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Sample records for abnormal sleep patterns

  1. Method for detection of an abnormal sleep pattern in a person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to a method for detection of an abnormal sleep pattern based on a dataset of Electrooculography (EOG) signals obtained from a sleeping subject over a time interval, the method comprising the steps of dividing the time interval into a plurality of subintervals, each...... subinterval preferably corresponding to a sleep epoch, classifying each subinterval in terms of sleep stages, thereby obtaining a temporal sleep stage pattern, wherein a subject having an uncharacteristic temporal distribution of sleep stages is characterized as having an abnormal sleep pattern....

  2. Frequency of EEG abnormalities in age-matched siblings of autistic children with abnormal sleep EEG patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chez, Michael G; Buchanan, Thomas; Aimonovitch, Mary; Mrazek, Susan; Krasne, Valerie; Langburt, Wayne; Memon, Shoaib

    2004-04-01

    Epileptiform activity in sleep has been described even in the absence of clinical seizures in 43-68% of patients with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Genetic factors may play a significant role in the frequency of epilepsy, yet the frequency in normal age-matched controls is unknown. We studied overnight ambulatory electroencephalograms (EEGs) in 12 nonepileptic, nonautistic children with a sibling with both ASDs and an abnormal EEG. EEG studies were read and described independently by two pediatric epileptologists; 10 were normal studies and 2 were abnormal. The occurrence of abnormal EEGs in our sample (16.6%) was lower than the reported occurrence in children with ASDs. Further, the two abnormal EEGs were of types typically found in childhood and were different from those found in the ASD-affected siblings. The lack of similarity between sibling EEGs suggests that genetic factors alone do not explain the higher frequency of EEG abnormalities reported in ASDs.

  3. Sleep-related respiratory abnormalities and arousal pattern in achondroplasia during early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ednick, Mathew; Tinkle, Brad T; Phromchairak, Jungrak; Egelhoff, John; Amin, Raouf; Simakajornboon, Narong

    2009-10-01

    To assess sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), sleep architecture, and arousal pattern in infants with achondroplasia and to evaluate the relationship between foramen magnum size and the severity of SDB. A retrospective review of polysomnographic recordings and medical records was performed in infants with achondroplasia and in aged-matched control subjects. All studies were re-scored with the emphasis on respiratory events, sleep state, and arousals. In addition, the neuroimaging study of the brain (magnetic resonance imaging) was reviewed to evaluate foramen magnum diameters and to assess their relationship to SDB. Twenty-four infants met the criteria for entry into analysis, 12 infants with achondroplasia (A) and 12 control infants (C). There was no significant difference in age or sex. Infants with achondroplasia had a significant increase in total respiratory disturbance index (RDI; A, 13.9 +/- 10.8 versus C, 2.0 +/- 0.9; P achondroplasia had a significant decrease in both spontaneous arousal index (A, 10.5 +/- 3.5/hr versus C, 18.6 +/- 2.7; P achondroplasia have significant SDB during early infancy. SDB in infants with achondroplasia is not associated with alteration in sleep architecture, possibly because of attenuation of the arousal response. We speculate that the concomitant increased apneic events and decreased arousal response will lead to vulnerability in these infants and may underlie the pathophysiologic mechanism of sudden unexpected death in this population.

  4. Abnormal wake/sleep pattern in a novel gain-of-function model of DISC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaaro-Peled, Hanna; Altimus, Cara; LeGates, Tara; Cash-Padgett, Tyler; Zoubovsky, Sandra; Hikida, Takatoshi; Ishizuka, Koko; Hattar, Samer; Mongrain, Valérie; Sawa, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in psychiatric disorders, but the causal relationship between the two and the underlying genetic factors is unclear. The DISC1 gene is strongly linked to mood disorders and schizophrenia in a Scottish pedigree. In an earlier study we found a sleep homeostasis disturbance in a Drosophila model overexpressing wild-type human DISC1. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between sleep and the DISC1 gene in a mammalian model, a novel transgenic mouse model expressing full-length human DISC1. We assessed circadian rhythms by monitoring wheel running activity under normal 24-h light:dark conditions and in constant darkness and found the DISC1 mice to have normal circadian photoentrainment and normal intrinsic circadian period. We also assessed sleep duration and quality in the DISC1 mice and found that they were awake longer than wild-type controls at baseline with a tendency for lower rebound of delta activity during recovery from a short sleep deprivation. Thus we suggest that DISC1 may be involved in sleep regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Actigraphic assessment of daily sleep-activity pattern abnormalities reflects self-assessed depression and anxiety in outpatients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Wood, Patricia A; Burch, James B; Grutsch, James F; Gupta, Digant; Tyer, Kevin; Lis, Christopher G; Levin, Robert D; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Reynolds, Justin L; Hrushesky, William J M

    2010-02-01

    We measured subjectively evaluated depression and anxiety, and objectively measured daily sleep-activity patterns in inpatients and outpatients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and determined whether cancer-associated depression and anxiety are accompanied by characteristic circadian rhythm abnormalities. Equal numbers of inpatients (n=42) and outpatients (n=42) with advanced NSCLC were studied. Baseline depression and anxiety, assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and actigraphy were recorded before chemotherapy initiation. The effects of the presence and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on depression, anxiety, and actigraphy were assessed only among the 42 outpatients. Anxiety occurred in 40% and depression in 25% of these lung cancer patients, equally among inpatients and outpatients. All patients suffer extremely disturbed daily sleep-activity cycles but each patient also maintains some degree of circadian organization. Outpatients maintain more robust daily activity patterns and longer, more consolidated nighttime sleep compared with inpatients. The more disrupted the daily sleep-activity rhythm, the worse the depression and/or anxiety scores for outpatients. These relationships are obscured among inpatients. COPD has no independent measurable effects on the daily organization of sleep-activity, depression, or anxiety. Lung cancer patients whose diurnal activity is disturbed by prolonged and frequent sedentary episodes and whose sleep is disturbed by frequent and prolonged waking are most anxious and depressed. These findings and relationships are masked by hospitalization. Since diurnal exercise improves both sleep and mood, it is reasonable to test whether enhancing daytime activity and nighttime sleep can diminish cancer-associated depression.

  6. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  7. Sleep in ring chromosome 20 syndrome: a peculiar electroencephalographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrelli, Elena; Vignoli, Aglaia; Nobili, Lino; Didato, Giuseppe; Mastrangelo, Massimo; Turner, Katherine; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2013-01-01

    Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized by epilepsy and intellectual disability. Distinctive electroclinical features and wakefulness EEG patterns have been described. The EEG features of sleep have not yet been evaluated. We studied the pattern of sleep in six patients aged 2-59 years who underwent at least one polysomnographic recording. Their sleep pattern evolution is described as deterioration ranging from normal to destructured NREM/REM sleep. NREM sleep alterations were observed from childhood and were more evident in adulthood. EEG abnormalities detected during wakefulness persisted, with morphological changes, during sleep. During NREM sleep all the subjects presented high amplitude delta sequences with a sharply contoured or notched appearance, prevalent over frontal regions. The theta rhythm of wakefulness was seen to persist during REM sleep. Ring chromosome 20 syndrome shows sleep alterations that seem to be age-related. A potential role of cortical and thalamocortical dysfunction is discussed.

  8. Sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goril, Shery; Zalai, Dora; Scott, Louise; Shapiro, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures. Children and adolescents (N = 36, 6-18 years) with FASD participated in clinical assessments by sleep specialists, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) test in a pediatric sleep laboratory. PSG was analyzed according to standardized scoring guidelines and sleep architecture was compared with normative data. DLMOs were determined and melatonin secretion curves were evaluated qualitatively to classify melatonin profiles. Sleep disorders were evaluated according to international diagnostic criteria. There was a high prevalence (58%) of sleep disorders. The most common sleep problems were parasomnias (27.9%) and insomnia (16.8%). The sleep studies showed lower than normal sleep efficiency and high rates of sleep fragmentation. Most participants (79%) had an abnormal melatonin profile. This study led to the recognition that both sleep and melatonin secretion abnormalities are present in children with FASD. Therefore, to be effective in managing the sleep problems in children with FASD, one needs to consider both the sleep per se and a possible malfunction of the circadian regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  10. Sleep Patterns in Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Beck, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns and the association between sleep and perceived health for children with and without CF. Ninety families (45 CF) completed questionnaires about the child’s sleep and health. Significant group differences were found for sleep patterns (bedtime, wake time, total sleep time), symptoms of sleep disordered breathing, and sleep disturbances. Poorer perceived health was associated with sleep disturbances among children with CF, but not for children without CF. This...

  11. Sleep Patterns in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Eli; Epstein, Rachel; Elroy, Sarit; Iancu, Daisy R.; Zelnik, Nathanel

    1999-01-01

    This study compared data on sleep disturbances of 22 autistic children obtained by questionnaires with data obtained with actigraphy. Questionnaire responses indicated that autistic children had an earlier morning awakening time and multiple and early night arousals; actigraphic monitoring, however, showed their sleep patterns were normal except…

  12. Abnormal sleep patterns in subjects with type II diabetes mellitus and its effect on diabetic microangiopathies: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAMS, report 20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajiv; Gupta, Aditi; Venkatesh, Kadri; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Sharma, Tarun

    2012-08-01

    To study the prevalence of Abnormal Sleep Patterns (ASPs), gender-wise, in subjects with type II diabetes mellitus and its influence on diabetic microangiopathies. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,414 patients having type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using stereoscopic digital fundus photography. Neuropathy was assessed by measuring vibration perception threshold using a sensitometer. Nephropathy was diagnosed by the presence of microalbuminuria in the first morning urine sample. ASPs were defined as either short (less than 5 h) or long (more than 9 h) duration of sleep with excessive daytime sleepiness. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was assessed to note excessive daytime sleepiness; a score of more than 10 was considered as abnormal. The prevalence of ASPs was more in subjects with diabetes than with those without diabetes (14.8 vs. 6.6%) (P = 0.009), especially in women (15.7 vs. 5.6%) (P = 0.021). Likewise, the prevalence of short duration of sleep was higher in subjects with diabetes compared to those without diabetes (6.6 vs. 2.2%) (P = 0.040). The mean age of women subjects with diabetes, having ASPs, was higher than those without diabetes (56.4 ± 8.9 years vs. 47.2 ± 5.9 years, P = 0.033). Women subjects with ASPs had a higher risk of diabetic neuropathy on both univariate and multivariate analysis. ASPs are not only related to diabetes but can also influence the microvascular complications arising due to diabetes, particularly diabetic neuropathy. Diabetology and sleep medicine specialists need to work together to prevent the negative interactions between these two groups.

  13. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Raviv, Amiram; Gruber, Reut

    2000-01-01

    Assessed sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found that older children had more delayed sleep onset times and increased reported daytime sleepiness than younger; girls spent more time in sleep than boys and had increased percentage of motionless sleep; and 18 percent of children had fragmented…

  14. Prevelence and Pattern of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is paucity of published data on the prevalence and pattern of electrocardiographic abnormalities (ECGA) seen in adult Nigerians referred for this investigation. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of some ECGA in Nigerian adults. Methods: This is a hospital based audit to determine the ...

  15. Relationship of symptoms with sleep-stage abnormalities in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Basunia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS present with a variety of sleep-related symptoms. In polysomnography, sleep architecture is almost always abnormal, but it is not known which of the sleep-stage abnormalities are related to symptoms. Finding key sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms may be of therapeutic importance to alleviate symptoms. So far the mainstay of treatment is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP/bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP therapy, but many patients are non-compliant to it. Correcting the sleep-stage abnormality that cause symptoms by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional study. Adult subjects who attended a sleep laboratory for diagnostic polysomnography for a period of 1 month were recruited consecutively. OSAHS was diagnosed using American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Subjects filled a questionnaire for symptoms prior to polysomnography. Results: Thirty subjects, of whom 83.3% were obese, met diagnostic criteria, with males constituting 46.7% and females constituting 53%. Mean age was 53.40±11.60 years. Sleep architecture comprised N1 19.50±19.00%, N2 53.93±13.39%, N3 3.90±19.50%, and rapid eye movement 8.92±6.21%. Excessive fatigue or sleepiness, waking up tired, falling asleep during the day, trouble paying attention, snoring and insomnia were significantly related to decreased N3 sleep. Conclusions: Most of the symptoms in OSAHS in adults are related to decreased stage N3 sleep. If confirmed by larger controlled studies, correcting N3 sleep deficiency by pharmacotherapy may become an important adjunct to CPAP/BIPAP therapy to alleviate symptoms.

  16. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Thanh Dang-Vu

    Full Text Available Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD, during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation.Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers.During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls.Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  17. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea is a predictor of abnormal glucose metabolism in chronically sleep deprived obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Lucassen, Eliane A; de Jonge, Lilian; Walter, Mary; Mattingly, Megan S; Kalish, Heather; Csako, Gyorgy; Rother, Kristina I

    2013-01-01

    Sleep abnormalities, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), have been associated with insulin resistance. To determine the relationship between sleep, including OSA, and glucose parameters in a prospectively assembled cohort of chronically sleep-deprived obese subjects. Cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. Sleep duration and quality assessed by actigraphy, sleep diaries and questionnaires, OSA determined by a portable device; glucose metabolism assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT), and HbA1c concentrations in 96 obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 h on a regular basis. Sixty % of subjects had an abnormal respiratory disturbance index (RDI≥5) and 44% of these subjects had abnormal oGTT results. Severity of OSA as assessed by RDI score was associated with fasting glucose (R = 0.325, p = 0.001) and fasting insulin levels (ρ = 0.217, p = 0.033). Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (RDI>15) had higher glucose concentrations at 120 min than those without OSA (RDIsleep deprived individuals. Since sleep apnea is common and frequently undiagnosed, health care providers should be aware of its occurrence and associated risks. This study was conducted under the NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 and is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.

  19. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Light plays an important role in the synchronization of the internal biological clock and the environmental day/night pattern. Thus, absence of vision is often associated with both increases in reported sleep disturbances and incidence of free-running circadian rhythms. In this study we...... parameters of sleep and wake, including episodes of rest, day-time and night-time sleep periods, and the number of awakenings throughout sleep. A measure of sleep efficiency was derived from these measures for each night-time sleep episode. We also examined complementary measures of sleep quality, using...... the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep...

  20. Sleep in Humans Stabilizes Pattern Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanert, Annika; Weber, Frederik D; Pedersen, Anya; Born, Jan; Bartsch, Thorsten

    2017-12-13

    Replay of hippocampal neural representations during sleep is thought to promote systems consolidation of declarative memory. How this reprocessing of memory during sleep affects the hippocampal representation itself, is unclear. Here we tested hippocampal stimulus processing (i.e., pattern separation) before and after periods of sleep and wakefulness in humans (female and male participants). Pattern separation deteriorated across the wake period but remained stable across sleep ( p = 0.013) with this sleep-wake difference being most pronounced for stimuli with low similarity to targets ( p = 0.006). Stimuli with the highest similarity showed a reversed pattern with reduced pattern separation performance after sleep ( p = 0.038). Pattern separation performance was positively correlated with sleep spindle density, slow oscillation density, and theta power phase-locked to slow oscillations. Sleep, presumably by neural memory replay, shapes hippocampal representations and enhances computations of pattern separation to subsequent presentation of similar stimuli. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories is causally related to reactivation during sleep of previously encoded representations. Here, we show that reactivation-based consolidation processes during sleep shape the hippocampal representation itself. We studied the effect of sleep and wakefulness on pattern separation (i.e., orthogonalization of similar representations) and completion performance (i.e., recall of a memory in light of noisy input) that are essential cognitive elements of encoding and retrieval of information by the hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that pattern separation was stabilized after sleep but diminished after wakefulness. We further showed that pattern separation was related to EEG oscillatory parameters of non-REM sleep serving as markers of sleep-dependent memory consolidation and hippocampal reactivation. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3712238-09$15.00/0.

  1. Sleep abnormalities associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opiate use: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarita, Gustavo A; Emadi, Nazli; Hodges, Sarah; Morgan, Peter T

    2016-04-26

    Sleep abnormalities are associated with acute and chronic use of addictive substances. Although sleep complaints associated with use and abstinence from addictive substances are widely recognized, familiarity with the underlying sleep abnormalities is often lacking, despite evidence that these sleep abnormalities may be recalcitrant and impede good outcomes. Substantial research has now characterized the abnormalities associated with acute and chronic use of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates. This review summarizes this research and discusses the clinical implications of sleep abnormalities in the treatment of substance use disorders.

  2. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

  3. Sleep patterns of co-sleeping and solitary sleeping infants and mothers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Ben-Zion, Hamutal; Karny, Daphna; Meiri, Gal; Tikotzky, Liat

    2015-11-01

    Controversies exist regarding the impact of co-sleeping on infant sleep quality. In this context, the current study examined: (a) the differences in objective and subjective sleep patterns between co-sleeping (mostly room-sharing) and solitary sleeping mother-infant dyads; (b) the predictive links between maternal sleep during pregnancy and postnatal sleeping arrangement; (c) the bi-directional prospective associations between sleeping arrangement and infant/maternal sleep quality at three and six months postpartum. The sample included 153 families recruited during pregnancy. Data were obtained in home settings during the third trimester of pregnancy and at three and six months postpartum. Mothers were asked to monitor their own sleep and their infants' sleep for five nights using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Questionnaires were used to assess sleeping arrangements, feeding methods, socio-demographic characteristics, and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms. Mothers of co-sleeping infants reported more infant night-wakings than mothers of solitary sleeping infants. However, none of the objective sleep measures was significantly different between co-sleeping and solitary sleeping infants, after controlling for feeding techniques. Co-sleeping mothers had significantly more objective and subjective sleep disturbances than mothers in the solitary sleeping group. Moreover, poorer maternal sleep during pregnancy and at three months postpartum predicted higher levels of co-sleeping at six months. Mothers of co-sleeping infants report more infant night-wakings, and experience poorer sleep than mothers of solitary sleeping infants. The quality of maternal sleep should be taken into clinical consideration when parents consult about co-sleeping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea is a predictor of abnormal glucose metabolism in chronically sleep deprived obese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cizza

    Full Text Available Sleep abnormalities, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, have been associated with insulin resistance.To determine the relationship between sleep, including OSA, and glucose parameters in a prospectively assembled cohort of chronically sleep-deprived obese subjects.Cross-sectional evaluation of a prospective cohort study.Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center.Sleep duration and quality assessed by actigraphy, sleep diaries and questionnaires, OSA determined by a portable device; glucose metabolism assessed by oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT, and HbA1c concentrations in 96 obese individuals reporting sleeping less than 6.5 h on a regular basis.Sixty % of subjects had an abnormal respiratory disturbance index (RDI≥5 and 44% of these subjects had abnormal oGTT results. Severity of OSA as assessed by RDI score was associated with fasting glucose (R = 0.325, p = 0.001 and fasting insulin levels (ρ = 0.217, p = 0.033. Subjects with moderate to severe OSA (RDI>15 had higher glucose concentrations at 120 min than those without OSA (RDI<5 (p = 0.017. Subjects with OSA also had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ACTH (p = 0.009. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in subjects with OSA (p<0.050. CRP levels were elevated in this sample, suggesting increased cardiovascular risk.OSA is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in obese, sleep deprived individuals. Since sleep apnea is common and frequently undiagnosed, health care providers should be aware of its occurrence and associated risks.This study was conducted under the NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 and is listed in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.

  5. Sleep Pattern and Sleep Hygiene Practices among Nigerian Schooling Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Igoche David; Adamu, Halima; Asani, Mustafa O; Aliyu, Ibrahim; Sabo, Umar A; Umar, Umar I

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially in the adolescent stage of development, may be associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired neurocognitive function, and a host of others leading to suboptimal performance. To determine the pattern of sleep problems in school-going adolescents based on the bedtime problems; excessive daytime sleepiness; awakenings during the night and problems falling back asleep; regularity and duration of sleep; sleep-disordered breathing (BEARS) sleep screening algorithm. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 353 secondary school-going adolescents in Kano metropolis. Subjects were selected for the study using multistage sampling technique. The study lasted from March 2015 to July 2015. Sleep problems were screened for using the BEARS sleep screening algorithm. Tables were used to present the qualitative data. The various BEARS sleep patterns were assessed, and comparison between stages of adolescence was done using Chi-square test (and Fisher's exact test where necessary). A significant association was considered at P sleep screening revealed awakenings during the night (34.6%) as the most common sleep-related problem reported, and this was followed by excessive daytime sleepiness (21.0%). Age-group dependent sleep duration was 7.19 ± 1.26, 7.13 ± 1.13, 7.16 ± 1.28, with P > 0.05. Although 62.9% of all the adolescents watched TV/play video games until 1 h before going to bed and this was highest in late adolescence, it was not statistically significantly associated with any of the sleep problems. Both the quality and quantity of sleep in Nigerian adolescents in Kano is suboptimal. Adolescent and sleep medicine should receive more attention in our environment.

  6. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Matuzaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences.

  7. Sleep Patterns and Mental Health Correlates in US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihui; Paksarian, Diana; Lamers, Femke; Hickie, Ian B; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2017-03-01

    To investigate systematically the associations of sleep patterns with a range of mental disorders and other outcomes among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Using the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 10 123 US adolescents 13-18 years of age, we assessed associations between adolescent-reported sleep patterns (tertiles of weeknight bedtime, weeknight sleep duration, weekend bedtime delay, and weekend oversleep) and past-year mental disorders based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, smoking, injury, suicidality, and perceived mental and physical health, assessed via direct diagnostic interview. The average weeknight bedtime was at 22:37 and sleep duration was 7.72 hours. Average weekend bedtime delay was 1.81 hours and average weekend oversleep was 1.17 hours. Later weeknight bedtime, shorter weeknight sleep duration, greater weekend bedtime delay, and both short and long periods of weekend oversleep were associated with increased odds of mood, anxiety, substance use, and behavioral disorders, as well as suicidality, tobacco smoking, and poor perceived mental and physical health. ORs ranged from 1.27 to 2.15. The only outcomes not associated with any sleep patterns were past-year injury and eating disorder. Suboptimal sleep patterns were associated with an array of mental disorders and other health-related outcomes among adolescents. Abnormal sleep patterns may serve as markers of prodromal or untreated mental disorders among adolescents, and may provide opportunities for prevention and intervention in mental disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Actigraphic and parent reports of sleep patterns and sleep disorders in children with subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Luci; Montgomery, Paul; Stores, Gregory

    2005-11-01

    To describe parent-reported and actigraphically assessed sleep patterns and sleep disorders in stimulant-medication-free children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), divided according to ADHD subtype. Seventy-one stimulant-medication-free children with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (8 girls; mean 8.8 years (SD 2.6), range 3-15 years) recruited from child psychiatry clinics. ADHD: ADHD Rating Scale DSM IV- Home Version to subdivide children into those with predominantly attention deficit, mainly hyperactivity, and those with both aspects equally. Sleep: Parent-completed sleep diary, clinical history, and 5 nights of actigraphy. Parents reported a wide range of frequently occurring sleep disturbances in their children. However, the objective sleep patterns were not abnormal and did not differ between the ADHD subtypes, and objective sleep patterns did not predict ADHD severity. There was poor correspondence between parent report and actigraphy. Careful clinical consideration of each case suggested that sleep disorders may be widespread in this group of children; only 8 of the 71 children had no discernable likely sleep disorder. Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, sleeplessness and reports of restless legs featured prominently. Parents of children with ADHD may not be accurate reporters of their children's sleep pattern and/or the sleep disturbances that come to parents' attention are not best detected by actigraphy. Results highlight the prominence of parent-reported sleep disturbance in children with ADHD and the need for clinicians to routinely screen for the presence of sleep disorders and assess detailed sleep physiology where indicated.

  9. Sleep pattern in women with menstrual pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, P; Hachul, H; Santos-Silva, R; Bittencourt, L R A; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-12-01

    Menstrual pain is a common problem in women of reproductive age and often interferes with the ability to work and with general well-being. Because painful conditions frequently affect sleep, we investigated the impact of this menstrual disorder on sleep patterns in adult women. Additionally, we examined whether medications used to alleviate menstrual pain promoted changes in sleep. According to their hormone profiles and menstrual histories, a total sample of 24 women (25-48 years old) who were experiencing their menstrual periods on the day of the polysomnogram (PSG) were included in the study. All of the participants answered questions regarding the presence of menstrual pain and use of medication. Menstrual pain was reported by 66.6% of the women on the night of the PSG. No marked effects were observed on the sleep pattern of these subjects compared with women without menstrual pain. The use of medication did not promote significant changes in the sleep pattern. None of the women were taking oral contraceptives. The presence of menstrual pain or the use of medication to alleviate pain did not significantly alter sleep patterns. Thus, the results suggest that the presence of self-described menstrual pain does not affect sleep patterns in adult women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep habits and patterns among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Al-Khairy, Omar K; Al-Taweel, Ahmed A

    2005-04-01

    This study was designed to assess sleep patterns among male medical students at different academic levels. Participants in this study were healthy male medical students in the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) academic levels of the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted during November 2001. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to students to assess age, academic level, registered credit hours, sleep-wake schedule, naps, quality of sleep, total sleep time at night, possible factors affecting bedtime, and daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The final analysis included 129 students. Total sleep time at night + nap of the whole group was 5.9 +/- 1.6 hours. Twenty-nine students (22.4%) were defined to have excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) based on ESS score of >10. Also, 83.3% of students reported napping during the daytime more than twice per week. Analysis of the sleep pattern of male medical students revealed that this group is sleep deprived, which in turn may affect their academic performance.

  11. Sleep wake pattern analysis: Study of 131 medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Nita Ninama; Jaydeep Kangathara

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep is part of the rhythm of life. Without a good sleep the mind is less adapts, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep wake cycle of the students is quite different and characterized by delayed onset, partial sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration and occurrence of napping episodes during the day The aim of the present study is to know sleep wake pattern in medical student, role of residence and individual characterization...

  12. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Youngmin; Williamson, Ariel A; Seo, Hyun-Joo; Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children's sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea.

  13. Self-reported sleep patterns in a British population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-03-01

    Sleep patterns have been linked to various health outcomes, but sleep patterns in the British population have not been extensively reported. We aimed to describe the sleep characteristics reported by the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk participants, with a particular emphasis on the comparison of measures of sleep quantity. From 2006 to 2007, a total of 8480 participants aged 45-90 years reported sleep timing, nighttime sleep duration, and sleep difficulties. Time in bed (TIB) was calculated from the difference between rise time and bedtime, and sleep proportion was defined as the ratio of sleep duration and TIB. On average, the reported TIB was more than 1.5h longer than sleep durations. Compared to men, women spent 15 min longer in bed, but they slept for 11 min less and reported more sleep difficulties. In multivariate analysis sleep duration and TIB varied with socioeconomic factors, but sleep proportion was consistently lower among women, nonworkers, and older individuals, as well as those who were widowed, separated, or divorced; those who reported sleep difficulties and more frequently used sleep medication; and those who had lower education, poorer general health, or a major depressive disorder (MDD). Self-reported sleep duration and TIB have different meanings and implications for health. Sleep proportion may be a useful indicator of sleep patterns in the general population. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleeping Habits among School Children and their Effects on Sleep Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Minz, Anurag; Arora, Varuni

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep problems can occur at any age. Inadequate sleep affects the physiological as well as psychological well-being of an individual. Thus, the objective of the present study is, to determine the pre sleep habits, duration and pattern of sleep among school children and to determine association between their sleep schedules and sleep habits. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised of 1050 children attending the government school. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria ch...

  15. Cerebral blood flow in normal and abnormal sleep and dreaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hata, T.; Karacan, I.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of regional or local cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the xenon-133 inhalation method and stable xenon computerized tomography CBF (CTCBF) method were made during relaxed wakefulness and different stages of REM and non-REM sleep in normal age-matched volunteers, narcoleptics, and sleep apneics. In the awake state, CBF values were reduced in both narcoleptics and sleep apneics in the brainstem and cerebellar regions. During sleep onset, whether REM or stage I-II, CBF values were paradoxically increased in narcoleptics but decreased severely in sleep apneics, while in normal volunteers they became diffusely but more moderately decreased. In REM sleep and dreaming CBF values greatly increased, particularly in right temporo-parietal regions in subjects experiencing both visual and auditory dreaming

  16. Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A., Ed.

    Noting that healthy, adequate sleep fosters longevity and the optimal use of waking hours, and that adolescents, although rarely included in previous studies of sleep, are among the most sleep-deprived populations, this book explores the genesis and development of sleep patterns during adolescence, including biological and cultural factors that…

  17. Sleep Regulation, Physiology and Development, Sleep Duration and Patterns, and Sleep Hygiene in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, Eleanor; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-02-01

    Sleep problems are common, reported by a quarter of parents with children under the age of 5 years, and have been associated with poor behavior, worse school performance, and obesity, in addition to negative secondary effects on maternal and family well-being. Yet, it has been shown that pediatricians do not adequately address sleep in routine well-child visits, and underdiagnose sleep issues. Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is critical to a pediatrician׳s ability to effectively and confidently counsel patients about sleep. The biological rhythm of sleep and waking is regulated through both circadian and homeostatic processes. Sleep also has an internal rhythmic organization, or sleep architecture, which includes sleep cycles of REM and NREM sleep. Arousal and sleep (REM and NREM) are active and complex neurophysiologic processes, involving both neural pathway activation and suppression. These physiologic processes change over the life course, especially in the first 5 years. Adequate sleep is often difficult to achieve, yet is considered very important to optimal daily function and behavior in children; thus, understanding optimal sleep duration and patterns is critical for pediatricians. There is little experimental evidence that guides sleep recommendations, rather normative data and expert recommendations. Effective counseling on child sleep must account for the child and parent factors (child temperament, parent-child interaction, and parental affect) and the environmental factors (cultural, geographic, and home environment, especially media exposure) that influence sleep. To promote health and to prevent and manage sleep problems, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that parents start promoting good sleep hygiene, with a sleep-promoting environment and a bedtime routine in infancy, and throughout childhood. Thus, counseling

  18. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Péter; Bódizs, Róbert; Horváth, Klára; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-03-01

    Nightmares are disturbing mental experiences during sleep that usually result in abrupt awakenings. Frequent nightmares are associated with poor subjective sleep quality, and recent polysomnographic data suggest that nightmare sufferers exhibit impaired sleep continuity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Because disrupted sleep might be related to abnormal arousal processes, the goal of this study was to examine polysomnographic arousal-related activities in a group of nightmare sufferers and a healthy control group. Sleep microstructure analysis was carried out by scoring the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in NREM sleep and the arousal index in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on the second night of the polysomnographic examination. Hospital-based sleep research laboratory. There were 17 in the nightmare (NMs) group and 23 in the healthy control (CTLs) group. N/A. The NMs group exhibited reduced amounts of CAP A1 subtype and increased CAP A2 and A3 subtypes, as well as longer duration of CAP A phases in comparison with CTLs. Moreover, these differences remained significant after controlling for the confounding factors of anxious and depressive symptoms. The absolute number and frequency of REM arousals did not differ significantly between the two groups. The results of our study indicate that NREM sleep microstructure is altered during nonsymptomatic nights of nightmares. Disrupted sleep in the NMs group seems to be related to abnormal arousal processes, specifically an imbalance in sleep-promoting and arousing mechanisms during sleep. Simor P; Bódizs R; Horváth K; Ferri R. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. SLEEP 2013;36(3):413-419.

  19. Sleep pattern and practice among adolescents school children in Nigerian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduabuchi, Josephat Chinawa; Obu, Herbert Anayo; Chukwu, Barthlomew Friday; Aronu, Ann Ebele; Manyike, Pius Chukwuka; Chinawa, Awoere Tamunosiki

    2014-01-01

    Some adolescents may have sleep disorder at some point during adolescence. Determining the pattern and practice of sleep among adolescents could be useful to establish a lasting sleep hygiene program among adolescents. The objectives of this study are to describe sleep pattern and practice among adolescent in Nigerian secondary schools. Sleep habits were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools from February to April 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV criteria. Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used. A total of 443 subjects, comprising 263 (59.4%) females and 180 (40.6%) males completed the questionnaire. The mean duration of night sleep of the subjects during weekday was 7.84 (1.9) hours and 8.65 (2.07) hours during the weekend. 22.8% (101/443) had abnormal sleep onset latency ( 30 minutes). The gender of the subjects did not influence the sleep onset latency (χ(2) = 32.89, p= 0.57). Twenty six (5.9%)of the subjects reported difficulty falling asleep. Adolescents have varying degrees of sleeping practice and hygiene.

  20. Sleep Patterns and Fatigue in New Mothers and Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Caryl L.; Lee, Kathryn A.; Lee, Shih-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns and fatigue of both mothers and fathers before and after childbirth. The authors used wrist actigraphy and questionnaires to estimate sleep and fatigue in 72 couples during their last month of pregnancy and 1st month postpartum. Both parents experienced more sleep disruption at night during the postpartum period as compared to the last month of pregnancy. Compared to fathers, with their stable 24-h sleep patterns over time, mothers ...

  1. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals.Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake.Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was...

  2. Sleep-Wake Patterns and Sleep Disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. DESIGN AND SETTING: A school-based cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire,...

  3. Sleep patterns in college students: gender and grade differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-02-01

    Since gender effect is inconsistent and grade effect has not been addressed in previous studies, we investigated both effects on the daily sleep patterns in a group of young college students. The sample consisted of 237 students aged 18-24 years. Each subject completed a 7-day sleep log. Gender differences were found in several sleep variables and those were mostly not dependent on weekday/weekend difference. The female students went to bed and rose earlier and had longer sleep latency, more awakenings, and poorer sleep quality than the male. Gender differences were also shown in the relationship between sleep quality and other sleep variables. The correlation between sleep quality and rise time, time in bed, and sleep efficiency was stronger in men than in women. In contrast, grade differences were mostly dependent on weekday/weekend difference. The freshmen rose earlier and had shorter sleep time than did the other students on weekdays only. Sleep latency was the longest in seniors on weekdays only. This study showed that gender differences in sleep patterns and sleep difficulties were remarkable in the group of young college students. Alarmed by the high prevalence of sleep difficulties among general college students, it is recommended that the students should be informed of their sleep problems and the consequences.

  4. Understanding adolescents' sleep patterns and school performance: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A

    2003-12-01

    The present paper reviews and critiques studies assessing the relation between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school performance of adolescents attending middle school, high school, and/or college. The majority of studies relied on self-report, yet the researchers approached the question with different designs and measures. Specifically, studies looked at (1) sleep/wake patterns and usual grades, (2) school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic performance, and (3) sleep patterns and classroom performance (e.g., examination grades). The findings strongly indicate that self-reported shortened total sleep time, erratic sleep/wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle school through the college years. Limitations of the current published studies are also discussed in detail in this review.

  5. Abnormal secretion of melatonin and cortisol in relation to sleep disturbances in children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniecinska-Cooper, Anna Maria; Iles, Ray Kruse; Butler, Stephen Andrew; Jones, Huw; Bayford, Richard; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2015-01-01

    A high rate of sleep disturbances has been reported in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) but the underlying aetiology has yet to be identified. Melatonin and cortisol levels display circadian rhythmicity and are known to affect and regulate sleep/wake patterns. The current study examined the levels of these two endocrine markers and explored a possible relationship with sleep patterns in children with WS. Twenty-five children with WS and 27 typically developing age- and gender-matched comparison children were recruited. Saliva was collected from each child at three time points: 4-6 pm, before natural bedtime, and after awakening. The levels of salivary melatonin and cortisol were analysed by specific enzyme-linked immunoassays. Sleep patterns were examined using actigraphy and the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire. The WS group had shallower drops in cortisol and less pronounced increase in melatonin at bedtime compared to the controls. Furthermore, they also had significantly higher levels of cortisol before bedtime. Increased bedtime cortisol and less pronounced rise in melatonin levels before sleep may play a role in the occurrence of sleep disturbances, such as delayed sleep onset, observed in children with WS. As both markers play a significant role in our circadian rhythm and sleep/wake cycle, it is necessary to examine sleep using multi-system analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Changing Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Factors Affecting them and the Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Bhoday, Harpreet Singh

    2017-03-01

    Sleep affects physical growth, behavior and emotional development besides determining cognitive functioning, learning and attention especially of a growing child. Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in the life span and is characterized by a tremendous pace in growth and change that is second only to that of infancy. Adolescent sleep patterns deserve particular attention because of the potential impact on school performance. Average sleep period in adolescents is reduced during school days to around seven hours. The reasons may be biological mainly the sleep phase delay or psychosocial and environmental. These include academic demands, social activities, sports, internet, television viewing, part-time employment, and use of mobile phone at night, peer and parental influence and socioeconomic status. These changing patterns of sleep in adolescents lead to many behavioral sleep problems like Delayed Sleep-phase Syndrome; Difficulties in falling asleep (insomnia); excessive daytime sleepiness, poor academic performance. Decreased sleep in adolescents also causes obesity and other cardio-metabolic abnormalities. This needs an integrated approach involving adolescents themselves, their parents, teachers and specialized physicians to help improve the sleep quantity and quality and lead to a better quality of life and daytime functioning in adolescents. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  7. Narcolepsy susceptibility gene CCR3 modulates sleep-wake patterns in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hiromi; Honda, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Susumu; Miyagawa, Taku; Honda, Makoto; Honda, Kazuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Kodama, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (Hcrt) neurons and is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Although abnormalities in immunity are suggested to be involved in the etiology of narcolepsy, no decisive mechanism has been established. We previously reported chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 (CCR3) as a novel susceptibility gene for narcolepsy. To understand the role of CCR3 in the development of narcolepsy, we investigated sleep-wake patterns of Ccr3 knockout (KO) mice. Ccr3 KO mice exhibited fragmented sleep patterns in the light phase, whereas the overall sleep structure in the dark phase did not differ between Ccr3 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promoted wakefulness and suppressed both REM and NREM sleep in the light phase in both Ccr3 KO and WT mice. Conversely, LPS suppressed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep in the dark phase in both genotypes. After LPS administration, the proportion of time spent in wakefulness was higher, and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep was lower in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice only in the light phase. LPS-induced changes in sleep patterns were larger in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we quantified the number of Hcrt neurons and found that Ccr3 KO mice had fewer Hcrt neurons in the lateral hypothalamus compared to WT mice. We found abnormalities in sleep patterns in the resting phase and in the number of Hcrt neurons in Ccr3 KO mice. These observations suggest a role for CCR3 in sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients.

  8. Narcolepsy susceptibility gene CCR3 modulates sleep-wake patterns in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Toyoda

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (Hcrt neurons and is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Although abnormalities in immunity are suggested to be involved in the etiology of narcolepsy, no decisive mechanism has been established. We previously reported chemokine (C-C motif receptor 3 (CCR3 as a novel susceptibility gene for narcolepsy. To understand the role of CCR3 in the development of narcolepsy, we investigated sleep-wake patterns of Ccr3 knockout (KO mice. Ccr3 KO mice exhibited fragmented sleep patterns in the light phase, whereas the overall sleep structure in the dark phase did not differ between Ccr3 KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS promoted wakefulness and suppressed both REM and NREM sleep in the light phase in both Ccr3 KO and WT mice. Conversely, LPS suppressed wakefulness and promoted NREM sleep in the dark phase in both genotypes. After LPS administration, the proportion of time spent in wakefulness was higher, and the proportion of time spent in NREM sleep was lower in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice only in the light phase. LPS-induced changes in sleep patterns were larger in Ccr3 KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we quantified the number of Hcrt neurons and found that Ccr3 KO mice had fewer Hcrt neurons in the lateral hypothalamus compared to WT mice. We found abnormalities in sleep patterns in the resting phase and in the number of Hcrt neurons in Ccr3 KO mice. These observations suggest a role for CCR3 in sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients.

  9. Pattern of abnormalities detected on scout films at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) assesses tubal status during infertility investigation. The scout film standardizes the film qualities and detects calcified areas in the pelvis. Unfortunately the film is often skipped during HSG. This study determined the pattern of abnormalities detected in scout films and assessed ...

  10. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Ma, G.; Zhai, F.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Yang, X.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included.

  11. Holiday and School-Term Sleep Patterns of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-01-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient…

  12. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter C.; Brown, Franklin; Soper, Barlow

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their sleep habits, patterns, and problems. A large majority had at least occasional sleep problems, with women reporting more of some difficulties than men. The most common sleep difficulties were taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, trouble falling asleep more than three times per week, morning…

  13. Sleeping Habits among School Children and their Effects on Sleep Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Minz, Anurag; Arora, Varuni

    2017-12-01

    Introduction: Sleep problems can occur at any age. Inadequate sleep affects the physiological as well as psychological well-being of an individual. Thus, the objective of the present study is, to determine the pre sleep habits, duration and pattern of sleep among school children and to determine association between their sleep schedules and sleep habits. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised of 1050 children attending the government school. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria children were from three age groups: 4-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years of age. A questionnaire about demographical data, sleep problems and habits, was duly filled by the parents. The parents of children were questioned for bed time, wakeup time, sleep time and sleep duration during both weekdays and weekends. Results: Total sleep time during weekdays was 8.9 (1.2) hours and 10.7 (1.1) hours during weekends. The wakeup time was significantly delayed during weekends in all age groups. Moreover, total sleep time increased significantly during weekends in all age groups. Children using media after 8 pm and sleeping alone are also in significant sleep debt. Screen activities such as TV, internet and cellular phones in a child's bedroom had a negative effect on children's sleep/wake patterns and duration of sleep. Children in higher grades are sleep debt compared to younger ones. Practices such as co sleeping and sharing bed with parents significantly improve the duration and quality of sleep. Conclusion: The sleep durations reported in the present study were lower than recommended sleep duration for children.

  14. Integrative literature review: sleep patterns in infants attending nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Ana Carolina Dantas Rocha; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Viana, Tamires Rebeca Forte; Lopes, Márcia Maria Coelho Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    To identify evidence available in the literature about sleep patterns of infants attending nurseries. An integrative review of studies published in Portuguese, English or Spanish available in full text on LILACS, CINAHL, and PubMed databases. The following descriptors sono, lactente and creches or berçários (in Portuguese) and sleep, infant and childcare or nurseries were used for LILACS, CINAHL and Pubmed, respectively. Nine studies were selected and analyzed. The main component explored in the studies about sleep pattern is the sleep position of the infants, due to its association with sudden infant death syndrome. The results pointed to the need to promote and develop written guidelines regarding behavioral practices to reduce the risk of this phenomenon. Evidence has identified sleep issues, mainly regarding the sleep position of the infant and the environment where the infant sleeps, showing that it is critical to set routines and interventions to improve the quality of sleep care of infants attending nurseries.

  15. Sleep abnormalities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy-A sleep questionnaire and polysomnography based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Sujata; Puri, Vinod; Chaudhry, Neera; Gupta, Anu; Rabi, Sumit Kumar

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the quality of sleep, its architecture and occurrence of epileptiform discharges with their distribution across various stages of sleep in patients of Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), both drug naïve as well as those already on treatment. 99 patients of JME [36 drug naïve, 63 on antiepileptic drug(s) (AED)], and 30 healthy controls were recruited. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were evaluated with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), respectively.Polysomnography (PSG) was done to assess the sleep architecture. The EDI (Epileptiform Discharge Index) per stage of sleep was calculated. JME patients had significantly poor quality of sleep by PSQI (p=0.02).PSG revealed reduced sleep efficiency [p<0.001], increased sleep latency [p=0.02], increased%WASO [p<0.001], increased%N1 [p=0.01] and decreased% REM sleep [p=0.002] in the patients compared to controls. Epileptiform discharges were frequent among drug naïve JME patients [drug naïve, 868 vs. 727, treatment group]. EDI was higher in N1 (p=0.001) and N2 (p=0.007) in drug naïve compared to JME patients on treatment. EDI in valproate treatment group was relatively lower to other AEDs. JME is associated with poor sleep quality and altered architecture, irrespective of treatment status. REM sleep is significantly decreased in JME patients. Epileptiform discharges are frequent in lighter NREM sleep and EDI is higher in drug naïve patients. Although AEDs disrupt the NREM sleep, their use is associated with arousal stability in lighter stages of sleep and lower EDI, in particular with valproate. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Late postoperative nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia and associated sleep pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Wildschiødtz, G; Pedersen, M H

    1994-01-01

    pattern is disturbed severely with early depression of REM and slow wave sleep and with rebound of REM sleep on the second and third nights. Postoperative rebound of REM sleep may contribute to the development of sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal episodic hypoxaemia....... significantly after surgery (P sleep decreased significantly on the first night after operation (P sleep (rebound) on the second, third or both nights after operation compared with the preoperative night. Slow wave sleep...... was depressed significantly on the first two nights after operation (P sleep-associated hypoxaemic episodes for individual patients increased about three-fold on the second and third nights after operation compared with the night before operation (P sleep...

  17. Sleep Patterns and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Hospitalized Patients with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanev, Kaloyan S.; Winokur, Andrew; Pitman, Roger K.

    2017-01-01

    We studied 28 dementia inpatients receiving treatment as usual. We measured beginning-to-end differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms and actigraphic sleep patterns. Using a mixed model, we regressed neuropsychiatric symptoms on average sleep minutes (between-subjects effect) and each night's deviation from average (within-subject effect). Sleep did not significantly differ from beginning to end of participation, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms did. Average sleep minutes predicted average n...

  18. [Guidelines in Practice: The New S3 Guideline "Sleeping Disorders - Sleep-Related Abnormal Breathing"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Martin; Sanner, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders include central sleep apnea (CSA), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), sleep-related hypoventilation, and sleep-related hypoxia. These disorders are frequent and growing in clinical relevance. The related chapter of the S3 guideline "Non-restorative sleep/Sleep disorders", published by the German Sleep Society (DGSM), has recently been updated in November 2016. Epidemiology, diagnostics, therapeutic procedures, and classification of sleep related disorders have been revised. Concerning epidemiology, a considerably higher mortality rate among pregnant women with OSA has been emphasized. With regards to diagnostics, the authors point out that respiratory polygraphy may be sufficient in diagnosing OSA, if a typical clinical condition is given. For CSA, recommendations were changed to diagnose CSA with low apnea rates present. Significant changes for treating CSA in patients with left ventricular dysfunction have been introduced. In addition, there is now to be differentiated between sleep-related hypoventilation and sleep-related hypoxaemia. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome is discussed in more detail. This article sums up and comments on the published changes. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Estimating adolescent sleep patterns: parent reports versus adolescent self-report surveys, sleep diaries, and actigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Short MA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michelle A Short,1,2 Michael Gradisar,1 Leon C Lack,1 Helen R Wright,1 Alex Chatburn21School of Psychology, Flinders University, 2Centre for Sleep Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: In research and clinical contexts, parent reports are often used to gain information about the sleep patterns of their adolescents; however, the degree of concordance between parent reports and adolescent-derived measures is unclear. The present study compares parent estimates of adolescent sleep patterns with adolescent self-reports from surveys and sleep diaries, together with actigraphy.Methods: A total of 308 adolescents (59% male aged 13–17 years completed a school sleep habits survey during class time at school, followed by a 7-day sleep diary and wrist actigraphy. Parents completed the Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey.Results: Parents reported an idealized version of their adolescent's sleep, estimating significantly earlier bedtimes on both school nights and weekends, significantly later wake times on weekends, and significantly more sleep than either the adolescent self-reported survey, sleep diary, or actigraphic estimates.Conclusion: Parent reports indicate that the adolescent averages a near-optimal amount of sleep on school nights and a more than optimal amount of sleep on weekends. However, adolescent-derived averages indicate patterns of greater sleep restriction. These results illustrate the importance of using adolescent-derived estimates of sleep patterns in this age group and the importance of sleep education for both adolescents and their parents.Keywords: concordance, parent, sleep, sleep measurement, survey, actigraphy

  20. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Namazi; Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad Univer...

  1. Abnormal patterning analysis using actual lens and illumination source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jongkyun; Lee, Jeonkyu; Kang, Eunsuk; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Guerrero, James; Chung, Rob

    2005-05-01

    As the minimum feature size shrinks down, i.e. low K1 lithography regime, the tool"s lens aberration sensitivity and user defined illumination imperfection might play a major role in patterning error. Thus, the study of impact from lens aberration and illumination on patterning is required for good tool maintenance and yield improvement. For this purpose, we collected many cases of abnormal patterning result from production line and then simulated in terms of actual lens aberration and illumination source data. LITEL products of ISI(In-situ Interferometer) and SMI(Source Metrology Interferometer) were used for characterizing lens and illumination source. Moreover, the ACE(Analysis and Characteristic Engine) of LITEL development product was used as the simulator. In this work, deformation of pattern fidelity, for example, CD asymmetry in word line and metal contact layer, pattern bending in isolation layer and also decreasing process window in bit line layer will be discussed with experimental and simulation data. Finally, we are able to make a guideline for preventing abnormal phenomenon. From this study, we can understand which lens aberration terms and illumination imperfection take an effect of abnormal pattering result.

  2. Sleep-patterns, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep among school children: Comparison of domicile and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Kandpal, Sunil Dutt; Goel, Deepak; Mittal, Nidhi; Dhyani, Mohan; Mittal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessment of sleep schedule, pre-sleep behavior, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep of school going children. Four schools each, from urban and rural area were included. Sleep patterns were assessed using the validated Hindi version of Childhood-Sleep-Habit-Questionnaire. Comparison was made between urban and rural group and between boys and girls. Interaction of gender, domicile and school-type was examined on the sleep patterns. This study included 831 school children with mean age of 8.9 years. Nearly half of the subjects were boys in this study. Urban children outnumbered those from rural area. Total sleep time on weekdays was 8.3 h that increased to 9.5 h on weekends. Rural children spent more time in sleep than urban children on weekdays and weekends. A higher proportion of urban children felt sleepy during the day. Television watching before bedtime was more common in urban settings. Room sharing was more common among rural children. Nearly 65% rural parents as compared to 77.5% urban parents reported that their child was sleeping sufficient enough. Gender did not affect sleep-schedule and parent's perception regarding their child's sleep. Interaction between gender, domicile and school-type did not have any significant effect on sleep patterns. Television watching before bedtime was more common among urban school children and they had shorter total sleep time. They had signs of sleep deprivation. Room sharing was more common among rural children. Despite longer sleep time, parents of rural children felt the need for more sleep.

  3. The relationship between sleep and glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Sumritsopak, Rungtip; Saetung, Sunee; Chanprasertyothin, Suwannee; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 plays a role in glucose regulation. Sleep disturbances (obstructive sleep apnea, insufficient or poor sleep quality) have been shown to adversely affect glucose metabolism. This study aimed to explore the relationship between sleep and glucagon-like peptide 1 regulation in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. Seventy-one adults with haemoglobin A1c levels between 5.7% and sleep duration and efficiency were obtained from 7-day actigraphy recordings. Obstructive sleep apnea was assessed using an overnight home monitor. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were measured during a 75-g glucose tolerance. The area under the curve of glucagon-like peptide 1 was calculated. The mean age (SD) was 55.1 (8.3) years and median (interquartile range) haemoglobin A1c was 5.97% (5.86, 6.23). There was no relationship between sleep duration or efficiency and fasting or area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 levels did not differ among those sleeping ≤ 5.75, > 5.75-sleep apnea severity, correlated with lower area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1 (B -0.242, P = 0.045), but not with fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 (B -0.213, P = 0.079). After adjusting for sex, haemoglobin A1c and body mass index, increasing apnea-hypopnea index was negatively associated with having area under the curve glucagon-like peptide 1 in the highest quartile (odds ratio 0.581, P = 0.028, 95% CI 0.359, 0.942). This study demonstrated that increasing obstructive sleep apnea severity was associated with lower glucagon-like peptide 1 response to glucose challenge. This could possibly be an additional mechanism by which obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism. Whether raising glucagon-like peptide 1 levels in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance with more severe obstructive sleep apnea will be beneficial should be explored. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European

  4. DEPTracker – Sleep Pattern Tracking with Accelerometer Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Havn, Ib; Svane Hansen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    of this patient group. In this paper, we demonstrate DEPTracker, a system capable of detecting sleep patterns, and in particular REM sleep. We show that DEPTracker is an accurate, cost-effective and suitable approach for sleep pattern detection in general. Details of the technology used, combining accelerometer......REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep pattern changes are known to be an early indicator of effective medical treatment of patients with a depression diagnosis. Existing methods to detect REM sleep pattern changes are known to be inaccurate, costly, or otherwise inadequate in normal settings...... technology with digital signal analysis is given and illustrates that the system is able to successfully detect REM sleep. The project demonstrates that accelerometers can be mounted on an eye lid and eye movements can be detected, sampled and stored in a database for online real-time analysis or post...

  5. Stress and sleep patterns of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, L A; Benedict, J O; Hanson, D P

    1999-06-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between stress and sleep. A self-report measure was used to assess three domains: environmental events, personality mediators, and emotional responses. It was hypothesized that one or more of the domains would predict seven different aspects of sleep. 227 college students completed the Derogatis Stress Profile and the Sleep Questionnaire. Analysis indicated that scores on emotional response were the best predictor of five different sleep aspects: depth of sleep, difficulties in waking up, quality and latency of sleep, negative affect in dreams, and sleep irregularity. Presence of environmental events was the best predictor for the length of sleep only. It was concluded that research looking at the effects of stress on sleep must consider all three components of stress and that perhaps the emotional response to stress is the best predictor of sleep complaints.

  6. [Neurocognitive and behavioural abnormalities in paediatric sleep-related breathing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller Moré, Eduard; Barceló Mongil, Mercé; Segarra Isern, Francesc; Piñeiro Aguín, Zenaida; Pujol Olmo, Albert; Soler, Eusebi Matiñó; Ademà Alcover, Joan Manel

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities in children may be a consequence of sleep-related breathing disorders. The effectiveness of assessments based on questioning parents is dubious and objective assessment tools are therefore required. To ascertain the impact of these abnormalities in children with sleep-related breathing disorders and compare the reliability of questioning parents in relation to validated psychological tests. A prospective study was performed on 20 children with sleep-related breathing disorders and 20 healthy control children between 3 and 12 years of age. Both groups were subjected to a battery of validated psychological tests. The results of both groups were compared with each other and with the response to clinical questionnaires given to parents in the problem group. More than 75% of the cases in the problem group presented abnormalities with regard to attention, anxiety, memory and spatial structuring. The percentage involvement in all concepts was higher in the problem group. Comparisons of attention (40% of children affected in the control group and 80% in the problem group), memory (50% and 84.2%), and spatial structuring (45% and 75%) were statistically significant. More abnormality was observed in the parameters assessed with psychological tests than the equivalent concept obtained from interviewing the parents. Comparison of abnormal concentration assessed from the questionnaires (40% of children affected) with attention during the psychological test (80%), memory (15% and 84.21%), and delayed language development (10%) compared to spatial structuring (75%) was statistically significant. A high prevalence of behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities was observed in children with sleep-related breathing disorders compared to a control group of healthy children. The use of objective assessment such as psychological tests revealed more abnormalities than were expressed by parents in response to clinical interviews.

  7. Sleep patterns in congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Tulen, Joke; Man in't Veld, A.; Mechelse, Karel; Boomsma, Frans

    1990-01-01

    textabstractSleep patterns of two young female patients with congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency are described. In this orthostatic syndrome central and peripheral noradrenergic failure occurs as a result of impaired beta-hydroxylation of dopamine. Consequently, the levels of dopamine and its metabolites are elevated. The relative importance of noradrenaline deficit in the face of dopamine excess for sleep-regulatory mechanisms can be inferred from the sleep pattern of these patie...

  8. Histopathological pattern of abnormal uterine bleeding in endometrial biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S; Lakhey, M; Vaidya, S; Sharma, P K; Hirachand, S; Lama, S; KC, S

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presenting complaint in gyanecology out patient department. Histopathological evaluation of the endometrial samples plays a significant role in the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding. This study was carried out to determine the histopathological pattern of the endometrium in women of various age groups presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsies and curettings of patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding was retrospectively studied. A total of 403 endometrial biopsies and curettings were analyzed. The age of the patients ranged from 18 to 70 years. Normal cyclical endometrium was seen in 165 (40.94%) cases, followed by 54 (13.40%) cases of disordered proliferative endometrium and 44 (10.92%) cases of hyperplasia. Malignancy was seen in 10 (2.48%) cases. Hyperplasia and malignancy were more common in the perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. Histopathological examination of endometrial biopsies and curettings in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding showed a wide spectrum of changes ranging from normal endometrium to malignancy. Endometrial evaluation is specially recommended in women of perimenopausal and postmenopausal age groups presenting with AUB, to rule out a possibility of any preneoplastic condition or malignancy.

  9. Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58+/-1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression; additionally, they filled in a questionnaire assessing sleep-related personality traits and completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Results showed a high overlap between parenting styles of both parents, though with a different relation to adolescents' sleep. Adverse parenting styles were highly correlated with low sleep quality, negative mood, increased daytime sleepiness, and with increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents with low positive and high negative parenting styles displayed the most unfavorable sleep-related personality traits. Results suggest that parenting styles are related to young people's sleep pattern even at the beginning of late adolescence.

  10. Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP): the marker of sleep instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Liborio; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Terzano, Mario G

    2012-02-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern CAP is the EEG marker of unstable sleep, a concept which is poorly appreciated among the metrics of sleep physiology. Besides, duration, depth and continuity, sleep restorative properties depend on the capacity of the brain to create periods of sustained stable sleep. This issue is not confined only to the EEG activities but reverberates upon the ongoing autonomic activity and behavioral functions, which are mutually entrained in a synchronized oscillation. CAP can be identified both in adult and children sleep and therefore represents a sensitive tool for the investigation of sleep disorders across the lifespan. The present review illustrates the story of CAP in the last 25 years, the standardized scoring criteria, the basic physiological properties and how the dimension of sleep instability has provided new insight into pathophysiolology and management of sleep disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  12. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Meltzer, Lisa J; Tapia, Ignacio E; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C; Doyle, Lex W; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A; Marcus, Carole L

    2016-05-15

    To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5-12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Effects of body mass index on sleep patterns during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile sleep patterns during pregnancy according to body mass index (BMI) and to correlate labour outcomes with both BMI and hours sleep. Data were collected from 200 postpartum women detailing sleep characteristics before and during pregnancy. A validated sleep questionnaire was employed, which comprised of questions about sleep apnoea, snoring, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication and daytime dysfunction. Descriptive analyses were used. With advancing gestation, the mean (SD) number of hours sleep per night declined: pre-pregnancy 8.1 (SD 1.4); 1st trimester 8.3 (SD 1.8); 2nd trimester 7.7 (SD 1.7) and 3rd trimester 6.7 (SD 2.2). In the 18.5-24.9 BMI group, there was a marked difference in hours sleep per night from pre-pregnancy to 1st (8.6 h, p = 0.007), 2nd (7.9 h, p = 0.023) and 3rd (6.4 h, p = 0.000) trimesters in primiparous women. In the 25-29.9 BMI group, there was a difference from pre-pregnancy to 3rd trimester (p = 0.000). These changes were not reflected in a clinically significant difference in birth weight or mode of delivery.

  14. Sleep cycling alternating pattern (CAP) expression is associated with hypersomnia and GH secretory pattern in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priano, Lorenzo; Grugni, Graziano; Miscio, Giacinta; Guastamacchia, Giulia; Toffolet, Lorenzo; Sartorio, Alessandro; Mauro, Alessandro

    2006-12-01

    Hypersomnia, sleep-disordered breathing and narcoleptic traits such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep onset periods (SOREMPs) have been reported in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In a group of young adult patients with genetically confirmed PWS we evaluated sleep and breathing polysomnographically, including cycling alternating pattern (CAP), and we analyzed the potential interacting role of sleep variables, sleep-related breathing abnormalities, hypersomnia, severity of illness variables and growth hormone (GH) secretory pattern. Eleven males and 7 females (mean age: 27.5+/-5.5 years) were submitted to a full night of complete polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). GH secretory pattern was evaluated by a standard GH-releasing hormone plus arginine test. Sixteen non-obese healthy subjects without sleep disturbances were recruited as controls. Compared to controls PWS patients showed reduced mean MSLT score (PREM sleep periods (P=0.01), and increased mean CAP rate/non-rapid eye movement (NREM) (Por=10. Conversely, significant nocturnal oxygen desaturation was frequent (83% of patients) and independent from apneas or hypopneas. In the PWS group, CAP rate/NREM showed a significant negative correlation with MSLT score (P=0.02) independently from arousals, respiratory disturbance variables, severity of illness measured by Holm's score or body mass index (BMI). PWS patients with CAP expression characterized by higher proportion of A1 subtypes presented less severe GH deficiency (P=0.01). Our study suggests a relationship between hypersomnia and CAP rate, and between CAP expression and GH secretory pattern in PWS, possibly reflecting underlying central dysfunctions.

  15. Sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Xu, Guangxing; Liu, Zhijun; Lu, Ning; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Entao

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to (1) characterize sleep patterns and sleep disturbances among Chinese school-aged children, (2) determine the prevalence of their short sleep duration and sleep disturbances based on clinical cutoffs, and (3) examine possible factors (socio-demographic factors and emotional/behavioral problems) that are associated with sleep disturbances. A large representative sample of 912 children aged 6-14years was recruited from Shenzhen, China. Their parents completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The mean bedtime was 9:45pm (SD=1h 11min), mean wake-up time was 7:03am (SD=31min), mean sleep duration was 9h 14min (SD=46min), and 23.8% of the children had sleep duration children suffered from global sleep disturbances (CSHQ total score >41). Bedtime resistance (22.9%), sleep anxiety (22.1%), sleep duration (21%) and daytime sleepiness (20%) were the most prevalent sleep disturbances; followed by sleep disordered breathing (12.1%), parasomnias (9.4%), sleep onset delay (6.9%), and night waking (5.2%). The prevalence of specific sleep disturbances ranged from 3.2% (falling asleep while watching television) to 81.9% (awakening by others in the morning). Correlations between most domains of sleep disturbances and emotional/behavioral problems were statistically significant (pchildren. Sleep disturbances are associated with gender, school grade, co-sleeping, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep patterns of Japanese preschool children and their parents: implications for co-sleeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direct relationship of sleep schedule and sleep quality variables between healthy preschool children and their parents, focusing on the influence of the difference in bedtime between each other. Forty-seven Japanese 5-year-old children and their primary parent were studied. The parents completed questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The children wore an actigraph for one week. Although sleep patterns of children were generally independent of their parents, late sleep end time and bedtime of children were associated with parents' late sleep end time on weekends. For 87% of children and parents who shared a bedroom, sleep quality was negatively affected by a shorter difference in bedtimes between child and parent, but not by co-sleeping. Sleep behaviours of parents can influence those of their children. For parents and children who share a bedroom, the timing of bedtime rather than co-sleeping may be a key factor in modulating sleep patterns. Trying to get children asleep and subsequently falling asleep at a similar time may disturb parents' sleep quality, which may subsequently affect that of their children. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Sleep-wake and melatonin pattern in craniopharyngioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Line; Jennum, Poul; Gammeltoft, Steen; Poulsgaard, Lars; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Klose, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    To assess the influence of craniopharyngioma or consequent surgery on melatonin secretion, and the association with fatigue, sleepiness, sleep pattern and sleep quality. Cross-sectional study. A total of 15 craniopharyngioma patients were individually matched to healthy controls. In this study, 24-h salivary melatonin and cortisol were measured. Sleep-wake patterns were characterised by actigraphy and sleep diaries recorded for 2 weeks. Sleepiness, fatigue, sleep quality and general health were assessed by Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Short-Form 36. Patients had increased mental fatigue, daytime dysfunction, sleep latency and lower general health (all, P≤0.05), and they tended to have increased daytime sleepiness, general fatigue and impaired sleep quality compared with controls. The degree of hypothalamic injury was associated with an increased BMI and lower mental health (P=0.01). High BMI was associated with increased daytime sleepiness, daytime dysfunction, mental fatigue and lower mental health (all, P≤0.01). Low midnight melatonin was associated with reduced sleep time and efficiency (P≤0.03) and a tendency for increased sleepiness, impaired sleep quality and physical health. Midnight melatonin remained independently related to sleep time after adjustment for cortisol. Three different patterns of melatonin profiles were observed; normal (n=6), absent midnight peak (n=6) and phase-shifted peak (n=2). Only patients with absent midnight peak had impaired sleep quality, increased daytime sleepiness and general and mental fatigue. Craniopharyngioma patients present with changes in circadian pattern and daytime symptoms, which may be due to the influence of the craniopharyngioma or its treatment on the hypothalamic circadian and sleep regulatory nuclei. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Ramadan fasting, mental health and sleep-wake pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life style Changes during Ramadan month could possibly affect sleep-related behaviors such as total daily sleep time, sleep and wake up time and brain waves. In addition, Spirituality and religiosity have a marvelous influence on mental health and effective solutions against stress are being religious and believe in God. This review discusses the results of all related studies about possible effects of Ramadan fasting on various aspects of sleep pattern and mental health. Methods: Keywords such as ‘Ramadan’, ‘Ramadan Fasting’, ‘Islamic Fasting’, ‘Fasting in Ramadan’ and Fasting along Sleep, Chronotype, Sleep Latency, REM, NREM, Brain Wave, Psychology, Mental health, Religion, Mood, Depression, Social interaction, Depressive illness, Psychomotor performances, Bipolar disorders, Accident, Mania, Anxiety and Stress were searched via PubMed database, Scientific Information Datebas (SID and also some local journals, hence, 103 related articles from 1972 until 2010 were studied. Results: The results of studies about the effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep pattern is not similar and these differences could be due to cultural and life style discrepancy in several countries. Fasting during Ramadan could lead to delay in sleep-wake cycle, decrease in deep sleep and lack of awareness during the day. Conclusion: There are various reasons such as dietary pattern, hormonal changes and also stress which could alter the quantity and quality of sleep during Ramadan. Also, according to the available information, there is a relationship between fasting and mental health.

  19. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Ppattern. However, the differences in sleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns

  20. Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Hannah G; Reider, Brian D; Whiting, Annie B; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2010-02-01

    To characterize sleep patterns and predictors of poor sleep quality in a large population of college students. This study extends the 2006 National Sleep Foundation examination of sleep in early adolescence by examining sleep in older adolescents. One thousand one hundred twenty-five students aged 17 to 24 years from an urban Midwestern university completed a cross-sectional online survey about sleep habits that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and questions about academic performance, physical health, and psychoactive drug use. Students reported disturbed sleep; over 60% were categorized as poor-quality sleepers by the PSQI, bedtimes and risetimes were delayed during weekends, and students reported frequently taking prescription, over the counter, and recreational psychoactive drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. Students classified as poor-quality sleepers reported significantly more problems with physical and psychological health than did good-quality sleepers. Students overwhelmingly stated that emotional and academic stress negatively impacted sleep. Multiple regression analyses revealed that tension and stress accounted for 24% of the variance in the PSQI score, whereas exercise, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and consistency of sleep schedule were not significant predictors of sleep quality. These results demonstrate that insufficient sleep and irregular sleep-wake patterns, which have been extensively documented in younger adolescents, are also present at alarming levels in the college student population. Given the close relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health, intervention programs for sleep disturbance in this population should be considered. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishing patterns on hysteroscopy in abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pattern recognition of various phases of normal endometrium and endometrial pathologies during hysteroscopy has many advantages. It would help to triage women with AUB, so as to be selective with biopsies and curettages. Recognition of normal variant or benign lesion would reduce burden to the pathologist by decreasing the number of unnecessary sampling. It will also decreases anxiety of the patient as the report/prognostication can be instant in many cases. Material and methods: This prospective, double blind, correlation study was carried out in the teaching hospital with a sample population of 70 women presenting with AUB who underwent hysteroscopy and endometrial sampling. We identified patterns of endometrium which can used to predict six endometrial pathologies which were later correlated with the final histological diagnosis. Results: There was good correlation between hysteroscopic patterns and histopathology report, 33% of starry sky appearance correlated with atrophic endometrium, 87% of tongue shaped projections correlated with endometrial polyp, 44.4% of pebble stone appearance correlated with myomatous polyp, 50% of polypoidal pattern correlated with endometrial hyperplasia. 100% correlation was seen in strawberry appearance, pattern for secretory endometrium and cerebroid appearance which was pattern designated to endometrial carcinoma. Conclusion: Hysteroscopic pattern recognition is a useful concept to triage women who require sampling for histopathological diagnosis. Keywords: Abnormal uterine bleeding, Histopathology, Hysteroscopy, Pattern recognition

  2. Repeated Sleep Restriction in Adolescent Rats Altered Sleep Patterns and Impaired Spatial Learning/Memory Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. Design: The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Participants: Adolescent and adult rats. Measurements and Results: Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Conclusions: Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats. Citation: Yang SR; Sun H; Huang ZL; Yao MH; Qu WM. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability. SLEEP 2012;35(6):849-859. PMID:22654204

  3. [Sleep patterns of first-year nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlani, Renata; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at describing sleep patterns of first-year university students at the beginning of their course. The study was conducted at Campinas State University, Brazil. Data were collected in two points of time using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results showed that students report sleep of better quality and increased length during vacations, when they kept sleep habits in conformity to chronotype. After classes started a greater number of subjects reported poor sleep quality and daytime lack of enthusiasm. Those changes could be due to the submission of subjects to schedules imposed by the university or to the irregularity of sleep habits assumed. Possible relationship between those sleep-changes and academic performance stresses the importance of ongoing studies on this issue.

  4. Holiday and school-term sleep patterns of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Suzanne; Murray, Greg; Meyer, Denny

    2008-10-01

    The holiday and school-term sleep patterns of 310 Australian senior school students were surveyed in a longitudinal study, along with self-reported sleep quality, mood, daytime functioning, grades and circadian preference. Evidence was found that with the impact of school schedule, students accrued a significant sleep debt, obtaining insufficient sleep for their needs and reporting lowered mood and daytime functioning. Support was found for the hypothesis that trait circadian preference mediates mood, daytime functioning and academic grades through its effect on sleep variables at school time. It was concluded that while the imposition of school schedule negatively impacted on mood and daytime functioning for the sample as a whole, evening-oriented adolescents were the most vulnerable to poorer outcomes. These students obtained poorer quality and less sleep than morning-oriented students. Sleep factors impacted negatively on evening-oriented students' mood and ability to function at school during the day, which in turn predicted poorer academic achievement.

  5. [Features of the sleep pattern during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaeva, I M; Kolesnikova, L I; Protopopova, N V; Sakh'ianova, N L; Berdina, O N

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the qualitative characteristics of a sleep in pregnant women in the 3rd term of the physiological pregnancy by a questionnaire survey. We have demonstrated questionnaire survey data of 400 pregnant women (mean age 27.5 +/- 8.2 years) in the 3rd term of pregnancy. Questioning conducted using the scale PSQI (PITTSBURGH SLEEP QUALITY INDEX--Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Assessment Questionnaire), EPWORTH SLEEPINESS SCALE (sleepiness questionnaire Epfort's) and screening questionnaire to identify obstructive sleep apnea. We have determined that 78% of pregnant women to complain about sleep disorders, namely obstructive sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, "restless legs" syndrome, and combinations thereof. The frequency of sleep disorders increases as pregnancy progresses. Obstructive sleep disordered breathing increases with 10.12% in the 1st term to 31.7% in the 3rd term, insomnia--from 14.3% in the 1st term to 37.6% in the 3rd term. In pregnancy increases of sleep latency (from 14.3 to 44.9 minutes), and reduced the duration of a sleep (from 8.7 to 7.8 hours). high frequency of sleep disorders in pregnancy requires early pathogenetic prevention of pathological conditions, both in the mother and in the fetus.

  6. Sleep patterns and match performance in elite Australian basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael

    2017-08-01

    To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F (3,48) =3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400...... to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient....

  8. Hadza sleep biology: Evidence for flexible sleep-wake patterns in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, David R; Crittenden, Alyssa N; Mabulla, Ibrahim A; Mabulla, Audax Z P; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-03-01

    Cross-cultural sleep research is critical to deciphering whether modern sleep expression is the product of recent selective pressures, or an example of evolutionary mismatch to ancestral sleep ecology. We worked with the Hadza, an equatorial, hunter-gatherer community in Tanzania, to better understand ancestral sleep patterns and to test hypotheses related to sleep segmentation. We used actigraphy to analyze sleep-wake patterns in thirty-three volunteers for a total of 393 days. Linear mixed effects modeling was performed to assess ecological predictors of sleep duration and quality. Additionally, functional linear modeling (FLM) was used to characterize 24-hr time averaged circadian patterns. Compared with post-industrialized western populations, the Hadza were characterized by shorter (6.25 hr), poorer quality sleep (sleep efficiency = 68.9%), yet had stronger circadian rhythms. Sleep duration time was negatively influenced by greater activity, age, light (lux) exposure, and moon phase, and positively influenced by increased day length and mean nighttime temperature. The average daily nap ratio (i.e., the proportion of days where a nap was present) was 0.54 (SE = 0.05), with an average nap duration of 47.5 min (SE = 2.71; n = 139). This study showed that circadian rhythms in small-scale foraging populations are more entrained to their ecological environments than Western populations. Additionally, Hadza sleep is characterized as flexible, with a consistent early morning sleep period yet reliance upon opportunistic daytime napping. We propose that plasticity in sleep-wake patterns has been a target of natural selection in human evolution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bullying, sleep/wake patterns and subjective sleep disorders: findings from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, Violaine; Fontaine, Roger; Potard, Catherine; Gimenes, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (a) sleep patterns and disorders possibly associated with adolescent bullying profiles (pure bully, pure victim, bully/victim and neutral) and (b) the effect of sleep on psychosocial problems (externalized and internalized) related to bullying. The sample consisted of 1422 students aged 10-18 (mean = 14.3, SD = 2.7; 57% male) from five socioeconomically diverse schools in France. Bullying profiles were obtained using the revised Bully-Victim Questionnaire. Subjective sleep disorders were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. School-week and weekend sleep/wake patterns were recorded. Internalizing problems were investigated using a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing behaviors were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. These questionnaires were administered during individual interviews at school. After controlling for effects of gender and age, victims of bullying showed significantly more subjective sleep disturbances than the pure-bully or neutral groups (p Bullies' sleep schedules were more irregular (p effect of sleep on psychosocial problems related to bullying, and our results indicate that sleep has a moderating effect on aggression in bullies (p bullies to sleep deprivation. These results show differences in sleep problems and patterns in school-bullying profiles. Findings of this study open up new perspectives for understanding and preventing bullying in schools, with implications for research and clinical applications.

  10. Deglutition and respiratory patterns during sleep in the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiminori; Chitose, Shun-Ichi; Sato, Kiminobu; Umeno, Hirohito

    2016-12-01

    Deglutition was extremely infrequent and displayed unique patterns during sleep in the aged. The deglutition and respiratory phase patterns during sleep in the healthy aged were investigated in this study. Ten aged adults (average age = 71 years) were examined via time-matched digital recordings of polysomnography and surface electromyography of the muscles (thyrohyoid and suprahyoid muscles) related to swallowing. During sleep, swallowing was extremely infrequent and absent for long periods in the aged. The median number of swallows per hour during total sleep time was 0.6, and the median longest deglutition-free period was 134.8 minutes. Most deglutition occurred in association with spontaneous electroencephalographic arousal both in REM and non-REM sleep. Deglutition was related to the sleep stage. The deeper the sleep stage, the lower the mean deglutition frequency. There was no deglutition during deep sleep. Overall muscle tone is inhibited during REM sleep. However, deglutition also occurred in association with spontaneous EEG arousal. The deeper the sleep stage, the lower the mean arousal frequency, and the lower the mean ratio of arousal with deglutition to arousal. Approximately one-third of swallows occurred after inspiration and were followed by inspiration.

  11. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cuttone

    Full Text Available We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400 participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient.

  12. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran; Jonsson, Håkan; Larsen, Jakob Eg; Lehmann, Sune

    2017-01-01

    We propose a Bayesian model for extracting sleep patterns from smartphone events. Our method is able to identify individuals' daily sleep periods and their evolution over time, and provides an estimation of the probability of sleep and wake transitions. The model is fitted to more than 400 participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able to quantify uncertainty and encode prior knowledge about sleep patterns. Compared with existing smartphone-based systems, our method requires only screen on/off events, and is therefore much less intrusive in terms of privacy and more battery-efficient.

  13. Actigraphic Sleep Pattern of Preschoolers With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melegari, Maria Grazia; Vittori, Elena; Mallia, Luca; Devoto, Alessandra; Lucidi, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero

    2016-10-04

    To assess the features of sleep in preschoolers with ADHD by means of questionnaire and actigraphy. Twenty-five ADHD and 21 age-matched typically developing (TD) preschool children underwent the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for ages 1½ to 5 and Pre-School-Age Psychiatric Assessment interview. Sleep was assessed by means of a modified Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and wrist actigraphy for at least 5 days. Children with ADHD, compared with TD, showed higher scores in CBCL Withdrawal (58.83 vs. 51.15, p Attention Problems (69.88 vs. 51.54, p sleep minutes (56.44 vs. 32.79, p sleep and night-to-night variability for sleep duration and motor activity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Sleep Patterns of College Students at a Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquer, LeAnne M.; Camden, Adrian E.; Gabriau, Krista M.; Johnson, C. Merle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine the sleep patterns of college students to identify problem areas and potential solutions. Participants: A total of 313 students returned completed surveys. Methods: A sleep survey was e-mailed to a random sample of students at a North Central university. Questions included individual…

  15. The Sleep Patterns and Well-Being of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…

  16. The effect of sleep pattern changes on postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Beth A; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Schuver, Katie; Avery, Melissa; Marcus, Bess H

    2018-01-09

    Research indicates that poor sleep is associated with postpartum depression; however, little is known regarding this relationship among postpartum women who are at high for postpartum depression. This study examined the relationship between changes in self-reported sleep patterns (from six weeks to seven months postpartum) and depressive symptoms at seven months postpartum among women who were at high risk for postpartum depression. Participants (n = 122) were postpartum women who were at an increased risk for postpartum depression (personal or maternal history of depression) and had participated in a randomized exercise intervention trial. For the current trial, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9; assessed depression) at six weeks and seven months postpartum. Overall, sleep problems significantly improved from six weeks to seven months postpartum. However, linear regression analyses indicated that worsening or minimal improvement of sleep problems were associated with higher depressive symptoms at seven month postpartum. Regarding the specific types of sleep problems, self-reported changes in sleep latency (i.e., how long it takes to fall asleep at night), daytime dysfunction (i.e., difficulty staying awake during the day), and sleep quality (i.e., subjective rating of sleep quality) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Sleep problems typically improve during the postpartum phase. However, postpartum women who are at high risk for postpartum depression are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms later in the postpartum phase if sleep problems worsen or show only minimal improvement over time. Therefore, at the six-week postpartum clinic visit, women should receive education regarding potential worsening of sleep patterns and strategies for preventing sleep-related problems. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00961402 ) on August 18, 2009 prior to the start of the

  17. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns: validity and reliability of the Sleep Hygiene Index and Sleep Disturbance Scale in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Brimeyer, Chasity; Russell, Kathryn; Avis, Kristin T; Biggs, Sarah; Reynolds, Amy C; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin

    2014-12-01

    Sleep is critical for adolescent health and well-being. However, there are a limited number of validated self-report measures of sleep for adolescents and no well-validated measures of sleep that can be used across middle childhood and adolescence. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP) has been validated in children aged 8-12 years. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the CRSP, a multidimensional, self-report sleep measure for adolescents. The participants included 570 adolescents 13-18 years, 60% female, recruited from pediatricians' offices, sleep clinics, children's hospitals, schools, and the general population. A multi-method, multi-reporter approach was used to validate the CRSP. Along with the CRSP, a subset of the sample completed the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), with a different subset of adolescents undergoing polysomnography. The CRSP demonstrated good reliability and validity. Group differences on the CRSP were found for adolescents presenting to a sleep or medical clinic (vs. a community sample), for older adolescents (vs. younger adolescents), for those who regularly napped (vs. infrequently napped), and for those with poor sleep quality (vs. good sleep quality). Self-reported sleep quality in adolescents was also associated with higher apnea-hypopnea index scores from polysomnography. Finally, the CRSP Sleep Hygiene Indices were significantly correlated with indices of the ASHS. The CRSP is a valid and reliable measure of adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep disturbances. With a parallel version for middle childhood, the CRSP likely provides clinicians and researchers the ability to measure self-reported sleep across development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in abnormal muscle tension pattern after fiberoptic injection laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziade, Georges; Haddad, Ghassan; Assaad, Sarah; Kasti, Maher; Hamdan, Abdul-Latif

    2017-12-01

    We performed a retrospective chart review to compare the presence and types of abnormal muscle tension patterns (MTPs) in patients who had been diagnosed with glottal insufficiency before and after fiberoptic injection laryngoplasty. The main cause of glottal insufficiency had been unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Our review included an analysis of the medical records and laryngeal videostroboscopic recordings of 16 patients-9 men and 7 women, aged 25 to 87 years (mean: 59). Stroboscopic frames were analyzed for the presence of one or more types of abnormal MTP. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the significance of the change in scores for type II and type III MTP before injection and 1 month after injection. Before injection laryngoplasty, 15 of the 16 patients exhibited evidence of an abnormal MTP; 10 patients had MTP II only, 2 had MTP III only, and 3 patients had both. The mean percentage of frames showing MTP (i.e., MTP score) in patients with MTP II was 66.2% before the injection and 28.9% 1 month after; the decrease was statistically significant (p = 0.001). For MTP III, the corresponding figures were 71.6 and 37.7% (p = 0.043). We conclude that injection laryngoplasty has a positive effect on reducing muscle tension in patients with glottal insufficiency.

  19. Morphological patterns in children with ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henna, Nausheen; Nagi, Abdul H; Sheikh, Muhammad A; Shaukat, Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Hirschsprung's Disease (HD) is a developmental disorder of enteric nervous system characterised by the absence of ganglion cells in submucosal (Meissner's) and myenteric (Aurbach's) plexuses of distal bowel. The purpose of the present study was to observe and report the morphological patterns of ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities in children presented with clinical features of (HD) in a Pakistani population. A total of 92 patients with clinical presentation of HD were enrolled between March 2009 and October 2009. Among them, 8 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. After detailed history and physical examination, paraffin embedded H and E stained sections were prepared from the serial open biopsies from colorectum. The data was analysed using SPSS-17. Frequencies and percentages are given for qualitative variables. Non-parametric Binomial Chi-Square test was applied to observe within group associations and pganglionic whereas 71 (84.5%) showed ganglion related enteric neuronal abnormalities namely isolated hypoganglionosis 9 (12.7%), immaturity of ganglion cells 9 (12.7%), isolated hyperganglionosis (IND Type B) 2 (2.8%) and Hirschsprung's disease 51 (71.8%). Among HD group, 34 (66.7%) belonged to isolated form and 17 (33.3%) showed combined ganglion related abnormalities. Hirschsprung's disease is common in Pakistani population, followed by hypoganglionosis, immaturity of ganglion cells and IND type B. The presence of hypertrophic nerve fibres was significant in HD, hyperganglionosis and hypoganglionosis, whereas, no hypertrophic nerve fibres were appreciated in immaturity of ganglion cell group.

  20. PHYSIOLOGIC PATTERNS OF SLEEP ON EEG, MASKING OF EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Glukhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic patterns of sleep on EEG can sometimes be similar to epileptiform activity and even to the EEG pattern of epileptic seizures, but they have no connection to epilepsy and their incorrect interpretation may lead to overdiagnosis of epilepsy. These sleep patterns include vertex transients, K-complexes, hypnagogic hypersynchrony, 14 and 6 Hz positive bursts, wicket-potentials, etc. The main distinctive features of acute physiological phenomena of sleep unlike epileptiform activity are stereotyped, monomorphic morphology of waves, which frequently has rhythmic, arcuate pattern, often with change of lateralization, mainly dominated in the first stages of sleep (N1-N2, with their reduction in the deeper stages and transition to delta sleep (N3. The correct interpretation of physiological sharp-wave phenomena of sleep on EEG requires considerable training and experience of the physician. Our review includes a variety of physiological sleep patterns, which can mimic epileptiform activity on EEG, their criteria of diagnostic with demonstration of own illustrations of EEG.

  1. [Physical activity, screen time and sleep patterns in Chilean girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M M; Vergara, F A; Velásquez, E J A; García-Hermoso, A

    2015-11-01

    Physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and sleep are modifiable lifestyle habits for health. The objectives of this study were: a) to examine the association between PA, ST, and both, on sleep patterns; and b) to determine the influence of PA and ST on sleep problems in Chilean girls. The study involved 196 children (12.2 years). Patterns and sleep problems were assessed using the Spanish version of the Sleep Self-Report, and the PA through the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A), both in Castilian. The ST was assessed using several questions about television, game console and computer use. The ST recommendation (2h a day) was exceeded by 63.2% of the girls. In general, the most active girls (last quartile) that did not exceed the recommendations of ST reported higher sleep quality and total score values compared to those who did not meet both. The logistic regression analysis showed that girls who did not meet both habits were more likely to have sleep quality (odds ratio=17.8, P=.018), and general sleep problems (odds ratio=7.85, P=.025). Parents need to set limits on sedentary leisure time and encourage more active habits, as sleep is a parameter closely linked to a better health profile in youth. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The sleep patterns and problems of clinically anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer L; Gradisar, Michael; Gamble, Amanda; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rebelo, Ivone

    2009-04-01

    Childhood sleep problems have been associated with a range of adverse cognitive and academic outcomes, as well as increased impulsivity and emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. The aim of the study was to examine subjective reports of sleep-related problems in children with anxiety disorders during school and weekend nights. Thirty-seven children with clinically-diagnosed anxiety disorders and 26 non-clinical children aged 7-12 years completed an on-line sleep diary to track sleep patterns across school nights and weekend nights. Anxious children reported going to bed significantly later (p=0.03) and had significantly less sleep (p=0.006) on school nights compared to non-anxious children. No significant differences in sleep onset latency, number of awakenings or time awake during the night, daytime sleepiness, or fatigue were found between the two groups. On the weekends, anxious children fell asleep quicker and were less awake during the night than on weeknights. School-aged anxiety disordered children showed a sleep pattern that differs from their non-anxious peers. Although the mean 30 min less sleep experienced by anxious children may initially seem small, the potential consequences on daytime performance from an accumulation of such a sleep deficit may be significant, and further investigation is warranted.

  3. Evaluation of changes in sleep breathing patterns after primary palatoplasty in cleft children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justice E. Reilly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need to more clearly understand the characteristics of breathing patterns in children with cleft palate inthe first year of life, as there is little data available to guide current practice. Pierre Robin patients are known to have a higher incidence, however we hypothesised sleep breathing disturbance is not confined to this sub-group of cleft patient. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of sleep disordered breathing patterns in a cohort of infants with oronasal clefts (cleft palate with or without cleft lip to describe the spectrum of sleep breathing patterns both pre and post palate repair. Sleep breathing studies were performed pre- and post-operatively in sequential infants referred to a regional cleft lip andpalate unit. Results of sleep breathing studies were analysed according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine scoring guidelines and correlated with clinical history and details of peri-operative respiratory compromise. The degree of sleep disordered breathingwas characterised using desaturation indices (number of desaturations from baseline SpO2 of >=4%, per hour. Results: Thirty-nine infants were included in this study, twenty-five female and fourteen male. Twelve had isolated Cleft Palate aspart of an associated syndrome. Patients were categorised into Isolated Cleft Palate, Isolated Cleft Palate in the context of Pierre Robin Sequence, and those with Cleft Lip and Palate. All groups demonstrated some degree of sleep breathing abnormality. Not unsurprisingly the eight infants with Pierre Robin Sequence had a significantly higher desaturation index before surgicalintervention (p=0.043, and were more likely to require a pre-operative airway intervention (p=0.009. Palate repair in this group did not alter the relative distribution of patients in each severity category of sleep disorder breathing. Surgical repair ofthe secondary palate in the remaining children was associated with some

  4. The sleep patterns and well-being of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C; Wright, Helen R; Dohnt, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum. Adolescents completed survey battery during class time at school, followed by a 7-day sleep diary. Australian adolescents, on average, obtained inadequate sleep across the school week. Adolescents commonly reported difficulty initiating sleep, unrefreshing sleep, and the subjective feeling of restless legs. Problematic levels of sleepiness, fatigue, depressed mood and anxiety were highly prevalent. Later bedtimes, longer sleep onset latencies, and shorter sleep duration were significantly associated with aspects of poor daytime functioning. These results add to our knowledge of adolescent sleep and well-being worldwide. They also highlight the need for greater attention to sleep during this phase of development, when future behaviors and outcomes are being shaped. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep patterns and the risk for ADHD: a review

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    Cassoff J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamie Cassoff,1,2 Sabrina T Wiebe,1,2 Reut Gruber1,21Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montréal, Quebec, Canada; 2McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with comorbid sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances may be a risk factor for development of the disorder, a symptom of the disorder, or a comorbid condition affected by a similar psychopathology. Various studies have examined the impact of sleep deprivation on the presence/exacerbation of ADHD symptomology, as well as longitudinal and concurrent associations between different sleep disturbances and ADHD, yet the notion of sleep disturbances as a predecessor to ADHD remains unclear. As such, this review examines the evidence for sleep disturbances as a risk factor for the development of ADHD, as well as the mechanisms underlying the association between sleep patterns and ADHD. Additionally, clinical implications regarding the comorbid nature of sleep disturbances and ADHD will be considered.Keywords: sleep disturbances, ADHD, development

  6. Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran

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    Moini Rozita

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran have not been well studied to date. This paper aims to re-address this balance and analyse sleep patterns and habits in Iranian children of high school age. Methods The subjects were 1,420 high school students randomly selected by stratified cluster sampling. This was a self-report study using a questionnaire which included items about usual sleep/wake behaviours over the previous month, such as sleep schedule, falling asleep in class, difficulty falling asleep, tiredness or sleepiness during the day, difficulty getting up in the morning, nightmares, and taking sleeping pills. Results The mean duration of night sleep was 7.7 h, with no difference between girls, boys, and school year (grade. The mean time of waking in the morning was not different between genders. About 9.9% of the girls and 4.6% of the boys perceived their quality of sleep as being bad, and 58% of them reported sleepiness during the day. About 4.2% of the subjects had used medication to enhance sleep. The time of going to bed was associated with grade level and gender. Sleep latency was not associated with gender and grade leve, l and 1.4% experienced bruxism more than four times a week. Conclusion Our results are in contrast with that of previous studies that concluded sleep duration is shorter in Asia than in Europe, that boys woke-up significantly later than girls, and that the frequency of sleep latency category was associated with gender and grade level. The magnitude of the daytime sleepiness, daytime sleepiness during classes, sleep latency, and incidences of waking up at night represent major public health concerns for Iran.

  7. Occlusal Grinding Pattern during Sleep Bruxism and Temporomandibular Disorder

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    Yeni Wijaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep Bruxism is a significant etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD and causes many dental or oral problems such as tooth wear or facet. There is no study analyzing the relationship between sleep bruxism and TMD. Objective: To investigate any relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and temporomandibular disorder. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 30 sleep bruxism patients attended the Faculty Dentistry Universitas Indonesia Teaching Hospital (RSGMP FKG UI. Completion of 2 forms of ID-TMD index and questionnaire from American Academy of Sleep Medicine were done. BruxChecker was fabricated and used for two nights to record the occlusal grinding pattern. The occlusal grinding pattern was categorized into laterotrusive grinding (LG and mediotrusive side. Further divisons of LG were: incisor-canine (IC, incisor-caninepremolar (ICP and incisor-canine-premolar-molar (ICPM. Mediotrusive side was classified as mediotrusive contact (MC and mediotrusive grinding (MG. Results: It was found that occlusal grinding pattern in non-TMD subjects were IC+MC, in subjects with mild TMD were ICP+MG and in subjects with moderate TMD were ICP+MG and ICPM+MG. TMJ was more significantly affected by ICP and ICPM grinding pattern than that of IC. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between occlusal grinding pattern during sleep bruxism and TMD.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.149

  8. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern and cognition in children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Luana; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero

    2013-08-01

    Several studies have been recently focused on the relationship between sleep cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) and daytime cognitive performance, supporting the idea that the CAP slow components may play a role in sleep-related cognitive processes. Based on the results of these reports, it can be hypothesized that the analysis of CAP might be helpful in characterizing sleep microstructure patterns of different phenotypes of intellectual disability and a series of studies has been carried out that are reviewed in this paper. First the studies exploring the correlations between CAP and cognitive performance in normal adults and children are described; then, those analyzing the correlation between CAP and cognitive patterns of several developmental conditions with neurocognitive dysfunction (with or without mental retardation) are reported in detail in order to achieve a unitary view of the role of CAP in these conditions that allows to detect a particular "sleep microstructure phenotype" of children with neurologic/neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013.

  9. Sleep habits in adolescents of Saudi Arabia; distinct patterns and extreme sleep schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdad, Roah A; Merdad, Leena A; Nassif, Rawan A; El-Derwi, Douaa; Wali, Siraj O

    2014-11-01

    There is a need for comprehensive studies on adolescents' sleep habits in the Middle Eastern region. The aim of this study was to investigate the sleep-wake patterns, prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and disturbed sleep among adolescents in Saudi Arabia and to identify the associated factors. The study was a cross-sectional survey done on a random sample of 1035 high school students, ages 14-23 years, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The response rate was 91%. Students filled a self-reported questionnaire that included sleep-wake questions, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, academic performance, and personal data. Students slept an average of 7.0 hours on school nights, with an average delay of 2.8 and 6.0 hours in weekend sleep and rise times, respectively. Around 1 in 10 students stayed up all night and slept after returning from school (exhibiting a reversed sleep cycle) on weeknights. This pattern was more prevalent among boys and students with lower grade point averages. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 65%, and EDS was found in 37% of the students. Predictors of EDS were school type, stress, napping and caffeine use, while gender was a predictor of disturbed sleep. Adolescents in Saudi Arabia showed a high percentage of poor sleep quality. Compared with adolescents from other countries, they had a larger delay in weekend sleep and rise times. An alarming reversed sleep cycle on weekdays is present and highlights the need for further assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Moushum; Pal, Madhu Sudan; Sharma, Yogendra Kumar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2008-11-01

    Various countries have permanent research bases in Antarctica that are manned year-round by a few members of an expedition team, facing extremes of temperature with the associated hardships. Acclimatisation to such an environment is associated with pyschophysiological changes along with alterations in sleep patterns. The present study was undertaken to explore the changes in sleep patterns of six members of the Indian expedition team during their winter stay at Maitri, the permanent research station of India in Antarctica. The mean (± SEM) age, height and weight of the subjects were 35.7 ± 2.32 years, 168.3 ± 2.37 cm and 71.0 ± 1.88 kg, respectively. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained as baseline data in November 2004 in Delhi (altitude 260 m, latitude 29° N, longitude 77° E); data on the same parameters were collected at Maitri, Antarctica (altitude 120 m, latitude 70° 45' 39″ S, longitude 11° 44' 49″ E) from January to December 2005. A one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant variation with time (month effect) in most of the sleep parameters recorded. Total sleep time decreased from Delhi baseline values in all months, sleep efficiency decreased significantly during winter months, duration of waking period after sleep onset increased significantly in winter, sleep latency increased immediately after exposure in January, stages 3 and 4 (slow wave sleep) reduced during dark winter months, whereas stages 1 and 2 and rapid eye movement sleep increased during dark winter months. This study observed a prevailing general trend of sleep disturbances amongst overwintering members in a modern Antarctic station.

  11. Cyclic alternating pattern: A window into pediatric sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Oliviero; Novelli, Luana; Miano, Silvia; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) has now been studied in different age groups of normal infants and children, and it is clear that it shows dramatic changes with age. In this review we first focus on the important age-related changes of CAP from birth to peripubertal age and, subsequently, we describe the numerous studies on CAP in developmental clinical conditions such as pediatric sleep disordered breathing, disorders of arousal (sleep walking and sleep terror), pediatric narcolepsy, learning disabilities with mental retardation (fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, autistic spectrum disorder, Prader-Willi syndrome) or without (dyslexia, Asperger syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). CAP rate is almost always decreased in these conditions with the exception of the disorders of arousal and some cases of sleep apnea. Another constant result is the reduction of A1 subtypes, probably in relationship with the degree of cognitive impairment. The analysis of CAP in pediatric sleep allows a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disturbance. CAP can be considered as a window into pediatric sleep, allowing a new vision on how the sleeping brain is influenced by a specific pathology or how sleep protecting mechanisms try to counteract internal or external disturbing events. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep-wake patterns and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-02-01

    To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. A school-based cross-sectional survey. Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire, Sleep Quality Index, Morningness/ Eveningness scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, academic performance, and personal data were administered. The average school-night bedtime was 23:24, and total sleep time was 7.3 hr. During weekends, the average bedtime and rise time was delayed by 64 min and 195 min, respectively. The prevalence of sleep disturbances occurring > or = 3 days per week in the preceding 3 months were: difficulty falling asleep (5.6%), waking up during the night (7.2%), and waking up too early in the morning (10.4%). The prevalence of > or = 1 of these three symptoms was 19.1%. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that circadian phase preference was the most significant predictor for school night bedtime, weekend oversleep, and daytime sleepiness. Perceived stress was the most significant risk factor for sleep disturbance. Students with marginal academic performance reported later bedtimes and shorter sleep during school nights, greater weekend delays in bedtime, and more daytime sleepiness than those with better grades. The prevalence of sleep deprivation and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong adolescents is comparable to those found in other countries. An intervention program for sleep problems in adolescents should be considered.

  13. Sleep pattern in medical students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Ghalhe Bandi, Mir Farhad; Kaffashi, Siyamak

    2009-11-01

    Sleep disturbances is a distressing and disabling condition that affects many people, and can affect on quality of work and education of medical students and residents. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in medical students and residents. A representative sample of medical students and residents of Iran University of medical students in Teharn, Iran, were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. This study covers 400 medical students from the first to seventh year and residents from the first to the last year between December 2007 and February 2008. The questionnaire includes questions on demographic characteristics (6 questions), sleep/wake habits (6 questions), insomnia-related symptoms (4 questions), symptoms of parasomnia (6 questions), cognitive and psychomotor behaviors (6 questions), lifestyle (4 questions), self-perception of sleep satisfaction, and use of sleeping pills (2 questions). The sample included 135 (33.8%) pre-internship students, 150 (37.5%) interns, and 115 (28.7%) medical residents. Sleep satisfaction was reported as "perfect" in only 14%. 44% and 30% reported "good" and "fair" satisfaction. The use of sleeping pills in the previous 30 days was reported by only 3.3% of respondents. One hundred and three (25.7%) participants reported working while studying (sometimes to full-time). Between 43% and 48% of participants had gone to bed later than usual one to three times a week. About 14% of subjects reported snoring. The mean+/-SD of insomnia and parasomnia scales were 7.0+/-2.3 and 6.8+/-1.2, respectively. The mean of insomnia were more among females, subjects with noise in their living place, and students who worked full-time while studying, and was less in person who did exercise (PSleep disturbances are an important issue among medical students and residents and associated with age, gender, living conditions, doing exercise, and workload.

  14. Sleep onset uncovers thalamic abnormalities in patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Bagshaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus is crucial for sleep regulation and the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE, and may serve as the underlying basis for the links between the two. We investigated this using EEG-fMRI and a specific emphasis on the role and functional connectivity (FC of the thalamus. We defined three types of thalamic FC: thalamocortical, inter-hemispheric thalamic, and intra-hemispheric thalamic. Patients and controls differed in all three measures, and during wakefulness and sleep, indicating disorder-dependent and state-dependent modification of thalamic FC. Inter-hemispheric thalamic FC differed between patients and controls in somatosensory regions during wakefulness, and occipital regions during sleep. Intra-hemispheric thalamic FC was significantly higher in patients than controls following sleep onset, and disorder-dependent alterations to FC were seen in several thalamic regions always involving somatomotor and occipital regions. As interactions between thalamic sub-regions are indirect and mediated by the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN, the results suggest abnormal TRN function in patients with IGE, with a regional distribution which could suggest a link with the thalamocortical networks involved in the generation of alpha rhythms. Intra-thalamic FC could be a more widely applicable marker beyond patients with IGE.

  15. Sleep Patterns and Dysfunctions in Children with Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Chan, Po Fun; Kiing, Jennifer Sh; Chong, Shang Chee; Tay, Stacey Kh

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the sleep patterns and dysfunctions in children with learning problems in comparison against a local population-based sample. Parents of 200 children with learning problems and 372 parents of a local population-based sample of typically developing (TD) children were recruited to complete a questionnaire on their child's sleep patterns and sleep problems. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is a validated parent-reported sleep screening questionnaire that contains 54 items identifying sleep behaviours in children. The mean age of the sample was 4.2 years (SD: 1.4; range, 2 to 6 years). Sleep duration was similar between the 2 groups. The difference in mean CSHQ subscale scores between children with learning problems and TD children was significant for sleep-disordered breathing (1.3 vs 1.2, P = 0.001). Among children with learning problems, 36.5% snored (vs 26.6% of TD children), 30.5% had noisy breathing (vs 18.8%), and 9.0% (vs 4.6%) experienced difficulty breathing 2 or more times a week. Children with learning problems woke up in a more irritable mood ( P = 0.01), had more difficulty in getting out of bed ( P sleep problem compared to 9.0% in the TD group. Sleep breathing disorders and symptoms of morning sleepiness are more prevalent in children with learning problems. Symptoms of daytime lethargy are similar between the 2 groups. We suggest that a simple outpatient screening targeted at these problems be instituted in the initial workup of any child with learning difficulties.

  16. Intelligent Process Abnormal Patterns Recognition and Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-wang Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Locating the assignable causes by use of the abnormal patterns of control chart is a widely used technology for manufacturing quality control. If there are uncertainties about the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns, the diagnosis process is impossible to be carried out. Considering four common abnormal control chart patterns, this paper proposed a characteristic numbers based recognition method point by point to quantify the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns under uncertain conditions and a fuzzy inference system based on fuzzy logic to calculate the contribution degree of assignable causes with fuzzy abnormal patterns. Application case results show that the proposed approach can give a ranked causes list under fuzzy control chart abnormal patterns and support the abnormity eliminating.

  17. Intelligent Process Abnormal Patterns Recognition and Diagnosis Based on Fuzzy Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shi-Wang; Feng, Shunxiao; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Locating the assignable causes by use of the abnormal patterns of control chart is a widely used technology for manufacturing quality control. If there are uncertainties about the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns, the diagnosis process is impossible to be carried out. Considering four common abnormal control chart patterns, this paper proposed a characteristic numbers based recognition method point by point to quantify the occurrence degree of abnormal patterns under uncertain conditions and a fuzzy inference system based on fuzzy logic to calculate the contribution degree of assignable causes with fuzzy abnormal patterns. Application case results show that the proposed approach can give a ranked causes list under fuzzy control chart abnormal patterns and support the abnormity eliminating.

  18. Sleep Patterns and Predictors of Poor Sleep Quality among Medical Students in King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Aesha Farheen; Al-Musa, Hasan; Al-Amri, Hasan; Al-Qahtani, Abdulkareem; Al-Shahrani, Mushabab; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Sleep problems and poor sleep quality are important issues for medical students. This study aimed to investigate the sleep patterns, measure the prevalence of poor sleep quality, and identify the predictors of poor sleep among medical students in King Khalid University (KKU), Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study enrolled 318 medical students during October-November, 2015. Participants were selected by convenience sampling and data were collected using self-administered questionnaires to obtain information regarding socio-demographic variables and indicators of sleep quality. The overall mean sleep quality score was 6.79 with a standard deviation of 3.06. Poor sleep quality was reported by 74.2% students. Significantly high mean sleep quality scores (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were observed for students with very poor subjective sleep quality (mean = 10.50, SD = 2.58), least sleep efficiency (mean = 11.21, SD = 2.23), shorter sleep duration (mean = 7.83, SD = 2.88), sleep onset latency more than 30 minutes (mean = 7.82, SD = 2.53), sleeping after midnight (mean = 7.53, SD = 2.95), and use of sleep aiding medication (mean = 8.78, SD = 3.5). Significant differences were observed between good sleepers and poor sleepers regarding these sleep characteristics. Poor sleep was predicted by sleep behaviours such as going to sleep after midnight (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.94) and sleep duration of less than seven hours (AOR = 7.49, 95% CI: 4.24, 13.22). Medical students of KKU have poor sleep quality. Longer sleep latency, going to sleep after midnight, and shorter sleep duration are important problems in this group.

  19. SLEEP PATTERN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Rajendran; Karthika M; Prathibha M. T; Vinod P. B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance of students is well accepted. The studies relating the sleep pattern of medical students and academic performance is limited. This study was conducted to identify sleep pattern of medical students and find out any relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess sociodemographic parameters, sleep/wake timing, sle...

  20. The effect of sleep pattern changes on postpartum depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Beth A.; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Schuver, Katie; Avery, Melissa; Marcus, Bess H.

    2018-01-01

    Background Research indicates that poor sleep is associated with postpartum depression; however, little is known regarding this relationship among postpartum women who are at high for postpartum depression. This study examined the relationship between changes in self-reported sleep patterns (from six weeks to seven months postpartum) and depressive symptoms at seven months postpartum among women who were at high risk for postpartum depression. Methods Participants (n = 122) were postpartum wo...

  1. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.

  2. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V.; Tarekegn, Yared A.; Tadesse, Mahlet G.; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods:. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable log...

  3. Sleep influences the intracerebral EEG pattern of focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Zazubovits, Natalja; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is able to generate an intrinsic pathological EEG activity characterized by a continuous or near-continuous spiking. Different patterns of discharge were described. We examined quantitatively the distribution of the intracerebral FCD patterns in relation to sleep in order to investigate whether this activity is independent of thalamocortical influences. We analyzed the first sleep cycle of 5 patients with a diagnosis of FCD type II who underwent combined scalp-intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), and showed an intracranial EEG pattern typical for FCD. Three patterns of FCD intracranial EEG activity were identified in all 5 patients, and visually marked for a maximum of 30min of each stage (wake, N1, N2, N3, REM): spike or polyspike exceeding 2Hz (pattern 1), spike or polyspike interrupted by flat periods below 2Hz (pattern 2) and discharges of >15Hz low-voltage rhythmic activity with regular morphology (pattern 3). After marking, the percentages of the three patterns across the different stages were calculated. The three patterns of FCD were present between 45% and 97% of the total time analyzed. Pattern 1 was the predominant pattern in wakefulness (73-100%), N1 (76-97%) and N2 (58-88.5%) in all patients, and in REM in 4 of 5 patients (91-100%). During N2 and N3, there was an increase in pattern 2 in all patients, becoming the predominant pattern in 3 of the 5 patients during N3 (63-89%). Pattern 3 was rare and only sporadically observed during N2 and N3. Wakefulness and REM sleep showed a similar pattern (pattern 1) with a slight amplitude reduction in REM sleep. Despite the presence of an almost continuous discharge, sleep is an important modulator of the pathological EEG patterns found in FCD type II. This might suggest that dysplastic tissue is influenced by the thalamo-cortical control mechanisms involved in the generation of sleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during

  5. Sleep in space as a new medical frontier: the challenge of preserving normal sleep in the abnormal environment of space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gonfalone, Alain A

    2016-01-01

    Space agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the Russian Federal Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the China National Space Administration, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Indian Space Research Organization, although differing in their local political agendas, have a common interest in promoting all applied sciences that may facilitate man's adaptation to life beyond the earth. One of man's most important adaptations has been the evolutionary development of sleep cycles in response to the 24 hour rotation of the earth. Less well understood has been man's biological response to gravity. Before humans ventured into space, many questioned whether sleep was possible at all in microgravity environments. It is now known that, in fact, space travelers can sleep once they leave the pull of the earth's gravity, but that the sleep they do get is not completely refreshing and that the associated sleep disturbances can be elaborate and variable. According to astronauts' subjective reports, the duration of sleep is shorter than that on earth and there is an increased incidence of disturbed sleep. Objective sleep recordings carried out during various missions including the Skylab missions, space shuttle missions, and Mir missions all support the conclusion that, compared to sleep on earth, the duration in human sleep in space is shorter, averaging about six hours. In the new frontier of space exploration, one of the great practical problems to be solved relates to how man can preserve "normal" sleep in a very abnormal environment. The challenge of managing fatigue and sleep loss during space mission has critical importance for the mental efficiency and safety of the crew and ultimately for the success of the mission itself. Numerous "earthly" examples now show that crew fatigue on ships, trucks, and long-haul jetliners can lead to inadequate performance and sometimes fatal consequences, a reality which has

  6. Incidence of Short-Sleep Patterns in Institutionalized Individuals with Profound Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Ann R.; Bihm, Elson M.

    1994-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 103 institutionalized individuals with profound mental retardation were explored. Almost 40% were found to have short-sleep patterns. Short-sleep was predicted by blindness; nonshort-sleep was predicted by diagnosis of cerebral palsy and sodium valproate usage. Techniques for minimizing possible negative consequences of…

  7. Sleep pattern of medical students as seen in a Nigerian university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleep pattern of medical students as seen in a Nigerian university. ... we used a modified self-administered questionnaire adapted from Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index to determine the sleep pattern of students in College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Gender had significant influence on their sleep habit.

  8. Pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mehmood, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To find out the pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patients in a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of pathology, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients suffering from various diseases and presenting with exacerbation of their clinical conditions were studied. These patients were hospitalized and managed in acute care units of the hospital. Arterial blood gases were analysed to detect acid base status and their correlation with their clinical condition. Concomitant analysis of electrolytes was carried out. Tests related to concurrent illnesses e.g. renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes and plasma glucose were assayed by routine end point and kinetic methods. Standard reference materials were used to ensure internal quantify control of analyses. Results: Two hundred and fifteen patients out of 250 studied suffered from acid base disorders. Gender distribution showed a higher percentage of male patients and the mean age was 70.5 ± 17.4 years. Double acid base disorders were the commonest disorders (34%) followed by metabolic acidosis (30%). Anion gap was calculated to further stratify metabolic acidosis and cases of diabetic ketoacidosis were the commonest in this category (47%). Other simple acid base disorders were relatively less frequent. Delta bicarbonate was calculated to unmask the superimposition of respiratory alkalosis or acidosis with metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Though triple acid base disorders were noted in a small percentage of cases (05%), but were found to be the most complicated and challenging. Mixed acid base disorders were associated with high mortality. Conclusion: A large number of critically ill patients manifested acid base abnormalities over the full spectrum of these disorders. Mixed acid base disorders were

  9. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP): a self-report measure of sleep for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Avis, Kristin T; Biggs, Sarah; Reynolds, Amy C; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin; Bevans, Katherine B

    2013-03-15

    (1) Present preliminary psychometrics for the Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP), a three-module measure of Sleep Patterns, Sleep Hygiene, and Sleep Disturbance; and (2) explore whether the CRSP provides information about a child's sleep above and beyond parental report. A multi-method, multi-reporter approach was used to validate the CRSP with 456 children aged 8-12 years (inclusive). Participants were recruited from pediatricians' offices, sleep clinics/laboratories, children's hospitals, schools, and the general population. Participants completed measures of sleep habits, sleep hygiene, anxiety, and sleepiness, with actigraphy and polysomnography used to provide objective measures of child sleep. The CRSP demonstrated good reliability and validity. Differences in sleep hygiene and sleep disturbances were found for children presenting to a sleep clinic/laboratory (vs. community population); for younger children (vs. older children); and for children who slept less than 8 hours or had a sleep onset later than 22:00 on actigraphy. Further, significant associations were found between the CRSP and child-reported anxiety or sleepiness. Notably, approximately 40% of parents were not aware of child reported difficulties with sleep onset latency, night wakings, or poor sleep quality. The three modules of the CRSP can be used together or independently, providing a reliable and valid self-report measure of sleep patterns, sleep hygiene, and sleep disturbances for children ages 8-12 years. Children not only provide valid information about their sleep, but may provide information that would not be otherwise captured in both clinical and research settings if relying solely on parental report.

  10. Effects of aniracetam on impaired sleep patterns in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Okano, S; Inoué, S

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of sleep disturbances and the effects on sleep of aniracetam, a cognitive enhancer, in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Compared with normotensive control rats, SHRSP exhibited an impaired sleep pattern characterized by suppressed diurnal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and excessive nocturnal non-REM sleep. At a dose of 30 mg/kg per day p.o., aniracetam increased REM sleep in the light period after administration for 5 consecutive days. Consequently, suppressed REM sleep in SHRSP was restored by repeated treatment with aniracetam. Aniracetam could be useful in improving REM sleep impairment associated with vascular dementia.

  11. Pattern of haematologic abnormalities in incident dialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukopenia, thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia were less common (3.1%, 7.2% and 10.3% respectively). The use of locally derived reference ranges was associated with significantly higher frequencies of occurrence of majority of the haematologic abnormalities studied. Conclusion: Haematological abnormalities ...

  12. The significance of breastfeeding on sleep patterns during the first 48 hours postpartum for first time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, O; Mohamad, M M; Doyle, P; Burke, G

    2018-04-01

    influence the total sleep time, however, the main outcome of our study is that breastfeeding promotes maternal sleep. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: We believe that this study would be of interest to many obstetricians, general practitioners, nurses and midwives as well as to the general public. Appropriate counselling of patients early in postnatal period can improve their sleep patterns and reduce the risk of depression and other abnormal physical, psychological and social outcomes.

  13. Descartes and His Peculiar Sleep Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Milovanovic, Srdjan D; Trajanovic, Nikola N

    2015-01-01

    Rene Descartes (1596-1650) was a mathematician, philosopher, and scholar, whose work set a foundation for modern science. Among other interests, he focused on locating the "core and the seat of the soul" and concluded that the pineal gland was such a structure. Recent scientific findings validate Descartes' deep interest in pineal gland, appreciating its role as part of the circadian rhythm system. On the other hand, the biographical information suggests that Descartes had an aberration of the circadian rhythm (delayed sleep phase). Coincidentally, this meant that one of the most important things in his private life and one of the most significant areas of his research intersected in an overlooked way.

  14. Obesity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Self-Reported Sleep Patterns in Chilean School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, A; Aguilar, M M; Vergara, F A; Velásquez, E J A; Marina, R

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to examine the association of sleep patterns with being overweight or obese and to analyze the association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with sleep patterns in children. The study involved 395 schoolchildren (12-13 years old). Sleep patterns were assessed with the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire, grouped into four subscales: sleep quality, sleep-related anxiety, bedtime refusal, and sleep routines. CRF was predicted by the 20-m shuttle-run test. Logistic regression models showed that sleep-related anxiety problems predicted being overweight or obese in both sexes, and sleep quality problems predicted being overweight or obese in girls. Also, girls who had better CRF levels were less susceptible to sleep-related anxiety problems. Studies are required to determine if increasing CRF could be a possible strategy for improving sleep quality.

  15. Factors affecting general sleep pattern and quality of sleep in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ölmez, Soner; Keten, Hamit Sırrı; Kardaş, Selçuk; Avcı, Fazıl; Dalgacı, Ahmet Ferit; Serin, Salih; Kardaş, Fatma

    2015-03-01

    To investigate factors affecting general sleep pattern and sleep quality in pregnant women. We assessed all pregnant women applied to Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Training and Research Hospital, School of Medicine, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University between 01 January 2014 and 01 March 2014. The participants were informed prior to the study and 100 pregnant women who gave their informed consent were included in the study. Questionnaires consisting sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy history and the Epworth sleepiness scale were applied to the patients. Factors affecting general sleep pattern and sleep quality in pregnant women were compared. The mean age of 100 pregnant women was 27.9 years (min=16, max=42). The mean gestational age of participants was found to be 24.8 weeks (min=5, max=40). In obstetric history, 9% of women previously had a stillbirth and also 25% of women previously had curettage performed. There were tobacco use in 6% of participants and 6% of patients previously had been to the hospital due to a sleep disorder. The mean excessive daytime sleepiness scale score of pregnant women were found to be 4.56. There were no significant difference among the patients regarding regular exercise (p=0.137), tobacco use (p=0.784), accompanying disease (p=0.437) and excessive daytime sleepiness scale score. In our study, patients who had a complaint of sleep disorder before and who were previously admitted to a health center for this problem, were also found to suffer from the same problem during pregnancy. Treatment of sleep disorders in preconception period for women planning pregnancy is important in terms of mother and the baby's health. Pregnant women should be informed about factors reducing sleep quality during pregnancy.

  16. Nocturnal sleep pattern in native Brazilian Terena adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIMÃO RUBENS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Social-economic factors influence sleep habits. This research analyzes characteristics of nocturnal sleep in Brazilian Native Terena adults. Sixty-four adults (31 M; 33 F from 18 to 75 years, with a mean age of 37.0, from the Indian Reservation village of Córrego do Meio, in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, an agriculturally oriented group were evaluated. Nocturnal sleep characteristics were evaluated by means of a standard questionnaire applied to each individual. It was observed that reported nocturnal sleep was longer, sleep onset was earlier and wake up time was also earlier than usually described in urban populations. The mean total time in bed was 8.5 h or more, in every age bracket. The seven-day prevalence rate of insomnia was 4.6%, while the seven-day prevalence rate of hypnotic use was 1.5%, both remarkably less than described in urban populations. These findings stress the need to consider ethnic influences on sleep patterns and disorders.

  17. Breastfeeding and infant sleep patterns: an Australian population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Megan; Lewis, Andrew J; McEgan, Kerri; Scalzo, Katherine; Islam, Fm Amirul

    2013-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine if babies breastfed at 6 months of age were more likely to wake at night and less likely to sleep alone than formula-fed babies. Data were drawn from the first wave of The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, nationally representative study of the growth and development of Australia's children. The 4507 participants met the criteria for this study. The measures examined infant sleep problems as the outcome and breastfeeding at 6 months of age as the exposure in addition to the demographic data, maternal mental health, infant birthweight and gestational age at delivery. After adjustment for covariates, reports by mothers of infants that breastfed at 6 months of age suggested infants were 66% more likely to wake during the night and 72% more likely to report difficulty sleeping alone. However, breastfeeding had a strongly protective effect on wheezing, coughing, snoring and breathing problems, and it was not associated with restless sleep or problems getting to sleep for the infant. Breastfeeding was found to be associated with increased night waking and this is consistent with other studies. There are biological reasons why this might be required to ensure breastfeeding continues to 6 months and beyond. The current low rates of sustained breastfeeding in many Western countries needs to be reconsidered in relation to parental and public health practices promoting prolonged nocturnal infant sleep patterns. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Perceived Parenting Styles, Personality Traits and Sleep Patterns in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Hatzinger, Martin; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles with respect to adolescents' sleep patterns and symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 246 adolescents (age: 17.58 [plus or minus] 1.62) took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires with regard to parenting styles and to symptoms of anxiety and depression;…

  19. Sleep patterns in congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A.J. Man in't Veld (A.); K. Mechelse (Karel); F. Boomsma (Frans)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractSleep patterns of two young female patients with congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency are described. In this orthostatic syndrome central and peripheral noradrenergic failure occurs as a result of impaired beta-hydroxylation of dopamine. Consequently, the levels of dopamine

  20. Emerging adults' sleep patterns and attentional capture: the pivotal role of consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Wythe L; Murdock, Karla Klein

    2016-05-01

    College students face consistent cognitive demands and often get insufficient and/or irregular sleep. The current study investigated associations of sleep duration and sleep variability with attentional performance. Sleep duration variability was expected to moderate the association between duration and cognitive functioning. College students' (n = 83) natural sleep patterns were recorded via wristband actigraphy across three consecutive nights during an academic term. The association between sleep duration and attentional capture was strongest for those whose sleep was the most consistent across the three nights preceding the attentional task (i.e., low sleep duration variability). For those with low sleep duration variability, less sleep was associated (B = -0.25) with reduced ability to ignore irrelevant cues and redirect attention to target locations. In other words, consistently low sleep duration was associated with compromises in attention. Our results indicate the importance of consistent sleep routines as well as sufficient sleep duration in order to optimize attentional performance in college students.

  1. Modeling the adenosine system as a modulator of cognitive performance and sleep patterns during sleep restriction and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew J K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Butler, James P

    2017-10-01

    Sleep loss causes profound cognitive impairments and increases the concentrations of adenosine and adenosine A1 receptors in specific regions of the brain. Time courses for performance impairment and recovery differ between acute and chronic sleep loss, but the physiological basis for these time courses is unknown. Adenosine has been implicated in pathways that generate sleepiness and cognitive impairments, but existing mathematical models of sleep and cognitive performance do not explicitly include adenosine. Here, we developed a novel receptor-ligand model of the adenosine system to test the hypothesis that changes in both adenosine and A1 receptor concentrations can capture changes in cognitive performance during acute sleep deprivation (one prolonged wake episode), chronic sleep restriction (multiple nights with insufficient sleep), and subsequent recovery. Parameter values were estimated using biochemical data and reaction time performance on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). The model closely fit group-average PVT data during acute sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and recovery. We tested the model's ability to reproduce timing and duration of sleep in a separate experiment where individuals were permitted to sleep for up to 14 hours per day for 28 days. The model accurately reproduced these data, and also correctly predicted the possible emergence of a split sleep pattern (two distinct sleep episodes) under these experimental conditions. Our findings provide a physiologically plausible explanation for observed changes in cognitive performance and sleep during sleep loss and recovery, as well as a new approach for predicting sleep and cognitive performance under planned schedules.

  2. Modeling the adenosine system as a modulator of cognitive performance and sleep patterns during sleep restriction and recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J K Phillips

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep loss causes profound cognitive impairments and increases the concentrations of adenosine and adenosine A1 receptors in specific regions of the brain. Time courses for performance impairment and recovery differ between acute and chronic sleep loss, but the physiological basis for these time courses is unknown. Adenosine has been implicated in pathways that generate sleepiness and cognitive impairments, but existing mathematical models of sleep and cognitive performance do not explicitly include adenosine. Here, we developed a novel receptor-ligand model of the adenosine system to test the hypothesis that changes in both adenosine and A1 receptor concentrations can capture changes in cognitive performance during acute sleep deprivation (one prolonged wake episode, chronic sleep restriction (multiple nights with insufficient sleep, and subsequent recovery. Parameter values were estimated using biochemical data and reaction time performance on the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT. The model closely fit group-average PVT data during acute sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and recovery. We tested the model's ability to reproduce timing and duration of sleep in a separate experiment where individuals were permitted to sleep for up to 14 hours per day for 28 days. The model accurately reproduced these data, and also correctly predicted the possible emergence of a split sleep pattern (two distinct sleep episodes under these experimental conditions. Our findings provide a physiologically plausible explanation for observed changes in cognitive performance and sleep during sleep loss and recovery, as well as a new approach for predicting sleep and cognitive performance under planned schedules.

  3. Upper airway alterations/abnormalities in a case series of obstructive sleep apnea patients identified with cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeta, Y.; Shintaku, W.H.; Clark, G.T. [Orofacial Pain/Oral Medicine Center, Div. of Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dentistry, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Enciso, R. [Div. of Craniofacial Sciences and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ogawa, T. [Dept. of Fixed Prosthodontic Dentistry, Tsurumi Univ., School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    There are many factors that influence the configuration of the upper airway and may contribute to the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This paper presents a series of 12 consecutive OSA cases where various upper airway alteration/abnormalities were identified using 3D anatomic reconstructions generated from cone-beam CT (CBCT) images. Some cases exhibited more than one type of abnormality and below we describe each of the six types identified with CBCT in this case series. (orig.)

  4. Sleep Patterning Changes in a Prenatal Stress Model of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, Christian; Bastlund, Jesper Frank

    2018-01-01

    Clinical depression is accompanied by changes in sleep patterning, which is controlled in a circadian fashion. It is thus desirable that animal models of depression mirror such diurnally-specific state alterations, along with other behavioral and physiological changes. We previously found several...... changes in behavior indicative of a depression-like phenotype in offspring of rats subjected to repeated, variable prenatal stress (PNS), including increased locomotor activity during specific periods of the circadian cycle. We, therefore, investigated whether PNS rats also exhibit alterations in sleep...

  5. Sleep patterns and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren from Cuenca, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lucas-de la Cruz

    Full Text Available Sleep seems to have a significant influence on the metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, results in this association are still inconsistent in children. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sleep characteristics in the MetS (index and factors in Spanish children. Cross-sectional study including a sample of 210 children aged 8-to-11-years belonging to 20 schools from the province of Cuenca, Spain was conducted. Cardiometabolic risk and actigraphy sleep patterns were determined and analysed using correlation coefficients, ANCOVA models and a propensity score derivation model. Overall, children in the lower time in bed category and those who went to bed later (> 23:15h showed worse values in the cardiometabolic profile and risk index. Differences were observed when the total time in bed was below 9h 15mins. Our study shows that short sleep duration could be a risk factor for cardiometabolic risk in children, and bedtime may independently influence this risk. In addition, our data suggests that children's sleep hygiene should be incorporated in parenting educational programs.

  6. Sleep patterns and cardiometabolic risk in schoolchildren from Cuenca, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-de la Cruz, Lidia; Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; González-García, Alberto; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2018-01-01

    Sleep seems to have a significant influence on the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, results in this association are still inconsistent in children. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of sleep characteristics in the MetS (index and factors) in Spanish children. Cross-sectional study including a sample of 210 children aged 8-to-11-years belonging to 20 schools from the province of Cuenca, Spain was conducted. Cardiometabolic risk and actigraphy sleep patterns were determined and analysed using correlation coefficients, ANCOVA models and a propensity score derivation model. Overall, children in the lower time in bed category and those who went to bed later (> 23:15h) showed worse values in the cardiometabolic profile and risk index. Differences were observed when the total time in bed was below 9h 15mins. Our study shows that short sleep duration could be a risk factor for cardiometabolic risk in children, and bedtime may independently influence this risk. In addition, our data suggests that children's sleep hygiene should be incorporated in parenting educational programs.

  7. Pattern of Semen Fluid Abnormalities in Male Partners of Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the partern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period ...

  8. Snoring exclusively during nasal breathing: a newly described respiratory pattern during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Jennifer C; Camacho, Macario; Capasso, Robson

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe a distinctive respiratory pattern seen in subjects with inferior turbinate hypertrophy, nasal obstruction, and a polysomnogram-proven diagnosis of primary snoring or mild obstructive sleep apnea. These subjects demonstrated increased snoring with purely nasal breathing and alleviation of snoring with oral breathing. The study design is case series with chart review. The setting was a university-based tertiary care hospital. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with complaints of nasal obstruction with associated inferior turbinate hypertrophy and a polysomnogram-proven diagnosis of mild obstructive sleep apnea or primary snoring. Demographic and polysomnography information were collected and analyzed. Snoring and airflow patterns were reviewed. Twenty-five subjects were identified as having met the inclusion and exclusion criteria on polysomnography for either primary snoring or mild obstructive sleep apnea with inferior turbinate hypertrophy and no other significant nasal deformity or abnormality. Seventeen (68 %) of these patients had polysomnograms which demonstrated snoring during nasal breathing and alleviation of snoring with oral breathing. Of the 17 who snored during nasal breathing, ten of the subjects were female and seven of the subjects were male. The mean age was 27 years (range 18 to 68 years). The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 2.3 events/h (range 0 to 9.7 events/h). The mean body mass index was 25 kg/m(2) (range 20 to 43 kg/m(2)). Our study describes a newly recognized pattern of snoring in patients with a polysomnogram-proven diagnosis of either primary snoring or mild obstructive sleep apnea. This pattern of breathing demonstrates patients who snore during nasal breathing even with known nasal obstruction present and subsequently have resolution or improvement of the snoring with oral breathing.

  9. Parental Involvement in Infant Sleep Routines Predicts Differential Sleep Patterns in Children With and Without Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Jennifer; Palmer, Cara A; Hussain, Hira; Alfano, Candice A

    2016-08-01

    This study compared parents' retrospective reports of their involvement in infant settling strategies and their relation to current sleep patterns among children (N = 84, ages 7-11) with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Parents of children with GAD were significantly more likely to report rocking their infants to sleep and putting infants down when they were already asleep than parents of healthy controls, even when accounting for infant health-related factors and parental anxiety. Greater involvement in infant sleep routines also predicted sleep patterns (measured via actigraphy) during childhood, though opposite relationships were observed in the two groups. Early involvement was related to poorer sleep in control children but better sleep for children with GAD even after controlling for current parenting practices. Findings suggest differential effects of early sleep-related parenting for children with and without later anxiety disorders with possible implications for early intervention.

  10. Sleep Patterns and Other Sleep Related Factors Affecting the Students of Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Adequate sleep is essential for general health. Several factors disrupt sleep patterns. The quality of sleep affects health and daily functions. Objectives The current study aimed to determine the students' sleep patterns and other sleep related factors. Patients and Methods The current cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 female students of the Islamic Azad University, Rasht branch (Rasht, Iran who were selected by multistage random sampling method. Data collection tool was a self-reporting questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, employing Chi-square, and Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Results The mean age of the subjects was 22.16 ± 2.86 years. Results showed 35.7% disruption of sleep onset, 46.3% impairment of sleep continuity, and 32% awakening early in the morning. Also, 42.3% of the subjects expressed excellent sleep quality. There was a significant relationship among sleep quality with the time of going to bed, difficulty in sleeping, awakening by noise, repeated awakening at night, waking up early in the morning, fatigue, and sleepiness in classroom. Conclusions The results of the current study showed a high prevalence of sleep problems among the students. Identification and treatment of students’ sleep disorders may improve academic performance and life quality.

  11. Sleep-Wake Patterns during the Acute Phase after First-Ever Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda N. Bakken

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the pattern of day and night sleep and explores relationships between these patterns and sociodemographic and clinical factors as well as sleep environmental context and the patient's subjective sleep quality. Data from 110 patients with first-ever stroke was collected by structured interview surveys, medical record, and objective estimated sleep data from wrist actigraphy. The variability in estimated sleep is large. Half the patients slept either 8 hours per night, and 78% had more than nine awakenings per night. Men slept less than women, and patients sleeping at home had fewer awakenings than those who slept in hospital. It was estimated sleep during daytime in all, except 4, patients. Longer stay in hospital was related to more daytime sleep, and the subjective sleep quality correlated with estimated sleep time, wake time, and wake percentage.

  12. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance during Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. Methods: A sample of…

  13. Abnormal Intrinsic Functional Hubs in Severe Male Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Evidence from a Voxel-Wise Degree Centrality Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Li, Lan; Shao, Yi; Gong, Honghan; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xianjun; Ye, Chenglong; Nie, Si; Chen, Liting; Peng, Dechang

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study. All participants underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and clinical and cognitive evaluation. Voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) was measured across the whole brain, and group difference in DC was compared. The relationship between the abnormal DC value and clinical variables was assessed using a linear correlation analysis. Remarkably similar spatial distributions of the functional hubs (high DC) were found in both groups. However, OSA patients exhibited a pattern of significantly reduced regional DC in the left middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and DC was increased in the right orbital frontal cortex, bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, and bilateral lentiform nucleus, including the putamen, extending to the hippocampus, and the inferior temporal gyrus, which overlapped with the functional hubs. Furthermore, a linear correlation analysis revealed that the DC value in the posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with Montreal cognitive assessment scores, The DC value in the left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobule were negatively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index and arousal index in OSA patients. Our findings suggest that OSA patients exhibited specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs including relatively reduced and increased DC. This expands

  14. Prevalence, Patterns, and Persistence of Sleep Problems in the First 3 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolton, Kimberly; Rausch, Joseph; Lanphear, Bruce; Beebe, Dean W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Examine the prevalence, patterns, and persistence of parent-reported sleep problems during the first 3 years of life. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-nine mother/child pairs participated in a prospective birth cohort study. Sleep questionnaires were administered to mothers when children were 6, 12, 24, and 36 months old. Sleep variables included parent response to a nonspecific query about the presence/absence of a sleep problem and 8 specific sleep outcome domains: sleep onset latency, sleep maintenance, 24-hour sleep duration, daytime sleep/naps, sleep location, restlessness/vocalization, nightmares/night terrors, and snoring. RESULTS: Prevalence of a parent-reported sleep problem was 10% at all assessment intervals. Night wakings and shorter sleep duration were associated with a parent-reported sleep problem during infancy and early toddlerhood (6–24 months), whereas nightmares and restless sleep emerged as associations with report of a sleep problem in later developmental periods (24–36 months). Prolonged sleep latency was associated with parent report of a sleep problem throughout the study period. In contrast, napping, sleep location, and snoring were not associated with parent-reported sleep problems. Twenty-one percent of children with sleep problems in infancy (compared with 6% of those without) had sleep problems in the third year of life. CONCLUSIONS: Ten percent of children are reported to have a sleep problem at any given point during early childhood, and these problems persist in a significant minority of children throughout early development. Parent response to a single-item nonspecific sleep query may overlook relevant sleep behaviors and symptoms associated with clinical morbidity. PMID:22218837

  15. Prevalence, patterns, and persistence of sleep problems in the first 3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Kelly C; Yolton, Kimberly; Rausch, Joseph; Lanphear, Bruce; Beebe, Dean W

    2012-02-01

    Examine the prevalence, patterns, and persistence of parent-reported sleep problems during the first 3 years of life. Three hundred fifty-nine mother/child pairs participated in a prospective birth cohort study. Sleep questionnaires were administered to mothers when children were 6, 12, 24, and 36 months old. Sleep variables included parent response to a nonspecific query about the presence/absence of a sleep problem and 8 specific sleep outcome domains: sleep onset latency, sleep maintenance, 24-hour sleep duration, daytime sleep/naps, sleep location, restlessness/vocalization, nightmares/night terrors, and snoring. Prevalence of a parent-reported sleep problem was 10% at all assessment intervals. Night wakings and shorter sleep duration were associated with a parent-reported sleep problem during infancy and early toddlerhood (6-24 months), whereas nightmares and restless sleep emerged as associations with report of a sleep problem in later developmental periods (24-36 months). Prolonged sleep latency was associated with parent report of a sleep problem throughout the study period. In contrast, napping, sleep location, and snoring were not associated with parent-reported sleep problems. Twenty-one percent of children with sleep problems in infancy (compared with 6% of those without) had sleep problems in the third year of life. Ten percent of children are reported to have a sleep problem at any given point during early childhood, and these problems persist in a significant minority of children throughout early development. Parent response to a single-item nonspecific sleep query may overlook relevant sleep behaviors and symptoms associated with clinical morbidity.

  16. Abnormal sleep duration associated with hastened depressive recurrence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Anda; Do, Dennis; Satyanarayana, Satyanand; Shah, Saloni; Yuen, Laura D; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Ketter, Terence A

    2017-08-15

    Abnormal sleep duration (ASD, disorder (BD), and often persists beyond acute mood episodes. Few longitudinal studies have examined the ASD's impact upon BD illness course. The current study examined the longitudinal impact of ASD upon bipolar depressive recurrence/recovery. Outpatients referred to the Stanford BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation at baseline, and with the Clinical Monitoring Form at monthly follow-ups for up to two years of naturalistic treatment. Prevalence and clinical correlates of ASD in 93 recovered (euthymic ≥8 weeks) and 153 depressed BD patients were assessed. Kaplan-Meier analyses (Log-Rank tests) assessed relationships between baseline ASD and longitudinal depressive severity, with Cox Proportional Hazard analyses assessing potential mediators. ASD was only half as common among recovered versus depressed BD outpatients, but was significantly associated with hastened depressive recurrence (Log-Rank p=0.007), mediated by lifetime anxiety disorder and attenuated by lifetime history of psychosis, and had only a non-significant tendency towards association with delayed depressive recovery (Log-Rank p=0.07). In both recovered and depressed BD outpatients, baseline ASD did not have significant association with any baseline BD illness characteristic. Self-reported sleep duration. Limited generalizability beyond our predominately white, female, educated, insured American BD specialty clinic sample. Baseline ASD among recovered BD patients may be a risk marker for hastened depressive recurrence, suggesting it could be an important therapeutic target between mood episodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Noise effects on the complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, V.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Ivanov, P. C.; Glass, L.; Goldberger, A. L.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    Patients at high risk for sudden death often exhibit complex heart rhythms in which abnormal heartbeats are interspersed with normal heartbeats. We analyze such a complex rhythm in a single patient over a 12-h period and show that the rhythm can be described by a theoretical model consisting of two interacting oscillators with stochastic elements. By varying the magnitude of the noise, we show that for an intermediate level of noise, the model gives best agreement with key statistical features of the dynamics.

  18. Replay of rule-learning related neural patterns in the prefrontal cortex during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrache, A.; Khamassi, M.; Benchenane, K.; Wiener, S.I.; Battaglia, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is important for memory consolidation. During sleep, neural patterns reflecting previously acquired information are replayed. One possible reason for this is that such replay exchanges information between hippocampus and neocortex, supporting consolidation. We recorded neuron

  19. Sleep-wake patterns in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Pedro; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Paiva, Teresa

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the differences between a sample of patients with schizophrenia and a sample of healthy controls in terms of sleep patterns and self-reported sleep quality and quality of life (QoL). Thirty-four schizophrenia outpatients (SP), 12 women and 22 men and 34 healthy subjects (HS), 15 women and 19 men, participated in this study. Wrist-actigraphy recordings and a sleep diary were used for sleep-wake cycle assessment. The quality of sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the QoL was evaluated using the World Health Organization Quality of Life - Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used for psychopathology assessment. Patients sleep more at night, but have poorer sleep efficiency, than HS. Sleep latency and nighttime awakenings were significantly higher in SP. Self-reported QoL scores were significantly higher, in all four domains, in HS. Scores on PSQI were significantly higher in SP, indicating a worse quality of sleep. Two disturbed patterns of sleep-wake phase were found in SP: advance sleep-phase syndrome (ASPS) (N = 3) and irregular sleep-wake rhythm (N = 3). Schizophrenia patients have more disturbed sleep-wake patterns and poor sleep quality and quality of life compared with healthy controls.

  20. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Seblewengel; Patel, Sheila V; Tarekegn, Yared A; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Berhane, Yemane; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females). In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.25-1.92), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.06-2.63), and khat use (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.09-2.71) were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes). Cigarette smoking (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11-2.73) and khat consumption (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.22-3.00) were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors.

  1. Sleep patterns and insomnia among portuguese adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Odete; Garrido, António; Pereira, Carlos; Veiga, Nélio; Serpa, Carla; Sakellarides, Constantino

    2014-11-01

    Inadequate sleep patterns and insomnia are frequently linked and represent common sleep disorders among adolescents. The present study provides data on sleep patterns and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. In a cross-sectional study we evaluated 6,919 students from the 7th to the 12th grade from twenty-six secondary schools. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Insomnia was defined based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and daytime sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep patterns evaluated both sleep duration ("insufficient" sleep was defined as sleep 29.3%. All prevalence were higher among girls (Psleep time, on weeknights, was 8:04±1:13 hours. On average adolescents went to bed at 22:18±1:47 hours, took 21 minutes to fall asleep and woke up at 7:15±0:35 hours. Only 6.4% of adolescents stated having a regular bedtime. The majority of adolescents (90.6%) reported having difficulty waking up, 64.7% experienced daytime sleepiness and 53.3% experienced sleep during classes. There are high prevalence of inadequate sleep patterns, insufficient sleep and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. Insufficient sleep is associated with sleep patterns and social and behavioural factors. These results add to our knowledge of adolescent sleep worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Abnormal response of melanin-concentrating hormone deficient mice to fasting: hyperactivity and rapid eye movement sleep suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, J T; Sinton, C M; Maratos-Flier, E; Yanagisawa, M

    2008-10-28

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been implicated in energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with MCH and its receptor antagonists have suggested additional behavioral roles for the neuropeptide in the control of mood and vigilance states. These suggestions have been supported by a report of modified sleep in the MCH-1 receptor knockout mouse. Here we found that MCH knockout (MCH(-)(/)(-)) mice slept less during both the light and dark phases under baseline conditions. In response to fasting, MCH(-)(/)(-) mice exhibited marked hyperactivity, accelerated weight loss and an exaggerated decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation, however, the sleep rebound in MCH(-)(/)(-) mice was normal. Thus MCH(-)(/)(-) mice adapt poorly to fasting, and their loss of bodyweight under this condition is associated with behavioral hyperactivity and abnormal expression of REM sleep. These results support a role for MCH in vigilance state regulation in response to changes in energy homeostasis and may relate to a recent report of initial clinical trials with a novel MCH-1 receptor antagonist. When combined with caloric restriction, the treatment of healthy, obese subjects with this compound resulted in some subjects experiencing vivid dreams and sleep disturbances.

  3. Physical exercise performed before bedtime improves the sleep pattern of healthy young good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flausino, Noler Heyden; Da Silva Prado, Juliana Martuscelli; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the influence of different intensities and durations of exercise before bedtime on the sleep pattern and core body temperature of individuals considered good sleepers, we selected 17 healthy males and all underwent 5 nonconsecutive days of study. Measurements of polysomnographic parameters and core body temperature were taken at baseline and after each experimental protocol, performed at night. We found increased sleep efficiency (p = .016) among all protocols compared with baseline data and increase in REM sleep latency (p = .047) between two experiments; there was decrease in the percentage of stage 1 sleep (p = .046) and wake after sleep onset (p = .003). Core body temperature did not change significantly during the nights following exercise. Exercise performed before sleep does not impair sleep quality; rather, its practice improves sleep in good sleepers who are nonathletes, and may be considered to improve sleep pattern. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  5. Sleep patterns and sleep disorders in children with autistic spectrum disorders: insights using parent report and actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Luci; Stores, Gregory

    2004-06-01

    The present study sought to describe the profile of sleep disturbance reported in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and to document any sleep disorders underlying reports of sleeplessness. Sixty-nine children aged 5 to 16 years (mean 9 years 4 months, SD 2 years 7 months; 14 females) with an ASD were assessed by detailed sleep histories taken from parents, the Simonds and Parraga Sleep Questionnaire, a 2-week sleep diary, and actigraphs worn by the child for five nights. Parent-reported sleeplessness featured prominently (64%). Sleep disorders underlying the sleeplessness were most commonly behavioural (i.e. to do with inappropriate sleep-related behaviours), although sleep-wake cycle disorders and anxiety-related problems were also seen. In addition, the sleeplessness patterns of a large minority of children could not be classified by conventional diagnostic criteria. Sleep patterns measured objectively did not differ between those children with or without reported sleeplessness, but the sleep quality of all children seemed to be compromised compared with normal values.

  6. Patterns and Predictors of Sleep Quality Within the First Year After Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigati, Angela; Alrawashdeh, Mohammad; Zaldonis, Jenna; Dabbs, Annette DeVito

    2016-03-01

    Sleep quality affects health and self-management in chronic illness. Limited research has examined patterns and predictors of sleep quality and its impact on self-management and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among lung transplant recipients (LTRs). The aims of this study were to identify the patterns, predictors, and impact of poor sleep quality on self-management behaviors and HRQOL the first year after lung transplantation. Secondary analysis of 75 LTRs who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was administered at baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months after transplant; 12-month PSQI was dichotomized categorizing good versus poor sleepers. Predictors were measured at the time of transplant; self-management and HRQOL were measured at 12 months. Logistic regression identified predictors of poor sleep. Correlations examined poor sleep quality, self-management behaviors, and HRQOL. Sleep quality was relatively stable during the first year, and 24 of the 75 (32%) of the sample met criteria for poor sleep quality at 12 months. The only multivariate predictor of poor sleep was female gender (odds ratio = 3.421; P = .026); the mental component of HRQOL was the only outcome associated with poor sleep (r = -.348; P sleep through year 1. More females reported poor sleep quality, and sleep quality was inversely related to mental HRQOL by 12 months. Knowledge of these relationships may help identify LTRs at the greatest risk for poor sleep and guide strategies to promote sleep and optimize HRQOL. © 2016, NATCO.

  7. Sleep-wake patterns and their influence on school performance in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Ferreira, Manuela; Coutinho, Emília; Cunha, Madalena

    2014-11-01

    To characterise sleep-wake patterns and their influence on academic performance for a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Cross-sectional, analytical-explanatory, correlational epidemiological research. The protocol includes the composite morningness questionnaire (Barton et al, 1985 adapted by Silva et al, 1985), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Murray, 1991), chronic fatigue scale (Smith et al, 1995), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, 1988), Educational Achievement (Fermin, 2005), personal and academic data. 2094 students (55.3% girls; 16-23 years old; M=16.82±1.25) attending secondary school in central Portugal. Living in urban areas, living with their parents and about 57.1% are in a family with reasonable economic resources. Adolescents' sleep patterns reveal that they sleep on average between 8-9 hours a night, do not use medication to sleep, with sleep latency within the normal range, with good sleep efficiency, without daytime dysfunction and with undisturbed sleep, predominantly intermediate chronotype. Minor drowsiness, increased sleep efficiency, improved subjective sleep satisfaction, less sleep disturbance, less daytime dysfunction, not consuming hypnotic medications, associated with better academic performance. Morningness/eveningness, sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction and sleep latency emerge as predictors of academic performance. The chronotype interacts to predict the quality of sleep enhancing it as a mediator of school performance. Sleep and associated individual characteristics should be considered in the diagnosis and intervention process in secondary education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Homeostatic and Circadian Abnormalities in Sleep and Arousal in Gulf War Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    cognitive impairments commonly reported in GWI may be that these veterans undergo frontally specific sleep deprivation . This frontal area is well...known to impact cognitive function. Since sleep plays a central role in learning and performance, a failure of sleep -related oscillations, particularly...temperature anomalies in this group of subjects to determine if the effect may be related to alterations in the phase relationships between sleep and

  9. The influence of daily sleep patterns of commercial truck drivers on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang Xiang; Fang, Youjia; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    Fatigued and drowsy driving has been found to be a major cause of truck crashes. Lack of sleep is the number one cause of fatigue and drowsiness. However, there are limited data on the sleep patterns (sleep duration, sleep percentage in the duration of non-work period, and the time when sleep occurred) of truck drivers in non-work periods and the impact on driving performance. This paper examined sleep patterns of 96 commercial truck drivers during non-work periods and evaluated the influence these sleep patterns had on truck driving performance. Data were from the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study. Each driver participated in the study for approximately four weeks. A shift was defined as a non-work period followed by a work period. A total of 1397 shifts were identified. Four distinct sleep patterns were identified based on sleep duration, sleep start/end point in a non-work period, and the percentage of sleep with reference to the duration of non-work period. Driving performance was measured by safety-critical events, which included crashes, near-crashes, crash-relevant conflicts, and unintentional lane deviations. Negative binomial regression was used to evaluate the association between the sleep patterns and driving performance, adjusted for driver demographic information. The results showed that the sleep pattern with the highest safety-critical event rate was associated with shorter sleep, sleep in the early stage of a non-work period, and less sleep between 1 a.m. and 5 a.m. This study also found that male drivers, with fewer years of commercial vehicle driving experience and higher body mass index, were associated with deteriorated driving performance and increased driving risk. The results of this study could inform hours-of-service policy-making and benefit safety management in the trucking industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: An Expanded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter, Jr., Jenkins, Steve M.; Soper, Barlow; Woller, Kevin; Johnson, Patrick; Faes, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This study represents an expansion of previous research investigating the prevalence of sleep difficulties in college students. Sleep quality and sleep habits were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Poor sleep quality was reported by 22.6% of participants, whereas 65.9% replied that they experienced occasional sleep problems. More than half…

  11. Integrating nap and night-time sleep into sleep patterns reveals differential links to health-relevant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Jaime K; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Both night-time sleep and nap behaviour have been linked consistently to health outcomes. Although reasons for napping are usually tied to night-time sleep, the majority of studies assess their effects independently. The current study thus aimed to examine the health relevance of patterns of sleep behaviour that take into account both night-time and daytime sleep habits. Night-time sleep, recorded during 7 days via actigraphy from 313 participants (aged 34-82 years) of the Midlife in the United States II Biomarker study, was assessed. Blood and urine specimens were assayed for noradrenaline, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Participants self-reported nap behaviour, depressive symptoms, perceived chronic stress and the presence of medical symptoms and conditions. Overall, nappers (n = 208) showed elevated waist-hip ratios, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels compared to non-nappers and reported more physiological symptoms and conditions (all P ≤ 0.019). Within nappers, cluster analysis revealed three patterns of sleep behaviour-infrequent nappers with good night-time sleep, frequent nappers with good night-time sleep and nappers with poor night-time sleep. Nappers with poor night-time sleep thereby exhibited elevated noradrenaline levels, depressive symptoms and perceived stress scores compared to other groups (all P ≤ 0.041). These findings support the idea that nap-health relationships are complex, in that frequency of napping and accumulation of nap sleep is not related linearly to health consequences. Assessing nap behaviour in conjunction with night-time sleep behaviour appeared crucial to elucidate further the health relevance of napping, particularly in terms of psychological health outcomes, including chronic stress and depressive symptoms. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Sleep patterns in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorder, and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-06-01

    In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD, TD, and ADHD + TD comorbidity and determining whether, in ADHD + TD, the factors ADHD and TD may affect the sleep pattern in an independent (additive) or in a complex (interactive) manner. By means of polysomnography, sleep patterns were investigated in 4 groups of unmedicated 8.0-16.4-year-old children (healthy controls, ADHD-only, TD-only, and ADHD + TD). Each group consisted of 18 subjects matched for age, gender, and intelligence. ADHD was primarily characterized by increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, whereas TD patients displayed lower sleep efficiency and elevated arousal index in sleep. In children with ADHD + TD, both effects appeared. No interaction between the ADHD and TD factors was found for any of the sleep parameters. Significant correlations between sleep patterns and clinical symptoms were found. ADHD and TD are characterized by specific sleep alterations. When coexisting, the two disorders alter the sleep pattern in an additive manner, suggesting a high impact on clinical and therapeutic perspectives.

  13. Longitudinal and Temporal Associations Between Daily Pain and Sleep Patterns After Major Pediatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Zhou, Chuan; Narayanan, Arthi; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of children develop persistent pain after major surgery. Sleep disruption has been implicated as a predictor of children's acute postsurgical pain. However, perioperative sleep patterns have not been longitudinally assessed, and the role of sleep in persistence of postsurgical pain has not been explored. We aimed to examine sleep patterns over 4 months in children having major surgery, and temporal relationships between daily sleep and pain. Sixty children age 10 to 18 (mean = 14.7) years having major surgery completed 7 days of actigraphy sleep monitoring (sleep duration, efficiency), twice daily electronic diaries (sleep quality, pain intensity, medication use), and validated questionnaires at presurgery, 2 weeks, and 4 months postsurgery. Generalized linear models, controlling for age, sex, naps, and medication, showed sleep quality (β [B] = -.88, P sleep quality was significantly associated with greater next day pain intensity (B = -.15, P = .005). Sleep duration and efficiency were not associated with subsequent pain; daytime pain was not associated with subsequent sleep. Findings suggest sleep quality may be an important target for intervention after surgery in children; research is needed to understand how other sleep parameters may relate to recovery. This study assessed longitudinal sleep patterns over 4 months after major pediatric surgery using actigraphy, diaries, and validated measures. Sleep quality and efficiency were significantly reduced at 2 weeks. Poorer sleep quality was associated with greater next day pain intensity suggesting that sleep quality may be an important target for intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of infant and toddler sleep patterns: real-world data from a mobile application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Leichman, Erin S; Composto, Jordana; Lee, Christina; Bhullar, Bula; Walters, Russel M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of infant and toddler sleep patterns. Data were collected on 841 children (aged from birth to 36 months) via a free, publicly available, commercially sponsored iPhone app. Analyses were conducted on caregiver recordings of 156 989 sleep sessions across a 19-month period. Detailed visualizations of the development of sleep across the first 3 years of life are presented. In the first 3 months, sleep sessions primarily lasted less than 3.5 h throughout the day. Between 3 and 7 months old, sleep consolidated into two naps of about 1.5 h in length and a night-time sleep session of about 10.5 h. Across age groups, a negative relationship was observed between the start of bedtime and the length of the night-time sleep session (i.e. later bedtime is associated with a shorter night-time sleep period). The length of daytime sleep sessions (naps) varied with age, decreasing between 1 and 5 months old, and then increasing monotonically through 28 months. Morning wake time was observed to be invariant in children aged 5-36 months. Sleep patterns are ever-changing across the first few years with wide individual variability. Sleep patterns start to develop more clearly at 5-6 months, when longer night-time sleep duration begins and sleep consolidation occurs. Daytime sleep patterns appeared to become more consistent and consolidated later in age than night-time sleep. Finally, there is greater variability in bedtimes than wake times, with bedtimes having a greater influence on night-time sleep duration. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Descriptive Assessment of Sleep Patterns among Community-Living Adults with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; Magee, Christine; Sperry, James M.; Parker, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    There is little information about the sleep patterns of adults who have mental retardation and are supported in the community. In the present study, direct-care staff recorded sleep behaviors of 59 adults residing in 16 suburban group homes. Based on direct observation and measurement procedures, the adults averaged 7.9 hours of sleep each evening…

  16. Sleep Patterns in Preschool-Age Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates sleep disorders by assessing the quantity and quality of sleep in preschool children with autism and comparing them with developmental delay without autism, and typical development. The results prove that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across all three categories.

  17. Daytime Sleep Patterns in Preschool Children with Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Anders, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined daytime sleep patterns in 3 groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism, children with developmental delay, and children who were developing typically. Sleep was assessed in 194 children via actigraphy and parent-report sleep diaries for 7 consecutive days on 3 separate occasions over 6 months. Children with…

  18. Sleep in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome: Parent Perceptions of Patterns and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Beebe, Dean; Byars, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for Angelman syndrome includes sleep disturbance as an associated characteristic. There are, however, few researchers who have examined sleep problems in this population. Our goal in this study was to better characterize the sleep patterns and problems in individuals with Angelman syndrome. Parents of 339 individuals…

  19. Objectively measured sleep patterns in young adult women and the relationship to adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bruce W; Allen, Matthew D; LeCheminant, James D; Tucker, Larry A; Errico, William K; Christensen, William F; Hill, Marshall D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and adiposity in young adult women. Cross-sectional. The study took place at two Mountain West region universities and surrounding communities. Subjects were 330 young adult women (20.2 ± 1.5 years). Sleep and physical activity were monitored for 7 consecutive days and nights using actigraphy. Height and weight were measured directly. Adiposity was assessed using the BOD POD. Regression analysis, between subjects analysis of variance, and structural equation modeling were used. Bivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sleep efficiency was negatively related to adiposity and that the 7-day standard deviations of bedtime, wake time, and sleep duration were positively related to adiposity (p sleep duration and adiposity by 84% but had a statistically negligible impact on all other relationships that were analyzed. However, multivariate structural equation modeling indicated that a model including sleep efficiency, sleep pattern inconsistency (latent variable consisting of the 7-day standard deviations of bedtime, wake time, and sleep duration), and physical activity was the best for predicting percent body fat. Inconsistent sleep patterns and poor sleep efficiency are related to adiposity. Consistent sleep patterns that include sufficient sleep may be important in modifying risk of excess body fat in young adult women.

  20. Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Capellini, I.; Nunn, C. L.; McNamara, P.; Preston, B. T.; Barton, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sleep is composed of two distinct states – rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep – that alternate in cycles over a sleep bout. The duration of these cycles varies extensively across mammalian species. Because the end of a sleep cycle is often followed by brief arousals to waking, a shorter sleep cycle has been proposed to function as an anti-predator strategy. Similarly, higher predation risk could explain why many species exhibit a polyphasic sleep pattern (division of ...

  1. Decreased sleep stage transition pattern complexity in narcolepsy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the complexity of the nocturnal sleep stage sequence in central disorders of hypersomnolence (CDH), with the hypothesis that narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) might exhibit distinctive sleep stage sequence organization and complexity. Seventy-nine NT1 patients, 22 narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), 22 idiopathic hypersomnia (IH), and 52 patients with subjective hypersomnolence (sHS) were recruited and their nocturnal sleep was polysomnographically recorded and scored. Group between-stage transition probability matrices were obtained and compared. Patients with NT1 differed significantly from all the other patient groups, the latter, in turn, were not different between each other. The individual probability of the R-to-N2 transition was found to be the parameter showing the difference of highest significance between the groups (lowest in NT1) and classified patients with or without NT1 with an accuracy of 78.9% (sensitivity 78.5% and specificity 79.2%), by applying a cut-off value of 0.15. The main result of this study is that the structure of the sleep stage transition pattern of hypocretin-deficient NT1 patients is significantly different from that of other forms of CDH and sHS, with normal hypocretin levels. The lower probability of R-to-N2 transition occurrence in NT1 appears to be a reliable polysomnographic feature with potential application at the individual level, for supportive diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Personal sleep pattern visualization using sequence-based kernel self-organizing map on sound data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongle; Kato, Takafumi; Yamada, Tomomi; Numao, Masayuki; Fukui, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method to discover sleep patterns via clustering of sound events recorded during sleep. The proposed method extends the conventional self-organizing map algorithm by kernelization and sequence-based technologies to obtain a fine-grained map that visualizes the distribution and changes of sleep-related events. We introduced features widely applied in sound processing and popular kernel functions to the proposed method to evaluate and compare performance. The proposed method provides a new aspect of sleep monitoring because the results demonstrate that sound events can be directly correlated to an individual's sleep patterns. In addition, by visualizing the transition of cluster dynamics, sleep-related sound events were found to relate to the various stages of sleep. Therefore, these results empirically warrant future study into the assessment of personal sleep quality using sound data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association between sleep-disordered breathing, sleep-wake pattern, and cognitive impairment among patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Carina; Strömberg, Anna; Arestedt, Kristofer; Broström, Anders

    2013-05-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are often co-existing problems among the elderly. Apnoeic events may cause cognitive impairment. The aim of the study was to compare sleep and wake patterns, insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and cognitive function in community-dwelling CHF patients, with and without SDB, and to investigate the association between sleep-related factors and cognitive dysfunction. In this cross-sectional observational study, SDB was measured with an ApneaLink device and defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥15/h of sleep. Sleep and wake patterns were measured with actigraphy for 1 week. Insomnia was measured with the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale, daytime sleepiness with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and cognitive function with a neuropsychological test battery. A total of 137 patients (68% male, median age 72 years, 58% NYHA functional class II) were consecutively included. Forty-four per cent had SDB (AHI ≥15). The SDB group had significantly higher saturation time below 90%, more difficulties maintaining sleep, and lower levels of daytime sleepiness compared with the non-SDB group. Cognitive function and sleep and wake patterns did not differ between the SDB and the non-SDB group. Insomnia was associated with decreased global cognition. The prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was low in this population with predominantly mild to moderate CHF. This might have influenced the lack of associations between cognitive function and SDB. Insomnia was the only sleep-related factor significantly influencing cognition.

  4. Sleep-wake pattern, chronotype and seizures in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong

    2016-02-01

    Although mounting evidence suggests that sleep and epilepsy are reciprocal and seizures influence circadian rhythms, sleep-wake pattern and seizure control have not been widely researched. This study aimed to investigate the association of sleep-wake pattern, sleep quality, and chronotype with seizures in patients with epilepsy (PWE). 160 consecutive PWE (aged 20-49 years, focal epilepsy, FE: generalized epilepsy, GE=127:33) and 130 age-gender matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. All subjects completed a sleep diary for more than 2 weeks, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire (MEQ). Detailed seizure history was reviewed for the last 1 year. Sleep-wake patterns on workdays were different between PWE and HC (psleep time between workdays and free days) was more evident in PWE (1.4h) than HC (0.7h, psleep time on both workdays and free days, and larger social jetlag than FE. Higher seizure frequency was positively correlated with higher PSQI and ESS after adjusting for age, gender, and number of antiepileptic drugs (psleep quality. Contrary to HC, PWE maintained sleep-wake patterns more regularly during workdays and free days. GE patients reported more eveningness-preference; however, their sleep quality was not worse than FE. Although sleep quality may affect seizure frequency, sleep-wake patterns and chronotype were not related to seizures in PWE. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Monitoring of Weekly Sleep Pattern Variations at Home with a Contactless Biomotion Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Hashizaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people find that their sleep is restricted or disturbed by social obligations, including work. Sleep phase delays can affect an individual’s circadian rhythms on the following day and cause daytime sleepiness and/or poor performance. In this study, to examine weekly variations in sleep patterns, we analyzed sleep data for seven-day periods (from Sunday to Saturday that had been collected from 2914 subjects (aged 20–79 years over a total of 24,899 subject-weeks using contactless biomotion sensors. On the weekend, the subjects’ mean sleep midpoint, bedtime, and wake-up time were delayed by 40, 26 and 53 min, respectively, compared with those seen on weekdays. In addition, on weekdays, the mean difference between the maximum and median sleep midpoint ranged from 35 to 47 min among the subjects in their 20 s–70 s. The weekend delay and weekday variation in the subjects’ sleep patterns tended to decrease with age. This study detected sleep pattern disturbances on both weekdays and weekends. The serial changes in weekday bedtimes detected in this study suggest that sleep habits are influenced by changes in the temporal patterns of social activities/duties. We need further study the advantages of getting extra sleep and the disadvantages of sleep pattern disturbances in daily lifestyle.

  6. Monitoring of Weekly Sleep Pattern Variations at Home with a Contactless Biomotion Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizaki, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-03

    Many people find that their sleep is restricted or disturbed by social obligations, including work. Sleep phase delays can affect an individual's circadian rhythms on the following day and cause daytime sleepiness and/or poor performance. In this study, to examine weekly variations in sleep patterns, we analyzed sleep data for seven-day periods (from Sunday to Saturday) that had been collected from 2914 subjects (aged 20-79 years) over a total of 24,899 subject-weeks using contactless biomotion sensors. On the weekend, the subjects' mean sleep midpoint, bedtime, and wake-up time were delayed by 40, 26 and 53 min, respectively, compared with those seen on weekdays. In addition, on weekdays, the mean difference between the maximum and median sleep midpoint ranged from 35 to 47 min among the subjects in their 20 s-70 s. The weekend delay and weekday variation in the subjects' sleep patterns tended to decrease with age. This study detected sleep pattern disturbances on both weekdays and weekends. The serial changes in weekday bedtimes detected in this study suggest that sleep habits are influenced by changes in the temporal patterns of social activities/duties. We need further study the advantages of getting extra sleep and the disadvantages of sleep pattern disturbances in daily lifestyle.

  7. Is impaired sleep quality responsible for a nondipping pattern even in normotensive individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu, Sena M; Ulu, Sahin; Ulasli, Sevinc S; Yaman, Gökhan; Ahsen, Ahmet; Ozkececi, Gulay; Yuksel, Seref

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and a dipping-nondipping pattern in normotensive individuals. Our study was carried out on 100 normotensive individuals; 50 of these individuals had a dipping pattern and 50 had a nondipping pattern, and were chosen from among patients in whom ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was applied before for any reason. All study participants underwent the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index survey to evaluate sleep disturbances. The overall scores and all the components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly higher in the nondipper normotensive group compared with the dipper normotensive group. In conclusion, the nondipping blood pressure pattern appears to be associated with poor sleep quality not only in hypertensive patients but also in normotensive healthy individuals. When evaluating patients with poor sleep quality, the possibility that they may have a nondipping pattern even if they are normotensive should be kept in mind.

  8. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ... Some hormones produced during sleep affect the body's use of energy. This may be how inadequate sleep ...

  9. Sleep influences the immune response and the rejection process alters sleep pattern: Evidence from a skin allograft model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Francieli Silva; Andersen, Monica Levy; Guindalini, Camila; Araujo, Leandro Pires; Lopes, José Daniel; Tufik, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Sleep generally regulates immune functions in a supportive manner and can affect parameters that are directly involved in the rejection process. The first objective was to assess whether sleep deprivation (SD) or sleep restriction (SR) affects the allograft rejection process in mice. The second objective was to investigate whether the rejection process itself modulates the sleep pattern of allografted mice. Adult BALB/c and C57BL/6J male mice were used as the donors and recipients, respectively, except for the syngeneic group (ISOTX), which received skin from mice of the same strain (C57BL/6J). The recipients were randomly assigned to either one of two control groups - TX (allogenic) or ISOTX (syngeneic) - which underwent stereotaxic surgery to enable sleep recording prior to the allograft but were not sleep deprived; one of two paradoxical sleep deprived groups - SDTX and TXSD - which underwent 72h of continuous SD either before or after the allograft respectively, and one of two sleep restricted groups - SRTX and TXSR - which underwent 21h of SD and 3h of sleep for 15days either before or after the allograft respectively. The skin allograft was inspected daily to determine the survival time, expected as 8.0±0.4days in this transplant model under no treatment. The sleep pattern was controlled throughout the rejection process in the SD and SR groups. Draining lymph nodes, spleen, blood and skin grafts were harvested on the 5th day after transplantation for evaluation of the immune parameters related to allograft rejection. In the control groups, we observed a reduction in paradoxical sleep throughout the entire allograft rejection process. Acute and chronic experimental sleep loss in the SD and SR groups produced marked alterations in the immune response. Both SD and SR prolonged allograft survival compared to the non-sleep-deprived group. There were reductions in the following parameters involved in the allograft rejection under sleep loss: CD4 + and CD8 + T cell

  10. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Shattuck, Lawrence G

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. TRAINEES: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment.

  11. Patterns and consequences of inadequate sleep in college students: substance use and motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D

    2010-06-01

    We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The evaluation of pattern and quality of sleep in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Uzdan; Günhan, Kıvanç; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Ünlü, Halis

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) on sleep pattern and sleep quality before and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery using subjective and objective parameters. Twenty-two patients with CRSwNP were evaluated. All subjects underwent assessment by nasal endoscopy, rhinomanometry and computed tomography. Sleep pattern and sleep quality were evaluated by Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and polysomnography (PSG). All patients were reassessed 6 months after surgery. Nasal resistance decreased after the surgery (psleep pattern and sleep quality. CRSwNP may be a predisposing factor for sleep related respiratory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep habits and pattern in 1-14 years old children and relationship with video devices use and evening and night child activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Paolo; Giussani, Marco; Pasinato, Angela; Venturelli, Leonello; Privitera, Francesco; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Sollai, Sara; Picca, Marina; Di Mauro, Giuseppe; Bruni, Oliviero; Chiappini, Elena

    2017-01-13

    Sleep in childhood and adolescence is crucial for mental and physical health; however several researches reported an increasing trend towards a sleep deprivation in this age. Due to the lack of recent epidemiological studies in Italy, the aim of our study was to depict sleep habits and patterns in Italian children aged 1-14 years and to evaluate their relationships with video devices use (TV, tablet, smartphone, PC) and evening/night child activities. A structured interview was conducted during 2015 by 72 Family Pediatricians in 2030 healthy children aged 1-14 years by a cross-sectional survey named "Ci piace sognare". Total sleep duration was calculated, 2015 National Sleep Foundation Recommendations were used as reference. Optimal sleepers were defined children sleeping in own bed all night without awakenings. Multivariable median regression was performed to identify predictors of sleep duration and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of optimal sleep. Total sleep duration and numbers of awakenings decreased with age. Only 66.9% of children had sleep duration in agreement with Recommendations (50% in 10-14 years group). Before sleeping 63.5% of children used video devices (39.6% at 1-3 years), 39.1% read, 27.5% drank and 19.5% ate. Bottle users at bedtime were 30.8% at 1-3 years, 16.6% at 3-5 years and 4.9% at 5-7 years. Overall, 23.4% of children changed sleeping place during the night, 22.4% referred sleeping problems in the first year of life. Video devices use was negative predictor of sleep duration (-0.25 h [95%CI:-0.35,-0.14], p sleep was inversely related with bedroom TV (OR 0.63 [0.50,0.79], p sleeping disorders in the first year (OR 0.62 [0.48,0.80], p sleep less than recommended, one half in teenage. Modifiable risk factors for sleep abnormalities such as video devices use, bedroom TV and bottle use should be target of preventive strategies for a correct sleep. Pediatricians should give priority to the identification of sleep

  14. Pattern of semen fluid abnormalities in male partners of infertile couples in southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugboaja, J O; Monago, E N; Obiechina, N J A

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the pattern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period and to identify the pattern of abnormalities. A retrospective study of all the semen samples of male partners of infertile couples submitted for analysis to the microbiology laboratory of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Nigeria between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2006 The reports of the semen fluid analysis were retrieved from the records department and supplemented with the laboratory register. Out of the 348 semen sample reports evaluated, 237 (68.0%) had semen fluid abnormalities. 104 (30.0%) had single factor abnormalities while 133 (38.0%) had combined factor anomalies. Asthenozoospermia 58 (16.7%) was the main single abnormality, while Astheno-oligozoospermia 51 (14.7%) and Astheno-oligoteratozoospermia (13.2%) were the major combined factor abnormalities detected. Very few 5 (1.4%) of the patients had azospermia. The study showed a high rate of semen fluid abnormalities among the male partners of infertile women in our environment. The high preponderance of poor motility emphasizes the need to include men in programmes aimed at reducing sexually transmitted infections in Nigeria.

  15. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  16. Increased cerebral blood flow velocity in children with mild sleep-disordered breathing: a possible association with abnormal neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Hogan, Alexandra M; Onugha, Nwanneka; Harrison, Dawn; Cooper, Sara; McGrigor, Victoria J; Datta, Avijit; Kirkham, Fenella J

    2006-10-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing describes a spectrum of upper airway obstruction in sleep from simple primary snoring, estimated to affect 10% of preschool children, to the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. Emerging evidence has challenged previous assumptions that primary snoring is benign. A recent report identified reduced attention and higher levels of social problems and anxiety/depressive symptoms in snoring children compared with controls. Uncertainty persists regarding clinical thresholds for medical or surgical intervention in sleep-disordered breathing, underlining the need to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition. Adults with sleep-disordered breathing have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease independent of atherosclerotic risk factors. There has been little focus on cerebrovascular function in children with sleep-disordered breathing, although this would seem an important line of investigation, because studies have identified abnormalities of the systemic vasculature. Raised cerebral blood flow velocities on transcranial Doppler, compatible with raised blood flow and/or vascular narrowing, are associated with neuropsychological deficits in children with sickle cell disease, a condition in which sleep-disordered breathing is common. We hypothesized that there would be cerebral blood flow velocity differences in sleep-disordered breathing children without sickle cell disease that might contribute to the association with neuropsychological deficits. Thirty-one snoring children aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from adenotonsillectomy waiting lists, and 17 control children were identified through a local Sunday school or as siblings of cases. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, moderate or severe learning disabilities, chronic respiratory/cardiac conditions, or allergic rhinitis were excluded. Severity of sleep-disordered breathing in snoring children was categorized by attended polysomnography. Weight

  17. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness: a combined actigraphy and psychometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, S; Gacon, C; Jennum, P; Ptito, M; Kupers, R

    2016-08-01

    Light plays an important role in the synchronization of the internal biological clock and the environmental day/night pattern. Thus, absence of vision is often associated with both increases in reported sleep disturbances and incidence of free-running circadian rhythms. In this study we discuss variability in the sleep-wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted parameters of sleep and wake, including episodes of rest, day-time and night-time sleep periods, and the number of awakenings throughout sleep. A measure of sleep efficiency was derived from these measures for each night-time sleep episode. We also examined complementary measures of sleep quality, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and chronotype, using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Although no group differences were found when averaging over the entire recording period, we found a greater variability throughout the 30-days in both sleep efficiency and timing of the night-time sleep episode in blind participants as compared to sighted control participants. We also confirm previous reports of reduced sleep quality in blind individuals. Notably, the variability in sleep efficiency and in the timing of sleep correlated with the severity of sleep disturbances. The timing and physiology of sleep are strongly dependent on the endogenous circadian phase; therefore, observed findings support the hypothesis of free-running circadian rhythms as a dominant factor for the sleep disturbances experienced in blindness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a sleep education program with self-help treatment on sleeping patterns and daytime sleepiness in Japanese adolescents: A cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Norihisa; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insufficient sleep and delayed sleep-wake patterns have been reported as the primary causes for daytime sleepiness, a reasonably significant and prevalent problem for adolescents worldwide. Systematic reviews have indicated that the success of sleep education programs has thus far been inconsistent, due to the lack of a tailored approach that allows for evaluation of individual differences in behavior patterns. One way to resolve this problem is to assess the individual sleep behaviors of adolescents by using a checklist containing the recommended behaviors for promoting sleep health. Such self-help education programs have already been implemented for elementary school children, school nurses and the elderly. The present study aimed to verify the effects of a sleep education program with supplementary self-help treatment, based on a checklist of sleep-promoting behaviors, in addition to evaluation of changes in sleeping patterns, sleep-promoting behaviors and daytime sleepiness in adolescents. A cluster randomized controlled trial involving 5 Japanese junior high schools was conducted, and 243 students (sleep education: n = 122; waiting list: n = 121; 50.6% female; 7th grade) were included in the final analysis. The sleep education group was provided with information on proper sleep health and sleep-promoting behaviors. The students in this group were asked to practice one sleep-promoting behavior as a goal for 2 weeks and to monitor their practice using sleep diaries. Both pre- and post-treatment questionnaires were administered to students in order to assess knowledge of sleep-promoting behaviors, sleeping patterns and daytime functioning. Students in the sleep education group showed significant improvement in their knowledge of sleep health (F1,121 = 648.05, p sleep-promoting behaviors (F1,121 = 55.66, p sleep-onset latency (F1,121 = 10.26, p = 0.002), total sleep time on school nights (F1,121 = 12.45, p = 0.001), subjective experience of insufficient

  19. Association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuya; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Abe, Yuka; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Sakai, Takuro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kawana, Fusae; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between patterns of jaw motor activity during sleep and clinical signs and symptoms of sleep bruxism. A total of 35 university students and staff members participated in this study after providing informed consent. All participants were divided into either a sleep bruxism group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 14), based on the following clinical diagnostic criteria: (1) reports of tooth-grinding sounds for at least two nights a week during the preceding 6 months by their sleep partner; (2) presence of tooth attrition with exposed dentin; (3) reports of morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness; and (4) presence of masseter muscle hypertrophy. Video-polysomnography was performed in the sleep laboratory for two nights. Sleep bruxism episodes were measured using masseter electromyography, visually inspected and then categorized into phasic or tonic episodes. Phasic episodes were categorized further into episodes with or without grinding sounds as evaluated by audio signals. Sleep bruxism subjects with reported grinding sounds had a significantly higher total number of phasic episodes with grinding sounds than subjects without reported grinding sounds or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P sleep bruxism subjects with tooth attrition exhibited significantly longer phasic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P sleep bruxism subjects with morning masticatory muscle fatigue or tenderness exhibited significantly longer tonic burst durations than those without or controls (Kruskal-Wallis/Steel-Dwass tests; P sleep bruxism represents different aspects of jaw motor activity during sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seblewengel Lemma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate sleep habits, sleep patterns, and sleep quality among Ethiopian college students; and to examine associations of poor sleep quality with consumption of caffeinated beverages and other stimulants. Methods. A total of 2,230 undergraduate students completed a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire which gathered information about sleep complaints, sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics,and theuse of caffeinated beverages and khat. We used multivariable logistic regression procedures to estimate odds ratios for the associations of poor sleep quality with sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results. Overall 52.7% of students were classified as having poor sleep quality (51.8% among males and 56.9% among females. In adjusted multivariate analyses, caffeine consumption (OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.25–1.92, cigarette smoking (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63, and khat use (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.09–2.71 were all associated with increased odds of long-sleep latency (>30 minutes. Cigarette smoking (OR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.11–2.73 and khat consumption (OR=1.91; 95% CI: 1.22–3.00 were also significantly associated with poor sleep efficiency (<85%, as well as with increased use of sleep medicine. Conclusion. Findings from the present study demonstrate the high prevalence of poor sleep quality and its association with stimulant use among college students. Preventive and educational programs for students should include modules that emphasize the importance of sleep and associated risk factors.

  1. Effects of Monomethylhydrazine on Thalamocortical Excitability and Patterns of Sleep in the Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Ed.), Sleep , Physiology and Pathology : A Symposium, 1969, J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Ch. 24, 317-330. Sterman, M. B., Fairchild, M. D...AMRL-TR-75-34 EFFECTS OF MONOMETHYLHYDRAZINE ON THALAMOCORTICAL EXCITABILITY AND PATTERNS OF SLEEP IN THE CAT UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES...MONOMETHYLHYDRAZINE Final Report ON THALAMOCORTICAL EXCITABILITY 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER AND PATTERNS OF SLEEP IN THE CAT 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT

  2. Sleep-patterns, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep among school children: Comparison of domicile and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Television watching before bedtime was more common among urban school children and they had shorter total sleep time. They had signs of sleep deprivation. Room sharing was more common among rural children. Despite longer sleep time, parents of rural children felt the need for more sleep.

  3. Sleep Patterns in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tic Disorder, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2007-01-01

    Background: In children, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder (TD), and their coexistence (ADHD + TD comorbidity) are very common and clinically important. Associated sleep patterns and their clinical role are still insufficiently investigated. This study aimed at characterizing these sleep patterns in children with ADHD,…

  4. Increased daytime somnolence despite normal sleep patterns in patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, Agatha A.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Pereira, Alberto M.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    In patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFMA), increased fatigue scores on quality of life (QoL) have been reported. Because this may be related to altered sleep patterns, we evaluated daytime sleepiness and sleep patterns in patients successfully treated for NFMA in our

  5. Associations of outdoor play and screen time with nocturnal sleep duration and pattern among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Hardy, Louise L; Rissel, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Sleep duration and pattern have important implications for children's health. This study aims to investigate nocturnal sleep duration, sleep pattern and their relationships with outdoor play and screen time among children aged 2 to five years. The study used data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia. Data on children's sleep, outdoor playtime and screen time were reported by mothers via face-to-face interviews when children were 2, 3.5 and five years old. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. At age 2, 3.5 and five years, 497, 415 and 369 mother-child dyads participated. Significantly, there was an overall increase in children's nocturnal sleep duration, sleep latency and an earlier bedtime, and there was a decrease in the proportion of children who woke at night over time. Each additional hour of screen time was associated with three-minute (95% CI 0.6-5) shorter sleep, 1.6-minute (95% CI 0.59-2.63) longer sleep latency, four-minute (95% CI 1.8-6.0) later bedtime and less likely sleeping ≥10 hours per night with adjusted odds ratio 0.88 (95% CI 0.77-1.00), after controlling for mothers' demographics. Among young children, screen time and outdoor playtime were associated with sleep duration and pattern. Reducing screen time and increasing outdoor playtime might help improving children's sleep. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sleep Patterns Before and After Weight Restoration in Females with Anorexia Nervosa: A Longitudinal Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Bernabè, Jasmine; Pellegrini, Massimo; Milanese, Chiara; Chignola, Elisa; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    To assess sleep patterns in female patients with anorexia nervosa before and after weight restoration. Sleep patterns were measured objectively using a Sense Wear Armband before and after weight restoration in 50 female patients with anorexia nervosa, and in 25 healthy females. At baseline, patients with anorexia nervosa exhibited lower total sleep time and sleep onset latency than controls, the former apparently associated with baseline BMI, duration of illness and age. However, after weight restoration, total sleep time and sleep onset latency were similar to controls, despite the persistence of longer periods of wake after sleep onset. In patients with anorexia nervosa, total sleep time and sleep onset latency appears to be reduced. This sleep disturbance seems to be influenced by the duration and severity of malnutrition, and appears to normalize with weight restoration. Even though a discontinuous sleep pattern seems to persist, this finding should be discussed with patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Association of Concussion With Abnormal Menstrual Patterns in Adolescent and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Meredith L; Henry, Luke C; Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Zeleznik, Anthony J; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-09-01

    Brain injury may interrupt menstrual patterns by altering hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis function. Investigators have yet to evaluate the association of concussion with menstrual patterns in young women. To compare abnormal menstrual patterns in adolescent and young women after a sport-related concussion with those after sport-related orthopedic injuries to areas other than the head (nonhead). This prospective cohort study of adolescent and young women with a sport-related concussion (n = 68) or a nonhead sport-related orthopedic injury (n = 61) followed up participants for 120 days after injury. Patients aged 12 to 21 years who presented within 30 days after a sport-related injury to a concussion or sports medicine clinic at a single academic center were eligible. Menstrual patterns were assessed using a weekly text message link to an online survey inquiring about bleeding episodes each week. The first patient was enrolled on October 14, 2014, and follow-up was completed on January 24, 2016. Inclusion criteria required participants to be at least 2 years postmenarche, to report regular menses in the previous year, and to report no use of hormonal contraception. Sport-related concussion or nonhead sport-related orthopedic injury. Abnormal menstrual patterns were defined by an intermenstrual interval of less than 21 days (short) or more than 35 days (long) or a bleeding duration of less than 3 days or more than 7 days. A total of 1784 survey responses were completed of the 1888 text messages received by patients, yielding 487 menstrual patterns in 128 patients (mean [SD] age, 16.2 [2.0] years). Of the 68 patients who had a concussion, 16 (23.5%) experienced 2 or more abnormal menstrual patterns during the study period compared with 3 of 60 patients (5%) who had an orthopedic injury. Despite similar gynecologic age, body mass index, and type of sports participation between groups, the risk of 2 or more abnormal menstrual bleeding patterns after injury

  8. Nocturnal agitation in Huntington disease is caused by arousal-related abnormal movements rather than by rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutel, Dulce; Tchikviladzé, Maya; Charles, Perrine; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Roze, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-06-01

    Patients with Huntington disease (HD) and their spouses often complain of agitation during sleep, but the causes are mostly unknown. To evaluate sleep and nocturnal movements in patients with various HD stages and CAG repeats length. The clinical features and sleep studies of 29 patients with HD were retrospectively collected (11 referred for genotype-phenotype correlations and 18 for agitation during sleep) and compared with those of 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All patients had videopolysomnography, but the movements during arousals were re-analyzed in six patients with HD with stored video. The patients had a longer total sleep period and REM sleep onset latency, but no other differences in sleep than controls. There was no correlation between CAG repeat length and sleep measures, but total sleep time and sleep efficiency were lower in the subgroup with moderate than milder form of HD. Periodic limb movements and REM sleep behavior disorders were excluded, although 2/29 patients had abnormal REM sleep without atonia. In contrast, they had clumsy and opisthotonos-like movements during arousals from non-REM or REM sleep. Some movements were violent and harmful. They might consist of voluntary movements inappropriately involving the proximal part of the limbs on a background of exaggerated hypotonia. Giant (>65 mcV) sleep spindles were observed in seven (24%) patients with HD and one control. The nocturnal agitation in patients with HD seems related to anosognostic voluntary movements on arousals, rather than to REM sleep behavior disorder and other sleep problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlations between sleep patterns and cardiovascular diseases in a Chinese middle-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuangshi; Hao, Guang; Bo, Jian; Li, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an association between habitual sleep patterns and cardiovascular (CV) disease, but the results are still controversial. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the relationships between habitual sleep patterns and CV disease based on Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) China study. PURE China study recruited 46 285 participants, aged 35-70, from 12 provinces and 115 communities in China. Habitual sleep patterns and CV disease were self-reported. Multilevel logistic regression was used in our analysis. In this study, 39 515 participants were eligible in our analysis, including 23 345 (59.1%) women and 16 170 (40.9%) men. Sleeping ≥9 h per day was associated with increased odds of CV disease (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32, p = 0.033) compared with sleeping 7-8 h per day. Taking daytime naps was also associated with an increased odds of CV disease, and the CV odds increased with increasing napping duration (p for trend sleeping sleep per night had lowest prevalence of CV disease (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.90, p = 0.001) compared with other sleep patterns. Napping, long and short duration of habitual sleep may increase the odds of CV disease. Only participants sleeping 7-8 hours at night are recommended in this study, and large longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these results.

  10. Sleep Patterns and Academic Performance During Preparation for College Entrance Exam in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghai; Ren, Fen; Liu, Zhijun; Xu, Guangxing; Jiang, Fan; Skora, Elizabeth; Lewin, Daniel S

    2016-04-01

    Deficient sleep is linked to detrimental outcomes in health and school performance for adolescents. This study characterized sleep patterns in Chinese adolescents preparing for the College Entrance Exam (CEE) and evaluated the association between sleep patterns, self-rated academic performance, and the CEE scores. A sample of 481 Chinese adolescents in 12th grade (ages 16-19 years) completed questionnaires about sleep patterns, academic performance, academic stress, and sociodemographic factors 4-6 weeks before the CEE in June 2013. The CEE scores for each student also were obtained. A total of 21% of the students had bedtimes after 12:00 am, 78.3% had sleep latency longer than 30 minutes, 14.6% had wake time earlier than 6:00 am, and the vast majority (94.4%) had sleep duration less than 8 hours. After adjusting for selected confounders such as academic stress, prolonged sleep latency was associated with poorer self-reported academic performance, and late bedtime was associated with higher CEE score. Our findings highlight the complex association between sleep and academic performance. Assessing and monitoring sleep patterns in adolescents during periods of high academic demand and stress may yield important recommendations for their health and safety as well as establishing optimal sleep and study habits. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  11. SLEEP PATTERN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Rajendran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance of students is well accepted. The studies relating the sleep pattern of medical students and academic performance is limited. This study was conducted to identify sleep pattern of medical students and find out any relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess sociodemographic parameters, sleep/wake timing, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and academic performance. Academic performance was measured on the basis of the aggregate marks scored for the previous year university exam. RESULTS The study population included 349 students with a mean age of 21.4±1.1years. The student’s average weekday bedtime, rise time and total sleep time was 12:02a.m., 07:03a.m. and 7.23hrs., respectively. The corresponding values for weekends were 12:25a.m., 08:17a.m. and 08:18hrs. Mean sleep duration of night prior to exam was 5.16±1.50.Students with earlier bed/rise time and longer hours of sleep night prior to exam had better academic performance. CONCLUSION Academic performance of medical students showed significant negative correlation with sleep/wake timings and positive correlation with duration of sleepnight before examination.

  12. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Characterization of sleep breathing pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes: sweet sleep study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Lecube

    Full Text Available Although sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, it is unknown whether or not subjects with and without T2D share the same sleep breathing pattern.A cross-sectional study in patients with SAHS according to the presence (n = 132 or not (n = 264 of T2D. Both groups were matched by age, gender, BMI, and waist and neck circumferences. A subgroup of 125 subjects was also matched by AHI. The exclusion criteria included chronic respiratory disease, alcohol abuse, use of sedatives, and heart failure. A higher apnea hypopnea index (AHI was observed in T2D patients [32.2 (10.2-114.0 vs. 25.6 (10.2-123.4 events/hours; p = 0.002. When sleep events were evaluated separately, patients with T2D showed a significant increase in apnea events [8.4 (0.1-87.7 vs. 6.3 (0.0-105.6 e/h; p = 0.044, as well as a two-fold increase in the percentage of time spent with oxygen saturation <90% [15.7 (0.0-97.0 vs. 7.9 (0.0-95.6 %; <0.001], higher rates of oxygen desaturation events, and also higher daily sleepiness [7.0 (0.0-21.0 vs. 5.0 (0.0-21.0; p = 0.006] than subjects without T2D. Significant positive correlations between fasting plasma glucose and AHI, the apnea events, and CT90 were observed. Finally, multiple linear regression analyses showed that T2D was independently associated with AHI (R2 = 0.217, the apnea index (R2 = 0.194, CT90 (R2 = 0.222, and desaturation events.T2D patients present a different pattern of sleep breathing than subject without diabetes. The most important differences are the severity of hypoxemia and the number of apneas whereas the incidence of hypopnea episodes is similar.

  14. Sleep-disordered breathing and daytime cardiac conduction abnormalities on 12-lead electrocardiogram in community-dwelling older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Younghoon; Picel, Katherine; Adabag, Selcuk; Vo, Tien; Taylor, Brent C; Redline, Susan; Stone, Katie; Mehra, Reena; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-12-01

    Nocturnal cardiac conduction abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). However, few population-based studies have examined the association between SDB and daytime cardiac conduction abnormalities. We examined a random sample of 471 community-dwelling men, aged ≥67 years, enrolled in the multi-center Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) study. SDB severity was categorized using percent of total sleep time with oxygen saturation <90 % (%TST < 90) and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Cardiac conduction parameters were assessed by resting 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). All analyses were adjusted for age, site, β-blocker use, coronary heart disease, calcium channel blocker use, and use of antiarrhythmic medications. Mean age was 77 ± 6 years, median %TST < 90 was 0.7 (IQR 0.00-3.40), and median AHI was 7.06 (IQR 2.55-15.32). Men with greater nocturnal hypoxemia (%TST < 90 ≥ 3.5 %) compared with those without hypoxemia (%TST < 90 < 1.0 %) had a lower odds of bradycardia (OR 0.55 [0.32-0.94]) and right bundle branch block (RBBB) (OR 0.24 [0.08-0.75]) but a higher odds of ventricular paced rhythm (OR 4.42 [1.29-15.19]). Heart rate (HR) increased in a graded manner with increasing %TST < 90 (p-trend 0.01) and increasing AHI (p-trend 0.006), but these gradients were small in absolute magnitude. There were no associations of SDB measures with other ECG conduction parameters. Greater nocturnal hypoxemia in older men was associated with a lower prevalence of daytime sinus bradycardia and RBBB, a higher prevalence of ventricular paced rhythm, and higher resting HR.

  15. Neuro-behavioral pattern of sleep bruxism in wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marila Rezende Azevedo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Sleep Bruxism (SB is a non-functional rhythmic movement of the mandible with multifactorial aetiology and complex diagnose. It has been the subject of various studies over the past decades and it is considered a result of actions of the Central Nervous System modulated by Autonomous Nervous System. In this work, we test the hypothesis that SB subjects present a typical and defined neurobehavioral pattern that can be distinct from that of non-bruxers subjects and can be measured during wakefulness. Methods Fifteen sleep bruxers (experimental-group EG and fifteen non-bruxers (control-group CG took part in the experiments. To verify the presence and severity of SB, clinical examinations, anamneses and questionnaires, including Visual Analogic Scale - faces (VAS-f and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were applied. To legitimate the diagnoses of SB, a disposable instrument (Bitestrip® to assess the masseter activity during sleep was employed. All subjects were submitted to a set of experiments for measuring various visual evoked responses during the presentation of visual stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral images. Events in Visual Evoked Potential (VEP were used to compare the neural responses of both CG and EG. Results VAS-f showed EG with higher perception of stress than CG (trait: p=0.05, and lower quality of life for (state: p=0.007. STAI I and II showed significant differences of anxiety between CG and EG (p=0.013 and p=0.004, respectively, being EG the highest. The EG Bitestrip scores confirmed that 100% of subjects were sleep bruxers. Significant differences were found between EG and CG for events associated with emotional (pleasant and unpleasant images in the first 250 ms after stimulation. In general, EG subjects showed higher amplitude and shorter latency of VEP events. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish between SB and non-bruxers subjects during wakefulness, based on differences in amplitude and

  16. Infant Sleep and Feeding Patterns are Associated with Maternal Sleep, Stress, and Depressed Mood in Women with a History of Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Katherine M.; Iko, Ijeoma N.; Machan, Jason T.; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Methods Participants were 30 women (age±SD = 28.3±5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during 4 separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants’ sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Results Mothers’ actigraphically-estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p=.02) and lower sleep efficiency (p=.04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with number of infant sleep bouts (p =.008) and duration of infant feeding (p =.008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Conclusions Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers’ depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants, because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress. PMID:26228760

  17. Infant sleep and feeding patterns are associated with maternal sleep, stress, and depressed mood in women with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Iko, Ijeoma N; Machan, Jason T; Thompson-Westra, Johanna; Pearlstein, Teri B

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age ± SD = 28.3 ± 5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p = .02) and lower sleep efficiency (p = .04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p = .008) and duration of infant feeding (p = .008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress.

  18. Abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg enthalpy relaxation pattern in hyperquenched metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lina; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Our recent work observed a quite different relaxation pattern, i.e., the abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg relaxation in CuZrAl GRs[1]. However, the generality and the origin of this remarkable thermodynamic anomaly remain enigmatic. By hyperquenching strategy, the present work investigated the depe......Our recent work observed a quite different relaxation pattern, i.e., the abnormal three-steplike sub-Tg relaxation in CuZrAl GRs[1]. However, the generality and the origin of this remarkable thermodynamic anomaly remain enigmatic. By hyperquenching strategy, the present work investigated...... in La55Al25Ni20 GRs. However, the correlation between Tf and the activation energy for initiating the energy releasing during thermal scanning is three-steplike for La55Al25Ni20, revealing the similar phenomenon with the abnormal ERP of Cu46Zr46Al8. These unexpected phenomena have been well explained...

  19. Right-sided phase abnormalities on gated blood pool ventriculography: Demonstration of six different patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, R.H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Ziada, G.; Al-Suhali, A.; Constantinides, C.; Nair, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Phase pattern abnormalities on multiple gated blood pool ventriculography are better reported for the left ventricle (LV) than for the right side of the heart. In a study of 92 patients who also underwent contrast ventriculography, the authors identified six different patterns of right-sided phase abnormalities and their causes: right bundle-branch block, causing delayed phase in the entire right ventricle (RV); ischemic right coronary artery disease, causing delayed phase in the inferior RV wall; pericardial effusion, causing an L-shaped area of delayed phase to the right of the septum and below the LV; pulmonary hypertension, causing delayed phase in the pulmonary infundibulum; tricuspid regurgitation, causing a crescentic area of delayed phase around and below the right RV and extending below the LV as well, and atrial septal defect causing an abnormally large auricular phase

  20. The effect of interstate travel on sleep patterns of elite Australian Rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, L; Dawson, B; Hillman, D R; Eastwood, P R

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of interstate air travel on the quality and quantity of sleep in elite Australian Rules football players. Ten elite male athletes, who were members of a Western Australian-based Australian Football League (AFL) team, participated in the study. Sleep pattern was assessed by measuring sleep duration (SLD), sleep efficiency (SE), number of wakings (NW) and total wake time after sleep onset (WT) using a wrist-worn actigraph. Subjective sleep quality (SQ) was assessed using a scale of sleep rating. Throughout the 2002 AFL season, measurements were obtained on the night before (N1), the night of (N2) and the night after (N3) home and away games. Baseline measurements were obtained from five consecutive non-game nights. Compared to baseline, SLD on N1 was increased when home and away (by 51 and 105 mins respectively, psleep pattern were unchanged. On N2, SLD was decreased to a similar degree whether home or away (by 68 and 64 mins respectively, psleep pattern were unchanged. By N3 all measures of sleep pattern had returned to baseline values. Relative to baseline, perception of SQ was worst on N2 of a home game. This study has shown that interstate travel by elite AFL players has no adverse effects on sleep pattern on the night before a game.

  1. Sleep pattern is associated with adipokine levels and nutritional markers in resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria Carliana; Waterhouse, Jim; De-Souza, Daurea Abadia; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Silva, Catarina Mendes; Araújo, Maria Bernadete Jeha; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2014-12-01

    Shift work and long hours of work are common in medical training and have been associated with a higher propensity for developing nutritional problems and obesity. Changes in leptin and ghrelin concentrations - two hormones that contribute importantly to the central regulation of food intake - are poorly described in this population. The aim of this study was to identify possible negative associations between sleep patterns, nutritional status and serum levels of adipokines. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables, fasting metabolism, physical activity level, sleep quality and sleepiness. Resident physicians with poor sleep quality reported greater weight gain after the beginning of residency (5.1 and 3.0 kg, respectively; p = 0.01) and higher frequency of abnormal waist circumference (44.2 and 17.6%, respectively; p = 0.04) than those with better sleep quality. Mean ghrelin concentration was greater in volunteers with poor sleep quality (64.6 ± 67.8 and 26.2 ± 25.0 pg/mL, respectively; p = 0.04). Women identified as having excessive daytime sleepiness had lower levels of leptin (9.57 ± 10.4 ng/mL versus 16.49 ± 11.4 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.03) than those without excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, correlations were found between hours of additional work per week and: intake of cereals, bread and pasta (r = 0.22, p = 0.01); intake of servings of fruits (r = -0.20; p = 0.02) and beans (r = -0.21; p = 0.01); and global score for Adapted Healthy Eating Index (r = -0.23; p = 0.008; Table 3). The sleep quality total score correlated with servings of beans (r = -0.22; p = 0.01) and servings of oils (r = 0.23; p = 0.008). Significant correlations were found between mean of time of sleep and servings

  2. A Study On Association Among Sleep Pattern, Sleep Disturbance And Problem Behavior In Persons With Developmental Disabilities In India

    OpenAIRE

    Ganaie; S.A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep patterns of persons with developmental disabilities are different from those of age matched peers. Persons with developmental disabilities are taking more time to fall asleep as compared with other persons without disabilities (Piazza, Fisher, & Kahng, (1996). Sleep disturbances seem to decrease one’s ability to regulate, control, or inhibit emotion and behavior (Dahl, 1996, Wolfson and Carskadon, 1998). Brylewski and Wiggs (1999) found that persons with developmental disabi...

  3. Sleep Patterns of Naval Aviation Personnel Conducting Mine Hunting Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solberg, Bennett J

    2006-01-01

    Detailed research conducted over the past forty years has conclusively determined that varying degrees of sleep loss shifts in sleep cycle increased stress and even changes in time zone with respect...

  4. Practice Patterns of Sleep Otolaryngologists at Training Institutions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Austin S; Wise, Sarah K; Dedhia, Raj C

    2017-06-01

    Objective To assess the practice characteristics of adult sleep otolaryngologists within US otolaryngology residency training programs. Study Design Cross-sectional online survey. Setting Otolaryngology residency training programs. Subjects and Methods Program directors from 106 otolaryngology training programs in the United States were contacted. Program directors were instructed to forward a survey to otolaryngologists within the institution who provided Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Otolaryngology Milestone Project feedback in "sleep-disordered breathing." The survey assessed demographics, nonsurgical practices, and surgical/procedural practices of adult sleep otolaryngologists. Data were collected and analyzed. Results Forty-six surveys met inclusion criteria, representing 40 of 106 (38%) programs. Ninety-three percent of respondents reported that residents gained a significant portion of their sleep medicine training from themselves (ie, the respondents), yet only 36% of respondents spent ≥50% of their time on sleep medicine/surgery. Forty-one percent reported being board certified in sleep, with 18% having completed an ACGME fellowship in sleep medicine. Respondents with board certification were more likely to spend greater portions of their practice on sleep medicine/surgery, χ 2 (3, n = 44) = 23.161 ( P sleep apnea sleep disorders (13 of 18 vs 1 of 26, P sleep endoscopy, χ 2 (1, n = 43) = 5.43, ( P = .02). A similar pattern was seen with stratification by ACGME sleep medicine fellowship. Conclusion This study highlights the variance in practice patterns among sleep otolaryngologists who instruct residents. Board certification and fellowship training in sleep medicine significantly influence breadth of trainee exposure to this field. The highly disparate trainee experiences to sleep otolaryngology across US programs require attention.

  5. Is there a specific polysomnographic sleep pattern in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, Roumen; Kinkelbur, Joerg; Heipke, Susanne; Kostanecka-Endress, Tatiana; Westhoff, Moritz; Cohrs, Stefan; Ruther, Eckart; Hajak, Goran; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the sleep pattern in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). By means of polysomnography (PSG), sleep patterns were studied in 17 unmedicated preadolescent boys rigorously diagnosed with ADHD and 17 control boys precisely matched for age and intelligence. Although ADHD children did not display a general sleep alteration, major PSG data showed a significant increase in the duration of the absolute rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and the number of sleep cycles in ADHD group when compared with controls. In addition, REM sleep latency tended to be shorter in ADHD children. These results suggest that in ADHD children, a forced REM sleep initiation may produce a higher incidence of sleep cycles and may also contribute to an increased duration of the absolute REM sleep. The overall pattern of the findings implies that a forced ultradian cycling appears characteristic for the sleep in ADHD children, which may be related to alterations of brain monoamines and cortical inhibitory control accompanying the ADHD psychopathology.

  6. Prevalence and pattern of sleep disorder among children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sleep disorders significantly affect the quality of live and may impair cognitive development. Sleep disorders are reported to be common in children with neurological diseases. However no report has evaluated the prevalence of sleep disorders among children chronic neurological diseases in Nigeria.

  7. Sleep Patterns and Symptoms of Depression in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Peggy R.; Girgenti, Alicia A.; Mills, Maura J.

    2009-01-01

    College students have long been considered a population particularly affected by sleep difficulties. Previous studies have confirmed individuals with sleep disturbances may be at risk for development of depression. This study provides evidence in support of the hypothesis that sleep and specific aspects of depression are related. 147 students…

  8. Circadian sleep/wake rhythm abnormalities as a risk factor of a poststroke apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosin, Charlotte; Sibon, Igor; Poli, Mathilde; Allard, Michèle; Debruxelles, Sabrina; Renou, Pauline; Rouanet, François; Mayo, Willy

    2015-07-01

    Poststroke apathy affects 19-55% of patients following stroke and has a negative impact on functional recovery, general health, and quality of life, as well as being a source of significant burden for caregivers. A major clinical issue is the delayed diagnosis of poststroke apathy, and so the aim of our study is to evaluate the relationship between early poststroke alterations of circadian rhythms of sleep/wake cycles and the occurrence of poststroke apathy. Forty-six patients with a recent magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke were included. Main exclusion criteria were a mild to severe disability impeding home discharge from the hospital and the presence of apathy or dementia before stroke. Cerebrovascular lesions were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. At hospital discharge, an actigraph was used to measure patient's global activity as well as parameters of circadian rhythmicity (relative amplitude, interdaily stability, intradaily variability) and sleep (sleep duration, sleep efficiency, fragmentation index) over seven-days. Apathy was assessed at hospital discharge as well as at three-months using the Apathy Inventory and the Lille Apathy Rating Scale. Of the 46 patients evaluated, 10 (22%) showed apathy three-months after stroke (median Apathy Inventory = 4·5). Before inclusion, these 10 subjects did not differ significantly from other patients concerning their sleep and, at inclusion, they did not differ concerning apathy, anxiety, depression, or cognitive and functional abilities. However, actigraphy measured at discharged identified significant alterations of sleep (P apathy patients exhibited a decrease in sleep efficiency (actual sleep time expressed as a percentage of time in bed) and an increase in the fragmentation index (degree of fragmentation during the sleep period) at three-months. No association was observed between poststroke apathy and the characteristics of cerebrovascular lesions (stroke location, extent of

  9. Movement-related cortical potentials in paraplegic patients: abnormal patterns and considerations for BCI-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren eXu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive EEG-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI can be promising for the motor neuro-rehabilitation of paraplegic patients. However, this shall require detailed knowledge of the abnormalities in the EEG signatures of paraplegic patients. The association of abnormalities in different subgroups of patients and their relation to the sensorimotor integration are relevant for the design, implementation and use of BCI systems in patient populations. This study explores the patterns of abnormalities of movement related cortical potentials (MRCP during motor imagery tasks of feet and right hand in patients with paraplegia (including the subgroups with/without central neuropathic pain and complete/incomplete injury patients and the level of distinctiveness of abnormalities in these groups using pattern classification. The most notable observed abnormalities were the amplified execution negativity and its slower rebound in the patient group. The potential underlying mechanisms behind these changes and other minor dissimilarities in patients’ subgroups, as well as the relevance to BCI applications, are discussed. The findings are of interest from a neurological perspective as well as for BCI-assisted neuro-rehabilitation and therapy.

  10. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  11. Sleep-wake patterns in patients with cirrhosis: all you need to know on a single sheet. A simple sleep questionnaire for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, Sara; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2009-10-01

    Sleep-wake abnormalities are common in patients with cirrhosis but their evaluation is time consuming and laborious. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a simple Sleep Timing and Sleep Quality Screening questionnaire (STSQS) against an established sleep quality questionnaire and daily sleep diaries. The study population comprised 87 patients with cirrhosis and 19 healthy volunteers. All participants completed the STSQS (sleep quality score range 1-9) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI; total score range: 0-21; scores >5 identify 'poor' sleepers); a subgroup of 35 patients and 12 healthy volunteers also kept daily sleep diaries for 2 weeks. Patients slept significantly less well than the healthy volunteers (total PSQI score: 8.4+/-4.9 vs. 4.6+/-2.5, p4: sensitivity 75%, specificity 93%; patients: STSQS sleep quality >3: sensitivity 83%, specificity 70%). The STSQS provided estimates of habitual sleep timing variables which did not significantly differ from the average data recorded in the sleep diaries, although more variability was observed in the patients. The STSQS provides acceptable estimates of sleep quality and sleep timing and could be used to identify patients with cirrhosis whose sleep behaviour might require further assessment.

  12. Association between Sleep Patterns and Health in Families with Exceptional Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavy Klein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSleep patterns such as longer sleep duration or napping are associated with poor health outcomes. Although centenarians and their offspring demonstrate a delayed onset of age-related diseases, it is not known whether they have healthier sleep patterns or are protected against the negative effects of sleep disturbances.MethodsData on sleep patterns and health history were collected from Ashkenazi Jewish subjects of the Longevity Genes Project using standardized questionnaires. Participants included individuals with exceptional longevity (centenarians with preserved cognition (n = 348, median age 97 years, their offspring (n = 513, median age 69 years, and controls (n = 199 age-matched to the offspring. Centenarians reported on their sleep patterns at age 70, while the offspring and controls on their current sleep patterns. Biochemical parameters were measured at baseline. Models were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and use of sleep medication.ResultsThe offspring and controls reported similar sleep patterns, with 33% sleeping ≥8 h and 17% napping in each group. At age 70, centenarians were more likely to have slept ≥8 h (55% and to have napped (28% compared with offspring and controls, p < 0.01. Among centenarians, no association was noted between sleep patterns and health outcomes. Sleeping for ≥8 h was associated with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the offspring and controls, and with insulin resistance in the offspring, but not with diabetes. Napping was associated with insulin resistance among the controls (p < 0.01, but not the offspring. Controls, but not offspring, who napped were 2.79 times more likely to have one or more of the following diseases: hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, or diabetes (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.08–7.21, p = 0.04.ConclusionDespite being more likely to exhibit risky sleep patterns at age 70 compared with the offspring and controls, the

  13. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

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    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  14. Sleep duration pattern and chronic diseases in Brazilian adults (ISACAMP, 2008/09).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Bergamo Francisco, Priscila Maria S; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess sleep patterns in the adult population of the city of Campinas (Brazil) according to socioeconomic/demographic variables, chronic diseases, and symptoms. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Campinas Health Survey (ISACAMP) carried out in 2008 and 2009. A total of 2637 individuals aged 18 years or older (obtained from a probabilistic sample) were analyzed. Associations between sleep pattern and the independent variables were determined using the chi-square test. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. The prevalence of six or fewer hours of sleep was greater among individuals aged 40 years or older and among divorced or single individuals. The sleep pattern of nine or more hours was more prevalent among those with less than 40 years of age, among those who were divorced, or single, among those with a lower level of schooling, those who did not work and housewives. Both short and long sleep patterns were more prevalent among individuals with heart disease, vascular problems, rheumatism/arthritis/arthrosis, osteoporosis, or emotional problems. The prevalence of the short sleep duration was greater among individuals with back problems and those with three or more health conditions. A strong association was found between sleep duration and sleep quality. Socio-demographic factors and health diseases were associated to sleep duration. This issue should be considered in health promotion strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal study of sleep patterns of United States Military Academy cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Shattuck, Lawrence G; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2010-12-01

    The study provided an opportunity to observe sleep patterns in a college-age population attending the United States Military Academy. This 4-year longitudinal study investigated sleep patterns of cadets. A stratified sample of 80 cadets had sleep patterns monitored using actigraphy for 8 months: one month in both fall and spring academic semesters over a 4-year period. Data were collected at the United States Military Academy, West Point, NY. Participants were members of the class of 2007 (n˜1300) ranging in age from 17 to 22 when entering USMA. A sample of the class (n=80) wore wrist activity monitors and completed activity logs for one month in fall and spring academic semesters for the 4-year period. On average over the 4 years, cadets sleptsleep debt. Cadets slept more during fall than spring semesters. Male and female cadet sleep patterns varied dramatically, with males consistently receiving less sleep than females (˜21 m for nighttime sleep and ˜23 m for daily sleep). Cadet sleep at USMA is related to academic year, semester, season, sex, school day or weekend, and day of the week. These students suffer from chronic sleep debt. Restrictions imposed by the military academy limit the generalizability of the findings to other college age populations.

  16. Sleep patterns and acute physical exercise: the effects of gender, sleep disturbances, type and time of physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculano Esteves, A; Ackel-D'Elia, C; Tufik, S; De Mello, M T

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to determine which factors influence sleep patterns after a single session of physical exercise. Adult sedentary volunteers (N.=221; 104 men and 117 women) aged 31.40±9.40 were randomised into groups with three different types of physical exercise (resistance, aerobic and interval). After the exercise protocol was explained, each volunteer was given the first polysomnographic (PSG) and performed the acute session of physical exercise (resistance: based on a 1RM test; aerobic: based on a maximum effort test (MET) and interval: 10 series with 4-minute intervals between series). The second PSG was performed the day after the acute session of physical exercise. A negative correlation was found between sleep latency and the acute physical exercise session practiced in the evening, and a positive correlation was found between the total sleep time and female gender. The REM sleep stage (%) was positively correlated with the control, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and periodic leg movement (PLM) groups and the acute physical exercise session practiced in the morning. Positive correlations were observed in the arousal index and the PLM group and female gender; the PLM index and the control and OSA groups; minimum oxygen saturation and the OSA and PLM groups. Therefore, these results suggested that such factors as gender, the presence of sleep disturbance (PLM and/or OSA), type of physical exercise (aerobic, resistance or interval) and the time that it was practiced (morning, afternoon or evening) can influence sleep patterns after a single session of physical exercise. However, the gender seems to be the most important factor to influence sleep pattern in the situation studied.

  17. Sleep patterns, work, and strain among young students in hospitality and tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Hermann, Bernadette; Muheim, Flavio; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2008-07-01

    Good and sufficient sleep is crucial for a good quality of life. We investigated the associations between sleep patterns, work, and strain among students of hospitality and tourism. 92 students completed psychological and sleep-related questionnaires, and a sleep/work log for one week. Sleeping hours were inversely correlated with working hours. Decreased sleep quality was associated with increased scores of strain, depression and anxiety. Participants with increased working hours were 3.2 times more likely to report heightened insomnia scores than those with lower weekly working hours. Working on weekends was associated with increased strain with family life and peers. In hospitality and tourism, the employees' 'personal costs' for a 24/7 service may be underestimated; unfavourable work schedules are linked with decreased sleep quality, symptoms of depression, anxiety, and with social problems.

  18. [Longitudinal study on infantile nocturnal sleep-wake pattern developmental trajectory with Actiwatch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaona; Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Yantao; Wang, Huishan; Liu, Xicheng; Liu, Minna; Xu, Haiqing; Wu, Hong; Wang, Nianrong; Zhang, Fenghua; Liu, Wenlong; Tang, Jianbo; Li, Honghui; Wang, Liyan; Zhang, Liangfen

    2015-06-01

    To understand the infantile nocturnal sleep-wake pattern developmental trajectory with Actiwatch, which would benefit the clinical assessment of infantile sleep. This study was a longitudinal study conducted between 7 Oct, 2009-30 Oct, 2011 in 10 hospitals of 9 cities of China ( Beijing, Xi'an, Qingdao, Wuhan, Changsha, Chongqing, Huzhou, Xiamen and Liuzhou). Actiwatch was used to track the sleep-wake pattern development trajectory of healthy infants in the first year of life in the home setting. Participating infants were followed up at 10th day and 28th day during the first month, and then monthly from the second to the sixth month after birth, and then at ninth and twelve months of age respectively. Meanwhile, infantile sleep was observed continuously for about 60 hours at each visit. According to the characteristics of repeated measurement data of this study, two-level random effect model was adopted to analyze the trend of infantile nocturnal sleep-wake parameters changing with age, and the gender difference. A total of 473 healthy infants were included in this study, among whom 246 (52.0%) were boys, and 227 (48.0%) were girls; 355 (75.1%) infants completed the whole year follow-up survey. With infants' age increasing, the latency of infants' nighttime sleep onset decreased from 66.8 minutes on 10th day to 15.5-18.7 minutes at 6-12 months of age. The number of night wakes also decreased with age, while uninterrupted sleep periods lengthened with age. On the 10th day, there were 3.0 times of nightwaking on average, and the longest continuous sleeping interval lasted for 227.6 minutes on average. At 12-month of age, infants could sleep continuously for 350.9 minutes at most on average, while the number of nightwaking decreased to 1.6 times per night on average. Generally, nighttime sleep efficiency increased from 66.3% on the 10th day to 86.3% at 12-month of age. The differences of sleep-wake patterns between boys and girls presented as boys' nocturnal longest

  19. Sleep Patterns and Homeostatic Mechanisms in Adolescent Mice

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    Giulio Tononi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep changes were studied in mice (n = 59 from early adolescence to adulthood (postnatal days P19–111. REM sleep declined steeply in early adolescence, while total sleep remained constant and NREM sleep increased slightly. Four hours of sleep deprivation starting at light onset were performed from ages P26 through adulthood (>P60. Following this acute sleep deprivation all mice slept longer and with more consolidated sleep bouts, while NREM slow wave activity (SWA showed high interindividual variability in the younger groups, and increased consistently only after P42. Three parameters together explained up to 67% of the variance in SWA rebound in frontal cortex, including weight-adjusted age and increase in alpha power during sleep deprivation, both of which positively correlated with the SWA response. The third, and strongest predictor was the SWA decline during the light phase in baseline: mice with high peak SWA at light onset, resulting in a large SWA decline, were more likely to show no SWA rebound after sleep deprivation, a result that was also confirmed in parietal cortex. During baseline, however, SWA showed the same homeostatic changes in adolescents and adults, declining in the course of sleep and increasing across periods of spontaneous wake. Thus, we hypothesize that, in young adolescent mice, a ceiling effect and not the immaturity of the cellular mechanisms underlying sleep homeostasis may prevent the SWA rebound when wake is extended beyond its physiological duration.

  20. Mexican American adolescents' sleep patterns: contextual correlates and implications for health and adjustment in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Zeiders, Katharine H; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; De Jesús, Sue A Rodríguez

    2015-02-01

    Late adolescence is a period of substantial risk for unhealthy sleep patterns. This study investigated the contextual correlates and health and adjustment implications of sleep patterns among Mexican American youth (N = 246; 51% female). We focused on Mexican American youth because they represent a large and rapidly increasing subgroup of the US population that is at higher risk for health and adjustment problems; this higher risk may be explained, in part, by sleep patterns. Using data from seven phone diary interviews conducted when youth averaged 18 years of age, we assessed average nighttime sleep duration and night-to-night variability in sleep duration. Guided by socio-ecological models, we first examined how experiences in the family context (time spent and quality of relationships with parents, parents' familism values) and in extra-familial contexts (school, work, peers) were related to sleep duration and variability. The findings revealed that time spent in school, work, and with peers linked to less sleep. Further, conflict with mothers was related to greater sleep variability. Next, we tested the implications of sleep in late adolescence for health (perceived physical health, body mass index) and adjustment (depressive symptoms, risky behaviors) in young adulthood. These findings indicated that more sleep variability predicted relative decreases in health and increases in risky behaviors, and shorter sleep duration predicted relative decreases in poorer perceived health for males. The discussion highlights the significance of the transition to young adulthood as a target for sleep research and the importance of studying sleep within its socio-cultural context.

  1. The effects of sleep on the neural correlates of pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Christopher R; Hodges, Cooper B; Bodily, Ty A; Muncy, Nathan M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2018-02-01

    Effective memory representations must be specific to prevent interference between episodes that may overlap in terms of place, time, or items present. Pattern separation, a computational process performed by the hippocampus, overcomes this interference by establishing nonoverlapping memory representations. Although it is widely accepted that declarative memories are consolidated during sleep, the effects of sleep on pattern separation have yet to be elucidated. We used whole-brain, high-resolution functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of sleep on a task that places high demands on pattern separation. Sleep had a selective effect on memory specificity and not general recognition memory. Activity in brain regions related to memory retrieval and cognitive control demonstrated an interaction between sleep and delay. Surprisingly, there was no effect of sleep on hippocampal activity using a group-level analysis. To further understand the role of the hippocampus on our task, we performed a representational similarity analysis, which showed that hippocampal activation was biased toward pattern separation relative to cortical activation and that this bias increased following a delay (regardless of sleep). Cortical activation, conversely, was biased toward pattern completion and this bias was preferentially enhanced by sleep. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Sleeping Pattern of Medical Students Preceding Viva Examination and Their Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep is an important determinant of keeping healthy physically and mentally. Deviation in sleep is a common problem among students during examinations. The purpose of this study is to determine students’ sleep pattern during night preceding viva examination and its correlation with performance. Methods: This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted between January and February 2014 among 1st and 2nd year MBBS students of National Medical College, Birgunj...

  3. Spatial patterns of neuronal activity in rat cerebral cortex during non-rapid eye movement sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Wanger, Tim; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W.; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that cortical activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) is spatially homogeneous on the mesoscopic scale. This is partly due to the limited observational scope of common metabolic or imaging methods in sleep. We used the recently developed technique of thallium-autometallography (TlAMG) to visualize mesoscopic patterns of activity in the sleeping cortex with single-cell resolution. We intravenously injected rats with the lipophilic chelate complex thallium diethy...

  4. Irregular sleep/wake patterns are associated with poorer academic performance and delayed circadian and sleep/wake timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew J K; Clerx, William M; O'Brien, Conor S; Sano, Akane; Barger, Laura K; Picard, Rosalind W; Lockley, Steven W; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Czeisler, Charles A

    2017-06-12

    The association of irregular sleep schedules with circadian timing and academic performance has not been systematically examined. We studied 61 undergraduates for 30 days using sleep diaries, and quantified sleep regularity using a novel metric, the sleep regularity index (SRI). In the most and least regular quintiles, circadian phase and light exposure were assessed using salivary dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) and wrist-worn photometry, respectively. DLMO occurred later (00:08 ± 1:54 vs. 21:32 ± 1:48; p sleep propensity rhythm peaked later (06:33 ± 0:19 vs. 04:45 ± 0:11; p academic performance and SRI was observed. These findings show that irregular sleep and light exposure patterns in college students are associated with delayed circadian rhythms and lower academic performance. Moreover, the modeling results reveal that light-based interventions may be therapeutically effective in improving sleep regularity in this population.

  5. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern in otherwise healthy overweight school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Rodrigo; Ferri, Raffaele; Algarín, Cecilia; Garrido, Marcelo; Lozoff, Betsy; Peirano, Patricio

    2014-03-01

    To compare sleep microstructure (cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) characteristics in otherwise healthy overweight (OW) and normal weight (NW) children. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study. Sleep laboratory. Fifty-eight (26 NW and 32 OW) 10-year-old children. N/A. Participants were part of a longitudinal study beginning in infancy and free of sleep disorders. Groups were based on body-mass index (BMI) z-score. From polysomnographic overnight recordings, sleep-waking states were scored according to international criteria. CAP analysis was performed visually during NREM sleep. Conventional sleep parameters were similar between groups. BMI was positively related to CAP rate and CAP sequences but inversely related to CAP B phase duration. Differences between groups were confined to slow-wave sleep (SWS), with OW children showing higher CAP rate, CAP cycles, and CAP A1 number and index and shorter CAP cycles and B phase duration. They also showed more CAP class intervals shorter than 30 s, and a suggestive trend for fewer intervals longer than 30 s. Cyclic alternating pattern characteristics in children related to nutritional status and were altered in overweight subjects during slow-wave sleep. We suggest that the more frequent oscillatory pattern of electroencephalographic slow activity in overweight subjects might reflect less stable slow-wave sleep episodes.

  6. Effects of Sport-Specific Training Intensity on Sleep Patterns and Psychomotor Performance in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.

  7. Sleep patterns and disorders among university students in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Shafika; Costanian, Christy; Haddad, Georges; Tannous, Fida

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a significant public health issue with adverse medical consequences. Sleep disturbances are common among university students and have an effect on this group's overall health and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep habits and disorders in a population of university students across Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012 among 735 students aged 18-25 yrs. old, enrolled at six universities across Lebanon. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and habits. Less than half of the total study population (47.3%) were good sleepers (PSQIsleep difficulties than females (57.8% vs. 40.8%). The majority (60%) of males vs. 40% of females had trouble performing daily activities more than once per week (P=0.02). Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that reporting poor sleep quality was strongly associated with daytime dysfunction and sleep- enhancing medication use especially more than once per week. This is the first study to describe the nature of sleep problems among university students in Lebanon. This study suggests that sleep problems among Lebanese college students were common and such problems may interfere with daily performance. Findings from this study have important implications for programs intended to improve academic performance by targeting sleep habits of students.

  8. Mother-infant sleep patterns and parental functioning of room-sharing and solitary sleeping families: a longitudinal study from 3 to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Meiri, Gal; Tikotzky, Liat

    2017-12-16

    To examine longitudinally differences in (a) objective and subjective sleep patterns and (b) parenting functioning (i.e., maternal emotional distress, maternal separation anxiety and parental involvement in infant care( between room-sharing and solitary sleeping mother-infant dyads. Maternal and infant sleep, sleeping arrangements and parental functioning were assessed at three (N=146), six (N=141), twelve (N=135), and eighteen (N=130) months postpartum. Maternal and infant sleep were assessed with actigraphy and sleep diaries for 5 nights. Questionnaires were used to assess sleeping arrangements, nighttime breastfeeding, and parental functioning. Persistent room-sharing mothers (i.e., sharing a room with the infant on at least three assessment points) had significantly lower actigraphy-based sleep percent, lower longest sleep periods and more night-wakings than persistent solitary sleeping mothers. For infants, differences in actigraphic sleep were found only in longest sleep period, although mothers of persistent room-sharing infants reported more infant night-wakings than mothers of persistent solitary sleeping infants. The trajectories of maternal and infant sleep in both room-sharing and solitary sleeping groups demonstrated that sleep became more consolidated with time. Group differences indicated higher maternal separation anxiety and lower paternal overall and nighttime involvement in infant caregiving in room-sharing families compared to solitary-sleeping families. The findings are discussed in light of the latest American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to room-share until 12 months postpartum. Although no causal effects can be inferred from this study, maternal sleep quality and certain parenting characteristics seem to be important factors to consider when parents consult about sleeping arrangements. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions

  9. The relationship between micronutrient status and sleep patterns: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaopeng; Grandner, Michael A; Liu, Jianghong

    2017-03-01

    To review articles on the relationship of dietary and circulating micronutrients with sleep patterns, and to identify issues surrounding implications for future research and public health practice. A systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched through January 2016. Both experimental and observational studies were included. However, studies that focused on secondary sleep impairment due to comorbidities were excluded. Individuals in different age groups, from infants to older adults. A total of twenty-six articles were selected. In the articles reviewed, researchers generally supported a potential role of micronutrients, particularly Fe and Mg, in the development of sleep stages among infants and in reversing age-related alterations in sleep architecture in older adults. Micronutrient status has also been linked to sleep duration, with sleep duration positively associated with Fe, Zn and Mg levels, and negatively associated with Cu, K and vitamin B12 levels. The mechanisms underlying these relationships include the impact of micronutrients on excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitters and the expression of circadian genes. Although the number of studies on the relationship between micronutrient status and sleep remains low, evidence has emerged that suggests a link between dietary/circulating micronutrients and sleep. Future research is needed to investigate the dose-dependent as well as the longitudinal relationships between micronutrient levels and human sleep across populations, test the interactions among micronutrients on sleep outcomes, and ultimately examine the clinical relevance of micronutrients on sleep health.

  10. Sleep patterns in children with and without autism spectrum disorders: developmental comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Danelle; Carollo, Tanner M; Lewin, Michael; Hoffman, Charles D; Sweeney, Dwight P

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined age-related changes in the sleep of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to age-related changes in the sleep of typically developing (TD) children. Participants were 108 mothers of children with ASD and 108 mothers of TD children. Participants completed a questionnaire on children's overall sleep quality that also tapped specific sleep-domains (i.e., bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night wakings, parasomnias, disordered breathing, daytime sleepiness). Results confirm significantly poorer sleep quantity and quality in children with ASD, particularly children age 6-9 years. Unlike TD children, the sleep problems of children with ASD were unlikely to diminish with age. Our findings suggest that it is important to exam specific domains of sleep as well as overall sleep patterns. Finding of significant age-related interactions suggests that the practice of combining children from wide age-ranges into a single category obfuscates potentially important developmental differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary sleep disorders seen at a Neurology service-based sleep clinic in India: Patterns over an 8-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness for recognition of sleep disorders in India; however, there is still a huge gap in the number of people suffering from various sleep disorders, in the community versus those visiting hospital clinics for the same. Ours is a neurology services-based sleep disorders clinic, which has evolved successfully over the last decade. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the changes in referral patterns and distribution of various sleep disorders in the patients presenting to the clinic. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective chart review-based study on all patients seen over an 8-year period, divided into 2 groups comprising of patients seen during the first 4 years versus those seen over the next 4 years. Only those patients who had the sleep disorder as their presenting manifestation and those who had been formally interviewed with a pre-structured questionnaire detailing about the main features of the common sleep disorders according to the ICSD-R were included. Patients, in whom the sleep disorder could be clearly attributable to another neurological or systemic disorder, were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out to identify the differences between the two groups as regards the distribution of various sleep disorders and other clinical data. Results: Among 710 patients registered in the clinic, 469 were included for analysis and 222 patients formed group 1 while 247 formed group 2. The main differences observed were in the form of a clear increase in the percentage of patients with sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorder, and the hypersomnias on comparison of distribution over the first 4 years versus the last 4 years; while a clear decline was seen in the number of patients with insomnia and parasomnias. A 3-fold increase was observed in the number of patients in whom polysomnography was obtained. Conclusion: The distribution of various sleep disorders as seen in a neurology

  12. Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Big Sleep Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Amanda L; D'Rozario, Angela L; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Williams, Shaun; Bin, Yu Sun; Grunstein, Ronald R; Marshall, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    Electronic devices in the bedroom are broadly linked with poor sleep in adolescents. This study investigated whether there is a dose-response relationship between use of electronic devices (computers, cellphones, televisions and radios) in bed prior to sleep and adolescent sleep patterns. Adolescents aged 11-17 yrs (n = 1,184; 67.6% female) completed an Australia-wide internet survey that examined sleep patterns, sleepiness, sleep disorders, the presence of electronic devices in the bedroom and frequency of use in bed at night. Over 70% of adolescents reported 2 or more electronic devices in their bedroom at night. Use of devices in bed a few nights per week or more was 46.8% cellphone, 38.5% computer, 23.2% TV, and 15.8% radio. Device use had dose-dependent associations with later sleep onset on weekdays (highest-dose computer adjOR  = 3.75: 99% CI  = 2.17-6.46; cellphone 2.29: 1.22-4.30) and weekends (computer 3.68: 2.14-6.32; cellphone 3.24: 1.70-6.19; TV 2.32: 1.30-4.14), and later waking on weekdays (computer 2.08: 1.25-3.44; TV 2.31: 1.33-4.02) and weekends (computer 1.99: 1.21-3.26; cellphone 2.33: 1.33-4.08; TV 2.04: 1.18-3.55). Only 'almost every night' computer use (: 2.43: 1.45-4.08) was associated with short weekday sleep duration, and only 'almost every night' cellphone use (2.23: 1.26-3.94) was associated with wake lag (waking later on weekends). Use of computers, cell-phones and televisions at higher doses was associated with delayed sleep/wake schedules and wake lag, potentially impairing health and educational outcomes.

  13. Cyclic alternating pattern and interictal epileptiform discharges during morning sleep after sleep deprivation in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Maestri, Michelangelo; Guida, Melania; Carnicelli, Luca; Caciagli, Lorenzo; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Bonanni, Enrica

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG). We included only TLE patients in which both recordings showed IED. SD-EEG consisted of waking up patients at 2:00 AM and performing video EEG at 8:00 AM. For both recordings, we obtained the following markers for the first sleep cycle: IED/h (Spike Index, SI), sleep macrostructure, microstructure (NREM CAP rate; A1, A2 and A3 Indices), and SI association with CAP variables. The macrostructure of the first sleep cycle was similar in n-PSG and morning SD-EEG, whereas CAP rate and SI were significantly higher in SD-EEG. SI increase was selectively associated with CAP phases. SD increases the instability of morning recovery sleep compared with n-PSG, and particularly enhances CAP A1 phases, which are associated with the majority of IED. Thus, higher instability of morning recovery sleep may account at least in part for the increased IED yield in SD-EEG in TLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep habits and patterns of college students: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, W C; Brown, F; Soper, B

    2001-11-01

    The negative effects of sleep difficulties have been well documented. However, the prevalence of such problems among US college students has not been well studied. Design difficulties are common in the limited number of existing investigations, making it difficult to estimates the prevalence and types of disturbance studied. The authors describe the use of a quantitative-based assessment instrument to provide an initial indication of students' sleep problems and to serve as a means of addressing some of the deficiencies in the literature. In their sample of 191 undergraduates at a rural southern university, they found that most of the students exhibited some form of sleep disturbance and that women, in general, reported more sleep disturbances than men did. They suggest how colleges and university officials can alter procedures to minimize students' sleep disturbances and reduce the deleterious effects of sleep problems on academic performance.

  15. Patterning of NREM sleep periods in normals: an observation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, D J; Ulrich, R F; Grochocinski, V; Doman, J

    1984-10-01

    Both the visual examination of all-night sleep recordings in both normals and patients, generated by a delta wave analyzer, and spectral analysis have suggested that delta wave sleep often appear to rise gradually during a NREM period and then to cease abruptly. Such observations by minute-by-minute computer plots of delta wave activity have strengthened the notion of a REM generator and/or a delta sleep generator in the central nervous system. We now report observations on a sample of 23 normal subjects under the age of 45 in which we investigated the 'rise and fall' of delta sleep activity during successive NREM periods. For these 23 normal subjects, significantly greater maximal decreases throughout the night were noted in each of these 4 NREM periods as compared to the maximal increases. Furthermore, these findings have implications for the understanding of the physiology of sleep and particularly the on- and off-generator of REM and NREM sleep.

  16. A Study on the Sleep Patterns and Problems of University Business Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Y. Y.; Wing, Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate sleep patterns and problems of university business students. Participants: Undergraduate Chinese business students in Hong Kong. Methods: Self-reported questionnaires were completed during class lectures and through online system. Results: Of the 620 participating students (mean age 19.9 years), sleep duration was…

  17. Age-related changes in the sleep pattern of male adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, W. A.; Mirmiran, M.

    1983-01-01

    In order to study whether or not the age-related changes in the sleep pattern observed in humans also occur in rats, young adult (4 months) and old (22 months) male Wistar rats were implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes for 24 h on-line registration by means of an automatic sleep-classifier. During

  18. Perceptions of Sleep Duration, Patterns and Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A Study of Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated adolescent students' perceptions of sleep duration and patterns, and the way they relate to emotional and behavioural difficulties. Five hundred and two students from public schools in Greece completed the Sleep Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). It was demonstrated that consistency in…

  19. Repeated sleep restriction in adolescent rats altered sleep patterns and impaired spatial learning/memory ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Su-Rong; Sun, Hui; Huang, Zhi-Li; Yao, Ming-Hui; Qu, Wei-Min

    2012-06-01

    To investigate possible differences in the effect of repeated sleep restriction (RSR) during adolescence and adulthood on sleep homeostasis and spatial learning and memory ability. The authors examined electroencephalograms of rats as they were subjected to 4-h daily sleep deprivation that continued for 7 consecutive days and assessed the spatial learning and memory by Morris water maze test (WMT). Adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent rats exhibited a similar amount of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with higher slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5-4 Hz) and fewer episodes and conversions with prolonged durations, indicating they have better sleep quality than adult rats. After RSR, adult rats showed strong rebound of REM sleep by 31% on sleep deprivation day 1; this value was 37% on sleep deprivation day 7 in adolescents compared with 20-h baseline level. On sleep deprivation day 7, SWA in adult and adolescent rats increased by 47% and 33%, and such elevation lasted for 5 h and 7 h, respectively. Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of 4-h daily sleep deprivation immediately after the water maze training sessions on spatial cognitive performance. Adolescent rats sleep-restricted for 7 days traveled a longer distance to find the hidden platform during the acquisition training and had fewer numbers of platform crossings in the probe trial than those in the control group, something that did not occur in the sleep-deprived adult rats. Repeated sleep restriction (RSR) altered sleep profiles and mildly impaired spatial learning and memory capability in adolescent rats.

  20. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (Pacademic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, Psleep duration (r=-0.221, Psleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather than sleep quality exist among Lebanese university students. Sex-specific sleep patterns have differential impact on psychological and academic well-being.

  1. The relationship between sleep patterns and attention levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi

    2014-01-01

    Fifty-nine adults slept five nights with an Actigraph and answered two questionnaires related to sleeping quality and morningness/eveningness preferences. Next they performed a computerized attention task (the mathematics continuous performance test (MATH-CPT)) to assess various measures of attention. Results showed significant correlations between six attention variables and two measures of sleep assessed by the Actigraph. Linear regression with sleep variables as independent variables, and measures of the computerized test as dependent variables showed that sleep measures explained 30% of the variance of the score in the "final attention formula" of the test, and 27% of the "rate of response."

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea: a polysomnographic study of sleep apnea before and after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, M; Saletu, B; Popow, C; Götz, M; Haschke, F

    1988-11-01

    We report about polysomnographic studies including EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG, measurement of oropharyngeal airflow, recording of chest wall movements and transcutaneous measurements of pO2 and pCO2 in a 4-year-old girl with severe obstructive sleep apnea. Her sleep profile was characterized by a disturbed cyclic pattern of sleep stages with onset of sleep at stage 4, shortening of REM-sleep periods and of sleep stages 1 and 2, and an increased quantity of sleep stage 4. The total time spent in apneic episodes was 11.3% of the total sleep period (only obstructive events). Apneic attacks were recorded mainly in REM and light NREM sleep states. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy resulted in marked improvement without further evidence of abnormal sleeping pattern or of sleep apneas.

  3. Abnormal Spatial-Temporal Pattern Analysis for Niagara Frontier Border Wait Times

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Lin, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Border crossing delays cause problems like huge economics loss and heavy environmental pollutions. To understand more about the nature of border crossing delay, this study applies a dictionary-based compression algorithm to process the historical Niagara Frontier border wait times data. It can identify the abnormal spatial-temporal patterns for both passenger vehicles and trucks at three bridges connecting US and Canada. Furthermore, it provides a quantitate anomaly score to rank the wait tim...

  4. Dietary patterns and sleep symptoms in Japanese workers: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Nanri, Akiko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Akter, Shamima; Ito, Rie; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2015-02-01

    Experimental studies have shown that some nutrients are involved in initiating and maintaining sleep, but epidemiological evidence on overall dietary patterns and insomnia is scarce. We investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and sleep symptoms in a Japanese working population. The participants were 2025 workers, aged 18-70 years, who participated in a health survey during a periodic checkup in 2012 and 2013. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted by principal component analysis on the basis of the energy-adjusted intake of 52 food and beverage items. Sleep duration, difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep, and poor quality of sleep were self-reported. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios of each sleep symptom according to quartile categories of each dietary pattern with adjustment for potential confounding variables. We identified three major dietary patterns. A healthy pattern, characterized by a high intake of vegetables, mushrooms, potatoes, seaweeds, soy products, and eggs, was associated with a decreased prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep once or more a week (P for trend = 0.03); the multivariate adjusted odds ratio in the highest quartile of this score compared with the lowest was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.57-0.99). This association persisted after the exclusion of individuals with severe depressive symptoms. However, there was no significant association with difficulty initiating sleep at least three times a week. Our findings suggest that a healthy dietary pattern may be associated with difficulty initiating sleep at least once a week. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence of favorable sleep-EEG patterns in adolescent male vigorous football players compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Gerber, Markus; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-03-01

    Sleep is crucial for psychological functioning and daily performance. Both lay and scientific opinion hold that physical activity encourages restorative sleep. However, research on this in adolescence is limited. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep-EEG patterns of vigorous exercisers and controls. Twelve adolescent male football players (14 h of vigorous exercise per week) and 12 controls (1.5 h of vigorous exercise per week) matched for gender, age (about 16 years), and educational level, took part in the study. Sleep-EEG registration was performed following a day without exercise. Sleep-EEG analyses revealed that, compared to controls, the football players showed greater sleep efficiency, shortened sleep onset latency, less awakenings after sleep onset, more stage 4, and less REM sleep. Importantly, this pattern of results emerged following a day without exercise. Moreover, vigorous football players reported better daily performance and displayed less weeknight (Sunday to Thursday) to weekend night (Friday and Saturday nights) variation. Findings suggest that for the football players, vigorous exercise seemed to lead to longer-lasting electrophysiological change in brain activity irrespective of acute bouts of exercise.

  6. [A prospective study of the development of nocturnal sleep patterns in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nian-Rong; Ye, Ya

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the development of nocturnal sleep pattern in infants. Fifty healthy full-term newborns born in Chongqing Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital were chosen for a prospective longitudinal study. A non-invasive sleep monitor, Actiwatch, was used to monitor infants' 12 sleep parameters on the 10th day, 28th day, the first Tuesday at the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th and 12th month after birth, each monitoring time lasting 60 hours. All sleep parameters were analyzed by two-level mixed effect model. Twenty-two boys and 25 girls completed the whole follow-up study. From birth to the 12th month after birth, the nocturnal sleep onset latency (NSOL) decreased by about 48% at 3 months of age and by 83% at 6 months of age. The nocturnal sleep efficiency (NSE%) increased from 66% to 87%, the nocturnal total sleep time (NTST) increased from 416 minutes to 517 minutes, and the longest nocturnal continuous sleeping time (L-NCST) increased from 197 minutes to 327 minutes. NSE%, NTST and L-NCST increased with age (Psleeping ability and NSE% in boys were lower than those in girls (Psleep patterns develop rapidly during the first 6 months, especially within the first 3 months after birth. Partial infantile sleep parameters are related to gender.

  7. Sleep Patterns in Adults with a Diagnosis of High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma K; Richdale, Amanda L

    2015-11-01

    To examine sleep patterns and sleep problems and their relationship with daytime functioning in adults with a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder and no comorbid intellectual disability (high-functioning autism spectrum disorder [HFASD]) compared to neurotypical (NT) adults. Cross-sectional. Home-based study. 36 adults with HFASD and 36 age-, intelligence quotient- and sex-matched NT adults. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 14-d sleep wake diary and 14-d actigraphy data collection. Adults with HFASD had significantly more general sleep disturbances and higher scores on the PSQI, longer sleep onset latencies (actigraphy), and poorer sleep efficiency (diary) and these results remained significant after accounting for the False Discovery Rate. Those adults with HFASD who did not have a comorbid diagnosis of anxiety/depression had significantly shorter total sleep time (diary and actigraphy) compared to NT adults. Compared to NT adults, the HFASD group self-reported significantly poorer refreshment scores upon waking in the morning and higher scores on the daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness subscale of the PSQI. These findings support the notion that problems related to sleep, in particular insomnia, continue into adulthood in individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Review of disrupted sleep patterns in Smith-Magenis syndrome and normal melatonin secretion in a patient with an atypical interstitial 17p11.2 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Eilis A; Johnson, Kyle P; Jackman, Angela R; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, Marypat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Lewy, Alfred J; Smith, Ann C M; Magenis, R Ellen

    2009-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body's signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hr melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US and France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion ( approximately 6Mb; cenTNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.2p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern.

  9. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  10. Sleep patterns and injury occurrence in elite Australian footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jackson; Dawson, Brian; Heasman, Jarryd; Rogalski, Brent; Robey, Elisa

    2016-02-01

    To examine the potential relationship between sleep duration and efficiency and injury incidence in elite Australian footballers. Prospective cohort study. Australian footballers (n=22) from one AFL club were studied across the 2013 competitive season. In each week sleep duration and efficiency were recorded via actigraphy for 5 nights (the 3 nights preceding a game, the night of the game and the night after the game). Injury incidence was monitored and matched with sleep data: n=9 players suffered an injury that caused them to miss a game. Sleep in the week of the injury (T2) was compared to the average of the previous 2 weeks (T1). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine any effect of sleep duration and efficiency on injury. Significance was accepted at psleep duration, sleep efficiency or a combination of these factors. Analysis of individual nights for T2 versus T1 also showed no differences in sleep quality or efficiency. However, a main effect for time was found for sleep duration and efficiency, with these being slightly, but significantly greater (psleep duration and efficiency on injury occurrence was found in elite Australian footballers. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercising, sleep-EEG patterns, and psychological functioning are related among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-03-01

    Lay and scientific opinion alike hold that physical activity is efficient as both remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. There is evidence that strenuous exercising of adolescent elite athletes leads to favourable sleep patterns. However, research on this in non-elite athletes is limited. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep-EEG patterns of higher leisure time exercisers and controls. A total 38 adolescents (M = 18.59) took part in the study; 17 were high, and 21 were low exercisers. Mean weekly exercise duration was 8.5 h for high and 2 h for low exercisers. Sleep-EEG recordings were performed following a day without exercise. Participants also completed questionnaires regarding their psychological functioning. Compared to low exercisers, high exercisers had more slow wave sleep, and less light and REM sleep, higher scores for positive coping and curiosity, and lower scores for depressive symptoms and somatosensory amplification. Multiple regression analyses showed that weekly exercise duration predicted shortened SOL, low number of awakenings, and increased slow wave sleep. Regular, though not necessarily vigorous, exercise is related to improvement in objective sleep patterns and better psychological functioning. Regular physical activity should be promoted and access to sports facilities should be facilitated.

  12. Psychosocial Predictors of Changing Sleep Patterns in Aging Women: A Multiple Pathway Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Cynthia H.; Love, Gayle D.; Ryff, Carol; Brown, Roger L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine changes in the sleep quality of older women over time and to determine whether dimensions of psychological well-being, health (subjective health and number of illnesses), and psychological distress (depression and anxiety) predict these changes. A secondary analysis was conducted using a longitudinal sample of aging women (Kwan, Love, Ryff, & Essex, 2003). Of 518 community-dwelling elderly women in the parent study, 115 women (baseline M age = 67, SD = 7.18) with data at baseline, 8 years, and 10 years were used for this investigation. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires and participated in in-home interviews and observations. Growth curve modeling (GCM) was used to examine the overall linear trajectories of sleep quality. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to examine whether there were different patterns of change in sleep quality over time and to examine baseline predictors of each pattern. Sleep quality declined over time but not for all women. Two distinctly different sleep patterns emerged: good but declining sleep quality (GS) and disrupted sleep (DS) quality. Higher psychological well-being (positive relations with others, environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, and self-acceptance), fewer illnesses, and lower depression scores at baseline predicted reduced odds for membership in the DS group. Future research is needed to examine whether interventions focused on maintaining or enhancing psychological well-being could minimize later life declines in sleep quality. PMID:20731498

  13. Media devices, family relationships and sleep patterns among adolescents in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continente, Xavier; Pérez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; López, Maria José

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to describe sleep patterns and to examine the association between short sleep time and family relationships and the availability of media devices among adolescents. A cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire was performed among a representative sample of adolescents (13-19 years old) enrolled during the 2011-2012 academic year in high schools in Barcelona, Spain. Adolescents reported sleep patterns and family-related variables such as family relationships, the availability of media devices in the bedroom, and watching television at dinner. Sleep time was then calculated from sleep patterns. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses with robust variance were conducted to determine the association between short sleep time (media device (television, console, or computer) in their bedroom. Adolescents with a computer in their bedroom and with poorer family relationships were more likely to be short sleepers. In boys, frequently watching TV at dinner and living in a disorganized family were also associated with short sleep time. There is a high prevalence of short sleepers. Media availability, media use and family relationships should be considered in multi-component educational interventions addressed to both adolescents and parents to reduce short sleep time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic abnormalities in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma correlate with pattern of invasion: biologic and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Anjelica; Amemiya, Yutaka; Seth, Arun; Cesari, Matthew; Djordjevic, Bojana; Parra-Herran, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    The pattern-based classification system for HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinoma, which classifies tumors based on the destructiveness of stromal invasion, is predictive of the risk of nodal metastases and adverse outcome. Previous studies have demonstrated clinically important molecular alterations in endocervical adenocarcinoma, including KRAS and PIK3CA mutations; however, correlation between the molecular landscape and pathological variables including pattern of invasion has not been thoroughly explored. In this study, 20 endocervical adenocarcinomas were classified using the pattern-based classification system and were subjected to targeted sequencing using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) that surveys hotspot regions of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were correlated with clinical and pathologic variables including pattern of invasion. Five (25%), six (30%), and nine (45%) cases were classified as patterns A, B, and C respectively. Lymph node metastases, advanced stage at presentation and mortality from disease were exclusively seen in destructively invasive tumors (patterns B or C). Prevalent mutations in the cohort involved PIK3CA (30%), KRAS (30%), MET (15%), and RB1 (10%). Most (94%) relevant genomic alterations were present in destructively invasive tumors with PIK3CA, KRAS, and RB1 mutations seen exclusively in pattern B or C subgroups. KRAS mutations correlated with advanced stage at presentation (FIGO stage II or higher). Our findings indicate that the pattern of stromal invasion correlates with genomic abnormalities detected by next-generation sequencing, suggesting that tumors without destructive growth (pattern A) are biologically distinct from those with destructive invasion (patterns B and C), and that pattern B endocervical adenocarcinoma is more closely related to its pattern C counterpart. The pattern-based classification may be used as a triage

  15. Sleep patterns of Japanese preschool children and their parents: implications for co-sleeping

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the direct relationship of sleep schedule and sleep quality variables between healthy preschool children and their parents, focusing on the influence of the difference in bedtime between each other. Methods Forty-seven Japanese 5-year-old children and their primary parent were studied. The parents completed questionnaires including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The children wore an actigraph for one week. Results ...

  16. Sleep Pattern in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 2: Report of Family Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cynthia C.; Hirotsu, Camila; Neves, Eduardo L.A.; Santos, Lidiane C.L.; Costa, Iandra M.P.F.; Garcez, Catarina A.; Nunes, Paula S.; Araujo, Adriano A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most prevalent hereditary motor and sensory polyneuropathy, and a condition in which sleep has rarely been studied, particularly in relation to the type 2 (CMT2). Thus, we aimed to characterize the sleep patterns of a family affected by CMT2 disease. Methods: Sixteen volunteers with CMT2 from the same multigenerational family agreed to participate in the study (refusal rate = 31%). All participants answered sleep questionnaires and came to the sleep laboratory to perform a diagnostic polysomnography (PSG). Clinical manifestation and severity of the disease were also evaluated. Results: 56% of the sample were male and 44% female, with a mean age of 32 ± 17 years, of normal weight (body mass index 21 ± 3 kg/m2); 64% presented moderate to severe CMT2. Regarding subjective sleep, 31% had excessive daytime sleepiness and 75% reported poor sleep quality. The PSG results revealed that CMT2 patients had an increase in stage N3 and a reduction in REM sleep, in addition to a high arousal index. Although 81% of the sample were snorers, only 13% had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5. However, a positive correlation was found between the severity of disease and the AHI. Conclusions: Taken together, these data show that CMT2 disease is characterized by important changes in sleep architecture, probably due to sleep fragmentation. Although these alterations may worsen with disease severity, it seems that they are not related to sleep breathing or movement disorders. Citation: Souza CC, Hirotsu C, Neves EL, Santos LC, Costa IM, Garcez CA, Nunes PS, Araujo AA. Sleep pattern in charcot-marie-tooth disease type 2: report of family case series. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):205–211. PMID:25515278

  17. Challenges in sleep stage R scoring in patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and oculomotor abnormalities: a whole night polysomnographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Doniparthi Venkata; Sasidharan, Arun; Kumar, Gulshan; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Jain, Sanjeev; Kutty, Bindu M; Yadav, Ravi

    2018-02-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar features with additional neuro-axis involvement. Oculomotor abnormality is one of the most frequent manifestations. This study was done to assess the polysomnographic abnormalities in patients with Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2 and SCA3) and also to evaluate whether oculomotor abnormalities interfere with sleep stage R scoring. The study was carried out using 36 genetically positive SCA patients. All patients underwent neurological examination with special focus on oculomotor function (optokinetic nystagmus-OKN and extraocular movement restriction-EOM). The sleep quality was measured with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Disease severity was assessed with International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). All the patients underwent over-night video-polysomnography (VPSG). Out of 36 patients studied, the data of 34 patients [SCA1 (n = 12), SCA2 (n = 13), SCA3 (n = 9)] were used for final analysis. Patients from SCA1, SCA2, and SCA3 category did not show significant differences in age and diseases severity (ICARS). All patients had vertical OKN impairment. Oculomotor impairment was higher in SCA2 patients. Sleep macro-architecture analysis showed absent stage R sleep, predominantly in SCA2 (69%) followed by SCA3 (44%) and SCA1 (8%). Patients showed a strong negative correlation of stage R sleep percentage with disease severity and oculomotor dysfunction. Voluntary saccadic eye movement velocity and rapid eye movements (REMs) in sleep are strongly correlated. The more severe the saccadic velocity impairment, the less likely was it to generate REMs (rapid eye movements) during stage R. Accordingly 69% of SCA2 patients with severe occulomotor impairments showed absent stage R as per the AASM sleep scoring. We presume that the impaired REMs generation in sleep could be due to oculomotor abnormality and has

  18. Histological Pattern Of Endometrial Samples In Postmenopausal Women With Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeba, Farhat; Shaista; Khan, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common clinical problems in gynaecological practice and is an indicator of various underlying disorders. An endometrial biopsy should be done in all women over 35 years with AUB to rule out endometrial cancer or pre-malignant lesion and to initiate treatment. However, wide range of histological patterns on endometrial biopsy offer a diagnostic challenge to practicing pathologists. The objective of this study was to determine histological patterns of endometrium in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed women and children teaching hospital, Abbottabad from 15/11/2014 to 14/05/2015. This study involved 110 postmenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. A written informed consent was obtained from every patient. The mean age of the patients was 61.60±6.17 years and the mean duration of AUB was 5.20±2.80 years. Most of the patients were para 6 (28.2%) and para 5 (28.2%) followed by para 4 (18.2%) and para 3 (17.3%) while only 8.2% were para 1. The most common histological pattern observed was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9%) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5%), simple hyperplasia (23.6%), malignancy (12.7%), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5%) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6%). When stratified the data, there was no significant difference of histological patterns across various age groups (p=.673), duration of AUB (p=.064) and parity (p=.242). The most common histological pattern observed in postmenopausal women with AUB was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9%) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5%), simple hyperplasia (23.6%), malignancy (12.7%), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5%) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6%).

  19. Patterns and predictors of sleep quality before, during, and after hospitalization in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Mitchell, Michael; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Fung, Constance H; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-15

    The impact of hospitalization on sleep in late-life is underexplored. The current study examined patterns of sleep quality before, during, and following hospitalization, investigated predictors of sleep quality patterns, and examined predictors of classification discordance between two suggested clinical cutoffs used to demarcate poor/good sleep. This study included older adults (n = 163; mean age 79.7 ± 6.9 years, 31% female) undergoing inpatient post-acute rehabilitation. Upon admission to inpatient post-acute rehabilitation, patients completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) retrospectively regarding their sleep prior to hospitalization. They subsequently completed the PSQI at discharge, and 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 1 year post discharge. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics (pain, depression, cognition, comorbidity) were collected upon admission. Using latent class analysis methods, older adults could be classified into (1) Consistently Good Sleepers and (2) Chronically Poor Sleepers based on patterns of self-reported sleep quality pre-illness, during, and up to 1 year following inpatient rehabilitation. This pattern was maintained regardless of the clinical cutoff employed (> 5 or > 8). Logistic regression analyses indicated that higher pain and depressive symptoms were consistently associated with an increased likelihood of being classified as a chronic poor sleeper. While there was substantial classification discordance based on clinical cutoff employed, no significant predictors of this discordance emerged. Clinicians should exercise caution in assessing sleep quality in inpatient settings. Alterations in the cutoffs employed may result in discordant clinical classifications of older adults. Pain and depression warrant detailed considerations when working with older adults on inpatient units when poor sleep is a concern. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. Altered brain perfusion patterns in wakefulness and slow-wave sleep in sleepwalkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Marie-Ève; Baril, Andrée-Ann; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Desautels, Alex; Petit, Dominique; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2018-03-03

    The present study assessed brain perfusion patterns with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during sleepwalkers' post-sleep deprivation slow-wave sleep and resting-state wakefulness. Following a 24-hr period of sleep deprivation, 10 sleepwalkers and 10 sex- and age-matched controls were scanned with a high-resolution SPECT scanner. Participants were injected with99mTc-ECD after 2 minutes of stable slow-wave sleep within their first sleep cycle as well as during resting-state wakefulness, both after a subsequent 24-hr period of sleep deprivation. When compared to controls' brain perfusion patterns during both slow-wave sleep and resting-state wakefulness, sleepwalkers showed reduced regional cerebral perfusion in several bilateral frontal regions, including the superior frontal, middle frontal and medial frontal gyri. Moreover, reduced regional cerebral perfusion was also found in sleepwalkers' left postcentral gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus during slow-wave sleep compared to controls. During resting-state wakefulness compared to controls, reduced cerebral perfusion was also found in parietal and temporal regions of sleepwalkers' left hemisphere while the right parahippocampal gyrus showed increased regional cerebral perfusion. Our results reveal patterns of reduced regional cerebral perfusion in sleepwalkers' frontal and parietal areas when compared to controls, regions previously associated with slow-wave sleep generation and episode occurrence. Additionally, reduced perfusion in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and insula during recovery slow-wave sleep is consistent with clinical features of somnambulistic episodes, including impaired awareness and reduced pain perception. Altered regional cerebral perfusion patterns during sleepwalkers' resting-state wakefulness may be related to daytime functional anomalies in this population.

  1. Psychological stress exposure to aged mice causes abnormal feeding patterns with changes in the bout number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihiro; Mogami, Sachiko; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-09

    Stress responses are affected by aging. However, studies on stress-related changes in feeding patterns with aging subject are minimal. We investigated feeding patterns induced by two psychological stress models, revealing characteristics of stress-induced feeding patterns as "meal" and "bout" (defined as the minimum feeding behavior parameters) in aged mice. Feeding behaviors of C57BL/6J mice were monitored for 24 h by an automatic monitoring device. Novelty stress reduced the meal amount over the 24 h in both young and aged mice, but as a result of a time course study it was persistent in aged mice. In addition, the decreased bout number was more pronounced in aged mice than in young mice. The 24-h meal and bout parameters did not change in either the young or aged mice following water avoidance stress (WAS). However, the meal amount and bout number increased in aged mice for 0-6 h after WAS exposure but remained unchanged in young mice. Our findings suggest that changes in bout number may lead to abnormal stress-related feeding patterns and may be one tool for evaluating eating abnormality in aged mice.

  2. Circadian Sleep Patterns in Toddlers Born Preterm: Longitudinal Associations with Developmental and Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Amy J; Christ, Sharon; Abel, Emily; Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Children born preterm are at elevated risk for several developmental and health concerns. Early sleep patterns may be associated with these concerns. The current study assesses the associations between toddler circadian sleep/activity patterns and later developmental, behavioral, attentional, and health concerns in this at-risk population. We examined circadian sleep/activity patterns at 2 years of age in 99 children born preterm. Child cognitive skills were tested at 3 years of age, and behavior, attention, and health concerns were reported at 3 and 6 years of age. First, sleep/activity data collected via actigraphy were assessed using time series analysis (TSA). For this, we assessed how each child's sleep/activity pattern compared to a specified 24-hour circadian cycle (SCC) with an adjustment for daytime napping. Second, in a series of regression models child sleep/activity parameters from the TSA were assessed with child gender, prematurity, and family sociodemographic assets as covariates. Toddlers with patterns that closely aligned with the SCC had higher abbreviated intelligence quotient scores at 3 years of age. Additionally, at 6 years these children had a lower risk for illness-related medical visits. Higher toddler average activity level was associated with fewer teacher-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and a lower risk for illness-related medical visits. The novel approach used in this study to index child circadian patterns provides a pattern-based analysis of sleep/activity, which may prove to be developmentally consequential. With replication, these findings may help practitioners promote optimal cognitive and health development via circadian sleep supports in infants born preterm.

  3. Sleep is in for Summer: Patterns of Sleep and Physical Activity in Urban Minority Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Carolyn R; Bohnert, Amy M; Ward, Amanda K; Burdette, Kimberly A; Kliethermes, Stephanie A; Welch, Sarah B; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2016-07-01

    Urban minority girls are at risk for summertime weight gain, and may also experience insufficient summertime sleep. Few studies have objectively measured sleep in this population or examined correlates, including physical activity (PA). This study is the first to objectively describe summertime sleep among urban minority girls. Data were collected at a community-based summer program that promoted PA (n = 60 girls, ages 10-14 years), at two time points: before beginning programming (T1; unstructured context) and during the final week of programming (T2; structured context). At both time points, participants experienced shorter nighttime sleep than the recommended amount for girls their age. African American girls recorded significantly less sleep than Latina girls in the unstructured context. Findings also suggest that sleep schedules have an influential role in youths' abilities to obtain adequate sleep. Overall, summertime sleep is an understudied health behavior that may be important to consider among minority youth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Investigation of sleep patterns and sleep disorders in Uigur and Hui children in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzhare, Tajiguli; Xu, Pei-Ru; Tiemuer, Amanguli; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2011-07-01

    To study the sleep quality and quantity and their influencing factors in Uigur and Hui children in Xinjiang Province. From March to December of 2007, 912 Uigur and 1019 Hui school children (6 to 14 years) were randomly sampled from 6 cities of Xinjing Province. The questionnaire on children's sleep states and sleep environments was filled in by children's parents. The mean sleep time of Uigur and Hui children was 10.1±1.4 hrs. The sleep time in Uigur children was significantly less than that in Hui children (9.7±1.2 hrs vs 10.4±1.5 hrs; PHui children (18.42% vs 28.16%; PHui children in Xinjiang Province. Pediatrician, child health care doctors and parents should pay more attention to children's sleep. The incidence of sleep disorders is different between Uigur and Hui children, suggesting that more research for the prevention and treatment of sleep disorders should be performed in different ethic groups.

  5. SensibleSleep: A Bayesian Model for Learning Sleep Patterns from Smartphone Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea; Bækgaard, Per; Sekara, Vedran

    2017-01-01

    participants from two different datasets, and we verify the results against ground truth from dedicated armband sleep trackers. We show that the model is able to produce reliable sleep estimates with an accuracy of 0.89, both at the individual and at the collective level. Moreover the Bayesian model is able...

  6. Amyloid-β diurnal pattern: possible role of sleep in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Brendan P; Bateman, Randall J

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline that is a growing public health crisis with a prevalence projected to more than double in the next 20 years. Sleep is frequently impaired in individuals with AD. Further, recent studies have linked numerous age-related sleep disturbances such as poor sleep efficiency and sleep apnea, to future risk of cognitive impairment. Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) into extracellular plaques in the brain is a key step in AD pathogenesis and likely begins 20 years before the onset of dementia. Aβ concentrations in both humans and mouse models show Aβ concentrations rise during wakefulness and fall during sleep, that is, an Aβ diurnal pattern. There is evidence in animal models that changes in sleep time alter Aβ deposition, suggesting that sleep may play a role in AD pathogenesis. A hypothetical model for the role of sleep and the Aβ diurnal pattern in AD pathogenesis is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sleep patterns and their association with depression and behavior problems among Chinese adolescents in different grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Chen, Zhiyan; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Jiang, Lan; Duan, Qing; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to examine sleep patterns and their association with depression and behavior problems among Chinese adolescents in different grades. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 cities of mainland China. A total of 8,998 Chinese adolescents (49.3% males) aged 9-20 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions on sleep patterns, depressive symptoms, behavior problems, and demographic characteristics. The percentage of adolescents who slept less than 7 hr on weekdays increased with grade, while the percentage of adolescents who slept less than 7 hr on weekends remained the same. The gap in sleep length between weekdays and weekends increased from 0.6 hr in grade 5 to 2.3 hr in Grade 12. The regression analysis showed that poor sleep habits were linked to greater emotional and behavioral problems. The associations of sleep length with those problems differed by symptom and grade. Sleeping less related to depression in all grades. More behavior problems were observed in primary school students who had less sleep and in senior high school students who had more sleep than their peers. The preference for going to bed late stably related to both adolescent depression and behavior problems in all grades, although it posed a greater risk for students in higher grades. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.

  9. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Cordeiro, Tânia; Bessa, Mariana; Valente, Hugo; Barros, Renata; Teixeira, Vitor; Mitchell, Vanessa; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, André

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. PMID:20617022

  10. The pattern of cervical smear abnormalities in marginalised women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Y H; Tse, H Y; Lam, W C; Chan, K S; Leung, T Y

    2017-02-01

    "Ripple Action" and "WE Stand" are projects co-organised by the Hong Kong Women Doctors Association. The two projects organise free cervical screening for low-income women, new immigrants from Mainland China, and ethnic minority women. The objective of this study was to analyse the pattern of cervical smear abnormalities in these marginalised women. The study group consisted of 1189 marginalised women who participated in a free cervical screening campaign, including 324 low-income local Chinese, 540 new immigrants from Mainland China, and 325 ethnic minority women. The comparison group consisted of 1141 local Chinese who attended a well women clinic. The prevalence of cervical smear abnormalities was compared using Chi squared test. In the study group, 42.6% of women had never had a cervical smear. Compared with the comparison group, they had a significantly higher prevalence of cervical smear abnormalities (13.7% vs 1.4%; Pvs 0.5%; Pvs 0.8%; P=0.036), and high-grade lesion (1.1% vs 0.1%; P=0.002). Logistic regression analysis showed that the strongest predictors for abnormal cervical smear were being South Asian (odds ratio=11.859; 95% confidence interval, 4.635-30.341), South-East Asian (6.484; 3.192-13.171), or new immigrant from Mainland China (6.253; 2.463-15.877). Marginalised women had a significantly higher prevalence of cervical smear abnormality than the general population and almost half had never had a cervical smear before. Outreach strategies are needed to enrol this population into screening programmes.

  11. Sleep patterns as a predictor for length of stay in a psychiatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsrud, Knut; Vaaler, Arne E; Kallestad, Håvard; Morken, Gunnar

    2016-03-30

    Systematic evaluations of the relationship between sleep patterns and length of stay in psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) are lacking. The aims of the present study were to explore if sleep duration or night-to-night variations in sleep duration the first nights predict length of stay in a PICU. Consecutive patients admitted to a PICU were included (N=135) and the nurses registered the time patients were observed sleeping. In the three first nights, the mean sleep duration was 7.5 (±3.2)h. Sleep duration the first night correlated negatively with the length of stay for patients with schizophrenia. The mean difference in sleep duration from night one to night two were 3.3 (±3.0)h and correlated with length of stay for the whole group of patients, but especially for patients with schizophrenia. Patients of all diagnostic groups admitted to a PICU had pronounced intra-individual night-to-night variations in sleep duration. Stabilizing night-to-night variations of sleep duration might be a major goal in treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep patterns in preschool-age children with autism, developmental delay, and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F

    2008-08-01

    A prominent noncore symptom of autistic disorder is disturbed sleep, but relatively few studies have investigated this symptom. A multimethod approach assessed the quantity and quality of sleep in 194 children (68 with autism [AUT], 57 with developmental delay without autism [DD], 69 with typical development) recorded over 1 week. Parent perceptions, structured questionnaires, and actigraphy were compared. In addition, problem sleep as defined by parents was compared with research diagnostic criteria for behavioral insomnia obtained from actigraph recordings. On actigraphy, children in the DD group, after sleep onset, exhibited more and longer awakenings than the other two groups. In contrast, children in the AUT group exhibited less total sleep time in 24 hours than the other two groups. Parent reports of sleep problems were higher in the AUT and DD groups than the typical development group, but parent reports did not concur with more objective RDC for behavioral insomnia. Parent reports of sleep problems in all of the groups were significantly associated with increased self-reports of stress. Total 24-hour sleep durations for all of the groups were shorter than recommended for preschool-age children. Our study provides objective evidence that sleep patterns are different in preschool children across the categories of AUT, DD, or typical development.

  13. Abnormal brain connectivity patterns in adults with ADHD: a coherence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Sato

    Full Text Available Studies based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the resting state have shown decreased functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and regions of the Default Mode Network (DMN in adult patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD relative to subjects with typical development (TD. Most studies used Pearson correlation coefficients among the BOLD signals from different brain regions to quantify functional connectivity. Since the Pearson correlation analysis only provides a limited description of functional connectivity, we investigated functional connectivity between the dACC and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in three groups (adult patients with ADHD, n=21; TD age-matched subjects, n=21; young TD subjects, n=21 using a more comprehensive analytical approach - unsupervised machine learning using a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM that quantifies an abnormality index for each individual. The median abnormality index for patients with ADHD was greater than for TD age-matched subjects (p=0.014; the ADHD and young TD indices did not differ significantly (p=0.480; the median abnormality index of young TD was greater than that of TD age-matched subjects (p=0.016. Low frequencies below 0.05 Hz and around 0.20 Hz were the most relevant for discriminating between ADHD patients and TD age-matched controls and between the older and younger TD subjects. In addition, we validated our approach using the fMRI data of children publicly released by the ADHD-200 Competition, obtaining similar results. Our findings suggest that the abnormal coherence patterns observed in patients with ADHD in this study resemble the patterns observed in young typically developing subjects, which reinforces the hypothesis that ADHD is associated with brain maturation deficits.

  14. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.-Y. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jhkate@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, H.; Jeon, T.Y.; Shin, K.E.; Shin, W.S.; Jung, H.N. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  15. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, S.-Y.; Kim, J.H.; Eo, H.; Jeon, T.Y.; Shin, K.E.; Shin, W.S.; Jung, H.N.; Kim, Y.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  16. Passive body heating improves sleep patterns in female patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of passive body heating on the sleep patterns of patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Six menopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the criteria determined by the American College of Rheumatology were included. All women underwent passive immersion in a warm bath at a temperature of 36 ±1 °C for 15 sessions of 30 minutes each over a period of three weeks. Their sleep patterns were assessed by polysomnography at the following time-points: pre-intervention (baseline, the first day of the intervention (acute, the last day of the intervention (chronic, and three weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up. Core body temperature was evaluated by a thermistor pill during the baseline, acute, chronic, and follow-up periods. The impact of this treatment on fibromyalgia was assessed via a specific questionnaire termed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. RESULTS: Sleep latency, rapid eye movement sleep latency and slow wave sleep were significantly reduced in the chronic and acute conditions compared with baseline. Sleep efficiency was significantly increased during the chronic condition, and the awakening index was reduced at the chronic and follow-up time points relative to the baseline values. No significant differences were observed in total sleep time, time in sleep stages 1 or 2 or rapid eye movement sleep percentage. The core body temperature and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire responses did not significantly change over the course of the study. CONCLUSION: Passive body heating had a positive effect on the sleep patterns of women with fibromyalgia.

  17. Sleep and Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy: Findings from the GUSTO Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde van Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the association between sleep, diet, and eating behaviors in pregnant women is lacking. We examine this in a cohort of apparently healthy pregnant women. At 26–28 weeks gestation, 497 participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and a 24-h recall to assess dietary intake. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index for pregnant women in Singapore (HEI-SGP score and previously derived dietary patterns (vegetables-fruit-rice, seafood-noodles, and pasta-cheese-meat pattern. Eating behaviors studied included the longest night-time fasting interval, frequency of consumption occasions, energy from discretionary foods, and nighttime eating. Adjusted means were estimated between poor/good quality and short/normal sleepers using linear regressions, including covariates. Good sleep quality versus poor sleep quality, was associated with better diet quality (mean HEI-SGP 54.6 vs. 52.0; p = 0.032, greater adherence to the vegetables-fruit-rice pattern (mean 0.03 vs. −0.15; p = 0.039, lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle pattern (mean −0.14 vs. 0.03; p = 0.024, and a trending lower calories from discretionary foods (mean 330.5 vs. 382.6 kcal; p = 0.073, after adjusting for covariates. After additional adjustment for anxiety, only sleep quality and the seafood-noodle pattern remained significantly associated (p = 0.018. Short sleep was not associated with any diet or eating behavior. In conclusion, good sleep quality is associated with a better diet quality and a greater adherence to the vegetable-fruit-rice pattern, but with lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle diets in pregnant women.

  18. Sleep and Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy: Findings from the GUSTO Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Chia, Ai-Ru; Loy, See Ling; Colega, Marjorelee; Tham, Elaine K H; Cai, Shirong; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Daniel; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Yap-Seng; Broekman, Birit F P; Chong, Mary F F

    2017-11-17

    Evidence on the association between sleep, diet, and eating behaviors in pregnant women is lacking. We examine this in a cohort of apparently healthy pregnant women. At 26-28 weeks gestation, 497 participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep and a 24-h recall to assess dietary intake. Diet quality was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index for pregnant women in Singapore (HEI-SGP) score and previously derived dietary patterns (vegetables-fruit-rice, seafood-noodles, and pasta-cheese-meat pattern). Eating behaviors studied included the longest night-time fasting interval, frequency of consumption occasions, energy from discretionary foods, and nighttime eating. Adjusted means were estimated between poor/good quality and short/normal sleepers using linear regressions, including covariates. Good sleep quality versus poor sleep quality, was associated with better diet quality (mean HEI-SGP 54.6 vs. 52.0; p = 0.032), greater adherence to the vegetables-fruit-rice pattern (mean 0.03 vs. -0.15; p = 0.039), lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle pattern (mean -0.14 vs. 0.03; p = 0.024), and a trending lower calories from discretionary foods (mean 330.5 vs. 382.6 kcal; p = 0.073), after adjusting for covariates. After additional adjustment for anxiety, only sleep quality and the seafood-noodle pattern remained significantly associated ( p = 0.018). Short sleep was not associated with any diet or eating behavior. In conclusion, good sleep quality is associated with a better diet quality and a greater adherence to the vegetable-fruit-rice pattern, but with lesser adherence to the seafood-noodle diets in pregnant women.

  19. Relationship between sleep pattern and efficacy of calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliai, Giuditta; Dinu, Monica; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The association between the sleep pattern and the effectiveness of a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in people with overweight/obesity has been investigated in this study. Four hundred and three subjects were provided with a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet and followed for 9 months. Personal information, including sleep pattern, was obtained at the baseline. Body weight and composition were measured every 3 months. Poor sleepers reported to have significantly (p sleeping 6-8 or >8 h/day had an increased probability of losing fat mass than women who reported sleeping sleep pattern is necessary to maintain body weight and optimal body composition.

  20. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabrita CS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 1Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon Abstract: Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49 indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively. In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (P<0.01. Based on the mean cumulative self-reported grade point average (GPA, the academic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, P<0.05, respectively. Depression, as scored by CES-D, in females was significantly negatively correlated with the cumulative GPA (r=-0.278, P<0.01, earlier wake time (r=-0.168, P<0.05, and average sleep duration (r=-0

  1. Sleep-Wake Patterns of Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huỳnh, Christophe; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Godbout, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Sleep-wake patterns are rarely examined in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Within a developmental perspective, this study explores the sleep-wake cycle of adolescents aged 12-17 years with BPD or BD and healthy controls (HC) during periods with and without entrainment by school/work schedules. Eighteen euthymic BPD, six euthymic BD, and 20 HC adolescents wore wrist actigraphy during nine consecutive days to assess sleep-wake patterns. During school/work days, BPD adolescents spent more time awake when they were in bed compared to HC and BD adolescents (p = 0.039). On schedule-free days, BPD and BD youths spent more time in bed compared to HC adolescents (p = 0.015). BPD adolescents woke up over 1 h later compared to HC (p = 0.003). Total sleep time was more variable between nights in BPD adolescents compared to the HC group (p = 0.031). Future research should explore if sleep-wake pattern disruptions are a cause or a consequence of BPD symptomatology in adolescents. Addressing sleep-wake pattern during clinical assessment and treatment of BPD adolescents may potentially reduce their symptoms; this therapeutic effect still needs to be evaluated.

  2. Is screening for abnormal ECG patterns justified in long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourier, M.S.; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, A.M.C.; Loonen, J.J.; Bokkerink, J.P.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Beer, G.; Bellersen, L.; Kapusta, L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ECG and echocardiography are noninvasive screening tools to detect subclinical cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Our aims were as follows: (1) assess the prevalence of abnormal ECG patterns, (2) determine the agreement between abnormal ECG patterns and

  3. Age and Pattern of Pap Smear Abnormalities: Implications for Cervical Cancer Control in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinfolarin, Adepiti Clement; Olusegun, Ajenifuja Kayode; Omoladun, Okunola; Omoniyi-Esan, G O; Onwundiegu, Uche

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. A total of 252 (12.3%) samples were excluded from the analysis. The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6%) women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9%) women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) were reported in 117 (5.7%), 209 (10.2%), and 111 (5.4%) women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0%) and 3 (1.0%), respectively. There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  4. Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Big Sleep Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Gamble

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Electronic devices in the bedroom are broadly linked with poor sleep in adolescents. This study investigated whether there is a dose-response relationship between use of electronic devices (computers, cellphones, televisions and radios in bed prior to sleep and adolescent sleep patterns. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-17 yrs (n = 1,184; 67.6% female completed an Australia-wide internet survey that examined sleep patterns, sleepiness, sleep disorders, the presence of electronic devices in the bedroom and frequency of use in bed at night. RESULTS: Over 70% of adolescents reported 2 or more electronic devices in their bedroom at night. Use of devices in bed a few nights per week or more was 46.8% cellphone, 38.5% computer, 23.2% TV, and 15.8% radio. Device use had dose-dependent associations with later sleep onset on weekdays (highest-dose computer adjOR  = 3.75: 99% CI  = 2.17-6.46; cellphone 2.29: 1.22-4.30 and weekends (computer 3.68: 2.14-6.32; cellphone 3.24: 1.70-6.19; TV 2.32: 1.30-4.14, and later waking on weekdays (computer 2.08: 1.25-3.44; TV 2.31: 1.33-4.02 and weekends (computer 1.99: 1.21-3.26; cellphone 2.33: 1.33-4.08; TV 2.04: 1.18-3.55. Only 'almost every night' computer use (: 2.43: 1.45-4.08 was associated with short weekday sleep duration, and only 'almost every night' cellphone use (2.23: 1.26-3.94 was associated with wake lag (waking later on weekends. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computers, cell-phones and televisions at higher doses was associated with delayed sleep/wake schedules and wake lag, potentially impairing health and educational outcomes.

  5. Habitual sleep duration and eating disorders in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R A; Rozette, E

    1986-02-01

    To measure the relationship between habitual sleep duration and eating disorders, the responses of groups of 34 short- and 43 longer-sleeping college students to the EAT-26 Test were compared. The short-sleepers scored twice as high and were five times more likely to exhibit abnormal eating patterns than the longer-sleeping group.

  6. Sleep pattern in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2: report of family case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cynthia C; Hirotsu, Camila; Neves, Eduardo L A; Santos, Lidiane C L; Costa, Iandra M P F; Garcez, Catarina A; Nunes, Paula S; Antunes, Adriano

    2015-03-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most prevalent hereditary motor and sensory polyneuropathy, and a condition in which sleep has rarely been studied, particularly in relation to the type 2 (CMT2). Thus, we aimed to characterize the sleep patterns of a family affected by CMT2 disease. Sixteen volunteers with CMT2 from the same multigenerational family agreed to participate in the study (refusal rate = 31%). All participants answered sleep questionnaires and came to the sleep laboratory to perform a diagnostic polysomnography (PSG). Clinical manifestation and severity of the disease were also evaluated. 56% of the sample were male and 44% female, with a mean age of 32 ± 17 years, of normal weight (body mass index 21 ± 3 kg/m(2)); 64% presented moderate to severe CMT2. Regarding subjective sleep, 31% had excessive daytime sleepiness and 75% reported poor sleep quality. The PSG results revealed that CMT2 patients had an increase in stage N3 and a reduction in REM sleep, in addition to a high arousal index. Although 81% of the sample were snorers, only 13% had an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5. However, a positive correlation was found between the severity of disease and the AHI. Taken together, these data show that CMT2 disease is characterized by important changes in sleep architecture, probably due to sleep fragmentation. Although these alterations may worsen with disease severity, it seems that they are not related to sleep breathing or movement disorders. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Circadian sleep and feeding patterns in the rat: possible dependence on lipogenesis and lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguir, J; Nicolaidis, S

    1980-03-01

    Sleep and feeding patterns were continuously recorded in rats under intravenous saline (control) and alternating insulin-epinephrine (experimental) infusions. The infusion of insulin (lipogenetic hormone) during the normally light period (0800-1600) replaced by epinephrine (lipolytic hormone) during the normally lipogenetic dark period (1600-0800) resulted in a complete inversion of the normal circadian distribution of sleep and feeding patterns and also of their correlation. Insulin infusion resulted in low blood glucose and glycerol levels whereas epinephrine increased these physiological parameters. Different control conditions showed that the fluctuations of sleep and feeding were dependent on the rate of utilization of the circulating metabolites at the cellular level. These results together with previous data suggest that the relation between sleep and feeding and their concomitant circadian fluctuation are possibly modulated by a common factor, namely the metabolic rate that is influenced by the lipogenesis/lipolysis rate.

  8. Histological pattern of endometrial samples in post-menopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeba, F.; Shaista, A.; Khan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most common clinical problems in gynaecological practice and is an indicator of various underlying disorders. An endometrial biopsy should be done in all women over 35 years with AUB to rule out endometrial cancer or pre-malignant lesion and to initiate treatment. However, wide range of histological patterns on endometrial biopsy offer a diagnostic challenge to practicing pathologists. The objective of this study was to determine histological patterns of endometrium in postmenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed women and children teaching hospital, Abbottabad from 15/11/2014 to 14/05/2015. This study involved 110 postmenopausal women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding. A written informed consent was obtained from every patient. Results: The mean age of the patients was 61.60+-6.17 years and the mean duration of AUB was 5.20+-2.80 years. Most of the patients were para 6 (28.2 percent) and para 5 (28.2 percent) followed by para 4 (18.2 percent) and para 3 (17.3 percent) while only 8.2 percent were para 1. The most common histological pattern observed was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9 percent) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5 percent), simple hyperplasia (23.6 percent), malignancy (12.7 percent), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5 percent) and benign endometrial polyp (3.6 percent). When stratified the data, there was no significant difference of histological patterns across various age groups (p=.673), duration of AUB (p=.064) and parity (p=.242). Conclusion: The most common histological pattern observed in postmenopausal women with AUB was complex hyperplasia without atypia (30.9 percent) followed by atrophic endometrium (24.5 percent), simple hyperplasia (23.6 percent), malignancy (12.7 percent), complex hyperplasia with atypia (4.5 percent) and benign endometrial polyp

  9. Phasic bursts of the antagonistic jaw muscles during REM sleep mimic a coordinated motor pattern during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T; Nakamura, N; Masuda, Y; Yoshida, A; Morimoto, T; Yamamura, K; Yamashita, S; Sato, F

    2013-02-01

    Sleep-related movement disorders are characterized by the specific phenotypes of muscle activities and movements during sleep. However, the state-specific characteristics of muscle bursts and movement during sleep are poorly understood. In this study, jaw-closing and -opening muscle electromyographic (EMG) activities and jaw movements were quantified to characterize phenotypes of motor patterns during sleep in freely moving and head-restrained guinea pigs. During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, both muscles were irregularly activated in terms of duration, activity, and intervals. During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, clusters of phasic bursts occurred in the two muscles. Compared with NREM sleep, burst duration, activity, and intervals were less variable during REM sleep for both muscles. Although burst activity was lower during the two sleep states than during chewing, burst duration and intervals during REM sleep were distributed within a similar range to those during chewing. A trigger-averaged analysis of muscle bursts revealed that the temporal association between the bursts of the jaw-closing and -opening muscles during REM sleep was analogous to the temporal association during natural chewing. The burst characteristics of the two muscles reflected irregular patterns of jaw movements during NREM sleep and repetitive alternating bilateral movements during REM sleep. The distinct patterns of jaw muscle bursts and movements reflect state-specific regulations of the jaw motor system during sleep states. Phasic activations in the antagonistic jaw muscles during REM sleep are regulated, at least in part, by the neural networks involving masticatory pattern generation, demonstrating that waking jaw motor patterns are replayed during sleep periods.

  10. Dynamic changes in sleep pattern during post-partum in normal pregnancy in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadas, Neelima; Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Aswathy, B S; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Gulia, Kamalesh K

    2017-03-01

    To develop an animal model for studies on peri-partum sleep disorders, sleep patterns in female Wistar rats during pregnancy, post-partum and after weaning, were assessed and associated adaptive changes in their anxiety were examined. Adult nulliparous female rats, maintained in standard laboratory conditions with ad libitum food and water, were surgically implanted with electroencephalogram and electromyogram electrodes under anaesthesia for objective assessment of sleep-wakefulness (S-W). After post-surgical recovery, three control recordings of S-W were taken for 24h before the animals were kept for mating. After confirmation of pregnancy, S-W recordings were acquired during different days of pregnancy, post-partum lactation/nursing days, and also after weaning. Their anxiety levels were tested in the elevated plus maze. During pregnancy, sleep increased primarily due to increase in light non-REM sleep during dark period. There was an increase in non-REM sleep delta power after parturition, though the sleep was fragmented, especially during daytime. Simultaneous behavioural recording showed increased anxiety during third trimester of pregnancy and gradual reversal of it after parturition. This is the first report where diurnal and nocturnal variations in S-W and delta power, along with adaptive changes in anxiety, were studied before, during and after pregnancy. This study also provides an animal model for drug trials and studies on sleep disorders during peri-partum window. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishment and consolidation of the sleep-wake cycle as a function of attachment pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennestri, Marie-Hélène; Moss, Ellen; O'Donnell, Katherine; Lecompte, Vanessa; Bouvette-Turcot, Andrée-Anne; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Gruber, Reut; Fleming, Alison S; Meaney, Michael J; Gaudreau, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The development of sleep-wake regulation in infants depends upon brain maturation as well as various environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep duration and quality as a function of child attachment to the mother. One hundred and thirty-four mother-child dyads enrolled in the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) project were included in this study. Attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation procedure at 36 months and maternal sleep reports were collected at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. Differences in sleep characteristics were assessed with mixed models with one factor (attachment group) and one repeated measure (age). Children classified as disorganized had a significantly lower duration of nocturnal sleep, went to bed later, signaled more awakenings, had shorter periods of uninterrupted sleep (only at 12 months) and had shorter periods of time in bed (only at 6 months) than children classified as secure and/or ambivalent (p sleep pattern in comparison with those with secure or ambivalent attachment between 6 and 36 months of age. Sleep disturbances could exacerbate difficulties in these families that are already considered vulnerable.

  12. Specific EEG sleep pattern in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Perrier

    Full Text Available To assess the specific prefrontal activity in comparison to those in the other main cortical areas in primary insomnia patients and in good sleepers.Fourteen primary insomnia patients and 11 good sleepers were included in the analysis. Participants completed one night of polysomnography in the sleep lab. Power spectra were calculated during the NREM (Non-rapid eyes movements and the REM (Rapid eyes movements sleep periods at prefrontal, occipital, temporal and central electrode positions.During the NREM sleep, the power spectra did not differ between groups in the prefrontal cortex; while primary insomnia patients exhibited a higher beta power spectrum and a lower delta power spectrum compared to good sleepers in other areas. During the REM sleep, the beta1 power spectrum was lower in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia patients compared to good sleepers; while no significant difference between groups was obtained for the other areas.The present study shows a specific prefrontal sleep pattern during the whole sleep period. In addition, we suggest that primary insomnia patients displayed a dysfunction in the reactivation of the limbic system during the REM sleep and we give additional arguments in favor of a sleep-protection mechanism displayed by primary insomnia patients.

  13. Specific EEG sleep pattern in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Joy; Clochon, Patrice; Bertran, Françoise; Couque, Colette; Bulla, Jan; Denise, Pierre; Bocca, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    To assess the specific prefrontal activity in comparison to those in the other main cortical areas in primary insomnia patients and in good sleepers. Fourteen primary insomnia patients and 11 good sleepers were included in the analysis. Participants completed one night of polysomnography in the sleep lab. Power spectra were calculated during the NREM (Non-rapid eyes movements) and the REM (Rapid eyes movements) sleep periods at prefrontal, occipital, temporal and central electrode positions. During the NREM sleep, the power spectra did not differ between groups in the prefrontal cortex; while primary insomnia patients exhibited a higher beta power spectrum and a lower delta power spectrum compared to good sleepers in other areas. During the REM sleep, the beta1 power spectrum was lower in the prefrontal cortex in primary insomnia patients compared to good sleepers; while no significant difference between groups was obtained for the other areas. The present study shows a specific prefrontal sleep pattern during the whole sleep period. In addition, we suggest that primary insomnia patients displayed a dysfunction in the reactivation of the limbic system during the REM sleep and we give additional arguments in favor of a sleep-protection mechanism displayed by primary insomnia patients.

  14. Sleep patterns in children with autistic spectrum disorders: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Joanna S; Gringras, Paul; Blair, Peter S; Scott, Nicola; Henderson, John; Fleming, Peter J; Emond, Alan M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate longitudinal sleep patterns in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Prospective longitudinal study using Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an English cohort born in 1991-1992. Parental reports of sleep duration were collected by questionnaires at 8 time points from 6 months to 11 years. Children with an ASD diagnosis at age 11 years (n=73) were identified from health and education records. From aged 30 months to 11 years old, children with ASD slept for 17-43 min less each day than contemporary controls. No significant difference in total sleep duration was found in infancy, but from 30 months of age children with ASD slept less than their peers, a difference that remained significant after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, high parity and epilepsy. The reduction in total sleep was wholly due to changes in night rather than daytime sleep duration. Night-time sleep duration was shortened by later bedtimes and earlier waking times. Frequent waking (3 or more times a night) was also evident among the children with ASD from 30 months of age. Age-specific decreases of >1SD within individuals in sleep duration across adjacent time points was a predictor of ASD between 18 months and 30 months of age (p=0.04) and from 30 months to 42 months (p=0.02). Sleep duration in children with ASD is reduced from 30 months of age and persists until adolescence.

  15. Sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents: associations with TV watching and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (≥3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender.

  16. Sleep Patterns of Emergency Department Nurses on Workdays and Days Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara

    2016-06-01

    Shift workers, particularly night workers, are prone to disrupted circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation resulting in fatigue and sleepiness, thereby endangering patient safety. Little is known about the sleep patterns of emergency nurses who work highly variable around-the-clock schedules to meet the demands of fluctuating patient census and acuities throughout the 24-hour period. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether there are shift-related sleep pattern differences in emergency department nurses over seven consecutive 24-hour periods that include both workdays and days off. A New Jersey mailing list (1514 members) was rented from the Emergency Nurses' Association. Three hundred on this list were systematically sampled and invited by mail to participate. The final sample consisted of 35 emergency nurses. Participants wore actigraphs for 24 hours each day for 7 days and completed sleep diaries upon awakening from their daily main sleep periods. Queries included caffeine and hypnotics usage. The nurses also completed the Standard Shiftwork Index General Biographical Information Section for demographic and scheduling data. Participants received a $50 honorarium upon completion of the protocol. The actigraph data were downloaded into a personal computer using Act Millennium and analyzed with Action W software (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., Ardsley, NY, USA). Sleep durations ranged from 6.6 to 8.1 hours on workdays and from 6.2 to 8.1 hours on days off. There were no significant shift- or workday-related differences in sleep patterns. However, trends indicated that, regardless of shift, workday sleep became more disturbed and less efficient toward the end of the week. Daily caffeine usage was reported by 85.9% of the sample. Shift working nurses need to obtain adequate and consistent sleep on workdays and days off throughout the work week to reduce fatigue and to provide safe patient care. Understanding the sleep patterns of emergency nurses and

  17. Current Alcohol Use is Associated with Sleep Patterns in First-Year College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reen, Eliza; Roane, Brandy M; Barker, David H; McGeary, John E; Borsari, Brian; Carskadon, Mary A

    2016-06-01

    To examine whether differences exist in self-reported sleep patterns and self-reported alcohol use for first-semester college students who do or do not report drinking during the last 6 months (mo) of high school. Participants were 878 first-year college students. Students completed a survey in late May/early June about alcohol use and consequences, during the last 6 mo of high school; they later completed a daily record of sleep behavior and alcohol use across the first 9 weeks of the first semester of college. High school drinking status (past 6 mo) was classified as positive (HS-6 mo+) or negative (HS-6mo-) based on any indication of drinking on the May/June survey. Collegiate drinking was determined from first-semester daily diary alcohol reports as non-drinkers (0 reported drinks), drinkers (one or fewer heavy episodic drinking episodes (HED)), and drinkers reporting more than one HED episode. Sleep patterns were compared for non-drinkers, drinkers, and HED with no high school drinking history (HS-6mo-/HED). In addition, a separate analysis compared sleep patterns for college HED with (HS-6mo+/HED) and without (HS-6mo-/HED) high school self-reported alcohol use. Increased alcohol consumption in the first semester of college was associated with later bedtimes and rise times. We found no association of high school alcohol use and sleep in those with collegiate HED. Later sleep timing in those with greater alcohol use, supports a connection between sleep patterns and alcohol use. Such an early appearance of this connection may herald the development of alcohol use disorder in some individuals. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Mu?a, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 1Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon Abstract: Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the ...

  19. Sleep-wake patterns and their influence on school performance in Portuguese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, João; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Cláudia; Ferreira, Manuela; Coutinho, Emília; Cunha, Madalena

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterise sleep-wake patterns and their influence on academic performance for a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Research design: Cross-sectional, analytical-explanatory, correlational epidemiological research. The protocol includes the composite morningness questionnaire (Barton et al, 1985 adapted by Silva et al, 1985), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Murray, 1991), chronic fatigue scale (Smith et al, 1995), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, 1988), Educational A...

  20. Abnormal Complex Auditory Pattern Analysis in Schizophrenia Reflected in an Absent Missing Stimulus Mismatch Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Dean F; McCathern, Alexis G

    2016-11-01

    The simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to tones deviating physically (in pitch, loudness, duration, etc.) from repeated standard tones is robustly reduced in schizophrenia. Although generally interpreted to reflect memory or cognitive processes, simple MMN likely contains some activity from non-adapted sensory cells, clouding what process is affected in schizophrenia. Research in healthy participants has demonstrated that MMN can be elicited by deviations from abstract auditory patterns and complex rules that do not cause sensory adaptation. Whether persons with schizophrenia show abnormalities in the complex MMN is unknown. Fourteen schizophrenia participants and 16 matched healthy underwent EEG recording while listening to 400 groups of 6 tones 330 ms apart, separated by 800 ms. Occasional deviant groups were missing the 4th or 6th tone (50 groups each). Healthy participants generated a robust response to a missing but expected tone. The schizophrenia group was significantly impaired in activating the missing stimulus MMN, generating no significant activity at all. Schizophrenia affects the ability of "primitive sensory intelligence" and pre-attentive perceptual mechanisms to form implicit groups in the auditory environment. Importantly, this deficit must relate to abnormalities in abstract complex pattern analysis rather than sensory problems in the disorder. The results indicate a deficit in parsing of the complex auditory scene which likely impacts negatively on successful social navigation in schizophrenia. Knowledge of the location and circuit architecture underlying the true novelty-related MMN and its pathophysiology in schizophrenia will help target future interventions.

  1. Neurobehavioral consequences of continuous spike and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) in a pediatric population: A pattern of developmental hindrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgis, Valentina; Filippini, Melissa; Macasaet, Joyce Ann; Masnada, Silvia; Veggiotti, Pierangelo

    2017-09-01

    Continuous spike and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) is a typical EEG pattern defined as diffuse, bilateral and recently also unilateral or focal localization spike-wave occurring in slow sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep. Literature results so far point out a progressive deterioration and decline of intellectual functioning in CSWS patients, i.e. a loss of previously normally acquired skills, as well as persistent neurobehavioral disorders, beyond seizure and EEG control. The objective of this study was to shed light on the neurobehavioral impact of CSWS and to identify the potential clinical risk factors for development. We conducted a retrospective study involving a series of 16 CSWS idiopathic patients age 3-16years, considering the entire duration of epilepsy from the onset to the outcome, i.e. remission of CSWS pattern. All patients were longitudinally assessed taking into account clinical (sex, age at onset, lateralization and localization of epileptiform abnormalities, spike wave index, number of antiepileptic drugs) and behavioral features. Intelligent Quotient (IQ) was measured in the whole sample, whereas visuo-spatial attention, visuo-motor skills, short term memory and academic abilities (reading and writing) were tested in 6 out of 16 patients. Our results showed that the most vulnerable from an intellectual point of view were those children who had an early-onset of CSWS whereas those with later onset resulted less affected (p=0.004). Neuropsychological outcome was better than the behavioral one and the lexical-semantic route in reading and writing resulted more severely affected compared to the phonological route. Cognitive deterioration is one but not the only consequence of CSWS. Especially with respect to verbal skills, CSWS is responsible of a pattern of consequences in terms of developmental hindrance, including slowing of development and stagnation, whereas deterioration is rare. Behavioral and academic problems tend to persist beyond

  2. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity within the default mode network subregions in male patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HJ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hai-Jun Li,1 Xiao Nie,1 Hong-Han Gong,1 Wei Zhang,2 Si Nie,1 De-Chang Peng11Department of Radiology, 2Department of Pneumology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground and objective: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC between the central executive network and the default mode network (DMN in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been reported. However, the effect of OSA on rs-FC within the DMN subregions remains uncertain. This study was designed to investigate whether the rs-FC within the DMN subregions was disrupted and determine its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with OSA. Methods: Forty male patients newly diagnosed with severe OSA and 40 male education- and age-matched good sleepers (GSs underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI examinations and clinical and neuropsychologic assessments. Seed-based region of interest rs-FC method was used to analyze the connectivity between each pair of subregions within the DMN, including the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, hippocampus formation (HF, inferior parietal cortices (IPC, and medial temporal lobe (MTL. The abnormal rs-FC strength within the DMN subregions was correlated with clinical and neuropsychologic assessments using Pearson correlation analysis in patients with OSA. Results: Compared with GSs, patients with OSA had significantly decreased rs-FC between the right HF and the PCC, MPFC, and left MTL. However, patients with OSA had significantly increased rs-FC between the MPFC and left and right IPC, and between the left IPC and right IPC. The rs-FC between the right HF and left MTL was positively correlated with rapid eye movement (r=0.335, P=0.035. The rs-FC between the PCC and right HF was negatively correlated with delayed memory (r=-0.338, P=0.033.Conclusion: OSA selectively impairs the rs-FC between right HF and PCC

  3. Effects of Anti-Convulsant Medication on Sleep Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    In addition, I do not believe that the rapid eye movements (REMs) are related to the amount of light exposure or to dream content. When we are awake...into SWS, there is a cessation of movements 9 (see Fig. 2). Relevant to this point is that the patient with sleep apnea , with his frequent awakenings

  4. Sleep patterns and sleepiness of working college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Liliane; Lowden, Arne; da Luz, Andrea Aparecida; Turte, Samantha Lemos; Valente, Daniel; Matsumura, Roberto Jun; de Paula, Leticia Pickersgill; Takara, Meire Yuri; Nagai-Manelli, Roberta; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    The double journey (work and study) may result or aggravate health problems, including sleep disturbances, as observed in previous studies with high school students. The aim of this study is to analyze the sleep-wake cycle and perceived sleepiness of working college students during weekdays. Twenty-three healthy college male students, 21-24 years old, working during the day and attending classes in the evening, participated in this study. During five consecutive days, the students filled out daily activities logs and wore actigraphs. Mean sleeping time was lower than 6 hours per night. No significant differences were observed in the sleep-wake cycle during the weekdays. The observed lack of changes in the sleepwake cycle of these college students might occur as participants were not on a free schedule, but exposed to social constraints, as was the regular attendance to evening college and day work activities. Sleepiness worsened over the evening school hours. Those results show the burden carried by College students who perform double activities - work and study.

  5. Narcolepsy patients have antibodies that stain distinct cell populations in rat brain and influence sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Peter; Adori, Csaba; Vas, Szilvia; Kai-Larsen, Ylva; Sarkanen, Tomi; Cederlund, Andreas; Agerberth, Birgitta; Julkunen, Ilkka; Horvath, Beata; Kostyalik, Diana; Kalmár, Lajos; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Huutoniemi, Anne; Partinen, Markku; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2014-09-02

    Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder, likely with an autoimmune component. During 2009 and 2010, a link between A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemrix vaccination and onset of narcolepsy was suggested in Scandinavia. In this study, we searched for autoantibodies related to narcolepsy using a neuroanatomical array: rat brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry/double labeling using patient sera/cerebrospinal fluid as primary antibodies. Sera from 89 narcoleptic patients, 52 patients with other sleep-related disorders (OSRDs), and 137 healthy controls were examined. Three distinct patterns of immunoreactivity were of particular interest: pattern A, hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone and proopiomelanocortin but not hypocretin/orexin neurons; pattern B, GABAergic cortical interneurons; and pattern C, mainly globus pallidus neurons. Altogether, 24 of 89 (27%) narcoleptics exhibited pattern A or B or C. None of the patterns were exclusive for narcolepsy but were also detected in the OSRD group at significantly lower numbers. Also, some healthy controls exhibited these patterns. The antigen of pattern A autoantibodies was identified as the common C-terminal epitope of neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NEI/αMSH) peptides. Passive transfer experiments on rat showed significant effects of pattern A human IgGs on rapid eye movement and slow-wave sleep time parameters in the inactive phase and EEG θ-power in the active phase. We suggest that NEI/αMSH autoantibodies may interfere with the fine regulation of sleep, contributing to the complex pathogenesis of narcolepsy and OSRDs. Also, patterns B and C are potentially interesting, because recent data suggest a relevance of those brain regions/neuron populations in the regulation of sleep/arousal.

  6. The sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention of commercial airline pilots during an international pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Renée M; Roach, Gregory D; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    International commercial airline pilots may experience heightened fatigue due to irregular sleep schedules, long duty days, night flying, and multiple time zone changes. Importantly, current commercial airline flight and duty time regulations are based on work/rest factors and not sleep/wake factors. Consequently, the primary aim of the current study was to investigate pilots' amount of sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention before and after international flights. A secondary aim was to determine whether prior sleep and/or duty history predicted pilots' subjective fatigue and sustained attention during the international flights. Nineteen pilots (ten captains, nine first officers; mean age: 47.42+/-7.52 years) participated. Pilots wore wrist activity monitors and completed sleep and duty diaries during a return pattern from Australia to Europe via Asia. The pattern included four flights: Australia-Asia, Asia-Europe, Europe-Asia, and Asia-Australia. Before and after each flight, pilots completed a 5 min PalmPilot-based psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and self-rated their level of fatigue using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the impact of stage of flight and flight sector on the pilots' sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and PVT mean response speed. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of sleep in the prior 24 h, prior wake, duty length, and flight sector on pilots' self-rated fatigue and sustained attention before and after the international flights. A significant main effect of stage of flight was found for sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and mean response speed (all p sleep in the prior 24 h and self-rated fatigue (both p sleep in the prior 24 h was a significant predictor of self-rated fatigue and mean response speed after the international flight sectors. Flight sector was also a significant predictor of self-rated fatigue

  7. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Johannsson, Erlingur; Wright, Elizabeth C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Marinac, Catherine R; Davis, Megan; Koster, Annemarie; Caserotti, Paolo; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Harris, Tamara; Chen, Kong Y

    2016-02-01

    To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 ± 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger population-based longitudinal observational-cohort study in the greater Reykjavik area of Iceland. A subpopulation (n = 72) repeated the 7-day measurement during seasonal periods with greater (13.4 ± 1.4 h) and lesser (7.7 ± 1.8 h) daylight. Cross-sectional analyses using multiple linear regression models revealed that day length was a significant independent predictor of sleep duration, mid-sleep, and rise time (all p sleep patterns of the repeaters were rather subtle between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. Compared to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 ± 80 vs. 487 ± 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 ± 18.3 vs. 40.2 ± 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar between men and women and between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. BMI, age, gender, and overall PA all contributed to the variations in sleep parameters using multiple regression analysis. The sleep and PA characteristics of this unique population revealed some gender differences, but there was limited variation in response to significant daylight changes which may be due to long-term adaptation. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. Correlation between temporal pole MRI abnormalities and surface ictal EEG patterns in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Garzon, Eliana; Oliveira, Pedro A L; Carrete, Henrique; Centeno, Ricardo S; Bianchin, Marino M; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze ictal patterns observed during continuous Video-EEG monitoring in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and to correlate these EEG patterns to temporal pole abnormalities observed on magnetic resonance imaging exams. We analyzed 147 seizures from 35 patients with TLE and unilateral HS. Ictal patterns were classified and correlated to signal abnormalities and volumetric measures of the temporal poles. Volume differences over 10% were considered abnormal. The most frequent type of ictal pattern was rhythmic theta activity (RTA), encountered in 65.5% of the seizures. Rhythmic beta activity (RBA) was observed in 11% of the seizures, localized attenuation in 8%, interruption of epileptiform discharges in 6%, repetitive discharges in 5.5%, and rhythmic delta activity (RDA) in 4%. Sixty-six percent of the patients presented signal abnormalities in the temporal pole that were always ipsilateral to the HS. Sixty percent presented significant asymmetry of the temporal poles consisting of reduced volume that was also always ipsilateral to HS. Although patients with RTA as the predominant ictal pattern tended to present asymmetry of temporal poles (p=0.305), the ictal EEG pattern did not correlate with temporal pole asymmetry or signal abnormalities. RTA is the most frequent initial ictal pattern in patients with TLE due to unilateral HS. Temporal pole signal changes and volumetric reduction were commonly found in this group of patients, both abnormalities appearing always ipsilateral to the HS. However, neither temporal pole volume reduction nor signal abnormalities correlated with the predominant ictal pattern, suggesting that the temporal poles are not crucially involved in the process of epileptogenesis.

  9. Sleep time and pattern of adult individuals in primary care in an Asian urbanized community: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Tan, Mui Suan; Hwang, Siew Wai; Teo, Chia Chia; Lee, Zhi Kang Niccol; Soh, Jing Yao Jonathan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; How, Choon How

    2016-08-01

    Sleep norms vary between individuals, being affected by personal, communal, and socioeconomic factors. Individuals with sleep time which deviate from the population norm are at risks of adverse mental, cardiovascular, and metabolic health. Sleep-related issues are common agenda for consultation in primary care. This study aimed to determine the sleep time, pattern, and behavior of multiethnic Asian individuals who attended public primary care clinics in an urban metropolitan city-state.Standardized questionnaires were assistant-administered to adult Asian individuals who visited 2 local public primary care clinics in north-eastern and southern regions of Singapore. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, self-reported sleep time, patterns, and behavior and those originated from the American National Sleep Foundation Sleep Diary. The data were collated, audited, rectified, and anonymized before being analyzed by the biostatistician. Individuals with 7 h sleep time or longer were deemed getting adequate sleep. Chi-squared or Fisher exact test was used to test the association between the demographic and behavioral variables and sleep time. Next, regression analysis was performed to identify key factors associated with their sleep time.A total of 350 individuals were recruited, with higher proportion of those of Chinese ethnicity reporting adequate sleep. Almost half (48.1%) of those who slept sleep ≥7 h on weekends. More individuals who reported no difficulty falling asleep, had regular sleep hours and awakening time, tended to sleep adequately. Those who slept with children, studied, read leisurely, used computer or laptops in their bedrooms, drank caffeinated beverages or smoked had inadequate sleep. Those who perceived sufficient sleep and considered 8 h as adequate sleep time had weekday and weekend sleep adequacy.Sleep time varied according to ethnicity, employment status, personal behavior, and perception of sleep sufficiency

  10. Mechanisms of pulse pressure amplification dipping pattern during sleep time: the SAFAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Antonios A; Nasothimiou, Efthimia; Aissopou, Evaggelia; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Zhang, Yi; Blacher, Jacques; Safar, Michel E; Sfikakis, Petros P; Protogerou, Athanase D

    2018-02-01

    The difference in pulse pressure (PP) between peripheral arteries and the aorta, called pulse pressure amplification (PPamp), is a well-described physiological phenomenon independently associated with cardiovascular events. Recent studies suggest that it exhibits circadian variability. Our aim was to detect the factors associated with the circadian variability of PPamp. In 497 consecutive subjects (aged 54 years, 56.7% male, 79.7% hypertensives), we assessed the circadian pattern of peripheral and central arterial hemodynamics by 24-hour evaluation of brachial and aortic blood pressure (BP), augmentation index (AI), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) using a validated oscillometric device (Mobil-O-Graph). All parameters exhibited a circadian variation. Sleep dipping (decrease) pattern was observed for PPamp, brachial and aortic systolic BP, mean BP, and PWV, whereas a rising pattern (higher sleep than wake values) was observed for brachial PP, aortic PP, and AI. The factors independently associated with the less sleep dipping in PPamp were older age, lower height, the use of antihypertensive medication, and sleep decrease in arterial stiffness (PWV), whereas female gender, the presence of hypertension, sleep increase of pressure wave reflections (AI), sleep decrease in heart rate, and mean BP were associated with a greater sleep-dipping in PPamp. These data provide further pathophysiological understanding of the mechanisms leading to PPamp dipping. Several implications regarding the clinical use of the aortic and brachial BP, especially during sleep time, are raised that should be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural code alterations and abnormal time patterns in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela Sabrina; Cerquetti, Daniel; Merello, Marcelo

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The neural code used by the basal ganglia is a current question in neuroscience, relevant for the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While a rate code is known to participate in the communication between the basal ganglia and the motor thalamus/cortex, different lines of evidence have also favored the presence of complex time patterns in the discharge of the basal ganglia. To gain insight into the way the basal ganglia code information, we studied the activity of the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), an output node of the circuit. Approach. We implemented the 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinsonism in Sprague-Dawley rats, and recorded the spontaneous discharge of single GPi neurons, in head-restrained conditions at full alertness. Analyzing the temporal structure function, we looked for characteristic scales in the neuronal discharge of the GPi. Main results. At a low-scale, we observed the presence of dynamic processes, which allow the transmission of time patterns. Conversely, at a middle-scale, stochastic processes force the use of a rate code. Regarding the time patterns transmitted, we measured the word length and found that it is increased in Parkinson’s disease. Furthermore, it showed a positive correlation with the frequency of discharge, indicating that an exacerbation of this abnormal time pattern length can be expected, as the dopamine depletion progresses. Significance. We conclude that a rate code and a time pattern code can co-exist in the basal ganglia at different temporal scales. However, their normal balance is progressively altered and replaced by pathological time patterns in Parkinson’s disease.

  12. The Social Patterning of Sleep in African Americans: Associations of Socioeconomic Position and Neighborhood Characteristics with Sleep in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dayna A.; Lisabeth, Lynda; Hickson, DeMarc; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2016-01-01

    . Depressive symptoms may explain at least part of this association. Citation: Johnson DA, Lisabeth L, Hickson D, Johnson-Lawrence V, Samdarshi T, Taylor H, Diez Roux AV. The social patterning of sleep in African Americans: associations of socioeconomic position and neighborhood characteristics with sleep in the Jackson Heart Study. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1749–1759. PMID:27253767

  13. Sleep Pattern of Adolescents in a School in Delhi, India: Impact on their Mood and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchi; Suri, Jagdish C; Sharma, Renuka; Suri, Tejas; Adhikari, Tulsi

    2018-03-16

    To examine the sleep pattern and observe differences in sleep routines, phase preferences, mood, attendance, and academic performance among different adolescent age students. Secondly, to observe the age at which sleep phase transition and changes in sleep requirement become evident. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 501 students (aged 11-15 y) of a school in Delhi, India. Students were evaluated for their sleep patterns, sleep duration, habits of napping, quality of sleep, sleepiness, depression, phase preferences by self-reported school sleep habits survey questionnaire along with school performance and attendance. Significant differences were found in sleep pattern of students aged 11-12 y and 13-15 y. Bedtime shifted to a later time with increasing age but early morning schools kept the wake time same, leading to a decline in total sleep duration of older adolescents. Older adolescents had higher depression but poor attendance and academic performance. Prevalence of sleep deprivation increased with age, from 83.7% to 87.1% in 11-12 y to 90.5% to 92.5% in 13-15 y. The study clearly identifies 12-13 y as age of transition of sleep pattern among adolescents. Though significant differences were found in the academic performance, mood and attendance among preteens and teens but no direct association was seen between academic performances and sleep pattern. A complex multifactorial association between sleep patterns, attendance, mood and academic performance which may change over days, months, or years should be explored further in a longitudinal follow up study.

  14. The Effects of the Hominis Placenta Herbal acupuncture on Sleep pattern disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Hyoun-min

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effects of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture which is usually used in reducing sleep pattern disturbances. Methods : The study subjects studied included 48 patients who were admitted in hospital located in Pusan, and they were classified into 2 groups : 25 patients in the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture and 23 patients in the control group who were treated by acupuncture. The both group injected on GB20, GB12 and HT7 for 5 days without medicine. The sleep pattern disturbance score was measured by using 15 questions according to Korean Sleep Scale A(Oh, Jin Joo. Song, Mi Soon. Kim, Shin Mi. 1998. Results & conclusions : The sleep pattern disturbance score of the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture was significantly lower than that of the control group. (t= 7.00 p= .00 These results provided that Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture of GB20, GB12 and HT7 was effective for relieving sleep pattern disturbances, it is need more sample's number and more treatmentt's duration.

  15. Relationship between Oral Flow Patterns, Nasal Obstruction, and Respiratory Events during Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Furukawa, Taiji; Sugimoto, Akira; Katada, Koji; Kotani, Ryosuke; Yoshizawa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep breathing patterns are altered by nasal obstruction and respiratory events. This study aimed to describe the relationships between specific sleep oral flow (OF) patterns, nasal airway obstruction, and respiratory events. Methods: Nasal flow and OF were measured simultaneously by polysomnography in 85 adults during sleep. OF was measured 2 cm in front of the lips using a pressure sensor. Results: OF could be classified into three patterns: postrespiratory event OF (postevent OF), during-respiratory event OF (during-event OF), and spontaneous arousal-related OF (SpAr-related OF). Postevent OFs begin at the end of airflow reduction, are preceded by respiratory arousal, and are accompanied by postapneic hyperventilation; during-event OFs occur during nasal flow reduction; and SpAr-related OFs to OF begin during stable breathing, and are preceded by spontaneous arousal but are rarely accompanied by apnea/hypopnea. Multivariate regression showed that nasal obstruction was predictive of SpAr-related OF. The relative frequency of SpAr-related OF events was negatively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index. The fraction of SpAr-related OF duration relative to total OF duration was significantly greater in patients with nasal obstruction than in those without. Conclusions: SpAr-related OF was associated with nasal obstruction, but not respiratory events. This pattern thus functions as a “nasal obstruction bypass”, mainly in normal subjects and patients with mild sleep disordered breathing (SDB). By contrast, the other two types were related to respiratory events and were typical patterns seen in patients with moderate and severe SDB. Citation: Suzuki M, Furukawa T, Sugimoto A, Katada K, Kotani R, Yoshizawa T. Relationship between oral flow patterns, nasal obstruction, and respiratory events during sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):855–860. PMID:25766699

  16. Age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities: Implications for cervical cancer control in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepiti Clement Akinfolarin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize the age and pattern of Pap smear abnormalities in a major teaching hospital in Southwestern Nigeria. Design: This is a review of medical records of patients that came for cervical cancer screening. Materials and Methods: The Pap smear results of women between May 2013 and April 2015 were retrieved. A total of 2048 Pap smear results were retrieved during the study period and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20. A total of 252 (12.3% samples were excluded from the analysis. Results: The mean age of the women was 45.77 ± 9.9 years and the mode was 50 years. Normal Pap smear result was reported in 728 (40.6% women. Only 20 women has had more than one more than one Pap smear done. The most common abnormality was inflammatory smear result as this was reported in 613 (29.9% women. Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL were reported in 117 (5.7%, 209 (10.2%, and 111 (5.4% women, respectively. Atypical glandular cell and squamous cell carcinoma were reported in 12 (6.0% and 3 (1.0%, respectively. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of abnormal Pap smear in this environment and women start cervical cancer screening late in their reproductive life, past the age at which cervical premalignant lesions peak. This may be a contributing factor to the high burden of cervical cancer in developing countries.

  17. Pattern recognition with adaptive-thresholds for sleep spindle in high density EEG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemignani, Jessica; Agrimi, Jacopo; Cheli, Enrico; Gemignani, Angelo; Laurino, Marco; Allegrini, Paolo; Landi, Alberto; Menicucci, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, via Savi 10, 56126, Pisa, Italy Sleep spindles are electroencephalographic oscillations peculiar of non-REM sleep, related to neuronal mechanisms underlying sleep restoration and learning consolidation. Based on their very singular morphology, sleep spindles can be visually recognized and detected, even though this approach can lead to significant mis-detections. For this reason, many efforts have been put in developing a reliable algorithm for spindle automatic detection, and a number of methods, based on different techniques, have been tested via visual validation. This work aims at improving current pattern recognition procedures for sleep spindles detection by taking into account their physiological sources of variability. We provide a method as a synthesis of the current state of art that, improving dynamic threshold adaptation, is able to follow modification of spindle characteristics as a function of sleep depth and inter-subjects variability. The algorithm has been applied to physiological data recorded by a high density EEG in order to perform a validation based on visual inspection and on evaluation of expected results from normal night sleep in healthy subjects.

  18. Early Childhood Sleep Patterns and Cognitive Development at Age 6 Years: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevska, Desana; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Franco, Oscar H; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-04-01

    To explore the association of sleep duration and awakening frequency with cognitive outcomes in young children. Mothers of 2,800 children from the Generation R cohort reported sleep duration and awakenings at children's age 24 months. At age 6 years, validated Dutch measures were used to assess children's nonverbal intelligence and language comprehension. We found a nonlinear association of total sleep time at 24 months with nonverbal intelligence ( p  = 0.03) and language comprehension ( p  = 0.04) at 6 years. Toddlers sleeping within the recommended 11-14 hr had more favorable cognitive development compared with both extremes. Frequent awakenings were negatively associated with nonverbal intelligence, but not with verbal comprehension. Sleep duration in toddlerhood has an inverted-U-shaped relation with childhood cognitive measures. Frequent awakenings are associated with lower nonverbal intelligence. Given the marked decline in sleep duration and awakenings in toddlerhood, developmental changes of sleep patterns might be important for cognitive development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Sleeping Pattern of Medical Students Preceding Viva Examination and Their Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important determinant of keeping healthy physically and mentally. Deviation in sleep is a common problem among students during examinations. The purpose of this study is to determine students' sleep pattern during night preceding viva examination and its correlation with performance. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted between January and February 2014 among 1st and 2nd year MBBS students of National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal who appeared in University's final practical examinations. Based on simple random sampling approach, each of the 280 participants was allowed to pick out five pieces of lottery papers and they were asked the five questions resembling the number in the list of questions. Among the total 280 students, 74.6% were from India and 25.4% were from Nepal, and majorities (63%) of them were males. Fifty two percent of the students either could not sleep at all or slept just for 1 to 1.5 hours while 12% slept for 5 to 6.5 hours. Two-third (66%) of the students was able enough to achieve one to two scores, and only 1.8% could succeed to get the maximum score of five. The correlation between hours of sleep preceding examination and the score achieved was positively (r=0.701) and statistically significantly correlated (pstudents either not to sleep or sleep only for few hours preceding viva examination that result in poor performance in examinations.

  20. Sleep Patterns of Young Men and Women Enrolled at the United States Military Academy: Results from Year 1 of a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    searchers hope will lead to bener sleep hygiene among cadets. The importance of instilling good sleep habits in cadets at USMA and providing them with... Sleep Patterns of Young Men and Women Enrolled at the United States Military Academy: Results from Year 1 of a 4-Year Longitudinal Study Nita leWIs... Sleep patterns of young adults Bre different from those of other age groups .. This study eKamined sleep patterns of cadets during their first year

  1. Abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction: frequency, pattern, and a determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Oh, Sun-Young; Lee, Hyung

    2011-08-15

    There has been no systematic study that carefully investigates the characteristic features of abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) response associated with the AICA territory infarction. To investigate the frequency, the characteristic patterns of abnormal cVEMP associated with AICA territory infarction, and the crucial site for producing abnormal cVEMP response in the AICA territory infarction. We studied 16 consecutive cases of unilateral AICA territory infarction diagnosed by brain MRI. VEMP was induced by a short click sound and was recorded in contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle. Each patient underwent a quantitative audiovestibular evaluation, including bithermal caloric test and pure tone audiogram. Eight patients (50%) exhibited abnormal cVEMP response on the side of the AICA territory infarction. All patients with abnormal cVEMP showed an absent or decreased response in amplitude but no difference in latency. Patients with abnormal VEMP were significantly more likely to have canal paresis (CP), sensorineural hearing loss, or both compared with patients who had normal cVEMP. Conversely, abnormal cVEMP was more frequently observed among patients with CP than among those without CP. There was no difference in lesion sites according to brain MRI among patients with or without abnormal cVEMP response. Our findings suggest that the peripheral vestibular structure with the inner ear probably plays a crucial role in producing abnormal cVEMP response associated with AICA territory infarction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian sleep has evolved under the influence of the day-night cycle and in response to reproductive needs, food seeking, and predator avoidance, resulting in circadian (predictive) and homeostatic (reactive) regulation. A molecular clock characterized by transcription/translation feedback loops...... mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas...

  3. Circadian rhythm, sleep pattern, and metabolic consequences: an overview on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberta Marcondes; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi

    2014-04-01

    Sleep duration is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alteration in sleep pattern can induce the loss of circadian rhythmicity. Chronically, this desynchronization between endogenous rhythm and behavioral cycles can lead to an adverse metabolic profile, a proinflammatory condition and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The circadian cycle can vary due to environmental cues. The circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei; this central clock coordinates the circadian rhythm in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms involved in sleep disturbance, circadian misalignment and adverse metabolic effects have yet to be fully elucidated. This review looks over the association among sleep alteration, circadian rhythm and the development of risk factors implicated in cardiovascular disease.

  4. Accurate means of detecting and characterizing abnormal patterns of ventricular activation by phase image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botvinick, E.H.; Frais, M.A.; Shosa, D.W.; O'Connell, J.W.; Pacheco-Alvarez, J.A.; Scheinman, M.; Hattner, R.S.; Morady, F.; Faulkner, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of scintigraphic phase image analysis to characterize patterns of abnormal ventricular activation was investigated. The pattern of phase distribution and sequential phase changes over both right and left ventricular regions of interest were evaluated in 16 patients with normal electrical activation and wall motion and compared with those in 8 patients with an artificial pacemaker and 4 patients with sinus rhythm with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and delta waves. Normally, the site of earliest phase angle was seen at the base of the interventricular septum, with sequential change affecting the body of the septum and the cardiac apex and then spreading laterally to involve the body of both ventricles. The site of earliest phase angle was located at the apex of the right ventricle in seven patients with a right ventricular endocardial pacemaker and on the lateral left ventricular wall in one patient with a left ventricular epicardial pacemaker. In each case the site corresponded exactly to the position of the pacing electrode as seen on posteroanterior and left lateral chest X-ray films, and sequential phase changes spread from the initial focus to affect both ventricles. In each of the patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the site of earliest ventricular phase angle was located, and it corresponded exactly to the site of the bypass tract as determined by endocardial mapping. In this way, four bypass pathways, two posterior left paraseptal, one left lateral and one right lateral, were correctly localized scintigraphically. On the basis of the sequence of mechanical contraction, phase image analysis provides an accurate noninvasive method of detecting abnormal foci of ventricular activation

  5. Analysis of A-phase transitions during the cyclic alternating pattern under normal sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin Oswaldo; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Alba, Alfonso; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Grassi, Andrea; Arce-Santana, Edgar; Milioli, Guilia; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Parrino, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the EEG signal during the B-phase and A-phases transitions of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) during sleep is presented. CAP is a sleep phenomenon composed by consecutive sequences of A-phases (each A-phase could belong to a possible group A1, A2 or A3) observed during the non-REM sleep. Each A-phase is separated by a B-phase which has the basal frequency of the EEG during a specific sleep stage. The patterns formed by these sequences reflect the sleep instability and consequently help to understand the sleep process. Ten recordings from healthy good sleepers were included in this study. The current study investigates complexity, statistical and frequency signal properties of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings at the transitions: B-phase--A-phase. In addition, classification between the onset-offset of the A-phases and B-phase was carried out with a kNN classifier. The results showed that EEG signal presents significant differences (p sleep stages. The statistical analysis of variance shows that more than 80% of the A-phase onset and offset is significantly different from the B-phase. The classification performance between onset or offset of A-phases and background showed classification values over 80% for specificity and accuracy and 70% for sensitivity. Only during the A3-phase, the classification was lower. The results suggest that neural assembles that generate the basal EEG oscillations during sleep present an over-imposed coordination for a few seconds due to the A-phases. The main characteristics for automatic separation between the onset-offset A-phase and the B-phase are the energy at the different frequency bands.

  6. Sleep/Wake Modulation of Polysomnographic Patterns has Prognostic Value in Pediatric Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Erika; Avantaggiato, Paolo; Formica, Francesca; Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Galbiati, Sara; Arrigoni, Filippo; Strazzer, Sandra

    2016-08-15

    Sleep patterns of pediatric patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) have been poorly investigated, and the prognostic potential of polysomnography (PSG) in these subjects is still uncertain. The goal of the study was to identify quantitative PSG indices to be applied as possible prognostic markers in pediatric UWS. We performed PSG in 27 children and adolescents with UWS due to acquired brain damage in the subacute phase. Patients underwent neurological examination and clinical assessment with standardized scales. Outcome was assessed after 36 mo. PSG tracks were scored for sleep stages and digitally filtered. The spectral difference between sleep and wake was computed, as the percent difference at specific spectral frequencies. We computed (1) the ratio between percent power in the delta and alpha frequency bands, (2) the ratio between alpha and theta frequency bands, and (3) the power ratio index, during wake and sleep, as proposed in previous literature. The predictive role of several clinical and PSG measures was tested by logistic regression. Correlation was found between the differential measures of electroencephalographic activity during sleep and wake in several frequency bands and the clinical scales (Glasgow Outcome Score, Level of Cognitive Functioning Assessment Scale, and Disability Rating Scale) at follow-up; the Sleep Patterns for Pediatric Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (SPPUWS) scores correlated with the differential measures, and allowed outcome prediction with 96.3% of accuracy. The differential measure of electroencephalographic activity during sleep and wake in the beta band and, more incisively, SPPUWS can help in determining the capability to recover from pediatric UWS well before the confirmation provided by suitable clinical scales. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Endometrial cancer survivors' sleep patterns before and after a physical activity intervention: A retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Shannon D; Song, Jaejoon; Gatus, Leticia; Lu, Karen H; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2018-01-30

    To identify the baseline sleep patterns of endometrial cancer survivors and examine the impact of a physical activity intervention on their sleep quality via retrospective secondary analysis. Early-stage endometrial cancer survivors participated in a 6-month single-arm exercise intervention using printed materials, telephone-based counseling, and pedometers to encourage adherence to exercise guidelines. Participants completed questionnaires evaluating their sleep (PSQI), physical activity (CHAMPS), quality of life (SF-36), and stress (PSS) at baseline and study completion. Ninety-five survivors had PSQI data at both time points. Mean age was 57.1 years (range, 25-76). Mean body mass index was 34.3 kg/m 2 . The majority were non-Hispanic white (75%) and had stage I disease (80%). At baseline, most survivors (61%) had poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5), with 24% reporting fairly or very bad sleep. The majority (63%) slept <7 h/night. At least once during the preceding month, 83% had an episode of daytime dysfunction. A pairwise comparison showed that obese survivors had more sleep disturbances than normal weight survivors (p = 0.029). No other clinicodemographic factors were associated with sleep. In unadjusted analyses, sleep quality significantly improved in women who increased weekly total or moderate/vigorous physical activity (p = 0.004 and p < 0.050, respectively). This association persisted after adjusting for the potential covariates of age, time since diagnosis, obesity status, disease stage, and treatment (p = 0.026). Our data demonstrated that poor sleep is common and detrimental to endometrial cancer survivors. Increasing exercise may improve this dysfunction and should be investigated as part of a prospective study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems: the role of food insecurity and sleep patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christian

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems differs by food security status and sleep patterns in young children. Cross-sectional observational data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), which collected information on food insecurity, soft drinks consumption, sleep patterns and child behaviour problems. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression analyses predicting child behaviour problems and accounting for socio-economic factors and household characteristics were performed. Twenty urban cities in the USA with a population of 200 000 or more. Parental interviews of 2829 children who were about 5 years old. Soft drinks consumption was associated with aggressive behaviours, withdrawn and attention problems for children aged 5 years. However, the association differed by food security status. The association was mostly statistically insignificant among food-secure children after accounting for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. On the other hand, soft drinks consumption was associated with behaviour problems for food-insecure children even after accounting for these factors. However, after accounting for child sleep patterns, the association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems became statistically insignificant for food-insecure children. The negative association between soft drinks consumption and child behaviour problems could be explained by sleep problems for food-insecure children. Since about 21 % of households with children are food insecure, targeted efforts to reduce food insecurity would help improve dietary (reduce soft drinks consumption) and health behaviours (improve sleep) and reduce child behaviour problems.

  10. High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-02-01

    To investigate whether chronic vigorous exercising is related to improved sleep and psychological functioning, and whether this association varies with gender. Both lay and scientific opinions hold that physical activity is an efficient remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. However, empirical evidence on adolescents is very limited. A total of 434 adolescents (258 athletes, 176 controls; mean age 17.2 years) took part in the study. Weekly hours spent exercising were 17.69 hours and 4.69 hours, respectively. To assess sleep patterns and psychological functioning, participants completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days and several self-rating questionnaires. Compared with controls, athletes reported better sleep patterns including higher sleep quality, shortened sleep onset latency, and fewer awakenings after sleep onset, as well as less tiredness and increased concentration during the day. Athletes reported significantly lower anxiety and fewer depressive symptoms. Compared with males, females reported fewer variations in sleep. Male controls had particularly unfavorable scores related to sleep and psychological functioning. Findings suggest that chronic vigorous exercising is positively related to adolescents' sleep and psychological functioning. Results also indicate that males with low exercise levels are at risk for increased sleep complaints and poorer psychological functioning. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  12. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M. Shokry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women. A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2=22.6, p=0.000, continuous sleep until morning (χ2=19.2, p=0.001, nighttime sleep duration (χ2=20.2, p=0.000, and length of daytime naps (χ2=28.35, p=0.000. There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2=16.52, p=0.000 and increased nightmares (χ2=13.7, p=0.001. Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  13. Perchance to dream? Primordial motor activity patterns in vertebrates from fish to mammals: their prenatal origin, postnatal persistence during sleep, and pathological reemergence during REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Michael A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2015-12-01

    An overview is presented of the literature dealing with sleep-like motility and concomitant neuronal activity patterns throughout the life cycle in vertebrates, ectothermic as well as endothermic. Spontaneous, periodically modulated, neurogenic bursts of non-purposive movements are a universal feature of larval and prenatal behavior, which in endothermic animals (i.e. birds and mammals) continue to occur periodically throughout life. Since the entire body musculature is involved in ever-shifting combinations, it is proposed that these spontaneously active periods be designated as 'rapid-BODY-movement' (RBM) sleep. The term 'rapid-EYE-movement (REM) sleep', characterized by attenuated muscle contractions and reduced tonus, can then be reserved for sleep at later stages of development. Mature stages of development in which sustained muscle atonia is combined with 'paradoxical arousal' of cortical neuronal firing patterns indisputably represent the evolutionarily most recent aspect of REM sleep, but more research with ectothermic vertebrates, such as fish, amphibians and reptiles, is needed before it can be concluded (as many prematurely have) that RBM is absent in these species. Evidence suggests a link between RBM sleep in early development and the clinical condition known as 'REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)', which is characterized by the resurgence of periodic bouts of quasi-fetal motility that closely resemble RBM sleep. Early developmental neuromotor risk factors for RBD in humans also point to a relationship between RBM sleep and RBD.

  14. [Comparative study of sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo

    2002-08-01

    To compare sleep patterns in nurses working day and night shifts in a hospital in Campinas (SP), Brazil. Fifty-nine nurses between 23 and 59 years of age participated in the study. For day shift workers, the pattern of nocturnal sleep was examined; for night shift workers, nocturnal and diurnal sleep patterns were examined. During 1 week, participants filled out a sleep diary right after waking up. The following items were assessed: time going to bed, falling asleep, and waking up; sleep latency; duration in hours of nocturnal and diurnal sleep; naps; quality of sleep; mode of waking up; and comparison between the sleep recorded in the diary with the usual sleep. Personal and professional information was also collected. Day shift workers went to bed at 23h36min, and night workers at 23h52min (P > 0.05). The nurses working a day schedule woke up earlier (7h3min) than those working a night schedule when they slept at night (8h30min) (P alcohol consumption. We verified the use of antihypertensives, diuretics, and analgesics. The present findings are similar to those previously described in the literature. Night shift nurses should be able to take naps to compensate for the sleep deficit accrued when they work at night. ResumoObjetivo: Comparar os padrões de sono de enfermeiros dos turnos diurno e noturno em um hospital de Campinas (SP), Brasil. Métodos: Participaram 59 enfermeiros entre 23 e 59 anos. Para os enfermeiros do dia, analisou-se o sono noturno, e, para os da noite, os sonos diurno e noturno. Os informantes preencheram um diário do sono durante 1 semana, ao acordar. Foram analisados hora de ir deitar, de dormir, e de acordar; latência do sono; horas de sono noturno e diurno; cochilos; qualidade do sono; modo de acordar; e comparação do sono registrado no diário com o sono habitual. Também foram coletadas informações pessoais e profissionais. Resultados: O grupo diurno ia dormir às 23h36min e o grupo noturno, às 23h52min (P consumo de

  15. Sleep Patterns of Naval Aviation Personnel Conducting Mine Hunting Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    that are set off by the sound or magnetic signature of a passing ship. These "influence" mines can be either scattered along the ocean floor or...disk churns the water to simulate the sound of a ship’s cavitating propellers. The pilots on minesweeping missions must fly straight tracks back and...have you been told about snoring loud enough to disturb the sleep of others? 1. Never 2. Rarely (less than once a week) 3. Occasionally (1 – 3

  16. The longer the better: Sleep-wake patterns during preparation of the World Rowing Junior Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recovery is essential for high athletic performance, and therefore especially sleep has been identified as a crucial source for physical and psychological well-being. However, due to early-morning trainings, which are general practice in many sports, athletes are likely to experience sleep restrictions. Therefore, this study investigated the sleep-wake patterns of 55 junior national rowers (17.7 ± 0.6 years) via sleep logs and actigraphy during a four-week training camp. Recovery and stress ratings were obtained every morning with the Short Recovery and Stress Scale on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (does not apply at all) to 6 (fully applies). The first training session was scheduled for 6:30 h every day. With two to four training sessions per day, the training load was considerably increased from athletes' home training. Objective sleep measures (n = 14) revealed less total sleep time (TST) in the first two weeks (409.6 ± 19.1 and 416.0 ± 16.3 min), while training volume and intensity were higher. In the second half of the camp, less training sessions were implemented, more afternoons were training free and TSTs were longer (436.3 ± 15.8 and 456.9 ± 25.7 min). A single occasion of 1.5-h delayed bedtime and usual early morning training (6:30 h) resulted in reduced ratings of Overall Recovery (OR) (M = 3.3 ± 1.3) and greater Negative Emotional State (NES) (M = 1.3 ± 1.2, p sleep-offset times were shifted from ~5:30 to ~8:00 h, and each recovery and stress score improved (p sleep and recovery. Intercorrelations of these sleep parameters emphasised the relationship between restful sleep and falling asleep quickly (r = .34, p sleep on subjective recovery measures in the setting of a training camp. Providing the opportunity of extended sleep (and a day off) seems the most simple and effective strategy to enhance recovery and stress-related ratings.

  17. Borderline intellectual functioning and sleep: the role of cyclic alternating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Carotenuto, Marco

    2010-11-19

    In the clinical literature there are few specific studies about the relationship between cognition processes and sleep during childhood. In addition, milder deficits in general intellectual capacity have received less attention relative to major cognitive dysfunctions (such as the genetic or environmental basis of mental retardation), especially concerning the low normal and borderline status. Sleep could play a key role in multiple intellectual abilities such as memory, executive functions, and school performances. Aim of our study is to assess the sleep macrostructure and NREM instability (cyclic alternating pattern) and their relationship with IQ in a sample of subjects with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). The DSM-IV defines BIF as a total intelligence quotient (TIQ) ranging between 71 and 84. Intellective functioning was assessed using the Italian version of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), a well validated test for the developmental age between 6 and 16. For this study, 12 BIF and 17 healthy children, matched for sex and age, underwent an overnight PSG recording. Macrostructural sleep and CAP analysis were also performed. To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to evaluate sleep architecture and NREM instability organization in children with BIF. Findings from this investigation evidence that BIF presents alterations in both macro- and microstructural sleep architecture, with an interesting statistical significant correlation with IQ. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  19. Effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, electroencephalogram, behavioral patterns, and epileptic activity of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Ates, N.; Skarsfeldt, T.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    In this study we addressed the effects of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist sertindole in rats. The compound was administered in doses of 0.08, 0.32, and 1.28 mg/kg, whereas a control group received the solvent. The effects of sertindole on sleep-wake states, behavioral patterns, and background

  20. The Influences of Physical Activity on Patterns of Sleep Behavior of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A light exercise program was set up for 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease who exercised each day for 40 minutes. Their sleep patterns were compared with a control group who did not exercise. Results indicate that those who participated in the exercise program manifested 40% less restless behavior, while those in the non-exercise group showed a…

  1. A gait paradigm reveals different patterns of abnormal cerebellar motor learning in primary focal dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffland, B S; Veugen, L C; Janssen, M M H P; Pasman, J W; Weerdesteyn, V; van de Warrenburg, B P

    2014-12-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of primary dystonia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the abnormalities of cerebellar motor learning in primary dystonia are solely detectable in more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms, or whether these are also present in other motor learning paradigms that rely heavily on the cerebellum but in addition require a more widespread sensorimotor network. Twenty-six patients with various forms of focal dystonia and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated in a motor learning paradigm on a split-belt treadmill. By using reflective markers, three-dimensional kinematics were recorded using a 6-camera motion analysis system. Adaptation walking parameters were analyzed offline, comparing the different dystonia groups and healthy controls. Patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp were significantly impaired on various adaptation walking parameters. Whereas results of cervical dystonia patients did not differ from healthy controls in terms of adaptation walking parameters, differences in parameters of normal gait were found. We have here demonstrated abnormal sensorimotor adaptation with the split-belt paradigm in patients with blepharospasm and writer's cramp. This reinforces the current concept of cerebellar dysfunction in primary dystonia, and that this extends beyond more pure forms of cerebellum-dependent associative motor learning paradigms. However, the finding of normal adaptation in cervical dystonia patients indicates that the pattern of cerebellar dysfunction may be slightly different for the various forms of primary focal dystonia, suggesting that actual cerebellar pathology may not be a primary driving force in dystonia.

  2. MMN elicitation during natural sleep to violations of an auditory pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Lauren D; Ouellet, Daniel R; Campbell, Kenneth B

    2009-09-22

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component is generally considered to reflect the outcome of a pre-conscious change detection mechanism. The manipulation of active task demands has typically demonstrated that the MMN operates relatively independently of inferred attention. It remains a possibility, however, that subjects are capable of covertly sampling, or "eavesdropping" on, the irrelevant auditory stimuli, even during the most demanding of diversion tasks. The presence of the MMN in an unconscious state, such as natural sleep, provides strong evidence that its operations take place at a pre-conscious level. There exists consistent evidence that the MMN can be elicited at least during REM sleep, but these MMNs were typically elicited using oddball paradigms in which the new physical properties of deviants may trigger fresh afferent activation. The current sleep study employed a standard pattern in which two pure tones alternated (e.g. ABABABAB). Deviants were repetitions (e.g., ABABBBAB), and therefore physically identical to the preceding standard. In different conditions, the tones of the pattern were separated by either 1 or 6 semitones. A clear MMN was elicited in the waking state in the 6 semitone condition. The MMN was also elicited in the 6 semitone condition during REM sleep. No MMN was apparent in REM sleep in the 1 semitone condition. The MMN was not apparent in either the 6 or 1 semitone condition during NREM sleep. These results confirm the operation of the MMN in REM sleep, and support the view that the MMN operates at a pre-conscious level of processing.

  3. Sleep breathing disorders and nocturnal respiratory pattern in patients with glycogenosis type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Annunziata, Anna; Politano, Luisa

    2014-10-01

    Patients affected by glycogenosis type II frequently present sleep disordered breathing. The presence of symptoms suggestive of sleep breathing disorders was investigated, by a questionnaire, in 10 patients, affected by adult or juvenile forms of glycogenosis type II. Diurnal respiratory function, diaphragm weakness and nocturnal respiratory pattern were evaluated at the enrolment. In patients presenting sleep disordered breathing, the same parameters were re-evaluated after treatment with assisted non invasive ventilation. Out of 10 patients, 5 presented symptoms suggestive of sleep-disordered breathing at the baseline, 2 a pattern of sleep apnea syndrome and 3 nocturnal hypoventilation. All patients presented diaphragmatic weakness. No correlation was found between forced vital capacity values (FVC) in sit position and nocturnal respiratory disorders. Five patients with respiratory disorders were treated with non invasive ventilation. All patients - after one month of treatment - showed an improvement in symptoms with reduced diurnal hypersomnia (ESS < 10), absence of morning headaches and nocturnal awakenings, and reduced nicturia regardless the modality of ventilation. We recommend that all patients with glycogenosis type II, once diagnosed, are carefully monitored for the development of respiratory involvement, even in the absence of reduced FVC values and in the early stages of the disease, to receive appropriate therapy.

  4. Sleeping Pattern of Medical Students Preceding Viva Examination and Their Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Ansari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep is an important determinant of keeping healthy physically and mentally. Deviation in sleep is a common problem among students during examinations. The purpose of this study is to determine students’ sleep pattern during night preceding viva examination and its correlation with performance.  Methods: This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted between January and February 2014 among 1st and 2nd year MBBS students of National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal who appeared in University’s  nal practical examinations. Based on simple random sampling approach, each of the 280 participants was allowed to pick out ve pieces of lottery papers and they were asked the ve questions resembling the number in the list of questions.  Results: Among the total 280 students, 74.6% were from India and 25.4% were from Nepal, and majorities (63% of them were males. Fifty two percent of the students either could not sleep at all or slept just for 1 to 1.5 hours while 12% slept for 5 to 6.5 hours. Two-third (66% of the students was able enough to achieve one to two scores, and only 1.8% could succeed to get the maximum score of ve. The correlation between hours of sleep preceding examination and the score achieved was positively (r=0.701 and statistically signi cantly correlated (p<0.001. Conclusions: There is a trend among the medical students either not to sleep or sleep only for few hours preceding viva examination that result in poor performance in examinations.  Keywords: medical; Nepal; performance; sleep deprivation; students.

  5. Poor actigraphic and self-reported sleep patterns predict delinquency and daytime impairment among at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kristen C; Cuellar, Crystal R; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; LaGasse, Linda L; Lester, Barry M

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate associations between actigraphic sleep patterns, subjective sleep quality, and daytime functioning (ie, sleepiness, symptoms of depression, and delinquency and other conduct problems) in at-risk adolescents. Prospective, observational cohort study. Providence, RI, predominantly home and school and 2 visits to the Brown Center for the Study of Children at Risk. A diverse group of low-income 13-year-olds (n = 49) with and without prenatal drug exposure. None. Actigraphy, sleep diaries, and sleep and health questionnaires. Above and beyond the effects of prenatal drug exposure and postnatal adversity, actigraphic daytime sleep was a significant predictor of daytime sleepiness and delinquency. Subjective sleep quality was a significant predictor of daytime sleepiness, delinquency, and depressive symptoms. Later bed times predicted increased delinquency. There was a unique effect of actigraphic daytime sleep duration, subjective nighttime sleep quality, and bedtime on daytime functioning (ie, sleepiness, symptoms of depression, and delinquency and other conduct problems) of at-risk adolescents. In these vulnerable youth, these problematic sleep patterns may contribute to feeling and behaving poorly. Intervention studies with at-risk teens should be conducted to further explore the role of these sleep parameters on daytime functioning. Copyright © 2015 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond the mean: A systematic review on the correlates of daily intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F; Trinder, John; Manber, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Features of an individual's sleep/wake patterns across multiple days are governed by two dimensions, the mean and the intraindividual variability (IIV). The existing literature focuses on the means, while the nature and correlates of sleep/wake IIV are not well understood. A systematic search of records in five major databases from inception to November 2014 identified 53 peer-reviewed empirical publications that examined correlates of sleep/wake IIV in adults. Overall, this literature appeared unsystematic and post hoc, with under-developed theoretical frameworks and inconsistent methodologies. Correlates most consistently associated with greater IIV in one or more aspects of sleep/wake patterns were: younger age, non-White race/ethnicity, living alone, physical health conditions, higher body mass index, weight gain, bipolar and unipolar depression symptomatology, stress, and evening chronotype; symptoms of insomnia and poor sleep were associated with higher sleep/wake IIV, which was reduced following sleep interventions. The effects of experimentally reduced sleep/wake IIV on daytime functioning were inconclusive. In extending current understanding of sleep/wake patterns beyond the mean values, IIV should be incorporated as an additional dimension when sleep is examined across multiple days. Theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature, and opportunities for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of chronotype, sleep schedule and light/dark pattern exposures on circadian phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Plitnick, Barbara; Rea, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    Chronotype characterizes individual differences in sleep/wake rhythm timing, which can also impact light exposure patterns. The present study investigated whether early and late chronotypes respond differently to controlled advancing and delaying light exposure patterns while on a fixed, advanced sleep/wake schedule. In a mixed design, 23 participants (11 late chronotypes and 12 early chronotypes) completed a 2-week, advanced sleep/wake protocol twice, once with an advancing light exposure pattern and once with a delaying light exposure pattern. In the advancing light exposure pattern, the participants received short-wavelength light in the morning and short-wavelength-restricting orange-tinted glasses in the evening. In the delaying light exposure pattern, participants received short-wavelength-restricting orange-tinted glasses in the morning and short-wavelength light in the evening. Light/dark exposures were measured with the Daysimeter. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was also measured. Compared to the baseline week, DLMO was significantly delayed after the delaying light intervention and significantly advanced after the advancing light intervention in both groups. There was no significant difference in how the two chronotype groups responded to the light intervention. The present results demonstrate that circadian phase changes resulting from light interventions are consistent with those predicted by previously published phase response curves (PRCs) for both early and late chronotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alterations in cyclic alternating pattern associated with phase advanced sleep are differentially modulated by gaboxadol and zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetnik, Vladimir; Ferri, Raffaele; Ray, Shubhankar; Ma, Junshui; Walsh, James K; Snyder, Ellen; Ebert, Bjarke; Deacon, Steve

    2010-11-01

    to evaluate cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in a phase advance model of transient insomnia and the effects of gaboxadol and zolpidem. a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in which habitual sleep time was advanced by 4 h. 6 sleep research laboratories in US PARTICIPANTS: 55 healthy subjects (18-57 y) Gaboxadol 15 mg (GBX), zolpidem 10 mg (ZOL), and placebo (PBO). routine polysomnographic (PSG) measures, CAP, spectral power density, and self-reported sleep measures The phase advance model of transient insomnia produced significant changes in CAP parameters. Both GBX and ZOL significantly and differentially modified CAP parameters in the direction of more stable sleep. GBX brought the CAP rate in stage 1 sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) closer to baseline levels but did not significantly change the CAP rate in stage 2. ZOL reduced the CAP rate in stage 2 to near baseline levels, whereas the CAP rate in stage 1 and SWS was reduced substantially below baseline levels. The CAP parameter A1 index (associated with SWS and sleep continuity) showed the highest correlation with self-reported sleep quality, higher than any traditional PSG, spectral, or other self-reported measures. disruptions in CAP produced by phase advanced sleep were significantly and differentially modulated by gaboxadol and zolpidem. The relative independence of CAP parameters from other electrophysiological measures of sleep, their high sensitivity to sleep disruption, and their strong association with subjective sleep quality suggest that CAP variables may serve as valuable endpoints in future insomnia research.

  9. Rotating waves during human sleep spindles organize global patterns of activity that repeat precisely through the night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Lyle; Piantoni, Giovanni; Koller, Dominik; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-11-15

    During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity. These circular patterns repeat over hours of sleep with millisecond temporal precision, allowing reinforcement of the activity patterns through hundreds of reverberations. These results provide a novel mechanistic account for how global sleep oscillations and synaptic plasticity could strengthen networks distributed across the cortex to store coherent and integrated memories.

  10. Sleep patterns in male juvenile monkeys are influenced by gestational iron deprivation and monoamine oxidase A genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S; Hogrefe, Casey E

    2014-11-14

    Individual differences in sleep patterns of children may have developmental origins. In the present study, two factors known to influence behavioural development, monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and prenatal Fe-deficient (ID) diet, were examined for their influences on sleep patterns in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Sleep patterns were assessed based on a threshold for inactivity as recorded by activity monitors. Pregnant monkeys were fed diets containing either 100 parts per million (ppm) Fe (Fe sufficient, IS) or 10 ppm Fe (ID). At 3-4 months of age, male offspring were genotyped for polymorphisms of the MAOA gene that lead to high or low transcription. At 1 and 2 years of age, sleep patterns were assessed. Several parameters of sleep architecture changed with age. At 1 year of age, monkeys with the low-MAOA genotype demonstrated a trend towards more sleep episodes at night compared with those with the high-MAOA genotype. When monkeys reached 2 years of age, prenatal ID reversed this trend; ID in the low-MAOA group resulted in sleep fragmentation, more awakenings at night and more sleep episodes during the day when compared with prenatal IS in this genotype. The ability to consolidate sleep during the dark cycle was disrupted by prenatal ID, specifically in monkeys with the low-MAOA genotype.

  11. Actigraphy is not a reliable method for measuring sleep patterns in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioualen, Stéphane; Roué, Jean-Michel; Lefranc, Jérémie; Gouillou, Maëlenn; Nowak, Emmanuel; Alavi, Zarrin; Dubourg, Morgane; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    Polysomnography is the gold standard for studying sleep, but it is complex to use, and this can be problematic in clinically unstable preterm infants. We evaluated the reliability of actigraphy and polysomnography in detecting sleep-wake patterns in newborn infants. A prospective, monocentric study was conducted that measured the sleep patterns of 48 infants: 24 late preterm neonates born at 34-36 weeks of gestational age and 24 term neonates. We used both polysomnography and the Actiwatch Mini during a three-hour period and then compared the results from the two methods. The baseline measurements for the preterm and terms groups were as follows: gestational age (34.5 weeks and 39.2 weeks), birthweight (2368 g and 3393 g) and age (6.4 days and 0.72 days). With the Actiwatch Mini, sensitivity for the late preterm and full-term infants was 78% and 87% for the leg actigraph and 78% and 93% for the arm actigraph. For specificity, the respective figures were 42% and 31% for the leg and 34% and 20% for the arm. Actigraphy using the Actiwatch Mini was not a reliable method for measuring sleep patterns in healthy late preterm and term neonates a few days after birth. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Spatial patterns of neuronal activity in rat cerebral cortex during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Tim; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that cortical activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) is spatially homogeneous on the mesoscopic scale. This is partly due to the limited observational scope of common metabolic or imaging methods in sleep. We used the recently developed technique of thallium-autometallography (TlAMG) to visualize mesoscopic patterns of activity in the sleeping cortex with single-cell resolution. We intravenously injected rats with the lipophilic chelate complex thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC) during spontaneously occurring periods of NREMS and mapped the patterns of neuronal uptake of the potassium (K+) probe thallium (Tl+). Using this method, we show that cortical activity patterns are not spatially homogeneous during discrete 5-min episodes of NREMS in unrestrained rats-rather, they are complex and spatially diverse. Along with a relative predominance of infragranular layer activation, we find pronounced differences in metabolic activity of neighboring neuronal assemblies, an observation which lends support to the emerging paradigm that sleep is a distributed process with regulation on the local scale.

  13. Sleep patterns as predictors for disability pension due to low back diagnoses: a 23-year longitudinal study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Silventoinen, Karri; Hublin, Christer; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-06-01

    Impaired sleep patterns are known to be associated with many chronic conditions and ultimately they may lead to permanent work incapacity. Less is known about the associations between sleep patterns and cause-specific disability pensions, such as low back diagnoses, or whether familial factors (genetics and family environment) can affect the associations. The objective of this study was to investigate sleep patterns as predictors of disability pension due to low back diagnoses with a 23-year follow-up. A prospective cohort study with comprehensive mailed questionnaires about sleep patterns, e.g., quality and length of sleep in 1975 and 1981. Follow-up from the national disability pension register data until 2004. Not applicable. There were 18,979 individuals (7,722 complete twin pairs) born before 1958. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Disability pension due to low back diagnoses had been granted to 467 individuals during the follow-up. Sleeping moderately well (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.02, 1.53), or fairly poorly/poorly (HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.53, 2.73) at baseline predicted a significantly higher risk for disability pension. Stable patterns of sleeping either fairly well (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.01, 1.64), or stably fairly poorly/poorly (HR 2.29; 95% CI 1.49, 3.52) between 1975 and 1981 were associated with a higher risk as compared to a stable pattern of sleeping well. Furthermore, a decrease in quality of sleep from 1975 to 1981 was associated (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03, 1.76) with an increased risk of disability pension. Sleep quality and changes in sleep quality appear to be early predictors for disability pension due to low back diagnoses independently from other confounding factors.

  14. [Vitamin A deficiency causes asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sha-Sha; Jia, Wen-Shuang; Zhao, Qing-Shun

    2012-09-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays essential roles in vertebrate embryogenesis. However, vertebrates cannot synthesize RA de novo. They synthesize it by two oxidative steps, first converting the precursor vitamin A into retinal by retinol dehydrogenase, and then oxidizing retinal into RA irreversibly by retinal dehydrogenase. It is known that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) causes Vitamin A Deficiency Syndrome in animals including quail, mouse, rat, and human. However, little is known about the effects of VAD on zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we obtained zebrafish VAD embryos from the zebrafish fed a retinoids-free diet. By analyzing the VAD embryos, we found that VAD caused asymmetric somitogenesis and abnormal hindbrain patterning in zebrafish embryos. However, the phenotype of defected hindbrain in VAD embryos was not as severe as that in the embryos in which aldh1a2, the major gene that is responsible for RA synthesis in zebrafish early development, was knocked down, or the embryos treated with 10 mmol/L DEAB (diethylaminobenzaldehyde, inhibitor of retinal dehydrogenases). Our results indicated that the VAD embryos were short of but not free of vitamin A, and they might also have a RA generation pathway independent of retinal dehydrogenase.

  15. Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Markus; Schierl, Thomas; Bruns, Thomas; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

    2007-11-01

    Television and computer game consumption are a powerful influence in the lives of most children. Previous evidence has supported the notion that media exposure could impair a variety of behavioral characteristics. Excessive television viewing and computer game playing have been associated with many psychiatric symptoms, especially emotional and behavioral symptoms, somatic complaints, attention problems such as hyperactivity, and family interaction problems. Nevertheless, there is insufficient knowledge about the relationship between singular excessive media consumption on sleep patterns and linked implications on children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of singular excessive television and computer game consumption on sleep patterns and memory performance of children. Eleven school-aged children were recruited for this polysomnographic study. Children were exposed to voluntary excessive television and computer game consumption. In the subsequent night, polysomnographic measurements were conducted to measure sleep-architecture and sleep-continuity parameters. In addition, a visual and verbal memory test was conducted before media stimulation and after the subsequent sleeping period to determine visuospatial and verbal memory performance. Only computer game playing resulted in significant reduced amounts of slow-wave sleep as well as significant declines in verbal memory performance. Prolonged sleep-onset latency and more stage 2 sleep were also detected after previous computer game consumption. No effects on rapid eye movement sleep were observed. Television viewing reduced sleep efficiency significantly but did not affect sleep patterns. The results suggest that television and computer game exposure affect children's sleep and deteriorate verbal cognitive performance, which supports the hypothesis of the negative influence of media consumption on children's sleep, learning, and memory.

  16. Distribution pattern of MRI abnormalities within the knee and wrist of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients: signature of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusman, Charlotte M.; Hemke, Robert; Schonenberg, Dieneke; Dolman, Koert M.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; van den Berg, J. Merlijn; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Maas, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study in clinically active juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was to assess the frequency and distribution pattern of synovitis as hallmark of disease and additional soft-tissue and bony abnormalities on MRI in the knee and wrist as two target joints. MRI datasets of 153 clinically

  17. Temporal pattern of hippocampal high-frequency oscillations during sleep after stimulant-evoked waking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, A A; Lin, J-S; Selbach, O; Haas, H L

    2003-01-01

    Hippocampal ripple oscillations (140-200 Hz) are believed to be critically involved in the consolidation of memory traces during slow-wave sleep (SWS). We investigated the temporal pattern of ripple occurrence in relation to sleep phases following different types of waking. Amphetamine, the atypical wakening drug modafinil or non-pharmacological sleep deprivation lead to an increased ripple occurrence ("rebound") during the subsequent SWS episode. Waking of the same duration evoked by amphetamine or sleep deprivation led to a ripple rebound of similar extent (approximately 200%). The mean intraripple frequency was also elevated by up to 20 Hz during SWS following all treatments. Ripple amplitude was significantly increased only in experiments with amphetamine. Ripple occurrence but not intraripple frequency clearly correlated with the antecedent waking duration independent of treatment. Recovery of ripple occurrence and frequency to the pretreatment level during SWS depended on SWS duration. At the end of the recovery period paradoxical sleep (PS) acted like waking, elevating ripple occurrence during subsequent SWS episodes. On the other hand, PS decreased ripple occurrence if recovery from the rebound was not yet complete. Thus occurrence and structure of ripple oscillations are regulated by the timing and duration of previous SWS, PS and waking episodes.

  18. Rhythmic alternating patterns of brain activity distinguish rapid eye movement sleep from other states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ho Ming; Horovitz, Silvina G; Carr, Walter S; Picchioni, Dante; Coddington, Nate; Fukunaga, Masaki; Xu, Yisheng; Balkin, Thomas J; Duyn, Jeff H; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-18

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep constitutes a distinct "third state" of consciousness, during which levels of brain activity are commensurate with wakefulness, but conscious awareness is radically transformed. To characterize the temporal and spatial features of this paradoxical state, we examined functional interactions between brain regions using fMRI resting-state connectivity methods. Supporting the view that the functional integrity of the default mode network (DMN) reflects "level of consciousness," we observed functional uncoupling of the DMN during deep sleep and recoupling during REM sleep (similar to wakefulness). However, unlike either deep sleep or wakefulness, REM was characterized by a more widespread, temporally dynamic interaction between two major brain systems: unimodal sensorimotor areas and the higher-order association cortices (including the DMN), which normally regulate their activity. During REM, these two systems become anticorrelated and fluctuate rhythmically, in reciprocally alternating multisecond epochs with a frequency ranging from 0.1 to 0.01 Hz. This unique spatiotemporal pattern suggests a model for REM sleep that may be consistent with its role in dream formation and memory consolidation.

  19. Sleep disturbances in young and middle-aged adults - Empirical patterns and related factors from an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; AjdacicGross, Vladeta; Glozier, Nick; Rodgers, Stephanie; Haker, Helene; Müller, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Previous research suggests that sleep disorders are highly associated with other mental health problems. However, sleep problems even below the diagnostic threshold of sleep disorders are very common in the general population, which highly affects wellbeing and functioning. In order to broaden the focus beyond those severe cases we explored empirical patterns across the whole spectrum of sleep problems as well as associated clinical and other factors. A representative community sample of N=1274 residents from the canton of Zurich was interviewed for sleep problems and diagnostic criteria for mental disorders as well as was given a number of mental health-related psychometrical checklists. Based on a broader spectrum of sleep problems we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to derive distinct classes of such disturbances. Classes were compared regarding their associations to mental health-relevant and other risk factors. The LCA revealed four classes - no sleep disturbances (72.6%), difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (15.8%), delayed sleep (5.3%), and severe sleep problems (6.4%). Severe sleep problems were related to female gender and generalized anxiety disorder, while depression was linked to all sleep problem classes. Persons with difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and severe sleep problems reported higher levels of psychopathology, burnout and neuroticism, while all sleep problem types were tied to stress-related variables, but not alcohol use disorder. Sleep problems are highly prevalent among the young and middle-aged adults in our representative sample of young and middle-aged adults and as such represent a serious public mental health problem. Our findings indicate sleep problems to have a multi-dimensional structure with some differential associations. While all subtypes were associated with poorer mental health and particularly more depression, severe sleep problems appeared to be the sleep subtype seen in agoraphobia and GAD

  20. Sleep quality and sleep patterns in relation to consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among Thai college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsoonthorn, Vitool; Khidir, Hazar; Casillas, Gardenia; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Tadesse, Mahlet G; Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Rattananupong, Thanapoom; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-09-01

    Poor sleep and heavy use of caffeinated beverages have been implicated as risk factors for a number of adverse health outcomes. Caffeine consumption and use of other stimulants are common among college students globally. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined the influence of caffeinated beverages on the sleep quality of college students in Southeast Asian populations. We conducted this study to evaluate the patterns of sleep quality and to examine the extent to which poor sleep quality is associated with consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated beverages, and other stimulants among 2,854 Thai college students. A questionnaire was administered to ascertain demographic and behavioral characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep habits and quality. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify statistically significant associations. Overall, the prevalence of poor sleep quality was found to be 48.1 %. A significant percent of students used stimulant beverages (58.0 %). Stimulant use (odds ratios (OR) 1.50; 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) 1.28-1.77) was found to be statistically significant and positively associated with poor sleep quality. Alcohol consumption (OR 3.10; 95 % CI 1.72-5.59) and cigarette smoking (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.02-1.98) also had a statistically significant association with increased daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness. In conclusion, stimulant use is common among Thai college students and is associated with several indices of poor sleep quality. Our findings underscore the need to educate students on the importance of sleep and the influences of dietary and lifestyle choices on their sleep quality and overall health.

  1. Parents need support to find ways to optimise their own sleep without seeing their preterm infant's sleeping patterns as a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Ylva Thernström; Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg; Rubertsson, Christine; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta

    2017-02-01

    This study described how parents perceived their own sleep, and their infants', during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission and after discharge. It also explored the infants' sleeping location at home. The study was conducted in the NICUs of two Swedish university hospitals. The parents of 86 infants - 86 mothers and 84 fathers - answered questionnaires during their infants' hospital stay, at discharge and at the infants' corrected ages of two, six and 12 months. The parents' own sleep was explored with the Insomnia Severity Index. Mothers reported more severe insomnia than fathers during their infants' hospitalisation, and these higher insomnia severity scores were associated with more severe infant sleep problems at discharge (p = 0.027) and at two months (p = 0.006) and 12 months (p = 0.002) of corrected age. During the study period, 4%-10% of the parents reported severe or very severe infant sleeping problems. The bed-sharing rate was 75% after discharge and about 60% at the corrected age of 12 months. Maternal insomnia during an infant's hospital stay was associated with later perceptions of sleep problems in their children. Parents need support to find solutions for optimal sleep without seeing their child's sleeping patterns as a problem. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Poor sleep quality is responsible for the nondipper pattern in hypertensive but not in normotensive chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Cheng; Gong, Wenyu; Ye, Zengchun; Tang, Ying; Zhao, Wenbo; Peng, Hui; Lou, Tanqi

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and hypertension and to determine if there was an association between nondipper blood pressure (BP) and sleep quality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. A total of 775 pre-dialysis CKD patients (314 normal BP patients, 461 hypertension patients) defined as dippers or nondippers by ambulatory BP monitoring were recruited for this study. Demographics and clinical correlates were collected, including body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and other measures. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A total of 185 (58.9%) patients with normal BP and 341 (74.0%) hypertensive patients had a nondipper BP pattern. The hypertension group had a higher prevalence of the nondipper BP pattern, smoking, alcohol intake and diabetes mellitus (DM) and lower eGFR levels and poorer sleep quality than the normal BP group. Patients with the nondipper BP pattern had lower haemoglobin, worse renal function and poorer sleep quality when compared with hypertensive CKD patients with the dipping BP pattern. PSQI scores were significantly associated with the rate of nocturnal BP decline (P sleep quality was an independent factor affecting BP pattern in hypertensive CKD patients using multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses. There was no association between sleep quality and hypertension in CKD patients after multivariate logistic regression analyses. Poor sleep quality, which is commonly observed in pre-dialysis CKD patients, is an independent associated factor of the nondipper BP pattern in hypertensive CKD patients. No association was found between poor sleep and nondipper BP in normotensive patients. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. Neuronal stability and drift across periods of sleep: premotor activity patterns in a vocal control nucleus of adult zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauske, Peter L; Chi, Zhiyi; Dave, Amish S; Margoliash, Daniel

    2010-02-17

    How stable are neural activity patterns compared across periods of sleep? We evaluated this question in adult zebra finches, whose premotor neurons in the nucleus robustus arcopallialis (RA) exhibit sequences of bursts during daytime singing that are characterized by precise timing relative to song syllables. Each burst has a highly regulated pattern of spikes. We assessed these spike patterns in singing that occurred before and after periods of sleep. For about half of the neurons, one or more premotor bursts had changed after sleep, an average of 20% of all bursts across all RA neurons. After sleep, modified bursts were characterized by a discrete, albeit modest, loss of spikes with compensatory increases in spike intervals, but not changes in timing relative to the syllable. Changes in burst structure followed both interrupted bouts of sleep (1.5-3 h) and full nights of sleep, implicating sleep and not circadian cycle as mediating these effects. Changes in burst structure were also observed during the day, but far less frequently. In cases where multiple bursts in the sequence changed in a single cell, the sequence position of those bursts tended to cluster together. Bursts that did not show discrete changes in structure also showed changes in spike counts, but not biased toward losses. We hypothesize that changes in burst patterns during sleep represent active sculpting of the RA network, supporting auditory feedback-mediated song maintenance.

  4. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  5. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  6. Disruption of the mouse Jhy gene causes abnormal ciliary microtubule patterning and juvenile hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbe, Oliver K.; Bollman, Bryan; Attarwala, Ali; Triebes, Lindy A.; Muniz-Talavera, Hilmarie; Curry, Daniel J.; Schmidt, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital hydrocephalus, the accumulation of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricles of the brain, affects one of every 1,000 children born today, making it one of the most common human developmental disorders. Genetic causes of hydrocephalus are poorly understood in humans, but animal models suggest a broad genetic program underlying the regulation of CSF balance. In this study, the random integration of a transgene into the mouse genome led to the development of an early onset and rapidly progressive hydrocephalus. Juvenile hydrocephalus transgenic mice (JhylacZ) inherit communicating hydrocephalus in an autosomal recessive fashion with dilation of the lateral ventricles observed as early as postnatal day 1.5. Ventricular dilation increases in severity over time, becoming fatal at 4-8 weeks of age. The ependymal cilia lining the lateral ventricles are morphologically abnormal and reduced in number in JhylacZ/lacZ brains, and ultrastructural analysis revealed disorganization of the expected 9+2 microtubule pattern. Rather, the majority of JhylacZ/lacZ cilia develop axonemes with 9+0 or 8+2 microtubule structures. Disruption of an unstudied gene, 4931429I11Rik (now named Jhy) appears to underlie the hydrocephalus of JhylacZ/lacZ mice, and the Jhy transcript and protein are decreased in JhylacZ/lacZ mice. Partial phenotypic rescue was achieved in JhylacZ/lacZ mice by the introduction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) carrying 60-70% of the JHY protein coding sequence. Jhy is evolutionarily conserved from humans to basal vertebrates, but the predicted JHY protein lacks identifiable functional domains. Ongoing studies are directed at uncovering the physiological function of JHY and its role in CSF homeostasis. PMID:23906841

  7. Differing patterns of brain structural abnormalities between black and white patients with their first episode of psychosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, K D

    2010-07-01

    African-Caribbean and black African people living in the UK are reported to have a higher incidence of diagnosed psychosis compared with white British people. It has been argued that this may be a consequence of misdiagnosis. If this is true they might be less likely to show the patterns of structural brain abnormalities reported in white British patients. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate whether there are differences in the prevalence of structural brain abnormalities in white and black first-episode psychosis patients.

  8. Sleep in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Ivanenko, Anna; Johnson, Kyle

    2010-08-01

    Children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) suffer from sleep problems, particularly insomnia, at a higher rate than typically developing children, ranging from 40% to 80%. Sleep problems in ASD might occur as a result of complex interactions between biological, psychological, social/environmental, and family factors, including child rearing practices that are not conducive to good sleep. Interestingly, children with a history of developmental regression have a more disturbed sleep pattern than children without regression. Even though regulation of sleep in children with ASD is still poorly understood, circadian abnormalities in autism might be the result of genetic abnormalities related to melatonin synthesis and melatonin's role in modulating synaptic transmission. Recently a bifurcation of the sleep/wake cycle with increased sensitivity to external noise and short sleep duration causing irregular sleep onset and wake up times has been suggested. Identifying and treating sleep disorders may result not only in improved sleep, but also impact favorably on daytime behavior and family functioning. Several studies have also demonstrated effectiveness of behavioral interventions for sleep onset and maintenance problems in these populations. When behavioral interventions are not effective or lead only to a partial response, pharmacological treatment options should be considered. Studies of melatonin use in children with ASD provide evidence for its effectiveness and safety in the long run. The clinician assessing a child with an ASD should screen carefully for sleep disorders and make referrals as indicated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The menstrual cycle and sexual behavior: relationship to eating, exercise, sleep, and health patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan G; Morrison, Lynn A; Calibuso, Marites J; Christiansen, Tess M

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of eating, exercise, sleep, and health were investigated across 180 menstrual cycles of 89 women who engaged in sex with a male (n = 45; cycles = 85), a female (n = 21; cycles = 37), or abstained from sex (n = 33; cycles = 58) from January 2005 to December 2007 (10 contributed to 2 groups). Cycles were divided into 5 phases based on their luteinizing hormone surges. Daily questionnaires and saliva for IgA and cortisol analyses were obtained. Women indicated that they ate more (p Sexually active women had lower cortisol and IgA levels than abstinent women (p = .02). Our study discovered, and confirmed, systematic differences in eating, sleeping, and health patterns across women's menstrual cycles.

  10. Sleep and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Sleep is a complex neurological state, with its primary function of providing rest and restoring the body's energy levels. The importance of sleep could be seen from the fact that people spend about one-third of their lifespan in sleep. Normal human sleep is divided into non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and the alteration between NREM and REM occurs about 4-5 times during a night of normal sleep. Human NREM sleep could be classified into four stages, namely, stage I, II, III and IV, representing successively deeper stages of sleep. Sleep is an active rhythmic neural process produced by several brain areas, of which the preoptic and other basal forebrain areas play a major role in the generation of NREM sleep. Interaction of the pedenculo-pontine and lateral dorsal tegmental areas with the dorsal raphae nucleus and locus coeruleus, is important for REM sleep generation. Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and the pineal gland ensure that sleep and wakefulness follow a circadian periodicity of nearly 24 hours. Alterations in the quality, quantity and pattern of sleep result in sleep disorders. Persistent and repeated interruption of sleep affects the health of an individual. Undiagnosed and untreated wake/sleep complaints cause not only misery to the sufferer, but it also has socio-economic consequences. Sleep disorders cover a wide spectrum of diseases. Though there are more than 100 identified sleep/wake disorders, most sleep complaints can be categorised into five, namely, hypersomnia, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, parasomnias, and sleep disorders associated with mental, neurological, and other medical disorders. Researches during the last 50 years, and the advances made in clinical sleep medicine, have lead to more effective treatments for the myriad human sleep disorders. It is not possible to assign a specific reason for many of the sleep disorders, but some aspects of sleep and wakefulness are genetically

  11. Sleep Patterns and Behaviour in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, Prader-Willi Syndrome and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Sue M.; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep problems have often been reported in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). How anomalies in 24-h sleep patterns relate to behaviour difficulties in children with different types of ID remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to assess 24-h sleep and behaviour patterns in children with a variety disorders including…

  12. Pattern recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreich, Gerhard; Teschler, Helmut; Armitstead, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of an artificial neural network based on flow-related spectral entropy as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration. A data set of 37 subjects was used for spectral analysis of the airflow by performing a fast Fourier transform. The examined intervals were divided into epochs of 3 min. Spectral entropy S was applied as a measure for the spread of the related power spectrum. The spectrum was divided into several frequency areas with various subsets of spectral entropy. We studied 11 subjects with obstructive apnoeas (n = 267 epochs), 10 subjects with obstructive hypopnoeas (n = 80 epochs), 11 subjects with Cheyne–Stokes respiration (n = 253 epochs) and 5 subjects with normal breathing in non-REM sleep (n = 174 epochs). Based on spectral entropy an artificial neural network was built, and we obtained a sensitivity of 90.2% and a specificity of 90.9% for distinguishing between obstructive apnoeas and Cheyne–Stokes respiration, and a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 94.6% for discriminating between obstructive hypopnoeas and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. This resulted in an accuracy of 91.5% for identifying flow patterns of obstructive sleep apnoea, Cheyne–Stokes respiration and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. It is concluded that the use of an artificial neural network relying on spectral analysis of the airflow could be a useful method as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

  13. School start time changes and sleep patterns in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Erica R; Gilbert, Karina Stavitsky; Au, Rhoda

    2015-06-01

    Research finds significant sleep deprivation among adolescents with early school start times. This study surveyed sleep patterns in elementary school students before and after a district-wide change to earlier start times. Students in grades 3-5 completed a self-administered sleep survey in the spring of 2009 (third grade, n = 216; fourth grade, n = 214; fifth grade, n = 259; total, n = 689) and again in 2010 (third grade, n = 168; fourth grade, n = 194; fifth grade, n = 263; total, n = 625), after the school start time switched from 8:20 am to 7:45 am in the Fall of 2009. Students entering grade 3 experienced a larger shift from 9:10 am to 7:45 am, due to moving from the kindergarten-second-grade building to the third-to-fifth-grade building. Descriptive statistics quantified responses by grade. Prechange, wake time across all grades was similar; postchange, fourth and fifth graders woke on average 30-40 minutes earlier than children in those grades the year before, and third graders woke on average 8 minutes later. Compared to prechange, third graders reported longer average total sleep times (24 minutes); fourth and fifth graders reported average sleep times 4 and 9 minutes shorter, respectively, than students in those grades the previous year. The percentage of students in each grade reporting later weekend wake and bed times decreased postchange. Reports of sleepiness somewhat increased for fifth graders postchange. School start time change did not decrease total amount of sleep. This is the first study of its kind to report on the effects of a start time change in elementary school students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger......, but there was limited variation in response to significant daylight changes which may be due to long-term adaptation....

  16. Relationship of sleep pattern and snoring with chronic disease: findings from a nationwide population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Fakir Md; Khan, Safayet; Mitra, Dipak K; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Afsana, Kaosar; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the association of total sleep time and presence or absence of snoring with chronic disease among the Bangladeshi adult population. Cross-sectional survey. Urban and rural Bangladesh. A total of 12,338 men and women aged ≥35 years. Total sleep time was considered as the total hours of sleep in 24 hours. Furthermore, sleep time was categorized into 9 hours according to National Sleep Foundation (2015) guidelines. Self-reported snoring history was captured and corroborated with their respective sleep partner/spouse in more than 80% cases. Registered physician-diagnosed current and/or previous cases of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and any other chronic conditions were counted. Overall prevalence of at least 1 chronic disease in our study population was around 18%: men (15.4%) and women (20.0%). Hypertension has the highest prevalence (overall: 12.7%, men: 12.2%, women: 15%) followed by diabetes (4.9%), coronary heart diseases (3.2%), stroke (1.8%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.9%), and cancer (any type: 0.1%). Sleep pattern and snoring are significantly associated with all individual chronic disease except cancer. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and lifestyle variables were adjusted, and inadequate total sleep time (sleep and snoring are independently associated with chronic disease in Bangladeshi adult population and perhaps elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Preterm Labor and Birth Condition Information NICHD Research Information ... NIH-funded researchers identify risk factors for sleep apnea during pregnancy NICHD scientists identify molecule that may ...

  18. Sleep Patterns as Predictors for Disability Pension Due to Low Back Diagnoses: A 23-Year Longitudinal Study of Finnish Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Silventoinen, Karri; Hublin, Christer; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Impaired sleep patterns are known to be associated with many chronic conditions and ultimately they may lead to permanent work incapacity. Less is known about the associations between sleep patterns and cause-specific disability pensions, such as low back diagnoses, or whether familial factors (genetics and family environment) can affect the associations. The objective of this study was to investigate sleep patterns as predictors of disability pension due to low back diagnoses with a 23-year follow-up. Design and Setting: A prospective cohort study with comprehensive mailed questionnaires about sleep patterns, e.g., quality and length of sleep in 1975 and 1981. Follow-up from the national disability pension register data until 2004. Interventions: Not applicable. Participants: There were 18,979 individuals (7,722 complete twin pairs) born before 1958. Measurements and Results: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Disability pension due to low back diagnoses had been granted to 467 individuals during the follow-up. Sleeping moderately well (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.02, 1.53), or fairly poorly/poorly (HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.53, 2.73) at baseline predicted a significantly higher risk for disability pension. Stable patterns of sleeping either fairly well (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.01, 1.64), or stably fairly poorly/poorly (HR 2.29; 95% CI 1.49, 3.52) between 1975 and 1981 were associated with a higher risk as compared to a stable pattern of sleeping well. Furthermore, a decrease in quality of sleep from 1975 to 1981 was associated (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03, 1.76) with an increased risk of disability pension. Conclusions: Sleep quality and changes in sleep quality appear to be early predictors for disability pension due to low back diagnoses independently from other confounding factors. Citation: Ropponen A; Silventoinen K; Hublin C; Svedberg P; Koskenvuo M; Kaprio J. Sleep patterns as predictors

  19. Patterns of sleep quality during and after postacute rehabilitation in older adults: a latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Mitchell, Michael; Fung, Constance H; Jouldjian, Stella; Alessi, Cathy A

    2013-12-01

    Sleep quality is related to emotional, physical, psychological and cognitive functioning and functional independence in later life. After acute health events, older adults are likely to utilize postacute rehabilitation services to improve functioning and facilitate return to independent living. Patterns of how sleep changes with postacute rehabilitation, and predictors of such patterns, are unknown. The current investigation employed latent class analysis (LCA) methods to classify older adults (n = 233) into groups based on patterns of self-reported sleep quality pre-illness, during postacute rehabilitation and up to 1 year following postacute rehabilitation. Using LCA, older adults were grouped into (1) consistently good sleepers (46%), (2) good sleepers who transitioned into poor sleepers (34%), (3) consistently poor sleepers (14%) and (4) poor sleepers who transitioned into good sleepers (6%). In three planned analyses, pain was an independent predictor of membership in classes 1 or 2 (good pre-illness sleep quality) versus classes 3 or 4 (poor pre-illness sleep quality), and of membership in class 1 (consistently good sleep) versus class 2 (good sleep that transitioned to poor sleep). A lower Mini-Mental State Examination score was a predictor of membership in class 1 versus class 2. There were no statistically significant predictors of membership in class 3 versus class 4. Demographics, comorbidities and depressive symptoms were not significant predictors of class membership. These findings have implications for identification of older adults at risk for developing poor sleep associated with changes in health and postacute rehabilitation. The findings also suggest that pain symptoms should be targeted to improve sleep during postacute rehabilitation. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Irregular sleep/wake patterns are associated with poorer academic performance and delayed circadian and sleep/wake timing

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Clerx, William M.; O?Brien, Conor S.; Sano, Akane; Barger, Laura K.; Picard, Rosalind W.; Lockley, Steven W.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    The association of irregular sleep schedules with circadian timing and academic performance has not been systematically examined. We studied 61 undergraduates for 30 days using sleep diaries, and quantified sleep regularity using a novel metric, the sleep regularity index (SRI). In the most and least regular quintiles, circadian phase and light exposure were assessed using salivary dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) and wrist-worn photometry, respectively. DLMO occurred later (00:08 ± 1:54 vs. ...

  1. Abnormalities in the Polysomnographic, Adenosine and Metabolic Response to Sleep Deprivation in an Animal Model of Hyperammonemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Marini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver cirrhosis can develop hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE, accompanied by pronounced daytime sleepiness. Previous studies with healthy volunteers show that experimental increase in blood ammonium levels increases sleepiness and slows the waking electroencephalogram. As ammonium increases adenosine levels in vitro, and adenosine is a known regulator of sleep/wake homeostasis, we hypothesized that the sleepiness-inducing effect of ammonium is mediated by adenosine. Eight adult male Wistar rats were fed with an ammonium-enriched diet for 4 weeks; eight rats on standard diet served as controls. Each animal was implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG electrodes and a microdialysis probe. Sleep EEG recording and cerebral microdialysis were carried out at baseline and after 6 h of sleep deprivation. Adenosine and metabolite levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and targeted LC/MS metabolomics, respectively. Baseline adenosine and metabolite levels (12 of 16 amino acids, taurine, t4-hydroxy-proline, and acetylcarnitine were lower in hyperammonemic animals, while putrescine was higher. After sleep deprivation, hyperammonemic animals exhibited a larger increase in adenosine levels, and a number of metabolites showed a different time-course in the two groups. In both groups the recovery period was characterized by a significant decrease in wakefulness/increase in NREM and REM sleep. However, while control animals exhibited a gradual compensatory effect, hyperammonemic animals showed a significantly shorter recovery phase. In conclusion, the adenosine/metabolite/EEG response to sleep deprivation was modulated by hyperammonemia, suggesting that ammonia affects homeostatic sleep regulation and its metabolic correlates.

  2. Effect of low and high glycaemic index drink on sleep pattern in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilolghadr, S.; Afaghi, A.; Connor, H.O.; Chow, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of high and low glycaemic index drinks on children's sleep pattern. Methods: Eight children underwent 3 nights of full polysomnography study, one familiarization and two test nights consecutively. On the test nights, 1 hour before bedtime, the children had a milk drink of either low or high GI in a random order. The glycaemic loads (GL) were 7.4 and 52.8 for low and high GI drink respectively. Results: The mean of total arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was greater than that of low GI drink. (12.9 +- 4.6 vs. 9.9 +- 2.2, P=0.03). NREM arousal index in the first half of night after the high GI was also higher than that of low GI drink. (12.7+- 4.8 vs. 9.6 +- 2.3, P=0.05). Other sleep parameters did not show any significant difference in low GI and high GI diets. Conclusion: NREM and total arousal indices were higher in those who consumed high GI drinks compared with low GI, one hour before sleep. It seems that the high quantity consumption of carbohydrates close to the bedtime is accompanied by frequent arousals and may affect the sleep quality. (author)

  3. Pattern analysis approach reveals restriction enzyme cutting abnormalities and other cDNA library construction artifacts using raw EST data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sun; Ji, Guoli; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Pei; Moler, James; Karro, John E; Liang, Chun

    2012-05-03

    Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequences are widely used in applications such as genome annotation, gene discovery and gene expression studies. However, some of GenBank dbEST sequences have proven to be "unclean". Identification of cDNA termini/ends and their structures in raw ESTs not only facilitates data quality control and accurate delineation of transcription ends, but also furthers our understanding of the potential sources of data abnormalities/errors present in the wet-lab procedures for cDNA library construction. After analyzing a total of 309,976 raw Pinus taeda ESTs, we uncovered many distinct variations of cDNA termini, some of which prove to be good indicators of wet-lab artifacts, and characterized each raw EST by its cDNA terminus structure patterns. In contrast to the expected patterns, many ESTs displayed complex and/or abnormal patterns that represent potential wet-lab errors such as: a failure of one or both of the restriction enzymes to cut the plasmid vector; a failure of the restriction enzymes to cut the vector at the correct positions; the insertion of two cDNA inserts into a single vector; the insertion of multiple and/or concatenated adapters/linkers; the presence of 3'-end terminal structures in designated 5'-end sequences or vice versa; and so on. With a close examination of these artifacts, many problematic ESTs that have been deposited into public databases by conventional bioinformatics pipelines or tools could be cleaned or filtered by our methodology. We developed a software tool for Abnormality Filtering and Sequence Trimming for ESTs (AFST, http://code.google.com/p/afst/) using a pattern analysis approach. To compare AFST with other pipelines that submitted ESTs into dbEST, we reprocessed 230,783 Pinus taeda and 38,709 Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs. We found 7.4% of Pinus taeda and 29.2% of Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs are "unclean" or abnormal, all of which could be cleaned or filtered by AFST. cDNA terminal pattern analysis, as

  4. Pattern analysis approach reveals restriction enzyme cutting abnormalities and other cDNA library construction artifacts using raw EST data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Sun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences are widely used in applications such as genome annotation, gene discovery and gene expression studies. However, some of GenBank dbEST sequences have proven to be “unclean”. Identification of cDNA termini/ends and their structures in raw ESTs not only facilitates data quality control and accurate delineation of transcription ends, but also furthers our understanding of the potential sources of data abnormalities/errors present in the wet-lab procedures for cDNA library construction. Results After analyzing a total of 309,976 raw Pinus taeda ESTs, we uncovered many distinct variations of cDNA termini, some of which prove to be good indicators of wet-lab artifacts, and characterized each raw EST by its cDNA terminus structure patterns. In contrast to the expected patterns, many ESTs displayed complex and/or abnormal patterns that represent potential wet-lab errors such as: a failure of one or both of the restriction enzymes to cut the plasmid vector; a failure of the restriction enzymes to cut the vector at the correct positions; the insertion of two cDNA inserts into a single vector; the insertion of multiple and/or concatenated adapters/linkers; the presence of 3′-end terminal structures in designated 5′-end sequences or vice versa; and so on. With a close examination of these artifacts, many problematic ESTs that have been deposited into public databases by conventional bioinformatics pipelines or tools could be cleaned or filtered by our methodology. We developed a software tool for Abnormality Filtering and Sequence Trimming for ESTs (AFST, http://code.google.com/p/afst/ using a pattern analysis approach. To compare AFST with other pipelines that submitted ESTs into dbEST, we reprocessed 230,783 Pinus taeda and 38,709 Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs. We found 7.4% of Pinus taeda and 29.2% of Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs are “unclean” or abnormal, all of which could be cleaned

  5. Patterns of Abnormal Gastric Pacemaking After Sleeve Gastrectomy Defined by Laparoscopic High-Resolution Electrical Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Rachel; Cheng, Leo K; Du, Peng; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Angeli, Timothy R; Mayne, Terence; Beban, Grant; O'Grady, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is increasingly being applied to treat obesity. LSG includes excision of the normal gastric pacemaker, which could induce electrical dysrhythmias impacting on post-operative symptoms and recovery, but these implications have not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to define the effects of LSG on gastric slow-wave pacemaking using laparoscopic high-resolution (HR) electrical mapping. Laparoscopic HR mapping was performed before and after LSG using flexible printed circuit arrays (64-96 electrodes; 8-12 cm 2 ; n = 8 patients) deployed through a 12 mm trocar and positioned on the gastric serosa. An additional patient with chronic reflux, nausea, and dysmotility 6 months after LSG also underwent gastric mapping while undergoing conversion to gastric bypass. Slow-wave activity was quantified by propagation pattern, frequency, velocity, and amplitude. Baseline activity showed exclusively normal propagation. Acutely after LSG, all patients developed either a distal unifocal ectopic pacemaker with retrograde propagation (50%) or bioelectrical quiescence (50%). Propagation velocity was abnormally rapid after LSG (12.5 ± 0.8 vs baseline 3.8 ± 0.8 mm s -1 ; p = 0.01), whereas frequency and amplitude were unchanged (2.7 ± 0.3 vs 2.8 ± 0.3 cpm, p = 0.7; 1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mV, p = 0.7). In the patient with chronic dysmotility after LSG, mapping also revealed a stable antral ectopic pacemaker with retrograde rapid propagation (12.6 ± 4.8 mm s -1 ). Resection of the gastric pacemaker during LSG acutely resulted in aberrant distal ectopic pacemaking or bioelectrical quiescence. Ectopic pacemaking can persist long after LSG, inducing chronic dysmotility. The clinical and therapeutic significance of these findings now require further investigation.

  6. Sleep spindle activity in double cortex syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Marcoz, Jean-Pierre; Foletti, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    Cortical dysgenesis is increasingly recognised as a cause of epilepsy. We report a case with double cortex heterotopia and secondarily generalized seizures with a generalised spike wave pattern. During the course of the disease, the child developed electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep. From the first examination, sleep pattern revealed increased frequency and amplitude of spindle activity, more evident in anterior areas. The role of the thalamocortical pathway in increased sleep spindle activity is discussed with emphasis on the possible role of altered thalamocortical pathways in abnormal cortical migration. A strong suspicion of cortical dysgenesis may therefore be based on specific EEG sleep patterns.

  7. Brainstem involvement as a cause of central sleep apnea: pattern of microstructural cerebral damage in patients with cerebral microangiopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Duning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exact underlying pathomechanism of central sleep apnea with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR is still unclear. Recent studies have demonstrated an association between cerebral white matter changes and CSA. A dysfunction of central respiratory control centers in the brainstem was suggested by some authors. Novel MR-imaging analysis tools now allow far more subtle assessment of microstructural cerebral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and what severity of subtle structural cerebral changes could lead to CSA-CSR, and whether there is a specific pattern of neurodegenerative changes that cause CSR. Therefore, we examined patients with Fabry disease (FD, an inherited, lysosomal storage disease. White matter lesions are early and frequent findings in FD. Thus, FD can serve as a "model disease" of cerebral microangiopathy to study in more detail the impact of cerebral lesions on central sleep apnea. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genetically proven FD patients (n = 23 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 44 underwent a cardio-respiratory polysomnography and brain MRI at 3.0 Tesla. We applied different MR-imaging techniques, ranging from semiquantitative measurement of white matter lesion (WML volumes and automated calculation of brain tissue volumes to VBM of gray matter and voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis. RESULTS: In 5 of 23 Fabry patients (22% CSA-CSR was detected. Voxel-based DTI analysis revealed widespread structural changes in FD patients when compared to the healthy controls. When calculated as a separate group, DTI changes of CSA-CSR patients were most prominent in the brainstem. Voxel-based regression analysis revealed a significant association between CSR severity and microstructural DTI changes within the brainstem. CONCLUSION: Subtle microstructural changes in the brainstem might be a neuroanatomical correlate of CSA-CSR in patients at risk of WML. DTI is more sensitive and specific than

  8. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.

  9. Electroencephalographic patterns during sleep in children with chromosome 15q11.2-13.1 duplications (Dup15q).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkilo, Dimitrios; Devinsky, Orrin; Mudigoudar, Basanagoud; Boronat, Susana; Jennesson, Melanie; Sassower, Kenneth; Vaou, Okeanis Eleni; Lerner, Jason T; Jeste, Shafali Spurling; Luchsinger, Kadi; Thibert, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to define the EEG features during sleep of children with neurodevelopmental disorders due to copy number gains of 15q11-q13 (Dup15q). We retrospectively reviewed continuous EEG recordings of 42 children with Dup15q (mean age: eight years, 32 with idic15), and data collected included background activity, interictal epileptiform discharges, sleep organization, and ictal activity. Three patterns were recognized: Pattern 1: Alpha–delta sleep was noted in 14 children (33%), not associated with any clinical changes. Pattern 2: Electrical status epilepticus in sleep was noted in 15 children (35%), all diagnosed with treatmentresistant epilepsy. Thirteen of the 15 children had clinical seizures. Pattern 3: Frequent bursts of high amplitude bifrontal predominant, paroxysmal fast activity (12–15 Hz) during non-REM sleep was noted in 15 children (35%). All 15 children had treatment-resistant epilepsy. This is the first report of electroencephalographic patterns during sleep of children with Dup15q reporting alpha-delta rhythms, CSWS, and high amplitude fast frequencies. Alpha-delta rhythms are described in children with dysautonomia and/or mood disorders and CSWS in children with developmental regression. The significance of these findings in cognitive function and epilepsy for the children in our cohort needs to be determined with follow-up studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep patterns in villagers and urban African volunteers in a humid tropical climate: Influence of accessibility to electric light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buguet, Alain; Bogui, Pascal; Picot, Stéphane; Cespuglio, Raymond

    2017-05-15

    Recent publications focusing on sleep-wake alternation, using actigraphic recordings in hunter-gatherers, stressed the existence of a potential effect of electricity availability on sleep habits. These reports prompted us to achieve a new analysis of the polysomnographic data already obtained in healthy African volunteers in equatorial Africa during two different investigations. Comparison of the 24-h polysomnographic sleep patterns were done between 9 volunteers sleeping in a laboratory in Abidjan (Abidjan cohort) and 11 villagers living in electricity-free bush villages (Sinfra cohort). Sleep was lighter in the villagers, with more stage 1 and less slow wave sleep (SWS). Latency to SWS was also shorter. Total sleep time, however, was not different between the two groups. There were no indications as to whether the observed differences were attributable to the availability of electrical power. Reactivity of human sleep structure to the environment was discussed in terms of multifactorial influences such as daylight length, temperature, humidity, electromagnetic field, time of sleep onset, thermoregulatory mechanisms, stress or anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between sleeping habits and food consumption patterns among 10-11-year-old children in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Lisa; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2009-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is of special concern. Inverse associations between sleep length and overweight have been found in children. Short sleeping hours result in hormonal changes, which increase perceived hunger and appetite. This could affect food intake, and consequently lead to overweight. The aim is to find out whether there is an association between adequate sleep and food consumption among 10-11-year-old school children in Finland. One thousand two hundred and sixty-five children (response rate 79 %), aged 9-11, from thirty-one schools filled in a questionnaire about their health behaviour. Inadequate sleep was measured as short sleeping hours during school nights and weekend nights, difficulties in waking up in the morning and tiredness during the day. Food consumption patterns were measured by two consumption indices, energy-rich foods and nutrient-dense foods, based on a short FFQ (sixteen items). Inadequate sleep is associated with food consumption patterns. Boys with shorter sleep duration during school nights, and who were felt tired during the day, were more likely to consume energy-rich foods. Girls with shorter sleep duration during school nights consumed more likely energy-rich foods and less likely nutrient-dense foods. Adjusting for physical activity and screen time weakened the explored associations. The associations with energy-rich foods were stronger for boys than for girls. Sleeping habits are associated with food consumption patterns. Shorter sleep duration during school nights in school children is associated with higher consumption of energy-rich foods.

  12. Is screening for abnormal ECG patterns justified in long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourier, Milanthy S; Mavinkurve-Groothuis, Annelies M C; Loonen, Jacqueline; Bökkerink, Jos P M; Roeleveld, Nel; Beer, Gil; Bellersen, Louise; Kapusta, Livia

    2017-03-01

    ECG and echocardiography are noninvasive screening tools to detect subclinical cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Our aims were as follows: (1) assess the prevalence of abnormal ECG patterns, (2) determine the agreement between abnormal ECG patterns and echocardiographic abnormalities; and (3) determine whether ECG screening for subclinical cardiotoxicity in CCSs is justified. We retrospectively studied ECG and echocardiography in asymptomatic CCSs more than 5 years after anthracycline treatment. Exclusion criteria were abnormal ECG and/or echocardiogram at the start of therapy, incomplete follow-up data, clinical heart failure, cardiac medication, and congenital heart disease. ECG abnormalities were classified using the Minnesota Code. Level of agreement between ECG and echocardiography was calculated with Cohen kappa. We included 340 survivors with a mean follow-up of 14.5 years (range 5-32). ECG was abnormal in 73 survivors (21.5%), with ventricular conduction disorders, sinus bradycardia, and high-amplitude R waves being most common. Prolonged QTc (>0.45 msec) was found in two survivors, both with a cumulative anthracycline dose of 300 mg/m 2 or higher. Echocardiography showed abnormalities in 44 survivors (12.9%), mostly mild valvular abnormalities. The level of agreement between ECG and echocardiography was low (kappa 0.09). Male survivors more often had an abnormal ECG (corrected odds ratio: 3.00, 95% confidence interval: 1.68-5.37). Abnormal ECG patterns were present in 21% of asymptomatic long-term CCSs. Lack of agreement between abnormal ECG patterns and echocardiographic abnormalities may suggest that ECG is valuable in long-term follow-up of CCSs. However, it is not clear whether these abnormal ECG patterns will be clinically relevant. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep-wake syndrome - irregular; Circadian rhythm sleep disorder - irregular sleep-wake type ... have sleep disturbances on occasion. But if this type of irregular sleep-wake pattern occurs regularly and without cause, see your provider.

  14. The effects of a session of resistance training on sleep patterns in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Valter A Rocha; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Boscolo, Rita Aurélia; Grassmann, Viviane; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a session of resistance training on the sleep patterns of elderly people. Forty men aged 65-80 years who were sedentary and clinically healthy were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 18) and the resistance group (n = 22). Both groups underwent two polysomnography tests, one at baseline and another after either a resistance training session (the resistance group) or no physical exercise (the control group). The resistance training session was based on 60% of one repetition maximum (a test that assesses the maximum force). We observed that the frequency with which the control group awoke (arousal index) increased from 16.29 ± 6.06 events/h to 20.09 ± 6.9 events/h, and in the resistance group, it decreased from 22.27 ± 11 events/h to 20.41 ± 8.57 events/h (t = 2.10 and p = 0.04). For stage-1 sleep, there was an increase from 4.96% at baseline to 5.40% in the control group, and there was a decrease in the resistance group from 8.32 to 6.21% after the exercise session (t = 2.12 and p = 0.04). A session of resistance training at 60% of one repetition maximum was able to modify the sleep pattern in men aged 65-80 years, suggesting that physical exercise has a modest influence on sleep consolidation.

  15. Altered segregation pattern and numerical chromosome abnormalities interrelate in spermatozoa from Robertsonian translocation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godo, Anna; Blanco, Joan; Vidal, Francesca; Sandalinas, Mireia; Garcia-Guixé, Elena; Anton, Ester

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether there is a relationship between numerical chromosome abnormalities and certain segregation modes in spermatozoa from Robertsonian translocation carriers. A sequential fluorescence in-situ hybridization protocol based on two successive hybridization rounds was performed on sperm samples from one t(13;22) and ten t(13;14) carriers. Patient inclusion criteria included the presence of a positive interchromosomal effect (ICE). In the first round, numerical abnormalities for chromosomes 15/22, 18, 21, X and Y were analysed. In the second round, the segregation outcome of the rearranged chromosomes was evaluated in the numerically abnormal spermatozoa detected in the first round, as well as in randomly assessed spermatozoa. Aneuploid spermatozoa showed statistical differences in all segregation modes when compared with randomly assessed spermatozoa: alternate (50.7% versus 84.3%), adjacent (36.6% versus 14.6%) and 3:0 (10.2% versus 1%). Diploid/multiple disomic spermatozoa showed differences in alternate (3.7% versus 84.3%) and 3:0 (67.6% versus 1%). We concluded that in Robertsonian translocation carriers that exhibit ICE, numerically abnormal spermatozoa preferentially contain unbalanced segregation products. This might be explained by heterosynapsis acting as a rescue mechanism that would lead to aberrant recombination, which is a predisposing factor for non-disjunction events. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic sleep scoring in normals and in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders according to new international sleep scoring criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter S.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Jennum, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Reliable polysomnographic classification is the basis for evaluation of sleep disorders in neurological diseases. Aim: To develop a fully automatic sleep scoring algorithm on the basis of a reproduction of new international sleep scoring criteria from the American Academy of Sleep...... Medicine (AASM). Methods: A biomedical signal processing algorithm was developed, allowing for automatic sleep depth quantification of routine polysomnographic (PSG) recordings through feature extraction, supervised probabilistic Bayesian classification, and heuristic rule-based smoothing. The performance....... Conclusion: The developed algorithm was capable of scoring normal sleep with an accuracy around the manual inter-scorer reliability, it failed in accurately scoring abnormal sleep as encountered for the PD/MSA patients, which is due to the abnormal micro- and macrostructure pattern in these patients....

  17. Abnormal network flow detection based on application execution patterns from Web of Things (WoT) platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young; Jung, Hyunwoo; Lee, Hana

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a research work on a novel methodology of identifying abnormal behaviors at the underlying network monitor layer during runtime based on the execution patterns of Web of Things (WoT) applications. An execution pattern of a WoT application is a sequence of profiled time delays between the invocations of involved Web services, and it can be obtained from WoT platforms. We convert the execution pattern to a time sequence of network flows that are generated when the WoT applications are executed. We consider such time sequences as a whitelist. This whitelist reflects the valid application execution patterns. At the network monitor layer, our applied RETE algorithm examines whether any given runtime sequence of network flow instances does not conform to the whitelist. Through this approach, it is possible to interpret a sequence of network flows with regard to application logic. Given such contextual information, we believe that the administrators can detect and reason about any abnormal behaviors more effectively. Our empirical evaluation shows that our RETE-based algorithm outperforms the baseline algorithm in terms of memory usage.

  18. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  19. Actigraphic Sleep Patterns of U.S. Hispanics: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Katherine A; Weng, Jia; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Simonelli, Guido; Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Maricelle; Ramos, Alberto R; Loredo, Jose S; Reid, Kathryn J; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Zee, Phyllis C; Chirinos, Diana A; Gallo, Linda C; Wang, Rui; Patel, Sanjay R

    2017-02-01

    To assess the extent to which objective sleep patterns vary among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos. We assessed objective sleep patterns in 2087 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos from 6 Hispanic/Latino subgroups aged 18-64 years who underwent 7 days of wrist actigraphy. The age- and sex-standardized mean (SE) sleep duration was 6.82 (0.05), 6.72 (0.07), 6.61 (0.07), 6.59 (0.06), 6.57 (0.10), and 6.44 (0.09) hr among individuals of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Central American, Puerto Rican, and South American heritage, respectively. Sleep maintenance efficiency ranged from 89.2 (0.2)% in Mexicans to 86.5 (0.4)% in Puerto Ricans, while the sleep fragmentation index ranged from 19.7 (0.3)% in Mexicans to 24.2 (0.7)% in Puerto Ricans. In multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, season, socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities, these differences persisted. There are important differences in actigraphically measured sleep across U.S. Hispanic/Latino heritages. Individuals of Mexican heritage have longer and more consolidated sleep, while those of Puerto Rican heritage have shorter and more fragmented sleep. These differences may have clinically important effects on health outcomes. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The metabolic pattern of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reflects early-stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne Katherina; Renken, Remco J; Janzen, Annette; Vadasz, David; Pagani, Marco; Arnaldi, Dario; Morbelli, Silvia; Nobili, Flavio; Mayer, Geert; Leenders, Klaus L; Oertel, Wolfgang H O

    2018-02-23

    Rationale: Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is considered a prodromal stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other Lewy-body disorders. Spatial covariance analysis of [ 18 F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET) data has disclosed a specific brain pattern of altered glucose metabolism in PD. In this study, we identify the metabolic pattern underlying iRBD and compare it to the known PD pattern. To understand the relevance of the iRBD pattern to disease progression, we study the expression of the iRBD pattern in de novo PD patients. Methods: The iRBD-related pattern was identified in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 21 patients with polysomnographically-confirmed iRBD and 19 controls using spatial covariance analysis. Expression of the iRBD-related pattern was subsequently computed in 18 F-FDG-PET scans of 44 controls and 38 de novo, treatment-naïve PD patients. Of these 38 PD patients, 24 had probable RBD according to the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Neuropsychological evaluation showed mild cognitive impairment in 20 PD patients (PD-MCI), of whom sixteen also had concomitant RBD and roughly half (11/20) had bilateral motor symptoms. Results: The iRBD-related pattern was characterized by relative hypermetabolism in cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, sensorimotor cortex, and hippocampus, and by relative hypometabolism in middle cingulate, temporal, occipital and parietal cortices. This topography partially overlapped with the PD-related pattern (PDRP). The iRBD-related pattern was significantly expressed in PD patients compared to controls (Ppattern expression was not significantly different between PD patients with and without probable RBD, or between PD patients with unilateral or bilateral parkinsonism. iRBD-related pattern expression was higher in PD-MCI patients, compared to PD patients with preserved cognition ( P = 0.001). Subject scores on the iRBD-related pattern were highly correlated to subject scores on the PDRP (r=0.94, Ppatterns

  1. Weakly coupled map lattice models for multicellular patterning and collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Vladimir; Manzanares, José A.; Mafe, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    We present a weakly coupled map lattice model for patterning that explores the effects exerted by weakening the local dynamic rules on model biological and artificial networks composed of two-state building blocks (cells). To this end, we use two cellular automata models based on (i) a smooth majority rule (model I) and (ii) a set of rules similar to those of Conway's Game of Life (model II). The normal and abnormal cell states evolve according to local rules that are modulated by a parameter κ . This parameter quantifies the effective weakening of the prescribed rules due to the limited coupling of each cell to its neighborhood and can be experimentally controlled by appropriate external agents. The emergent spatiotemporal maps of single-cell states should be of significance for positional information processes as well as for intercellular communication in tumorigenesis, where the collective normalization of abnormal single-cell states by a predominantly normal neighborhood may be crucial.

  2. Sleep pattern and decision-making in physicians from mobile emergency care service with 12-h work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eleni de Araújo Sales; de Almondes, Katie Moraes

    2018-06-01

    Shift work schedules are biological standpoint worse because compel the body to anticipate periods of wakefulness and sleep and thus eventually cause a disruption of biological rhythms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sleep pattern and decision-making in physicians working in mobile units of emergency attention undergoing day shift and rotating shift. The study included 26 physicians. The instruments utilized were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Chronotype Identification Questionnaire of Horne-Ostberg, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and hypothetical scenarios of decision-making created according to the Policy-Capturing Technique. For inclusion and exclusion criteria, the participants answered the Chalder Fatigue Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms for adults of Lipp. It was found good sleep quality for physicians on day shift schedule and bad sleep quality for physicians on rotating shift schedule. The IGT measure showed no impairment in decision-making, but the hypothetical scenarios revealed impairment decision-making during the shift for both schedules. Good sleep quality was related to a better performance in decision-making. Good sleep quality seems to influence a better performance in decision-making.

  3. Relation between heart beat fluctuations and cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in insomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon-Lomeli, R; Murguia, J S; Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Gonzalez-Galvan, E; Alba, A; Milioli, G; Grassi, A; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a condition that affects the nervous and muscular system. Thirty percent of the population between 18 and 60 years suffers from insomnia. The effects of this disorder involve problems such as poor school or job performance and traffic accidents. In addition, patients with insomnia present changes in the cardiac function during sleep. Furthermore, the structure of electroencephalographic A-phases, which builds up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern during sleep, is related to the insomnia events. Therefore, the relationship between these brain activations (A-phases) and the autonomic nervous system would be of interest, revealing the interplay of central and autonomic activity during insomnia. With this goal, a study of the relationship between A-phases and heart rate fluctuations is presented. Polysomnography recording of five healthy subjects, five sleep misperception patients and five patients with psychophysiological insomnia were used in the study. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) was used in order to evaluate the heart rate dynamics and this was correlated with the number of A-phases. The results suggest that pathological patients present changes in the dynamics of the heart rate. This is reflected in the modification of A-phases dynamics, which seems to modify of heart rate dynamics.

  4. Surgical treatment of a Pattern I Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome individual - clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cavalcante Feitoza

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA is a multifactorial disease that highly alters a persons quality of life. It is characterized by the repeated interruption of breathing during sleep, due to an obstruction or the collapse of the upper airways. Since it is a multifactorial etiological disorder, it requires a thorough diagnosis and treatment with an interdisciplinary team, which comprises several professionals such as a surgical dentist, phonoaudiologist, otorhinolaryngologist, sleep doctor, neurologist and physiotherapist. The diagnosis and the degree of severity of the syndrome is determined through a polysomnography examination. After that, the best form of treatment is devised depending on the gravity of the case. In cases of moderate to severe apnea, invasive treatment through surgical procedures such as maxillomandibular advancement remains the preferred option as it increases the posterior air space, reducing and/or eliminating the obstruction. Thus, improving the patients respiratory function and, consequently, his quality of life as it is shown in the clinical case at hand. In which the male patient, facial pattern type I, 41 years of age, diagnosed with moderate OSA (Apnea-Hypopnea Index - AHI of 23.19, decided to have a surgical treatment instead of a conservative one, resulting in the cure of apnea (AHI of 0.3.

  5. Sexual Abuse Is Associated With an Abnormal Psychological Profile and Sleep Difficulty in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsing-Feng; Liu, Pei-Yi; Wang, Yen-Po; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Chang, Full-Young; Lu, Ching-Liang

    2018-01-30

    Both sexual and physical abuse history have been reported to be associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Western countries. The impact of abuse history in IBS patients in Asia remains unclear. We aim to determine the prevalence of abuse history, its associated psychological profiles, and sleep problems among IBS patients in Taiwan. In total, 194 Rome III-defined IBS patients were invited to participate. Age- and sex- matched healthy carriers of chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C without chronic abdominal symptoms were identified as disease-controls. We administered a validated questionnaire to evaluate bowel symptoms, physical/sexual abuse history, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and sleep quality. IBS patients had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual abuse history than the disease-control group both before (16.5% vs 6.7%, P < 0.05) and after (16.0% vs 6.6%, P < 0.05) adolescence. These significant differences were mainly observed in women (13.4% vs 3.4%, P < 0.05). No difference was noted in history of physical abuse between the 2 groups. IBS patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly higher HADS scores and higher frequencies of sleep difficulty than those without. In Taiwan, sexual abuse history was more prevalent in female IBS patients than controls. Sexual abuse history may contribute to higher anxiety/depression levels and sleep difficulties, which are commonly experienced in IBS patients. In Asia, abuse history should be obtained when approaching IBS patients to facilitate better management.

  6. Sleep loss, circadian mismatch, and abnormalities in reorienting of attention in night workers with shift work disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Howard, Ryan; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Drake, Christopher L

    2014-03-01

    Permanent night-shift workers may develop shift-work disorder (SWD). In the current study, we evaluated neurophysiological and behavioral indices of distractibility across times prior to the night shift (T1), during night hours (T2), and after acute sleep deprivation (T3) in permanent hospital night workers with and without SWD. Ten asymptomatic night workers (NW) and 18 NW with SWD participated in a 25-h sleep deprivation study. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was evaluated using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Electrophysiological distractibility was evaluated by brain event-related potentials (ERP), whereas behavioral distractibility was evaluated by performance on a visual task in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Comparisons of ERP results were performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, and t-tests were used where appropriate. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of variables (MLST, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and DLMO) that deviated from normal. First, in the SWD group, the reorienting negativity ERP amplitude was significantly attenuated compared to that in the NW group. Second, the SWD group had shorter MSLT during night shift hours (4.8 ± 4.9 min) compared to that in NW (7.8 ± 3.7 min; U = 47; z = -2.1; P sleep deprivation impaired behavioral performance and the P3a ERP in both groups. Our results demonstrate specific deficits in neurophysiological activity in the attentional domain among the shift-work disorder group relative to night workers.

  7. Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns and Consumption of Energy Drinks and Other Caffeinated Beverages among Peruvian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Martinez, Claudia; Oriol, Raphaelle A; Yanez, David; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics including consumption of energy drinks and other caffeinated beverages among Peruvian college students. A total of 2,458 college students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected information about a variety of behaviors including consumption of energy drinks, caffeinated and alcoholic beverages. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for poor sleep quality in relation to lifestyle characteristics. A total of 965 males and 1,493 female students were enrolled in the study. 52.0% of males and 58.4% of females experienced poor sleep quality (p=0.002). Females (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.51) and those who reported consuming ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week (OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.42-2.50) had higher odds of poor sleep quality. Students who consumed 1-19 alcoholic beverages monthly (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.46-2.49) had a higher odds of long sleep latency. Consumption of ≥ 3 stimulant beverages per week was associated with daytime dysfunction due to sleep loss (OR=1.45; 95% CI 1.10-1.90), short sleep duration (OR= 1.49; 95% CI 1.14-1.94), and use of sleep medication (OR= 2.10; 95% CI 1.35-3.28). Consumption of energy drinks, other caffeinated beverages and alcoholic beverages are risk factors of poor sleep quality. Increased awareness of these associations should promote interventions to improve students' lifestyle habits, including consumption of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, and overall health.

  8. The pattern of abnormalities on sperm analysis: A study of 1186 infertile male in Yasmin IVF clinic Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, S. N.; Lestari, S. W.; Pratama, G.; Harzief, A. K.; Sumapraja, K.; Hestiantoro, A.; Wiweko, B.

    2017-08-01

    A declined in semen quality resulted an increase of male infertility has been reported. The pattern of abnormalities differs from one country to another. Conflicting results from different studies may be influenced by many factor. The aims are to evaluate the pattern of semen analysis of male partners of infertile couples and identify the current status of the contribution of male factor towards the infertility in our environment. The study is a descriptive analysis of the semen analysis of male partners in infertile couples, who were present at Yasmin IVF Clinic, infertility clinic of a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2015. A total of 1186 consenting male partners of infertile couple were recruited into the study. According to 2010 WHO normal reference values for semen parameters, 795 (67%) of patients were normozoospermia which had normal semen parameters and 391 (33%) patients had abnormal semen parameters. Oligozospermia was evident in 155 (39.5%) patients, being the most common disorder observed. It is followed by azoospermia (24.4%), oligoasthenozospermia (17.8%), asthenozospermia (5.9%), oligoasthenotera-tozospermia (5,7%), teratozospermia (2.6%), asthenoteratozospermia (2.8%), cryptozoospermia (0.8%), necrozospermia (0.3%), and oligoteratozospermia (0.3%). Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to the overall infertility with oligozospermia being the most common semen quality abnormality. This condition is an indication for the need to focus on the prevention and management of male infertility. In addition, further studies are needed to address possible etiologies and treatment in order to improve fertility rates.

  9. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  10. Dietary patterns, metabolic markers and subjective sleep measures in resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria Carliana; De-Souza, Daurea Abadia; Rossato, Luana Thomazetto; Silva, Catarina Mendes; Araújo, Maria Bernadete Jeha; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2013-10-01

    Shiftwork is common in medical training and is necessary for 24-h hospital coverage. Shiftwork poses difficulties not only because of the loss of actual sleep hours but also because it can affect other factors related to lifestyle, such as food intake, physical activity level, and, therefore, metabolic patterns. However, few studies have investigated the nutritional and metabolic profiles of medical personnel receiving training who are participating in shiftwork. The aim of the present study was to identify the possible negative effects of food intake, anthropometric variables, and metabolic and sleep patterns of resident physicians and establish the differences between genders. The study included 72 resident physicians (52 women and 20 men) who underwent the following assessments: nutritional assessment (3-day dietary recall evaluated by the Adapted Healthy Eating Index), anthropometric variables (height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference), fasting metabolism (lipids, cortisol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], glucose, and insulin), physical activity level (Baecke questionnaire), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS). We observed a high frequency of residents who were overweight or obese (65% for men and 21% for women; p = 0.004). Men displayed significantly greater body mass index (BMI) values (p = 0.002) and self-reported weight gain after the beginning of residency (p = 0.008) than women. Poor diet was observed for both genders, including the low intake of vegetables and fruits and the high intake of sweets, saturated fat, cholesterol, and caffeine. The PSQI global scores indicated significant differences between genders (5.9 vs. 7.5 for women and men, respectively; p = 0.01). Women had significantly higher mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; p 100 mg/dL) were observed in most individuals. Higher than recommended hs-CRP levels were observed in 66% of the

  11. Review of sleep-EEG in preterm and term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Pillay, Kirubin; Vervisch, Jan; De Vos, Maarten; Van Huffel, Sabine; Jansen, Katrien; Naulaers, Gunnar

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal sleep is a crucial state that involves endogenous driven brain activity, important for neuronal survival and guidance of brain networks. Sequential EEG-sleep analysis in preterm infants provides insights into functional brain integrity and can document deviations of the biologically pre-programmed process of sleep ontogenesis during the neonatal period. Visual assessment of neonatal sleep-EEG, with integration of both cerebral and non-cerebral measures to better define neonatal state, is still considered the gold standard. Electrographic patterns evolve over time and are gradually time locked with behavioural characteristics which allow classification of quiet sleep and active sleep periods during the last 10weeks of gestation. Near term age, the neonate expresses a short ultradian sleep cycle, with two distinct active and quiet sleep, as well as brief periods of transitional or indeterminate sleep. Qualitative assessment of neonatal sleep is however challenged by biological and environmental variables that influence the expression of EEG-sleep patterns and sleep organization. Developing normative EEG-sleep data with the aid of automated analytic methods, can further improve our understanding of extra-uterine brain development and state organization under stressful or pathological conditions. Based on those developmental biomarkers of normal and abnormal brain function, research can be conducted to support and optimise sleep in the NICU, with the ultimate goal to improve therapeutic interventions and neurodevelopmental outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychosocial functioning and sleep patterns in children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate (CLP) compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Blechschmidt, Anja; Müller, Andreas; Sader, Robert; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: to assess psychological functioning, interactional competencies, and sleep patterns in children and adolescents with cleft lip and palate (CLP), and to compare these results with those from age- and gender-matched controls. It was hypothesized that participants with CLP would exhibit greater difficulties in psychological functioning, more interactional difficulties, and poorer sleep patterns than those without CLP. Thirty-two children and adolescents with CLP and 34 controls were recruited. Ages ranged from 6 to 16 years. For psychosocial assessment, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and a questionnaire on interactional competencies (PIELCQ) were completed; for sleep assessment, a sleep log was completed for seven consecutive nights. Participants with and without CLP did not differ with respect to emotional problems, conduct problems, or hyperactivity. With respect to interactional competencies, participants with CLP were six times more likely to report difficulties. Unfavorable sleep patterns were associated with psychosocial strain but not with the presence of CLP. RESULTS indicate that children and adolescents with CLP may report that they have sleep irregularities as often as those without CLP. In adolescence, the presence of CLP may be associated with increased difficulties. Consequently, skill training to improve context-related social competencies may be appropriate.

  13. Sleep disorder among medical students: relationship to their academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I

    2012-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.

  14. Identification of Abnormal System Noise Temperature Patterns in Deep Space Network Antennas Using Neural Network Trained Fuzzy Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Pham, Timothy; Liao, Jason

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a fuzzy logic function trained by an artificial neural network to classify the system noise temperature (SNT) of antennas in the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The SNT data were classified into normal, marginal, and abnormal classes. The irregular SNT pattern was further correlated with link margin and weather data. A reasonably good correlation is detected among high SNT, low link margin and the effect of bad weather; however we also saw some unexpected non-correlations which merit further study in the future.

  15. Patterns of daily allocation of sleep periods: a case study in an Amazonian riverine community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, G F; da Silva, H P; Marques, N

    1991-01-01

    Few works already carried out have examined the relative role of genetic and external factors on the determination of the rhythmicity of the human sleep/wake cycle. In order to make a preliminary approach in this field, we investigated the diversity of patterns of allocation of sleep periods among 29 families living at the Combu Island, a socioculturally very homogeneous human group of the Brazilian Amazon. The individuals were interviewed through a questionnaire designed by Horne and Ostberg (1976), with the language of the questions adjusted to the way-of-life of the riverine people. A large predominance of the morning type was observed (95.35%), what constitutes a strong deviation in relation to other populations studied, suggesting the occurrence of a masking effect. The individual scores presented a positive correlation with the age (r = 0.31; p less than 0.01), and a significant intersexual difference was also verified (t = 3.08; p less than 0.01). This intersex difference is explained, in part, by analyzing the socioeconomic patterns of the community. The offspring/parent regression of the individual scores indicated a low dependency between genitors and their direct descendents (p greater than 0.7), and the estimative of heritability obtained (0.14) is artificial, since the offspring/mother and offspring/midparent regression coefficients were negative. Statistically non-significant coefficients of correlation and/or regression showed a highly randomic populational distribution of scores for the Horne-Ostberg's test. Such findings suggest that the intensity of the masking over the sleep/wake cycle varies among human populations, and that the individual tendency towards morningness/eveningness is strongly related to sociocultural factors.

  16. Recognition of wake-sleep stage 1 multichannel eeg patterns using spectral entropy features for drowsiness detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraam, N; Padma Shri, T K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2016-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded during the entire sleep cycle reflects various complex processes associated with brain and exhibits a high degree of irregularity through various stages of sleep. The identification of transition from wakefulness to stage1 sleep is a challenging area of research for the biomedical community. In this paper, spectral entropy (SE) is used as a complexity measure to quantify irregularities in awake and stage1 sleep of 8-channel sleep EEG data from the polysomnographic recordings of ten healthy subjects. The SE measures of awake and stage1 sleep EEG data are estimated for each second and applied to a multilayer perceptron feed forward neural network (MLP-FF). The network is trained using back propagation algorithm for recognizing these two patterns. Initially, the MLP network is trained and tested for randomly chosen subject-wise combined datasets I and II and then for the combined large dataset III. In all cases, 60 % of the entire dataset is used for training while 20 % is used for testing and 20 % for validation. Results indicate that the MLP neural network learns with maximum testing accuracy of 95.9 % for dataset II. In the case of combined large dataset, the network performs with a maximum accuracy of 99.2 % with 100 hidden neurons. Results show that in channels O1, O2, F3 and F4 (A1, A2 as reference), the mean of the spectral entropy value is higher in awake state than in stage1 sleep indicating that the EEG becomes more regular and rhythmic as the subject attains stage1 sleep from wakefulness. However, in C3 and C4 the mean values of SE values are not very much discriminative of both groups. This may prove to be a very effective indicator for scoring the first two stages of sleep EEG and may be used to detect the transition from wakefulness to stage1 sleep.

  17. Sleep disorders in the older patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alon Y

    2005-06-01

    Sleep changes dramatically with old age. Subjective and objective measures demonstrate an increase in sleep and wake disturbances with advancing age. The older person has a more fragmented sleep, sleeps less deeply, and tends to experience early morning awakenings. When older patients have sleep disorders, they often present with excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, or abnormal motor activity. In making the appropriate diagnosis, the role of the provider is to review the patient's medical history,psychiatric history, medications, underlying medical illnesses, and sleep-wake pattern. The aging process itself does not cause sleep problems and sleep requirements do not decrease with advanced age. The prevalence of insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorder, PLMS, and RLS increases with age and may lead to poor sleep quality. Because many sleep disorders are potentially reversible, it is the responsibility of the primary care provider to screen for these problems. A carefully planned clinical decision-making process when encountering a sleep disturbance in the older patient can greatly enhance quality of life and daytime function.

  18. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  19. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  20. The Relationship between Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Sleep Duration among Black and White Men and Women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Jackson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, racial minorities generally experience poorer cardiovascular health compared to whites, and differences in alcohol consumption and sleep could contribute to these disparities. With a nationally representative sample of 187,950 adults in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004 to 2015, we examined the relationship between alcohol-drinking patterns and sleep duration/quality by race and sex. Using Poisson regression models with robust variance, we estimated sex-specific prevalence ratios for each sleep duration/quality category among blacks compared to whites within categories of alcohol-drinking pattern, adjusting for socioeconomic status and other potential confounders. Across alcohol drinking patterns, blacks were less likely than whites to report recommended sleep of 7–<9 h/day. Short (PR = 1.30 [95% CI: 1.22–1.39] and long (PR = 1.30 [95% CI: 1.07–1.58] sleep were 30% more prevalent among black-male infrequent heavy drinkers compared to white-male infrequent heavy drinkers. Short (PR = 1.27 [95% CI: 1.21–1.34] sleep was more prevalent among black-female infrequent heavy drinkers compared to white-female infrequent heavy drinkers, but there was no difference for long sleep (PR = 1.09 [95% CI: 0.97–1.23]. Black female infrequent moderate drinkers, however, had a 16% higher (PR = 1.16 [95% CI: 1.01–1.33] prevalence of long sleep compared to their white counterparts. Environmental, social, and biological factors contributing to these findings, along with their impact on disparate health outcomes, should be studied in greater detail.

  1. Time-series analysis of sleep wake stage of rat EEG using time-dependent pattern entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Ryuji; Shinba, Toshikazu; Mugishima, Go; Haraguchi, Hikaru; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    We performed electroencephalography (EEG) for six male Wistar rats to clarify temporal behaviors at different levels of consciousness. Levels were identified both by conventional sleep analysis methods and by our novel entropy method. In our method, time-dependent pattern entropy is introduced, by which EEG is reduced to binary symbolic dynamics and the pattern of symbols in a sliding temporal window is considered. A high correlation was obtained between level of consciousness as measured by the conventional method and mean entropy in our entropy method. Mean entropy was maximal while awake (stage W) and decreased as sleep deepened. These results suggest that time-dependent pattern entropy may offer a promising method for future sleep research.

  2. Disrupted day-night pattern of cardiovascular death in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Emerson Ferreira; Martinez, Denis; da Silva, Fernando A Boeira Sabino; Sezerá, Lauren; da Rosa de Camargo, Rodrigo; Fiori, Cintia Zappe; Fuchs, Flávio Danni; Moraes, Ruy Silveira

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients who suffer sudden cardiac death die predominantly during the night. We aimed to investigate whether all cardiovascular-related deaths display the same night-time peak as sudden cardiac death. Data from a large cohort of adults who underwent full-night polysomnography between 1985 and 2015 in a university-affiliated sleep clinic were analyzed. Time and cause of death of these patients and of persons from the general population were identified in death certificates from the State Health Secretariat. The day-night pattern of cardiovascular death was compared among groups of non-OSA, OSA (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI ≥5), CPAP users, and persons from the general population. Among 619 certificates, 160 cardiovascular-related deaths were identified. The time of death of the 142 persons with OSA was uniformly distributed over 24 h, with neither an identifiable peak nor a circadian pattern (Rayleigh test; P = 0.8); the same flat distribution was seen in those with purported CPAP use (n = 49). Non-OSA individuals presented a morning peak and a night nadir of deaths, clearer when analyzed in eight-hour intervals. The same pattern was observed in 92 836 certificates from the State general population, with cardiovascular deaths showing the expected morning peak, night nadir, and a significant circadian pattern (Rayleigh test; P < 0.001). In OSA patients, the distribution of cardiovascular-related deaths throughout the 24-h period is virtually flat, in contrast with the described nighttime peak of sudden cardiac death. OSA-related phenomena during nighttime might be blunting the mechanisms, arrhythmic or not, behind the morning peak of cardiovascular-related deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential Abnormal Pattern of Anterior Cingulate Gyrus Activation in Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: an fMRI and Pattern Classification Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Christian; Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Meinert, Susanne; Dohm, Katharina; Schneider, Ilona; Zaremba, Dario; Förster, Katharina; Alferink, Judith; Bölte, Jens; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2017-06-01

    Distinguishing bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder is a major challenge in psychiatric treatment. Consequently, there has been growing interest in identifying neuronal biomarkers of disorder-specific pathophysiological processes to differentiate affective disorders. Thirty-six depressed bipolar patients, 36 depressed unipolar patients, and 36 matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in an fMRI experiment. Emotional faces served as stimuli in a matching task. We investigated neural activation towards angry, fearful, and happy faces focusing on prototypical regions related to emotion processing, ie, the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Furthermore, we employed a whole-brain and a multivariate pattern classification analysis. Unipolar patients showed abnormally reduced ACG activation toward happy and fearful faces compared with bipolar patients and HCs respectively. Furthermore, the whole-brain analysis revealed significantly increased activation in bipolar patients compared with unipolar patients in the fearful condition in the right frontal and parietal cortex. Moreover, the multivariate pattern classification analysis yielded significant classification rates of up to 72% based on ACG activation elicited by fearful faces. Our results question the rather 'amygdalocentric' neurobiological models of mood disorders. We observed patterns of abnormally reduced ventral and supragenual ACG activation, potentially indicating impaired bottom-up emotion processing and automatic emotion regulation specifically in unipolar but not in bipolar individuals.

  4. Abnormal Gray Matter Shape, Thickness, and Volume in the Motor Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayel, Shady; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Bedetti, Christophe; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Monchi, Oury; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gaubert, Malo; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2018-02-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures. Cortical thickness analysis revealed thinning in iRBD patients in bilateral medial superior frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate cortices, and the right dorsolateral primary motor cortex. VBM results showed lower gray matter volume in iRBD patients in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyri, and caudate nucleus. Shape analysis revealed extensive surface contraction in the external and internal segments of the left pallidum. Clinical and motor impaired features in iRBD were associated with anomalies of the motor cortico-subcortical loop. In summary, iRBD patients showed numerous gray matter structural abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop, which are associated with lower motor performance and clinical manifestations of iRBD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Sleep/wake patterns and circadian typology in preschool children based on standardized parental self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yuriko; Ishihara, Kaneyoshi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    We studied the sleep/wake patterns and circadian typology of Japanese preschool children living in the Tokyo metropolitan area (193 boys and 190 girls, 4-6 years of age) from June to July 2012 based on a standardized parental self-reporting questionnaire. Our major findings are as follows: (1) sleep/wake timing was delayed, and the duration of nocturnal sleep (sleep period as well as time in bed) increased from that on scheduled days (weekdays) to that on free days (weekends) for all ages. (2) The duration of daily sleep (24 h), including daytime nap, was longer for 4-year-old children compared with that in 5- to 6-year-old children, but not significantly different between scheduled and free days within each age group. (3) The distribution of chronotypes was 36.3% for morning (M)-type, 48.8% for neither (N)-type and 11.2% for evening (E)-type, and this distribution was independent of sex or age. (4) Sleep/wake timing delays were observed from M-type and N-type to E-type during scheduled and free days. (5) The duration of nocturnal sleep decreased but increased for 24-h sleep time from M-type and N-type to E-type on scheduled days. (6) Sleep durations did not differ among chronotypes on free days. (7) Chronotypes were associated with parents' diurnal preferences, mealtimes and attendance at kindergartens or childcare centers but not with sex, age, season of birth, exposure to multimedia or exposure to morning sunlight in their bedrooms. When these results were compared with those for older children and adolescents, similar sleep/wake patterns and circadian typology were observed, although to a lesser degree, in children as young as 4-6 years of age. Napping may compensate, in part, for an accumulated weekday sleep deficit. The distribution of chronotypes was associated with differences in sleep/wake timing and duration and was influenced by the parents' diurnal preferences and lifestyles. Further research on preschool children is required to investigate whether

  6. Investigation of cortical thickness