our hospital, excepted of blood lead level, the other body check results were normal and were divided into boys group and girls group according to the gender. The changes of the experimental group and control group in blood lead level were compared. RESULTS: Totally 371 cases(male: 295 cases; female: 76 caseswith mean age was 6.56±2.41 years and 6.08±2.82 years respectively were in experimental groupe. In control group, there were 300 cases(male: 186 cases; female: 114 caseswith mean age was 6.99±3.01 years and 6.56±2.80 years respectively. The average of blood lead level of boys in experimental group was 63.82±24.56μg/L and 53.98±15.42μg/L in control group. The average of blood lead level in experimental group was higher than that in control group. The difference between of the two group was statistically significant(χ2=16.96, Pχ2=5.77, P=0.56. In control group, the average of blood lead level with 6 years children were 48.73±11.67μg/L, 51.39±14.87μg/L,52.98±14.45μg/L respectively. In expirement group, the results were 56.57±17.89μg/L, 59.92±18.46μg/L and 67.00±32.55μg/L in 6 children, respectively. There was no significant difference with χ2=3.54, P=0.17. The difference with 3~6 years and >6 years children were statistically significant(χ2=9.62, P=0.008and(χ2=19.22, P=0.000respectively. The blood lead level were divided into three grades: 100μg/L, and relative risk(RRwere 0.65, 1.22, and

  5. [Inflammation in high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo; Rosas Peralta, Martín

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory status is involved in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular disorders and in the genesis of high blood pressure. In this disease inflammation results from the activity of several hematological cells as well as the presence of chemotactic factors, immunological reactivity and hyperactivity of vasoconstrictor systems as that of the renin-angiotensin. Clinical evaluation of hypertension recommends secreening of several proinflammatory substances in hypertensive patients in order to evaluate their level of cardiovascular risk. Interleukin-6 and C reactive protein have been considered the most usual risk biomarkers. Interleukin 6 is a potent proinflammatory compound which participates in the acute fase of the tissular reaction to lesions associated to immunological, ischemic or oxidative stress. C reactive protein participates during inflammation activating the first component of complement with disorganization of the phospholipidic array of the endothelial sarcolemmal membrane and the consequent endothelial dysfunction related to the genesis of high blood pressure.

  6. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janušonis Skirmantas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia. The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene based on currently available clinical and

  7. Detection of Hepatitis C virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with abnormal alanine transaminase in Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Makvandi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important agent for chronic and acute hepatitis. Occult hepatitis C remains a major health problem worldwide. Patients with chronic occult HCV may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of occult hepatitis C by IS-PCR-ISH (in situ PCR in situ hybridisation in the patients with abnormal ALT. Materials and Methods: The blood samples were taken from 53 patients including 17 females (32.1% and 36 (67.9% males who had abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT for more than 1 year. The mean ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST level were 41.02 ± 9.3 and 24.17 ± 7.3, respectively. The patients′ age were between 4 and 70-years old with mean age 38 ± 13. All the patients were negative for HCV antibody, HCV RNA and HBs Ag. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were separated with ficoll gradient from each blood sample, then the cells were fixed on slides by cold acetone and followed by IS-PCR-ISH for HCV RNA detection. Results: Seventeen (32% patients including 6 (11.3% females and 11 (20.7% males showed positive results for HCV RNA by in situ-PCR in situ hybridisation. Ten (18.8% positive cases were between 20 and 40-years old and 6 (11.3% positive patients were between 40 and 60 years old. Ten (19.6% patients who were positive for IS-PCR-ISH also had positive anti-HBc IgG and 7 (13.2% patients were negative for HBc-IgG. Conclusion: In the present study high rate of 32% occult hepatitis C were found among the patients with elevated ALT.

  8. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is high blood pressure? • What is chronic hypertension? • What is gestational hypertension? • ...

  9. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood ...

  10. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  11. Pulmonary diffusion abnormalities in relation to cytomegalovirus antigenemia and cytomegalic endothelial cells in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas-Deelen, AM; de Maar, EF; van der Mark, TW; Harmsen, MC; van Son, WJ; The, H

    The pathophysiology of HCMV infection may involve many different organs including the lungs. In this study we investigated HCMV antigenemia levels and cytomegalic endothelial cells (CEQ in blood in relation to the pulmonary diffusion capacity. Patients with high HCMV antigenemia (greater than or

  12. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi [National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan). National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous, and Muscular Disorders

    2001-04-01

    In this review I summarize observations of PET and SPECT studies about cerebral blood flow and metabolic abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In very early AD flow or metabolism reduces first in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. This reduction may arise from functional deafferentation caused by primary neural degeneration in the remote area of the entorhinal cortex that is the first to be pathologically affected in AD. Then medial temporal structures and parietotemporal association cortex show flow or metabolic reduction as disease processes. The reason why flow or metabolism in medial temporal structures shows delay in starting to reduce in spite of the earliest pathological affection remains to be elucidated. It is likely that anterior cingulate gyrus is functionally involved, since attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. However few reports have described involvement in the anterior cingulate gyrus. Relationship between cerebral blood flow or metabolism and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has been investigated. Especially, the APOE{epsilon}4 allele has been reported to increase risk and to lower onset age as a function of the inherited dose of the {epsilon}4 allele. Reduction of flow or metabolism in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus has been reported even in presymptomatic nondemented subjects who were cognitively normal and had at least a single {epsilon}4 allele. On the contrary the relation of {epsilon}4 allele to the progression rate of AD has been controversial from neuroimaging approaches. PET and SPECT imaging has become to be quite useful for assessing therapeutical effects of newly introduced treatment for AD. Recent investigations observed significant regional flow increase after donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Most of these observations have been made by applying computer assisted analysis of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection

  13. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  14. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  15. [A case of abnormal hemoglobin (HbJ Cape Town) with high serum levels of HbAlc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, T; Nakamura, T; Tsutsumi, H; Miyao, M; Inoue, J; Araki, A; Hattori, A; Harano, A; Mori, M; Ito, H

    1996-02-01

    We describe a case of hemoglobinopathy detected on admission for examination for high blood glucose levels and abnormal liver function. In 1991, it was pointed out that he had postprandial hyperglycemia. In 1994, at age 60, he had lassitude and anorexia. He was admitted to our hospital on the suspicion of diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels was very high, but the 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test result was within the normal range. After abstinence from alcohol, his glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and gamma glutamyl traspeptidase became normal. Diabetes was excluded and abnormal hemoglobinopathy had been suspected. We analyzed his abnormal hemoglobin. In isoelectro-phoresis a fast moving variant was detected suggesting the presence of abnormal hemoglobin at the cathode. We fractionated hemolytic globin by CM-chromatography and detected an abnormal peak before the alpha chain band. Subsequently, we sequenced isolated abnormal alpha chain and detected the substitution of Ariginine for Glutamamine at position 92 (Hb J Cape Town). So far he has not demonstrated any symptoms or signs of HbJ Cape Town. Hemoglobinopathy is not uncommon in aged people.

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awata, Shuichi; Konno, Michiko; Sato, Mitsumoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99m Tc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs

  17. High prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of liver function test abnormalities in South African black and Indian adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes clinic. iabetes clinic. Recorded data included the past medical and drug history, history of alcohol abuse, anthropometry, lipid profile and liver ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Aim for a Healthy Weight . Limiting Alcohol Intake Limit alcohol intake. Too much alcohol will raise your blood pressure ... physically active. Maintain a healthy weight. Limit alcohol intake. Other lifestyle changes can improve your overall health, ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ounces of liquor Managing and Coping With Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with ... goes down. Central Acting Agents: Act in the brain to decrease nerve signals that narrow blood vessels, ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body’s salt balance by retaining sodium and water and excreting potassium. Imbalances in this kidney function ... pressure. Medicines to lower blood pressure include: Diuretics (Water or Fluid Pills): Flush excess sodium from your ...

  1. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... heart . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  2. Studies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells of Colossoma macropomum exposed to methylmercury

    OpenAIRE

    da Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado; da Cunha, Lorena Ara?jo; da Silva Pinheiro, Raul Henrique; de Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodr?guez

    2011-01-01

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and morphological nuclear abnormalities (NA) in erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), treated with 2 mg.L-1 methylmercury (MeHg), were analyzed. Two groups (nine specimens in each) were exposed to MeHg for different periods (group A - 24 h; group B - 120 h). A third group served as negative control (group C, untreated; n = 9). Although, when compared to the control group there were no significant differences in MN frequenc...

  3. Abnormal directed migration of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Potential role in increased susceptibility to bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aglas

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients are at higher risks of bacterial infection than healthy subjects. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN are the first line of nonspecific cellular defence against these infections. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal directed migration of PMN may be one reason for the increased infection rate of RA patients. PMN migration was investigated in 68 peripheral blood samples of 15 RA patients compared with 64 samples of healthy controls in a novel whole blood in vitro membrane filter assay. The migration of PMNs from RA patients and controls was stimulated using the bacterial chemoattractant N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP. Unstimulated PMN migration of RA patients was increased compared with healthy controls as measured by the following parameters: (a absolute number of migrant PMNs (1954 ± 87 vs. 1238 ± 58 PMN/mm2, (b percentage of PMNs migrated into the filter (total migration index, TMI (28.6 ± 0.9 vs. 24.0 ± 0.8 %, (c the distance half the migrating PMNs had covered (distribution characteristic, DC (22.6 ± 1.1 vs. 16.1 ± 0.6 mm and (d the product of TMI and DC (neutrophil migratory activity, NMA (669.0 ± 45.0 vs. 389.0 ± 18.9. fMLP stimulated PMNs of RA patients showed defective migration compared to unstimulated samples as shown by (a a reduced number of migrant PMNs (1799 ± 93 PMN/mm2, (b lower TMI (26.1 ± 0.9 %, (c unremarkable altered distribution characteristic (22.9 ± 0.8 mm and (d significant reduced migratory activity (600.0 ± 30.0. Our data suggest that the high incidence of infections in RA patients may partly be caused by defective migratory activity of PMNs to bacterial chemoattractants as demonstrated by fMLP.

  4. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neonatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Bruine, F.T. de [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Wezel-Meijler, G. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Isala Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  5. Posterior fossa abnormalities in high-risk term infants: comparison of ultrasound and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steggerda, S.J.; Smits-Wintjens, V.E.H.J.; Verbon, P.; Walther, F.J.; Bruine, F.T. de; Wezel-Meijler, G. van

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the characteristics of posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in a cohort of high-risk term neonates, as well as the diagnostic performance of cranial ultrasound (CUS) with additional mastoid fontanelle (MF) views for the detection of these abnormalities, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being the reference standard. In this retrospective study, 113 term neonates with CUS and subsequent MRI were included. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of routine CUS and CUS with MF views were calculated. Posterior fossa abnormalities were diagnosed on CUS in 46 of 113 infants. MRI confirmed these findings in 43 and showed additional abnormalities in 32 infants. The sensitivity and specificity of anterior fontanelle views for major PF abnormalities as seen on MRI were 16 % and 99 %. Adding MF views increased the sensitivity of US to 82 %. The sensitivity and specificity of MF views for the detection of any (major or minor) PF abnormality were 57 % and 95 %. Especially acute hypoxic-ischemic injury and small subdural and punctate cerebellar haemorrhage remained undetected by CUS. PF abnormalities are frequent in high-risk term infants. MF-CUS enables early diagnosis of major PF abnormalities. We therefore advocate to perform MF-CUS in high-risk term neonates. (orig.)

  6. Relationships among seminal culture, seminal white blood cells, and the percentage of primary sperm abnormalities in bulls evaluated prior to the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, D J; Coe, P H; Walker, R D

    1999-04-15

    Semen samples from 100 beef breed bulls were evaluated for sperm morphology (phased contrast microscopy), seminal white blood cells, and the presence of potential reproductive pathogens. Eligibility required visualization of the glans penis throughout semen collection. Based on clinical spermiograms, bulls were grouped into normal, marginal, or unsatisfactory morphology classifications. The 3 experimental groups were similar in age and scrotal circumference and differed significantly in the percentage of primary sperm abnormalities. Most semen samples (94%) contained one or more potential reproductive pathogens (Hemophilus somnus. Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Ureaplasma diversum). No significant relationship could be demonstrated between primary abnormalities and the assigned culture score. Our experimental results suggest that clinicians should interpret clinical semen culture results with great care. No significant relationship could be demonstrated between primary abnormalities and assigned white blood cell (WBC) score, although, only 1% of the samples was scored >5 WBC per high power field. The use of seminal WBC score may be valid adjunct to routine semen evaluation when that threshold is the basis for clinical decisions.

  7. Abnormal intraluminal signal within the pulmonary arteries on MR imaging: Differentiation between slow blood flow and thrombus using an ECG-gated; multiphasic: Spin-echo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.D.; Higgins, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors evaluated abnormal MR imaging signal patterns in the pulmonary arteries of 22 patients with pulmonary hypertension (n = 13), pulmonary embolus (n = 4), or both (n = 5). Using multiphasic (five or six phases; 19 patients) or standard (three patients with pulmonary embolus) ECG-gated, double spin-echo techniques, they were able to differentiate between causes of such abnormal signal patterns. The pattern of slow blood flow (abnormal signal in systole with fluctuating distribution during cardiac cycle, and intensity increasing visually from first to second echo) was noted in 89% of patients with pulmonary hypertension alone or in combination with pulmonary embolism, and was characteristic of high systolic pulmonary pressures (12 of 12 patients with pressure > 80 mm Hg, vs. 3 of 5 patients with pressure 55 mm Hg vs. 5 of 7 patients with pressures <55 mm Hg). This pattern was differentiated from that of thrombus (persistent signal with fixed distribution during cardiac cycle, and little to no visible intensity change from first to second echo), which was noted in six of seven proved embolus cases. Thus, gated multiphase MR imaging shows potential for the noninvasive visualization of pulmonary embolus and the differentiation of this entity from the slow blood flow of pulmonary hypertension

  8. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving

  9. When Blood Sugar is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them back to a healthy level. What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)? Someone who has high blood sugar can ... a serious problem with a serious-sounding name: diabetic ketoacidosis (say: kee-toh-ah-sih-DOH-sis). This ...

  10. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your blood. How can I control my cholesterol? • Cut down on foods high in saturated and trans fats. These include fatty meats, organ meats such as liver, shellfish, cheese, whole-milk dairy products, and solid fats such ...

  11. Corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy: evaluation and analysis with transvaginal color and pulsed doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyi; Lin Meifang; Zheng Meirong; Liang Xiaoxian; Liu Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Detecting and assessment the corpus luteum blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancy. Methods: Using transvaginal color and pulse Doppler sonography, we detected 215 pregnant women including 150 normal intrauterine pregnancies, 25 abortion, 29 ectopic pregnancies, and then recorded corpus luteum blood flow feature and the blood flow indexes (Vmax, RI and PI). Results: 1) Corpus luteum was successfully identified in 148 cases out of 150 of normal early pregnancies, 25 cases out of 26 of threatened abortion; 22 cases out of 29 of ectopic pregnancy. 2) Three groups shared the same feature of Color Doppler imaging: a circumferential rim around the entire corpus luteum. 3) The flow index revealed mean PVS, RI and PI had no statistical difference in normal and abnormal early pregnancy; The mean PVS was lower in ectopic pregnancy than in normal pregnancy (P<0.05), while PI and PR had no characteristic in ectopic pregnancy group compared with the indexes obtained in normal pregnancy group. Conclusion: The corpus luteum can be precisely identified in most pregnancy using transvaginal color Doppler and manifests a characterized rim Doppler imaging. PVS may help in differentiating the ectopic pregnancy from normal early pregnancy. (authors)

  12. Perceptual abnormalities in clinical high risk youth and the role of trauma, cannabis use and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Marshall, Catherine; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel; Addington, Jean

    2017-12-01

    Recent research suggests that perceptual abnormalities are a group of diverse experiences, which have been associated with trauma, cannabis use, and anxiety. Of the attenuated psychotic symptoms that are present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, perceptual abnormalities tend to be one of the most frequently endorsed symptoms. However, very few studies have explored perceptual abnormalities and their relationships with the above environmental and affective factors in a CHR sample. Four hundred and forty-one CHR individuals who met criteria for attenuated psychotic symptom syndrome (APSS) determined by the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS) were assessed on the content of their perceptual abnormalities, early traumatic experience, cannabis use and self-reported anxiety. Logistic regression analyses suggested that both simple auditory and simple visual perceptual abnormalities were more likely to be reported by CHR who had early traumatic experiences, who are current cannabis users, and who have higher levels of anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed that only trauma and anxiety were independent predictors of both simple auditory and simple visual perceptual abnormalities. It is possible that examining subtypes of perceptual abnormalities in CHR leads to an improved understanding of the prevalence of such symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental Abnormalities, Blood Pressure Variability and Renal Disease In Riley Day Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Axelrod, Felicia B.; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Riley Day syndrome, commonly referred to as familial dysautonomia (FD), is a genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure due to baroreflex deafferenation. Chronic renal disease is very frequent in these patients and was attributed to recurrent arterial hypotension and renal hypoperfusion. Aggressive treatment of hypotension, however, has not reduced its prevalence. We evaluated the frequency of kidney malformations as well as the impact of hypertension, hypotension and blood pressure variability on the severity of renal impairment. We also investigated the effect of fludrocortisone treatment on the progression of renal disease. Patients with FD appeared to have an increased incidence of hydronephrosis/reflux and patterning defects. Patients younger than 4 years old had hypertension and normal eGFR. Patients with more severe hypertension and greater variability in their blood pressure had worse renal function (both, p<0.01). In contrast, there was no relationship between eGFR and the lowest blood pressure recorded during upright tilt. The progression of renal disease was faster in patients receiving fludrocortisone (p<0.02). Hypertension precedes kidney disease in these patients. Moreover, increased blood pressure variability as well as mineralocorticoid treatment accelerate the progression of renal disease. No association was found between hypotension and renal disease in patients with FD. PMID:22129610

  14. Hypertensive patients' knowledge of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, K I; Svensson, S; Ahlner, J; Säljö, R

    1997-12-01

    To investigate hypertensive patients' understanding of the circulatory system, in particular high blood pressure. Semi-structured audio-taped interviews of patients immediately after a regular follow-up appointment with their physician. A primary health care centre and a specialist clinic (hypertension unit) in southern Sweden. 33 hypertensive patients, consecutively selected. Focus was set on the exploration of patients' understanding/knowledge. In spite of a long history of hypertensive care, on average ten years, patients had a less than satisfactory understanding of their condition. Most patients knew their blood pressure values, but very few were able to give an account of what high blood pressure implies in functional terms. Knowledge of high blood pressure seems mainly to be derived from sources other than the health care system, in particular from the mass media. Knowledge of the risks associated with hypertension was quite good, as was the insight into how these risks could be managed. An assessment of patient knowledge of high blood pressure ought to be a starting point for educational strategies that aim to deepen patients' understanding of their state of health.

  15. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretio...

  16. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  17. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  18. Exercise-induced albuminuria and circadian blood pressure abnormalities in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankeu, Aurel T; Kaze, François Folefack; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Chelo, David; Dehayem, Mesmin Yefou; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between circadian variations in blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria at rest, and during exercise in non-hypertensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in well controlled T2D patients, non-hypertensive, without clinical proteinuria and normal creatinine clearance. In each participant, we recorded the BP using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for 24-h, and albuminuria at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise. RESULTS We enrolled 27 type 2 patients with a median age of 52; and a mean duration of diabetes and HbA1c of 3.6 ± 0.8 years and 6.3% ± 0.5% respectively. Using a 24-h ABPM, we recorded a mean diurnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 128 ± 17 mmHg vs nocturnal of 123 ± 19 mmHg (P = 0.004), and mean diurnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 83 ± 11 mmHg vs nocturnal 78 ± 14 mmHg (P = 0.002). There was a significant difference between albuminuria at rest [median = 23 mg, interquartile range (IQR) = 10-51] and after exercise (median = 35 mg, IQR = 23-80, P albuminuria had an increase in nocturnal BP values on all three components (128 mmHg vs 110 mmHg, P = 0.03 for SBP; 83 mmHg vs 66 mmHg, P = 0.04; 106 vs 83, P = 0.02 for mean arterial pressure), as well as albuminuric patients at rest. Moreover, exercise induced albuminuria detect a less increase in nocturnal DBP (83 vs 86, P = 0.03) than resting albuminuria. CONCLUSION Exercise induced albuminuria is associated with an increase in nocturnal BP values in T2D patients. PMID:28729969

  19. Melodic algorithms for pulse oximetry to allow audible discrimination of abnormal systolic blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Ranjit S; Ortega, Rafael; Connor, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    An anesthesiologist must remain vigilant of the patient's clinical status, incorporating many independent physiological measurements. Oxygen saturation and heart rate are represented by continuous audible tones generated by the pulse oximeter, a mandated monitoring device. Other important clinical parameters--notably blood pressure--lack any audible representation beyond arbitrarily-configured threshold alarms. Attempts to introduce further continuous audible tones have apparently foundered; the complexity and interaction of these tones have exceeded the ability of clinicians to interpret them. Instead, we manipulate the tonal and rhythmic structure of the accepted pulse oximeter tone pattern melodically. Three melodic algorithms were developed to apply tonal and rhythmic variations to the continuous pulse oximeter tone, dependent on the systolic blood pressure. The algorithms distort the original audible pattern minimally, to facilitate comprehension of both the underlying pattern and the applied variations. A panel of anesthesia practitioners (attending anesthesiologists, residents and nurse anesthetists) assessed these algorithms in characterizing perturbations in cardiopulmonary status. Twelve scenarios, incorporating combinations of oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension and hypertension, were tested. A rhythmic variation in which additional auditory information was conveyed only at halftime intervals, with every other "beat" of the pulse oximeter, was strongly favored. The respondents also strongly favored the use of musical chords over single tones. Given three algorithms of tones embedded in the pulse oximeter signal, anesthesiologists preferred a melodic tone to signal a significant change in blood pressure.

  20. Zooplankton incidence in abnormally high sea surface temperature in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    and internal waves may cause zooplankton abundance. Average biomass values in high sea surface temperature areas were higher (0.30 ml.m/3) than at the other stations (0.07 ml.m/3). Crustacean eggs, fish eggs and mysids clustered in pockets of abnormally high...

  1. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  2. Studies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells of Colossoma macropomum exposed to methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Machado da Rocha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequencies of micronuclei (MN and morphological nuclear abnormalities (NA in erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, treated with 2 mg.L-1 methylmercury (MeHg, were analyzed. Two groups (nine specimens in each were exposed to MeHg for different periods (group A - 24 h; group B - 120 h. A third group served as negative control (group C, untreated; n = 9. Although, when compared to the control group there were no significant differences in MN frequency in the treated groups, for NA, the differences between the frequencies of group B (treated for 120 h and the control group were extremely significant (p < 0.02, thus demonstrating the potentially adverse effects of MeHg on C. macropomum erythrocytes after prolonged exposure.

  3. Studies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in red blood cells of Colossoma macropomum exposed to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado; da Cunha, Lorena Araújo; da Silva Pinheiro, Raul Henrique; de Oliveira Bahia, Marcelo; Burbano, Rommel Mario Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN) and morphological nuclear abnormalities (NA) in erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), treated with 2 mg.L(-1) methylmercury (MeHg), were analyzed. Two groups (nine specimens in each) were exposed to MeHg for different periods (group A - 24 h; group B - 120 h). A third group served as negative control (group C, untreated; n = 9). Although, when compared to the control group there were no significant differences in MN frequency in the treated groups, for NA, the differences between the frequencies of group B (treated for 120 h) and the control group were extremely significant (p macropomum erythrocytes after prolonged exposure.

  4. Time Orientation in the Positive and Negative Free Phantasies of Mildly Abnormal Versus Normal High School Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlak, Joseph F.

    1973-01-01

    This study contrasts a group of mildly'' abnormal high school males with matched normals in a two-session free phantasy procedure. Mildly abnormal boys phantasized more negative contents than normal boys. Normal boys projected more positive phantasies into the future than mildly abnormal boys. A logical learning theory'' embracing the…

  5. Increased cerebral blood flow velocity in children with mild sleep-disordered breathing: a possible association with abnormal neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Hogan, Alexandra M; Onugha, Nwanneka; Harrison, Dawn; Cooper, Sara; McGrigor, Victoria J; Datta, Avijit; Kirkham, Fenella J

    2006-10-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing describes a spectrum of upper airway obstruction in sleep from simple primary snoring, estimated to affect 10% of preschool children, to the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. Emerging evidence has challenged previous assumptions that primary snoring is benign. A recent report identified reduced attention and higher levels of social problems and anxiety/depressive symptoms in snoring children compared with controls. Uncertainty persists regarding clinical thresholds for medical or surgical intervention in sleep-disordered breathing, underlining the need to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition. Adults with sleep-disordered breathing have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease independent of atherosclerotic risk factors. There has been little focus on cerebrovascular function in children with sleep-disordered breathing, although this would seem an important line of investigation, because studies have identified abnormalities of the systemic vasculature. Raised cerebral blood flow velocities on transcranial Doppler, compatible with raised blood flow and/or vascular narrowing, are associated with neuropsychological deficits in children with sickle cell disease, a condition in which sleep-disordered breathing is common. We hypothesized that there would be cerebral blood flow velocity differences in sleep-disordered breathing children without sickle cell disease that might contribute to the association with neuropsychological deficits. Thirty-one snoring children aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from adenotonsillectomy waiting lists, and 17 control children were identified through a local Sunday school or as siblings of cases. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, moderate or severe learning disabilities, chronic respiratory/cardiac conditions, or allergic rhinitis were excluded. Severity of sleep-disordered breathing in snoring children was categorized by attended polysomnography. Weight

  6. Office blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and echocardiographic abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: role of obesity and androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Martí, David; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2014-03-01

    Whether or not blood pressure (BP) and heart function of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are altered remains unclear, albeit subtle abnormalities in the regulation of BP observed in these women might suggest a mild masculinization of their cardiovascular system. To study the influence of obesity and androgen excess on BP and echocardiographic profiles of women with the syndrome, we conducted a cross-sectional case-control study comparing office and ambulatory BP monitoring, as well as echocardiographic assessments, in 63 premenopausal women with the classic phenotype, 33 nonhyperandrogenic women with regular menses, and 25 young men. Forty-nine subjects were lean and 72 had weight excess (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Participants had no previous history of hypertension and were nonsmokers. Men showed the highest BP readings, and the lowest readings were observed in control women, whereas women with PCOS had intermediate values. Undiagnosed hypertension was more common in subjects with weight excess irrespective of sex and hyperandrogenism. Women with PCOS and weight excess showed frequencies of previously undiagnosed hypertension that were similar to those of men with weight excess and higher than those observed in nonhyperandrogenic women. Lastly, male sex, weight excess and hypertension, the latter in men as well as in women with PCOS, increased left ventricular wall thickness. In summary, our results show that patients with classic PCOS and weight excess frequently have undiagnosed BP abnormalities, leading to target organ damage.

  7. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... but without clinical proteinuria). Fifteen male diabetic patients (D3) with a mean age of 26.5 +/- 4.8 years (SD) and a diabetes duration of 15.6 +/- 3.4 years (SD), 11 comparable diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion (D2), and ten non-diabetic subjects (C) were studied. In D3 baseline....../min in D3 (193.0 mm Hg +/- 23.0) compared to D2 (170.5 +/- 17.3, 2P = 1.2%) and C (157.5 mm Hg +/- 20.9, 2P = 0.07%). Baseline albumin excretion in D3 was 82.6 micrograms/min X/ divided by 2.5 (geometric mean X/ divided by tolerance factor) and during exercise the maximal albumin excretion rose to 195...

  8. Melatonin secretion is impaired in women with preeclampsia and an abnormal circadian blood pressure rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchlariotou, Sofia; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Giannopoulou, Myrto; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Mertens, Peter R; Zintzaras, Elias; Messinis, Ioannis E; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-08-01

    Non-dipping circadian blood pressure (BP) is a common finding in preeclampsia, accompanied by adverse outcomes. Melatonin plays pivotal role in biological circadian rhythms. This study investigated the relationship between melatonin secretion and circadian BP rhythm in preeclampsia. Cases were women with preeclampsia treated between January 2006 and June 2007 in the University Hospital of Larissa. Volunteers with normal pregnancy, matched for chronological and gestational age, served as controls. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP monitoring was applied. Serum melatonin and urine 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were determined in day and night time samples by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Measurements were repeated 2 months after delivery. Thirty-one women with preeclampsia and 20 controls were included. Twenty-one of the 31 women with preeclampsia were non-dippers. Compared to normal pregnancy, in preeclampsia there were significantly lower night time melatonin (48.4 ± 24.7 vs. 85.4 ± 26.9 pg/mL, pmelatonin secretion rhythm reappeared. In contrast, in cases with retained non-dipping status (n=10) melatonin secretion rhythm remained impaired: daytime versus night time melatonin (33.5 ± 13.0 vs. 28.0 ± 13.8 pg/mL, p=0.386). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were, overall, similar to serum melatonin. Circadian BP and melatonin secretion rhythm follow parallel course in preeclampsia, both during pregnancy and, at least 2 months after delivery. Our findings may be not sufficient to implicate a putative therapeutic effect of melatonin, however, they clearly emphasize that its involvement in the pathogenesis of a non-dipping BP in preeclampsia needs intensive further investigation.

  9. Down's syndrome and related abnormalities in an area of high background radiation in coastal Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochupillai, N.; Verma, I.C.; Grewal, M.S.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a coastal area of Kerala, Southern India, the background radiation is between 1500 and 3000 mR/yr, this being due to the presence of Th-containing monazite mineral in the soil. During an epidemiological study of modular lesions of the thyroid in this area an apparently high prevalence of Down's syndrome and other forms of severe mental retardation was observed. A house-to-house survey of relevant abnormalities in this area was made, and also in a comparable control area without high background radiation. The frequency of chromosome aberrations in a sample of the population in the study and control areas was also investigated. The observations support the view that radiation induces genetic anomalies occur with above average frequency in the population living in the area with high background radiation. Only gross abnormalities evident in clinical examination were recorded. The study and control populations were similar in age and sex structure and general sociologic conditions. Severe mental retardation was the commonest abnormality encountered, and 85% of the abnormalities detected in the study population were genetic in origin, compared with 56% in the control population. Prevalence of Down's syndrome was 0.93 per 1000 in the study population. (U.K.)

  10. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Rushiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21. All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situation is of subjects was examined, then, all students, at the same time, gave blood for analysis. In this experiment, three main hematologic parameters were taken in consideration: such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells. The same analyses were carried out after the 10-day stay at a high altitude. The results of the experiment have shown significant changes after the ten-day stay at high altitude, despite the previous results that show changes only after the twenty-day stay in such elevations.

  11. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Abdellatif, Mahmoud; Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S.; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R.; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Linke, Wolfgang A.; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  12. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  13. Abnormalities of blood platelets in rabbits with dietary hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, E.; Dalal, K.; Carpenter, D.; Brennan, K.; Yee, T.; Mazoyer, B.; Leven, R.; Ebbe, S.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported from observations of rabbits that were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. The purpose of the project was to develop an animal model that would be appropriate to use in the imaging of vascular lesions by positron emission tomography or other techniques

  14. [Hypertensive urgency or high blood pressure variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, A V

    Hypertensive urgency (HU) is a common reason particularly for elderly patients to seek medical advice. Severe asymptomatic hypertension and situational high blood pressure (BP) in patients with its high variability is frequently taken as HU. The use of short-acting antihypertensive drugs is not only indicated in these situations, but it may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE). Over the past decade, increased BP variability is an independent predictor for a higher risk of CVE. Among the major groups of antihypertensive drugs, there are calcium antagonists, mainly amlodipine, which has the greatest potential to reduce BP variability. Thus, calcium antagonists can be considered as first-line drugs for patients with high BP variability.

  15. Hydrocarbon halo distribution above oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    An examination is made of the emergence of hydrocarbon halos over oil and gas deposits with abnormally high stratal pressure. Fields in Azerbaidzhan and Checheno-Ingushetiya are used to illustrate the effect of certain factors (particularly fractures, zones with heightened macro and microfissure formation) on halo morphology. A direct relationship was found between the intensity of microfissure formation (fissure permeability, volumetric density of microfissures) and the size of vertically directed halos. Dimensions are given for halos by cross-sectional profiles of the Khayan-Kort field, and information is given on the nature of bitumen saturation distribution within the halo. The identification of halos in the process of drilling will make it possible to improve the technology of cutting deep gas and oil exploratory wells in the regions of abnormally high stratal pressures are developing. 22 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  17. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  18. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  19. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought ... night may be at higher risk of developing high blood pressure or worsening already high blood pressure. There's also ...

  1. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  2. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's the connection? Is there a connection between menopause and high blood pressure? Answers from Shannon K. ... Tommaso, M.D. Blood pressure generally increases after menopause. Some doctors think this increase suggests that hormonal ...

  3. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  4. Abnormal resting state corticolimbic blood flow in depressed unmedicated patients with major depression: a (15)O-H(2)O PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkul, E Serap; Silva, Leandro A P; Narayana, Shalini; Peluso, Marco A M; Zamarripa, Frank; Nery, Fabiano G; Najt, Pablo; Li, John; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T; Lafer, Beny; Soares, Jair C

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the differences in the resting state corticolimbic blood flow between 20 unmedicated depressed patients and 21 healthy comparisons. Resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H(2)(15)O PET. Anatomical MRI scans were performed on an Elscint 1.9 T Prestige system for PET-MRI coregistration. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow indicating neural activity were detected using an ROI-free image subtraction strategy. In addition, the resting blood flow in patients was correlated with the severity of depression as measured by HAM-D scores. Depressed patients showed decreases in blood flow in right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24 and 32) and increased blood flow in left and right posterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 23, 29, 30), left parahippocampal gyrus (Brodmann area 36), and right caudate compared with healthy volunteers. The severity of depression was inversely correlated with the left middle and inferior frontal gyri (Brodmann areas 9 and 47) and right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) and right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24, 32) blood flow, and directly correlated with the right thalamus blood flow. These findings support previous reports of abnormalities in the resting state blood flow in the limbic-frontal structures in depressed patients compared to healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your diastolic pressure is 100 or higher For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and gender. People with diabetes or chronic kidney disease should keep their blood pressure below 130/80. ...

  6. High Frequency of Neuroimaging Abnormalities Among Pediatric Patients With Sepsis Who Undergo Neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandquist, Mary K; Clee, Mark S; Patel, Smruti K; Howard, Kelli A; Yunger, Toni; Nagaraj, Usha D; Jones, Blaise V; Fei, Lin; Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Wong, Hector R

    2017-07-01

    = 0.016) and oncologic diagnosis/organ transplantation (odds ratio, 2.207; p = 0.001) and was negatively associated with early timing of neuroimaging (odds ratio, 0.575; p = 0.037). The majority of pediatric patients with sepsis and concurrent or subsequent neuroimaging have abnormal neuroimaging findings. The implications of this high incidence for long-term neurologic outcomes and follow-up require further exploration.

  7. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  8. The epidemiology of abnormal hemoglobins in Mediterranean high-level athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhami, Imed; Fattoum, Slaheddine; Bibi, Amina; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Koubaa, Donia; Mankai, Rafik; Bartagi, Zakia; Le Gallais, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of hemoglobin (Hb) defects in a Mediterranean high-level (HL) athlete population. Five hundred and ninety-four HL male and female athletes were recruited during the annual follow-up of the members of Tunisian national teams. Hematological data, Hb electrophoresis, and DNA analysis were assessed using conventional techniques. Sporting discipline, type of sport, and performance levels were assessed using a questionnaire. The results showed that 32 HL athletes had abnormal Hb (5.4%): beta-thalassemia (2.2%), alpha-thalassemia (0.5%), HbAS (1.5%), HbAC (0.5%), and rare Hb variants (0.7%). Of the 32 defect carriers, all but one (a alpha-thalassemia) were heterozygous. All the detected hemoglobinopathies but one (an Hb Hope) had already been reported in the country. The prevalence of Hb defect in the HL athletes was similar to that described in the general Tunisian population (P > 0.05). The percentage of Hb defect in the athletes was not dependent on gender, or performance level (P > 0.05). Within each type of sport the percentages of athletes with normal and abnormal Hb were similar (P > 0.05). The hematological data revealed the diversity of anemia, microcytosis, and hypochromia in thalassemic HL athletes. We concluded that HL athletes in Tunisia were a representative sample of the general Tunisian population regarding the prevalence and nature of benign abnormal Hb. The hematological data of the thalassemia carriers exhibited high variability and raised the question of genetic and sporting counseling, as well as biological follow-up for these carriers.

  9. Abnormal blood rheology and chronic low grade inflammation: possible risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in Lewis negative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N; Kono, Naoko; Wang, Jun; Baskurt, Oguz K; Fisher, Timothy C; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that abnormal hemorheology and chronic low-grade inflammation are more prevalent in Lewis negative individuals, possibly contributing to premature atherosclerosis. We enrolled 223 healthy subjects (154 females, mean age: 64yrs). Conventional risk factors, markers of inflammation and hemorheological profiles were measured; Lewis blood group was determined by serology. Conventional risk factors (age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, smoking habit) did not differ among Lewis phenotypes. However, markers of inflammation (WBC, hs-CRP, ESR) were significantly elevated and rheological parameters (RBC aggregation, plasma viscosity) were abnormal in Lewis negative subjects, especially when compared to the Le(a-b+) group. With a prevalence of 33% in select populations, our data support the hypothesis that Le(a-b-) represents a pro-inflammatory phenotype that may contribute to the elevated cardiovascular risk in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Blood Pressure: Does It Have a Daily Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheps, M.D. Blood pressure has a daily pattern. Blood pressure is normally lower at night while you' ... begins dropping again. Having an abnormal blood pressure pattern, such as high blood pressure during the night or early in the ...

  11. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  12. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  14. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  15. Normal and abnormal physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction high-pressure zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry; Vegesna, Anil; Ruggieri, Michael; Braverman, Alan

    2016-09-01

    The high-pressure zone of the gastroesophageal junction acts as a multifunctional valve that comprises different groups of smooth muscles located in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach, in addition to the extrinsic crural diaphragm, composed of skeletal muscle. In this review article, we evaluate the current literature with respect to human subjects, discussing the anatomic locations and physiologic and pharmacologic processes controlling these muscles. These muscles work individually and as a group to prevent reflux of gastric contents while allowing anterograde passage of food and liquid and retrograde passage of gas. We also reviewed new findings with respect to abnormalities that are permissive of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, which may lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Brain Imaging and Blood Biomarker Abnormalities in Children With Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Yakeel T; Schultz, Aaron P; Chen, Kewei; Protas, Hillary D; Brickhouse, Michael; Fleisher, Adam S; Langbaum, Jessica B; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Fagan, Anne M; Shah, Aarti R; Muniz, Martha; Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F; Munoz, Claudia; Garcia, Gloria; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Giraldo, Margarita; Tirado, Victoria; Ramírez, Dora L; Tariot, Pierre N; Dickerson, Bradford C; Sperling, Reisa A; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M

    2015-08-01

    Brain imaging and fluid biomarkers are characterized in children at risk for autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). To characterize and compare structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), resting-state and task-dependent functional MRI, and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) measurements in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation-carrying and noncarrying children with ADAD. Cross-sectional measures of structural and functional MRI and plasma Aβ assays were assessed in 18 PSEN1 E280A carriers and 19 noncarriers aged 9 to 17 years from a Colombian kindred with ADAD. Recruitment and data collection for this study were conducted at the University of Antioquia and the Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe in Medellín, Colombia, between August 2011 and June 2012. All participants had blood sampling, structural MRI, and functional MRI during associative memory encoding and resting-state and cognitive assessments. Outcome measures included plasma Aβ1-42 concentrations and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios, memory encoding-dependent activation changes, resting-state connectivity, and regional gray matter volumes. Structural and functional MRI data were compared using automated brain mapping algorithms and search regions related to AD. Similar to findings in adult mutation carriers, in the later preclinical and clinical stages of ADAD, mutation-carrying children were distinguished from control individuals by significantly higher plasma Aβ1-42 levels (mean [SD]: carriers, 18.8 [5.1] pg/mL and noncarriers, 13.1 [3.2] pg/mL; P < .001) and Aβ1-42:Aβ1-40 ratios (mean [SD]: carriers, 0.32 [0.06] and noncarriers, 0.21 [0.03]; P < .001), as well as less memory encoding task-related deactivation in parietal regions (eg, mean [SD] parameter estimates for the right precuneus were -0.590 [0.50] for noncarriers and -0.087 [0.38] for carriers; P < .005 uncorrected). Unlike carriers in the later stages, mutation-carrying children demonstrated increased functional connectivity of the posterior

  17. The effect of abnormal birth history on ambulatory blood pressure and disease progression in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph T; Ng, Derek K; Chan, Grace J; Samuels, Joshua; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley; Greenbaum, Larry A

    2014-07-01

    To examine the associations between abnormal birth history (birth weight Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study, a cohort of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Casual and 24-hour ambulatory BP were obtained. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined by iohexol disappearance. Confounders (birth and maternal characteristics, socioeconomic status) were used to generate predicted probabilities of abnormal birth history for propensity score matching. Weighted linear and logistic regression models with adjustment for quintiles of propensity scores and CKD diagnosis were used to assess the impact of birth history on BP and GFR. Age at enrollment, percent with glomerular disease, and baseline GFR were similar between the groups. Those with abnormal birth history were more likely to be female, of Black race or Hispanic ethnicity, to have low household income, or part of a multiple birth. Unadjusted BP measurements, baseline GFR, and change in GFR did not differ significantly between the groups; no differences were seen after adjusting for confounders by propensity score matching. Abnormal birth history does not appear to have exerted a significant influence on BP or GFR in this cohort of children with CKD. The absence of an observed association is likely secondary to the dominant effects of underlying CKD and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... tips . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  19. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  20. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... stroke This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  1. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 2,2018 Fighting back against the “ ... Doctor (PDF) Find More Resources and Fact Sheets High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  2. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  3. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding in low- and high-resource settings: consideration of cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haththotuwa, Rohana; Goonewardene, Malik; Desai, Shyam; Senanayake, Lakshman; Tank, Jaydeep; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    In non industrialized countries the incidence of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) appears to be similar to that of industrialized countries, although data is scanty. In low-resource settings, women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) often delay seeking medical care because of cultural beliefs that a heavy red menstrual bleed is healthy. Efforts to modify cultural issues are being considered. A detailed history and a meticulous examination are the important foundations of a definitive diagnosis and management in low-resource settings but are subject to time constraints and skill levels of the small numbers of health professionals. Women's subjective assessment of blood loss should be combined, if possible, with a colorimetric hemoglobin assessment, if full blood count is not possible. Outpatient endometrial sampling, transvaginal sonography, and hysteroscopy are available in some non industrialized countries but not in the lowest resource settings. After exclusion of serious underlying pathology, hematinics should be commenced and antifibrinolytic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs considered during menses to control the bleeding. Intrauterine or oral progestogens or the combined oral contraceptive are often the most cost-effective long-term medical treatments. When medical treatment is inappropriate or has failed, the surgical options available most often are myomectomy or hysterectomy. Hysteroscopic endometrial resection or newer endometrial ablation procedures are available in some centers. If hysterectomy is indicated the vaginal route is the most appropriate in most low-resource settings. In low-resource settings, lack of resources of all types can lead to empirical treatments or reliance on the unproven therapies of traditional healers. The shortage of human resources is often compounded by a limited availability of operative time. Governments and specialist medical organizations have rarely included attention to AUB and HMB in their health programs

  4. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Relationship between long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and the prevalence of abnormal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanwu; Mao, Guangyun; He, Suxia; Yang, Zuopeng; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Qiu, Wenting; Ta, Na; Cao, Li; Yang, Hui; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic increases the risk and incidence of cardiovascular disease. To explore the impact of long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water on blood pressure including pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 in which the blood pressure of 405 villagers was measured, who had been drinking water with an inorganic arsenic content 30-50 years of arsenic exposure and a 2.95-fold (95%CI: 1.31-6.67) increase in the group with >50 years exposure. Furthermore, the odds ratio for prevalence of abnormal PP and MAP were 1.06 (95%CI: 0.24-4.66) and 0.87 (95%CI: 0.36-2.14) in the group with >30-50 years of exposure, and were 2.46 (95%CI: 0.87-6.97) and 3.75 (95%CI: 1.61-8.71) for the group with >50 years exposure, compared to the group with arsenic exposure ≤ 30 years respectively. Significant trends for Hypertension (p<0.0001), PP (p<0.0001) and MAP (p=0.0016) were found. The prevalence of hypertension and abnormal PP as well as MAP is marked among a low-level arsenic exposure population, and significantly increases with the duration of arsenic exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Colesterolemia, trigliceridemia e excesso de peso em escolares de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Blood lipids abnormalities and overweight prevalence in students of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cruz Lunardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O nível de colesterol na infância é um preditor do nível de colesterol na vida adulta. As consequências do colesterol elevado, somadas a outros fatores de risco constituem problema mundial de saúde pública. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de hipercolesterolemia, hipertrigliceridemia e excesso de peso em estudantes do município de Santa Maria-RS. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 374 crianças de 10 a 12 anos de idade, de escolas das redes pública e privada, realizado no segundo semestre de 2005 na cidade de Santa Maria-RS. Foram determinados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e estado nutricional. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de hipercolesterolemia, hipertrigliceridemia e excesso de peso encontradas foram de 4,7%, 8,9% e 20,7%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significante entre sexo e rede pública e privada. As crianças com excesso de peso apresentaram maior prevalência de alterações lipídicas. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de alterações lipídicas pode ser considerada baixa, mas a prevalência de excesso de peso dos estudantes de Santa Maria mostrou-se relativamente alta, alertando à importância de políticas públicas e à necessidade de assistência pediátrica nessa faixa etária, visando o seu diagnóstico precoce e, principalmente, o aconselhamento nutricional e incentivo à prática esportiva, uma vez que as dislipidemias e o excesso de peso têm sido apontados como fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares.INTRODUCTION: Cholesterol level in childhood is a predictor of cholesterol level in adult life. The consequences of high cholesterol levels summed to other risk factors constitute a worldwide public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of blood lipid abnormalities and overweight among school students of the city of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 374 children, aged between 10 and 12 years, from public and private schools of the

  7. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian LR; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter KC

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future

  8. Abnormalities in pulmonary function in infants with high-risk congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygl, Michal; Rounova, Petra; Sulc, Jan; Slaby, Krystof; Stranak, Zbynek; Pycha, Karel; Svobodova, Tamara; Pohunek, Petr; Skaba, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze lung growth and abnormality of infant pulmonary function tests (IPFT) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors younger than three years of age with respect to unfavorable prognostic factors. Thirty high-risk CDH survivors at the age of 1.32±0.54 years, body weight 9.76±1.25 kg were examined using IPFT: tidal breathing analysis, baby resistance/compliance, whole baby body plethysmography and rapid thoraco-abdominal compression. Gore-Tex patch was used in 13% of patients (GORE group). Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed and managed in 13% (iNO group). Standard protocols and appropriate reference values were used and obtained data were statistically analysed. High incidence of peripheral airway obstruction (70%), increased value of functional residual capacity (FRCp) 191.3±24.5 mL (126.5±36.9 % predicted; P GORE group (165.7±51.9 versus 120.4±31.2, P Gore-Tex patch, pulmonary hypertension) correlate with more severe alteration of pulmonary function in infants.

  9. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  10. High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease in Children Print Email High ... such as the heart and brain. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood ...

  11. Influence of abnormally high formation pressure on the porosity of reservoirs (on the example of Solokhovsk field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.; Omelin, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    Productive horizons of the Solokhovsk field are composed of alternating claystones, siltstones, and sandstones. Samples of rocks were investigated by using the automatic electronic analyzer, Kvantimet-720. It was found that abnormally high formation pressure causes a decompaction effect. This effect is observed not only in clays which cover a deposit, but also in reservoirs of the deposit. Increases in pore dimensions and in average area of pores are the consequences of the decompaction effect. An extent of decompaction effect in consolidated formations in zones of abnormally high formation pressure depends on an intensity of secondary local epigenetic processes. These processes take place in zones of abnormally high formation pressure and in aureoles of hydrocarbon inculcation.

  12. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  13. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  14. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  15. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  16. Nutrition label experience, obesity, high blood pressure, and high blood lipids in a cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kirk, Martyn; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition labels have been promoted for nearly two decades in Thailand to educate people about healthy eating and to combat nutrient-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). But little is known about how nutrition labels are experienced and whether they are linked with better health. Our objective was to investigate the associations between nutrition label experience, obesity and nutrient-related NCDs in Thai consumers. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with a nationwide cohort of 42,750 distance learning Thai adult students enrolled in an Open University in 2013. We measured exposure as nutrition label experience (read, understand, use). Health outcomes were high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and high Body Mass Index (overweight at risk and obesity). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between nutrition label experience and health outcome adjusting for sociodemographic attributes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. Frequent nutrition label use varied by cohort attributes and health outcomes and was least for those with low physical activity and high blood pressure. Being male, older, an urban resident or with low physical activity was associated with increasing high blood pressure and high blood lipids. Compared to those who read, understand and use nutrition labels, participants who did not (read, understand, and use), were more likely to report high blood pressure (Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.33; 1.17-1.51), high blood lipids (AOR 1.26; 1.14-1.39), and obesity (AOR 1.23; 1.13-1.33), but were not more likely to be overweight at risk (AOR 1.06; 0.97-1.16). We found cross-sectional associations between low nutrition label experience and increased likelihood of high blood pressure, high blood lipids, and obesity among Thai adults. Nutrition label education should be promoted as part of a public health approach to appropriate food choices and better lifestyles to reduce obesity and nutrient-related NCDs.

  17. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  18. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  19. Association between parity and breastfeeding with maternal high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Samantha J; Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how parity and breastfeeding were associated with maternal high blood pressure, and how age modifies this association. Baseline data for 74,785 women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. These women were 45 years of age or older, had an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure before pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between giving birth, breastfeeding, lifetime breastfeeding duration, and average breastfeeding per child with high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression. The combination of parity and breastfeeding was associated with lower odds of having high blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.89; 99% CI, 0.82-0.97; P high blood pressure when compared with parous women who never breastfed. The odds were lower with longer breastfeeding durations and were no longer significant in the majority of women over the age of 64 years. Women should be encouraged to breastfeed for as long as possible and a woman's breastfeeding history should be taken into account when assessing her likelihood of high blood pressure in later life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rat muscle blood flows during high-speed locomotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.B.; Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    We previously studied blood flow distribution within and among rat muscles as a function of speed from walking (15 m/min) through galloping (75 m/min) on a motor-driven treadmill. The results showed that muscle blood flows continued to increase as a function of speed through 75 m/min. The purpose of the present study was to have rats run up to maximal treadmill speeds to determine if blood flows in the muscles reach a plateau as a function of running speed over the animals normal range of locomotory speeds. Muscle blood flows were measured with radiolabeled microspheres at 1 min of running at 75, 90, and 105 m/min in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The data indicate that even at these relatively high treadmill speeds there was still no clear evidence of a plateau in blood flow in most of the hindlimb muscles. Flows in most muscles continued to increase as a function of speed. These observed patterns of blood flow vs. running speed may have resulted from the rigorous selection of rats that were capable of performing the high-intensity exercise and thus only be representative of a highly specific population of animals. On the other hand, the data could be interpreted to indicate that the cardiovascular potential during exercise is considerably higher in laboratory rats than has normally been assumed and that inadequate blood flow delivery to the muscles does not serve as a major limitation to their locomotory performance

  1. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Maintenance of normal mineral ion homeostasis is crucial for many biological activities, including proper mineralization of the skeleton. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis through a complex feedback mechanism. The phenotypes of Fgf23(-/- and Klotho(-/- (Kl(-/- mice are very similar and include hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypervitaminosis D, suppressed PTH levels, and severe osteomalacia/osteoidosis. We recently reported that complete ablation of PTH from Fgf23(-/- mice ameliorated the phenotype in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice by suppressing serum vitamin D and calcium levels. The severe osteomalacia in Fgf23(-/- mice, however, persisted, suggesting that a different mechanism is responsible for this mineralization defect. In the current study, we demonstrate that deletion of PTH from Kl(-/- (Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- or DKO mice corrects the abnormal skeletal phenotype. Bone turnover markers are restored to wild-type levels; and, more importantly, the skeletal mineralization defect is completely rescued in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Interestingly, the correction of the osteomalacia is accompanied by a reduction in the high levels of osteopontin (Opn in bone and serum. Such a reduction in Opn levels could not be observed in Fgf23(-/-/PTH(-/- mice, and these mice showed sustained osteomalacia. This significant in vivo finding is corroborated by in vitro studies using calvarial osteoblast cultures that show normalized Opn expression and rescued mineralization in Kl(-/-/PTH(-/- mice. Moreover, continuous PTH infusion of Kl(-/- mice significantly increased Opn levels and osteoid volume, and decreased trabecular bone volume. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that PTH directly impacts the mineralization disorders and skeletal deformities of Kl(-/-, but not of Fgf23(-/- mice, possibly by regulating Opn expression. These are significant new perceptions into

  2. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/.

  3. The use of antioxidative stress enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and red blood cell abnormalities as biomarkers of stress in Periphthalmus papilio of the polluted coastal Lagos lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Amaeze H; Olumide, Adebesin A; Adeladun, Adepegba E; Oyenike, Kolapo; Rosemary, Egonmwan I

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the mudskipper, Periphthalmus papilio inhabiting the coast line of the Lagos lagoon, Gulf of Guinea, to determine suitable biomarkers of stress due to its current status as a polluted water body. The gill and liver samples showed evidence of some activities of antioxidative stress enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutahthione, as well as some detectable levels of lipid peroxidation product. The stress status of the fishes was also elucidated by nuclear abnormalities especially micronucleus formation and the presence of numerous vacuolated red blood cells. Given the current need for more sensitive bioindicators in monitoring pollution in this lagoon, we hereby present these inherent responses in P. papilio as a suitable candidate for incorporation into the current repertoire for ecotoxicological investigations in polluted water bodies of the Gulf of Guinea coastline.

  4. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of High Cholesterol Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital ... chest pain who arrive by ambulance usually receive faster treatment at the hospital, too. Don’t let high blood ... and Risks • Learn How HBP Can Harm Your Health Introduction Heart ...

  5. Patterns of Abnormal Gastric Pacemaking After Sleeve Gastrectomy Defined by Laparoscopic High-Resolution Electrical Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Rachel; Cheng, Leo K; Du, Peng; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Angeli, Timothy R; Mayne, Terence; Beban, Grant; O'Grady, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is increasingly being applied to treat obesity. LSG includes excision of the normal gastric pacemaker, which could induce electrical dysrhythmias impacting on post-operative symptoms and recovery, but these implications have not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to define the effects of LSG on gastric slow-wave pacemaking using laparoscopic high-resolution (HR) electrical mapping. Laparoscopic HR mapping was performed before and after LSG using flexible printed circuit arrays (64-96 electrodes; 8-12 cm 2 ; n = 8 patients) deployed through a 12 mm trocar and positioned on the gastric serosa. An additional patient with chronic reflux, nausea, and dysmotility 6 months after LSG also underwent gastric mapping while undergoing conversion to gastric bypass. Slow-wave activity was quantified by propagation pattern, frequency, velocity, and amplitude. Baseline activity showed exclusively normal propagation. Acutely after LSG, all patients developed either a distal unifocal ectopic pacemaker with retrograde propagation (50%) or bioelectrical quiescence (50%). Propagation velocity was abnormally rapid after LSG (12.5 ± 0.8 vs baseline 3.8 ± 0.8 mm s -1 ; p = 0.01), whereas frequency and amplitude were unchanged (2.7 ± 0.3 vs 2.8 ± 0.3 cpm, p = 0.7; 1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mV, p = 0.7). In the patient with chronic dysmotility after LSG, mapping also revealed a stable antral ectopic pacemaker with retrograde rapid propagation (12.6 ± 4.8 mm s -1 ). Resection of the gastric pacemaker during LSG acutely resulted in aberrant distal ectopic pacemaking or bioelectrical quiescence. Ectopic pacemaking can persist long after LSG, inducing chronic dysmotility. The clinical and therapeutic significance of these findings now require further investigation.

  6. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsoyr, Kari; Källen, Karin; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Thurn, Lars; Gissler, Mika; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2015-07-01

    To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Prospective, Nordic collaboration. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605 362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10 000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10 000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10 000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  8. Highly variable penetrance of abnormal phenotypes in embryonic lethal knockout mice [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wilson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying genes that are essential for mouse embryonic development and survival through term is a powerful and unbiased way to discover possible genetic determinants of human developmental disorders. Characterising the changes in mouse embryos that result from ablation of lethal genes is a necessary first step towards uncovering their role in normal embryonic development and establishing any correlates amongst human congenital abnormalities. Methods: Here we present results gathered to date in the Deciphering the Mechanisms of Developmental Disorders (DMDD programme, cataloguing the morphological defects identified from comprehensive imaging of 220 homozygous mutant and 114 wild type embryos from 42 lethal and subviable lines, analysed at E14.5. Results: Virtually all mutant embryos show multiple abnormal phenotypes and amongst the 42 lines these affect most organ systems. Within each mutant line, the phenotypes of individual embryos form distinct but overlapping sets. Subcutaneous edema, malformations of the heart or great vessels, abnormalities in forebrain morphology and the musculature of the eyes are all prevalent phenotypes, as is loss or abnormal size of the hypoglossal nerve. Conclusions: Overall, the most striking finding is that no matter how profound the malformation, each phenotype shows highly variable penetrance within a mutant line. These findings have challenging implications for efforts to identify human disease correlates.

  9. Level of cytogenetic damage and morphological abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes of fish from the Techa river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryapitsina, G. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM, Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Shaposhnikova, I. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA, and University of Tromsoe (Norway); Obvintseva, N.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Low-level radioactive waste had been releasing to the Techa River from 1949 to 1956. Now it is a suitable water system to study the potential effect of chronic low level exposure of radiation. During that period over 76 million m{sup 3} of waste water was released into the river with total activity of 1.1 *10{sup 17} Bq. In 2012 we examined the erythrocytes in peripheral blood of fish (roach, perch, pike), inhabiting different part of the Techa River (Russia, Chelyabinsk region). Sampling was conducted twice a year (in May during spawning, and in August during feeding) at three stations with various levels of radioactive contamination: Station RT1 in the upper reach of the Techa River, station RT2 in the middle reach and station RT3 in the lower reach of the river. Determination of radionuclide concentrations in water, bottom sediments and fish was performed. An average above-background content of {sup 90}Sr in the body of fish inhabiting the Techa River is given in the table. Fish from the nearby Miass River was used as a control group. Blood was taken from the tail vein of live fish for the preparation of smears for determination of cytogenetic damage levels. 3,000 erythrocytes were analyzed for each fish on microscope Axioskop 50 (Carl Zeiss). Regression analyses found out significant dependency of the frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei in blood on the burden of {sup 90}Sr in the body of roach in the summer period (F{sub 1,32}=4.6; p=0.04). The given data do not allow excluding the genotoxic influence of radiation on fish. Another important effect is an increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with cell division pathology: with an increase of the burden of {sup 90}Sr in the body, an increase in the frequency of amitoses and the sum of division pathologies are noted in the body. Regression analyses indicated a significant dependency of these parameters on the burden of {sup 90}Sr in the body of fish (for the frequency of amitoses F{sub 1,199}=6.3, p=0

  10. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  11. Correction of human hemophilia A whole blood abnormalities with a novel bypass agent: zymogen-like FXa(I16L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, L A; Thalji, N K; Raffini, L J; Gimotty, P A; Camire, R M

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 30% of hemophilia A (HA) and 5% of hemophilia B patients develop inhibitors to protein replacement therapy, and this is the major cause of disease-related morbidity in the developed world. We previously developed zymogen-like factor Xa (FXa) molecules with impaired active site maturation, enabling a greater half-life than wild-type FXa while maintaining full procoagulant function in the prothrombinase complex. Here we evaluated the ability of zymogen-like FXa(I16L) to correct whole blood thromboelastometry abnormalities of severe HA subjects with and without inhibitors. Fourteen severe HA subjects without and five with inhibitors were enrolled at baseline ( C  5 half-lives from factor or bypass therapy. The subjects' whole blood was evaluated by thromboelastography (ROTEM(®) ) using INTEM analysis with two concentrations of FXa(I16L) or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). With 0.1 nm FXa(I16L) , clot time (CT, in minutes [min]) among HA subjects without and with inhibitors (mean = 2.87 min, 95% CI = 2.58-3.15 min, and mean = 2.9 min, 95% CI = 2.07-3.73 min, respectively) did not significantly differ from control CT (mean = 2.73 min, 95% CI = 2.62-2.85 min). Addition of 20 nm rFVIIa, simulating a 90-μg/kg dose, resulted in significantly prolonged CTs for HA subjects without and with inhibitors (mean = 5.43 min, 95% CI = 4.53-6.35 min, and mean = 4.25 min, 95% CI = 3.32-5.17 min, respectively) relative to controls. FXa(I16L) restored thromboelastometry CT to control values in severe HA subjects with and without inhibitors. The findings corroborate previous animal data and demonstrate the first evidence of zymogen-like FXa(I16L) correcting human HA subjects' whole-blood abnormalities and support the use of FXa(I16L) as a novel hemostatic agent. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  13. Posterior routes of choroidal blood outflow in high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno-Matsui, K; Morishima, N; Ito, M; Yamashita, S; Tokoro, T

    1996-01-01

    A few reports in the ophthalmic literature have described choroidal blood outflow through posterior routes. Most of the patients reported were highly myopic; therefore, a correlation between such posterior routes and high myopia has been suspected. The authors examined highly myopic eyes using indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of posterior routes in them. The authors examined 255 highly myopic eyes (146 patients) using ICG videoangiography. All had refractive errors greater than--8.25 diopters (D). They also examined a control group consisting of 42 eyes (26 patients) that had refractive errors within +/- 3D. Of 255 highly myopic eyes, 61 (23.9%) had choroidal blood outflow through posterior routes. These routes were classified by type of vein according to its penetration site. One drained into the margin of the optic nerve head, and the other penetrated the sclera near the macula. However, only 1 of the 42 eyes (2.4%) in the control group showed choroidal outflow by a posterior route. The prevalence of posterior routes was significantly higher in the highly myopic eyes than in the control group (P < 0.05). Posterior routes of choroidal blood outflow were observed in nearly 25% of highly myopic eyes. These vessels appear to be one of the major routes of posterior choroidal outflow in highly myopic eyes.

  14. Abnormal nocturnal blood pressure fall in normotensive adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes is ameliorated following glycemic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.G. Ferreira

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of the physiological nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP has been found in diabetics and it seems to be related to the presence of diabetic complications. The present study examined the changes in the nocturnal BP pattern of 8 normotensive insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents without nephropathy following improvement in glycemic control induced by an 8-day program of adequate diet and exercise. The same number of age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. During the first and eighth nights of the program, BP was obtained by ambulatory BP monitoring. After a 10-min rest, 3 BP and heart rate (HR recordings were taken and the mean values were considered to represent their awake values. The monitor was programmed to cuff insufflation every 20 min from 10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m. The glycemic control of diabetics improved since glycemia (212.0 ± 91.5 to 140.2 ± 69.1 mg/dl, P<0.03, urine glucose (12.7 ± 11.8 to 8.6 ± 6.4 g/24 h, P = 0.08 and insulin dose (31.1 ± 7.7 to 16.1 ± 9.7 U/day, P<0.01 were reduced on the last day. The mean BP of control subjects markedly decreased during the sleeping hours of night 1 (92.3 ± 6.4 to 78.1 ± 5.0 mmHg, P<0.001 and night 8 (87.3 ± 6.7 to 76.9 ± 3.6 mmHg, P<0.001. Diabetic patients showed a slight decrease in mean BP during the first night. However, the fall in BP during the nocturnal period increased significantly on the eighth night. The average awake-sleep BP variation was significantly higher at the end of the study (4.2 vs 10.3%, P<0.05 and this ratio turned out to be similar to that found in the control group (10.3 vs 16.3%. HR variation also increased on the eighth night in the diabetics. Following the metabolic improvement obtained at the end of the period, the nocturnal BP variation of diabetics was close to the normal pattern. We suggest that amelioration of glycemic control may influence the awake-sleep BP and HR differences. This effect may be due at least in part to an attenuated

  15. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure (BP) in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) estimates by age and sex were obtained from the 1998 ...

  16. Prevalence of malnutrition and high blood pressure amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, underweight in children is projected to decline except in Sub-Sahara Africa. This study assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and its correlation with high blood pressure among adolescents in a semi-urban Nigerian setting. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent school children in ...

  17. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  18. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  19. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume...

  20. Use of a Connected Glucose Meter and Certified Diabetes Educator Coaching to Decrease the Likelihood of Abnormal Blood Glucose Excursions: The Livongo for Diabetes Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Janelle; Bollyky, Jenna; Schneider, Jennifer

    2017-07-11

    The Livongo for Diabetes Program offers members (1) a cellular technology-enabled, two-way messaging device that measures blood glucose (BG), centrally stores the glucose data, and delivers messages back to the individual in real time; (2) unlimited BG test strips; and (3) access to a diabetes coaching team for questions, goal setting, and automated support for abnormal glucose excursions. The program is sponsored by at-risk self-insured employers, health plans and provider organizations where it is free to members with diabetes or it is available directly to the person with diabetes where they cover the cost. The objective of our study was to evaluate BG data from 4544 individuals with diabetes who were enrolled in the Livongo program from October 2014 through December 2015. Members used the Livongo glucose meter to measure their BG levels an average of 1.8 times per day. We estimated the probability of having a day with a BG reading outside of the normal range (70-180 mg/dL, or 3.9-10.0 mmol/L) in months 2 to 12 compared with month 1 of the program, using individual fixed effects to control for individual characteristics. Livongo members experienced an average 18.4% decrease in the likelihood of having a day with hypoglycemia (BG 180 mg/dL) in months 2-12 compared with month 1 as the baseline. The biggest impact was seen on hyperglycemia for nonusers of insulin. We do not know all of the contributing factors such as medication or other treatment changes during the study period. These findings suggest that access to a connected glucose meter and certified diabetes educator coaching is associated with a decrease in the likelihood of abnormal glucose excursions, which can lead to diabetes-related health care savings. ©Janelle Downing, Jenna Bollyky, Jennifer Schneider. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.

  1. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Levine, G.F. (California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  2. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Levine, G.F. [California Dept. of Justice, Sacramento, CA (United States). Bureau of Forensic Services

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  3. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; de Araujo, Thelma Leite

    2010-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in individuals with high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 310 individuals with high blood pressure. The prevalence of the diagnosis of sedentary lifestyle was 60%. The more common defining characteristics were "lack of physical conditioning" and "lack of practice for physical exercises." The nursing diagnosis was associated with age and presence of diabetes. Individuals who presented with a sedentary lifestyle related to lack of motivation were significantly younger. This study showed a high prevalence of "sedentary lifestyle" and its associations with age and the presence of diabetes. IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING PRACTICE: The acknowledgement of "sedentary lifestyle" contributes to the choice for nursing interventions that promote physical activity centered on the subject and the surroundings.

  5. Anatomic abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex before psychosis onset: an MRI study of ultra-high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, Alex; Yung, Alison R; Wood, Stephen J; Phillips, Lisa J; Nelson, Barnaby; Cotton, Sue; Velakoulis, Dennis; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2008-11-01

    Abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but whether such changes are apparent before psychosis onset remains unclear. In this study, we characterized prepsychotic ACC abnormalities in a sample of individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. Participants underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and were followed-up over 12-24 months to ascertain diagnostic outcomes. Baseline ACC morphometry was then compared between UHR individuals who developed psychosis (UHR-P; n = 35), those who did not (UHR-NP; n = 35), and healthy control subjects (n = 33). Relative to control subjects, UHR-P individuals displayed bilateral thinning of a rostral paralimbic ACC region that was negatively correlated with negative symptoms, whereas UHR-NP individuals displayed a relative thickening of dorsal and rostral limbic areas that was correlated with anxiety ratings. Baseline ACC differences between the two UHR groups predicted time to psychosis onset, independently of symptomatology. Subdiagnostic comparisons revealed that changes in the UHR-P group were driven by individuals subsequently diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. These findings indicate that anatomic abnormalities of the ACC precede psychosis onset and that baseline ACC differences distinguish between UHR individuals who do and do not subsequently develop frank psychosis. They also indicate that prepsychotic changes are relatively specific to individuals who develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, suggesting they may represent a diagnostically specific risk marker.

  6. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  7. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.

  8. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  10. Anormalidades de fluxo sangüíneo cerebral em indivíduos dependentes de cocaína Cerebral blood flow abnormalities in cocaine dependent subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Nicastri

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Nos últimos anos, tem havido relatos de anormalidades do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral em indivíduos com o abuso de cocaína, detectadas por meio de tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT. Esse padrão anormal de perfusão cerebral tem sido associado a prejuízos cognitivos mas não a alterações observáveis por meio de exames de neuroimagem estrutural. Um problema envolvendo a maioria dos trabalhos publicados sobre esse tema é a inclusão de um grande número de usuários de heroína nas amostras estudadas. Essa outra droga também parece afetar o padrão de perfusão cerebral, particularmente durante estados de abstinência. MÉTODOS: Quatorze pacientes dependentes de cocaína (nenhum com uso de opióides e 14 voluntários normais (grupo controle foram submetidos a exames de SPECT com dímero de etil-cisteína marcado com tecnécio-99m. A análise dos exames de SPECT foi realizada por meio de análise visual qualitativa das imagens obtidas (procedimento padrão na prática clínica, realizada por um radiologista não informado sobre o diagnóstico dos indivíduos avaliados. RESULTADOS: A análise visual revelou um padrão sugestivo de irregularidades do fluxo sangüíneo cerebral em nove pacientes, mas em apenas dois controles (p = 0,018; teste exato de Fisher bicaudal. CONCLUSÕES: Anormalidades de circulação cerebral podem ter relação com prejuízos cognitivos relatados em populações de dependentes de cocaína. Embora déficits de perfusão cerebral associados ao uso de cocaína possam ser irreversíveis, têm surgido relatos na literatura de tratamentos para essas anormalidades de fluxo sangüíneo. Alterações de fluxo sangüíneo cerebral associadas à dependência de cocaína ocorrem mesmo na ausência de abuso ou dependência de opióides.INTRODUCTION: In the last years, there have been reports of abnormalities in brain blood flow of cocaine abusers, detected by single photon computed

  11. The Effects of Coping Therapy on General Health of Pregnant Women with High Risk of Genetics Abnormalities in their Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nazmiye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physiological changes in pregnancy lead to the psychological pressures. Therefore, there is a need for applying cognitive behavioral and emotional confronting to encounter these problems. The present research investigated the effect of coping therapy on general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Methods: The present study was a semi experimental research. Pre and post tests were used to investigate coping therapy between 30 pregnant women who were referred to Khatomolanbia Genetic Clinic, Yazd, Iran. All the women had pregnancy screening test with high risk of genetics abnormalities in their fetus. They were divided randomly into two groups of case and controls. The test of GHQ was performed in both groups, then the case groups went under 8 sessions of teaching coping therapy each lasting 120 min. After finishing the sessions, post test was performed and analyzing the data using descriptive statistical index and covariance analysis test. Results: Teaching coping therapy to case group caused improvement in their GHQ mark, and this change was significantly different from the change in the GHQ mark of control group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in anxiety, depression and physical signs and an improvement of social function in case group compare to the control group. Discussion: Teaching coping therapy can improve the general health of pregnant women with high risk of genetic abnormalities in their fetus. Therefore, presenting educational courses to the women can improve their general health indices in addition to preventing the probable effects of stress on fetus.

  12. Anatomical relationship between traditional acupuncture point ST 36 and Omura's ST 36 (True ST 36) with their therapeutic effects: 1) inhibition of cancer cell division by markedly lowering cancer cell telomere while increasing normal cell telomere, 2) improving circulatory disturbances, with reduction of abnormal increase in high triglyceride, L-homocystein, CRP, or cardiac troponin I & T in blood by the stimulation of Omura's ST 36--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yemeng; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Duvvi, Harsha

    2007-01-01

    Using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, Omura, Y. succeeded in making the image of the outline of internal organs without use of standard imaging devices since 1982. When he imaged the outline of the stomach on the abdominal wall, a number of the lines came out from upper and lower parts of stomach wall. When the lines were followed, they were very close to the well-known stomach meridians. Subsequently, he found a method of localizing meridians and their corresponding acupuncture points as well as shapes and diameters accurately. At the anatomical location of ST 36 described in traditional textbooks, Omura, Y. found there is no acupuncture point. However, in the close vicinity, there is an acupuncture point which he named as true ST 36 in the mid 1980s, but it is generally known as Omura's ST 36. When the effects of the acupuncture on these 2 locations were compared, Omura's ST 36 (true ST 36) produced very significant well-known acupuncture beneficial effects including improved circulation and blood chemistry, while in the traditional ST 36, the effects were small. In this article, the anatomical relationship between these two acupuncture points, with a short distance of 0.6 approximately 1.5 cm between the centers of these locations, was described. In early 2000, Omura, Y. found Press Needle Stimulation of Omura's ST 36, using "Press-Release" procedure repeated 200 times, 4 times a day to cancer patients reduced high cancer cell telomere of 600-1500ng and high Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and Integrin alpha5beta1 of 100-700ng BDORT units to close to lyg (= 10(-24) g) BDORT units. In addition there was a significant reduction of Asbestos and Hg from cancer cells, while markedly reduced normal cell telomere of lyg was increased to optimally high amounts of 500-530ng BDORTunits. Thus, cancer cells can no longer divide and cancer activity is inhibited. The authors have successfully applied this method for a variety of cancers as well as

  13. High quality topic extraction from business news explains abnormal financial market volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their "thematic" features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be "abnormally large," can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no "excess trading," when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information.

  14. Abnormal gene expression and gene fusion in lung adenocarcinoma with high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z-H; Zheng, R; Gao, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, H

    2014-02-01

    To explore the universal law of the abnormal gene expression and the structural variation of genes related to lung adenocarcinoma, the gene expression profile of GSE37765 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed with t-test and NOISeq tool, and the core DEGs were screened out by combining with another RNA-seq data containing totally 77 pairs of samples in 77 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, the functional annotation of the core DEGs was performed by using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery following selection of oncogene and tumor suppressor by combining with tumor suppressor genes and Cancer Genes database, and motif-finding of core DEGs was performed with motif-finding algorithm Seqpos. We also used Tophat-fusion tool to further explore the fusion genes. In total, 850 downregulated DEGs and 206 upregulated DEGs were screened out in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Next, we selected 543 core DEGs, including 401 downregulated and 142 upregulated genes, and vasculature development (P=1.89E-06) was significantly enriched among downregulated core genes, as well as mitosis (P=6.26E-04) enriched among upregulated core genes. On the basis of the cellular localization analysis of core genes, wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1) and receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) identified mainly located in extracellular region and extracellular space. We also screened one oncogene, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2 (MYBL2). Moreover, transcription factor GATA2 was mined by motif-finding analysis. Finally, four fusion genes belonged to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family. WISP1, RAMP1, MYBL2 and GATA2 could be potential targets of treatment for lung adenocarcinoma and the fusion of HLA family genes might have important roles in lung adenocarcinoma.

  15. High Quality Topic Extraction from Business News Explains Abnormal Financial Market Volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisano, Ryohei; Sornette, Didier; Mizuno, Takayuki; Ohnishi, Takaaki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationships between information flows and social activity in society today is one of the cornerstones of the social sciences. In financial economics, the key issue in this regard is understanding and quantifying how news of all possible types (geopolitical, environmental, social, financial, economic, etc.) affects trading and the pricing of firms in organized stock markets. In this article, we seek to address this issue by performing an analysis of more than 24 million news records provided by Thompson Reuters and of their relationship with trading activity for 206 major stocks in the S&P US stock index. We show that the whole landscape of news that affects stock price movements can be automatically summarized via simple regularized regressions between trading activity and news information pieces decomposed, with the help of simple topic modeling techniques, into their “thematic” features. Using these methods, we are able to estimate and quantify the impacts of news on trading. We introduce network-based visualization techniques to represent the whole landscape of news information associated with a basket of stocks. The examination of the words that are representative of the topic distributions confirms that our method is able to extract the significant pieces of information influencing the stock market. Our results show that one of the most puzzling stylized facts in financial economies, namely that at certain times trading volumes appear to be “abnormally large,” can be partially explained by the flow of news. In this sense, our results prove that there is no “excess trading,” when restricting to times when news is genuinely novel and provides relevant financial information. PMID:23762258

  16. Electroencephalography Source Functional Connectivity Reveals Abnormal High-Frequency Communication Among Large-Scale Functional Networks in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Alexis E; Deccy, Stephanie; Ironside, Manon L; Kumar, Poornima; Beltzer, Miranda; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2018-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of resting-state functional connectivity have shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by increased connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) and between the DMN and the frontoparietal network (FPN). However, much remains unknown about abnormalities in higher frequency (>1 Hz) synchronization. Findings of abnormal synchronization in specific frequencies would contribute to a better understanding of the potential neurophysiological origins of disrupted functional connectivity in MDD. We used the high temporal resolution of electroencephalography to compare the spectral properties of resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with MDD (n = 65) with healthy control subjects (n = 79) and examined the extent to which connectivity disturbances were evident in a third sample of individuals in remission from depression (n = 30). Exact low resolution electromagnetic tomography was used to compute intracortical activity from regions within the DMN and FPN, and functional connectivity was computed using lagged phase synchronization. Compared to control subjects, the MDD group showed greater within-DMN beta 2 band (18.5-21 Hz) connectivity and greater beta 1 band (12.5-18 Hz) connectivity between the DMN and FPN. This hyperconnectivity was not observed in the remitted MDD group. However, greater beta 1 band DMN-FPN connectivity was associated with more frequent depressive episodes since first depression onset, even after controlling for current symptom severity. These findings extend our understanding of the neurophysiological basis of abnormal resting-state functional connectivity in MDD and indicate that elevations in high-frequency DMN-FPN connectivity may be a neural marker linked to a more recurrent illness course. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Vascular adrenal cyst causing difficult to control high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Escudero, D; Torres Roca, M; Hernández Contreras, M E; Sánchez Rodríguez, C; Oñate Celdrán, J

    Hypertension is a prevalent disease in developed countries. Adrenal masses, and especially adrenal cysts, are a rare and usually asymptomatic finding, which can go unnoticed or be detected as incidental findings in imaging tests. These circumstances make the multidisciplinary approach mandatory. The case is presented on a 72 year-old woman with uncontrolled high blood pressure referred to the Urology Department due to the incidental finding of a right retroperitoneal mass. A functional and imaging study was performed, establishing a diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing hypertensive symptoms. A literature search was performed in order to assess diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. With the diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing uncontrolled high blood pressure, a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. After surgery the patient has maintained blood pressure within the normal range. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the management of rare diseases. The surgical approach, if possible, should be laparoscopic. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Meher, Shireen; Jones, Leanne

    2013-07-31

    Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. The aim of antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure quickly but safety, to avoid complications. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure but their comparative effectiveness and safety, and impact on other substantive outcomes is uncertain. To compare different antihypertensive drugs for very high blood pressure during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (9 January 2013). Studies were randomised trials. Participants were women with severe hypertension during pregnancy. Interventions were comparisons of one antihypertensive drug with another. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Thirty-five trials (3573 women) with 15 comparisons were included. Women allocated calcium channel blockers were less likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared to those allocated hydralazine (six trials, 313 women; 8% versus 22%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.66). Ketanserin was associated with more persistent high blood pressure than hydralazine (three trials, 180 women; 27% versus 6%; RR 4.79, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.73), but fewer side-effects (three trials, 120 women; RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53) and a lower risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelets) syndrome (one trial, 44 women; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.81).Labetalol was associated with a lower risk of hypotension compared to diazoxide (one trial 90 women; RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.99) and a lower risk of caesarean section (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.02), although both were borderline for statistical significance.Both nimodipine and magnesium sulphate were associated with a high incidence of persistent high blood pressure, but this risk was lower for nimodipine compared to magnesium sulphate (one trial

  19. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  20. Abnormal frontal theta oscillations underlie the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Michael K; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Chan, Agnes S

    2016-03-01

    Deficits in cognitive flexibility have been suggested to underlie the repetitive and stereotyped behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because cognitive flexibility is primarily mediated by the frontal lobe, where structural and functional abnormalities have been extensively found in these individuals, it is conceivable that their deficits in cognitive flexibility are related to abnormal activations of the frontal lobe. The present study investigates cognitive flexibility and its underlying neurophysiological activities as indicated by theta oscillations in children with ASD. Twenty-five children with high-functioning ASD and 25 IQ- and age-matched typically developing (TD) children were subjected to neuropsychological assessments on cognitive flexibility and electroencephalography recordings. The children with ASD performed significantly worse than the TD children across the tasks of cognitive flexibility, including the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). These children also demonstrated a reduced increase of the theta power localized in multiple brain regions, including various sectors of the frontal lobe at the late stage (i.e., 600 ms-900 ms poststimulus interval) but not the early stage (i.e., 250 ms-550 ms poststimulus interval) of the performance of the modified WCST. The suppressed late frontal theta activities were further shown to be significantly correlated with a poorer performance on the cognitive flexibility measures. Our findings suggest that abnormal activations of multiple cortical regions, especially the frontal lobe, form the neural basis of the cognitive flexibility deficits in children with ASD. In addition, we found an EEG marker of cognitive flexibility which could be used to monitor treatment outcomes objectively. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N

    1990-01-01

    Despite controversy as to the biologic and/or social meaning of 'race' and 'sex', few public health studies have directly examined the impact of racial or gender discrimination on health. One plausible condition they might affect is hypertension, since stress and internalized anger may constitute important risk factors for this disease. The present investigation therefore sought to determine the feasibility of asking questions pertaining to race- and gender-biased treatment plus response to unfair treatment, and to assess their predictive value regarding self-reported high blood pressure. Using random-digit dialing, 51 black and 50 white women, ages 20-80, who resided in Alameda County, CA in 1987, were identified and interviewed by phone. Among black respondents, those who stated they usually accepted and kept quiet about unfair treatment were 4.4 times more likely to report hypertension than women who said they took action and talked to others (P = 0.01 for linear trend); no clear association existed among white respondents. The age-adjusted risk of high blood pressure among black respondents who recounted experiencing zero instances of race- and gender-biased treatment was 2.6 times greater than that of black women who reported one or more such instances (95% CI = 0.7, 10.5). Among white respondents, gender discrimination was not associated with hypertension. These results suggest that an internalized response to unfair treatment, plus non-reporting of race and gender discrimination, may constitute risk factors for high blood pressure among black women. They also bolster the view that subjective appraisal of stressors may be inversely associated with risk of hypertension.

  2. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  3. Peripheral immune abnormalities in two high-risk populations for bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, G.; Schiweck, C.; Brouwer, R.; Mesman, E.; Grosse, L.; de Wit, H; Nolen, W. A.; Drexhage, H. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Objective: Mounting data support the hypothesis for a role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to examine immune alterations in two unique familial high-risk cohorts for bipolar disorder. Methods: The study population comprised bipolar

  4. Abnormally High Power Output of Wind Turbine in Cold Weather: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Leclerc

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available According to popular belief, air temperature effects on wind turbine power output are produced solely by air density variations, and power is proportional to air density. However, some cases have been reported, all involving stall-controlled wind turbines, in which unexpected high power output was observed at very low temperatures.

  5. High-resolution manometry in clinical practice: utilizing pressure topography to classify oesophageal motility abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandolfino, J. E.; Fox, M. R.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Kahrilas, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution manometry capable of pressure monitoring from the pharynx to the stomach together with pressure topography plotting represents an unquestionable evolution in oesophageal manometry. However, with this advanced technology come challenges and one of those is devising the optimal scheme

  6. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in elite high school athletes: comparison to adolescent hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alex J; Cannon, Bryan C; Wackel, Philip L; Horner, Justin M; Ackerman, Michael J; O'Leary, Patrick W; Eidem, Benjamin W; Johnson, Jonathan N

    2016-01-01

    In athletes, ECG changes from physiological cardiac remodelling are common but can overlap with findings from a pathological disorder. We compared ECG findings in a group of elite high school athletes to a cohort of adolescents with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We prospectively performed 15-lead ECGs and echocardiograms in 147 elite high school athletes. Student-athlete ECGs were compared in blinded fashion to ECGs of 148 adolescents with HCM of similar age and ethnicity. Standard ECG hypertrophy criteria and established expert opinion guidelines (European Society of Cardiology, ESC and Seattle criteria) were analysed. All student-athletes had normal echocardiograms. Overall, 77/147 (52%) of student-athletes met standard ECG criteria for ventricular hypertrophy compared to 126/148 (85%) adolescents with HCM (padolescents with HCM who had pathological Q-waves, T-wave inversion and/or ST-segment depression compared to 1/147 (1%) athletes (padolescents with HCM from normals. Both ESC and Seattle criteria successfully stratified the student-athlete and HCM cohorts, however each had a false-negative rate >10% for the HCM cohort. The Seattle criteria demonstrated a significantly lower false-positive rate (1%) than the ESC criteria (24%). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Janette N; Siu, Ronald K; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-05-01

    The major Food and Drug Association-approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10 μg/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75 μg in 75 μg total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30 μg/mL, total dose 2.25 μg in 75 μg total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600 μg/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45 μg in 75 μg total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4 mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500 μg/mL.

  8. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kalhornia Golkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The instrument for data collection included Cattel’s Anxiety Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life and a manometer. After assigning the sample into two groups, the experimental group received spiritual therapy in addition to pharmaceutical therapy, while control group only received drug treatment. Results: Analysis of covariance showed spiritual therapy reduced the systolic blood pressure and anxiety of patients. Also, it increased the patients’ quality of life, however, it did not have a significant effect on the diastolic blood pressure of patients. Conclusion: It is concluded that spiritual therapy as a useful method to improve the anxiety, quality of life and blood pressure of patients with high blood pressure.

  9. Exercise: A Drug-Free Approach to Lowering High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise: A drug-free approach to lowering high blood pressure Having high blood pressure and not getting enough exercise are closely related. Discover how small changes in your daily routine can make a ...

  10. A tyrosinase with an abnormally high tyrosine hydroxylase/dopa oxidase ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romero, Diana; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Solano, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Ralstonia solanacearum[Salanoubat M, Genin S, Artiguenave F, et al. (2002) Nature 415, 497-502] revealed several genes that putatively code for polyphenol oxidases (PPOs). This soil-borne pathogenic bacterium withers a wide range of plants. We detected the expression of two PPO genes (accession numbers NP_518458 and NP_519622) with high similarity to tyrosinases, both containing the six conserved histidines required to bind the pair of type-3 copper ions at the active site. Generation of null mutants in those genes by homologous recombination mutagenesis and protein purification allowed us to correlate each gene with its enzymatic activity. In contrast with all tyrosinases so far studied, the enzyme NP_518458 shows higher monophenolase than o-diphenolase activity and its initial activity does not depend on the presence of l-dopa cofactor. On the other hand, protein NP_519622 is an enzyme with a clear preference to oxidize o-diphenols and only residual monophenolase activity, behaving as a catechol oxidase. These catalytic characteristics are discussed in relation to two other characteristics apart from the six conserved histidines. One is the putative presence of a seventh histidine which interacts with the carboxy group on the substrate and controls the preference for carboxylated and decarboxylated substrates. The second is the size of the residue isosteric with the aromatic F261 reported in sweet potato catechol oxidase which acts as a gate to control accessibility to CuA at the active site.

  11. Early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy fails to reverse immunovirological abnormalities in gut-associated lymphoid tissue induced by acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincati, Camilla; Biasin, Mara; Bandera, Alessandra; Violin, Michela; Marchetti, Giulia; Piacentini, Luca; Vago, Gian Luca; Balotta, Claudia; Moroni, Mauro; Franzetti, Fabio; Clerici, Mario; Gori, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of HIV infection, large CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. The kinetics of CD4+ T-cell decrease and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated immune reconstitution were evaluated. Rectosigmoid colonic (RSC) biopsies and blood samples of nine patients with acute HIV infection were collected. CD4+ T-cell count, HIV RNA, intracellular HIV DNA and messenger RNA cytokine expression were evaluated before and after 6 months of HAART. All nine patients presented symptomatic retroviral infection. Early HAART was associated with a sustained and comparable reduction of HIV RNA in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RSC biopsies. HIV DNA decreased in PBMCs, but was only marginally reduced in RSC biopsies. Comparisons between reduction rates of HIV DNA in these two compartments confirmed that HIV DNA clearance was less efficient in RSC biopsies compared with PBMCs. Assessment of immunological profiles in PBMCs and RSC biopsies showed that the T-helper (Th)1-like/Th2-like ratio was sharply decreased in RSC biopsies and increased in PBMCs throughout the study period. A persistent Th2-like profile was detected in RSC biopsies. Efficient clearing of HIV DNA observed in PBMCs correlated with the establishment of a more favourable Th1-like profile. A less efficient clearance of intracellular HIV DNA following early introduction of HAART is associated with persistent immunological impairment in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which is reflected by the skewed expression of cytokines in this reservoir. The present study shows that early initiation of HAART, in the short-term, is not effective in containing the establishment of HIV infection and in reversing associated immunological GALT abnormalities.

  12. 10 Ways to Control High Blood Pressure without Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also can cause disrupted breathing while you sleep (sleep apnea), which further raises your blood pressure. Weight loss is one of the most effective lifestyle changes for controlling blood pressure. Losing even a small amount of weight if you' ...

  13. Abnormal Fhit protein expression and high frequency of microsatellite instability in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Leopoldo; Bottarelli, Lorena; Azzoni, Cinzia; Campanini, Nicoletta; Di Cola, Gabriella; Bader, Giovanni; Iusco, Domenico; Salvemini, Carlo; Caruso, Giuseppe; Donadei, Enrico; Pizzi, Silvia; D'Adda, Tiziana; Renato, Costi; Roncoroni, Luigi; Bordi, Cesare

    2004-07-01

    The role of Fhit protein in the oncogenesis of colorectal cancer is still in debate. Recent studies have revealed that reduced Fhit protein expression is associated with a deficiency of the mismatch repair protein. One hundred and twenty unselected patients who underwent curative resection for sporadic colorectal cancer in a three-year period were evaluated for microsatellite instability (MSI) using six microsatellite markers, and for the presence of Fhit and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins (Mlh1 and Msh2) by means of immunostaining. The relations between these markers were analysed. Reduced or absent Fhit expression was noted in 18 out of 118 patients. This altered expression was significantly higher in right-sided cancer (P = 0.005), mucinous tumours (P = 0.005) and in poorly differentiated histological types (P = 0.0001). MSI was found in 22 out of 109 patients, more so in right-sided cancer (P = 0.0001), poorly differentiated histology (P = 0.0001), and mucinous tumours (P = 0.0001). No association was found with TNM stage. MSI was present in 66.7% of tumours with altered Fhit expression and in only 10% of tumours with preserved or intermediate Fhit expression (P = 0.0001). Of the tumours with reduced or absent Fhit expression, 72.2% had loss of nuclear Mlh1 or Msh2 expression compared with only 14% of the preserved or intermediate Fhit expression tumours (P = 0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that deficiency in a MMR gene could be a cause of the high frequency of alterations in Fhit expression, and they permit the suggestion that FHIT gene alteration may be part of the genetic pathway involving MSI through which some colorectal cancers arise.

  14. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  15. Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph T; Kaelber, David C; Baker-Smith, Carissa M; Blowey, Douglas; Carroll, Aaron E; Daniels, Stephen R; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Dionne, Janis M; Falkner, Bonita; Flinn, Susan K; Gidding, Samuel S; Goodwin, Celeste; Leu, Michael G; Powers, Makia E; Rea, Corinna; Samuels, Joshua; Simasek, Madeline; Thaker, Vidhu V; Urbina, Elaine M

    2017-09-01

    These pediatric hypertension guidelines are an update to the 2004 "Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents." Significant changes in these guidelines include (1) the replacement of the term "prehypertension" with the term "elevated blood pressure," (2) new normative pediatric blood pressure (BP) tables based on normal-weight children, (3) a simplified screening table for identifying BPs needing further evaluation, (4) a simplified BP classification in adolescents ≥13 years of age that aligns with the forthcoming American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology adult BP guidelines, (5) a more limited recommendation to perform screening BP measurements only at preventive care visits, (6) streamlined recommendations on the initial evaluation and management of abnormal BPs, (7) an expanded role for ambulatory BP monitoring in the diagnosis and management of pediatric hypertension, and (8) revised recommendations on when to perform echocardiography in the evaluation of newly diagnosed hypertensive pediatric patients (generally only before medication initiation), along with a revised definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. These guidelines include 30 Key Action Statements and 27 additional recommendations derived from a comprehensive review of almost 15 000 published articles between January 2004 and July 2016. Each Key Action Statement includes level of evidence, benefit-harm relationship, and strength of recommendation. This clinical practice guideline, endorsed by the American Heart Association, is intended to foster a patient- and family-centered approach to care, reduce unnecessary and costly medical interventions, improve patient diagnoses and outcomes, support implementation, and provide direction for future research. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. High-resolution measurement of the unsteady velocity field to evaluate blood damage induced by a mechanical heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofiore, Alessandro; Quinlan, Nathan J

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the potential of prosthetic heart valves to generate abnormal flow and stress patterns, which can contribute to platelet activation and lysis according to blood damage accumulation mechanisms. High-resolution velocity measurements of the unsteady flow field, obtained with a standard particle image velocimetry system and a scaled-up model valve, are used to estimate the shear stresses arising downstream of the valve, accounting for flow features at scales less than one order of magnitude larger than blood cells. Velocity data at effective spatial and temporal resolution of 60 μm and 1.75 kHz, respectively, enabled accurate extraction of Lagrangian trajectories and loading histories experienced by blood cells. Non-physiological stresses up to 10 Pa were detected, while the development of vortex flow in the wake of the valve was observed to significantly increase the exposure time, favouring platelet activation. The loading histories, combined with empirical models for blood damage, reveal that platelet activation and lysis are promoted at different stages of the heart cycle. Shear stress and blood damage estimates are shown to be sensitive to measurement resolution.

  17. Abnormal Resting State Corticolimbic Blood Flow in Depressed Unmedicated Patients With Major Depression: A 15O-H2O PET Study

    OpenAIRE

    Monkul, E. Serap; Silva, Leandro A.P.; Narayana, Shalini; Peluso, Marco A.M.; Zamarripa, Frank; Nery, Fabiano G.; Najt, Pablo; Li, John; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.; Lafer, Beny; Soares, Jair C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the differences in the resting state corticolimbic blood flow between 20 unmedicated depressed patients and 21 healthy comparisons. Resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H215O PET. Anatomical MRI scans were performed on an Elscint 1.9 T Prestige system for PET-MRI coregistration. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow indicating neural activity were detected using an ROI-free image subtraction strategy. In addition, the resting blood flow in patients wa...

  18. Predictors of persistent cytologic abnormalities after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Soweto, South Africa: a cohort study in a HIV high prevalence population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre James A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the presence of both HIV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, the risk of cancer development despite treatment may be greater. We investigated clinical predictors of persistent cytological abnormalities in women who had had a large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ. Methods Women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL, less severe abnormalities which persisted and any abnormality in women who are HIV-infected, were referred to the colposcopy clinic. HIV infection was ascertained by self-report. A LLETZ was performed on all patients with HSIL or higher on Papanicolaou (Pap smear or colposcopy, LSIL or higher in patients who are HIV-infected, where the colposcopy is inadequate, and when there was a discrepancy between colposcopy and cytology by one or more grades. Women with abnormal follow-up smears were compared to those with normal smears. We examined the association between abnormal follow-up smears and demographic and clinical predictors using logistic regression Results The median time between LLETZ and first follow-up Pap smear was rather short at 122 days. Persistent cytological abnormalities occurred in 49% of our patients after LLETZ. Predictors of persistence included the presence of disease at both margins and HIV infection. Among the latter, disease at the excision margins and CD4+ cell count were important predictors. In these women, disease at the endocervical margin, both margins, and disease only at the ectocervical margin were associated with increased odds of persistent abnormalities on follow-up cervical smear. Conclusion We showed extremely high risk of cytological abnormality at follow-up after treatment more so in patients with incomplete excision and in the presence of immunocompromise. It remains uncertain whether recurrent CIN is a surrogate marker for invasive cervical cancer.

  19. Nursing Education in High Blood Pressure Control. Report of the Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. High Blood Pressure Information Center.

    This curriculum guide on high blood pressure (hypertension) for nursing educators has five sections: (1) Introduction and Objectives provides information regarding the establishment and objectives of the National Task Force on the Role of Nursing in High Blood Pressure Control and briefly discusses nursing's role in hypertension control; (2) Goals…

  20. Instability and `Sausage-String' Appearance in Blood Vessels during High Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Alstrom, Preben; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Colding-Jorgensen, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    1998-01-01

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels under influence of a vasoconstricting agent. Our theory involves the nonlinear elasticity characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical form of a blood vessel becomes unstable.

  1. Renal function evaluation in the aged with normal blood pressure and high blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob Filho, W.; Carvalho Filho, E.T. de; Papaleo Netto, M.; Baptista, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four patients older than 65 years were divided into two groups according to their ages: I - 66 to 74 years (17 patients), II - 75 and over (17 patients). These elderly patients were also divided according to their arterial blood pressure level (BP): A - normal BP (14 patients), B high BP (20 patients). None of these patients presented any other disease that could affect kidney function, nor have used drugs that could interfere on the BP or on the kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasmatic flow (ERPF) were analysed by radioisotopic techniques. Furthermore the filtration fraction (FF) was evaluated by the GFR/ERPF ratio. The observed GFR, ERPF and FF variations in the age groups or in normotensive and hypertensive patients were not significant, but we could assume that the physiopathological mechanisms that cause a decreased GFR in consequence of age or of systemic hypertension could be of different origins. Thus in the old hypertensive patients, alterations in the autoregulated hemodynamic mechanism could occur. (author) [pt

  2. Abnormal pelvic morphology and high cervical length are responsible for high-risk pregnancies in women displaying achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Alexandre J; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Baujat, Geneviève; Benachi, Alexandra

    2016-12-05

    Pregnancies of women displaying achondroplasia are at high risk of adverse events. Early sonographic assessment of affected women can indicate an unusually long cervical length. It is the consequence of pathological anatomy of the pelvis. Thus, there is a foreseeable dystocia owing to cephalopelvic disproportion. Furthermore, this situation could also complicate cervical ripening prior to fetal extraction.

  3. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  5. Awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    west LGA of Edo State to assess the level of awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control. Cluster sampling method was used to select participants and data collection was by researcher administered questionnaire. Blood ...

  6. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Abnormal Cervical Cytology and HighRisk HPV DNA among Bangkok Metropolitan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Kantathavorn, Nuttavut; Kittisiam, Thannaporn; Chaowawanit, Woraphot; Phoolcharoen, Natacha; Manusirivithaya, Sumonmal; Khunnarong, Jakkapan; Srijaipracharoen, Sunamchok; Saeloo, Siriporn; Krongthong, Waraporn; Supawattanabodee, Busaba; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Pataradool, Kamol

    2016-01-01

    Many strategies are required for cervical cancer reduction e.g. provision of education cautious sexual behavior, HPV vaccination, and early detection of preinvasive cervical lesions and invasive cancer. Basic health data for cervical cytology/ HPV DNA and associated factors are important to make an appropriate policy to fight against cervical cancer. To assess the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology and/or HPV DNA and associated factors, including sexual behavior, among Bangkok Metropolitan women. Thai women, aged 25to65 years old, had lived in Bangkok for ≥5 years were invited into the study. Liquidbased cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests were performed. Personal data were collected. Rates of abnormal cytology and/ or highrisk HPV (HRHPV) and factors associated with abnormal test(s) were studied. Abnormal cytology and positive HRHPV were found in 6.3% (279/4442 women) and 6.7% (295/4428), respectively. The most common abnormal cytology was ASCUS (3.5%) while the most common HRHPV genotype was HPV 16 (1.4%) followed by HPV 52 (1.0%), HPV 58 (0.9%), and HPV 18 and HPV 51 at equal frequency (0.7%). Both tests were abnormal in 1.6% (71/4428 women). Rates of HRHPV detection were directly associated with severity of abnormal cytology: 5.4% among normal cytology and 13.0%, 30.8%, 40.0%, 39.5%, 56.3% and 100.0% among ASCUS, ASCH, AGCNOS, LSIL, HSIL, and SCC, respectively. Some 5% of women who had no HRHPV had abnormal cytology, in which 0.3% had ≥ HSIL. Factors associated with abnormal cytology or HRHPV were: age ≤40 years, education lower than (for cytology) or higher than bachelor for HRHPV), history of sexual intercourse, and sexual partners ≥2. Rates for abnormal cytology and HRHPV detection were 6.3% and 6.7% HRHPV detection was directly associated with severity of abnormal cytology. Significant associated factors were age ≤40 years, lower education, history of sexual intercourse, and sexual partners ≥2.

  8. High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Quantification of Rosmarinic Acid and Rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method has been established for simultaneous analysis of rosmarinic acid and rutin in Abnormal Savda Munziq (ASMq. A methanol extract of ASMq was used for quantification. The compounds were separated on silica gel H thin layer plate with ethyl acetate-formic acid-acetic acid-water 15 : 1 : 1 : 1.5 (v/v as a developer, trichloroethanol as the color reagent. The plates were scanned at 365 nm. The linear calibration data of rosmarinic acid and rutin were in the range of 0.0508 to 0.2540 μg (r=0.9964, 0.2707 to 1.35354 μg (r=0.9981, respectively. The recovery rate of rosmarinic acid was 99.17% (RSD = 2.92% and rutin was 95.24% (RSD = 2.38%. The method enables rapid screening, precise, selective, and sensitive quantification for pharmaceutical analysis.

  9. Important role of vertical migration of compressed gas, oil and water in formation of AVPD (abnormally high pressure gradient) zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikiyev, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal role of vertical migration of compressed gases, gas-saturated petroleum and water during formation of abnormally high pressure gradients (AVPD) is confirmed by extensive factual data on gas production, grifons, blowouts and gushers that accompany drilling formations with AVPD from early history to the present time; the sources of vertical migration of compressed fluids, in accordance with geodynamic AVPD theory, are the deep degasified centers of the earth mantle. Among the various types of AVPD zones especially notable are the large (often massive or massive-layer) deposits and the intrusion aureoles that top them in the overlapping covering layers. Prediction of AVPD zones and determining their field and energy potential must be based on field-baric simulation of the formations being drilled in light of laws regarding the important role of the vertical migration of compressed fluids. When developing field-baric models, it is necessary to utilize the extensive and valuable data on grifons, gas production and blowouts that has been collected and categorized by drilling engineers and production geologists. To further develop data on field-baric conditions of the earth, it is necessary to collect and study signals of AVPD. First of all, there is a need to evaluate potential elastic resources of compressed fluids which can move from the bed into the well. Thus it is necessary to study and standardize intrusion aureoles and other AVPD zones within the aspect of fieldbaric modeling.

  10. Polymer brushes interfacing blood as a route toward high performance blood contacting devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, M.; Kostina, Nina Yu.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2015), s. 636-646 ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13178; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : blood compatibility * blood plasma * non-fouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.680, year: 2015

  11. Clinical significance of abnormal high signal intensity of left ventricular myocardium by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koito, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Junichi; Nakamori, Hisato; Ohkubo, Naohiko; Wakayama, Yuka; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Inada, Mitsuo; Katoh, Tsumotu [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    The significance of abnormal high signal intensity observed in left ventricular myocardium by gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients was assessed by comparison with T{sub 1}-weighted MR imaging, thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) myocardial scintigraphy, radionuclide angiocardiography, M-mode echocardiography, electrocardiography, and chest radiography. The 16 patients were divided into three groups: 8 patients (group I) with abnormal high signal intensity before and after Gd-DTPA enhancement, 4 (group II) with abnormal high signal intensity only after enhancement and 4 (group III) without abnormal high signal intensity. Thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) showed abnormalities of regional {sup 201}Tl uptake in the left ventricular myocardium in 4 patients in Group I, 3 in group II, and one in Group III. No significant difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was seen between groups I, II, and III (64{+-}13%, 67{+-}17% and 71{+-}7%) although 3 patients in group I had LVEF of less than 55%. Left ventricular peak filling rates (PFR) of groups I and II were significantly lower than group III (1.90{+-}0.44, 2.41{+-}0.43 and 3.37{+-}0.48 EDV/sec). Group I had larger end-diastolic left ventricular dimension (LVDd), significantly larger end-systolic left ventricular dimension (LVDs), and smaller % fractional shortening (%FS) than group III (49{+-}4 vs 42{+-}6 mm, 31{+-}5 vs 22{+-}4 mm, and 38{+-}8 vs 49{+-}4%). Abnormal high signal intensity in left ventricular myocardium in HCM seems to reflect myocardial ischemia and fibrosis due to small vessel disease, or myocardial degeneration and necrosis. We conclude that Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging may detect the early process of the dilated phase of HCM. (J.P.N.).

  12. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys, and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme, which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting.

  13. MRI abnormalities in children following sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy and high-dose thiotepa for high-risk primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thust, Stefanie C.; Blanco, Esther; Michalski, Antony J.; Phipps, Kim; Chong, WK; Mankan, Kshitij; Gaze, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive postsurgical therapies have improved survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumour, but there is concern that the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy may result in a compound injury to normal brain. The purposes of this analysis were to characterise what types of imaging abnormalities occur, identify risk factors and explore how treatment-related changes may be distinguished from tumour. One hundred fifty-three MRI studies in 14 children treated with sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy and high-dose thiotepa were retrospectively analysed at a paediatric national referral centre. We observed 11 episodes of new focal enhancing lesions, 5 of which were transient and judged to be treatment related. In addition, 7/14 (50%) of children demonstrated moderate to severe brain volume loss featuring a leukodystrophy pattern. Treatment-related brain MRI abnormalities occurred frequently in this series with a risk of misdiagnosis as tumour. A proportion of patients suffer generalised white matter injury, which has not been appreciated as a side effect of this particular therapy.

  14. The product of resting heart rate times blood pressure is associated with high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV as a maker of arterial stiffness. METHODS: The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP. RESULTS: The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586 ± 400 cm/s. Significant (P<0.0001 linear relationships were found between higher baPWV and higher resting heart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (P<0.0001 with increasing RHR-SBP quartile (Odds Ratio (OR: 2.72;95%Confidence interval (CI:1.46,5.08 and increasing RHR-MAP (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.18,3.72. Similar results were obtained in multivariate linear regression analyses with baPWV as continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: Higher baPWV as a marker of arterial stiffness was associated with a higher product of RHR-SBP and RHR-MAP in multivariate analysis. In addition to other vascular risk factors, higher resting heart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness.

  15. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet : blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-01-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood

  16. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by means of a blood test called a "fasting lipoprotein profile." Be sure to ask for the ... Because of the recent studies that showed the benefit of more intensive cholesterol lowering, physicians have the ...

  17. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  18. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization...

  19. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P-NT-proBNP and the put......Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P......-NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  20. Diagnosis of regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities using SPECT: agreement between individualized statistical parametric maps and visual inspection by nuclear medicine physicians with different levels of expertise in nuclear neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da, E-mail: euclidestimoteo@uol.com.b [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Nitrini, Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia; Tazima, Sergio [Hospital Alemao Oswaldo Cruz (HAOC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Nuclear; Peres, Stela Verzinhase [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Busatto Filho, Geraldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Medicina Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    Introduction: visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. Objectives: to compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. Methods: using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters). Statistical parametric mapping results were compared with visual analyses by a nuclear physician highly experienced in neurology (A) as well as a nuclear physician with a general background of experience (B) who independently classified images as normal or altered, and determined the location of changes and the severity. Results: of the 32 images of the normal databank, 4 generated maps showing rCBF abnormalities (p<0.05, corrected). Among the 14 images from patients with neurological disorders, 13 showed rCBF alterations. Statistical parametric mapping and physician A completely agreed on 84.37% and 64.28% of cases from the normal databank and neurological disorders, respectively. The agreement between statistical parametric mapping and ratings of physician B were lower (71.18% and 35.71%, respectively). Conclusion: statistical parametric mapping replicated the findings described by the more experienced nuclear physician. This finding suggests that automated methods for individually analyzing rCBF SPECT images may be a valuable resource to complement visual inspection in clinical practice. (author)

  1. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  2. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  3. NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Wiinberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Intensive multifactorial treatment aimed at prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease may reduce left ventricular (LV) echocardiographic abnormalities in diabetic subjects. Plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP predicts CV mortality in diabetic patients but the association between P......-NT-proBNP and the putative residual abnormalities in such patients are not well described. This study examined echocardiographic measurements of LV hypertrophy, atrial dilatation and LV dysfunction and their relation to P-NT-proBNP levels or subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 2 diabetic patients...

  4. Abnormalities in Diffusional Kurtosis Metrics Related to Head Impact Exposure in a Season of High School Varsity Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elizabeth M; Apkarian, Kalyna; Whitlow, Christopher T; Urban, Jillian E; Jensen, Jens H; Szuch, Eliza; Espeland, Mark A; Jung, Youngkyoo; Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Gioia, Gerard A; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D; Maldjian, Joseph A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of cumulative head impacts during a season of high school football produce changes in diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Subjects were recruited from a high school football team and were outfitted with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITS) during all practices and games. Biomechanical head impact exposure metrics were calculated, including: total impacts, summed acceleration, and Risk Weighted Cumulative Exposure (RWE). Twenty-four players completed pre- and post-season magnetic resonance imaging, including DKI; players who experienced clinical concussion were excluded. Fourteen subjects completed pre- and post-season Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). DKI-derived metrics included mean kurtosis (MK), axial kurtosis (K axial), and radial kurtosis (K radial), and white matter modeling (WMM) parameters included axonal water fraction, tortuosity of the extra-axonal space, extra-axonal diffusivity (D e axial and radial), and intra-axonal diffusivity (D a ). These metrics were used to determine the total number of abnormal voxels, defined as 2 standard deviations above or below the group mean. Linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between RWE combined probability (RWE CP ) and MK. Secondary analysis of other DKI-derived and WMM metrics demonstrated statistically significant linear relationships with RWE CP after covariate adjustment. These results were compared with the results of DTI-derived metrics from the same imaging sessions in this exact same cohort. Several of the DKI-derived scalars (D a , MK, K axial, and K radial) explained more variance, compared with RWE CP , suggesting that DKI may be more sensitive to subconcussive head impacts. No significant relationships between DKI-derived metrics and ImPACT measures were found. It is important to note that the pathological

  5. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Schwimmer

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD.Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks.Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003. Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively. Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05.In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  6. Longitudinal assessment of high blood pressure in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; Zepeda, Anne; Newton, Kimberly P; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Behling, Cynthia; Hallinan, Erin K; Donithan, Michele; Tonascia, James

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 9.6% of children and may put these children at elevated risk of high blood pressure and subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for high blood pressure in children with NAFLD. Cohort study performed by the NIDDK NASH Clinical Research Network. There were 484 children with NAFLD ages 2 to 17 at enrollment; 382 children were assessed both at enrollment and 48 weeks afterwards. The main outcomes were high blood pressure at baseline and persistent high blood pressure at both baseline and 48 weeks. Prevalence of high blood pressure at baseline was 35.8% and prevalence of persistent high blood pressure was 21.4%. Children with high blood pressure were significantly more likely to have worse steatosis than children without high blood pressure (mild 19.8% vs. 34.2%, moderate 35.0% vs. 30.7%, severe 45.2% vs. 35.1%; P = 0.003). Higher body mass index, low-density lipoprotein, and uric acid were independent risk factors for high blood pressure (Odds Ratios: 1.10 per kg/m2, 1.09 per 10 mg/dL, 1.25 per mg/dL, respectively). Compared to boys, girls with NAFLD were significantly more likely to have persistent high blood pressure (28.4% vs.18.9%; P = 0.05). In conclusion, NAFLD is a common clinical problem that places children at substantial risk for high blood pressure, which may often go undiagnosed. Thus blood pressure evaluation, control, and monitoring should be an integral component of the clinical management of children with NAFLD.

  7. The human blood DNA methylome displays a highly distinctive profile compared with other somatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert; Slodkowicz, Greg; Goldman, Nick; Rakyan, Vardhman K

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, DNA methylation profiles vary substantially between tissues. Recent genome-scale studies report that blood displays a highly distinctive methylomic profile from other somatic tissues. In this study, we sought to understand why blood DNA methylation state is so different to the one found in other tissues. We found that whole blood contains approximately twice as many tissue-specific differentially methylated positions (tDMPs) than any other somatic tissue examined. Furthermore, a large subset of blood tDMPs showed much lower levels of methylation than tDMPs for other tissues. Surprisingly, these regions of low methylation in blood show no difference regarding genomic location, genomic content, evolutionary rates, or histone marks when compared to other tDMPs. Our results reveal why blood displays a distinctive methylation profile relative to other somatic tissues. In the future, it will be important to study how these blood specific tDMPs are mechanistically involved in blood-specific functions.

  8. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR-VEP of UTAS-E3000 techniques. Cortical activation by binocular viewing of reversal checkerboard patterns was examined in terms of the calcarine region of interest (ROI)-based and spatial frequency–dependent analysis. The correlation of cortical activation in fMRI and the P100 amplitude in VEP were analyzed using the SPSS 12.0 software package. Results In the BOLD-fMRI procedure, reduced areas and decreased activation levels were found in Brodmann area (BA) 17 and other extrastriate areas in subjects with amblyopia compared with the normal vision group. In general, the reduced areas mainly resided in the striate visual cortex in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. In subjects with strabismic amblyopia, a more significant cortical impairment was found in bilateral BA 18 and BA 19 than that in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. The activation by high-spatial-frequency stimuli was reduced in bilateral BA 18 and 19 as well as BA 17 in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia, whereas the activation was mainly reduced in BA 18 and BA 19 in subjects with strabismic amblyopia. These findings were further confirmed by the ROI-based analysis of BA 17. During spatial frequency–dependent VEP detection, subjects with anisometropic amblyopia had reduced sensitivity for high spatial frequency compared to subjects with strabismic amblyopia. The cortical activation in fMRI with the calcarine ROI-based analysis of BA 17 was significantly correlated with the P100 amplitude in VEP

  9. Regulation of blood volume in lowlanders exposed to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . Initially, hemoconcentration is exclusively related to a reduction in plasma volume (PV), whereas after several weeks a progressive expansion in total red blood cell volume (RCV) contributes, although often to a modest extent. Since the decrease in PV is more rapid and usually more pronounced than...

  10. High Blood Pressure and Sex: Overcome the Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diuretics can decrease forceful blood flow to the penis, making it difficult to achieve an erection. They can also deplete the body of zinc, which is necessary to make the sex hormone testosterone. Beta blockers. These medications, especially older generation beta ...

  11. High-speed video capillaroscopy method for imaging and evaluation of moving red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Igor; Volkov, Mikhail; Margaryants, Nikita; Pimenov, Aleksei; Potemkin, Andrey

    2018-05-01

    The video capillaroscopy system with high image recording rate to resolve moving red blood cells with velocity up to 5 mm/s into a capillary is considered. Proposed procedures of the recorded video sequence processing allow evaluating spatial capillary area, capillary diameter and central line with high accuracy and reliability independently on properties of individual capillary. Two-dimensional inter frame procedure is applied to find lateral shift of neighbor images in the blood flow area with moving red blood cells and to measure directly the blood flow velocity along a capillary central line. The developed method opens new opportunities for biomedical diagnostics, particularly, due to long-time continuous monitoring of red blood cells velocity into capillary. Spatio-temporal representation of capillary blood flow is considered. Experimental results of direct measurement of blood flow velocity into separate capillary as well as capillary net are presented and discussed.

  12. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozza, Rodrigo; Campos, Wagner de; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Stabelini Neto, Antonio; Silva, Michael Pereira da; Maziero, Renato Silva Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR) was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI) indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6). Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28) had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  13. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman; Pandey, Ambarish; Olsen, Michael H; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-05

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood pressure assessments in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg) compared with the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg). The primary endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. In 4683 patients assigned to the standard treatment arm of SPRINT, 2328 (49.7%) met hypertension thresholds by JNC 7 guidelines, and another 1424 (30.4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines compared with those newly identified with hypertension based on the new guidelines had similar risk of the primary endpoint (2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-2.7] vs 2.0 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4] events per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.84-1.44]; P = .48). The 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guidelines are expected to significantly increase the prevalence of patients with hypertension (perhaps to a greater extent in higher-risk patient cohorts compared with the general population) and

  14. High blood pressure at old age : The Leiden 85 plus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, Thomas van

    2010-01-01

    The last decades have shown an increasing interest in treatment of high blood pressure. Copious amounts of data have been published on the mortality and morbidity risks of high blood pressure. Overall these data have resulted in an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects of only modest

  15. [Unhealthy behavior associated with the development of high blood pressure in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zamorano, Luisa María; Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Flores-Sánchez, Guillermo; Salmerón-Castro, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C; Diaz-Benitez, Cinthya E

    2017-04-03

    This article aims to evaluate the association between unhealthy behavior pattern and prevalence and incidence of high blood pressure in adolescents. Based on data from a cohort study with a baseline population of 2,813 adolescents enrolled in a public school system, the study measured the baseline prevalence and incidence of high blood pressure as a function of smoking, alcohol and illegal drug use, and physical activity. These variables were used to build a model called "unhealthy behavior pattern", and its relationship was evaluated in relation to high blood pressure in adolescents, using multiple logistic regression models. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 8.67%. Accumulated incidence of high blood pressure was 7.58%. In the multivariate analysis of high blood pressure adjusted by degree of adiposity, there was an association with the unhealthy behavior pattern in males (OR = 3.13; 95%CI: 1.67-5.84). The association between incidence of high blood pressure and unhealthy behavior pattern was observed in females (OR = 2.34; 95%CI: 1.11-4.95). In conclusion, high blood pressure is present in the adolescent population, associated with unhealthy behaviors like smoking, alcohol and illegal drug use, and physical inactivity, independently of the degree of adiposity.

  16. Correlation of lung abnormalities on high-resolution CT with clinical graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic versus autologous bone marrow transplantation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlini, Laura; Borzani, Irene Maria Olivia; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Hanquinet, Sylviane [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Radiology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Rochat, Isabelle [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Pneumology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Ozsahin, Ayse Hulya [University of Geneva Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Oncology Unit, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) are life-threatening complications of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Several pathological patterns are described in the literature with different prognoses, and with different relationships to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The role of high-resolution CT (HRCT) is not yet well established. To illustrate different patterns of LONIPCs on HRCT in allogeneic versus autologous BMT in order to investigate the correlation with chronic GVHD (cGVHD). A total of 67 HRCT scans were performed in 24 patients with noninfectious pulmonary disease at least 3 months after BMT (16 allogeneic, 8 autologous). Abnormality patterns and extension on HRCT images were correlated with the clinical outcome and with the severity of cGVHD. Of 24 patients, 9 showed LONIPCs (1 autologous, 8 allogeneic). There was a significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe cGVHD (P = 0.038), with no specific pattern. Prognosis seemed to be related to the severity of cGVHD and not to the extent of abnormalities on HRCT. The significant association between abnormalities on HRCT and severe GVHD suggests that LONIPCs can be a pulmonary manifestation of the disease. HRCT is a useful tool when combined with clinical data. (orig.)

  17. Age and sensory processing abnormalities predict declines in encoding and recall of temporally manipulated speech in high-functioning adults with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jennifer L; Heaton, Pamela F

    2014-02-01

    While temporal and perceptual processing abnormalities, identified in a number of electrophysiological and brain imaging studies of individuals with (ASD), are likely to impact on speech perception, surprisingly little is known about the behavioral outcomes of such abnormalities. It has been hypothesized that rapid temporal processing deficits may be linked to impaired language development through interference with acoustic information during speech perception. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of temporal changes on encoding and recall of speech, and the associated cognitive, clinical, and behavioral correlates in adults with ASD. Research carried out with typically developing (TD) adults has shown that word recall diminishes as the speed of speech increases, and it was predicted that the magnitude of this effect would be far greater in those with ASD because of a preexisting rapid temporal processing deficit. Nineteen high-functioning adults with ASD, and age- and intelligence-matched TD controls performed verbatim recall of temporally manipulated sentences. Reduced levels of word recall in response to increases in presentation speed were observed, and this effect was greater in the older participants in the ASD group than in the control group. This is the first study to show that both sensory abnormalities and aging impact on speech encoding in ASD. Auditory processing deficits in ASD may be indicative of an association with the sensory abnormalities and social and communication impairments characterizing the disorder. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Screening for fetal chromosome abnormalities during the second trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Hui; Li Ming; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a pre -natal screening program for fetal chromosome abnormalities based on risk values calculated from maternal serum markers levels during the second trimester. Methods: Serum levels of AFP, β-HCG, uE 3 were determined with CLIA in 1048 pregnant women during 14-21w gestation period and the results were analyzed with a specific software (screening program for Down' s syndrome developed by Beckman) for the risk rate. In those women defined as being of high risk rate, cells from amniotic fluid or umbilical cord blood were studied for karyotype analysis. Results: Of these 1048 women, 77 were designated as being of high risk rate for several chromosome abnormalities i.e. Down's syndrome, open spina bifida and trisomy -18 syndrome (overall positive rate 7.3%). Further fetal chromosome study in 31 of them revealed three proven cases of abnormality. Another cord blood study was performed in a calculated low risk rate case but with abnormal sonographic finding at 31 w gestation and proved to be abnormal (software study false negative). The remaining 46 high risk rate cases either refused future study (n=35) or were lost for follow-up (n=11). Fortunately, all the 35 women refused further study gave birth to normal babies without any chromosome abnormalities discovered on peripheral blood study. Besides, in a trial study, five high risk rate women were again evaluated a few weeks later but with tremendous difference between the results. Conclusion: The present program proves to be clinically useful but needs further study and revision. Many factors may influence the result of the analysis and the duration of gestation period in weeks should be as accurate as possible. At present, in order to avoid getting false negatives, we don't advise a second check in 'high risk' cases. (authors)

  19. Association of maternal and umbilical cord blood leptin concentrations and abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Zareaan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is a condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology which characterized by fetal weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational age. Several factors have impact on maternal, placental and fetal due to growth restriction. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between levels of leptin in the cord, and serum leptin of mothers also abnormal color Doppler indices of umbilical artery with fetal growth restriction. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Isfahan, Iran, 2015-2016. We recruited 40 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (Group I and 40 pregnant women with normal fetal growth (Group II with matched age. Maternal serum and umbilical artery leptin levels were determined with Enzyme-Linked immunosorben method. Also, color Doppler ultrasound of umbilical artery was performed. Results: Mean maternal and fetal leptin levels were lower in the FGR group compared to the normal group (36.58±(20.99 and 7.42 ±(4.08vs. 47.32±(22.50 and 30.49±(14.50 respectively. Also, mean fetal leptin level was lower in the group with abnormal color Doppler sonographic indices compared to the normal group (7. 40 ±(4.10vs 27.06±(15.80, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that maternal and fetal leptin levels are correlated with FGR originating from damaged placental function; also fetal leptin level can indicate changes in color Doppler sonographic indices.

  20. Highly flexible capacitive strain gauge for continuous long-term blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingger, P; Zens, M; Woias, P

    2012-06-01

    An innovative procedure for measuring blood pressure, with none of the disadvantages of current procedures, is proposed. A highly-flexible capacitive strain gauge has been designed to measure changes in the diameter of a blood vessel; such changes are indicative of blood pressure. The sensor is implanted and wrapped around an arterial blood vessel during the normal course of a surgical procedure. In vivo tests, demonstrating the feasibility of this concept, are reported, along with in vitro tests and notes on sensor design and fabrication. These continuous blood pressure monitoring sensors may be used for a continuous long-term monitoring of blood pressure and pulse. They may also be combined with a real-time nerve stimulation technique or a course of medication to create a closed-loop system for blood-pressure control.

  1. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environm......International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical...

  2. Assessment of myocardial perfusion abnormality and hibernating myocardium by gated blood pool and exercise-stress thallium tomographies after successful coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Nakata, Tomoaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion were assessed by exercise-stress thallium SPECT and resting gated blood pool SPECT techniques before and after 47 successful coronary angioplasties. Thallium perfusion was analyzed visually and quantitatively in stress and resting studies. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and peak filling rate (PFR) were calculated and regional wall motion was scored by amplitude and phase images in radionuclide planar and tomographic imagings. The thallium redistribution in delayed or resting SPECTs was more sensitive (87%) for detecting myocardial ischemia compared to symptoms (36%) and ECG changes (60%). An exercise capacity, LVEF, PFR, and the scores of perfusion and regional wall motion were improved significantly after coronary angioplasty. Stress thallium and gated blood pool SPECTs showed the improvements of myocardial perfusion in 159 (79%) of 201 segments and regional wall motion in 47 (51%) of 92 segments, respectively. These results suggest that the combined use of stress thallium SPECT, gated blood pool planar and SPECT techniques can contribute not only to the assessment of the efficacy of coronary angioplasty but also to detecting the mismatching of myocardial perfusion and contraction ('myocardial hibernation') in infarct-related myocardial lesions. (author)

  3. Waist circumference as an indicator of high blood pressure in preschool obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Li, Hai-fei

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) to determine if waist circumference was an indicator of BP in preschool children. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and blood pressure of 939 3-6-year-old preschool children were collected. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in obese children were significantly higher than that in normal weight children in both sexes (phigh blood pressure in children of both sexes. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis using SBP as the dependent variable showed that BMI and WC were significant independent factors that influence high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHr) in boys. When using DBP as the dependent variable, BMI was the only significant independent factor that influenced high blood pressure adjusted for age, WtHr and WHr, in both sex-es. Waist circumference was independently associated with high blood pressure in boys aged 3-6 years. In addition to BMI, increased waist circumference was found to be an indicator of high blood pressure in the preschool children, especially in boys.

  4. [Effect of high-intensity alternating magnetic field 
on viscosity of sheep blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pengxian; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhao, Lingzhi; Wang, Feng; Xia, Qi; Peng, Yan; Gao, Bingren

    2017-12-28

    To explore the changes of blood viscosity in high-intensity alternating magnetic field and the mechanisms.
 Methods: Five adult sheep were randomly selected and the blood samples were placed in high-intensity alternating magnetic field. Before and after exposure, the blood samples were taken and divided into 2 groups: a control group and a magnetic field group. The blood rheology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed.
 Results: Compared to the control group, the high shear viscosity of whole blood was decreased in the magnetic field group (P<0.05); the whole blood low shear viscosity and plasma viscosity were also decreased (both P<0.01). TEM showed the changes in red blood cell morphology and the double concave disc curvature. The radian of double concave disc and cell volume in the magnetic field group was larger than those in the control group.
 Conclusion: The high intensity alternating magnetic field may affect the distribution of surface charge and molecular current in blood cells, which in turn decrease the aggregation of cells and the blood viscosity.

  5. Gestational diabetes is a herald of NIDDM in Navajo women. High rate of abnormal glucose tolerance after GDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhart, J R; Sugarman, J R; Connell, F A

    1997-06-01

    To estimate the rate of deterioration of glucose tolerance and evaluate risk factors for development of NIDDM in Navajo women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A retrospective analysis of 111 GDM deliveries over a 4-year period, 1983-1987, was conducted in 1994 to determine glucose tolerance status. Patients who had not developed NIDDM were recalled for a 2-h glucose tolerance test (GTT). Tested and non-tested patients were compared, as estimate of conversion to NIDDM was calculated, and risk factors for NIDDM were evaluated. A life-table analysis was developed to estimate the probability of NIDDM after GDM. At the time of chart review, 32 patients (29%) had already been diagnosed with NIDDM. Of the patients, 79 were offered GTT testing, and 56 (71%) returned for follow-up; 15 were diagnosed with NIDDM and 17 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 47 (42%) and 64 (58%) patients in the cohort had developed NIDDM or NIDDM/IGT at the conclusion of the study period. Patients who developed NIDDM had greater BMIs, parity, and infant weights. Fasting blood glucose > 5.83 mmol/l, GTT > 41.63 mmol/l, and recurrence of GDM were associated with later NIDDM. A life-table analysis estimated a 53% likelihood of having NIDDM at an 11-year follow-up; a second model, based only on patients with known NIDDM status, predicted a 70% rate of NIDDM at an 11-year follow-up. A high proportion of Navajo women with GDM progressed to NIDDM. Postpartum counseling and periodic GTTs are recommended.

  6. Left globus pallidus abnormality in never-medicated patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, T.S.; Reiman, E.M.; Raichle, M.E.; Spitznagel, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by onset in young adulthood, the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions, and the development of enduring psychosocial disability. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. Studies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism designed to identify brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been limited by inadequate methods of anatomical localization and the possibility of persistent medication effects. The authors have now used positron emission tomography and a validated method of anatomical localization in an attempt to identify abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in newly diagnosed never-medicated patients with schizophrenia. An exploratory study of 5 patients and 10 normal control subjects identified abnormally high blood flow in the left globus pallidus of patients with schizophrenia. A replication study of 5 additional patients and 10 additional control subjects confirmed this finding. No other abnormalities were found

  7. High prevalence of abnormalities on CT and MR imaging in children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss irrespective of age or degree of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beeck Calkoen, E A; Sanchez Aliaga, E; Merkus, P; Smit, C F; van de Kamp, J M; Mulder, M F; Goverts, S T; Hensen, E F

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of causal abnormalities identified on CT and MR imaging in children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL), and the association with age and severity of hearing loss. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary referral otology/audiology center. 102 children diagnosed with USNHL between 2006 and 2016 were included. They underwent CT and/or MR imaging for the evaluation of the etiology of their hearing loss. Radiologic abnormalities of the inner ear and brain associated with USNHL. Using CT and/or MR imaging, causal abnormalities were identified in 49%, which is higher than previously reported (25-40%). The most frequently affected site was the labyrinth (29%), followed by the cochlear nerve (9%) and brain (7%). No significant difference in the number or type of abnormalities was found for the degree of hearing loss or age categories. Imaging is essential in the etiologic analysis of USNHL because of the high prevalence of causative abnormalities that can be identified with radiology, irrespective of the patients' age or degree of hearing loss. CT and MR imaging are complementary imaging options. The ideal imaging algorithm is controversial. Based on our findings, we conclude that there is limited additional diagnostic value of simultaneous dual modality imaging over sequential diagnostics. We therefore perform a stepwise radiological workup in order to maximize the diagnostic yield while minimizing impact and costs. If the primary imaging modality does not identify a cause for USNHL, performing the alternative imaging modality should be considered. Retrospective cohort study 2b. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus assessment with high resolution computed tomography, chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, S.M.; Doran, M.; Fenelon, H.M.; Breatnach, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective has to assess the nature of pleuro-pulmonary abnormalities, with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) In conclusion, HRCT is more sensitive than PFTs or CXR in the evaluation of pleuro-pulmonary disease in SLE. We report an unusually high prevalence of HRCT appearances suggestive of ILD in patients with SLE. subclinical lung disease is common in patients with SLE. (author)

  9. Association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure: difference between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alison O; Silva, Micaelly V; Pereira, Lisley K N; Feitosa, Wallacy M N; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Diniz, Paula R B; Oliveira, Luciano M F T

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association between general and abdominal obesity with high blood pressure in adolescents of both genders from the public school system. This was an epidemiological, descriptive, exploratory study, with a quantitative approach and local scope whose sample consisted of 481 high school students (aged 14-19), selected by using a random cluster sampling strategy. Blood pressure was measured through the use of automated monitor and was considered high when the pressure values were at or above the 95th percentile. The analyses were performed using the chi-squared test and binary logistic regression. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 6.4%, and it was higher among boys (9.0% vs. 4.7%, phigh blood pressure was associated with general (OR=6.4; phigh blood pressure only in boys, regardless of age. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Megalin-deficiency causes high myopia, retinal pigment epithelium-macromelanosomes and abnormal development of the ciliary body in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Tina; Heegaard, Steffen; Christensen, Erik Ilsø

    2014-01-01

    of megalin-deficient mice were examined with immunological techniques using light, confocal and electron microscopy. We identified megalin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium (NPCBE) in normal mouse eyes. Immunocytochemical investigations furthermore showed...... that megalin localizes to vesicular structures in the RPE and NPCBE cells. Histological investigations of ocular mouse tissue also identified a severe myopia phenotype as well as enlarged RPE melanosomes and abnormal ciliary body development in the megalin-deficient mice. In conclusion, the complex ocular...

  11. Multiprofessional Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Very Elderly Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Muniz Sanches Siqueira Veiga Jardim

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: As the world population ages, patients older than 80 years, known as very elderly, are more frequently found. There are no studies in this age group aimed at analyzing the multidisciplinary intervention in the treatment of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH and some comorbidities. Objectives: To assess the effect of a multidisciplinary approach in very elderly hypertensives cared for at a specialized service. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective cohort study in a multidisciplinary service specialized in the SAH treatment in the Brazilian West-Central region. Patients aged 80 years and older by June 2015 were included. Data from the first (V1 and last visit (Vf were assessed. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure (BP, renal function, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, comorbidities and cardiovascular events were studied, comparing data from V1 and Vf. Controlled BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP lower than 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP lower than 90 mm Hg. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSSR software, version 21.0. Values of p<0,05 were considered significant. Results: Data of 71 patients were assessed with a mean follow-up time of 15,22 years. Their mean age at V1 was 69.2 years, and, at Vf, 84.53 years, and 26.8% of them were males. There was a significant reduction in mean SBP (157.3 x 142.1 mm Hg; p<0.001 and DBP (95.1 x 77.8 mm Hg; p<0.001, with an increase in BP control rates from V1 to Vf (36.6 x 83.1%; p<0.001. The number of antihypertensive drugs used increased (1.49 x 2.85; p<0.001, with an increase in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (22.5 x 46.5%; p=0.004, angiotensin II receptor blockers (4.2 x 35.2%; p<0.001 and calcium-channel blockers (18.3 x 67.6%; p<0.001. There was a reduction in total cholesterol (217.9 x 191 mg/dL; p<0.001 and LDL-cholesterol (139.6 x 119.0 mg/dL; p<0.001, but worsening of the glomerular filtration rate (62.5 x 45.4 mL/min; p

  12. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman

    2018-01-01

    compared with those newly identified with hypertension based on the new guidelines had similar risk of the primary endpoint [2.3 (2.0-2.7) vs. 2.0 (1.6-2.4) events per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.84-1.44); P=0.48]. CONCLUSIONS: The 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guidelines...

  13. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Thornton, Charlene; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  14. Past oral contraceptive use and self-reported high blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Christine L; Lind, Joanne M

    2015-01-31

    Studies have reported current hormonal contraceptive use is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including high blood pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the association between past hormonal contraception use and high blood pressure in Australian postmenopausal women. Women were recruited from the 45 and Up Study, an observational cross-sectional study, conducted from February 2006 to December 2009, NSW Australia. All of the variables used in this study were derived from self-reported data. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had given birth to one or more children. Odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals for the association between past hormonal contraceptive use and current treatment for high blood pressure, stratified by current age (high blood pressure, menopausal hormone therapy use, number of children, whether they breastfed, and age of menopause. A total of 34,289 women were included in the study. No association between past hormonal contraception use and odds of having high blood pressure were seen in any of the age groups (high blood pressure was observed. Past hormonal contraception use and duration of use is not associated with high blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  15. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Racial Differences in Abnormal Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Measures: Results From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cora E.; Diaz, Keith M.; Carson, April P.; Kim, Yongin; Calhoun, David; Yano, Yuichiro; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Several ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independent of clinic blood pressure (BP). African Americans have higher clinic BP compared with Whites but few data are available on racial differences in ABPM measures. METHODS We compared ABPM measures between African American (n = 178) and White (n = 103) participants at the Year 5 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study visit. BP was measured during a study visit and the second and third measurements were averaged. ABPM was conducted over the following 24 hours. RESULTS Mean ± SD age of participants was 29.8±3.8 years and 30.8±3.5 years for African Americans and Whites, respectively. Mean daytime systolic BP (SBP) was 3.90 (SD 1.18) mm Hg higher among African Americans compared with Whites (P ABPM was higher among African Americans compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest racial differences in several ABPM measures exist. PMID:25376639

  17. Sequencing of a Patient with Balanced Chromosome Abnormalities and Neurodevelopmental Disease Identifies Disruption of Multiple High Risk Loci by Structural Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jonathon; Riddell, Andrew; Theiss, Susanne; Gonzalez, Alexis Perez; Haase, Bettina; Jauch, Anna; Janssen, Johannes W. G.; Ibberson, David; Pavlinic, Dinko; Moog, Ute; Benes, Vladimir; Runz, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs) occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14) that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception. PMID:24625750

  18. Sequencing of a patient with balanced chromosome abnormalities and neurodevelopmental disease identifies disruption of multiple high risk loci by structural variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Blake

    Full Text Available Balanced chromosome abnormalities (BCAs occur at a high frequency in healthy and diseased individuals, but cost-efficient strategies to identify BCAs and evaluate whether they contribute to a phenotype have not yet become widespread. Here we apply genome-wide mate-pair library sequencing to characterize structural variation in a patient with unclear neurodevelopmental disease (NDD and complex de novo BCAs at the karyotype level. Nucleotide-level characterization of the clinically described BCA breakpoints revealed disruption of at least three NDD candidate genes (LINC00299, NUP205, PSMD14 that gave rise to abnormal mRNAs and could be assumed as disease-causing. However, unbiased genome-wide analysis of the sequencing data for cryptic structural variation was key to reveal an additional submicroscopic inversion that truncates the schizophrenia- and bipolar disorder-associated brain transcription factor ZNF804A as an equally likely NDD-driving gene. Deep sequencing of fluorescent-sorted wild-type and derivative chromosomes confirmed the clinically undetected BCA. Moreover, deep sequencing further validated a high accuracy of mate-pair library sequencing to detect structural variants larger than 10 kB, proposing that this approach is powerful for clinical-grade genome-wide structural variant detection. Our study supports previous evidence for a role of ZNF804A in NDD and highlights the need for a more comprehensive assessment of structural variation in karyotypically abnormal individuals and patients with neurocognitive disease to avoid diagnostic deception.

  19. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    , smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood...

  20. Obesity promotes oxidative stress and exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption after high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Tae Roh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study suggests that episodic vigorous exercise can increase oxidative stress and blood neurotrophic factor levels and induce disruption of the BBB. Moreover, high levels of neurotrophic factor in the blood after exercise in the obese group may be due to BBB disruption, and it is assumed that oxidative stress was the main cause of this BBB disruption.

  1. Knowledge and awareness of high blood pressure in Ward F, Ifako ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: In Nigeria, most people living with an elevated blood pressure are unaware of it until they suffer complications. The aim of this study was to determine levels of awareness of high blood pressure in Ward F, Ifako-Ijaiye local government area, Lagos, Nigeria. Design: A multistage sampling technique was used to ...

  2. Comparison of three different kits for extraction of high-quality RNA from frozen blood

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, Jin-Ah; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of high-quality RNA is a crucial step in gene expression profiling. To achieve optimal RNA extraction from frozen blood, the performance of three RNA extraction kits- TRI reagent, PAXgene blood RNA system (PAXgene) and NucleoSpin RNA blood kit (NucleoSpin)- was evaluated. Fifteen blood specimens collected in tubes containing potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and stored at −80°C for approximately 5 years were randomly selected. The yield and purity of RNA, RIN (RNA in...

  3. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  5. Temporary prophylactic intravascular balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries before cesarean hysterectomy for controlling operative blood loss in abnormal placentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Min Chou

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: With limited experience in this small series, we observed a statistically significant reduction in operative blood loss after the use of temporary prophylactic balloon occlusion of the CIA technique compared with historical controls of similar demographic characteristics previously published (1902.3 ± 578.8 mL, range 500–8000 mL vs. 4445.7 ± 996.48 mL, range 1040–15,000 mL, p = 0.0402. Additionally, two patients had arterial thrombosis. These preliminary findings are based on a small number of patients, and therefore further investigation is needed to determine the effectiveness and safety of this new technique.

  6. Anemia and Red Blood Cell Abnormalities in HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Breastfed Infants: A Secondary Analysis of the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Collins; Zeh, Clement; Ondoa, Pascale; Omolo, Paul; Akoth, Benta; Lwamba, Humphrey; Lando, Richard; Williamson, John; Otieno, Juliana; Masaba, Rose; Weidle, Paul; Thomas, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Anemia results in increased morbidity and mortality, underscoring the need to better understand its pathophysiology amongst HIV-exposed and infected children in sub-Saharan Africa, the region where most infant HIV exposure and infections occur. This analysis used samples obtained from children in the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS). KiBS was a longitudinal phase IIB, open-label, one-arm clinical trial, designed to investigate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of a maternal triple-antiretroviral (ARV) regimen for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, during late pregnancy and early infancy while breastfeeding. Blood samples from 482 children were obtained at birth, 2, 6, 10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. Severity of anemia was graded using the NIH Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity tables. We describe the proportion of children with anemia and anomalies in red blood cell parameters at various time points over 24 months and compare rates of anemia between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and by mothers' ARV regimen and infant malaria infection. The proportion of children with anemia significantly increased after the breastfeeding period in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with higher proportion among HIV-infected children compared to HIV-uninfected children (RR: 1.72; CI: 1.22-2.44, p = 0.002). Maternal triple-antiretroviral regimen was not associated with infant anemia (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin between HIV-uninfected children with and without malaria at each time point except at 24 months. A relatively lower proportion of children with severe anemia during the breastfeeding period suggest that exposure to mother's triple antiretroviral combinations through breast milk, posed minimal risk of hematologic toxicity.

  7. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  8. Inflammation in high blood pressure: a clinician perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Firas A; Movahed, Assad

    2007-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important contributors to atherosclerosis. A possible link between inflammation and elevated blood pressure has been suggested by several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Possible mechanisms include an imbalance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, amplified thrombogenesis and platelet activation, and perhaps a direct effect of inflammatory mediators. C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory cytokine, may play an essential role in vascular inflammation and can directly decrease the production of nitric oxide, a vasocodilator. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulates several inflammatory cytokines, leukocyte adhesion molecules, and chemokines through the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B leading to a decrease in the bioavailability of vasodilators. The increase in oxidative stress and endothelin-1 production through Ang II may further contribute to vasoconstriction. Adipose tissue can add to the production of CRP and creates a prothrombotic state. The presence of low-grade inflammation, especially elevations of CRP, can help predict the risk of future cardiovascular events and is associated with target organ damage in hypertensive individuals. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, and, to a lesser degree calcium channel antagonists, have shown efficacy in reducing CRP. Lifestyle changes such as exercise, weight loss, and tobacco cessation have also shown a similar efficacy. Whether targeting inflammation in the treatment of uncomplicated hypertension can alter the natural history of the disease or lead to improved outcome has yet to be determined.

  9. High beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in atrial fibrillation compared to sinus rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbers, Joakim; Gille, Adam; Ljungman, Petter; Rosenqvist, Mårten; Östergren, Jan; Witt, Nils

    2018-02-07

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, not entirely explained by thromboembolism. The underlying mechanisms for this association are largely unknown. Similarly, high blood pressure (BP) increases the risk for cardiovascular events. Despite this the interplay between AF and BP is insufficiently studied. The purpose of this study was to examine and quantify the beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with AF in comparison to a control group of patients with sinus rhythm. We studied 33 patients - 21 in atrial fibrillation and 12 in sinus rhythm - undergoing routine coronary angiography. Invasive blood pressure was recorded at three locations: radial artery, brachial artery and ascending aorta. Blood pressure variability, defined as average beat-to-beat blood pressure difference, was calculated for systolic and diastolic blood pressure at each site. We observed a significant difference (p blood pressure variability between the atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm groups at all locations. Systolic blood pressure variability roughly doubled in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (4.9 and 2.4 mmHg respectively). Diastolic beat-to-beat blood pressure variability was approximately 6 times as high in the atrial fibrillation group compared to the sinus rhythm group (7.5 and 1.2 mmHg respectively). No significant difference in blood pressure variability was seen between measurement locations. Beat-to-beat blood pressure variability in patients with atrial fibrillation was substantially higher than in patients with sinus rhythm. Hemodynamic effects of this beat-to-beat variation in blood pressure may negatively affect vascular structure and function, which may contribute to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  10. High risk human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection in the cervical lesions of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A cytohistomorphologic association in Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Urmila; Ahamad, M Shahab Uddin; Bhattacharjee, Pradip; Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Rahman, Zillur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the extent of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16/18 infection in the cervical tissue of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear and to establish an association between hrHPV type 16/18 infection and cytohistomorphology. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 1699 patients who went through Pap smear examination. Prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality was calculated. Forty eight of these women underwent routine histopathology and 47 were evaluated for human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 by polymerase chain reaction assay. Total 139 women revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Histopathology showed simple inflammation to malignancy. HPV type 16/18 infection was detected in 40.42% (19/47) of the patients. Individually type 16 and 18 were positive in 7 (14.9%) cases each and dual infection with type 16 and 18 were seen in 5 (10.6%) cases. While cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and cervical cancer screening strategies.

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in normoglycemic subjects with newly diagnosed high blood pressure in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojji, Dike B; Ajayi, Samuel O; Mamven, Manmak H; Atherton, John

    2009-02-01

    High blood pressure and dyslipidemia additively increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of high blood pressure in Nigeria, but there are little data regarding the prevalence of dyslipidemia in subjects with high blood pressure. In this observational prospective study, we examined the prevalence of dyslipidemia in newly diagnosed normoglycemic subjects with high blood pressure. A total of 171 subjects presenting with high blood pressure for the first time in the cardiology and nephrology clinics at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital were studied. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined in fasting plasma. The total cholesterol/HDL-C and non-HDL-C values were calculated. These measures were then classified according to the 2001 report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Of the 171 subjects studied, 84 (49%) were male and 87 (51%) were female. Low HDL-C was present in 71 (45.8%), elevated LDL-C in 29 (17%), elevated total cholesterol in 19 (11.1%), and elevated triglyceride in 13 (7.6%), whereas eight (4.7%) of the study population had combined elevated total cholesterol and triglyceride. Female subjects had higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C than male subjects, but these differences were not statistically significant. Obese subjects, compared to the nonobese, had significantly higher LDL-C and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios in males and significantly higher triglyceride levels in females. Given the prevalence of dyslipidemia seen in this study, we suggest that fasting lipid measurements should be performed in all Nigerians with high blood pressure. These data suggest the need for health education and lifestyle modifications in hypertensive Nigerians to reduce both types of risk

  12. Chest Abnormalities in Juvenile-Onset Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: Assessment with High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Pulmonary Function Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaloekken, T.M.; Mynarek, G.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Lilleby, V.; Foerre, Oe.; Soeyseth, V.; Pripp, A.H.; Johansen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is associated with several chest manifestations. Only a few studies have focused on chest manifestations in juvenile-onset MCTD (jMCTD), and the true prevalence of pulmonary abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in these patients is unknown. Purpose: To investigate the occurrence of pulmonary abnormalities in jMCTD with particular reference to interstitial lung disease (ILD), and to evaluate a possible association between pulmonary findings and disease-related variables. Material and Methods: Twenty-four childhood-onset MCTD patients with median disease duration of 10.5 years (range 1-21 years) were investigated in a cross-sectional study by means of HRCT, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and clinical assessment. Results: Discrete ILD was identified in six patients (25%). Median extent of ILD was 2.0%, and all except one of the patients had very mild disease in which 5% or less of the parenchyma was affected. The CT features of fibrosis were mainly microcystic and fine intralobular. The most frequently abnormal PFT was carbon monoxide uptake from the lung, which was abnormal in 33% of the patients. PFT and disease duration were not significantly associated with HRCT findings of ILD. Conclusion: The prevalence of ILD in childhood-onset MCTD patients was lower than previously believed. In most of the patients with ILD, the findings were subtle and without clinical correlation. The results suggest a low extent of ILD in childhood-onset MCTD, even after long-term disease duration

  13. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses inhibit effective immune responses of human blood-derived macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Friesenhagen, Judith; Boergeling, Yvonne; Hrincius, Eike; Ludwig, Stephan; Roth, Johannes; Viemann, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Human blood-derived macrophages are non-permissive for influenza virus propagation, and fail to elicit inflammatory and antiviral responses upon infection with high pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  14. Weight Status and High Blood Pressure Among Low-Income African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E.; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure. PMID:20937738

  15. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  16. [Unfavorable outcome of aggressive lowering of high blood pressure. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperczkó, Diána; Csécsei, Péter; Komáromy, Hedvig; Szapáry, László; Fehér, Gergely

    2014-10-19

    Cerebral autoregulation is essential in the maintenance of cerebral blood flow. Due to this autoregulation, cerebral perfusion is constant in healthy subjects if blood pressure values are between 50-150 mmHg. In hypertensive patients the curve is right-shifted towards higher blood pressure values (pathological autoregulation). Aggressive blood pressure reduction can lead to severe ischaemia. The authors report the history of a 73-year-old man with the background history of widespread atherosclerotic disease. The patient complained about headache and dizziness and was found to have high blood pressure (160/100 mmHg) and increased blood glucose (14.8 mmol/l). Prior to his admission an aggressive blood pressure and blood sugar reduction was carried out and, within a short period of time he became unconscious and was transferred to the department of the authors with the possible diagnosis of brainstem stroke. On admission the patient was unresponsive, comatose with brainstem symptoms. Urgent brain computed tomography failed to show any acute alterations. However, repeat CT scan revealed extensive bilateral space occupying ischemic changes involving in territories of both internal carotid arteries with consequent brainstem compression. Computed tomography angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion. The authors conclude that intensive blood pressure reduction result in ischemic lesions via hypoperfusion especially in patients with widespread atherosclerotic disease and significant carotid vessel pathology.

  17. Blood pressure values and depression in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, M.A. (Miguel Angel); Sorli, J.V. (José Vicente); Basora, J. (Josep); Pinto, X. (Xavier); Serra-Majem, L. (Lluis); Aros, F. (Fernando); Fito, M. (Montserrat); Santos, J.M. (José Manuel); Fiol, M. (Miquel); Gomez-Gracia, E. (Enrique); Corella, D. (Dolores); Salas-Salvado, J. (Jordi); Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. (Miguel Ángel); Estruch, R. (Ramón); Mejia-Lancheros, C. (Cilia)

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension and depression are both important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the association of blood pressure on and depression has not been completely established. This study aims to analyze whether depression may influence the control of blood pressure in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Cross-sectional study, embedded within the PREDIMED clinical trial, of 5954 hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases like hypertension and obesity among others has become a public health concern. Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and ...

  19. Factors associated with lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure among Canadian adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Robitaille, Cynthia; Joffres, Michel; Tremblay, Mark S; Johansen, Helen; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 17% of Canadians with high blood pressure were unaware of their condition, and of Canadians aware of having the condition, approximately 1 in 5 have uncontrolled high blood pressure despite high rates of pharmacotherapy. The objectives of the current study are to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension and examine factors associated with (1) lack of awareness and (2) uncontrolled hypertension despite pharmacotherapy. Using the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 3473, aged 20-79 years) and logistic regression, we quantified relationships between characteristics and (1) presence of hypertension, (2) lack of awareness (among those with hypertension), and (3) uncontrolled high blood pressure (among those treated for hypertension). Older age, lowest income, and less than high school education were associated with presence of hypertension. Men (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) and adults high blood pressure (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) despite treatment. Elevated systolic blood pressure was the issue in over 90% of women and 80% of men with uncontrolled hypertension. Depending on the definition employed, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.4-6.4) to 7.8% (95% CI, 6.0-9.6) of the population with hypertension had resistant hypertension. Messaging or interventions encouraging screening may be helpful for all younger Canadian adults and men; programs encouraging blood pressure control may help older women. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  1. High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r 2 ) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm -1 at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm -1 at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was maximal around a

  2. High-frequency attenuation and backscatter measurements of rat blood between 30 and 60 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chih-Chung, E-mail: j648816n@ms23.hinet.ne [Department of Electrical Engineering, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-07

    There has recently been a great deal of interest in noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound imaging of small animals such as rats due to their being the preferred animal model for gene therapy and cancer research. Improving the interpretation of the obtained images and furthering the development of the imaging devices require a detailed knowledge of the ultrasound attenuation and backscattering of biological tissue (e.g. blood) at high frequencies. In the present study, the attenuation and backscattering coefficients of the rat red blood cell (RBC) suspensions and whole blood with hematocrits ranging from 6% to 40% were measured between 30 and 60 MHz using a modified substitution approach. The acoustic parameters of porcine blood under the same conditions were also measured in order to compare differences in the blood properties between these two animals. For porcine blood, both whole blood and RBC suspension were stirred at a rotation speed of 200 rpm. Three different rotation speeds of 100, 200 and 300 rpm were carried out for rat blood experiments. The attenuation coefficients of both rat and porcine blood were found to increase linearly with frequency and hematocrit (the values of coefficients of determination (r{sup 2}) are around 0.82-0.97 for all cases). The average attenuation coefficient of rat whole blood with a hematocrit of 40% increased from 0.26 Nepers mm{sup -1} at 30 MHz to 0.47 Nepers mm{sup -1} at 60 MHz. The maximum backscattering coefficients of both rat and porcine RBC suspensions were between 10% and 15% hematocrits at all frequencies. The fourth-power dependence of backscatter on frequency was approximately valid for rat RBC suspensions with hematocrits between 6% and 40%. However, the frequency dependence of the backscatter estimate deviates from a fourth-power law for porcine RBC suspension with hematocrit higher than 20%. The backscattering coefficient plateaued for hematocrits higher than 15% in porcine blood, but for rat blood it was

  3. Adropin levels and target organ damage secondary to high blood pressure in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulen, Bedia; Eken, Cenker; Kucukdagli, Okkes Taha; Serinken, Mustafa; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Kılıc, Elif; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-11-01

    High blood pressure is still a challenge for emergency physicians to discern the patients that require further analysis to establish the existence of acute hypertensive target organ damage (TOD). The present study aimed to reveal that adropin levels are useful for detecting TOD in patients presenting with high blood pressure. Patients presenting with a blood pressure of more than 180/110 mm Hg were enrolled into the study. After a resting period of 15 minutes, patients' blood pressures were measured thrice at 5-minute intervals while the patients were sitting on a chair, and the average of these measurements was accepted as the baseline value. Blood samples were obtained for either adropin levels or possible TOD during the emergency department admission. A total of 119 patients were included in the study. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of study patients were 204.8±23.2 and 108.3 ± 10.3, respectively, and 42% (n = 50) of the patients had TOD. Although the adropin levels were similar between the patients with or without TOD (TOD group = 195 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 178-201; no-TOD group = 196 pg/mL, IQR: 176-204 [P = .982]), it is significantly higher in normotensive patients (normotensive group = 289 pg/mL, IQR: 193-403) compared with the hypertensive ones (P high blood pressure to the emergency department. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of high blood pressure subtypes and its associations with BMI in Chinese children: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yide; Dong, Bin; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yanhui; Zou, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianguo; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-26

    Data on prevalence and characteristics of different high blood pressure subtypes are lacking among Chinese children. Regarding the mechanistic differences between isolated systolic high blood pressure and isolated diastolic high blood pressure and their different impact on end organ diseases, it is necessary to examine the prevalence of different high blood pressure subtypes in Chinese children and explore their associations with adiposity. Data were derived from the baseline data of a multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving participants from China. High blood pressure was defined according to age-, gender- and height-specific 95th percentile developed by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. Body mass index was used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of HBP was 10.2% and 8.9% for boys and girls, respectively. Isolated systolic high blood pressure is the dominant high blood pressure subtype among Chinese boys aged 6-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years, while isolated diastolic high blood pressure was the most common high blood pressure subtype in girls aged 6-11 years. In boys, the status of overweight doubled the risk of isolated systolic high blood pressure (95% CI, 1.73, 2.31; P high blood pressure and adiposity. The distribution of high blood pressure subtypes in boys differed from those in girls, and boys with adiposity showed a higher risk of high blood pressure than their female counterpart. Difference in strength of association between isolated diastolic high blood pressure and isolated systolic high blood pressure with body mass index was also found. These results may aid current strategies for preventing and controlling pediatric hypertension.

  5. [Effects of high intensity focused ultrasound with SonoVue on blood vessels pathological examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Bai, Jin; Li, Faqi; Wang, Zhibiao

    2010-12-01

    The injury of tumor blood vessels will break up the nutrition supply for the tumor. In this paper, we investigated the effects exerted by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with ultrasound microbubble agent on blood vessels. Ultrasound diagnosis was used to find the goat hepatic blood vessels each being approximately 3mm in diameter. HIFU was focused on the blood vessels. The acoustic power was 250W; HIFU irradiating Mode was line scan (the length of the line: 10 mm; speed: 3 mm/s; irradiating time: 30s). In the experimental group, 0.03 ml/kg SonoVue was injected into the goat before HIFU irradiation,while normal saline was given to the control group. The goats were killed at 24h after HIFU irradiation, then goat liver tissues and blood vessels of target area were taken out. HE staining and Victoria's blue and Ponceau's staining of tissue section showed that the endothelial cells of blood vessels dropped off and became necrosed, and the continuity of blood vessels was interrupted. HIFU combined with SonoVue will damage large blood vessels on HIFU focus, but there is no evident discrepancy between the group with SonoVue and the group without SonoVue.

  6. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  7. Association between anthropometry and high blood pressure in a representative sample of preschoolers in madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Redondo, Juliana; Fuster, Valentín; Peñalvo, José L

    2015-06-01

    Program SI! is a multi-level, school-based intervention for the promotion of cardiovascular health from early childhood. The aim of this paper is to characterize the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure in the preschoolers enrolled in the study, and to compare various criteria for classifying obesity. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 24 state schools in Madrid (Spain). Weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2011 children (1009 boys and 1002 girls) aged 3 to 5 years (3.7 [0.9]). Body mass index and blood pressure were classified by corresponding task force criteria. Obesity was studied by 6 different criteria. Associations of body mass index, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference on blood pressure were examined, and the risk of high blood pressure in relation to tertiles of body mass index was calculated. The prevalence of obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force varied from 2% at age 3 to 8% at age 5, and the overall prevalence of high blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile) was 20%. Sex- and age-specific criteria for obesity showed better agreement with the reference than a single generalized cutoff. The risk of high blood pressure was higher for the highest tertile of body mass index distribution. The highest prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure was found among older children. The classification of obesity in children was more accurate using sex- and age-specific cutoffs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Agonistic Striving in the Association Between Cortisol and High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Craig K; Elder, Gavin J; Jorgensen, Randall S; Fitzgerald, Sheila T

    2017-05-01

    A social action theory of chronic stress proposes that agonistic striving (seeking to influence or control others) impairs cardiovascular health by magnifying the impact of high adversity-induced cortisol levels on blood pressure. We tested three predictions of social action theory: (1) the social action theory taxonomy of regulatory strivings characterizes young adults from high-adversity neighborhoods; (2) high cortisol levels predict high blood pressure more reliably in the subgroup with the agonistic striving profile than in subgroups with other profiles; (3) the association of higher cortisol and higher blood pressure with agonistic striving is not explained by negative affect (depressive symptoms/dysphoria, anger, hostility). Participants were young adults (N = 198, mean [SD] age = 32 [3.4] years); 71% female; 65% black) from disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Motive profiles (including agonistic strivings) were assessed using the Social Competence Interview. Cortisol levels were derived from saliva samples; blood pressure level was obtained during two days of ambulatory monitoring. Psychological measures of negative affect were assessed using questionnaires. The predicted taxonomy of regulatory strivings was replicated in this sample; the interaction between cortisol and motive profile was significant (F(2, 91) = 6.72, p = .002); analyses of simple effects disclosed that higher cortisol levels predicted higher ambulatory blood pressure only in individuals who exhibited agonistic striving. Depressive symptoms/dysphoria, trait anger, and hostility were not correlated with agonistic striving, cortisol, or blood pressure. Agonistic striving may represent a distinctive (and novel) social-cognitive mechanism of toxic stress and cardiovascular risk.

  9. High fibrinogen in peripheral blood correlates with poorer hearing recovery in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kanzaki

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We used hearing tests and peripheral blood sample analyses to characterize the pathology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL and to identify possible prognostic factors for predicting recovery of hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, multicenter trial was conducted. METHODS: Two hundred three patients examined within 7 days after the onset of ISSNHL received prednisone with lipo-prostaglandin E1. Pure-tone auditory tests were performed before and after treatment with these drugs. Blood tests were performed on blood samples collected during the patients' initial visit to our clinic. RESULTS: In all patients, elevated white blood cell (WBC counts, fasting blood sugar levels, HgbA1c, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR significantly correlated with high hearing threshold measurements obtained on the initial visit. High fibrinogen levels, WBC counts, ESR, and low concentrations of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP were associated with lower hearing recovery rates. Additionally, different audiogram shapes correlated with different blood test factors, indicating that different pathologies were involved. CONCLUSIONS: High fibrinogen levels measured within seven days after ISSNHL onset correlated with poorer hearing recovery. This may be a consequence of ischemia or infections in the inner ear. The high WBC counts also observed may therefore reflect an immune response to inner ear damage induced by ischemic changes or infections. Our data indicate that therapeutic strategies should be selected based on the timing of initial treatment relative to ISSNHL onset.

  10. Guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology (SFORL). Epistaxis and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, J; Prulière Escabasse, V; Bequignon, E; Vérillaud, B; Robard, L; Crampette, L; Malard, O

    2017-02-01

    The authors present the guidelines of the French Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society (Société Française d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngologie et de Chirurgie de la Face et du Cou: SFORL) on epistaxis in high blood pressure. A multidisciplinary work group was entrusted with a review of the scientific literature on the above topic. Guidelines were drawn up, based on the articles retrieved and the group members' individual experience. They were then read over by an editorial group independent of the work group. The final version was established in a coordination meeting. The guidelines were graded as A, B, C or expert opinion, by decreasing level of evidence. It is recommended to measure the blood pressure of patients in acute-phase epistaxis (Grade A); to control high blood pressure medically in the acute phase of bleeding, to reduce its duration; to monitor blood pressure at the waning of nosebleed; and to control high blood pressure medically in the waning phase to reduce the risk of recurrence. In case of persistent high blood pressure on waning of severe epistaxis, it is recommended to prescribe cardiovascular evaluation to screen for underlying hypertensive disease (Grade B). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. High blood pressure: prevalence and adherence to guidelines in a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Diana; Curjuric, Ivan; Dratva, Julia; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Quinto, Carlos; Rochat, Thierry; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Burdet, Luc; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Pons, Marco; Gerbase, Margaret W; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure, the single leading health risk factor worldwide, contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to add to the understanding of diagnosed and undiagnosed high blood pressure in Switzerland and to evaluate adherence to hypertension guidelines. Included were 3962 participants from the first (2001-2003) and second (2010-2011) follow-ups of the population-based Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults. High blood pressure was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg and the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed hypertension was based on questionnaire information. High blood pressure was found in 34.9% of subjects, 49.1% of whom were unaware of this condition; 30.0% had doctor-diagnosed hypertension and, although 82.1% of these received drug treatments, in only 40.8% was blood pressure controlled (<140/90 mm Hg). Substantial first-line beta-blocker use and nonadherence to comorbidity-specific prescription guidelines were observed and remained mostly unexplained. Age-adjusted rates of unawareness and uncontrolled hypertension were more than 20% higher than in the USA. There is room for improvement in managing hypertension in Switzerland. Population-based observational studies are essential for identifying and evaluating unmet needs in healthcare; however, to pinpoint the underlying causes it is imperative to facilitate linkage of cohort data to medical records.

  12. PP033. High blood pressure in pregnancy: an indicator of future health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, J; Chiu, C L; Thornton, C; Lupton, S; O'Loughlin, A; Makris, A; Hennessy, A; Lind, J M; Korda, A; Ogle, R; Horvath, J

    2012-07-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) remain a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Australia approximately 10% of all pregnancies are affected by HDP. There is growing evidence that endothelial damage caused by HDP remains after pregnancy and has long term consequences on maternal health. The aim of our research was to determine the association between HDP and risk of having high blood pressure in later life. Self-reported data regarding a physician's diagnosis of HDP and of high blood pressure later in life were obtained from women recruited from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. Relative risks (converted from odds ratios) and 99% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and lifestyle characteristics. A total of 82,164 women were included in the study, of which 9,845 reported having HDP. Women who had HDP had a significantly increased risk of having high blood pressure later in life compared to women who did not have HDP (adjusted relative risk of 2.05, 99% CI 1.99-2.11, phigh blood pressure 6.3 years (99% CI 5.85-6.66, phigh blood pressure compared to women who have a healthy pregnancy. Women with HDP should be monitored closely in the years following pregnancy for early identification and intervention of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Blood Flow Restriction Exercise on Muscle Fatigue

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    Neto Gabriel R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Strength training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR have been used to improve the levels of muscle adaptation. The aim of this paper was to investigate the acute effect of high intensity squats with and without blood flow restriction on muscular fatigue levels. Twelve athletes (aged 25.95 ± 0.84 years were randomized into two groups: without Blood Flow Restriction (NFR, n = 6 and With Blood Flow Restriction (WFR, n = 6 that performed a series of free weight squats with 80% 1-RM until concentric failure. The strength of the quadriceps extensors was assessed in a maximum voluntary isometric contraction integrated to signals from the surface electromyogram. The average frequency showed significant reductions in the WFR group for the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles, and intergroup only for the vastus medialis. In conclusion, a set of squats at high intensity with BFR could compromise muscle strength immediately after exercise, however, differences were not significant between groups.

  14. Fluxo reverso no duto venoso: nova perspectiva na detecção de anomalias cromossômicas Reverse blood flow in ductus venosus: new perspective in detection of chromosomal abnormalities

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    Carlos Geraldo Viana Murta

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar o duto venoso mediante o emprego do Doppler colorido e pulsátil com a finalidade de rastrear anomalias cromossômicas entre a 10ª e 14ª semanas de gestação. Métodos: a Dopplerfluxometria referente ao duto venoso e a medida da translucência nucal (TN precederam a biopsia de vilo corial em 26 gestações. A suspeita de defeitos cromossômicos baseou-se nos seguintes critérios: fluxo ausente ou reverso durante a contração atrial no duto venoso e translucência nucal maior ou igual a 3 mm. Verificaram-se a sensibilidade, a especificidade, o valor preditivo positivo e o negativo para cada um dos itens acima. Resultados: ocorreram 9 casos de anomalias cromossômicas (3 trissomias do 21, 2 trissomias do 13, 1 trissomia do 9, 1 trissomia do 22, 1 triploidia e 1 monossomia do cromossomo X. Na totalidade dos casos o fluxo no duto venoso, durante a contração atrial, foi ausente (1 caso ou reverso (8 casos, com sensibilidade de 100%. No grupo de fetos normais (17 casos, a avaliação única apresentou alteração no Doppler (especificidade de 94%. Concernente à medida da TN, a sensibilidade e a especificidade foram de 88% e 76%, respectivamente. Conclusão: os resultados preliminares sugerem que a presença de anomalias cromossômicas pode ser fortemente suspeitada quando existir aumento da TN associado a fluxo ausente ou reverso no duto venoso durante a contração atrial. Especulamos que ambos os métodos sejam válidos no rastreamento dos defeitos cromossômicos.Purpose: to evaluate the possible value of pulsed and color Doppler of ductus venosus blood flow in the screening for chromosomal abnormalities at 10-14 weeks of gestation. Methods: the ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms and the nuchal translucency (NT thickness were obtained immediately before the chorionic villus sample in 26 pregnancies. We employed the following criteria for the suspicion of chromosomal defects: reverse or absent flow during atrial

  15. Prevalence, serologic and genetic studies of high expressers of the blood group A antigen on platelets*

    OpenAIRE

    Sant?Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; do Nascimento, E M

    2010-01-01

    Objective/Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). Background: A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. Material/Methods: A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although m...

  16. Prevalence and control of high blood pressure in primary care: results from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study (GEMCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Bramlage, Peter; Lösch, Christian; Zemmrich, Claudia; Humphries, Karin H; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiological data on blood pressure readings, hypertension prevalence and control in unselected patient populations covering a broad age range are scarce. The aim here is to report the prevalence of high blood pressure and to identify factors associated with blood pressure control in a large German primary care sample. We used data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study including 35 869 patients aged 18-99 years. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or using antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with blood pressure control among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy were examined using multiple logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of high blood pressure, uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated high blood pressure was 54.8%, 21.3% and 17.6%, respectively. Age >50 years (1.52; 1.40-1.65), male sex (1.30; 1.20-1.41), elevated waist circumference (1.55; 1.45-1.65), high cholesterol (1.24; 1.16-1.33), high triglycerides (1.11; 1.04-1.19) and concomitant diabetes (1.29; 1.20-1.40) were independently associated with uncontrolled high blood pressure. In a majority of patients we observed hypertension despite treatment for high blood pressures. Studies examining the reasons for treatment failure are highly warranted.

  17. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A portable system for processing donated whole blood into high quality components without centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sean C; Strachan, Briony C; Xia, Hui; Vörös, Eszter; Torabian, Kian; Tomasino, Taylor A; Griffin, Gary D; Lichtiger, Benjamin; Aung, Fleur M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2018-01-01

    The use of centrifugation-based approaches for processing donated blood into components is routine in the industrialized world, as disparate storage conditions require the rapid separation of 'whole blood' into distinct red blood cell (RBC), platelet, and plasma products. However, the logistical complications and potential cellular damage associated with centrifugation/apheresis manufacturing of blood products are well documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proof-of-concept system for whole blood processing, which does not employ electromechanical parts, is easily portable, and can be operated immediately after donation with minimal human labor. In a split-unit study (n = 6), full (~500mL) units of freshly-donated whole blood were divided, with one half processed by conventional centrifugation techniques and the other with the new blood separation system. Each of these processes took 2-3 hours to complete and were performed in parallel. Blood products generated by the two approaches were compared using an extensive panel of cellular and plasma quality metrics. Comparison of nearly all RBC parameters showed no significant differences between the two approaches, although the portable system generated RBC units with a slight but statistically significant improvement in 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid concentration (p centrifugation: the increase in platelet activation (assessed via P-selectin expression in platelets before and after blood processing) was nearly 4-fold higher for platelet units produced via centrifugation, and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (soluble CD40-ligand, thromboxane B2) was significantly higher for centrifuged platelets as well (p blood into components may be a viable alternative to centrifugation-particularly for applications in remote or resource-limited settings, or for patients requiring highly functional platelet product.

  19. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  20. Characterising the extent of misreporting of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes using the Australian Health Survey

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    Karen Louise Peterson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring and monitoring the true prevalence of risk factors for chronic conditions is essential for evidence-based policy and health service planning. Understanding the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Australia relies heavily on self-report measures from surveys, such as the triennial National Health Survey. However, international evidence suggests that self-reported data may substantially underestimate actual risk factor prevalence. This study sought to characterise the extent of misreporting in a large, nationally-representative health survey that included objective measures of clinical risk factors for CVD. Methods This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of 7269 adults aged 18 years and over who provided fasting blood samples as part of the 2011–12 Australian Health Survey. Self-reported prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes was compared to measured prevalence, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified socio-demographic characteristics associated with underreporting for each risk factor. Results Approximately 16 % of the total sample underreported high blood pressure (measured to be at high risk but didn’t report a diagnosis, 33 % underreported high cholesterol, and 1.3 % underreported diabetes. Among those measured to be at high risk, 68 % did not report a diagnosis for high blood pressure, nor did 89 % of people with high cholesterol and 29 % of people with high fasting plasma glucose. Younger age was associated with underreporting high blood pressure and high cholesterol, while lower area-level disadvantage and higher income were associated with underreporting diabetes. Conclusions Underreporting has important implications for CVD risk factor surveillance, policy planning and decisions, and clinical best-practice guidelines. This analysis highlights concerns about the reach of primary prevention efforts in certain

  1. Characterising the extent of misreporting of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes using the Australian Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Karen Louise; Jacobs, Jane Philippa; Allender, Steven; Alston, Laura Veronica; Nichols, Melanie

    2016-08-02

    Measuring and monitoring the true prevalence of risk factors for chronic conditions is essential for evidence-based policy and health service planning. Understanding the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia relies heavily on self-report measures from surveys, such as the triennial National Health Survey. However, international evidence suggests that self-reported data may substantially underestimate actual risk factor prevalence. This study sought to characterise the extent of misreporting in a large, nationally-representative health survey that included objective measures of clinical risk factors for CVD. This study employed a cross-sectional analysis of 7269 adults aged 18 years and over who provided fasting blood samples as part of the 2011-12 Australian Health Survey. Self-reported prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes was compared to measured prevalence, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified socio-demographic characteristics associated with underreporting for each risk factor. Approximately 16 % of the total sample underreported high blood pressure (measured to be at high risk but didn't report a diagnosis), 33 % underreported high cholesterol, and 1.3 % underreported diabetes. Among those measured to be at high risk, 68 % did not report a diagnosis for high blood pressure, nor did 89 % of people with high cholesterol and 29 % of people with high fasting plasma glucose. Younger age was associated with underreporting high blood pressure and high cholesterol, while lower area-level disadvantage and higher income were associated with underreporting diabetes. Underreporting has important implications for CVD risk factor surveillance, policy planning and decisions, and clinical best-practice guidelines. This analysis highlights concerns about the reach of primary prevention efforts in certain groups and implications for patients who may be unaware of their

  2. Income inequality and high blood pressure in Colombia: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucumi, Diego I; Schulz, Amy J; Roux, Ana V Diez; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-11-21

    The objective of this research was to examine the association between income inequality and high blood pressure in Colombia. Using a nationally representative Colombian sample of adults, and data from departments and municipalities, we fit sex-stratified linear and logistic multilevel models with blood pressure as a continuous and binary variable, respectively. In adjusted models, women living in departments with the highest quintile of income inequality in 1997 had higher systolic blood pressure than their counterparts living in the lowest quintile of income inequality (mean difference 4.42mmHg; 95%CI: 1.46, 7.39). Women living in departments that were at the fourth and fifth quintile of income inequality in 1994 were more likely to have hypertension than those living in departments at the first quintile in the same year (OR: 1.56 and 1.48, respectively). For men, no associations of income inequality with either systolic blood pressure or hypertension were observed. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that income inequality is associated with increased risk of high blood pressure for women. Future studies to analyze pathways linking income inequality to high blood pressure in Colombia are needed.

  3. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; Zhu, Xiangzhu; Li, Haiming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shi, Haiming; Zhang, Ming-zhi; Harris, Raymond C; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Dai, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is complicated. Clinical trials found intense blood pressure control was not associated with alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in all patients but did slow the rate of GFR decline among those with a higher baseline proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the association between high blood pressure and renal function is modified by albuminuria status by conducting analyses in a cross-sectional study with 12,440 adult participants without known kidney diseases, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006. 1226 out of 12440 were found to have unknown high blood pressure and 4494 were found to have reduced renal function. Overall, a moderate association was found between high blood pressure and renal function insufficiency in all participants analyzed. However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed hypertensive subjects (1.43%, 3.44%, 10.96%, respectively, P for trendhigh blood pressure and reduced renal function could be dependent upon the albuminuria status. This finding may provide a possible explanation for results observed in clinical trials of intensive blood pressure control. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  4. [Effect of improper diets on blood viscosity in SD rats in high-salt and fat diet and alcohol abuse simulation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan-dan; Gao, Jian-li; Chen, Su-hong; Tang, Qi-jing; Zhu, En-wei; Lv, Gui-yuan

    2015-04-01

    -1 of HSFA rats significantly increased, but with decreases in NO and PGI2. Long-term high salt & fat and alcohol diets can cause abnormal blood viscosity in rats. WBV significantly increased since the 5th week in rats, and PV increased since the 8th week. The mechanism for increasing BV may be: (1) increases in RBC, HCT, and IECa2+, (2) PAgT increase, (3) Fb content increase, or (4) TXA2/PGI2, ET-1/NO imbalance. Although the modeling time with the method is longer than that with the HMD method, the model is more stable and moderate, and could lead to abnormal increases in WBV and PV; Whereas the HMD method only induced transient increase in plasma viscosity and abnormal increase in SBP. The model is more similar to traditional Chinese medicine syndromes and pathogenesis, with higher value for studies on efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines.

  5. Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 2003–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Grace A.; Datta, S. Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A.; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Methods A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. Results In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. Conclusions We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer. PMID:21553660

  6. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native women, 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, Grace A; Datta, S Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES; We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer.

  7. High prevalence and associated risk factors for impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in a rural adult population from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD has increased and will continue to rise worldwide. However, data regarding the prevalence of CKD in a rural area of China are limited. We therefore investigated the prevalence and associated risk factors of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in an adult rural population in southern China. METHODS: Between December 2006 and January 2007, residents older than 20 years from four villages in Zhuhai city were randomly selected using a stratified, multistage sampling technique. All participants were interviewed and tested for hematuria, albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. The associations between age, gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperuricemia, education level and indicators of renal damage were examined. RESULTS: Overall, 1,214 subjects were enrolled in this study. After adjustment for age and gender, the prevalence of albuminuria was 7.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 8.1, reduced eGFR was 2.6% (95% CI: 1.7%, 3.3%, and hematuria was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.0%. Approximately 13.6% (95% CI: 12.0%, 15.1% of the patients had at least one indicator of renal damage, but only 8.3% were previously aware. Age, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, use of nephrotoxic medications, coronary heart disease and history of CKD were independently associated with impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities. Additionally, age, diabetes, and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Age, hypertension, hyperuricemia, central obesity, and coronary heart disease were independently associated with reduced renal function. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence and low awareness of impaired renal function and urinary abnormalities in this population illustrates the urgent need to implement a CKD prevention program in the rural areas of southern China.

  8. Severe obesity and high blood pressure among children, Philadelphia health centers, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John V; Robbins, Jessica M; Houck, Kevin L; Nobis, Elizabeth A; Inman, Katelyn A; Khan, Khudsiya S; Robbins, Susan W

    2014-04-01

    Child obesity is a major health problem particularly affecting disadvantaged population groups. Severe obesity carries additional health risks for children. In the context of the childhood obesity epidemic, high blood pressure among children is of increasing concern. Chart reviews were carried out to examine the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with high blood pressure measurements among randomly selected patients aged 3 to 17 years who had well-child care visits at 8 public community health centers during 2010. A majority of the 691 patients reviewed were African American (58%); an additional 16% were Hispanic. The prevalence of severe obesity was 7.7% (95% confidence interval = 5.8% to 9.9%) and the prevalence of high blood pressure measurements was 17.5% (95% confidence interval = 14.8% to 20.6%). Patients who were severely obese were more than twice as likely as other children to have high blood pressure values. Severe obesity is associated with substantially increased frequency of high blood pressure measurements in children, and should be investigated further as a potential marker for hypertension in children. Primary care providers should be prepared to diagnose and treat hypertension in severely obese children.

  9. Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Fikru; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2009-08-23

    The prevention and control of high blood pressure or other cardiovascular diseases has not received due attention in many developing countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, so as to inform policy and lay the ground for surveillance interventions. Addis Ababa is the largest urban centre and national capital of Ethiopia, hosting about 25% of the urban population in the country. A probabilistic sample of adult males and females, 25-64 years of age residing in Addis Ababa city participated in structured interviews and physical measurements. We employed a population based, cross sectional survey, using the World Health Organization instrument for stepwise surveillance (STEPS) of chronic disease risk factors. Data on selected socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, as well as physical measurements such as weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were collected through standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficient of variability of blood pressure due to selected socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and physical measurements. A total of 3713 adults participated in the study. About 20% of males and 38% of females were overweight (body-mass-index > or = 25 kg/m2), with 10.8 (9.49, 12.11)% of the females being obese (body-mass-index > or = 30 kg/m2). Similarly, 17% of the males and 31% of the females were classified as having low level of total physical activity. The age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) of high blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mmHg or reported use of anti-hypertensive medication, was 31.5% (29.0, 33.9) among males and 28.9% (26.8, 30.9) among females. High blood pressure is widely prevalent in Addis Ababa and may represent a silent

  10. The number of visits and blood pressure measurements influence the prevalence of high blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciano Machado Ferreira Tenório; da Silva, Alison Oliveira; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Farah, Breno Quintella; Pirauá, André Luiz Torres; de Lima Neto, Antônio José; Feitosa, Wallacy Milton do Nascimento; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the number of visits and the number of blood pressure (BP) measurements on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study with 481 adolescents (14-19 years old) selected using a random cluster sampling strategy. We measured the BP three times in a first visit. Adolescents with HBP performed subsequent visits. The final calculation of BP followed four strategies: the 1st measure, mean of 1st and 2nd measurements, mean of all three measurements, and averaging the 2nd and 3rd measurements. The prevalence of HBP in the first and second visits was 6.4% and 1.9%, and the prevalence of hypertension (after three visits) was 1.7%. The prevalence of HBP varied from 8.6%-18.6% for boys and 4.6%-9.2% for girls, using the average 2nd and 3rd measurements and the 1st measurement, respectively. In all strategies, HBP and hypertension were more prevalent in boys and students attending the nocturnal shift. The number of visits and number of measurements affect the prevalence of HBP and hypertension in adolescents. Thus, clinicians and researchers should consider these aspects when assessing BP in adolescents aged 14-19 years old. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A motivational interview promotes retention of blood donors with high internal motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M; Slepian, P Maxwell; Ankawi, Brett; Livitz, Irina E; Fox, Kristen R

    2017-10-01

    Based on the hypothesis that self-determined motivation is associated with an increased likelihood of future behavior, the present study examined the ability of a motivational interview to promote internal motivation for giving blood and future donation attempts. A sample of 484 recent whole-blood and double red blood cell donors (62.4% female; age = 30.2 ± 11.8 years) were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered motivational interview or a control call approximately 6 weeks after donating. Several weeks before the call and again 1 week after the call, participants completed the Blood Donor Identity Survey, a multidimensional measure of donor motivation, to derive indices of amotivation, external motivation, and internal motivation to give blood. Repeat donation attempts were tracked using blood center records. Relative to controls, participants in the motivational interview group showed a shift toward more self-determined motivation, as indicated by significant decreases in amotivation (p = 0.01) and significant increases in external (p = 0.009) and internal (p = 0.002) motivation. Furthermore, those with initially high levels of autonomous motivation were more likely to make a donation attempt in the subsequent year if they completed the motivational interview (71.1%) versus the control call (55.1%). Motivational interviewing is a potentially useful strategy to enhance retention of existing blood donors, particularly among those who express a greater sense of internal motivation for giving. © 2017 AABB.

  12. A rapid, highly sensitive and culture-free detection of pathogens from blood by positive enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, Manjula Ramya; Sharma, Divya Khandige; Ragavendar, M S; Schmolke, Susanne; Huang, Yiwei; Gumbrecht, Walter; Mitra, Nivedita

    2016-12-01

    Molecular diagnostics is a promising alternative to culture based methods for the detection of bloodstream infections, notably due to its overall lower turnaround time when starting directly from patient samples. Whole blood is usually the starting diagnostic sample in suspected bloodstream infections. The detection of low concentrations of pathogens in blood using a molecular assay necessitates a fairly high starting volume of blood sample in the range of 5-10mL. This large volume of blood sample has a substantial accompanying human genomic content that interferes with pathogen detection. In this study, we have established a workflow using magnetic beads coated with Apolipoprotein H that makes it possible to concentrate pathogens from a 5.0mL whole blood sample, thereby enriching pathogens from whole blood background and also reducing the sample volume to ~200μL or less. We have also demonstrated that this method of enrichment allows detection of 1CFU/mL of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus gallinarum and Candida tropicalis from 5mL blood using quantitative PCR; a detection limit that is not possible in unenriched samples. The enrichment method demonstrated here took 30min to complete and can be easily integrated with various downstream molecular and microbiological techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PulseCam: high-resolution blood perfusion imaging using a camera and a pulse oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mayank; Suliburk, James; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Sabharwal, Ashutosh

    2016-08-01

    Measuring blood perfusion is important in medical care as an indicator of injury and disease. However, currently available devices to measure blood perfusion like laser Doppler flowmetry are bulky, expensive, and cumbersome to use. An alternative low-cost and portable camera-based blood perfusion measurement system has recently been proposed, but such camera-only system produces noisy low-resolution blood perfusion maps. In this paper, we propose a new multi-sensor modality, named PulseCam, for measuring blood perfusion by combining a traditional pulse oximeter with a video camera in a unique way to provide low noise and high-resolution blood perfusion maps. Our proposed multi-sensor modality improves per pixel signal to noise ratio of measured perfusion map by up to 3 dB and improves the spatial resolution by 2 - 3 times compared to best known camera-only methods. Blood perfusion measured in the palm using our PulseCam setup during a post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) test replicates standard PORH response curve measured using laser Doppler flowmetry device but with much lower cost and a portable setup making it suitable for further development as a clinical device.

  14. Phytotherapy of High Blood Pressure in Three Phytogeographic Regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabang, Nole; Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    High blood pressure is a public health challenge worldwide. According to World Health Organization, 30% of men and 50% of women 65 to 75 years old are suffering from high blood pressure. The number of hypertensive patients in the world will attain 1.56 billion of people, with 60% increase in prevalence. The incidence of high blood pressure increases with age, but nowadays, is being noticed an increasing incidence in young people. The socio-cultural medicine may provide new solutions in the management of this pathology. Therefore this study was carried out to record and document plants used against high blood pressure in socio-cultural medicine for future drugs discovery worldwide. An ethno botanical survey was realized between 2002 and 2016 to identify manifold plants used to fight against high blood pressure. This survey was carried out in three phytogeographic regions of Cameroon. Amongst people living in those regions, 1131 randomly screened interviewees distributed in 58 socio-cultural groups were involved in this study. This survey reveals that about 70% of interviewees don't know high blood pressure which is a symptomless disease. A total of 28 species of plants were recorded. These plants belong to 25 genera and 24 families. They were used to prepare 28 herbal remedies for the treatment of high blood pressure. In the morphological point of view about 10/28 (36%) plants are herbs; 9/28 (32%) plants are trees and 9/28 (32%) plants are shrubs. Only 3/28 plants (11%) used including Allium sativum, Aloe barteri and Aloe buttneri) are cultivated. This means that the plants used in this study don't usually have some form of protection through cultivation which is encouraging in terms of their conservation. The uncontrolled use of a hypotensive plants can provoke a fatal hypotension in hypertensive patients. Therefore the use of hypotensive plants needs to be controlled by physician or by a patient verification using a blood pressure monitor. Recorded species which

  15. Diagnostic performance of a stand-alone central blood pressure monitor: application of central blood pressure in the diagnosis of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao-Min; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Pearson, Alan; Tufanaru, Catalin; White, Sarahlouise; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2014-03-01

    Oscillometric central blood pressure (CBP) monitors have emerged as a new technology for blood pressure (BP) measurements. With a newly proposed diagnostic threshold for CBP, we investigated the diagnostic performance of a novel CBP monitor. We recruited a consecutive series of 138 subjects (aged 30-93 years) without previous use of antihypertensive agents for simultaneous invasive and noninvasive measurements of BP in a catheterization laboratory. With the cutoff (CBP ≥130/90 mm Hg) for high blood pressure (HBP), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the novel CBP monitor were calculated with reference to the measured CBP. In comparison, the diagnostic performance of the conventional cuff BP was also evaluated. The noninvasive CBP for detecting HBP in a sample with a prevalence of 52% showed a sensitivity of 93% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 91-95), specificity of 95% (95% CI = 94-97), PPV of 96% (95% CI = 94-97), and NPV of 93% (95% CI = 90-95). In contrast, with cuff BP and the traditional HBP criterion (cuff BP ≥140/90 mm Hg), the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 49% (95% CI = 44-53), 94% (95% CI = 92-96), 90% (95% CI = 86-93), and 63% (95% CI 59-66), respectively. A stand-alone oscillometric CBP monitor may provide CBP values with acceptable diagnostic accuracy. However, with reference to invasively measured CBP, cuff BP had low sensitivity and NPV, which could render possible management inaccessible to a considerable proportion of HBP patients, who may be identifiable through noninvasive CBP measurements from the CBP monitor.

  16. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone, and pyrimethamine in filter paper blood spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Lemnge, M M; Angelo, H R

    1995-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone (DDS), the major metabolite of DDS, monoacetyldapsone (MADDS), and pyrimethamine (PYR) was modified for capillary blood samples obtained by finger prick and dried on filter paper. Limit of quantitation using...... 150 microliters whole blood dried on filter paper was found to be 20 ng/ml for DDS and PYR and 15 ng/ml for MADDS (precision filter...... paper method and the original whole-blood method was almost comparable. Standardization could therefore be obtained by the more simple whole-blood method. Dried filter paper samples stored at 19-22 degrees C were stable for months and for 2 weeks stored at 35 degrees C. The concentrations...

  17. The sensitivity of waist-to-height ratio in identifying children with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswagole, B S; Kruger, H S; Faber, M; van Rooyen, J M; de Ridder, J H

    2011-01-01

    We determined the sensitivity of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as a marker for high blood pressure in children aged nine to 15 years (n = 1 131), from schools in the North West province, South Africa. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were taken. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHtR to identify children with high blood pressure were evaluated. At a cut-off value of 0.5, 7.9% of the girls and 3.4% of the boys had central adiposity. Thirteen per cent of the children were hypertensive. The optimal WHtR cut-off value to identify children with hypertension was 0.41 in both boys and girls. Positive correlations were observed between anthropometric indices. Using linear regression analyses, age and body mass index were significant predictors of high blood pressure in boys, while for girls it was height and weight. Results suggest that adopting a WHtR cut-off value high blood pressure in children.

  18. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of which 71 819 were included. These women had given birth between the ages of 18 and 45 years, had an intact uterus and ovaries, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to their first pregnancy. HDP was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure (high blood pressure (45.6 vs 54.8 years, phigh blood pressure, compared with women who were normotensive during pregnancy (high blood pressure (<58 years: 12.48, 10.63 to 14.66; p<0.001 and ≥58 years, 5.16, 4.54 to 5.86; p<0.001), compared with healthy weight women with a normotensive pregnancy. HDP is an independent risk factor for future CVD, and this risk is further exacerbated by the presence of overweight or obesity in later life.

  19. Gene trap mutation of murine Outer dense fiber protein-2 gene can result in sperm tail abnormalities in mice with high percentage chimaerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oko Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outer dense fiber protein 2, Odf2, is a major component of the outer dense fibers, ODF, in the flagellum of spermatozoa. ODF are associated with microtubule doublets that form the axoneme. We recently demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of Odf2 is important for sperm motility. In the course of a study of Odf2 using Odf2 mouse knockout lines we observed that males of a high percentage chimaerism, made using XL169 embryonic stem cells, were infertile, whereas mice of low-medium percentage chimaerism were fertile. Results XL169 ES cells have a β-geo gene trap cassette inserted in the Odf2 gene. To determine possible underlying mechanisms resulting in infertility we analyzed epididymal sperm and observed that >50% displayed bent tails. We next performed ultrastructural analyses on testis of high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice. This analysis showed that high percentage XL169 chimaeric mice produce elongating spermatids that miss one or more entire outer dense fibers in their midpiece and principal piece. In addition, we observed elongating spermatids that show thinning of outer dense fibers. No other obvious abnormalities or defects are present in elongating spermatids. Spermatozoa from the caput and cauda epididymis of XL169 mice of high percentage chimaerism show additional tail defects, including absence of one or more axonemal microtubule doublets and bent tails. Sperm with bent tails display abnormal motility. Conclusions Our results document the possible impact of loss of one Odf2 allele on sperm tail structure and function, resulting in a novel sperm tail phenotype.

  20. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    . Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow......The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level...

  1. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake.

  2. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  3. High blood oxygen affinity in the air-breathing swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Findorf, Inge; Helbo, Signe; Kocagoz, Yigit; Buchanan, Rasmus; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2014-12-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus, Zuiew 1793) is a facultative air-breathing fish with reduced gills. Previous studies have shown that gas exchange seems to occur across the epithelium of the buccopharyngeal cavity, the esophagus and the integument, resulting in substantial diffusion limitations that must be compensated by adaptations in others steps of the O₂ transport system to secure adequate O₂ delivery to the respiring tissues. We therefore investigated O₂ binding properties of whole blood, stripped hemoglobin (Hb), two major isoHb components and the myoglobin (Mb) from M. albus. Whole blood was sampled using indwelling catheters for blood gas analysis and determination of O₂ equilibrium curves. Hb was purified to assess the effects of endogenous allosteric effectors, and Mb was isolated from heart and skeletal muscle to determine its O₂ binding properties. The blood of M. albus has a high O₂ carrying capacity [hematocrit (Hct) of 42.4±4.5%] and binds O₂ with an unusually high affinity (P₅₀=2.8±0.4mmHg at 27°C and pH7.7), correlating with insensitivity of the Hb to the anionic allosteric effectors that normally decrease Hb-O₂ affinity. In addition, Mb is present at high concentrations in both heart and muscle (5.16±0.99 and 1.08±0.19mg ∙ g wet tissue⁻¹, respectively). We suggest that the high Hct and high blood O₂ affinity serve to overcome the low diffusion capacity in the relatively inefficient respiratory surfaces, while high Hct and Mb concentration aid in increasing the O₂ flux from the blood to the muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  5. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendrik, Adrienne M; Van Ginneken, Bram; Viergever, Max A; Vonken, Evert-jan; De Jong, Hugo W; Riordan, Alan; Van Seeters, Tom; Smit, Ewoud J; Prokop, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of x-ray radiation that can be used per sequential scan is limited, which results in a high level of noise. To detect areas of abnormal perfusion, perfusion parameters are derived from the CTP data, such as the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Algorithms to determine perfusion parameters, especially singular value decomposition, are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, noise reduction is an important preprocessing step for CTP analysis. In this paper, we propose a time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) bilateral filter to reduce noise in 4D CTP scans, while preserving the time-intensity profiles (fourth dimension) that are essential for determining the perfusion parameters. The proposed TIPS bilateral filter is compared to standard Gaussian filtering, and 4D and 3D (applied separately to each sequential scan) bilateral filtering on both phantom and patient data. Results on the phantom data show that the TIPS bilateral filter is best able to approach the ground truth (noise-free phantom), compared to the other filtering methods (lowest root mean square error). An observer study is performed using CBF maps derived from fifteen CTP scans of acute stroke patients filtered with standard Gaussian, 3D, 4D and TIPS bilateral filtering. These CBF maps were blindly presented to two observers that indicated which map they preferred for (1) gray/white matter differentiation, (2) detectability of infarcted area and (3) overall image quality. Based on these results, the TIPS bilateral filter ranked best and its CBF maps were scored to have the best overall image quality in 100% of the cases by both observers. Furthermore, quantitative CBF and cerebral blood volume values in both the phantom and the

  6. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendrik, Adrienne M; Van Ginneken, Bram; Viergever, Max A [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Vonken, Evert-jan; De Jong, Hugo W; Riordan, Alan; Van Seeters, Tom; Smit, Ewoud J; Prokop, Mathias, E-mail: a.m.mendrik@gmail.com [Radiology Department, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-07-07

    Cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of x-ray radiation that can be used per sequential scan is limited, which results in a high level of noise. To detect areas of abnormal perfusion, perfusion parameters are derived from the CTP data, such as the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Algorithms to determine perfusion parameters, especially singular value decomposition, are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, noise reduction is an important preprocessing step for CTP analysis. In this paper, we propose a time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) bilateral filter to reduce noise in 4D CTP scans, while preserving the time-intensity profiles (fourth dimension) that are essential for determining the perfusion parameters. The proposed TIPS bilateral filter is compared to standard Gaussian filtering, and 4D and 3D (applied separately to each sequential scan) bilateral filtering on both phantom and patient data. Results on the phantom data show that the TIPS bilateral filter is best able to approach the ground truth (noise-free phantom), compared to the other filtering methods (lowest root mean square error). An observer study is performed using CBF maps derived from fifteen CTP scans of acute stroke patients filtered with standard Gaussian, 3D, 4D and TIPS bilateral filtering. These CBF maps were blindly presented to two observers that indicated which map they preferred for (1) gray/white matter differentiation, (2) detectability of infarcted area and (3) overall image quality. Based on these results, the TIPS bilateral filter ranked best and its CBF maps were scored to have the best overall image quality in 100% of the cases by both observers. Furthermore, quantitative CBF and cerebral blood volume values in both the phantom and the

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  10. Abnormal pain processing in chronic tension-type headache: a high-density EEG brain mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchgreitz, L.; Egsgaard, L.L.; Jensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Central sensitization caused by prolonged nociceptive input from muscles is considered to play an important role for chronification of tension-type headache. In the present study we used a new high-density EEG brain mapping technique to investigate spatiotemporal aspects of brain activity...

  11. Persistent abnormalities in lymphoid tissues of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schacker, Timothy W.; Nguyen, Phuong L.; Martinez, Esteban; Reilly, Cavan; Gatell, Jose M.; Horban, Andrzej; Bakowska, Elzbieta; Berzins, Baiba; van Leeuwen, Remko; Wolinsky, Steven; Haase, Ashley T.; Murphy, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with virus suppression and immune reconstitution. However, in some patients, this reconstitution is partial or incomplete because CD4(+) cell counts do not increase significantly. This may be

  12. Genetic Predisposition to High Blood Pressure and Lifestyle Factors: Associations With Midlife Blood Pressure Levels and Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Raha; Dehghan, Abbas; Evangelou, Evangelos; Warren, Helen; Gao, He; Caulfield, Mark; Elliott, Paul; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2018-02-13

    High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both heritable and lifestyle risk factors contribute to elevated BP levels. We aimed to investigate the extent to which lifestyle factors could offset the effect of an adverse BP genetic profile and its effect on CVD risk. We constructed a genetic risk score for high BP by using 314 published BP loci in 277 005 individuals without previous CVD from the UK Biobank study, a prospective cohort of individuals aged 40 to 69 years, with a median of 6.11 years of follow-up. We scored participants according to their lifestyle factors including body mass index, healthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption, smoking, and urinary sodium excretion levels measured at recruitment. We examined the association between tertiles of genetic risk and tertiles of lifestyle score with BP levels and incident CVD by using linear regression and Cox regression models, respectively. Healthy lifestyle score was strongly associated with BP ( P genetic predisposition to high BP for risk stratification needs careful evaluation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  14. Awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control in a rural community in Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuemu, V O; Okojie, O H; Omuemu, C E

    2007-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Udo, a rural community in Ovia South-west LGA of Edo State to assess the level of awareness of high blood pressure status, treatment and control. Cluster sampling method was used to select participants and data collection was by researcher administered questionnaire. Blood pressure measurement was by standardized method. A total of 590 respondents with mean age 30.7 +/- 14.6 years participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension was 20.2% using the WHO/ISH criteria of SBP > or = 140 mmHg and/or DBP > or = 90 mmHg. Twenty two (18.5%) of the hypertensives were aware of their high blood pressure status. Awareness was higher in females, increased with age and decreased with higher educational status. Of those aware of their condition, 77.3% were on treatment and ofthese, 29.4% had adequate blood pressure control. This study has revealed a low level of awareness of high blood pressure status and control in this rural community. Therefore, there is urgent need for regular community-based hypertension screening programmes.

  15. Effects of high-bran bread on blood glucose control in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, C; Hallmans, G; Lithner, F

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine whether rye bran, baked into crisp bread (high-bran bread), would affect the blood glucose levels and insulin requirements in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The high-bran bread was compared with a low-bran bread (series I) and with the usual bread in the patients' diet (series II). The low-bran bread contained 5% dietary fiber, the high-bran bread 18% and the usual bread in the patient's diet 4% as a mean (enzymatic method). In series I five women consumed the low-bran bread for two weeks and then changed to the high-bran bread for four weeks. In series II two men and five women consumed their usual bread during a control period of two weeks and high-bran during the following two weeks. The insulin doses were reduced or the blood glucose concentrations were lowered during the high-bran bread periods.

  16. Methodological modifications on quantification of phosphatidylethanol in blood from humans abusing alcohol, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradottir Steina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylethanol (PEth is an abnormal phospholipid formed slowly in cell membranes by a transphosphatidylation reaction from phosphatidylcholine in the presence of ethanol and catalyzed by the enzyme phospholipase D. PEth in blood is a promising new marker of ethanol abuse depending on the high specificity and sensitivity of this marker. None of the biological markers used in clinical routine at the present time are sensitive and specific enough for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse. The method for PEth analysis includes lipid extraction of whole blood, a one-hour HPLC separation of lipids and ELSD (evaporative light scattering detection of PEth. Results Methodological improvements are presented which comprise a simpler extraction procedure, the use of phosphatidylbutanol as internal standard and a new algorithm for evaluation of unknown samples. It is further demonstrated that equal test results are obtained with blood collected in standard test tubes with EDTA as with the previously used heparinized test tubes. The PEth content in blood samples is stable for three weeks in the refrigerator. Conclusion Methodological changes make the method more suitable for routine laboratory use, lower the limit of quantification (LOQ and improve precision.

  17. A lab-on-CD prototype for high-speed blood separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinlong; Liu Mei; Yang Jun; Guo Qiuquan

    2008-01-01

    Blood separation is the first step for subsequent blood tests in clinical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip technology provides an automatic, cost-effective and fast solution for a wide variety of blood analyses. The objective of this work is to design a new lab-on-CD microstructure capable of separating blood cells from the whole blood into different reservoirs directly. A CD platform including a microchannel network consisting of a straight main microchannel, a curved microchannel and a branching microchannel has been proposed. The merits of this design are its simple structure, less operating time and high separation efficiency because it utilizes multiple separation mechanisms, for instance, two centrifugal forces and Coriolis force. One centrifugal force is due to the system rotation; the other centrifugal force is due to the curvature of the specifically designed curved channel. In this work, systematical evaluation on the functionality and performance of such a design has been done. Ninety-nine per cent separation efficiency is achieved for diluted blood of 6% hematocrit

  18. A lab-on-CD prototype for high-speed blood separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlong; Guo, Qiuquan; Liu, Mei; Yang, Jun

    2008-12-01

    Blood separation is the first step for subsequent blood tests in clinical diagnosis. Lab-on-a-chip technology provides an automatic, cost-effective and fast solution for a wide variety of blood analyses. The objective of this work is to design a new lab-on-CD microstructure capable of separating blood cells from the whole blood into different reservoirs directly. A CD platform including a microchannel network consisting of a straight main microchannel, a curved microchannel and a branching microchannel has been proposed. The merits of this design are its simple structure, less operating time and high separation efficiency because it utilizes multiple separation mechanisms, for instance, two centrifugal forces and Coriolis force. One centrifugal force is due to the system rotation; the other centrifugal force is due to the curvature of the specifically designed curved channel. In this work, systematical evaluation on the functionality and performance of such a design has been done. Ninety-nine per cent separation efficiency is achieved for diluted blood of 6% hematocrit.

  19. High Maternal Blood Mercury Level Is Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Shin, Jiyoung; Hong, Yun Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of IQ in children with maternal blood mercury concentration during late pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 553 children whose mothers underwent testing for blood mercury during late pregnancy. The children were given the Korean language version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R) at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to assess the relationship between verbal, performance, and total IQ in children and blood mercury concentration of mothers during late pregnancy. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that a doubling of blood mercury was associated with the decrease in verbal and total IQ by 2.482 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.749-4.214) and 2.402 (95% CI, 0.526-4.279), respectively, after adjustment. This inverse association remained after further adjustment for blood lead concentration. Fish intake is an effect modifier of child IQ. In conclusion, high maternal blood mercury level is associated with low verbal IQ in children. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. High-protein and high-carbohydrate breakfasts differentially change the transcriptome of human blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Blom, W.A.M.; Ommen, van B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Application of transcriptomics technology in human nutrition intervention studies would allow for genome-wide screening of the effects of specific diets or nutrients and result in biomarker profiles. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the potential of gene expression profiling in blood

  1. Flushable reagent stool blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool occult blood test - flushable home test; Fecal occult blood test - flushable home test ... gastrointestinal tract, include: Coughing up and then swallowing blood Nose bleed Abnormal test results require follow-up with your doctor.

  2. The use of high-hydrostatic pressure treatment to decellularize blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Seiichi; Nam, Kwangwoo; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Murakoshi, Ayako; Hashimoto, Yoshihide; Niwaya, Kazuo; Kitamura, Soichiro; Fujisato, Toshiya; Kishida, Akio

    2010-05-01

    A decellularization method using high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology (>600MPa) is described. The HHP disrupts the cells inside the tissue. The cell debris can be eliminated with a simple washing process, producing clean, decellularized tissue. In this study, porcine aortic blood vessel was decellularized by HHP. The mechanical properties and in vivo performance of the decellularized tissue were evaluated. Mechanical properties of the decellularized tissue were not altered by the HHP treatment. Reduced inflammation of the decellularized tissue was confirmed by xenogenic transplant experimentation. An allogenic transplantation study showed that decellularized blood vessel endured the arterial blood pressure, and there was no clot formation on the luminal surface. In addition, cellular infiltration into the vessel wall was observed 4 weeks after implantation, suggesting that HHP treatments could be applied widely as a high-quality decellularization method. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    , HUPO later re-analysed their own original dataset with a more stringent statistical treatment that resulted in a much reduced list of high confidence (at least 95%) proteins compared with their original findings. In order to facilitate the discovery of novel biomarkers in the future and to realize......BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list...... the full diagnostic potential of blood plasma, we feel that there is still a need for an ultra-high confidence reference list (at least 99% confidence) of blood plasma proteins. METHODS: To address the complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of the plasma proteome, we employed a linear ion...

  4. Risk factors for blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, Jessica; Mourad, Mirella; Melka, Stephanie; Gupta, Simi; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Rebarber, Andrei; Saltzman, Daniel H; Fox, Nathan S

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to identify risk factors associated with blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery (CD). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing third or more CD by a single maternal-fetal medicine practice between 2005 and 2016. We compared risk factors between women who did and did not receive a red blood cell transfusion during the operation or before discharge. Repeat analysis was performed after excluding women with placenta previa. A total of 514 patients were included, 18 of whom (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%-5.5%) received a blood transfusion. Placenta previa was the most significant risk factor for transfusion (61.1% of patients who received a transfusion vs. 1% of patients who did not; p blood transfusion. After women who had placenta previa were excluded, the incidence of blood transfusion was seven of 498 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0.7%-2.9%). Risk factors significantly associated with blood transfusion in the absence of previa were prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy and having labored. The incidence of transfusion in patients with no placenta previa, no anticoagulation, and no labor was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-2.1%). Placenta previa was the most predictive risk factor for transfusion with a positive predictive value of 68.8% and a negative predictive value of 98.4%. In patients undergoing a third or more CD, only placenta previa, prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy, and having labored are independently associated with requiring a blood transfusion. These data can be used to guide physician ordering of prepared blood products preoperatively. © 2017 AABB.

  5. The continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, T; Leopold, H; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H

    1977-07-29

    The "mechanical oscillator" technique for the measurement of the density of fluids is based on the influence of mass on the natural frequency of a mechanical oscillator. The practical application of this principle was worked out by Kratky et al. (1969) and Leopold (1970). It is demonstrated in this study that the method permits the continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood in anesthetized animals. The accuracy is 10(5) g/ml, the maximum sampling rate 20/min. As found in rabbits and cats during the control state, physiological blood density changes related to spontaneous blood pressure variations are up to 2-10(4) g/ml. The method can be combined with i.v. injections of isotonic and iso-oncotic solutions to determine cardiac output and blood volume on the basis of a "density dilution" principle. Since the density of the interstitial fluid is lower than that of blood, fluid shifts through the capillary walls can be detected. The effects of hypertonic glucose and of hyperoncotic dextran have been examined. Changes in the density of the arterial blood appear within 10 s after i.v. injection of these fluids. Similarly, density changes result from hemorrhage and reinfusion. During and after i.v. administration of vasoactive drugs (noradrenaline, angiotensin II, acetylcholine), marked transient changes in blood density are seen which obviously reflect the effects of fluid shifts through the capillary walls. During hemorrhagic hypotension we found periodic variations in the blood density synchronous with spontaneously occurring Mayer waves. The new method seems to be a promising tool for investigations physiological and pathological capillary fluid dynamics.

  6. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  7. Occupational Noise Exposure, Bilateral High-Frequency Hearing Loss, and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen Qi; Mannino, David M

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure using self-reported occupational exposure and bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. This study included 4548 participants aged 20 to 69 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2004. On the basis of self-reported exposure status, participants were divided into the current, former, or never exposed groups. Bilateral high-frequency hearing loss was defined as the average high-frequency hearing threshold at least 25 dB in both ears. The currently exposed participants had slightly increased diastolic blood pressure compared with those never exposed. Among previously exposed participants, those with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss had increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and the prevalence of hypertension compared with those with normal high-frequency hearing. Although there were some significant results, the evidence was not consistent to support the associations between occupational noise exposure and blood pressure.

  8. Clinical effect of increasing doses of lenalidomide in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia with chromosome 5 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllgård, Lars; Saft, Leonie; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with chromosome 5 abnormalities and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia have a poor outcome. We hypothesized that increasing doses of lenalidomide may benefit this group of patients by inhibiting the tumor clone, as assessed by fluorescence in situ...... and treated with lenalidomide up to 30 mg daily for 16 weeks. Three patients had isolated del(5q), six had del(5q) plus one additional aberration, 14 had del(5q) and a complex karyotype, four had monosomy 5, and one had del(5q) identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization only. RESULTS: Major and minor...... cytogenetic responses, assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, were achieved in 5/26 (19%) and 2/26 (8%) patients, respectively, who received one or more dose of lenalidomide, while two patients achieved only a bone marrow response. Nine of all 26 patients (35%) and nine of the ten who completed...

  9. Using a low-sodium, high-potassium salt substitute to reduce blood pressure among Tibetans with high blood pressure: a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingshan Zhao

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters.The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mmHg were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate or control (100% sodium chloride in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months' supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP and intention to treat (ITT analyses were conducted.After the three months' intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was -8.2/-3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05 in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at -7.6/-3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05. Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.027.Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429246.

  10. Attitude and Willingness towards Tissue Donation in Iranian High School Students: Bone Marrow and Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanavi, S; Afshar, R; Sanavi, N

    2011-01-01

    Tissue donation has been promising in prolonging the lives of people with life-threatening diseases. To assess the attitude and willingness of high school students towards bone marrow (BM) and blood (as tissue) donation for maintaining a safe and adequate pool. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the high school girls, aged 15-18 years, who studied in natural sciences, mathematics and humanities. All participants filled a questionnaire consisting of age, religion, education levels and study branch, attitude and willingness towards BM and blood donation according to a Likert scale. Out of 416 students, with the mean±SD age of 16.3±1.2 years, 31% studied in grade I, 27% in grade II (25% natural sciences, 27% mathematics, and 48% humanities), 26% in grade III (30% natural sciences, 34% mathematics, and 36% humanities), and 16% in pre-university level (college) (32% natural sciences, 42% mathematics, and 6% humanities). The students had highly positive attitudes toward BM and blood donation (mean±SD score of 4.2±0.54). The willingness for BM and blood donation was declared respectively, in 87% and 71% of respondents. Moreover, 16% of students wanted to donate only to their relatives and 84% to all persons in need of therapy. There was no significant correlation between the donation willingness and educational levels and study branch; however, these variables significantly correlated with attitude towards tissue donation (p=0.02, p=0.01, respectively). Despite positive attitude towards BM and blood donation, willingness for BM donation is lesser than blood which may be attributed to insufficient information about this type of tissue donation. An organized educational program for high school students in all aspects of tissue donation seems necessary.

  11. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationship between hypertension and kidney disease is complicated. Clinical trials found intense blood pressure control was not associated with alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR in all patients but did slow the rate of GFR decline among those with a higher baseline proteinuria. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that the association between high blood pressure and renal function is modified by albuminuria status by conducting analyses in a cross-sectional study with 12,440 adult participants without known kidney diseases, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2006. RESULTS: 1226 out of 12440 were found to have unknown high blood pressure and 4494 were found to have reduced renal function. Overall, a moderate association was found between high blood pressure and renal function insufficiency in all participants analyzed. However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed hypertensive subjects (1.43%, 3.44%, 10.96%, respectively, P for trend<0.0001; on the other hand, the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was also significantly higher among subjects with moderate-severe renal insufficiency than those with mild renal insufficiency (35.54% Vs 19.09%, P value <0.05, supporting an association between hypertension and renal function damage. In contrast, no association between hypertension and renal insufficiency was observed among those without albuminuria in this population. Similar findings were observed when the CKD-EPI equation was used. CONCLUSIONS: The association between high blood pressure and reduced renal function could be dependent upon the albuminuria status. This finding may provide a possible explanation for results observed in

  12. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  13. Modulatory effects of Caralluma fimbriata extract against high-fat diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bangeppagari, Manjunatha; Rajendran, Ramaswamy; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2017-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet. CFE (200mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to each group of standard pellet diet rats and HF-fed rats and Metformin (Met) (20mg/kg body weight/day) was administered through oral route to HFD+Met group for 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to glycogen content in liver and muscle, and intestinal disaccharidases like maltase, sucrase and lactase were assayed. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphorfructoki nase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), intestinal disaccharidases and glycogen content as observed in the high fat diet-fed rats were prevented with CFE/Met administration. From this study, we observed that CFE/Met could significantly restore the levels of glycogen in liver and muscle and key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism to near normal in groups-HFD+CFE and HFD+Met. The skeletal muscle of HF-diet fed rats showed degenerative changes of muscle myofibers with fat deposition. These changes were attenuated in the HFD group treated with CFE/Met and retained their normal structure appearance. It can be concluded from these results that CFE might be of value in reducing the alterations related to carbohydrate metabolism under high calorie

  14. Ethnic differences in the effects of the DASH diet on nocturnal blood pressure dipping in individuals with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Blumenthal, James A; Hinderliter, Alan L; Sherwood, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Ethnic differences in nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping may contribute to the increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events noted in African Americans (AAs). The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet has been shown to be efficacious in lowering clinic and ambulatory BP; however, the effect of the DASH diet on BP dipping is unclear. One hundred and eighteen men and women with high clinic BP (systolic BP (SBP) 130-159; diastolic BP 85-99) and above ideal body weight were randomized to a DASH diet intervention or to a usual diet control (UC) condition. Measures of 24-h ambulatory BP were obtained at baseline and at the end of the 4-month intervention period. At baseline, AAs (n = 43) displayed blunted nocturnal SBP dipping compared to Caucasians (CAs; n = 75) and were more likely to be categorized as nondippers (DASH diet intervention showed a significant improvement in SBP dipping postintervention compared to AAs in the UC condition (P = 0.04), whereas there was no appreciable change in SBP dipping in CAs (P = 0.72). Following the intervention, ethnic differences in SBP dipping were no longer statistically significant (nondipper status: AAs: 44% vs. CAs: 32%; P = 0.19). Our study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that in overweight men and women with high BP, AAs may be especially likely to benefit from augmented SBP dipping associated with consumption of the DASH diet.

  15. Neuroanatomic and cognitive abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the era of 'high definition' neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Argelinda; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2015-02-01

    The ongoing release of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) data is a watershed event in clinical neuroscience. By attaining a quantum leap in spatial and temporal resolution within the framework of a twin/sibling design, this open science resource provides the basis for delineating brain-behavior relationships across the neuropsychiatric landscape. Here we focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is at least partly continuous across the population, highlighting constructs that have been proposed for ADHD and which are included in the HCP phenotypic battery. We review constructs implicated in ADHD (reward-related processing, inhibition, vigilant attention, reaction time variability, timing and emotional lability) which can be examined in the HCP data and in future 'high definition' clinical datasets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal Endogenous Repression of GA Signaling in a Seedless Table Grape Cultivar with High Berry Growth Response to GA Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiako K. Acheampong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA application is routinely used in the table grape industry to increase berry size and cluster length. Although grapevine cultivars show a wide range of growth responsiveness to GA3 application, the reasons for these differences is unclear. To shed light on this issue, two commercial grapevine cultivars with contrasting berry response to GA were selected for comparative analysis, in which we tested if the differences in response: (1 is organ-specific or cultivar-related; (2 will be reflected in qualitative/quantitative differences in transcripts/proteins of central components of GA metabolism and signaling and levels of GA metabolites. Our results showed that in addition to the high response of its berries to GA, internodes and rachis of cv. Black finger (BF presented a greater growth response compared to that of cv. Spring blush (SB. In agreement, the results exposed significant quantitative differences in GA signaling components in several organs of both cultivars. Exceptionally higher level of all three functional VvDELLA proteins was recorded in young BF organs, accompanied by elevated VvGID1 expression and lower VvSLY1b transcripts. Absence of seed traces, low endogenous GA quantities and lower expression of VvGA20ox4 and VvGA3ox3 were also recorded in berries of BF. Our results raise the hypothesis that, in young organs of BF, low expression of VvSLY1b may be responsible for the massive accumulation of VvDELLA proteins, which then leads to elevated VvGID1 levels. This integrated analysis suggests causal relationship between endogenous mechanisms leading to anomalous GA signaling repression in BF, manifested by high quantities of VvDELLA proteins, and greater growth response to GA application.

  17. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) using high definition oscillometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y. R.A.; Wilde, A.; Bosman, I.H.; Uilenreef, J. J.; Egner, B.I.; Schoemaker, N. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the use of high definition oscillometry (HDO) for non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements in ferrets and to establish reference ranges for NIBP in minimally sedated, healthy, young adult ferrets (170 mmHg) conditions. Although HDO correlated well with

  18. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone, and pyrimethamine in filter paper blood spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, A M; Lemnge, M M; Angelo, H R

    1995-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone (DDS), the major metabolite of DDS, monoacetyldapsone (MADDS), and pyrimethamine (PYR) was modified for capillary blood samples obtained by finger prick and dried on filter paper. Limit of quantitation using...

  19. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor VII in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Aage K; Bladbjerg, Else M; Hansen, Axel K

    2002-01-01

    In humans, high fat meals cause postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), but human studies have not provided definite evidence for a prothrombotic effect of dietary FVII activation. An animal model would be an attractive way to pursue this question and therefore we tested...

  20. The burden of high blood pressure and related risk factors in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide the current burden of high blood pressure and related risk factors in urban setting in Cameroon. Methods:We used the WHO STEPS approach for Surveillance of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors to collect data from 2,559 adults aged 15-99 years, residing at Cite des Palmiers in Douala ...

  1. High blood pressure in children and its correlation with three definitions of obesity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Leonardo Iezzi de; Nicola, Thaís Coutinho; Jesus, Julyanna Silva Araújo de; Alves, Eduardo Roberty Badiani; Giovaninni, Nayara Paula Bernurdes; Marcato, Daniele Gasparini; Sampaio, Jéssica Dutra; Fuly, Jeanne Teixeira Bessa; Costalonga, Everlayny Fiorot

    2014-02-01

    Several authors have correlated the increase of cardiovascular risk with the nutritional status, however there are different criteria for the classification of overweight and obesity in children. To evaluate the performance of three nutritional classification criteria in children, as definers of the presence of obesity and predictors of high blood pressure in schoolchildren. Eight hundred and seventeen children ranging 6 to 13 years old, enrolled in public schools in the municipality of Vila Velha (ES) were submitted to anthropometric evaluation and blood pressure measurement. The classification of the nutritional status was established by two international criteria (CDC/NCHS 2000 and IOTF 2000) and one Brazilian criterion (Conde e Monteiro 2006). The prevalence of overweight was higher when the criterion of Conde e Monteiro (27%) was used, and inferior by the IOTF (15%) criteria. High blood pressure was observed in 7.3% of children. It was identified a strong association between the presence of overweight and the occurrence of high blood pressure, regardless of the test used (p<0.001). The test showing the highest sensitivity in predicting elevated BP was the Conde e Monteiro (44%), while the highest specificity (94%) and greater overall accuracy (63%), was the CDC criterion. The prevalence of overweight in Brazilian children is higher when using the classification criterion of Conde e Monteiro, and lower when the criterion used is IOTF. The Brazilian classification criterion proved to be the most sensitive predictor of high BP risk in this sample.

  2. Alcohol consumption and its impact on the risk of high blood pressure in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher; Suvankulov, Farrukh

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine the causal effect of alcohol consumption on the risk of high blood pressure in Russia. Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, we estimated the influence of alcohol consumption on high blood pressure, controlling for social and other factors related to alcohol use. To address the issue of causality, we instrumented alcohol consumption by the number of frequent alcohol drinkers in the household. We found that frequent consumption of vodka and beer has an adverse impact on health. In particular, frequent vodka consumption increases the likelihood of high blood pressure by 2.88% while frequent beer consumption increases it by 2.06%. Controlling for the endogeneity of frequent alcohol consumption using the instrumental variable method produces an even larger effect for frequent vodka consumption, with a marginal effect of 7.23%. Prevention policies as well as government programs aimed at treating alcohol-related health outcomes should take into consideration the significant adverse effect of alcohol consumption on high blood pressure. It is also recommended that policy interventions aimed to address alcohol addiction issues in Russia explicitly differentiate between vodka and beer drinkers. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Lopez Sepulveda, Rocio; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.; Joles, Jaap A.

    Koeners MP, Wesseling S, Ulu A, Sepulveda RL, Morisseau C, Braam B, Hammock BD, Joles JA. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: E691-E698, 2011. First published January 25, 2011; doi:

  4. Ethnicity and prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure among 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population studies have repeatedly found that black populations have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure in comparison with other ethnic groups. Blacks, coloured and Indians in South Africa are currently in a process of urbanization, which may lead to chronic diseases of lifestyle like hypertension. The purpose of ...

  5. Adrenomedullin alleviates pulmonary artery collagen accumulation in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lulu; Qi, Jianguang; Gao, Yang; Jin, Hongfang; Du, Junbao

    2014-04-01

    Collagen accumulation is one of the important pathologic changes in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Previous research showed that adrenomedullin (ADM) mitigates the development of pulmonary hypertension. The present study explored the role of ADM in the development of pulmonary artery collagen accumulation induced by high pulmonary blood flow, by investigating the effect of ADM [1.5 μg/(kg h)] subcutaneously administered by mini-osmotic pump on pulmonary hemodynamics, pulmonary vascular structure and pulmonary artery collagen accumulation and synthesis in rats with high pulmonary blood flow induced by aortocaval shunting. The results showed that ADM significantly decreased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and the ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricular plus septal mass [RV/(LV+SP)], attenuated the muscularization of small pulmonary vessels and relative medial thickness (RMT) of pulmonary arteries in rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Meanwhile, ADM ameliorated pulmonary artery collagen deposition represented by a decrease in lung tissue hydroxyproline, collagens I and III content and pulmonary artery collagens I and III expression, reduced collagen synthesis represented by a decrease in lung tissue procollagens I and III mRNA expression. The results suggest that ADM plays a protective role in the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by high blood flow, by inhibiting pulmonary procollagen synthesis and alleviating pulmonary artery collagen accumulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain abnormalities in high-risk violent offenders and their association with psychopathic traits and criminal recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutgeb, V; Leitner, M; Wabnegger, A; Klug, D; Scharmüller, W; Zussner, T; Schienle, A

    2015-11-12

    Measures of psychopathy have been proved to be valuable for risk assessment in violent criminals. However, the neuronal basis of psychopathy and its contribution to the prediction of criminal recidivism is still poorly understood. We compared structural imaging data from 40 male high-risk violent offenders and 37 non-delinquent healthy controls via voxel-based morphometry. Psychopathic traits and risk of violence recidivism were correlated with gray matter volume (GMV) of regions of interest previously shown relevant for criminal behavior. Relative to controls, criminals showed less GMV in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and more GMV in cerebellar regions and basal ganglia structures. Within criminals, we found a negative correlation between prefrontal GMV and psychopathy. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between cerebellar GMV and psychopathy as well as risk of recidivism for violence. Moreover, GMVs of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) were positively correlated with anti-sociality. GMV of the amygdala was negatively correlated with dynamic risk for violence recidivism. In contrast, GMV of (para)limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, insula) was positively correlated with anti-sociality and risk of violence recidivism. The current investigation revealed that in violent offenders deviations in GMV of the PFC as well as areas involved in the motor component of impulse control (cerebellum, basal ganglia, SMA) are differentially related to psychopathic traits and the risk of violence recidivism. The results might be valuable for improving existing risk assessment tools. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automated analysis of written narratives reveals abnormalities in referential cohesion in youth at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tina; Hespos, Susan J; Horton, William S; Mittal, Vijay A

    2018-02-01

    Schizophrenia and at-risk populations are suggested to exhibit referential cohesion deficits in language production (e.g., producing fewer pronouns or nouns that clearly link to concepts from previous sentences). Much of this work has focused on transcribed speech samples, while no work to our knowledge has examined referential cohesion in written narratives among ultra high risk (UHR) youth using Coh-Metrix, an automated analysis tool. In the present study, written narratives from 84 individuals (UHR=41, control=43) were examined. Referential cohesion variables and relationships with symptoms and relevant cognitive variables were also investigated. Findings reveal less word "stem" overlap in narratives produced by UHR youth compared to controls, and correlations with symptom domains and verbal learning. The present study highlights the potential usefulness of automated analysis of written narratives in identifying at-risk youth and these data provide critical information in better understanding the etiology of psychosis. As writing production is commonly elicited in educational contexts, markers of aberrant cohesion in writing represent significant potential for identifying youth who could benefit from further screening, and utilizing software that is easily accessible and free may provide utility in academic and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  9. Abnormal lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and high plasma testosterone levels in male but not female aromatase-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Akiko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Kawanishi, Noriaki; Machida, Shuichi; Mitsuhashi, Kazuteru; Senmaru, Takafumi; Fukui, Michiaki; Takaoka, Osamu; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Ono, Masafumi; Saibara, Toshiji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Akihito

    2017-05-15

    Sex steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are believed to play important roles in lipid metabolism. To elucidate the effects of estrogen depletion on lipid metabolism in male and female mice, we used aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice, in which Cyp19 gene disruption prevented estrogen synthesis in vivo. These mice were divided into the following 4 groups: male and female ArKO mice and male and female wild-type (WT) mice. These mice were fed a normal-fat diet (13.6% fat) ad libitum. At 159 days after birth, the mice were tested for liver and plasma lipid content and hepatic hormone receptor- and lipid/lipoprotein metabolism-related gene expression. Interestingly, we found that hepatic steatosis was accompanied by markedly elevated plasma testosterone levels in male ArKO mice but not in female ArKO mice. Plasma lipoprotein profiles exhibited concurrent decreases in LDL- and small dense LDL-triglyceride (TG) levels in male ArKO mice. Moreover, male mice, but not female mice, exhibited marked elevations in androgen receptor (AR), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and CD36 expression. These results strongly suggest that Cyp19 gene disruption, which induces a sexually dimorphic response and high plasma testosterone levels in male mice, also induces hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A High Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation Induces Cardiac and Renal Abnormalities in GLUT4 +/- Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kruse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Altered nutrients during the in utero (IU and/or lactation (L period predispose offspring to cardio-renal diseases in adulthood. This study investigates the effect of a high fat diet (HFD fed to female mice during IU/L on gene expression patterns associated with heart and kidney failure and hypertension in male offspring. Methods: Female wild type (WT mice were fed either a HFD or control chow (C prior to mating with males with a genetic heterozygous deletion of GLUT4 (G4+/-, a model of peripheral insulin resistance and hypertension and throughout IU/L. After weaning male offspring were placed on a standard rodent chow until 24 weeks of age. Results: All offspring exposed to a maternal HFD showed increased heart and kidney weight and reduced cardiac insulin responsiveness. G4+/- offspring on a HFD displayed early hypertension associated with increased renal gene expression of renin and the AT1- receptors compared to G4+/- on a C diet. This group showed decreased cardiac expression of key genes involved in fatty acid oxidation compared to WT on a C diet. Conclusions: These results indicate an interaction between a HFD diet and genotype during early life development that can enhance susceptibility to cardio-renal diseases later in life.

  11. High blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function in a general adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies showed that blood pressure and lung function are associated. Additionally, a potential effect of antihypertensive medication, especially beta-blockers, on lung function has been discussed. However, side effects of beta-blockers have been investigated mainly in patients with already reduced lung function. Thus, aim of this analysis is to determine whether hypertension and antihypertensive medication have an adverse effect on lung function in a general adult population. Methods Within the population-based KORA F4 study 1319 adults aged 40-65 years performed lung function tests and blood pressure measurements. Additionally, information on anthropometric measurements, medical history and use of antihypertensive medication was available. Multivariable regression models were applied to study the association between blood pressure, antihypertensive medication and lung function. Results High blood pressure as well as antihypertensive medication were associated with lower forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.02 respectively p = 0.05; R2: 0.65) and forced vital capacity values (p = 0.01 respectively p = 0.05, R2: 0.73). Furthermore, a detailed analysis of antihypertensive medication pointed out that only the use of beta-blockers was associated with reduced lung function, whereas other antihypertensive medication had no effect on lung function. The adverse effect of beta-blockers was significant for forced vital capacity (p = 0.04; R2: 0.65), while the association with forced expiratory volume in one second showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07; R2: 0.73). In the same model high blood pressure was associated with reduced forced vital capacity (p = 0.01) and forced expiratory volume in one second (p = 0.03) values, too. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that both high blood pressure and the use of beta-blockers, but not the use of other antihypertensive medication, are associated with reduced lung function in a general adult

  12. [Mortality and life expectancy that attributable to high blood pressure in Chinese people in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X Y; Liu, S W; Wang, L J; Zhang, M; Yin, P; Liu, Y N; Zhao, Z P; Wang, L M

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To estimate the deaths (mortality) and life expectancy that attributable to high blood pressure in people from different regions and gender, in China in 2013. Methods: Data was from the 'China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2013' and the 'China National Mortality Surveillance 2013'. According to the comparative risk assessment theory, population attributable fraction ( PAF ) of high blood pressure by gender, urban-rural, east-central-west regions was calculated before the estimations on deaths (mortality) and life expectancy attributable to high blood pressure was made. Results: In 2013, among the Chinese people aged 25 years old and above, the mean SBP was (129.48±20.27) mmHg. High blood pressure[SBP>(115±6) mmHg]caused 20.879 million deaths and accounted for 22.78% of the total deaths. SBP, deaths, mortality rate and standardized mortality rate that attributable to high blood pressure all appeared higher in men [(131.15±18.73) mmHg, 11.517 million, 165.56/100 000 and 106.97/100 000, respectively]than in women[(127.79±21.60) mmHg, 9.362 million, 141.99/100 000 and 68.93/100 000, respectively]. SBP, deaths, mortality rate and PAF were all seen higher in rural[(130.25±20.66) mmHg, 11.234 million, 178.58/100 000 and 23.59%, respectively]than in urban[(128.58±19.77) mmHg, 9.645 million, 132.87/100 000 and 21.54%, respectively]areas. However, levels of SBP were similar in the east, central or west regions, with attributable deaths, attributable mortality rate and PAF the highest as 7.658 million 179.93/100 000, and 26.72% respectively. In 2013, among the Chinese people aged 25 years old and above, deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease attributable to high blood pressure were 19.912 million and 0.966 million, accounting for 52.31% of the total deaths due to cardiovascular diseases and 62.11% to the total chronic kidney diseases. The top three deaths attributable to high blood pressure were ischemic heart disease (6

  13. The prevalence of abnormal results of annual investigations among diabetic patients with different risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Faris, Eiad A.

    2000-01-01

    The basic theme of this study was to promote the use of risk approach and encourage selectively in requesting laboratory investigations. The objective was to estimate the proportion of abnormal results obtained from routinely requested annual investigations among the whole study population and the odds ratio of abnormal test results among patients with certain risk factors. A total of 459 diabetic patients aged 12 years and over, attending the primary care clinics of a university hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. In this cross-sectional study, analysis of associations between patient's demographic characteristics and clinical findings (independent variables), and the results of annual investigations were conducted. A multiple logistic regression analysis was carried to identify certain independent variables associated with abnormal investigations. The proportion of patients who had abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) was 23%, chest X-ray (CXR) 26% and liver function test (LFT) 9%. High systolic blood pressure (BP) and age were found to be important determinants of abnormal ECG and CXR. Patients who had high systolic BP (>140mm Hg) were found to be 2.39 times more likely to have abnormal ECG (OR=2.39), and their odds ratio of abnormal CXR was 2.33. Furthermore, for each 10-year increment in age, there was a 43% increased likelihood of abnormal ECG and 295 increase of abnormal CXR. Smokers were nine times more likely to have abnormal LFT (OR=9.26, 95% CI=2.29 tp 37.5). The disease duration and obesity were not found to have and independent association with the possibility of having abnormal results. The study results led to some tentative suggestions on guidelines for clinicians in their decision either to request annual investigations for all diabetic patients, or to restrict some investigations to certain group of patients. This was discussed and compared with the findings from the literature and other authorities recommendations. (author)

  14. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... Global cerebral blood flow at rest and during exercise on a bicycle ergometer was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique. Cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were calculated by the Fick principle. Cerebral function was assessed by a computer-based measurement of reaction time...

  15. Blood donors at high risk of transmitting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z

    1985-03-09

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood.

  16. Sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and blood gas responses to highly selective mu and delta opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsy-Roy, J A; Marson, L; Van Loon, G R

    1989-12-01

    The relative importance of mu and delta opioid receptors in brain regulation of sympathoadrenal, cardiovascular and respiratory function was investigated using highly selective mu and delta opioid peptide analogs. Groups of conscious rats received i.c.v. injections of either the mu-selective agonist, [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) or the delta-selective agonist, [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded continuously via a chronic catheter in the carotid artery, and arterial blood samples were taken at intervals through the same catheter for determination of blood pH, pCO2, pO2 and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Both DAMGO and DPDPE increased plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure in a dose-related manner. The slopes of the dose-response lines were parallel, but the delta compound was about 250 times less potent than DAMGO. Only the highest dose of 5 nmol of DAMGO caused a significant bradycardia, mediated by parasympathetic (vagal) activation. DAMGO and DPDPE also induced dose-dependent acidosis, with DAMGO again being much more potent than DPDPE. The effects of both DAMGO and DPDPE on plasma catecholamines, blood pressure and blood gases were antagonized by a mu-selective dose of naloxone (0.4 mg/kg i.a.). Intracerebroventricular administration of the delta-selective antagonist, ICI 174,864, only partially attenuated sympathoadrenal and blood gas responses to DAMGO or DPDPE. The pressor responses to DAMGO or DPDPE were resistant to antagonism by ICI 174,864. These results indicate that brain opioid receptors regulating autonomic outflow, cardiovascular and respiratory function are mainly of the mu type, although a delta opioid system may contribute to sympathoadrenal and respiratory effects of opioids.

  17. Low complements and high titre of anti-Sm antibody as predictors of histopathologically proven silent lupus nephritis without abnormal urinalysis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Jun; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Nawata, Masao; Mizuno, Yasushi; Tokunaga, Mikiko; Sawamukai, Norifumi; Tamura, Masahito; Hirata, Shintaro; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics and predictors of silent LN (SLN), a type of LN in SLE without abnormal urinalysis or renal impairment. Of 182 patients who underwent renal biopsy, 48 did not present with abnormal urinalysis or renal impairment at the time of biopsy. The patients with LN (SLN group, n = 36) and those without LN (non-LN group, n = 12) were compared with respect to their baseline characteristics. Bivariate analysis comprised Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney test, whereas multivariate analysis employed binomial logistic regression analysis. LN was histopathologically identified in 36 of 48 patients. According to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification, 72% of the SLN patients were classified as having class I/II, with a further 17% having class III/IV. Bivariate analyses indicated that platelet count, serum albumin, complement components (C3 and C4), complement haemolytic activity (CH50), anti-Sm antibody titre and anti-ribonucleoprotein antibody titre were significantly different between groups. Multivariate analysis indicated that CH50 and C3 titres were significantly lower in the SLN group, whereas anti-Sm antibody titre was significantly higher. The cut-off titre, calculated based on the receiver operating characteristic curve for CH50, was 33 U/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 83%, respectively. The cut-off titre for anti-Sm antibodies was 9 U/ml, with a sensitivity and specificity of 74% and 83%, respectively. Low titres of CH50 and C3 and a high titre of anti-Sm antibody were identified as predictors of SLN. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

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    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  19. High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration. Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, M A; Matsuzaki, S; Feinman, L; Lieber, C S

    1975-02-20

    Blood actaldehyde and ethanol levels were measured in 11 subjects, six with chronic alcholoism and five nonalcholic controls, after alcohol had been given intravenously. Despite a progressive fall in blood ethanol over a range of 54 to 33 mM/acetaldehyde did not decrease in any of the 11 subjects. The mean acetaldehyde plateau level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in alcoholic (42.7 plus or minus 1.2 mum) than in nonalcoholic (26.5 plus or minus 1.5 mum) subjects. When the mean blood ethanol concentration reached 24 mM,the acetaldehyde plateau ended abruptly in each subject. The ethanol concentration at which this fall of blood acetaldehyde occurred suggests desaturation of an ethanol oxidizing system other than alcohol dehydrogenase and indicates that at high ethanol blood levels, such a system contributes to ethanol oxidation. The highet acetaldehyde levels in alcholism may result from both greater activity of this system and mitochondrial damage, and could contribut to the neurologic, hepatic and cardiac complications of alcoholism.

  20. Hearing Impairment and High Blood Pressure among Bus Drivers in Puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Rajeshwar; Rajasegaran, Rajalakshmi; John, Nitin Ashok; Venkatappa, Umadevi Sajja

    2016-02-01

    Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL), a major heath concern due to constant exposure to loud noise is on the rising trend in today's world. The bus drivers are more vulnerable to the auditory and non-auditory ill effects of noise pollution. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the hearing level, blood pressure and peak expiratory flow rate of bus drivers and individuals employed in office jobs. Fifty male bus drivers aged 30-50 years and fifty males of the same group employed in office jobs were recruited as the test and control groups respectively. The hearing level of the individuals in both the groups was assessed using the Hearing Deterioration Index (HDI). The lung function and cardiovascular status of the study participants were assessed by measuring their Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Blood Pressure (BP) respectively. The mean HDI, PEFR and BP values of both the groups were compared using the unpaired t-test and the extent of correlation between HDI, service years, exposure level, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient test. HDI, SBP and DBP were significantly higher among the bus drivers when compared to the controls. However, there was no significant difference in the PEFR values between the test and the control groups. There was a highly significant positive correlation between HDI and service years and exposure level. Similarly, there was a significant positive correlation between exposure level and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Prolonged exposure to high intensity of sound results in deterioration of hearing capacity and increase in blood pressure among the bus drivers.

  1. Mouse lung contains endothelial progenitors with high capacity to form blood and lymphatic vessels

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    Barleon Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postnatal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs have been successfully isolated from whole bone marrow, blood and the walls of conduit vessels. They can, therefore, be classified into circulating and resident progenitor cells. The differentiation capacity of resident lung endothelial progenitor cells from mouse has not been evaluated. Results In an attempt to isolate differentiated mature endothelial cells from mouse lung we found that the lung contains EPCs with a high vasculogenic capacity and capability of de novo vasculogenesis for blood and lymph vessels. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVECs were isolated by selection of CD31+ cells. Whereas the majority of the CD31+ cells did not divide, some scattered cells started to proliferate giving rise to large colonies (> 3000 cells/colony. These highly dividing cells possess the capacity to integrate into various types of vessels including blood and lymph vessels unveiling the existence of local microvascular endothelial progenitor cells (LMEPCs in adult mouse lung. EPCs could be amplified > passage 30 and still expressed panendothelial markers as well as the progenitor cell antigens, but not antigens for immune cells and hematopoietic stem cells. A high percentage of these cells are also positive for Lyve1, Prox1, podoplanin and VEGFR-3 indicating that a considerabe fraction of the cells are committed to develop lymphatic endothelium. Clonogenic highly proliferating cells from limiting dilution assays were also bipotent. Combined in vitro and in vivo spheroid and matrigel assays revealed that these EPCs exhibit vasculogenic capacity by forming functional blood and lymph vessels. Conclusion The lung contains large numbers of EPCs that display commitment for both types of vessels, suggesting that lung blood and lymphatic endothelial cells are derived from a single progenitor cell.

  2. Factors associated with high probability of target blood pressure non-achievement in hypertensive patients

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    S. P. Zhemanyuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the topic issue of modern cardiology is factors of target blood pressure level non-achievement clarifying due to a better understanding how we can reduce cardiovascular complications. The aim of the study is to determine the factors of poor blood pressure control using the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters and adenosine 5'-diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation parameters in patients with arterial hypertension. Material and methods. The study involved 153 patients with essential hypertension (EH stage II, II degree. The ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was performed in patients during at least two of first-line antihypertensive drugs in optimal daily doses usage by the ABPM bifunctional device (Incart, S.-P., R.F.. Platelet aggregation was carried out using light transmittance aggregation by optical analyzer (Solar, R.B. with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (Sigma-Aldrich at final concentration of 10.0 × 10-6 mol / L. The first group were inadequately controlled essential hypertensive individuals with high systolic or/and diastolic BP level according to the ABPM results, and the second one were patients with adequately controlled EH. Groups of patients were comparable in age (60.39 ± 10.74 years vs. 62.80 ± 9.63; p = 0.181, respectively. In the group of EH patients who reached the target level of blood pressure, women predominated (60% vs. 39.81%; p = 0.021, respectively. We used the binary logistic regression analysis to determine the predictors of target blood pressure level poor reaching using ABPM and platelet aggregation parameters. Results According to the univariate logistic regression analysis, the dependent factors influencing the target blood pressure level poor reaching are the average diurnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP (OR = 44.8; diurnal variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP (OR = 4.4; square index of hypertension for diurnal periods SBP (OR = 318.9; square index of hypertension for diurnal

  3. Difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite

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    Ming-ke JIAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the difference in blood microcirculation recovery between normal frostbite and high-altitude frostbite during the wound healing. Methods Twenty four male rats were randomly divided into control group (n=8, normal frostbite group (n=8, and high-altitude group (n=8. The normal frostbite group rats were frozen to produce mid-degree frostbite models by controlling the freezing time with liquid nitrogen penetration equipment. The high-altitude frostbite group rats were acclimated to a hypoxic and low-pressure environment for 1 week, and then the high-altitude frostbite models were constructed by the same way with liquid nitrogen penetration apparatus. On days 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23 after modeling, the recovery situation of blood circulation of each group was observed with contrast ultrasonography by injecting SonoVue micro-bubble into rats' tail. Finally, the micro-bubble concentration (MC was calculated to confirm the blood circulation recovery with software Image Pro. Results At different time points, the wound area of the high-altitude frostbite group was bigger than that of the normal frostbite group, and the MC of control group was always about (27±0.2×109/ml. On day 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, and 23, the MC was significantly lower in the high-altitude frostbite group than in the control group and normal frostbite group (P<0.05. The MC of normal frostbite group was significantly lower than that of the control group on day 3, 7, 11, 15 and 19 (P<0.05. In addition, no obvious difference in MC was found between normal group and control group on the 23th day (P<0.05. Conclusion The blood microcirculation recovery after high-altitude frostbite is significantly slower than the normal frostbite. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.13

  4. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

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    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  5. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with severe semen abnormalities and its correlation with successful sperm retrieval

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    Mariano Mascarenhas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletion among men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia and its correlation with successful surgical sperm retrieval. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective study in a tertiary level infertility unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective observation study, men with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (concentration <5 million/ml attending the infertility center underwent genetic screening. Peripheral blood karyotype was done by Giemsa banding. Y chromosome microdeletion study was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 220 men, 133 of whom had azoospermia and 87 had severe oligozoospermia. Overall, 21/220 (9.5% men had chromosomal abnormalities and 13/220 (5.9% men had Y chromosome microdeletions. Chromosomal abnormalities were seen in 14.3% (19/133 of azoospermic men and Y chromosome microdeletions in 8.3% (11/133. Of the 87 men with severe oligozoospermia, chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions were each seen in 2.3% (2/87. Testicular sperm aspiration was done in 13 men and was successful in only one, who had a deletion of azoospermia factor c. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a fairly high prevalence of genetic abnormality in men with severe semen abnormalities and a correlation of genetic abnormalities with surgical sperm retrieval outcomes. These findings support the need for genetic screening of these men prior to embarking on surgical sperm retrieval and assisted reproductive technology intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  6. Red Wine Polyphenols Do Not Lower Peripheral or Central Blood Pressure in High Normal Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Ilse P. G.; Draijer, Richard; Westerhof, Berend E.; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Zock, Peter L.; van den Meiracker, Anton H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological data suggest that modest red wine consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Red wine polyphenols improved human endothelial vascular function and reduced blood pressure (BP) in animal studies, but the results of human intervention studies investigating the effect

  7. Sodium-potassium balance in the regulation of high blood pressure

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    Luis Hernán Zárate Méndez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization considers essential hypertension as a primary cause of death. Twenty-five percent of the population over 15 has high blood pressure (HBP, equivalent to a billion people. It has been predicted that this group will increase by 60%, lineal with age increase in the overall population. Unfortunately, detection, treatment and effective control of HBP, are deficient both in Chile and in the rest of the world, making it an unresolved health problem demanding urgent attention. The recently conducted Chilean National Health Survey (2009-2010 revealed a 26.9% prevalence of this condition in the population, sixty-five percent of individuals are aware of their condition, 37.6% are in treatment and only 16,49% are effectively controlled. Furthermore, the survey reveals unhealthy life-style markers, which explains the epidemic that besets the country as there are multiple risk factors at stake. This review focuses mainly on the importance of the sodium-potassium relationship in the regulation of high blood pressure. It must be pointed out that all of the studies underscore the importance of sodium in the genesis of hypertension because of its effects of blood pressure, especially in sensitive individuals, while little attention has been given to the manifold beneficial actions of potassium in the regulation of blood pressure.

  8. Genetic Predisposition to High Blood Pressure Associates With Cardiovascular Complications Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qibin; Forman, John P.; Jensen, Majken K.; Flint, Alan; Curhan, Gary C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension and type 2 diabetes (T2D) commonly coexist, and both conditions are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to high blood pressure and risk of CVD in individuals with T2D. The current study included 1,005 men and 1,299 women with T2D from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study, of whom 732 developed CVD. A genetic predisposition score was calculated on the basis of 29 established blood pressure–associated variants. The genetic predisposition score showed consistent associations with risk of CVD in men and women. In the combined results, each additional blood pressure–increasing allele was associated with a 6% increased risk of CVD (odds ratio [OR] 1.06 [95% CI 1.03–1.10]). The OR was 1.62 (1.22–2.14) for risk of CVD comparing the extreme quartiles of the genetic predisposition score. The genetic association for CVD risk was significantly stronger in patients with T2D than that estimated in the general populations by a meta-analysis (OR per SD of genetic score 1.22 [95% CI 1.10–1.35] vs. 1.10 [1.08–1.12]; I2 = 71%). Our data indicate that genetic predisposition to high blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of CVD in individuals with T2D. PMID:22829449

  9. Experimental study of the portable blood purification system for treatment of acute renal failure in dogs under the field condition in a high-altitude environment

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    Hai-bin LI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce the model of acute renal failure (ARF in beagles for comprehensively evaluating the safety, stability and validity of the continuous blood purification system under the field condition in a high-altitude environment. Methods Adult beagle ARF model was reproduced by bilateral nephrectomy. All ARF dogs underwent continuous veno-venous hemofiltration with a blood purification machine. Vital signs, renal function, liver function and plasma ion-levels before and after the therapy were analyzed through self-controlled study. Performance of the continuous blood purification machine running in a highaltitude environment was evaluated. Results Blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (Cr of six dogs were assayed 24 hours after nephrectomy, the difference showed statistical significance compared with those before the surgery (P<0.05, implying that six ARF models were reproduced successfully. Six dogs experienced continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT with external jugular vein double-lumen tube placement (3 dogs or femoral vein catheter placement (3 dogs. Five dogs successfully finished the whole experiment, and one dog died because of falling off of the dialysis tube and blood loss. The continuous blood purification machine was sensitive with rapid release of warning signals when the condition was abnormal. Compared to that before CRRT, there were no statistically significant differences in heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure in ARF models 2, 4 hours after CRRT (P>0.05. And there were no statistically significant differences in ALT, AST and T-Bil in ARF models between that before and 2, 4 hours after CRRT (P>0.05. However, 2, 4 hours after CRRT, BUN and Cr levels descended significantly (P<0. 05, so was K+ level (P<0. 05. There were no complications such as hemorrhage or hypotension. There were no statistical differences in volume of replacement fluid or discarded fluid between before and after CRRT

  10. Low physical activity is a determinant for elevated blood pressure in high cardiovascular risk obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Tamisier, Renaud; Laplaud, David; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Moreau, Laurent; Koltes, Christian; Chavez, Léonidas; de Lamberterie, Gilles; Herengt, Frédéric; Levy, Patrick; Flore, Patrice; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2014-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity, including hypertension. Beyond the severity of nocturnal hypoxia, other factors such as metabolic abnormalities but also sedentary behaviors and insufficient physical activity may contribute to elevated blood pressure (BP). To clarify the respective role of these factors as determinants of BP in OSA patients, we examined the relationship between BP and anthropometrics, severity of sleep apnea, and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Ninety-five adults presenting with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index > 10 events/h) and high cardiovascular risk (63.3 ± 8.8 y; body mass index: 29.9 ± 4.9 kg/m(2); apnea-hypopnea index: 41.3 ± 17.5/h; cardiovascular risk score: 13.5 ± 3.7%) were included. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors were objectively assessed by actigraphy, and self-measured home BP monitoring was measured. Logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, and body mass index were built to identify the predictors of self-measured morning and evening BP. Physical activity was significantly related to obesity but not to the severity of sleep apnea or sleepiness. Sedentary behaviors were associated with self-measured morning and evening systolic BP (r = 0.32, P = .002; r = 0.29, P = .004). Steps per day were inversely associated with evening BP (r = -0.27, P = .01). Univariate analysis identified steps/d and time spent in vigorous physical activity as determinants for evening self-measured BP. In multivariate analysis, only steps/d were identified as a significant determinant of evening BP. Physical activity is the major determinant for evening BP in adults with OSA presenting high cardiovascular risk. Our results emphasize the need for lifestyle counseling programs in combination with CPAP to encourage regular physical activity in OSA subjects to obtain better BP control. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01226641.)

  11. [High blood pressure among bank employees in Rio de Janeiro. Life-style and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, D

    1998-11-01

    This study estimates the frequency of treatment of high blood pressure and compares life-styles among hypertensives and non-hypertensives. Cross-sectional study in a systematic sample of 1183 employees in a government-owned bank in the State of Rio de Janeiro, through a self-administered questionnaire. Direct measurements of arterial pressure, weight and height were also taken in a sub-sample. Those who had been informed more than once as having high blood pressure, by a health professional, were classified as hypertensives. There were no important differences among hypertensives and non-hypertensives with respect to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and physical activities. Dieting was more frequent among overweight/obese hypertensives than overweight/obese non-hypertensives. Only 44.7% were under treatment. Subjects with high level of education were more likely to be treated as were those who quit smoking, presented overweight/obesity or family history of cerebrovascular diseases. Access to information and health care was not sufficient to guarantee high blood pressure treatment or a healthy life-style which contributes to hypertension control.

  12. ANALYSIS OF EMERGENCY AMBULANCE RECALLS AMONG PATIENTS WITH HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE IN MOSCOW

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    N. F. Plavunov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years the incidence of cardiovascular diseases had increased in Russian Federation. In a period of 2010-2014 y. the number of patients diagnosed hypertension increased by 16,8% (139,5 thousand patients. High prevalence of hypertension leads to different cardiac complications that could be responsible for death. Hypertension is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease and stroke, increases the risk in 3-4 times, and therefore one of the most important causes of morality. The major cause that required emergency hospitalization in adult population was estimated to be cardiovascular diseases (23,9%, including ischemic heart disease (10,7%, cerebrovascular diseases (6%, and diseases attributable to high blood pressure (3,3%. We studied 1 605 374 (9,6% emergency ambulance calls to patients with high blood pressure during the period of 6 month (2015 y. . In 16,1% cases emergency service calls were related to hypertensive crisis and 1,45% of patients needed emergency evacuation. We determined that in 7,2% cases patients with high blood pressure called for emergency service again during 24 hours period. Among this group of patients the percent of hypertensive crisis and evacuation was higher — 19,4% and 4,1% respectively. Also we identified that in 59,5% cases the diagnosis was hypertensive disease. We determined that majority of frequent ambulance callers were elderly persons. 

  13. Aircraft vibration and other factors related to high systolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

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    Minarma Siagian

    2013-05-01

    Indonesian Air Force pilots doing annual medical check-ups at the Saryanto Institute for Medical and Health Aviation and Aerospace (LAKESPRA from 2003 – 2008. The data extracted from medical records were age, total flight hours, type of aircraft, fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels, waist circumference, height and weight (Body Mass Index, and blood pressure.Results: Of 336 pilots, there were 16 with systolic pressure  140 mmHg. The pilot who had high vibration than low vibration had 2.8-fold to be high systolic blood pressure [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.83; 95%confidence interval (CI =1.16-22.04. In term of average flight hours, those who had average flight hours of 300-622 hours per year compared to 29-299 hours per year had 5-fold increased risk to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 5.05; 95% CI =1.16-22.04]. Furthermore, those who had high than normal resting pulse rate had 2.4 times to be high systolic blood pressure (ORa = 2.37; 95 CI =0.81-6.97; P = 0.115.Conclusion:High aircraft vibration, high average flight hours per year, and high resting pulse rate increase risk high systolic blood pressure in air force pilots.Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aircraft vibration, resting pulse rate, pilots

  14. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

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    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  15. Total flying hours and risk of high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilot in Indonesia

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    Ferdi Afian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil antara lain akan menyebabkan gangguan kardiovaskular sehingga akan mengganggu kelancaran penerbangan. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor dominan terhadap tekanan darah sistolik tinggi pada pilot sipil. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dengan metode sampling purposif pada pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada tanggal 18-29 Mei 2015. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah karakteristik demografi dan pekerjaan, klinis, kebiasaan olahraga, kebiasaan makan, indeks massa tubuh dan riwayat penyakit. Tekanan darah sistolik tinggi ialah tekanan darah sistolik140 mmHg atau lebih. Hasil: Dari 690 pilot yang melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan berkala, 428 pilot laki-laki bersedia berpartisipasi mengikuti penelitian ini. Usia dan riwayat penyakit hipertensi merupakan faktor risiko dominan yang berhubungan dengan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi. Jika dibandingkan dengan pilot usia 19-39 tahun, yang berusia 40-65 tahun mempunyai 15,1 kali lipat lebih besar risiko terkena tekanan darah sistolik tinggi [rasio odds suaian (ORa= 15,12; p= 0,001]. Pilot dengan riwayat penyakit hipertensi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak ada riwayat memiliki risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi 93,2 kali lipat lebih besar (ORa= 93,21; p= 0,001 Kesimpulan: Usia 40-65 tahun dan memiliki riwayat hipertensi meningkatkan risiko tekanan darah sistolik tinggi di antara pilot sipil di Indonesia. Kata kunci: tekanan darah sistolik, total jam terbang, pilot sipil, Indonesia.  Abstract Background: Systolic high blood pressure among civilian pilots among others will cause cardiovascular disease and this condition will disrupt the flight.The purpose of this study was to identified the dominant factors related to high systolic blood pressure in the civilian pilots. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a purposive sampling method on a pilot who performed periodic

  16. Waist-to-Height Ratio as an Indicator of High Blood Pressure in Urban Indian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P E; Shastri, L; Thomas, T; Duggan, C; Bosch, R; McDonald, C M; Kurpad, A V; Kuriyan, R

    2015-09-01

    To examine the utility of waist-to-height ratio to identify risk of high blood pressure when compared to body mass index and waist circumference in South Indian urban school children. Secondary data analysis from a cross-sectional study. Urban schools around Bangalore, India. 1913 children (58.1% males) aged 6-16 years with no prior history of chronic illness (PEACH study). Height, weight, waist circumference and of blood pressure were measured. Children with blood pressure ?90th percentile of age-, sex-, and height-adjusted standards were labelled as having high blood pressure. 13.9% had a high waist-to-height ratio, 15.1% were overweight /obese and 21.7% had high waist circumference. High obesity indicators were associated with an increased risk of high blood pressure. The adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) of high systolic blood pressure with waist-to-height ratio, body mass index and waist circumference were 2.48 (1.76, 3.47), 2.59 (1.66, 4.04) and 2.38 (1.74, 3.26), respectively. Similar results were seen with high diastolic blood pressure. Obesity indicators, especially waist-to-height ratio due to its ease of measurement, can be useful initial screening tools for risk of high blood pressure in urban Indian school children.

  17. Validation of a blood marker for plasma volume in endurance athletes during a live-high train-low altitude training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Vuong, Victor L; Tee, Nicolin; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2018-02-19

    Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d -1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude. A full blood count was performed on the whole blood sample. Serum was analysed for transferrin, albumin, calcium, creatinine, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. The PV blood test (consisting of the serum markers, [Hb] and platelets) was applied to the ABP adaptive model and new reference predictions were calculated for [Hb] and the OFF-score, thereby reducing the PV variance component. The PV correction refined the ABP reference predictions. The number of atypical passport findings (ATPFs) for [Hb] was reduced from 7 of 5 subjects to 6 of 3 subjects. The OFF-score ATPFs increased with the PV correction (from 9 to 13, 99% specificity); most likely the result of more specific reference limit predictions combined with the altitude-induced increase in red cell production. Importantly, all abnormal biomarker values were identified by a low confidence value. Although the multifaceted, individual physiological response to altitude confounded some results, the PV model appears capable of reducing the impact of PV fluctuations on [Hb]. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of high blood pressure measured in the Brazilian population, National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Santos, Nadir Baltazar Dos; Perillo, Rosângela Durso; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-04-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is the most frequent cause of morbidity and a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications. The aim here was to describe the prevalence of blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg in the adult Brazilian population and federal states, along with self-reported information about previous medical diagnoses of hypertension, use of medication and medical care for hypertension control. Cross-sectional study analyzing information from the National Health Survey of 2013, relating to Brazil and its federal states. The sample size was estimated as 81,254 households and information was collected from 64,348 households. The survey consisted of interviews, physical and laboratory measurements. Systolic blood pressure was considered to be high when it was ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure, ≥ 90 mmHg. It was found that 22.8% of the population has blood pressure measurements ≥ 140/90 mmHg. The proportion was higher among men than among women: 25.8% versus 20.0%. The frequency increased with age, reaching 47.1% in individuals over 75 years and was highest in the southeast and south. 43.2% reported previous medical diagnoses of hypertension and, of these, 81.4% reported using medication for hypertension and 69.6%, going to the doctor within the past year for pressure monitoring, thus showing regular medical follow-up. These results are important for supporting measures for preventing and treating hypertension in Brazil, with the aim of achieving the World Health Organization's goal of reducing hypertension by 25% over the next decade.

  19. Short-term effects of nitrate-rich green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for a beneficial effect of dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, on measures of cardiovascular function in healthy individuals is accumulating. It is less clear whether increased dietary nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables would have similar beneficial vascular effects in those at increased risk of developing hypertension. Our aim was to assess the effects of short-term regular consumption of increased nitrate from green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure. Thirty-eight men and women ages 30-70 years with systolic blood pressure 120 to 139 mm Hg were recruited to a randomized controlled crossover trial. The effects of a 7-day high-nitrate diet intervention (increased nitrate intake by at least 300 mg/day from green leafy vegetables) were compared to a 7-day low-nitrate diet intervention. Outcome measures included pre- and postintervention salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations; ambulatory, home, and office blood pressure; augmentation index; and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The high-nitrate diet intervention resulted in at least a fourfold increase in salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite (P<0.001). Ambulatory, home, and office blood pressure and arterial stiffness were not different between the high-nitrate diet and the low-nitrate diet. Increasing dietary nitrate intake in those with high-normal blood pressure and at increased risk of hypertension may not be an effective short-term strategy to lower blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  1. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) using high definition oscillometry

    OpenAIRE

    van Zeeland, Y. R.A.; Wilde, A.; Bosman, I.H.; Uilenreef, J. J.; Egner, B.I.; Schoemaker, N. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate the use of high definition oscillometry (HDO) for non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements in ferrets and to establish reference ranges for NIBP in minimally sedated, healthy, young adult ferrets (170 mmHg) conditions. Although HDO correlated well with DABP (r > 0.90), it showed significant proportional bias, whereby HDO generally underestimated DABP with hyper- and normotensive conditions, and overestimated DABP with hypotensive conditions. Measure...

  2. Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) high blood pressure strategy's hypertension management initiative study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Lum-Kwong, Margaret Moy; Perkins, Nancy; Von Sychowski, Shirley; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Kiss, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Achieving control of hypertension prevents target organ damage at both the micro and macrovascular level and is a highly cost effective means of lowering the risk for heart attack and stroke particularly in people with diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrate that blood pressure control can be achieved in a large proportion of people. Translating this knowledge into widespread practice is the focus of the Hypertension Management Initiative, which began in 2004 with the goal o...

  3. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, O Peter

    2013-01-01

    O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief ...

  4. Monolithic Chip for High-throughput Blood Cell Depletion to Sort Rare Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Fabio; Spuhler, Philipp; Martel-Foley, Joseph M; Edd, Jon F; Barber, Thomas A; Walsh, John; Karabacak, Murat; Pai, Vincent; Yu, Melissa; Smith, Kyle; Hwang, Henry; Yang, Jennifer; Shah, Sahil; Yarmush, Ruby; Sequist, Lecia V; Stott, Shannon L; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-09-07

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a treasure trove of information regarding the location, type and stage of cancer and are being pursued as both a diagnostic target and a means of guiding personalized treatment. Most isolation technologies utilize properties of the CTCs themselves such as surface antigens (e.g., epithelial cell adhesion molecule or EpCAM) or size to separate them from blood cell populations. We present an automated monolithic chip with 128 multiplexed deterministic lateral displacement devices containing ~1.5 million microfabricated features (12 µm-50 µm) used to first deplete red blood cells and platelets. The outputs from these devices are serially integrated with an inertial focusing system to line up all nucleated cells for multi-stage magnetophoresis to remove magnetically-labeled white blood cells. The monolithic CTC-iChip enables debulking of blood samples at 15-20 million cells per second while yielding an output of highly purified CTCs. We quantified the size and EpCAM expression of over 2,500 CTCs from 38 patient samples obtained from breast, prostate, lung cancers, and melanoma. The results show significant heterogeneity between and within single patients. Unbiased, rapid, and automated isolation of CTCs using monolithic CTC-iChip will enable the detailed measurement of their physicochemical and biological properties and their role in metastasis.

  5. The relationship between serum lipid levels, high blood pressure and obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kurtuncu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine serum lipid, cholesterol and obesity levels in healthy children, and then to explore the relationships between these factors. Methods: The sample group consisted of 103 students at Gelik Elementary School in Zonguldak, Turkey who was willing to participate in the study, had not been medically diagnosed with a chronic ailment, and were not taking regular medications. Results: When the students' mean BMI (Body Mass Index measurements were considered, it was found that mean BMI at 13 years of age (21.03 ± 0.23 was higher than at 14 years (20.05 ± 0.20 and that this difference was strongly significant (p=0.002. When the relationships between the students' height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein measurements were considered, it was seen that there was a positive significant relationship between height-weight (r=0.472; p<0.001, height-blood pressure (r=0.432; p<0.001, and height-FBS (r=0.332; p=0.001. Conclusions: The conclusion drawn was that monitoring blood pressure, cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels in childhood medical examinations is not only important in terms of identifying obesity, but also in identifying nutritional mistakes and deficiencies at an early stage.

  6. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  7. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  8. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa; Reynaud, Olivier; Le Bihan, Denis; Uhrig, Lynn; Jarraya, Bechir

    2012-01-01

    During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T2'*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7 T and 17.2 T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine). We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T2'*- weighted images at 17.2 T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7 T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation. (authors)

  9. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Medication Adherence Among Elderly Patients with High Blood Pressure in Gweru, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariva, Elizabeth; January, James; Maradzika, Julita

    2014-02-04

    High blood pressure is a global health concern which is mainly managed by taking anti-hypertensive medications. Although medication is available to control high blood pressure, adhering to treatment is a major problem among hypertensive patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors to medication adherence among hypertensive patients in Gweru urban aged 40-70 years. A descriptive cross sectional study was used with a sample size of 110 conveniently sampled hypertensive patients. We used an interviewer administered questionnaire designed using phase 4 of the PRECEDE model. The modal age was 70 years and mean age was 58 years (SD=10.29). There were 61.8% females and 38.2% males. Variables associated with medication adherence were: age (P=0.0059), marital status (P=0.015), average monthly income (P=0.0002), support group (P=0.027) and knowledge (P=0.0058). Providing information to patients with high blood pressure and having a good patient-provider relationship improves medication adherence. There is need to focus on the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors of medication adherence since demographic and socio-economic factors may be more difficult to change.

  11. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  12. Routine blood tests and probability of cancer in patients referred with non-specific serious symptoms: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næser, Esben; Møller, Henrik; Fredberg, Ulrich; Frystyk, Jan; Vedsted, Peter

    2017-12-04

    Danish cancer patients have lower survival rates than patients in many other western countries. Half of the patients present with non-alarm symptoms and thus have a long diagnostic pathway. Consequently, an urgent referral pathway for patients with non-specific serious symptoms was implemented throughout Denmark in 2011-2012. As part of the diagnostic workup, a panel of blood tests are performed for all patients referred by their general practitioner (GP) to the urgent referral pathway. In this study, we analysed the probability of being diagnosed with cancer in GP-referred patients with abnormal blood test results. We performed a cohort study that included all patients aged 18 years or older referred by their GP to Silkeborg Regional Hospital for analysis of a panel of blood tests. All patients were followed for 3 months for a cancer diagnosis in the Danish Cancer Registry. The likelihood ratio and post-test probability of subsequently finding cancer were calculated in relation to abnormal blood test results. Among the 1499 patients included in the study, 12.2% were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. The probability of cancer increased with the number of abnormal blood tests. Patients with specific combinations of two abnormal blood tests had a 23-62% probability of cancer. Only a few single abnormal blood tests were linked with a high post-test probability of cancer, and most abnormalities were not specific to cancer. A number of specific abnormal blood tests and combinations of abnormal blood tests markedly increased the probability of cancer being diagnosed. Still, abnormal blood test results should be interpreted cautiously as most are non-specific to cancer. Thus, results from the blood test panel may strengthen the suspicion of cancer, but blood tests cannot be used as a stand-alone tool to rule out cancer.

  13. Blood magnesium, and the interaction with calcium, on the risk of high-grade prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Dai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionized calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg compete as essential messengers to regulate cell proliferation and inflammation. We hypothesized that inadequate Mg levels, perhaps relative to Ca levels (e.g. a high Ca/Mg ratio are associated with greater prostate cancer risk.In this biomarker sub-study of the Nashville Men's Health Study (NMHS, we included 494 NMHS participants, consisting of 98 high-grade (Gleason≥7 and 100 low-grade cancer cases, 133 prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN cases, and 163 controls without cancer or PIN at biopsy. Linear and logistic regression were used to determine associations between blood Ca, Mg, and the Ca/Mg ratio across controls and case groups while adjusting for potential confounding factors.Serum Mg levels were significantly lower, while the Ca/Mg ratio was significantly higher, among high-grade cases vs. controls (p = 0.04, p = 0.01, respectively. Elevated Mg was significantly associated with a lower risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 0.26 (0.09, 0.85. An elevated Ca/Mg ratio was also associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (OR = 2.81 (1.24, 6.36 adjusted for serum Ca and Mg. In contrast, blood Ca levels were not significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN.Mg, Ca, or Ca/Mg levels were not associated with low-grade cancer, PIN, PSA levels, prostate volume, or BPH treatment.Low blood Mg levels and a high Ca/Mg ratio were significantly associated with high-grade prostate cancer. These findings suggest Mg affects prostate cancer risk perhaps through interacting with Ca.

  14. Chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities in oncology personnel handling anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, Melissa A; Oliver, Marc S; Roth, Tracy S; Rogers, Bonnie; Escalante, Carmen

    2010-10-01

    To determine the frequency of "signature" chromosomal abnormalities in oncology workers handling anticancer drugs. Peripheral blood from health care personnel (N = 109) was examined with probes for targets on chromosomes 5, 7, and 11. The effect of drug-handling frequency on chromosome abnormalities was assessed. An excess of structural (0.18 vs 0.02; P = 0.04) and total abnormalities (0.29 vs 0.04; P = 0.01) of chromosome 5 was observed in the high-exposure group compared with the unexposed. Increased incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for abnormalities of chromosome 5 (IRR = 1.24; P = 0.01) and for either chromosome 5 or 7 (IRR = 1.20; P = 0.01) were obtained at 100 handling events. Effect sizes were augmented 2- to 4-fold when alkylating agent handling alone was considered. Biologically important exposure to genotoxic drugs is apparently occurring in oncology work settings despite reported use of safety practices.

  15. Lithogenic transformation of clay in zones of abnormally high stratal pressure. Litogeneticheskie preobrazovaniya glin v zonakh anomal'no vysokikh plastovykh davlenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zkhus, I.D.; Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    An examination is made of problems associated with the properties of clays as an mantles over petroleum and gas beds with abnormally high stratal pressures (AHSP), with changes in the clays that are characteristic of AHSP zones, with catagenetic transformations of clay minerals, and with their superimposed catagenesis under the influence of fluids in the interstitial coronas. The study of the lithogenetic transformations of clay was shown to be of practical use for forecasting AHSP zones and estimating stratal pressures as well as for the operative development of an optimal system for drilling deep wells. The gradient distribution of AHSP for the layer of clay mantles was demonstrated for the first time as was the coincidence of the maximum values of those gradients with the hydrodynamic threshold. The over-all effect of dispersing rock in the AHSP zones was shown to have a universal significance and importance to forecasting beds with AHSP and the safe drilling of boreholes by means of the timely identification of AHSP zones. Calculations were made for the first time on the effect that the thickness of mantles has on fracture time of the fluids. 150 references, 27 figures, 21 tables.

  16. Presence of High-Risk HPV mRNA in Relation to Future High-Grade Lesions among High-Risk HPV DNA Positive Women with Minor Cytological Abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Johansson

    Full Text Available Continuous expression of E6- and E7-oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV types is necessary for the development and maintenance of the dysplastic phenotype. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the APTIMA HPV mRNA assay (Hologic in predicting future development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among high-risk HPV-DNA-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or low-grade squamous epithelial lesion (LSIL cytology.Archived SurePath cervical samples of women ≥ 35 years of age with high-risk HPV DNA-positive ASCUS (n = 211 or LSIL, (n = 131 were tested for the presence of high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA using the APTIMA HPV assay, and the women were monitored for development of histopathologically verified CIN2+.Twenty-nine percent (61/211 of the women in the ASCUS group, and 34.3% (45/131 in the LSIL group developed CIN2+ within 4.5 years of follow-up. The prevalence of HPV mRNA was 90.0% (95% CI 85.9-94.0 among women with ASCUS and 95.4% (95% CI 91.8-99.0 among women with LSIL. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was associated with future development of CIN2+ among women with ASCUS and LSIL (p=0.02. The mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting future CIN2+ and CIN3 for index ASCUS (96.7%; 95% CI 87.6-99.4 and 100%; 95% CI 82.2-100, respectively and LSIL (97.8%, 95% CI 86.8-99.9 and 100%, 95% CI 79.9-100, respectively. The corresponding specificity was low, 12.7% (95% CI 7.9-19.3 and 5.8% (95% CI 2.2-13.6, for future CIN2+, respectively. The negative predictive value of the HPV mRNA assay for detecting future CIN3 was 100%, since no mRNA-negative woman developed CIN3 (0/27 as compared to 13.6% (43/315 of the mRNA-positive women (p = 0.03.The APTIMA mRNA assay demonstrated high sensitivity but low specificity in predicting future CIN2+ among women with minor cytological abnormalities. The assay had high negative predictive value for future

  17. High intensity interior aircraft noise increases the risk of high diastolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the effects of aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, and other factors on the risk of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP in Indonesian Air Force pilots.Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using data extracted from annual medical check-ups indoctrination aerophysiologic training records at the Saryanto Aviation and Aerospace Health Institute (LAKESPRA in Jakarta from January 2003 – September 2008. For analysis of DBP: the case group with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg were compared with contral group with DBP < 79 mmHG. One case matched to 12 controls.Results: Out of 567 pilots, 544 (95.9% had complete medical records. For this analysis there were 40 cases of high DBP and 480 controls for DBP. Pilots exposed to aircraft noise 90-95 dB rather than 70-80 dB had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 2.70; 95% confi dence interval (CI = 1.05-6.97]. Pilots with resting pulse rates of ≥ 81/minute rather than ≤ 80/minute had a 2.7-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 2.66; 95% CI = 1.26-5.61. In terms of total fl ight hours, pilots who had 1401-11125 hours rather than 147-1400 hours had a 3.2-fold increase for high DBP (ORa = 3.18; 95% CI = 1.01-10.03.Conclusion: High interior aircraft noise, high total flight hours,  and high resting pulse rate, increased risk for high DBP. Self assessment of resting pulse rate can be used to control the risk of high DBP. (Med J Indones 2009; 276: 276-82Keywords: diastolic blood pressure, aircraft noise, resting pulse rate, military pilots

  18. 'Infantile convulsions' in the early nineteenth century. Abnormal brain blood flow and leeches, teething and gums' scarification and food and purgatives: the historical contribution of John Clarke (1760-1815).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Lattanzi, Simona; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Ruggieri, Martino; Vecchio, Ignazio; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-20

    In this article, we discuss on the role of the British physician and midwifery practitioner John Clarke (1760-1815) in the characterisation of the various types of seizures and epilepsy and related phenomena ('convulsions') occurring in children. In his unfinished work Commentaries on Some of the Most Important Diseases of Children (1815), Clarke discussed the pathophysiology of convulsions and was the first to describe, 12 years before the French neurologist Louis Francois Bravais (1801-1843) and more than 30 years before the Irish-born physician Robert Bentley Todd (1809-1860), the postictal paresis. He believed that convulsions originated from changes in pressure within the ventricles as a consequence of abnormal blood flow to the cerebral vessels. In keeping with the theories of his time (e.g. Baumes 1789, 1805; Brachet 1824), Clarke believed that teething was a major cause of 'infantile convulsions'. His proposed remedies ranged from scarification of the gums to ammonia, application of leeches, cold water, and purgatives. The use of antispasmodics, quite popular at the time, was instead questioned. In his Practical Observations on the Convulsions of Infants (1826), the London practitioner and midwifery John North (1790-1873) deeply criticised Clarke's view that convulsions arise inevitably as a consequence of organic brain lesions. North inferred that the results of autopsies of children who had died of convulsions revealed no brain damages, and claimed that cerebral irritation could also occur as the effect of distant lesions. Other Clarke's contemporaries (e.g. Jean Baptiste Timothée Baumes-1756-1828) inferred that all convulsions reflected a hereditary diathesis, which rendered children (especially those with softer and limper nervous and muscular tissues!) extremely sensitive to all sorts of provocation that could trigger convulsions, including bad digestion (more pronounced at the time of teething), loud noise, and bright light. Although almost every

  19. Impact of lipid profile and high blood pressure on endothelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Tomonori; Dohi, Yasuaki; Yamashita, Sumiyo; Yamamoto, Koji; Wakamatsu, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Satoru; Kimura, Genjiro

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial damage is an early component of atherosclerosis; however, the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on endothelial function is not clearly understood. We investigated the impact of lipid profiles and high blood pressure on damage. Japanese male outpatients with grade I or II hypertension, along with gender and age-matched normotensive subjects (both n = 25), were enrolled. Subjects with severe cardiovascular risk factors or illness or those taking medications were excluded. Blood was sampled for laboratory analysis and endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (total-C/HDL-C) was inversely correlated with the FMD value and positively correlated with both malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein values. Stepwise regression analysis revealed total-C/HDL-C and systolic blood pressure were significant determinants of FMD. Hypertensive subjects had lower FMD values and similar lipid profiles to normotensive subjects. Grouping subjects according to total-C/HDL-C levels showed that those with high values had lower FMD values. Hypertensive subjects with low total-C/HDL-C had similar endothelial index values to those in normotensive subjects with high total-C/HDL-C. Logistic regression indicated hypertension and high total-C/HDL-C were significantly associated with low FMD values. Impaired endothelial function was associated with increased total-C/HDL-C values, possibly as the result of increased vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the early stages of atherosclerosis, the impact of both total-C/HDL-C and BP may be similar in terms of endothelial damage. Copyright © 2011 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Handajani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperglycemia is a condition when blood sugar level is higher than normal. Hyperglycemia is also one of diabetes mellitus (DM symptoms. Hyperglycemia has a correlation with the occurrence of periodontal disease. Curcuma zedoaria oil is known to decrease concentration of serum glucose. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the effects of Curcuma zedoaria oil on high blood sugar level and gingivitis in rats. Method: This study used twenty-five male Wistar rats, divided into two groups, namely the treatment group and the control group. In the treatment group, fifteen rats were divided into three subgroups (each of which was induced with 10 μl/ml, 30 μl/ml and 50 μl/ml of Curcuma zedoaria oil. The control group was consisted often rats, divided into two subgroups, as the positive control group (induced with 10 mg/kg of Glibenclamide and the negative control group (induced with propylene glycol. Streptozotocin (STZ (Naclai tesque, Kyoto Japan with a dose of 40 mg/kg was used to create hyperglycemia condition in those rats. Gingivitis was then made by using silk ligature in those hyperglycemia rats. Silk ligature was twisted at the margin of gingiva anterior mandibular incisors for seven days. After the rats had gingivitis, Curcuma zedoaria oil, glibenclamide and propylene glycol were orally administered for seven days. Their gingivitis condition was observed, and their blood sugar level was measured before and after the induction of STZ and during the treatment. The data obtained were analyzed by using Manova. Result: There were significant differences of blood sugar levels between the treatment group before and after the administration of Curcuma zedoaria oil and the positive control group (p<0.05. Healthy gingiva was then found in the treatment group and the positive control group. Conclusion: Curcuma zedoaria oil can decrease blood sugar level and gingivitis.