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Sample records for abnormal pressor response

  1. Anatomical basis for the fastigial pressor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, Marianna; Ruggiero, David A; Del Bo, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of rostromedial portion of cerebellar fastigial nucleus elicits integrated cardiovascular effects, which are neurally and humorally mediated. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the anatomical substrates of the fastigial pressor response (FPR) in the rat. The response was electrophysiologically localized in anesthetized, paralyzed-ventilated rats. Anterograde transport techniques were used to study the efferent projections of the fastigial pressor area; the distribution of efferent projection cells were then mapped by injecting retrograde tracers into anterogradely labeled sites. Electrolytic lesions were then placed bilaterally in selected brainstem areas in the attempt to block the pressor response. Sites of cerebellar stimulation and of brainstem lesions were subsequently histologically identified. The following lesions abolished the FPR: in nine animals lesions involved portions of the nucleus gigantocellularis dorsalis (NGCd), paramedian reticular formation (PMN) and the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) (in two animals fairly selectively the caudal NTS); in two other animals lesions destroyed the rostral ventrolateral medulla (C1 area) and in one animal the area encompassing the dorsal convexity of the superior cerebellar peduncle bordering the locus coeruleus-lateral parabrachial complex; partially effective were unilateral lesions of NGCd and NTS (three), bilateral lesions confined to NGCd and PMN (two), to vestibular complex and uncinate fasciculus (UF) (three), to UF and locus coeruleus (three) and to nucleus reticularis ventralis (two). Ineffective lesions involved A1 area, the nucleus gigantocellularis ventralis (NGCv), the spinal trigeminal nucleus and nucleus reticularis parvocellularis, the A5 area of the ventrolateral pons, the central gray and lateral mesencephalic tegmentum. It seems therefore that the pressor response elicited by stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus utilizes central specific pathways, as

  2. Exercise training attenuates the pressor response evoked by peripheral chemoreflex in rats with heart failure.

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    Calegari, Leonardo; Mozzaquattro, Bruna B; Rossato, Douglas D; Quagliotto, Edson; Ferreira, Janaina B; Rasia-Filho, Alberto; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    The effects of exercise training (ExT) on the pressor response elicited by potassium cyanide (KCN) in the rat model of ischemia-induced heart failure (HF) are unknown. We evaluated the effects of ExT on chemoreflex sensitivity and its interaction with baroreflex in rats with HF. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: trained HF (Tr-HF), sedentary HF (Sed-HF), trained sham (Tr-Sham), and sedentary sham (Sed-Sham). Trained animals underwent to a treadmill running protocol for 8 weeks (60 m/day, 5 days/week, 16 m/min). After ExT, arterial pressure (AP), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), peripheral chemoreflex (KCN: 100 μg/kg body mass), and cardiac function were evaluated. The results demonstrate that ExT induces an improvement in BRS and attenuates the pressor response to KCN relative to the Sed-HF group (P < 0.05). The improvement in BRS was associated with a reduction in the pressor response following ExT in HF rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, ExT induced a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and pulmonary congestion compared with the Sed-HF group (P < 0.05). The pressor response to KCN in the hypotensive state is decreased in sedentary HF rats. These results suggest that ExT improves cardiac function and BRS and attenuates the pressor response evoked by KCN in HF rats.

  3. Pressor responses to ephedrine are not impaired in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout mice

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    Liles, J T; Baber, S R; Deng, W; Porter, J R; Corll, C; Murthy, S N; Thomas, S A; Kadowitz, P J

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ephedrine and amphetamine can cause substantial increases in systemic arterial pressure. However, the role of endogenous noradrenaline release in mediating the pressor response to ephedrine is controversial. Studies using pharmacologic agents to decrease the synthesis, storage, and release of catecholamines have supported both a direct and an indirect mechanism of action for ephedrine. The purpose of the present study was to determine if endogenous noradrenaline release is required for cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and amphetamine using a genetic mouse model. Experimental Approach: Increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to ephedrine and amphetamine were investigated and compared in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that cannot synthesize noradrenaline. Dbh +/- littermates have normal noradrenaline and adrenaline tissue levels, and served as controls in all experiments. Key Results: In Dbh -/- mice the increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to i.v. injections of ephedrine were not impaired whereas responses to amphetamine were markedly reduced, when compared with responses in Dbh +/- mice. The pressor response to tyramine was abolished whereas pressor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, dopamine, and angiotensin II were similar in Dbh -/- and Dbh +/- mice. Conclusions and Implications: The present results in Dbh -/- mice provide support for the hypothesis that pressor responses to ephedrine are directly mediated whereas responses to amphetamine are dependent on the release of noradrenaline and suggest that Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice are useful for the study of direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:17099719

  4. Pressor responses to ephedrine are not impaired in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, J T; Baber, S R; Deng, W; Porter, J R; Corll, C; Murthy, S N; Thomas, S A; Kadowitz, P J

    2007-01-01

    Ephedrine and amphetamine can cause substantial increases in systemic arterial pressure. However, the role of endogenous noradrenaline release in mediating the pressor response to ephedrine is controversial. Studies using pharmacologic agents to decrease the synthesis, storage, and release of catecholamines have supported both a direct and an indirect mechanism of action for ephedrine. The purpose of the present study was to determine if endogenous noradrenaline release is required for cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and amphetamine using a genetic mouse model. Increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to ephedrine and amphetamine were investigated and compared in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that cannot synthesize noradrenaline. Dbh +/- littermates have normal noradrenaline and adrenaline tissue levels, and served as controls in all experiments. In Dbh -/- mice the increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to i.v. injections of ephedrine were not impaired whereas responses to amphetamine were markedly reduced, when compared with responses in Dbh +/- mice. The pressor response to tyramine was abolished whereas pressor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, dopamine, and angiotensin II were similar in Dbh -/- and Dbh +/- mice. The present results in Dbh -/- mice provide support for the hypothesis that pressor responses to ephedrine are directly mediated whereas responses to amphetamine are dependent on the release of noradrenaline and suggest that Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice are useful for the study of direct and indirect mechanisms.

  5. 4 acute nicotine induced pressor response is in part due

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Arterial baro-reception is regarded as one of the most powerful rapidly acting homeostatic mechanism regulating blood pressure. Investigation had suggested that nicotine may interact with aortic baro-receptors to produce its sustained presser response, an effect that had received little attention. Anaesthetized ...

  6. Potentiation of vasoconstriction and pressor response by low concentration of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)).

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    Lim, Kyung-Min; Shin, Yoo-Sun; Kang, Seojin; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Kim, Keunyoung; Chung, Seung-Min; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2011-09-10

    A close link between arsenic exposure and hypertension has been well-established through many epidemiological reports, yet the mechanism underlying it remains unclear. Here we report that nanomolar concentrations of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), a toxic trivalent methylated arsenic metabolite, can potentiate agonist-induced vasoconstriction and pressor responses. In freshly isolated rat aortic ring, exposure to nanomolar MMA(III) (100-500 nM) potentiated phenylephrine (PE)-induced vasoconstriction while at higher concentrations (≥2.5 μM), suppression of vasoconstriction and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle were observed. Potentiation of agonist-induced vasoconstriction was also observed with other contractile agonists and it was retained in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, suggesting that these events are agonist-independent and smooth muscle cell dependent. Interestingly, exposure to MMA(III) resulted in increased myosin light chain phosphorylation while PE-induced Ca2+ influx was not affected, reflecting that Ca2+ sensitization is involved. In line with this, MMA(III) enhanced agonist-induced activation of small GTPase RhoA, a key contributor to Ca2+ sensitization. Of note, treatment of MMA(III) to rats induced significantly higher pressor responses in vivo, demonstrating that this event can occur in vivo indeed. We believe that RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization and the resultant potentiation of vasoconstriction by MMA(III) may shed light on arsenic-associated hypertension. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. COMPARISON OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE WITH FENTANYL IN ATTENUATION OF PRESSOR RESPONSE TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION

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    Sumathi Natta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation elicits a haemodynamic response associated with increased heart rate and blood pressure. The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of intravenous dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in attenuation of stress response to laryngoscopy and intubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study was carried out on 60 patients belonging to ASA grade I & II, aged 15 to 65 years including either gender scheduled for elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia in Osmania General Hospital. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Group D received 0.6g/kg dexmedetomidine and Group F received 2 g/kg fentanyl diluted in 10 mL normal saline 10 minutes before laryngoscopy and intubation. Anaesthesia was standardised in both groups and vital parameters heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were recorded preoperatively, during intubation and up to 10 minutes after intubation. RESULTS The groups were well matched for their demographic data. It was observed that increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure after intubation was highly significant in fentanyl group as compared to dexmedetomidine. There was a statistically significant difference (P <0.05 between dexmedetomidine and fentanyl groups in heart rate, systolic, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure at all time points after tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION Both the drugs attenuated the pressor response. Among the two drugs administered dexmedetomidine 0.6 µg/kg provides reliable and effective attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation when compared to fentanyl in a dose of 2 µg/kg.

  8. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

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    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  9. ATTENUATION OF PRESSOR RESPONSE DURING LARYNGOSCOPY AND ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION WITH INTRAVENOUS DEXMEDETOMIDINE- A CLINICAL STUDY

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    Balasubramanyam V

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngoscopic manipulation and endotracheal intubation are very painful stimuli capable of producing tachycardia, arrhythmia and hypertension. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of single premedication dose of I. V dexmedetomidine in attenuating pressor response to laryngoscopy & endotracheal intubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out at S.V. Medical College, Tirupati for one year period. The study was undertaken after obtaining ethical committee clearance as well as written informed consent from all patients. 60 patients in the age group 20-40 yrs. of either sex, belonging to ASA grade I and II scheduled for elective surgical procedures under General anaesthesia were included. 60 patients aged between 20 to 40 years belonging to ASA grade I & II were randomly divided into 2 groups, each group consists of 30 patients Group I (Saline group 100 ml normal saline infused, Group II (Dexmedetomidine group 1 mcg/kg in 100 ml normal saline infused over 15 min. The hemodynamic parameters were monitored from baseline upto 10 min after intubation. RESULTS Demographic data were analysed by student’s t test. Analysis of variance for repeated measures (ANOVA was used to analyse changes over time. The statistical software SPSS version 16.0 was used for the analysis of the data and Microsoft Word and Excel have been used to generate graphs, tables etc. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between dexmedetomidine and normal saline in heart rate, systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure at all time points after tracheal intubation with dexmedetomidine. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine in the dose of 1 μg/kg as IV infusion, given 15 minutes before induction can be used safely to attenuate the pressor response to laryngoscopy and intubation without significant side effects.

  10. Comparison of dexmedetomidine and lignocaine on attenuation of airway and pressor responses during tracheal extubation

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    Vivek Bharti Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemodynamic stability and rapid emergence after general anaesthesia used in spinal surgery is a common practice, the goal of which is to permit early neurological motor and sensory examination. Extubation is almost always associated with hypertension, increased airway response and arrhythmias. We have compared the effects of the α-2 agonist Dexmedetomidine and Lignocaine given at the end of the procedure on attenuation of airway and pressor responses following tracheal extubation. This study is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA I-III patients, aged 18-70 years, scheduled to undergo spinal surgery at the level of thoracic, lumbar or sacral region were randomly divided into three groups. Balanced general anaesthesia comprising standard procedures and drugs were used for monitoring, induction and maintenance. At the last skin suture, inhalation anaesthetic was discontinued. After turning the patient supine and return of spontaneous efforts, in Group D Dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg/kg, in Group L Lignocaine 1.5 mg/kg and in Group P normal saline (10 ml were administered as bolus intravenously over 60 seconds. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures and heart rate were recorded before intravenous administration and also every minute for 3 minutes, at 5, 10 and 15 minutes post-extubation. Duration of emergence and extubation were noted and attenuation of airway response and quality of extubation was evaluated on cough grading. Results: Mean arterial pressures and heart rate were higher in Group L and Group P than in Group D but not statistically significant. The duration of emergence, extubation and recovery were comparable in all the groups (P > 0.05. Extubation Quality Scores was 1 in 80%, 2 in 20% in Group D; in Group L, the quality scores were 1 for 55%, 2 for 45% and I Group P 1 for 35%, 2 for 45% and 3 for 20% of the patients. The requirement of rescue analgesia was also less

  11. Mild dehydration modifies the cerebrovascular response to the cold pressor test.

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    Perry, Blake G; Bear, Tracey L K; Lucas, Samuel J E; Mündel, Toby

    2016-01-01

    The cold pressor test (CPT) is widely used in clinical practice and physiological research. It is characterized by a robust autonomic response, with associated increases in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv(mean)). Hydration status is not commonly reported when conducting this test, yet blood viscosity alone can modulate MCAv(mean), potentially modifying the MCAv(mean) response to the CPT. We investigated the effect of mild dehydration on the physiological response to the CPT in 10 healthy men (mean ± SD: age 28 ± 5 years; body mass 83 ± 5 kg). All participants completed two CPTs, cold water (0°C) immersion of both feet for 90 s, with the order of the euhydration and dehydration trials counterbalanced. Beat-to-beat MCAv, MAP, HR and breath-by-breath partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (P(ET,CO2)) were measured continuously. Participants' pain perception was measured 1 min into the CPT using a visual analog scale (no pain = 0; maximal pain = 10). Dehydration significantly elevated plasma osmolality and urine specific gravity and reduced body mass (all P 0.05). After 90 s of immersion, the change in MCAv(mean) from baseline was less in the dehydration compared with the euhydration trial (change 0 ± 5 versus 7 ± 7 cm s(-1), P = 0.01), as was P(ET,CO2) (change -3 ± 2 versus 0 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.02). Dehydration was associated with greater relative pain sensation during the CPT (7.0 ± 1.3 vs 5.8 ± 1.8, P = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that mild dehydration can modify the cerebrovascular response to the CPT, with dehydration increasing perceived pain, lowering P ET ,CO2 and, ultimately, blunting the MCAv(mean) response. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. Attenuation of pressor response and dose sparing of opioids and anaesthetics with pre-operative dexmedetomidine

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    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Alpha-2 agonists are being increasingly used as adjuncts in general anaesthesia, and the present study was carried out to investigate the ability of intravenous dexmedetomidine in decreasing the dose of opioids and anaesthetics for attenuation of haemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Methods: One hundred patients scheduled for elective general surgery were randomized into two groups: D and F (n=50 in each group. Group D were administered 1 μg/kg each of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl while group F received 2 μg/kg of fentanyl pre-operatively. Thiopental was given until eyelash reflex disappeared. Anaesthesia was maintained with 33:66 oxygen: nitrous oxide. Isoflurane concentration was adjusted to maintain systolic blood pressure within 20% of the pre-operative values. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded at regular intervals during induction, intubation, surgery and extubation. Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance, chi-square test, Student′s t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The demographic profile was comparable. The pressor response to laryngoscopy, intubation, surgery and extubation were effectively decreased by dexmedetomidine, and were highly significant on comparison (P50% by the administration of dexmedetomidine. The mean recovery time was also shorter in group D as compared with group F (P=0.014. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine is an excellent drug as it not only decreased the magnitude of haemodynamic response to intubation, surgery and extubation but also decreased the dose of opioids and isoflurane in achieving adequate analgesia and anaesthesia, respectively.

  13. Inactivation of the EP3 receptor attenuates the Angiotensin II pressor response via decreasing arterial contractility

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    Chen, Lihong; Miao, Yifei; Zhang, Yahua; Dou, Dou; Liu, Limei; Tian, Xiaoyu; Yang, Guangrui; Pu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Kang, Jihong; Gao, Yuansheng; Wang, Shiqiang; Breyer, Matthew D.; Wang, Nanping; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Yu; Breyer, Richard M; Guan, Youfei

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present studies aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor subtype 3 (EP3) in regulating blood pressure. Methods and Results Mice bearing a genetic disruption of the EP3 gene (EP3−/−) exhibited reduced baseline mean arterial pressure monitored by both tail-cuff and carotid arterial catheterization. The pressor responses induced by EP3 agonists M&B28767 and sulprostone were markedly attenuated in EP3−/− mice, while the reduction of BP induced by PGE2 was comparable in both genotypes. Vasopressor effect of acute or chronic infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) was attenuated in EP3−/− mice. AngII–induced vasoconstriction in mesenteric arteries decreased in EP3−/− group. In mesenteric arteries from wild type mice, AngII–induced vasoconstriction was inhibited by EP3 selective antagonist DG-041 or L798106. The expression of Arhgef-1 is attenuated in EP3 deficient mesenteric arteries. EP3 antagonist DG-041 diminished AngII-induced phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 in isolated mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), AngII induced intracellular Ca2+ increase was potentiated by EP3 agonist sulprostone, while inhibited by DG-041. Conclusions Activation of the EP3 receptor raises baseline blood pressure and contributes to AngII-dependent hypertension at least partially via enhancing Ca2+ sensitivity and intracellular calcium concentration in VSMCs. Selective targeting of the EP3 receptor may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension. PMID:23065824

  14. Excitatory amino acid receptor blockade within the caudal pressor area and rostral ventrolateral medulla alters cardiovascular responses to nucleus raphe obscurus stimulation in rats

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    Silva N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressor responses elicited by stimulation of the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO depend on the integrity of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. Therefore, to test the participation of excitatory amino acid (EAA receptors in the cardiovascular responses evoked by NRO stimulation (1 ms, 100 Hz, 40-70 µA, for 10 s, the EAA antagonist kynurenic acid (Kyn was microinjected at different sites in the ventrolateral medullar surface (2.7 nmol/200 nl of male Wistar rats (270-320 g, N = 39 and NRO stimulation was repeated. The effects of NRO stimulation were: hypertension (deltaMAP = +43 ± 1 mmHg, P<0.01, bradycardia (deltaHR = -30 ± 7 bpm, P<0.01 and apnea. Bilateral microinjection of Kyn into the RVLM, which did not change baseline parameters, almost abolished the bradycardia induced by NRO stimulation (deltaHR = -61 ± 3 before vs -2 ± 3 bpm after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. Unilateral microinjection of Kyn into the CVLM did not change baseline parameters or reduce the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 5 before vs +48 ± 5 mmHg after Kyn, N = 6. Kyn bilaterally microinjected into the caudal pressor area reduced blood pressure and heart rate and almost abolished the pressor response to NRO stimulation (deltaMAP = +46 ± 4 mmHg before vs +4 ± 2 mmHg after Kyn, P<0.01, N = 7. These results indicate that EAA receptors on the medullary ventrolateral surface play a role in the modulation of the cardiovascular responses induced by NRO stimulation, and also suggest that the RVLM participates in the modulation of heart rate responses and that the caudal pressor area modulates the pressor response following NRO stimulation.

  15. Potentiation of the pressor response to stress by tolbutamide in dogs.

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    Lee, K C; Randall, D C

    1993-01-01

    Tolbutamide has previously been shown to amplify the pressor effects of "exogenous" catecholamines in conscious dogs, possibly due to sensitization of the alpha 1-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. The objective of this study was to examine if tolbutamide also amplifies the pressor effects of "endogenous" catecholamines released during psychological stress (classical Pavlovian aversive conditioning). Experiments were conducted in beta-adrenoreceptor-blocked (propranolol, 1 mg/kg, i.v.) conscious dogs (n = 4) trained in classical aversive conditioning. Conditioning was accomplished by following a tone (CS+) with a 1/2 second shock; another tone (CS-) was not followed by any shock and served as control. With saline pretreatment, aversive conditioning (i.e., CS+) increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) only by approximately 4.7% when compared to CS-, whereas with tolbutamide (45 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment, the increase in MAP induced by CS+ beyond what was induced by the CS- (approximately 6.2%) was significantly (p dogs, possibly by sensitization of the alpha 1-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasoconstriction. This mechanism of action is novel and has not been reported with other agents.

  16. Cardiovascular and sympathetic neural responses to handgrip and cold pressor stimuli in humans before, during and after spaceflight

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    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Cox, James F.; Zuckerman, Julie H.; Ray, Chester A.; Smith, Michael L.; Iwase, Satoshi; hide

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts returning to Earth have reduced orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system and neuromuscular function after spaceflight might contribute to this problem. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs autonomic neural control of sympathetic outflow in response to peripheral afferent stimulation produced by handgrip and a cold pressor test in humans. We studied five astronauts approximately 72 and 23 days before, and on landing day after the 16 day Neurolab (STS-90) space shuttle mission, and four of the astronauts during flight (day 12 or 13). Heart rate, arterial pressure and peroneal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded before and during static handgrip sustained to fatigue at 40 % of maximum voluntary contraction, followed by 2 min of circulatory arrest pre-, in- and post-flight. The cold pressor test was applied only before (five astronauts) and during flight (day 12 or 13, four astronauts). Mean (+/- S.E.M.) baseline heart rates and arterial pressures were similar among pre-, in- and post-flight measurements. At the same relative fatiguing force, the peak systolic pressure and mean arterial pressure during static handgrip were not different before, during and after spaceflight. The peak diastolic pressure tended to be higher post- than pre-flight (112 +/- 6 vs. 99 +/- 5 mmHg, P = 0.088). Contraction-induced rises in heart rate were similar pre-, in- and post-flight. MSNA was higher post-flight in all subjects before static handgrip (26 +/- 4 post- vs. 15 +/- 4 bursts min(-1) pre-flight, P = 0.017). Contraction-evoked peak MSNA responses were not different before, during, and after spaceflight (41 +/- 4, 38 +/- 5 and 46 +/- 6 bursts min(-1), all P > 0.05). MSNA during post-handgrip circulatory arrest was higher post- than pre- or in-flight (41 +/- 1 vs. 33 +/- 3 and 30 +/- 5 bursts min(-1), P = 0.038 and 0.036). Similarly, responses of MSNA and blood pressure

  17. Effects of playing video games on pain response during a cold pressor task.

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    Raudenbush, Bryan; Koon, Jerrod; Cessna, Trevor; McCombs, Kristin

    2009-04-01

    Two studies assessed whether playing video games would significantly distract participants from painful stimulation via a cold pressor test. In Study 1, participants (8 men, 22 women, M age = 18.5 yr., SD = 1.3) in an action-oriented game condition tolerated pain for a longer time period and reported lower pain intensity ratings than those in a nonaction-oriented game or a nongame control condition. No differences were found on scores of aggressiveness, competitiveness, or prior video game experience, suggesting that these factors play little role. In Study 2, participants (14 men, 13 women, M age = 19.7 yr., SD = 1.3) engaged in six video game conditions (action, fighting, puzzle, sports, arcade, and boxing) and a nongame control condition. Video game play produced an increase in pulse, which was greatest during the action, fighting, sports, and boxing games. Pain tolerance was greatest during the sports and fighting games. Thus, certain games produce greater distraction, which may have implications for the medical field as an adjunct to pain management.

  18. A pivotal role for enhanced brainstem Orexin receptor 1 signaling in the central cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated pressor response in conscious rats.

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    Ibrahim, Badr Mostafa; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A

    2015-10-05

    Orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) signaling is implicated in cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) modulation of feeding. Further, our studies established the dependence of the central CB1R-mediated pressor response on neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the RVLM. Here, we tested the novel hypothesis that brainstem orexin-A/OX1R signaling plays a pivotal role in the central CB1R-mediated pressor response. Our multiple labeling immunofluorescence findings revealed co-localization of CB1R, OX1R and the peptide orexin-A within the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Activation of central CB1R following intracisternal (i.c.) WIN55,212-2 (15μg/rat) in conscious rats caused significant increases in BP and orexin-A level in RVLM neuronal tissue. Additional studies established a causal role for orexin-A in the central CB1R-mediated pressor response because (i) selective blockade of central CB1R (AM251, 30μg/rat; i.c.) abrogated WIN55,212-2-evoked increases in RVLM orexin-A level, (ii) the selective OX1R antagonist SB-408124 (10nmol/rat; i.c.) attenuated orexin-A (3nmol/rat; i.c.) or WIN55,212-2 (15μg/rat; i.c.)-evoked pressor response while selective CB1R blockade (AM251) had no effect on orexin-A (3nmol/rat; i.c.)-evoked pressor response, (iii) direct CB1R activation in the RVLM (WIN55,212-2; 0.1μg/rat) increased RVLM orexin-A and BP. Finally, SB-408124 attenuated WIN55,212-2-evoked increases in RVLM nNOS and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and BP. Our findings suggest that orexin-A/OX1R dependent activation of the RVLM nNOS/ERK1/2 cascade is essential neurochemical mechanism for the central CB1R-mediated pressor response in conscious rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bradykinin Contributes to Sympathetic and Pressor Responses Evoked by Activation of Skeletal Muscle Afferents P2X in Heart Failure

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    Jihong Xing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Published data suggest that purinergic P2X receptors of muscle afferent nerves contribute to the enhanced sympathetic nervous activity (SNA and blood pressure (BP responses during static exercise in heart failure (HF. In this study, we examined engagement of bradykinin (BK in regulating responses of SNA and BP evoked by P2X stimulation in rats with HF. We further examined cellular mechanisms responsible for BK. We hypothesized that BK potentiates P2X currents of muscle dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons, and this effect is greater in HF due to upregulation of BK kinin B2 and P2X3 receptor. As a result, BK amplifies muscle afferents P2X-mediated SNA and BP responses. Methods: Renal SNA and BP responses were recorded in control rats and rats with HF. Western Blot analysis and patch-clamp methods were employed to examine the receptor expression and function of DRG neurons involved in the effects of BK. Results: BK injected into the arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles heightened the reflex SNA and BP responses induced by P2X activation with α,β-methylene ATP to a greater degree in HF rats. In addition, HF upregulated the protein expression of kinin B2 and P2X3 in DRG and the prior application of BK increased the magnitude of α,β-methylene ATP-induced currents in muscle DRG neurons from HF rats. Conclusion: BK plays a facilitating role in modulating muscle afferent P2X-engaged reflex sympathetic and pressor responses. In HF, P2X responsivness is augmented due to increases in expression of kinin B2 and P2X3 receptors and P2X current activity.

  20. Acute nicotine induced pressor response is in part due to interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arterial baro-reception is regarded as one of the most powerful rapidly acting homeostatic mechanism regulating blood pressure. Investigation had suggested that nicotine may interact with aortic baro-receptors to produce its sustained presser response, an effect that had received little attention. Anaesthetized Wister albino ...

  1. Attenuation of pressor response following intubation: Efficacy of nitro-glycerine lingual spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that the NTG lingual spray in dose of 0.4 mg (1 spray or 0.8 mg (2 sprays was effective in attenuation of intubation induced hemodynamic response, in terms of preventing significant rise in SBP, DBP and MAP compared to control group.

  2. Attenuation of pressor response following intubation: Efficacy of nitro-glycerine lingual spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indira; Naithani, Udita; Dadheech, Vinod Kumar; Pradeep, D S; Meena, Khemraj; Verma, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitro-glycerine (NTG) lingual spray for attenuation of the hemodynamic response associated with intubation is not much investigated. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of NTG lingual pump or pen spray in attenuation of intubation induced hemodynamic responses and to elucidate the optimum dose. In a prospective randomized controlled trial, 90 adult patients of ASA I, II, 18-60 year posted for elective general surgery under general anesthesia with intubation were randomly allocated to three groups as Group C (control) - receiving no NTG spray, Group N1 - receiving 1 NTG spray and Group N2 - receiving 2 NTG spray one minute before intubation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate were recorded at baseline, just before intubation (i.e., 60 s just after induction and NTG spray), immediately after intubation, at 1, 2, 5 and 10 min after intubation. Incidence of hypertension was significantly higher in Group C (60%, n = 18) as compared to Group N1 and N2 (10%, n = 3 each), P N1 and N2. There was a trend toward fall in blood pressure in Group N2 (4.95% fall in SBP, 4.72% fall in MAP) 1-min following spray, which was clinically insignificant. Mean value of SBP, DBP and MAP was significantly higher in Group C than in Group N1, which was in turn greater than Group N2 (Group C > N1> N2), P N1 and 67.77% in Group N2, P > 0.05). We concluded that the NTG lingual spray in dose of 0.4 mg (1 spray) or 0.8 mg (2 sprays) was effective in attenuation of intubation induced hemodynamic response, in terms of preventing significant rise in SBP, DBP and MAP compared to control group.

  3. Local Injections of Superoxide Dismutase Attenuate the Exercise Pressor Reflex in Rats with Femoral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex. Our data show that femoral occlusion decreased the protein levels of SOD in ischemic muscle as compared with control muscle. Downregulation of SOD appeared to a greater degree in the oxidative (red muscle than in the glycolytic (white muscle under the condition of muscle ischemia. In addition, the exercise pressor response was assessed during electrically induced static contraction. The data demonstrates that the enhancement of the exercise pressor reflex was significantly attenuated after tempol (a mimetic of SOD, 30 mg over a period of 72 h was administered into the occluded hindlimb. In the occluded rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP response was 26 ± 3 mmHg with no tempol and 12 ± 2 mmHg with tempol application (P < 0.05 vs. group with no tempol; n = 6 in each group. There were no differences in muscle tension development (time-tension index: 12.1 ± 1.2 kgs with no tempol and 13.5 ± 1.1 kgs with tempol; P > 0.05 between groups. In conclusion, SOD is lessened in the ischemic muscles and supplement of SOD improves the amplified exercise pressor reflex, which is likely beneficial to the restricted blood flow to the limbs in PAD.

  4. Selective enhancement of glutamate-mediated pressor responses after GABAA receptor blockade in the RVLM of sedentary versus spontaneous wheel running rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Patrick J.; Mischel, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a hallmark of many cardiovascular diseases. It is also well-known that physical inactivity independently contributes to cardiovascular diseases, likely in part via increased SNS activity. Recent work from our laboratory has demonstrated increased SNS responses in sedentary animals following either direct activation or disinhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), an integral cardiovascular brainstem region. These data led us to hypothesize that the interaction between excitation and inhibition of the RVLM is altered in sedentary versus physically active animals. To test this hypothesis, we recorded mean arterial pressure (MAP) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) in Inactin anesthetized rats that were housed for 8–12 weeks with or without access to a running wheel. Pressor responses to direct activation of the RVLM with glutamate were similar between groups under intact conditions. However, blockade of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors with bicuculline selectively enhanced pressor responses to glutamate in sedentary animals. Interestingly, LSNA responses to glutamate were not enhanced in sedentary versus active animals in the presence or absence of tonic GABAergic tone. These results suggest that sedentary compared to active conditions enhance GABAergic inhibition of glutamate-sensitive neurons in the RVLM that are involved in blood pressure regulation, and by mechanisms that do not involve LSNA. We also speculate that regular physical activity has differential effects on SNS activity to specific vascular beds and may reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases via changes occurring in the RVLM. PMID:23189062

  5. Contrasting actions of pressor agents in severe autonomic failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Norman, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension is the most disabling symptom of autonomic failure. The choice of a pressor agent is largely empiric, and it would be of great value to define predictors of a response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 35 patients with severe orthostatic hypotension due to multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure, we determined the effect on seated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of placebo, phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg and 25 mg), yohimbine (5.4 mg), indomethacin (50 mg), ibuprofen (600 mg), caffeine (250 mg), and methylphenidate (5 mg). In a subgroup of patients, we compared the pressor effect of midodrine (5 mg) with the effect of phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the pressor responses between patients with multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure. When compared with placebo, the pressor response was significant for phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin. In a subgroup of patients, we confirmed that this pressor effect of phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin corresponded to a significant increase in standing SBP. The pressor responses to ibuprofen, caffeine, and methylphenidate were not significantly different from placebo. Phenylpropanolamine and midodrine elicited similar pressor responses. There were no significant associations between drug response and autonomic function testing, postprandial hypotension, or plasma catecholamine levels. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that significant increases in systolic blood pressure can be obtained in patients with orthostatic hypotension due to primary autonomic failure with phenylpropanolamine in low doses or yohimbine or indomethacin in moderate doses. The response to a pressor agent cannot be predicted by autonomic function testing or plasma catecholamines. Therefore, empiric testing with a sequence of medications, based on the risk of side effects in the individual patient and the probability of a response, is a useful approach.

  6. Traditional games resulted in post-exercise hypotension and a lower cardiovascular response to the cold pressor test in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, Suliane B; Boullosa, Daniel A; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; de Moraes, José F V N; de Sousa, Ioranny R C; Simões, Herbert G; Campbell, Carmen S G

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to verify if blood pressure (BP) reactivity could be reduced through a previous single session of active playing when compared to sedentary leisure. Sixteen pre-pubertal healthy children participated in this study. After familiarization with procedures and anthropometric evaluation, participants performed three sessions in randomized order: (1) 30 min of traditional Brazilian games (PLAY); (2) 30 min of video game playing (DDR); and (3) 30 min of watching TV (TV). Each session lasted 80 min, being 10 min of rest; 30 min of intervention activity; and 40 min of recovery. After recovery, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) was used for the assessment of acute cardiovascular reactivity. BP was recorded at 30 s and 1 min during the CPT. Analysis of variance showed post-exercise hypotension (PEH) only after PLAY, and that systolic and diastolic BP were significantly increased in all conditions during CPT. However, the magnitude of the CPT-induced BP response was significantly less in PLAY compared to DDR and TV. The PEH observed during recovery and the reduced BP response to CPT following playing traditional games may be due its higher cardiovascular and metabolic demand as was indicated by the increased heart rate, oxygen consumption, and BP. It was concluded that BP reactivity to stress may be reduced through a previous single session of traditional games and that PEH was recorded only after this exercise form. This benefit indicates a potential role of playing strategies for cardiovascular health in childhood.

  7. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. TRADITIONAL GAMES RESULTED IN POST-EXERCISE HYPOTENSION AND A LOWER CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO THE COLD PRESSOR TEST IN HEALTHY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliane Beatriz Rauber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify if blood pressure (BP reactivity could be reduced through a previous single session of active playing when compared to sedentary leisure. Sixteen pre-pubertal healthy children participated in this study. After familiarization with procedures and anthropometric evaluation, participants performed three sessions in randomized order: 1 30 min of traditional Brazilian games (PLAY; 2 30 min of video game playing (DDR; and 3 30 min of watching TV (TV. Each session lasted ~80 minutes, being 10 min of rest; 30 min of intervention activity; and 40 min of recovery. After recovery, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used for the assessment of acute cardiovascular reactivity. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded at 30 s and 1 min during the CPT. Analysis of variance showed post-exercise hypotension (PEH only after PLAY, and that systolic and diastolic BP were significantly increased in all conditions during CPT. However, the magnitude of the CPT-induced blood pressure response was significantly less in PLAY compared to DDR and TV. The PEH observed during recovery and the reduced BP response to CPT following playing traditional games may be due its higher cardiovascular and metabolic demand as was indicated by the increased heart rate, oxygen consumption, and blood pressure. It was concluded that BP reactivity to stress may be reduced through a previous single session of traditional games and that PEH was recorded only after this exercise form. This benefit indicates a potential role of playing strategies for cardiovascular health in childhood.

  9. Human investigations into the exercise pressor reflex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels H; Amann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    . The importance of the exercise pressor reflex for tight cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise is supported by studies using pharmacological blockade of lower limb muscle afferent nerves. These experiments show attenuation of the increase in BP and cardiac output when exercise is performed......During exercise, neural input from skeletal muscles reflexly maintains or elevates blood pressure (BP) despite a maybe fivefold increase in vascular conductance. This exercise pressor reflex is illustrated by similar heart rate (HR) and BP responses to electrically induced and voluntary exercise...... with attenuated neural feedback. Additionally, there is no BP response to electrically induced exercise with paralysing epidural anaesthesia or when similar exercise is evoked in paraplegic patients. Furthermore, BP decreases when electrically induced exercise is carried out in tetraplegic patients. The lack...

  10. Measurement of coronary flow response to cold pressor stress in asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors using spiral velocity-encoded cine MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroules, Christopher D.; Peshock, Ronald M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)), e-mail: Ron.Peshock@UTSouthwestern.edu; Chang, Alice Y.; Kontak, Andrew (Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Dimitrov, Ivan; Kotys, Melanie (Dept. of Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    2010-05-15

    Background: Coronary sinus (CS) flow in response to a provocative stress has been used as a surrogate measure of coronary flow reserve, and velocity-encoded cine (VEC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established technique for measuring CS flow. In this study, the cold pressor test (CPT) was used to measure CS flow response because it elicits an endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation that may afford greater sensitivity for detecting early changes in coronary endothelial function. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and reproducibility of CS flow reactivity (CSFR) to CPT using spiral VEC MRI at 3 Tesla in a sample of asymptomatic women with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: Fourteen asymptomatic women (age 38 years +- 10) with cardiovascular risk factors were studied using 3D spiral VEC MRI of the CS at 3 T. The CPT was utilized as a provocative stress to measure changes in CS flow. CSFR to CPT was calculated from the ratio of CS flow during peak stress to baseline CS flow. Results: CPT induced a significant hemodynamic response as measured by a 45% increase in rate-pressure product (P<0.01). A significant increase in CS volume flow was also observed (baseline, 116 +- 26 ml/min; peak stress, 152 +- 34 ml/min, P=0.01). CSFR to CPT was 1.31 +- 0.20. Test-retest variability of CS volume flow was 5% at baseline and 6% during peak stress. Conclusion: Spiral CS VEC MRI at 3 T is a feasible and reproducible technique for measuring CS flow in asymptomatic women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Significant changes in CSFR to CPT are detectable, without demanding pharmacologic stress

  11. Detection of diminished response to cold pressor test in smokers: assessment using phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging of the coronary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Yoon, Yeonyee E; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nagata, Motonori; Takase, Shinichi; Nakamori, Shiro; Ito, Masaaki; Sakuma, Hajime

    2014-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the reproducibility for measuring the cold pressor test (CPT)-induced myocardial blood flow (MBF) alteration using phase-contrast (PC) cine MRI, and to determine if this approach could detect altered MBF response to CPT in smokers. After obtaining informed consent, ten healthy male non-smokers (mean age: 28±5 years) and ten age-matched male smokers (smoking duration ≥5 years, mean age: 28±3 years) were examined in this institutional review board approved study. Breath-hold PC cine MR images of the coronary sinus were obtained with a 3T MR imager with 32 channel coils at rest and during a CPT performed after immersing one foot in ice water. MBF was calculated as coronary sinus flow divided by the left ventricular (LV) mass which was given as a total LV myocardial volume measured on cine MRI multiplied by the specific gravity (1.05 g/mL). In non-smokers, MBF was 0.86±0.25 mL/min/g at rest, with a significant increase to 1.20±0.36 mL/min/g seen during CPT (percentage change of MBF (∆MBF (%)); 39.2%±14.4%, pcine MRI can be used to reproducibly quantify MBF response to CPT and to detect impaired flow response in smokers. This MR approach may be useful for monitoring the sequential change of coronary blood flow in various potentially pathologic conditions and for investigating its relationship with cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aging and Human Hormonal and Pressor Responsiveness to Angiotensin II Infusion With Simultaneous Measurement of Exogenous and Endogenous Angiotensin II

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Joseph; Nussberger, Juerg; Kilfeather, S.; O'Malley, K.

    2017-01-01

    A decline in the function of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system may induce adaptive changes in response to angiotensin II (ANG II) with age. We have examined platelet ANG II receptor density, blood pressure and aldosterone responses to ANG II [Asn1, Val5-ANG II] (Hypertensin, Ciba Geigy, Horsham, Sussex, England) infusion in 8 young, 24 to 30 years, and 8 older, 54 to 65 years, healthy volunteers. To measure circulating ANG II, we established a new method for specific and simultaneous m...

  13. TO STUDY EFFECT OF GABAPENTIN ON ATTENUATION OF PRESSOR RESPONSE TO DIRECT LARYNGOSCOPY AND TRACHEAL INTUBATION AND ON PERIOPERATIVE PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Chandapet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Endotracheal intubation was first described by Rowbotham and Magill in 1921. 1 In 1940 Reid and Brace first described hemodynamic response to Laryngoscopy and Intubation due to Noxious stimuli. 2 The circulatory responses to laryngeal and tracheal stimulation are due to sympathoadrenal stimulation. 3 Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation induces changes in circulating Catecholamine levels significantly. Norepinephrine, Epinephrine and Dopamine levels rise, but the raise in Norepinephrine levels is consistently associated with elevation of Blood pressure and Heart rate. 4 Even though the elevation in Blood pressure and Heart rate due to Laryngoscopy and Intubation are brief, they may have detrimental effects in high risk patients including Myocardial Infarction, Cardiac failure, Intracranial haemorrhage and increases in Intracranial pressure. 5 Many strategies have been advocated to minimize these hemodynamic adverse responses and aimed at different levels of the reflex arc. 6 Block of the peripheral sensory receptors and afferent input is by topical application and infiltration of Local Anaesthetic to Superior laryngeal nerve. Block of central mechanism of integration and sensory input by drugs like Fentanyl, Morphine etc. Block of efferent pathway and effector sites IV Lignocaine, Beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Hydralazine etc. No single drug or technique is satisfactory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Gabapentin in attenuating hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation in a placebo controlled double blind study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A clinical comparative study of attenuation of sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation was done in 150 patients posted for elective surgery divided into two groups and were randomly allocated Group 1 – placebo capsules with sugar and Group 2 – Gabapentin 300 mg capsules. Heart rate, systolic, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure were

  14. Pressor Response to Noradrenaline in the Setting of Septic Shock: Anything New under the Sun—Dexmedetomidine, Clonidine? A Minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Géloën

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress over the last 50 years has led to a decline in mortality from ≈70% to ≈20% in the best series of patients with septic shock. Nevertheless, refractory septic shock still carries a mortality close to 100%. In the best series, the mortality appears related to multiple organ failure linked to comorbidities and/or an intense inflammatory response: shortening the period that the subject is exposed to circulatory instability may further lower mortality. Treatment aims at reestablishing circulation within a “central” compartment (i.e., brain, heart, and lung but fails to reestablish a disorganized microcirculation or an adequate response to noradrenaline, the most widely used vasopressor. Indeed, steroids, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, or donors have not achieved overwhelming acceptance in the setting of septic shock. Counterintuitively, α2-adrenoceptor agonists were shown to reduce noradrenaline requirements in two cases of human septic shock. This has been replicated in rat and sheep models of sepsis. In addition, some data show that α2-adrenoceptor agonists lead to an improvement in the microcirculation. Evidence-based documentation of the effects of alpha-2 agonists is needed in the setting of human septic shock.

  15. Aging and human hormonal and pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II infusion with simultaneous measurement of exogenous and endogenous angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, J; Nussberger, J; Kilfeather, S; O'Malley, K

    1993-08-01

    A decline in the function of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system may induce adaptive changes in response to angiotensin II (ANG II) with age. We have examined platelet ANG II receptor density, blood pressure and aldosterone responses to ANG II [Asn1, Val5-ANG II] (Hypertensin, Ciba Geigy, Horsham, Sussex, England) infusion in 8 young, 24 to 30 years, and 8 older, 54 to 65 years, healthy volunteers. To measure circulating ANG II, we established a new method for specific and simultaneous measurement of exogenous [Asn1, Val5] (Hypertensin) and endogenous [Asp1,Ile5] ANG II in plasma by using isocratic HPLC and radioimmunoassays with cross-reacting antibodies and compared results with immunoreactive ANG II which was measured conventionally using monoclonal antibodies. Baseline endogenous ANG II (Asp1,Ile5-ANG II) levels in venous plasma were marginally, but not significantly, lower in the old [mean (95% confidence limits): 3.4 (Hypertensin infusion appeared consistently, but not significantly, lower in the old [0.9 (0 to 3.1) v 2.1 (0.6 to 3.7), after 3 ng/kg/min], while the same infusion rate in young and old resulted in similar plasma Hypertensin levels. Baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) was similar in both groups but the percentage increases in SBP at infusion rates of 1, 3.0, and 10 ng/kg/min were greater in the old than in the young (9.1 v 2.8, P < .05; 16.3 v 8.0, P < .01; 30.4 v 14.0%, P < .001, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. L-arginine increases endothelial nitric oxide production and reduces blood pressure of rest without changing the exercise pressor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Mota de Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available L-arginine supplementation has been proposed to improve endothelial. The hypothesis that L-arginine also improves post-exercise hypotension (PEH in hypertensive individuals was tested in this study. Physically active hypertensive women were divided into supplemented (SUP (n = 12, 50 ± 1.8 years and placebo (PLA (n = 14, 51.5 ± 1.6 years groups performing two walking sessions at moderate intensity with interval of 32 days between sessions. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure (BP was measured before and after exercise. In the period between sessions, they remained physically active and received daily 6g of L-arginine or placebo. PLA showed no change in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration and blood pressure at rest or in response to exercise. SUP showed increased basal nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration (26.6 ± 2 to 44.6 ± 4µM, p < .05, which was followed by reduction of basal BP (137/86.2 to 125.8/79mmHg, p < .05. The exercise performed before supplementation did not change the serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. After supplementation, the exercise promoted increases in levels from 44.6 ± 4 to 51.8 ± 6µM (p < .05. However, it did not change the PEH. L-arginine supplementation improves the nitrite/nitrate production and decreases the resting BP, but does not change the PEH in hypertensive middle-aged women.

  17. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Amygdala Functional Connectivity is Reduced After the Cold Pressor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Schoeke, Andrej; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala forms a crucial link between central pain and stress systems. There is much evidence that psychological stress affects amygdala activity, but it is less clear how painful stressors influence subsequent amygdala functional connectivity. In the present study, we used pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) to investigate differences in healthy male adults’ resting-state amygdala functional connectivity following a cold pressor versus control task, with the stressor and control conditions conducted on different days. During the period of peak cortisol response to acute stress (approximately fifteen to thirty minutes after stressor onset), participants were asked to rest for six minutes with their eyes closed during a PASL scanning sequence. The cold pressor task led to reduced resting-state functional connectivity between the amygdalae and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), which occurred irrespective of cortisol release. The stressor also induced greater inverse connectivity between the left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a brain region implicated in the down-regulation of amygdala responsivity. Furthermore, the degree of post-stressor left amygdala decoupling with the lateral OFC varied according to self-reported pain intensity during the cold pressor task. These findings indicate that the cold pressor task alters amygdala interactions with prefrontal and ACC regions 15–30 minutes after the stressor, and that these altered functional connectivity patterns are related to pain perception rather than cortisol feedback. PMID:23645370

  19. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  20. Effects of cold-pressor and mental arithmetic on pupillary light reflex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B C; Daluwatte, C; Colona, N C; Yao, D G

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR) is a simple neurological test that can be useful for assessment of autonomic disorders. In this study, we investigated the changes in PLR induced by mental arithmetic task and cold pressor trials which are often applied in research as model systems to elicit autonomic responses. PLR was recorded before, during and after mental arithmetic and cold pressor tasks in 20 healthy adults (ten males and ten females). Stress-induced sympathetic activation was evident as shown in the increased blood pressure during both tasks. Although the pupillary constriction amplitude did not show significant changes, both constriction time and redilation time changed during the tasks. A significant gender effect was observed in cold pressor that suggested more sympathetic activation in males and faster parasympathetic activation in females in response to light stimulation under cold pressor. (paper)

  1. Effects of cold-pressor and mental arithmetic on pupillary light reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B C; Daluwatte, C; Colona, N C; Yao, D G

    2013-08-01

    Dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR) is a simple neurological test that can be useful for assessment of autonomic disorders. In this study, we investigated the changes in PLR induced by mental arithmetic task and cold pressor trials which are often applied in research as model systems to elicit autonomic responses. PLR was recorded before, during and after mental arithmetic and cold pressor tasks in 20 healthy adults (ten males and ten females). Stress-induced sympathetic activation was evident as shown in the increased blood pressure during both tasks. Although the pupillary constriction amplitude did not show significant changes, both constriction time and redilation time changed during the tasks. A significant gender effect was observed in cold pressor that suggested more sympathetic activation in males and faster parasympathetic activation in females in response to light stimulation under cold pressor.

  2. A bispectral index guided comparison of target-controlled versus manually-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil for attenuation of pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in non cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Yeganeh

    2006-12-01

    difference only at T0 and T1 between two groups. Also, heart rate in MCI group was higher than that in TCI group at T1 and T2. Mean used propofol was 128.10 ± 11.30 mg in MCI group versus 140.90 ± 16.21 mg in TCI group (P<0.05 and the least BIS value recorded was 31.4 ± 10 in MCI group versus 42.5 ± 12.3 in TCI group (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Hypotension in MCI group was seen more frequently than that in TCI group after induction and before laryngoscopy (T0. Hypertension and tachycardia were seen in MCI group more commonly than those in TCI group after laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Then, we recommend TCI technique in high risk patients for attenuation of the pressor response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Also, we recommend further researches in other educational centers to compare the effect-site TCI with plasmatic TCI in controlling pressor response. KEY WORDS: Anesthetic techniques, intravenous infusion, target-controlled infusion, propofol, remifentanil, bispectral index.

  3. Sebastian syndrome with abnormal platelet response to ristocetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Rachel; Shunkwiler, Sara M; Harris, Neil S; Kedar, Amos; Clapp, William L

    2008-01-01

    Sebastian syndrome is characterized by enlarged platelets and Döhle-like body leukocyte inclusions. This syndrome is an MYH-9-related disease, a group that also includes May-Hegglin anomaly and Fechtner syndrome. The differential diagnosis of the MYH-9 diseases requires ultrastructural studies. Certain in vitro aggregation responses may be abnormal in these conditions. A 6-month-old boy presented with macrothrombocytopenia but no overt bleeding tendency. Giant platelets and Döhle-like body leukocyte inclusions were present in blood smears from both the patient and his mother. Electron microscopy confirmed ultrastructural features consistent with Sebastian syndrome. Platelet aggregation studies were normal except for an impaired response to the agonist ristocetin. In this patient peripheral blood analyses and platelet aggregation studies revealed disease features shared with the Bernard-Soulier syndrome, but this syndrome was excluded by cellsurface glycoprotein analysis.

  4. Selective enhancement of glutamate-mediated pressor responses after GABAA receptor blockade in the RVLM of sedentary versus spontaneous wheel running rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Patrick J.; Mischel, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a hallmark of many cardiovascular diseases. It is also well-known that physical inactivity independently contributes to cardiovascular diseases, likely in part via increased SNS activity. Recent work from our laboratory has demonstrated increased SNS responses in sedentary animals following either direct activation or disinhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), an integral cardiovascular brainstem region. These data led us...

  5. [The effect of ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and calcium antagonists on the responses to pressor stress tests in the elderly hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Kuwajima, I; Aono, T; Toyoshima, T; Ozawa, T

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to elucidate the effects of antihypertensive drugs on the hemodynamics in elderly hypertensive patients. Forty-two elderly hypertensives (mean 72 +/- 5 years) were given either ACE inhibitors (A group: perindopril in 10 and captopril in 4 cases), beta blockers (B group: arotinolol in 15 cases) or calcium antagonists (C group: nifedipine in 3 and nitrendipine in 10 cases) for 8-12 weeks. The responses to handgrip and mental arithmetic stress and cardiac functional changes were determined by echocardiography before and after the medications. The decrease in blood pressure at rest and on the stress tests was similar among the three groups, though the hemodynamic responses to the stress tests showed some differences. In the A group, no hemodynamic changes were seen either at rest or on the stress tests after the medication. In the B group, the heart rate and the cardiac output were decreased at rest, and the increase of them on the stress tests were diminished after the medication. On the contrary, the heart rate and the cardiac output were increased, and showed exaggerated responses on the stress tests in the C group. In conclusion, in antihypertensive treatment of elderly hypertensive patients it is important to consider the effects of the antihypertensive drugs on the hemodynamics, although the comparable decrease in blood pressure is expected.

  6. Abnormal Neural Responses to Social Exclusion in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, Victoria B.; Waiter, Gordon; Kumar, Poornima; Stickle, Catriona; Milders, Maarten; Matthews, Keith; Reid, Ian; Hall, Jeremy; Steele, J. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and are associated with reduced quality of life. Core symptoms such as delusions usually have a social content. However little is known about the neural underpinnings of social abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of social exclusion in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent fMRI while participating in a popular social exclusion paradigm. This task involves passing a ‘ball’ between the participant and two cartoon representations of other subjects. The extent of social exclusion (ball not being passed to the participant) was parametrically varied throughout the task. Replicating previous findings, increasing social exclusion activated the mPFC in controls. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to modulate mPFC responses with increasing exclusion. Furthermore, the blunted response to exclusion correlated with increased severity of positive symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that the neural response to social exclusion differs in schizophrenia, highlighting the mPFC as a potential substrate of impaired social interactions. PMID:22916139

  7. Abnormal Neurocirculatory Control During Exercise in Humans with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeanie; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neurocirculatory control during exercise is one important mechanism leading to exercise intolerance in patients with both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review will provide an overview of mechanisms underlying abnormal neurocirculatory and hemodynamic responses to exercise in patients with kidney disease. Recent studies have shown that ESRD and CKD patients have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP) during both isometric and rhythmic exercise. Subsequent studies examining the role of the exercise pressor reflex in the augmented pressor response revealed that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was not augmented during exercise in these patients, and metaboreflex-mediated increases in MSNA were blunted, while mechanoreflex-mediated increases were preserved under basal conditions. However, normalizing the augmented BP response during exercise via infusion of nitroprusside (NTP), and thereby equalizing baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA, an important modulator of the final hemodynamic response to exercise, revealed that CKD patients had an exaggerated increase in MSNA during isometric and rhythmic exercise. In addition, mechanoreflex-mediated control was augmented, and metaboreceptor blunting was no longer apparent in CKD patients with baroreflex normalization. Factors leading to mechanoreceptor sensitization, and other mechanisms underlying the exaggerated exercise pressor response, such as impaired functional sympatholysis, should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25458430

  8. NEUROTRANSMITTER ABNORMALITIES AND RESPONSE TO SUPPLEMENTATION IN SPG11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderver, Adeline; Tonduti, Davide; Auerbach, Sarah; Schmidt, Johanna L.; Parikh, Sumit; Gowans, Gordon C.; Jackson, Kelly E.; Brock, Pamela L.; Patterson, Marc; Nehrebecky, Michelle; Godfrey, Rena; Zein, Wadih M.; Gahl, William; Toro, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the detection of secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in a group of SPG11 patients and describe treatment with L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin. Design Case reports Setting National Institutes of Health in the context of the Undiagnosed Disease Program; Children’s National Medical Center in the context of Myelin Disorders Bioregistry Program Patients Four SPG11 patients with a clinical picture of progressive spastic paraparesis complicated by extrapyramidal symptoms and maculopathy Interventions L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin Results 3/4 patients presented secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities; 4/4 partially responded to L-dopa as well as sapropterin Conclusions In the SPG11 patient with extrapyramidal symptoms, a trial of L-dopa/carbidopa and sapropterin and/or evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters should be considered. PMID:22749184

  9. Abnormal Cell Responses and Role of TNF-α in Impaired Diabetic Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fanxing; Zhang, Chenying; Graves, Dana T.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired diabetic wound healing constitutes a major health problem. The impaired healing is caused by complex factors such as abnormal keratinocyte and fibroblast migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, abnormal macrophage polarization, impaired recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and decreased vascularization. Diabetes-enhanced and prolonged expression of TNF-α also contributes to impaired healing. In this paper, we discuss the abnormal cell responses in diabetic wound healing and the contribution of TNF-α. PMID:23484152

  10. Abnormal Cardiovascular Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Responses to Physical and Emotional Stimuli in Depersonalization Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depersonalization disorder (DPD is characterized by subjective unreality, disembodiment, emotional numbing and reduced psychogenic sympathoexcitation. 3 related experiments used physical and emotional challenges in 14 DPD participants and 16 controls to elucidate whether the cardiovascular sympathetic (SNS and parasympathetic (PNS nervous systems are implicated in DPD and if blunted DPD sympathoexcitation is peripherally or centrally mediated. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Dissociative Experience Scale (DES and Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS. Study I recorded heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP during 5mins supine baseline, 3mins handgrip (HG, 3mins cold pressor (CP and 5mins 60°head-up tilt (HUT. Study II recorded HR, BP and heart rate variability (HRV during 5mins HUT and unpleasant images. Study III examined HR and BP orienting responses (ORs to HUT and unpleasant, neutral and pleasant images. DPD BAI (p=0.0004, DES (p=.0002 and CDS (p=< 0.0001 scores were higher than controls. The DPD group produced diminished diastolic BP (DBP (p=0.045 increases to HG. Other indices were comparable between groups. DPD participants produced diminished systolic BP (SBP (p=0.003 and DBP (p=0.002 increases, but greater (p=0.004 HR increases to CP. In study II, DPD high frequency HRV (HF-HRV – indicating parasympathetic vagal activity - was reduced (p=0.029. In study III, DPD DBP was higher throughout the 5s duration of HUT/pseudorandom unpleasant image presentation (1s [p=0.002], 2s [p=0.033], 3s [p=0.001], 4s [p=0.009], 5s [p=0.029]. Study I’s BP pressor data supports previous findings of suppressed sympathoexcitatioin DPD. The greater HR increases to CP, decreased HF-HRV in study II, and increased DBP during unpleasant ORs in study III implicates the SNS and PNS in DPD pathophysiology. These studies suggest the cardiovascular autonomic dysregulation in DPD is likely to be centrally-mediated

  11. Tempol attenuates the exercise pressor reflex independently of neutralizing reactive oxygen species in femoral artery ligated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Jennifer L.; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Leal, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In decerebrate rats, we reported previously that the exercise pressor reflex arising from a limb whose femoral artery was occluded for 72 h before the experiment was significantly higher than the exercise pressor reflex arising from a contralateral freely perfused limb. These findings prompted us to examine whether reactive oxygen species contributed to the augmented pressor reflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion. We found that the pressor reflex arising from the limb whose femoral artery was occluded for 72 h before the experiment (31 ± 5 mmHg) was attenuated by tempol (10 mg), a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic (18 ± 5 mmHg, n = 9, P tempol (17 ± 4 mmHg, n = 10, P = 0.49). Nevertheless, we found no difference in the increase in 8-isoprostaglandin F2α levels, an index of reactive oxygen species, in response to contraction between freely perfused (3.76 ± 0.82 pg/ml, n = 19) and 72-h occluded (3.51 ± 0.92 pg/ml, n = 22, P = 0.90) hindlimbs. Moreover, tempol did not reduce the 8-isoprostaglandin F2α levels during contraction in either group (P > 0.30). A second SOD mimetic, tiron (200 mg/kg), had no effect on the exercise pressor reflex in either the rats with freely perfused hindlimbs or in those with occluded femoral arteries. These findings suggest that tempol attenuated the exercise pressor reflex in the femoral artery-occluded hindlimb by a mechanism that was independent of its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species. PMID:21737820

  12. Basal hypersecretion of cortisol in relation to abnormal dexamethasone suppression test response in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabranes-Diaz, J A; Almoguera, I; Ayuso, J L; Garcia-Camba, E; Prensa, A

    1986-01-01

    The activity of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal axis was evaluated in a group of patients with primary affective disorder by correlation of basal cortisol hypersecretion and abnormal response to dexamethasone suppression test (DST). The increase in basal cortisol was not found to be responsible for suppression failure. Moreover, this biochemical abnormality was common in the groups of psychiatric patients studied, although the physiopathologic mechanisms involved are different. Further research is necessary to clarify the results.

  13. Optimal Control Strategy for Abnormal Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinying Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune response plays an important role in control and clearance of pathogens following viral infection. However, in the majority of virus-infected individuals, the response is insufficient because viruses are known to use different evasion strategies to escape immune response. In this study, we use optimal control theory to investigate how to control the innate immune response. We present an optimal control model based on an ordinary-differential-equation system from a previous study, which investigated the dynamics and regulation of virus-triggered innate immune signaling pathways, and we prove the existence of a solution to the optimal control problem involving antiviral treatment or/and interferon therapy. We conduct numerical experiments to investigate the treatment effects of different control strategies through varying the cost function and control efficiency. The results show that a separate treatment, that is, only inhibiting viral replication (u1(t or enhancing interferon activity (u2(t, has more advantages for controlling viral infection than a mixed treatment, that is, controlling both (u1(t and (u2(t simultaneously, including the smallest cost and operability. These findings would provide new insight for developing effective strategies for treatment of viral infectious diseases.

  14. Abnormal Ergosterol Biosynthesis Activates Transcriptional Responses to Antifungal Azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengcheng; Zhou, Mi; Wang, Wenzhao; Sun, Xianyun; Yarden, Oded; Li, Shaojie

    2018-01-01

    Fungi transcriptionally upregulate expression of azole efflux pumps and ergosterol biosynthesis pathway genes when exposed to antifungal agents that target ergosterol biosynthesis. To date, these transcriptional responses have been shown to be dependent on the presence of the azoles and/or depletion of ergosterol. Using an inducible promoter to regulate Neurospora crassa erg11 , which encodes the major azole target, sterol 14α-demethylase, we were able to demonstrate that the CDR4 azole efflux pump can be transcriptionally activated by ergosterol biosynthesis inhibition even in the absence of azoles. By analyzing ergosterol deficient mutants, we demonstrate that the transcriptional responses by cdr4 and, unexpectedly, genes encoding ergosterol biosynthesis enzymes ( erg genes) that are responsive to azoles, are not dependent on ergosterol depletion. Nonetheless, deletion of erg2 , which encodes C-8 sterol isomerase, also induced expression of cdr4 . Deletion of erg2 also induced the expression of erg24 , the gene encoding C-14 sterol reductase, but not other tested erg genes which were responsive to erg11 inactivation. This indicates that inhibition of specific steps of ergosterol biosynthesis can result in different transcriptional responses, which is further supported by our results obtained using different ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Together with the sterol profiles, these results suggest that the transcriptional responses by cdr4 and erg genes are associated with accumulation of specific sterol intermediate(s). This was further supported by the fact that when the erg2 mutant was treated with ketoconazole, upstream inhibition overrode the effects by downstream inhibition on ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Even though cdr4 expression is associated with the accumulation of sterol intermediates, intra- and extracellular sterol analysis by HPLC-MS indicated that the transcriptional induction of cdr4 did not result in efflux of the accumulated intermediate

  15. Abnormal neuroendocrine response to clomipramine in hereditary affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Joachim; Larisch, Rolf; Henning, Uwe; Thünker, Johanna; Werner, Christian; Orozco, Guillermo; Mayoral, Fermín; Rivas, Fabio; Auburger, Georg; Tosch, Marco; Rietschel, Marcella; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Klimke, Ansgar

    2009-01-01

    Blunting of prolactin response after serotonergic stimulation during a major depressive episode has been described by several investigators. In this study, the neuroendocrine responses to clomipramine were assessed in remitted patients suffering from hereditary depression. Twenty remitted patients from 11 large families with multigenerational, multiple cases of major affective disorder (bipolar disorder n=15, recurrent depression n=5, according DSM-IV) and 12 healthy relatives were investigated. After intravenous application of 12.5 mg of the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor clomipramine, serum prolactin and cortisol levels were analysed. Patients and comparison group did not differ significantly with respect to age, baseline prolactin and cortisol concentrations. A gender effect was found in an exploratory analysis for prolactin but not for cortisol and therefore the data for prolactin were analysed separately. After clomipramine infusion, the increase of cortisol was significantly lower in patients than in the comparison group (P=.046). For prolactin, this effect could be found in the male (P=.012) as well as in the female (P=.007) subsample. These results suggest that blunted prolactin and cortisol responses to serotonergic stimulation are characteristic for remitted depressive patients with previous episodes of major affective disorders. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Sepsis: Multiple Abnormalities, Heterogeneous Responses, and Evolving Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Kendra N.; Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Stearns-Kurosawa, Deborah J.; Kurosawa, Shinichiro; Stepien, David; Valentine, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis represents the host's systemic inflammatory response to a severe infection. It causes substantial human morbidity resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Despite decades of intense research, the basic mechanisms still remain elusive. In either experimental animal models of sepsis or human patients, there are substantial physiological changes, many of which may result in subsequent organ injury. Variations in age, gender, and medical comorbidities including diabetes and renal failure create additional complexity that influence the outcomes in septic patients. Specific system-based alterations, such as the coagulopathy observed in sepsis, offer both potential insight and possible therapeutic targets. Intracellular stress induces changes in the endoplasmic reticulum yielding misfolded proteins that contribute to the underlying pathophysiological changes. With these multiple changes it is difficult to precisely classify an individual's response in sepsis as proinflammatory or immunosuppressed. This heterogeneity also may explain why most therapeutic interventions have not improved survival. Given the complexity of sepsis, biomarkers and mathematical models offer potential guidance once they have been carefully validated. This review discusses each of these important factors to provide a framework for understanding the complex and current challenges of managing the septic patient. Clinical trial failures and the therapeutic interventions that have proven successful are also discussed. PMID:23899564

  17. Pressor effect for ethanol and absence of its. cap alpha. -blocking activity in the SHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.R.A.; Iams, S.G.; Wooles, V.R.

    1986-03-01

    In a previous study the authors have suggested ethanol (ETOH) has an ..cap alpha..-blocking activity in anesthetized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The present investigation shows that ETOH (1 g/Kg, i.v.) has a pressor and tachycardic effect in SHR, SD and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. However, quantitative differences existed between ..delta.. MAP, but not ..delta.. HR, among the 3 strains; the biggest rise occurred in the SHR and the least in SD. It is not yet clear whether the significantly higher MAP in the SHR contributes to the significantly larger ..delta.. MAP in response to ETOH. Nonetheless, MAP was similar in WKY and SD in spite of a larger ..delta.. MAP after ETOH in the former. Furthermore, both SD and WKY rats showed a significant and parallel rightward shift of the phenylephrine (PE) pressor response curve after ETOH (more in SD than WKY) suggesting an ..cap alpha..-blocking activity for ethanol and confirming their previous findings in SD rats. This suggestion was further supported by the absence of any shift in the angiotensin II (AII) dose-response curves. On the other hand, neither PE nor AII pressor responsiveness was influenced by ETOH in the SHR suggesting an absence of ..cap alpha..-blocking activity for ETOH in this strain. Finally, no change occurred in the baroreflex control of HR in SHR as compared to an impairment of this function in WKY and SD rats. This may relate at least in part, to the already depressed baroreflex function in the SHR.

  18. Determinants of abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Munley, B.M.; Hadjimiltiades, S.; Meissner, M.D.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study assessed the determinants of exercise-induced abnormal systolic blood pressure (BP) response in 127 patients with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy. Three types of systolic BP response to exercise were identified: an increase by more than 20 mm Hg (group I, n = 74); an increase by 20 mm Hg or less (group II, n = 36); and a decrease of at least 10 mm Hg (group III, n = 17). The 3 groups were not significantly different in age, gender or medications. The number of segments with perfusion defects was significantly higher in groups II and III than group I (group III, 2.9 +/- 1.5; group II, 2.9 +/- 2.1; and group I, 1.8 +/- 1.4, p = 0.009). Prior myocardial infarction, abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction, and multivessel CAD were more common in group III than in groups I and II. Stepwise discriminant analysis of 15 relevant clinical, angiographic and exercise scintigraphic descriptors showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects, abnormal LV ejection fraction at rest and multivessel CAD to be important predictors of hypotensive BP response. Multivariate analysis, however, showed that the number of thallium perfusion defects was the only important predictor of the hypotensive response. Thus, it is the functional significance of CAD assessed by the extent of thallium perfusion abnormalities rather than the extent of CAD or left ventricular dysfunction at rest that determines the systolic BP response to exercise

  19. The carotid baroreflex modifies the pressor threshold of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Masashi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that unloading the carotid baroreceptors alters the threshold and gain of the muscle metaboreflex in humans. Ten healthy subjects performed a static handgrip exercise at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction. Contraction was sustained for 15, 30, 45, and 60 s and was followed by 3 min of forearm circulatory arrest, during which forearm muscular pH is known to decrease linearly with increasing contraction time. The carotid baroreceptors were unloaded by applying 0.1-Hz sinusoidal neck pressure (oscillating from +15 to +50 mmHg) during ischemia. We estimated the threshold and gain of the muscle metaboreflex by analyzing the relationship between the cardiovascular responses during ischemia and the amount of work done during the exercise. In the condition with unloading of the carotid baroreceptors, the muscle metaboreflex thresholds for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and total vascular resistance (TVR) corresponded to significantly lower work levels than the control condition (threshold for MAP: 795 ± 102 vs. 662 ± 208 mmHg and threshold for TVR: 818 ± 213 vs. 572 ± 292 kg·s, P baroreflex modifies the muscle metaboreflex threshold in humans. Our results suggest the carotid baroreflex brakes the muscle metaboreflex, thereby inhibiting muscle metaboreflex-mediated pressor and vasoconstriction responses. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that unloading the carotid baroreceptors shifts the pressor threshold of the muscle metaboreflex toward lower metabolic stimulation levels in humans. This finding indicates that, in the normal loading state, the carotid baroreflex inhibits the muscle metaboreflex pressor response by shifting the reflex threshold to higher metabolic stimulation levels. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Acetylcholine versus cold pressor testing for evaluation of coronary endothelial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed AlBadri

    Full Text Available Assessment of coronary endothelial function with intracoronary acetylcholine (IC-Ach provides diagnostic and prognostic data in patients with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD, but is often not feasible due in part to the time and expertise needed for pharmacologic mixing. Cold pressor testing (CPT is a simple and safe stimulus useful for either invasive or non-invasive endothelial function testing and myocardial perfusion imaging but has not been specifically evaluated among symptomatic women with signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD who have no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD.163 women with signs and symptoms of IHD and no obstructive CAD from the NHLBI- Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation-Coronary Vascular Dysfunction (WISE-CVD study underwent coronary reactivity testing with a Doppler flow wire (FloWire® Volcano, San Diego, CA in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Coronary artery diameter and coronary blood flow (CBF assessed by core lab using QCA before and after IC-Ach (18.2 μg/ml infused over 3 minutes and during CPT.Mean age was 55 ± 12 years. Rate pressure product (RPP in response to IC-Ach did not change (baseline to peak, P = 0.26, but increased during CPT (363±1457; P = 0.0028. CBF in response to CPT was poorly correlated to IC-Ach CBF. Change in coronary artery diameter after IC-Ach correlated with change after CPT (r = 0.59, P<0.001. The correlation coefficient was stronger in subjects with coronary dilation to IC-Ach (r = 0.628, P<0.001 versus those without dilation (r = 0.353, P = 0.002, suggesting that other factors may be important to this relationship when endothelium is abnormal.In women with no obstructive CAD and suspected CMD, coronary diameter changes with IC-Ach and CPT are moderately-well correlated suggesting that CPT testing may be of some use, particularly among patients with normal endothelial function, however, not an alternative to IC-Ach for diagnosis of coronary

  1. Abnormal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR Findings in a Near-Normal Hearing Child with Noonan Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noonan syndrome (NS is a heterogeneous genetic disease that affects many parts of the body. It was named after Dr. Jacqueline Anne Noonan, a paediatric cardiologist.Case Report: We report audiological tests and auditory brainstem response (ABR findings in a 5-year old Malay boy with NS. Despite showing the marked signs of NS, the child could only produce a few meaningful words. Audiological tests found him to have bilateral mild conductive hearing loss at low frequencies. In ABR testing, despite having good waveform morphology, the results were atypical. Absolute latency of wave V was normal but interpeak latencies of wave’s I-V, I-II, II-III were prolonged. Interestingly, interpeak latency of waves III-V was abnormally shorter.Conclusion:Abnormal ABR results are possibly due to abnormal anatomical condition of brainstem and might contribute to speech delay.

  2. Abnormal Vasomotor System Function in Idiopathic Generalized Epileptic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maghbooli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic dysfunction is widely recognized in both partial and generalized epilepsies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vasomotor response in patients with generalized idiopathic epilepsy by the clinical autonomic function tests. METHODS: 124 consecutive subjects including 62 idiopathic generalized epileptic patients diagnosed for more than 3 months receiving monotherapy and 62 matched for sex and age healthy controls were assessed in this case-control study. The evaluation of the vasomotor system was made using a questionnaire and autonomic function tests including Cold pressor, Valsalva maneuver, mental arithmetic and hand-grip tests. RESULTS: Abnormal score of the Cold pressor test was seen in 59.7%, Valsalva maneuver in 64.5% and 33.9% in mental arithmetic test of epileptic patients. These results were different significantly in comparison to control group. If abnormal hand grip test was defined as an increase less than 11 mmHg in diastolic pressure, there was found no significant difference between two groups of case and control, also a few people in control group was reported normal. While defining abnormal test was interpreted by increase in only one parameter or none of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure or heart rate, 43.5% in case group versus 14.5% in controls had abnormal results with significantly difference. CONCLUSION: Vasomotor dysfunction evaluated by cardiovascular tests was present commonly in the patients with generalized epilepsy. Further confirmation requires detailed reviewing of central and peripheral limbs to the breakdown of the system to be felt.

  3. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  4. Respostas pressóricas pós-exercícios com pesos executados em diferentes sobrecargas por mulheres normotensas Post-exercise pressoric responses of exercises performed at different loads by normotensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Demantova Gurjão

    2009-02-01

    program of resistance training performed at different intensities on post-exercise blood pressure response. Therefore, sixteen apparently healthy young women (20.5 ± 1.5 year-old were randomly separated in two groups after having been submitted to an eight-week RT for equalization of muscular fitness levels. Each group then performed 12 weeks of RT prescribed by one of two different-intensity protocols (GI = 3 x 6-8 RM; GII = 3 x 10-12 RM; three alternated days per week. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressures were assessed at rest and at minutes 1, 5, 10 and 30 after training, through auscultatory technique. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used for comparison between groups at the different moments, and Scheffé post-hoc test (a = 5% was applied to point out where the differences occur. No significant statistical difference (P > 0.05 was found for SBP or DBP between groups at any moment. However, the RT hypotensive effect was observed only for GI, with the SBP showing a significant reduction when compared to rest values at minutes 10 and 30 of recovery (P < 0.05. In conclusion, only higher intensity resistance training can exert a slightly acute hypotensive effect on young females.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Martin, Gregory; Hurtt, James

    2017-05-08

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 with Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and volt-age/frequency ride-through, among others. A comparative experimental evaluation has been completed on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and the effect on abnormal grid condition response. This study examines the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. This report reviews comparative test data, which shows that GSFs have little impact on the metrics of interest in most tests cases.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Gregory D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurtt, James [Florida Power and Light Company

    2017-10-03

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and voltage/frequency ride-through, among others. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental evaluation on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and its effect on abnormal grid condition response. The evaluation examined the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. Testing results indicated a wide variance in the performance of GSF enabled inverters to various test cases.

  7. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källstrand, Johan; Olsson, Olle; Nehlstedt, Sara Fristedt; Sköld, Mia Ling; Nielzén, Sören

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16), schizophrenic patients (n = 16) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16), respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005), which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking) may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:20628629

  8. Identifying abnormal connectivity in patients using Dynamic Causal Modelling of fMRI responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed L Seghier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of brain damaged patients offer a unique opportunity to understand how sensori-motor and cognitive tasks can be carried out when parts of the neural system that support normal performance are no longer available. In addition to knowing which regions a patient activates, we also need to know how these regions interact with one another, and how these inter-regional interactions deviate from normal. Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM offers the opportunity to assess task-dependent interactions within a set of regions. Here we review its use in patients when the question of interest concerns the characterisation of abnormal connectivity for a given pathology. We describe the currently available implementations of DCM for fMRI responses, varying from the deterministic bilinear models with one-state equation to the stochastic nonlinear models with two-state equations. We also highlight the importance of the new Bayesian model selection and averaging tools that allow different plausible models to be compared at the single subject and group level. These procedures allow inferences to be made at different levels of model selection, from features (model families to connectivity parameters. Following a critical review of previous DCM studies that investigated abnormal connectivity we propose a systematic procedure that will ensure more flexibility and efficiency when using DCM in patients. Finally, some practical and methodological issues crucial for interpreting or generalising DCM findings in patients are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of gabapentin in attenuating pressor response to direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and vecuronium. Systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded before and after the induction of anesthesia and 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 min after tracheal intubation. Results: SAP was significantly lower in the gabapentin as compared ...

  10. Hypoalgesia After Exercise and the Cold Pressor Test is Reduced in Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Patients With High Pain Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik B; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In chronic pain patients, impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) have been reported. No studies have compared CPM and EIH in chronic musculoskeletal pain patients with high pain sensitivity (HPS) and low pain sensitivity (LPS). MATERIALS.......005). Pain tolerance increased after the cold pressor test and exercise in both groups (PCPM and EIH were partly impaired in chronic pain patients with high versus less pain sensitivity, suggesting that the CPM and EIH responses depend on the degree of pain sensitivity. This has clinical...

  11. Abnormal Social Reward Responses in Anorexia Nervosa: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Via

    Full Text Available Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN display impaired social interactions, implicated in the development and prognosis of the disorder. Importantly, social behavior is modulated by reward-based processes, and dysfunctional at-brain-level reward responses have been involved in AN neurobiological models. However, no prior evidence exists of whether these neural alterations would be equally present in social contexts. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional social-judgment functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study of 20 restrictive-subtype AN patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Brain activity during acceptance and rejection was investigated and correlated with severity measures (Eating Disorder Inventory -EDI-2 and with personality traits of interest known to modulate social behavior (The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire. Patients showed hypoactivation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC during social acceptance and hyperactivation of visual areas during social rejection. Ventral striatum activation during rejection was positively correlated in patients with clinical severity scores. During acceptance, activation of the frontal opercula-anterior insula and dorsomedial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was differentially associated with reward sensitivity between groups. These results suggest an abnormal motivational drive for social stimuli, and involve overlapping social cognition and reward systems leading to a disruption of adaptive responses in the processing of social reward. The specific association of reward-related regions with clinical and psychometric measures suggests the putative involvement of reward structures in the maintenance of pathological behaviors in AN.

  12. Abnormal neural responses to emotional visual stimuli in adolescents with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzer, Philipp; Stadler, Christina; Krebs, Annette; Kleinschmidt, Andreas; Poustka, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    It is widely held that aggression and antisocial behavior arise as a consequence of a deficiency in responding to emotional cues in the social environment. We asked whether neural responses evoked by affect-laden pictures would be abnormal in adolescents with conduct disorder (CD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging during passive viewing of pictures with neutral or strong negative affective valence was performed in 13 male adolescents with severe CD aged 9 to 15 years and in 14 healthy age-matched control subjects. Main effects for negative-neutral affective valence included activations in the amygdala and hippocampus, ventral extrastriate visual cortex, and intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. There was a significant group-by-condition interaction in the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was due to a pronounced deactivation in the patient group during viewing of negative pictures. When correcting for anxiety and depressive symptoms, we additionally found a reduced responsiveness of the left amygdala to negative pictures in patients compared with control subjects. We suggest that these findings reflect an impairment of both the recognition of emotional stimuli and the cognitive control of emotional behavior in patients with CD, resulting in a propensity for aggressive behavior.

  13. Cold Pressor Stress Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Myocardial Flow Reserve Is Not Useful for Detection of Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Women with Signs and Symptoms of Ischemia and No Obstructive CAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofy Landes

    Full Text Available Coronary endothelial function testing using acetylcholine is not routinely available, while non-pharmacological cold pressor testing (CPT is considered an endothelial stressor. Noninvasive cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI can detect coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD. We evaluated if CPT stress CMRI MPRI could detect invasive coronary endothelial dysfunction.Coronary reactivity testing was performed in 189 women with symptoms and signs of ischemic but no obstructive coronary artery disease as previously described plus CPT stress. Subjects also underwent pharmacologic and CPT stress during CMRI (1.5 T. Statistical analysis comparing CPT MPRI between groups was performed by Welch`s t-test and Mann-Whitney where appropriate. Anderson-Darling test and Levene test were considered to verify the normality and homogeneity of variances assumptions. Correlation analyses between CPT MPRI and both invasive and noninvasive measures of CMD were performed using Spearman correlation.While CPT MPRI correlated with pharmacological stress MPRI, it did not correlate with invasive measures of CMD including invasively measured responses to intracoronary (IC adenosine, IC acetylcholine, CPT, or IC nitroglycerin. Additionally CPT MPRI was not significantly different between subjects with normal compared to abnormal pharm stress MPRI or normal compared to abnormal invasive CMD parameters.Despite correlation with pharmacological stress MPRI, non-invasive CPT MPRI does not appear to be useful for detecting CMD in symptomatic women.

  14. Binding, degradation and pressor activity of angiotensins II and III after aminopeptidase inhibition with amastatin and bestatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, R.H.; Sullivan, M.J.; Wright, J.W.; Harding, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    In the metabolism of angiotensin peptides by tissue angiotensinases, aminopeptidases A, B, M and leucine aminopeptidase have been identified as being particularly effective. Because the inhibitory actions of amastatin (AM) and bestatin (BE) are relatively specific for these aminopeptidases, we have examined the effects of these inhibitors on the binding, degradation and pressor activity of angiotensin II (AII) and angiotensin III (AIII). Within 30 min at 37 degrees C, significant metabolism of 125 I-AII and 125 I-AIII by homogenates of a block of tissue containing hypothalamus, thalamus, septum and anteroventral third ventricle regions of the brain was observed. A majority of 125 I-AIII metabolism was due to soluble peptidases, whereas that of 125 I-AII primarily resulted from membrane-bound peptidases. AM, BE and reduced incubation temperatures significantly decreased the metabolism of 125 I-AII and 125 I-AIII. After appropriate adjustments to reflect the proportion of intact radioligand bound, temperature- or inhibitor-induced decreases in metabolism were matched by corresponding increases in specific binding. Heat-treated bovine serum albumin, as a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, had no effect on either the metabolism or binding of the ligands used. In accordance with their actions in vitro, i.c.v. administration of AM and BE prolonged the pressor activity of subsequently applied AII and AIII. Unexpectedly, the amplitude of the pressor response to AIII was increased by BE, whereas that to AII was decreased by AM. The results of this study indicate that the metabolism of AII and AIII by aminopeptidases is relatively specific and acts to modulate the actions of these peptides

  15. Abnormal cardiovascular responses to carotid sinus massage also occur in vasovagal syncope - implications for diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, A M; Mathias, C J

    2010-08-01

    Carotid sinus massage (CSM) is commonly used to identify carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CSH) as a possible cause for syncope, especially in older patients. However, CSM itself could provoke classical vasovagal syncope (VVS) in pre disposed subjects. Retrospective analysis of CSM, cardiovascular autonomic function tests (including tilt table testing) and medical history in 388 patients with recurrent syncope to identify and characterize patients in whom an abnormal response to CSM was more likely to reflect VVS than CSH. CSM was abnormal in 79 patients. In 53 patients (77.2 +/- 8.7 years), CSH was the likely cause of syncope. VVS was the more likely diagnosis in 26 younger patients (59.7 +/- 12.6 years) with longstanding syncope from youth, in whom fear or pain was as a trigger; 7/26 suffered from intense chronic or intermittent neck pain and one exacerbation of syncopal attacks followed a physical and emotional trauma to the neck. In VVS, 4/26 had spontaneous VVS during head-up tilt, another six after venepuncture (performed in 17/26). In 6/26, the abnormal response to CSM was delayed, occurring 62.8 +/- 28.4 s after completion of CSM. The response to CSM was predominantly of the mixed type (20/26) and abnormal on both sides in 14/26. An abnormal response to CSM may not indicate syncope caused by CSH and needs to be considered in the light of the patient's age, duration of syncopal episodes and detailed history of provocative stimuli. Differentiating CSH from VVS with an abnormal response to CSM has various implications from advice on driving to treatment strategies.

  16. Proportionate Responses to Life Events Influence Clinicians' Judgments of Psychological Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S.; Paulus, Daniel J.; Gonzalez, Jeffrey S.; Khalife, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Psychological abnormality is a fundamental concept in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in all clinical evaluations. How do practicing clinical psychologists use the context of life events to judge the abnormality of a person's current behaviors? The appropriate…

  17. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  18. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test ≥7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  19. Decreased B and T lymphocyte attenuator in Behcet's disease may trigger abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zi; Deng, Bolin; Wang, Chaokui; Zhang, Dike; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-02-04

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic, systemic and recurrent inflammatory disease associated with hyperactive Th17 and Th1 immune responses. Recent studies have shown that B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) negatively regulates the immune response. In this study, we investigated whether BTLA activation could be exploited to inhibit the development of abnormal immune responses in BD patients. BTLA expression in PBMCs and CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased in active BD patients. Decreased BTLA level was associated with increased Th17 and Th1 responses. Activation of BTLA inhibited the abnormal Th17 and Th1 responses and IL-22 expression in both patients and controls. Addition of an agonistic anti-BTLA antibody remarkably inhibited DC-induced Th17 and Th1 cell responses, resulted in decreased production of the Th17 and Th1-related cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-12p70 and reduced CD40 expression in DCs. In conclusion, decreased BTLA expression in ocular BD may lead to inappropriate control of the Th17 and Th1 immune responses and DC functions. Therefore, BTLA may be involved in the development and recurrence of this disease. Agonistic agents of BTLA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of BD and other inflammatory diseases mediated by abnormal Th17 and Th1 immune responses.

  20. Cold pressor 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Dubiel, J.P.; Haibach, H.

    1982-01-01

    201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy was performed during cold pressor stimulation in 36 patients aged 36 to 69 years. Thirty-one patients had coronary artery disease and 5 patients did not, as confirmed by coronary cineangiography. 201 Tl (1.5 to 2 mCi) was injected at 30 seconds of the cold pressor stimulation. The product of systolic pressure X heart rate increased from a baseline of 77.4 +/- 16 (standard deviation [SD]) to 103.6 +/- 17 at 30 seconds of the cold pressor test (p less than 0.0005). Transient perfusion deficits developed in 24 of 31 patients with coronary artery disease (sensitivity 77%), and all 5 patients without coronary artery disease had normal scintigrams. The sensitivity in detecting coronary artery disease was 40% in patients with 1 vessel disease, 91% in patients with 2 vessel disease, and 100% in patients with 3 vessel disease. Exercise electrocardiograms (available in 29 of 36 patients) were positive for ischemia in 18 of 24 patients with coronary artery disease and in 1 of 5 patients without coronary artery disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity less than 80%). Exercise 201 Tl scintigrams, obtained in 16 patients, were positive in 11 patients with coronary artery disease and positive cold pressor 201 Tl scintigrams. Five patients without coronary artery disease and with normal cold pressor 201 Tl scintigrams had normal exercise 201 Tl scintigrams. Coronary cineangiography performed during cold pressor stimulation in 6 patients who had positive cold pressor and exercise 201 Tl scintigrams did not show coronary spasm. Our data indicate that cold pressor thallium-201 scintigraphy offers promise as a noninvasive test in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may be used in patients in whom exercise testing is not feasible

  1. Abnormal heart rate recovery and deficient chronotropic response after submaximal exercise in young Marfan syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Paulo; Carvalho, Antônio C; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Medeiros, Wladimir M

    2016-10-01

    Marfan syndrome patients present important cardiac structural changes, ventricular dysfunction, and electrocardiographic changes. An abnormal heart rate response during or after exercise is an independent predictor of mortality and autonomic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to compare heart rate recovery and chronotropic response obtained by cardiac reserve in patients with Marfan syndrome subjected to submaximal exercise. A total of 12 patients on β-blocker therapy and 13 off β-blocker therapy were compared with 12 healthy controls. They were subjected to submaximal exercise with lactate measurements. The heart rate recovery was obtained in the first minute of recovery and corrected for cardiac reserve and peak lactate concentration. Peak heart rate (141±16 versus 155±17 versus 174±8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate reserve (58.7±9.4 versus 67.6±14.3 versus 82.6±4.8 bpm; p=0.001), heart rate recovery (22±6 versus 22±8 versus 34±9 bpm; p=0.001), and heart rate recovery/lactate (3±1 versus 3±1 versus 5±1 bpm/mmol/L; p=0.003) were different between Marfan groups and controls, respectively. All the patients with Marfan syndrome had heart rate recovery values below the mean observed in the control group. The absolute values of heart rate recovery were strongly correlated with the heart rate reserve (r=0.76; p=0.001). Marfan syndrome patients have reduced heart rate recovery and chronotropic deficit after submaximal exercise, and the chronotropic deficit is a strong determinant of heart rate recovery. These changes are suggestive of autonomic dysfunction.

  2. Response Analysis on Electrical Pulses under Severe Nuclear Accident Temperature Conditions Using an Abnormal Signal Simulation Analysis Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Mo Koo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike design basis accidents, some inherent uncertainties of the reliability of instrumentations are expected while subjected to harsh environments (e.g., high temperature and pressure, high humidity, and high radioactivity occurring in severe nuclear accident conditions. Even under such conditions, an electrical signal should be within its expected range so that some mitigating actions can be taken based on the signal in the control room. For example, an industrial process control standard requires that the normal signal level for pressure, flow, and resistance temperature detector sensors be in the range of 4~20 mA for most instruments. Whereas, in the case that an abnormal signal is expected from an instrument, such a signal should be refined through a signal validation process so that the refined signal could be available in the control room. For some abnormal signals expected under severe accident conditions, to date, diagnostics and response analysis have been evaluated with an equivalent circuit model of real instruments, which is regarded as the best method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a program designed to implement a diagnostic and response analysis for equivalent circuit modeling. The program links signal analysis tool code to abnormal signal simulation engine code not only as a one body order system, but also as a part of functions of a PC-based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analysis module developed to obtain a varying range of the R-C circuit elements in high temperature conditions. As a result, a special function for abnormal pulse signal patterns can be obtained through the program, which in turn makes it possible to analyze the abnormal output pulse signals through a response characteristic of a 4~20 mA circuit model and a range of the elements changing with temperature under an accident condition.

  3. Abnormal retinal vascular oxygen tension response to light flicker in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Norman P; Wanek, Justin M; Mori, Marek; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2009-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the intravascular oxygen response to light flicker is abnormal in diabetes. Ten eyes of normal rats and 10 eyes of rats made diabetic with streptozotocin were examined. Oxygen tension (PO(2)) was measured noninvasively in the retinal arteries and veins on optical section retinal images. PO(2) was estimated based on the quenching by oxygen of the phosphorescence of an intravenously injected palladium porphyrin molecular probe. Measurements were conducted with and without light flicker at 10 Hz. Oxygen saturation (SO(2)) was calculated with adjustment for the arterial pH. In the normal rats flicker induced an increase in arterial PO(2) and in the difference in arterial and venous (A-V difference) PO(2) from 51 +/- 5 (mean and SD) to 55 +/- 7 mm Hg and from 22 +/- 3 to 26 +/- 5 mm Hg, respectively (P Flicker induced an increase of arterial SO(2) and A-V SO(2) difference from 64% +/- 8% to 68% +/- 7% and from 34% +/- 4% to 38% +/- 6%, respectively (P flicker in the veins. In the diabetic rats, no significant flicker-induced changes were seen in PO(2) or SO(2) in the retinal arteries, veins, or A-V differences. The diabetic rats lacked the flicker induced increase in arterial PO(2) and SO(2) and also the A-V difference in PO(2) and SO(2) observed in the normal rats. The best explanation appeared to be that diabetes impairs the increase in oxygen consumption normally provoked by light flicker.

  4. Tachyphylaxis and sensitization to nicotine-induced tachycardiac and pressor effects after nicotine infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, S L; Vidrio, H

    1997-01-01

    This work examined the effects of nicotine on mean arterial pressure and heart rate in non-anesthetized spinal rats. Nicotine (200 mg/kg) was administered as a single bolus, as infusions lasting 7.5, 15 or 30 min, and as a post-infusion bolus. A nicotine bolus increased pressure and rate. These effects were less marked as the rate of infusion decreased. The infusions affected differentially the effects of a subsequent bolus. Thus, while tachycardia was decreased, the blood pressure rise was increased. An initial transient bradycardia was observed after bolus administration, but not during infusions; this effect was unchanged after post-infusion boluses. Pharmacological analysis indicated that tachycardia and bradycardia were predominantly due to ganglionic stimulation, while adrenal and sympathetic nerve catecholamine release played a major role in the pressor response. These results indicate that slow nicotine infusions do not induce tachyphylaxis for all of the cardiovascular effects of a subsequent bolus, and that development of acute tolerance appears to depend on the mechanism of action of the response.

  5. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities and alteration of microRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia and response to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahjahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with.

  6. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Alteration of microRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Response to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahani, Mohammad; Khodadi, Elahe; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Golchin, Neda; Zaieri, Zeynab Deris

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with. PMID:26779308

  7. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Alteration of microRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Response to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahani, Mohammad; Khodadi, Elahe; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Golchin, Neda; Zaieri, Zeynab Deris; Saki, Najmaldin

    2015-02-10

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with.

  8. Evapotranspiration Partitioning and Response to Abnormally Low Water Levels in a Floodplain Wetland in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (ET is an important component of the wetland water budget. Water level declines in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, have caused concerns, especially during low water levels. However, how wetland ET and its partitioning respond to abnormally low water levels is unclear. In this study, wetland ET was estimated with MODIS data and meteorological data. The wetland ET partitioning and its relationship with abnormally low water levels were analyzed for 2000–2013. The results showed that the water evaporation rate (Ewater was larger than the land ET rate (ETland; the ETland/Ewater ranged from 0.77 to 0.99. When the water level was below 12.8 m, the ET partition ratio was larger than 1, which indicates that wetland ET comes from land surface ET more than water evaporation. The negative standardized water level index (SWI was used to represent an abnormally low water level in the wetland. Although the monthly wetland ET decreased as the negative SWI decreased, ETland was higher than the average under negative SWI conditions from September to December, when the water level decreased. The abnormally low water level induced more water loss from the land surface, especially when the water level decreased, which reduced the available water resources along the wetland shore.

  9. Baroreflex modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during cold pressor test in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that baroreceptor modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and heart rate is altered during the cold pressor test. Ten subjects were exposed to a cold pressor test by immersing a hand in ice water for 3 min while arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and MSNA were recorded. During the second and third minute of the cold pressor test, blood pressure was lowered and then raised by intravenous bolus infusions of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine HCl, respectively. The slope of the relationship between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure was more negative (P baroreflex modulation of MSNA is elevated without altering the sensitivity of baroreflex control of heart rate.

  10. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress is abnormal in first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mariana N; Vigo, Daniel E; Chu, Elvina M; Fahrer, Rodolfo D; de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Leiguarda, Ramón C; Nogués, Martín; Cardinali, Daniel P; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2009-04-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit an abnormal autonomic response to mental stress. We sought to determine the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in their unaffected first-degree relatives. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was performed on recordings obtained before, during, and after a standard mental arithmetic task to induce mental stress. 22 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia (R) and 22 healthy individuals (C) were included in this study. Patients' relatives (R) had a normal response to the mental arithmetic stress test, showing an increased heart rate compared with controls. They also displayed the characteristic pattern of relative contributions of HRV components that consists of increased low-frequency (LF) HRV and decreased high-frequency (HF) HRV. Recovery of the resting pattern of HRV immediately after stress termination was observed in healthy subjects (LF 62+/-16% vs. 74+/-10% , HF 37+/-16% vs. 25+/-10%, F=9.616, p=0.004), but not in patients' relatives (LF 60+/-19% vs. 70+/-13%, HF 40+/-19% vs. 29+/-13%, F=8.4, p=0.056). First-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibit an abnormal pattern of protracted response to mental arithmetic stress, though less intense than that observed in patients in a previous study. This suggests that a pattern of autonomic response to stress may therefore be familial and heritable.

  11. Preoperative Hypoalgesia After Cold Pressor Test and Aerobic Exercise is Associated With Pain Relief 6 Months After Total Knee Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Emmeluth, Claus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain after total knee replacement (TKR) is not uncommon. Preoperative impaired conditioning pain modulation (CPM) has been used to predict chronic postoperative pain. Interestingly, exercises reduce pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This pilot study...... investigated the association between exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and CPM on post-TKR pain relief. METHODS: Before and six months post-TKR, 14 patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis performed the cold pressor test on the non-affected leg and two exercise conditions (bicycling and isometric knee...... at the affected leg improved post-TKR compared with pre-TKR (PCPM and bicycling EIH assessed by the increase in cPTT correlated with reduction in NRS pain scores post-TKR (PCPM and EIH responses after TKR were significantly correlated with reduction in NRS pain scores...

  12. Dipyridamole, cold pressor test, and demonstration of endothelial dysfunction: a PET study of myocardial perfusion in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2003-01-01

    (CPT) with that of dipyridamole, a pharmacologic vasodilator, on coronary blood flow (CBF) measured by PET in NIDDM patients and healthy volunteers. In addition, we studied the effect of acute angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on the flow response. METHODS: Ten NIDDM patients and 10......Much evidence suggests endothelial dysfunction to be present in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and to be important for the development of myocardial ischemia. Endothelial function in the coronary vessels may be studied in various ways. We compared the effect of cold pressor testing...... control subjects participated. Myocardial perfusion was determined at baseline, during CPT, and after dipyridamole infusion by PET using intravenous (13)N-ammonia. RESULTS: Resting CBF was similar in NIDDM patients and in control subjects. CPT increased CBF by 20% in the control group, whereas no increase...

  13. Amygdala and dlPFC abnormalities, with aberrant connectivity and habituation in response to emotional stimuli in females with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, Robert B; Mole, Tom B; Morris, Laurel S; Denman, Chess; Hill, Emma; Szalma, Bence; Evans, Davy; Dunn, Barnaby; Fletcher, Paul; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-15

    Little is known about the frontolimbic abnormalities thought to underlie borderline personality disorder (BPD). We endeavoured to study regional responses, as well as their connectivity and habituation during emotion processing. 14 BPD patients and 14 normal female controls (NC) controlled for menstrual phase underwent emotion-induction during an fMRI task using standardised images in a block design. We then performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to investigate functional connectivity. BPD patients reported more disgust in questionnaires compared to controls. Relative to NC, they showed reduced left amygdala and increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation to all emotions collapsed versus neutral. Habituation of ventral striatal activity to repeated emotional stimuli was observed in controls but not in BPD. Finally, in the context of disgust (but not other emotions) versus neutral, BPD patients displayed enhanced left amygdala coupling with the dlPFC and ventral striatum. Strict inclusion criteria reduced the sample size. In summary, BPD showed abnormal patterns of activation, habituation and connectivity in regions linked to emotion regulation. Amygdala deactivation may be mediated by abnormal top-down regulatory control from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Aberrant emotion processing may play a unique role in the pathophysiology of BPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Pentoxifylline reverses chronic experimental Chagasic cardiomyopathy in association with repositioning of abnormal CD8+ T-cell response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Resende Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC, the main clinical sign of Chagas disease, is associated with systemic CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and CD8-enriched myocarditis occurring in an inflammatory milieu. Pentoxifylline (PTX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has immunoregulatory and cardioprotective properties. Here, we tested PTX effects on CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and cardiac alterations using a model of experimental Chagas' heart disease.C57BL/6 mice chronically infected by the Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi strain and presenting signs of CCC were treated with PTX. The downmodulation of T-cell receptors on CD8+ cells induced by T. cruzi infection was rescued by PTX therapy. Also, PTX reduced the frequency of CD8+ T-cells expressing activation and migration markers in the spleen and the activation of blood vessel endothelial cells and the intensity of inflammation in the heart tissue. Although preserved interferon-gamma production systemically and in the cardiac tissue, PTX therapy reduced the number of perforin+ cells invading this tissue. PTX did not alter parasite load, but hampered the progression of heart injury, improving connexin 43 expression and decreasing fibronectin overdeposition. Further, PTX reversed electrical abnormalities as bradycardia and prolonged PR, QTc and QRS intervals in chronically infected mice. Moreover, PTX therapy improved heart remodeling since reduced left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and restored the decreased LV ejection fraction.PTX therapy ameliorates critical aspects of CCC and repositioned CD8+ T-cell response towards homeostasis, reinforcing that immunological abnormalities are crucially linked, as cause or effect, to CCC. Therefore, PTX emerges as a candidate to treat the non-beneficial immune deregulation associated with chronic Chagas' heart disease and to improve prognosis.

  15. Pentoxifylline Reverses Chronic Experimental Chagasic Cardiomyopathy in Association with Repositioning of Abnormal CD8+ T-Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Isabela Resende; Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Moreira, Otacilio Cruz; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; Gibaldi, Daniel; Britto, Constança; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC), the main clinical sign of Chagas disease, is associated with systemic CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and CD8-enriched myocarditis occurring in an inflammatory milieu. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has immunoregulatory and cardioprotective properties. Here, we tested PTX effects on CD8+ T-cell abnormalities and cardiac alterations using a model of experimental Chagas’ heart disease. Methodology/Principal Findings C57BL/6 mice chronically infected by the Colombian Trypanosoma cruzi strain and presenting signs of CCC were treated with PTX. The downmodulation of T-cell receptors on CD8+ cells induced by T. cruzi infection was rescued by PTX therapy. Also, PTX reduced the frequency of CD8+ T-cells expressing activation and migration markers in the spleen and the activation of blood vessel endothelial cells and the intensity of inflammation in the heart tissue. Although preserved interferon-gamma production systemically and in the cardiac tissue, PTX therapy reduced the number of perforin+ cells invading this tissue. PTX did not alter parasite load, but hampered the progression of heart injury, improving connexin 43 expression and decreasing fibronectin overdeposition. Further, PTX reversed electrical abnormalities as bradycardia and prolonged PR, QTc and QRS intervals in chronically infected mice. Moreover, PTX therapy improved heart remodeling since reduced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and restored the decreased LV ejection fraction. Conclusions/Significance PTX therapy ameliorates critical aspects of CCC and repositioned CD8+ T-cell response towards homeostasis, reinforcing that immunological abnormalities are crucially linked, as cause or effect, to CCC. Therefore, PTX emerges as a candidate to treat the non-beneficial immune deregulation associated with chronic Chagas' heart disease and to improve prognosis. PMID:25789471

  16. Uveal effusion in Hunter's syndrome. Evidence that abnormal sclera is responsible for the uveal effusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, A K

    1986-01-01

    A patient with Hunter's Syndrome (systemic mucopolysaccharidosis type II) was evaluated for bilateral uveal effusion syndrome. The right eye showed a circular peripheral choroidal detachment for 360 degrees. The left eye showed a larger circular peripheral choroidal detachment and an exudative retinal detachment. Evaluation of the sclera during combined sclerectomies and sclerostomies of the left eye revealed markedly thickening sclera and a reduced number of vortex veins. The surgery resulted in complete resolution of the choroidal detachment and exudative retinal detachment of the left eye. The presence of uveal effusion in Hunter's Syndrome, in which the sclera has been histologically demonstrated to be abnormally thickened, supports the recently proposed pathophysiology of the uveal effusion syndrome.

  17. Weak Responses to Auditory Feedback Perturbation during Articulation in Persons Who Stutter: Evidence for Abnormal Auditory-Motor Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tiede, Mark K.; Guenther, Frank H.; Perkell, Joseph S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking) functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS). Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants’ compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls’ and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms), but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05). Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands. PMID:22911857

  18. Weak responses to auditory feedback perturbation during articulation in persons who stutter: evidence for abnormal auditory-motor transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Cai

    Full Text Available Previous empirical observations have led researchers to propose that auditory feedback (the auditory perception of self-produced sounds when speaking functions abnormally in the speech motor systems of persons who stutter (PWS. Researchers have theorized that an important neural basis of stuttering is the aberrant integration of auditory information into incipient speech motor commands. Because of the circumstantial support for these hypotheses and the differences and contradictions between them, there is a need for carefully designed experiments that directly examine auditory-motor integration during speech production in PWS. In the current study, we used real-time manipulation of auditory feedback to directly investigate whether the speech motor system of PWS utilizes auditory feedback abnormally during articulation and to characterize potential deficits of this auditory-motor integration. Twenty-one PWS and 18 fluent control participants were recruited. Using a short-latency formant-perturbation system, we examined participants' compensatory responses to unanticipated perturbation of auditory feedback of the first formant frequency during the production of the monophthong [ε]. The PWS showed compensatory responses that were qualitatively similar to the controls' and had close-to-normal latencies (∼150 ms, but the magnitudes of their responses were substantially and significantly smaller than those of the control participants (by 47% on average, p<0.05. Measurements of auditory acuity indicate that the weaker-than-normal compensatory responses in PWS were not attributable to a deficit in low-level auditory processing. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering is associated with functional defects in the inverse models responsible for the transformation from the domain of auditory targets and auditory error information into the domain of speech motor commands.

  19. The modified gait abnormality rating scale in patients with a conversion disorder: a reliability and responsiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Justin M; George, Deanna R; O'Leary, Andrea J; Olson, Lindsay C; Strassburg, Kaitlyn R; Hollman, John H

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with conversion disorder have neurologic symptoms that are not identified by an underlying organic cause. Often the symptoms manifest as gait disturbances. The modified gait abnormality rating scale (GARS-M) may be useful for quantifying gait abnormalities in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, responsiveness and concurrent validity of GARS-M scores in individuals with conversion disorder. Data from 27 individuals who completed a rehabilitation program were included in this study. Pre- and post-intervention videos were obtained and walking speed was measured. Five examiners independently evaluated gait performance according to the GARS-M criteria. Inter- and intrarater reliability of GARS-M scores were estimated with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Responsiveness was estimated with the minimum detectable change (MDC). Pre- to post-treatment changes in GARS-M scores were analyzed with a dependent t-test. The correlation between GARS-M scores and walking speed was analyzed to assess concurrent validity. GARS-M scores were quantified with good-to-excellent inter- (ICC = 0.878) and intrarater reliability (ICC = 0.989). The MDC was 2 points. Mean GARS-M scores decreased from 7 ± 5 at baseline to 1 ± 2 at discharge (t26 = 7.411, p conversion disorder. GARS-M scores provide objective measures upon which treatment effects can be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abnormal response to photic stimulation in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: an EEG-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Emanuele; Pesaresi, Ilaria; Fabbri, Serena; Cecchi, Paolo; Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Cosottini, Mirco

    2014-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a young-onset electroclinical syndrome, characterized by myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic, and possibly typical absence seizures. Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) displays 3-6 Hz spike/polyspike and wave pattern. Photosensitivity is common. Our aim was to explore the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response evoked by a highly provocative photic stimulus in a cohort of people with JME compared to a group of nonphotosensitive healthy controls, and to investigate the hemodynamic phenomena seen in patients with photosensitive JME. We studied 13 JME patients and 18 healthy controls using EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) performed during low luminance intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). The BOLD response to IPS was investigated both in JME and control groups. In photosensitive JME subjects, we also performed a dynamic evaluation of BOLD signal changes evoked by the photoparoxysmal response (PPR) in a time frame ranging from 10 s before the onset of the EEG paroxysm up until 10 s afterward. The IPS evoked a positive BOLD response in striate and extrastriate visual areas, which was less in JME patients than in controls. Moreover, people with JME had a reduced positive BOLD response in the frontoparietal areas and putamen but a stronger negative BOLD response in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and in cortical regions belonging to the default mode network (DMN). In JME, the dynamic evaluation of BOLD signal changes related to PPR revealed an early positive response in the putamen and SM1, followed by BOLD signal decrements in the putamen, caudate nuclei, thalami, and SM1. Our results confirm the hypothesis that people with JME might have an altered interaction between the motor circuit and other neuronal networks, with prominent involvement of basal ganglia circuitry. The PPR could be a final expression of pathogenic phenomena occurring in the striato-thalamocortical system, possibly a core feature

  1. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  2. Abnormal hemodynamic response to forepaw stimulation in rat brain after cocaine injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Park, Kicheon; Choi, Jeonghun; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2015-03-01

    Simultaneous measurement of hemodynamics is of great importance to evaluate the brain functional changes induced by brain diseases such as drug addiction. Previously, we developed a multimodal-imaging platform (OFI) which combined laser speckle contrast imaging with multi-wavelength imaging to simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygenated- and deoxygenated- hemoglobin (HbO and HbR) from animal brain. Recently, we upgraded our OFI system that enables detection of hemodynamic changes in response to forepaw electrical stimulation to study potential brain activity changes elicited by cocaine. The improvement includes 1) high sensitivity to detect the cortical response to single forepaw electrical stimulation; 2) high temporal resolution (i.e., 16Hz/channel) to resolve dynamic variations in drug-delivery study; 3) high spatial resolution to separate the stimulation-evoked hemodynamic changes in vascular compartments from those in tissue. The system was validated by imaging the hemodynamic responses to the forepaw-stimulations in the somatosensory cortex of cocaine-treated rats. The stimulations and acquisitions were conducted every 2min over 40min, i.e., from 10min before (baseline) to 30min after cocaine challenge. Our results show that the HbO response decreased first (at ~4min) followed by the decrease of HbR response (at ~6min) after cocaine, and both did not fully recovered for over 30min. Interestingly, while CBF decreased at 4min, it partially recovered at 18min after cocaine administration. The results indicate the heterogeneity of cocaine's effects on vasculature and tissue metabolism, demonstrating the unique capability of optical imaging for brain functional studies.

  3. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  4. Abnormal autonomic cardiac response to transient hypoxia in sickle cell anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangkatumvong, S; Khoo, M C K; Coates, T D

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to non-invasively assess cardiac autonomic control in subjects with sickle cell anemia (SCA) by tracking the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) that occur following brief exposure to a hypoxic stimulus. Five African–American SCA patients and seven healthy control subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Each subject was exposed to a controlled hypoxic stimulus consisting of five breaths of nitrogen. Time-varying spectral analysis of HRV was applied to estimate the cardiac autonomic response to the transient episode of hypoxia. The confounding effects of changes in respiration on the HRV spectral indices were reduced by using a computational model. A significant decrease in the parameters related to parasympathetic control was detected in the post-hypoxic responses of the SCA subjects relative to normal controls. The spectral index related to sympathetic activity, on the other hand, showed a tendency to increase the following hypoxic stimulation, but the change was not significant. This study suggests that there is some degree of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in SCA that is revealed by the response to transient hypoxia

  5. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease: Implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Roberta K; Altman, Matt; Giacomini, John C; Szuba, Andrzej; Cooke, John P

    2005-12-01

    Exercise is beneficial in improving claudication and functional capacity in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, the physiologic response during and after exercise testing in this patient population has not been fully described. This study examined the cardiovascular response to exercise and explored the potential contribution of vascular noncompliance to exercise-induced hypertension in 124 patients with PAD and claudication and 31 comparison (C) patients with PAD with no walking limitations. Maximal walking distance was determined by an exercise treadmill test. Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored before, during, and immediately after an exercise test. Vascular compliance of the small and large vessels was measured using pulse waveform analysis. Individuals with low supine resting heart rate had longer pain-free walking distance (r = -0.195, P = .019) and maximal walking versus the C group (62 beats/min, standard deviation [SD] = 10, P = .02). Systolic blood pressure during supine rest was significantly lower for the PAD group (mean = 141 mm Hg, +/- SD = 22) versus the C group (mean = 153 mm Hg, +/- SD = 20, P = .003). Vascular compliance of large vessels was higher in the C group (mean = 4.13 +/- 4.13 mL/mm Hg x 100) compared with the PAD group (mean = 2.95 +/- 1.6 mL/mm Hg x 100). This study describes the exaggerated exercise cardiovascular response and impaired vascular compliance in patients with PAD. These results provide further evidence supporting the importance of a monitored treadmill exercise test before initiation of an exercise program to ensure safe and accurate exercise recommendations, and to identify individuals that require more intensive pharmacotherapy to prevent exercise-induced hypertension and tachycardia.

  6. Abnormalities in neuroendocrine stress response in psychosis: the role of endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Kusi, E; Leyden, E; Parmar, S; Mondelli, V; McGuire, P; Bhattacharyya, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to summarize current evidence regarding alterations in the neuroendocrine stress response system and endocannabinoid system and their relationship in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Exposure to stress is linked to the development of a number of psychiatric disorders including psychosis. However, the precise role of stress in the development of psychosis and the possible mechanisms that might underlie this are not well understood. Recently the cannabinoid hypothesis of schizophrenia has emerged as a potential line of enquiry. Endocannabinoid levels are increased in patients with psychosis compared with healthy volunteers; furthermore, they increase in response to stress, which suggests another potential mechanism for how stress might be a causal factor in the development of psychosis. However, research regarding the links between stress and the endocannabinoid system is in its infancy. Evidence summarized here points to an alteration in the baseline tone and reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as well as in various components of the endocannabinoid system in patients with psychosis. Moreover, the precise nature of the inter-relationship between these two systems is unclear in man, especially their biological relevance in the context of psychosis. Future studies need to simultaneously investigate HPA axis and endocannabinoid alterations both at baseline and following experimental perturbation in healthy individuals and those with psychosis to understand how they interact with each other in health and disease and obtain mechanistic insight as to their relevance to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  7. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  8. Striatal μ-opioid receptor availability predicts cold pressor pain threshold in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagelberg, Nora; Aalto, Sargo; Tuominen, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    the potential associations between μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) and psychophysical measures. The results show that striatal μ-opioid receptor BP(ND) predicts cold pressor pain threshold, but not cold pressor pain tolerance or tactile sensitivity. This finding suggests that striatal μ-opioid receptor density......Previous PET studies in healthy humans have shown that brain μ-opioid receptor activation during experimental pain is associated with reductions in the sensory and affective ratings of the individual pain experience. The aim of this study was to find out whether brain μ-opioid receptor binding...... at the resting state, in absence of painful stimulation, can be a long-term predictor of experimental pain sensitivity. We measured μ-opioid receptor binding potential (BP(ND)) with μ-opioid receptor selective radiotracer [(11)C]carfentanil and positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 healthy male subjects...

  9. Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of cold-rolled Mg-rich Mg-Cu-Gd metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.I.; Kim, J.W.; Oh, H.S.; Park, J.S.; Park, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal devitrification behavior and mechanical response of Mg 75 Cu 15 Gd 10 (relatively strong glass former with higher structural stability) and Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 (relatively fragile glass former with lower structural stability) metallic glasses, fabricated by repeated forced cold rolling, have been investigated. When metallic glasses were cold-rolled up to a thickness reduction ratio of ∼33%, the heat of relaxation (ΔH relax. ) below T g of the cold-rolled specimens was reduced, which indicates the formation of local structural ordering via cold rolling due to stress-induced relaxation. The local structural ordering results in abnormal devitrification behavior, such as higher resistance of glass-to-supercooled liquid transition and delayed growth, in the following heat treatment due to increased nuclei density and pinning site. In particular, the fragility index, m, could assist in understanding structural stability and local structural variation by mechanical processing as well as compositional tuning. Indeed, we examine the shear avalanche size to rationalize the variation of the deformation unit size depending on the structural instability before and after cold rolling. The deformation mode in Mg 85 Cu 5 Gd 10 metallic glass might change from self-organized critical state to chaotic state by cold rolling, which results in unique hardening behavior under the condition for coexisting well distributed local structural ordering and numerous thinner shear deformed areas. These results would give us a guideline for atomic scale structural manipulation of metallic glasses, and help develop novel metallic glass matrix composites with optimal properties through effective mechanical processing as well as heat treatment.

  10. Abnormal response of melanin-concentrating hormone deficient mice to fasting: hyperactivity and rapid eye movement sleep suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, J T; Sinton, C M; Maratos-Flier, E; Yanagisawa, M

    2008-10-28

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been implicated in energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with MCH and its receptor antagonists have suggested additional behavioral roles for the neuropeptide in the control of mood and vigilance states. These suggestions have been supported by a report of modified sleep in the MCH-1 receptor knockout mouse. Here we found that MCH knockout (MCH(-)(/)(-)) mice slept less during both the light and dark phases under baseline conditions. In response to fasting, MCH(-)(/)(-) mice exhibited marked hyperactivity, accelerated weight loss and an exaggerated decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation, however, the sleep rebound in MCH(-)(/)(-) mice was normal. Thus MCH(-)(/)(-) mice adapt poorly to fasting, and their loss of bodyweight under this condition is associated with behavioral hyperactivity and abnormal expression of REM sleep. These results support a role for MCH in vigilance state regulation in response to changes in energy homeostasis and may relate to a recent report of initial clinical trials with a novel MCH-1 receptor antagonist. When combined with caloric restriction, the treatment of healthy, obese subjects with this compound resulted in some subjects experiencing vivid dreams and sleep disturbances.

  11. Postoperative abnormal response of C-reactive protein as an indicator for infectious complications after oral oncologic surgery with primary reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Masaya; Furudoi, Shungo; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Sakakibara, Akiko; Hasegawa, Takumi; Shigeta, Takashi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Komori, Takahide

    2015-04-02

    C-reactive protein (CRP) screening has been reported to be reliable for detection of infectious complications. Postoperative abnormal response of CRP can predict wound infection in colorectal surgery. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of CRP monitoring to detect infectious complications in oral oncologic surgery. One hundred patients who underwent oral cancer resection with primary reconstruction were enrolled. Postoperative kinetics of CRP were classified into a normal or abnormal response. A normal CRP response after surgery was observed in 61 patients and an abnormal response was observed in 39. There were postoperative infectious complications in 21 patients, with surgical site infections in 13 patients (early onset in six and late onset in seven). Non-wound infections were found in nine patients. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value for abnormal CRP response as a predictor for early infectious complications were 100%, 70.1%, 35.9%, and 100%, respectively. Postoperative serial CRP screening is a useful test as an indicator of infectious complications in oral oncologic surgery. Normal CRP responses can rule out almost all early infectious complications.

  12. Cortisol and ghrelin concentrations following a cold pressor stress test in overweight individuals with and without night eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, A; Carnell, S; Gluck, M E

    2013-08-01

    To explore appetite-related hormones following stress in overweight individuals, and their relationship with night eating (NE) status. We measured plasma cortisol and ghrelin concentrations, and recorded ratings of stress and hunger in response to a physiological laboratory stressor (cold pressor test, CPT), in overweight women with (n=11; NE) and without (n=17; non-NE) NE. Following the CPT, cortisol (Plevels increased, as did stress and hunger ratings (all Pcortisol (Plevels than non-NE. NE also had greater cortisol area under the curve (AUC) than non-NE (P=0.019), but not when controlling for baseline cortisol levels. Ghrelin baseline and AUC did not differ between groups. NE showed higher AUC stress (Pcortisol, ghrelin, stress and hunger following a laboratory stressor, and there was some evidence for greater increases in cortisol and subjective stress among NE. The greater AUC cortisol level in NE was due to higher baseline levels, but the group difference in stress was in direct response to the stressor. Our results support a role for cortisol and stress in NE.

  13. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Children with autism spectrum disorders show abnormal conditioned response timing on delay, but not trace, eyeblink conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oristaglio, Jeff; West, Susan Hyman; Ghaffari, Manely; Lech, Melissa S.; Verma, Beeta R.; Harvey, John A.; Welsh, John P.; Malone, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched typically-developing (TD) peers were tested on two forms of eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a Pavlovian associative learning paradigm where subjects learn to execute an appropriately-timed eyeblink in response to a previously neutral conditioning stimulus (CS). One version of the task, trace EBC, interposes a stimulus-free interval between the presentation of the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (US), a puff of air to the eye which causes subjects to blink. In delay EBC, the CS overlaps in time with the delivery of the US, usually with both stimuli terminating simultaneously. ASD children performed normally during trace EBC, exhibiting no differences from typically-developing (TD) subjects with regard to learning rate or the timing of the CR. However, when subsequently tested on delay EBC, subjects with ASD displayed abnormally-timed conditioned eye blinks that began earlier and peaked sooner than those of TD subjects, consistent with previous findings. The results suggest an impaired ability of children with ASD to properly time conditioned eye blinks which appears to be specific to delay EBC. We suggest that this deficit may reflect a dysfunction of cerebellar cortex in which increases in the intensity or duration of sensory input can temporarily disrupt the accuracy of motor timing over short temporal intervals. PMID:23769889

  15. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  16. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities and alteration of microRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia and response to therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shahjahani; Elham Khodadi; Mohammad Seghatoleslami; Javad Mohammadi Asl; Neda Golchin; Zeynab Deris Zaieri; Najmaldin Saki

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to...

  17. Aerobic exercise and cold pressor test induce hypoalgesia in active and inactive men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Jørgensen, Maria N.

    2015-01-01

    ). Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) was assessed by cold pressor testing. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) was assessed after 15 minutes bicycling at a heart rate corresponding to 75% VO2max. A control session of 15 minutes quiet rest was also included. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded....... It was hypothesized that active subjects had more efficient pain inhibition compared with inactive subjects. DESIGN: A randomized, crossover study with 2 days of data collection. METHODS: Fifty-six (28 females) subjects participated in this study. Subjects were subgrouped into active (n = 30) and inactive (n = 26...

  18. ABNORMAL PLASMA NORADRENALINE RESPONSE AND EXERCISE INDUCED ALBUMINURIA IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETES-MELLITUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGENBERG, K; DULLAART, RPF

    1992-01-01

    Submaximal exercise provokes an abnormal elevation in albuminuria in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Plasma catecholamines might be involved in this phenomenon by a renal vasoconstrictive effect. Twelve healthy subjects (Controls: albuminuria It is concluded that the exercise-induced

  19. Inhibition of TRPM8 channels reduces pain in the cold pressor test in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Wendy J; Gore, Katrina; Glatt, Sophie; Petit, Wendy; Gardiner, Jennifer C; Conlon, Kelly; Postlethwaite, Michael; Saintot, Pierre-Philippe; Roberts, Sonia; Gosset, James R; Matsuura, Tomomi; Andrews, Mark D; Glossop, Paul A; Palmer, Michael J; Clear, Nicola; Collins, Susie; Beaumont, Kevin; Reynolds, David S

    2014-11-01

    The transient receptor potential (subfamily M, member 8; TRPM8) is a nonselective cation channel localized in primary sensory neurons, and is a candidate for cold thermosensing, mediation of cold pain, and bladder overactivity. Studies with TRPM8 knockout mice and selective TRPM8 channel blockers demonstrate a lack of cold sensitivity and reduced cold pain in various rodent models. Furthermore, TRPM8 blockers significantly lower body temperature. We have identified a moderately potent (IC50 = 103 nM), selective TRPM8 antagonist, PF-05105679 [(R)-3-[(1-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl)(quinolin-3-ylcarbonyl)amino]methylbenzoic acid]. It demonstrated activity in vivo in the guinea pig bladder ice water and menthol challenge tests with an IC50 of 200 nM and reduced core body temperature in the rat (at concentrations >1219 nM). PF-05105679 was suitable for acute administration to humans and was evaluated for effects on core body temperature and experimentally induced cold pain, using the cold pressor test. Unbound plasma concentrations greater than the IC50 were achieved with 600- and 900-mg doses. The compound displayed a significant inhibition of pain in the cold pressor test, with efficacy equivalent to oxycodone (20 mg) at 1.5 hours postdose. No effect on core body temperature was observed. An unexpected adverse event (hot feeling) was reported, predominantly periorally, in 23 and 36% of volunteers (600- and 900-mg dose, respectively), which in two volunteers was nontolerable. In conclusion, this study supports a role for TRPM8 in acute cold pain signaling at doses that do not cause hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  20. Role of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex in stress-evoked cardiovascular responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Fortaleza, Eduardo Albino Trindade; Tavares, Rodrigo Fiacadori; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2014-07-01

    Restraint stress (RS) is an experimental model to study stress-related cardiovascular responses, characterized by sustained pressor and tachycardiac responses. We used pharmacologic and surgical procedures to investigate the role played by sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) in the mediation of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses. Ganglionic blockade with pentolinium significantly reduced RS-evoked pressor and tachycardiac responses. Intravenous treatment with homatropine methyl bromide did not affect the pressor response but increased tachycardia. Pretreatment with prazosin reduced the pressor and increased the tachycardiac response. Pretreatment with atenolol did not affect the pressor response but reduced tachycardia. The combined treatment with atenolol and prazosin reduced both pressor and tachycardiac responses. Adrenal demedullation reduced the pressor response without affecting tachycardia. Sinoaortic denervation increased pressor and tachycardiac responses. The results indicate that: (1) the RS-evoked cardiovascular response is mediated by the autonomic nervous system without an important involvement of humoral factors; (2) hypertension results primarily from sympathovascular and sympathoadrenal activation, without a significant involvement of the cardiac sympathetic component (CSNS); (3) the abrupt initial peak in the hypertensive response to restraint is sympathovascular-mediated, whereas the less intense but sustained hypertensive response observed throughout the remaining restraint session is mainly mediated by sympathoadrenal activation and epinephrine release; (4) tachycardia results from CSNS activation, and not from PSNS inhibition; (5) RS evokes simultaneous CSNS and PSNS activation, and heart rate changes are a vector of both influences; (6) the baroreflex is functional during restraint, and modulates both the vascular and cardiac responses to restraint.

  1. Chronotopic and blood pressure response to oral glucose load in chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Guariento

    Full Text Available Cardiac chronotropic and pressor responses after an oral load of glucose were assessed in sixteen Chagasic subjects and 28 controls by means of blood pressure and pulse rate measurements. Cardiovascular response was correlated with serum insulin and glucose levels. The experiment identified a subgroup of Chagasic subjects (n=8 with a hypoinsulinemic behavior presenting less chronotropic and pressor responses than controls. This may indicate a lower insulin activity and/or an early Autonomic Nervous System dysfunction in this subgroup.

  2. Blood pressure response to Cold Pressor Test in the children of hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Garg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred student volunteers of 16-24 yrs were divided into two groups of 100 each, as children of hypertensive and children of normotensive parents. It was observed that there was no difference in resting SBP and DBP in both groups before CPT. After CPT, significant higher values of SBP after immersion, DBP after immersion, difference of SBP and difference of DBP were observed in children of hypertensive parents as compared to children of normotensive parents. This study can be used as a predictor of future development of hypertension for which early preventive measures can be taken to reduce the morbidity and mortality due to hypertensive complications.

  3. Comparison of gene expression profiles and responses to zinc chloride among inter- and intraspecific hybrids with growth abnormalities in wheat and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Kiyofumi; Iehisa, Julio C M; Nishijima, Ryo; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid necrosis is a well-known reproductive isolation mechanism in plant species, and an autoimmune response is generally considered to trigger hybrid necrosis through epistatic interaction between disease resistance-related genes in hybrids. In common wheat, the complementary Ne1 and Ne2 genes control hybrid necrosis, defined as type I necrosis. Two other types of hybrid necrosis (type II and type III) have been observed in interspecific hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. Another type of hybrid necrosis, defined here as type IV necrosis, has been reported in F1 hybrids between Triticum urartu and some accessions of Triticum monococcum ssp. aegilopoides. In types I, III and IV, cell death occurs gradually starting in older tissues, whereas type II necrosis symptoms occur only under low temperature. To compare comprehensive gene expression patterns of hybrids showing growth abnormalities, transcriptome analysis of type I and type IV necrosis was performed using a wheat 38k oligo-DNA microarray. Defense-related genes including many WRKY transcription factor genes were dramatically up-regulated in plants showing type I and type IV necrosis, similarly to other known hybrid abnormalities, suggesting an association with an autoimmune response. Reactive oxygen species generation and necrotic cell death were effectively inhibited by ZnCl2 treatment in types I, III and IV necrosis, suggesting a significant association of Ca(2+) influx in upstream signaling of necrotic cell death in wheat hybrid necrosis.

  4. Riboflavin-Responsive Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Associated with Hepatoencephalomyopathy and White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Päivi; Myllynen, Päivi; Perhomaa, Marja; Tuominen, Hannu; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Rytky, Seppo; Risteli, Leila; Uusimaa, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting both fatty acid and amino acid oxidation. It can manifest at any age, but riboflavin-responsiveness has mainly been described in less severely affected patients. We describe an infant with severe MADD presenting with profound hypotonia and hepatomegaly. Treatment with riboflavin improved his muscle strength, liver size, and biochemical markers. A homozygous mutation of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase ( ETFDH ) was found. His motor skills continued to progress until a fatal infection-triggered deterioration at the age of 34 months. We show changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging over the course of the disease, with profound white matter abnormalities during the deterioration phase. Aggregates of mitochondria with abnormal cristae in muscle electron microscopy were noticed already in infancy. An unusual lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern with LDH-1 predominance was additionally observed. This case demonstrates riboflavin-responsiveness in a severely affected infant with both muscular and extramuscular involvement and further underlines the variable nature of this disease. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  6. SELECTIVE CHLORIDE LOADING IS PRESSOR IN THE STROKE-PRONE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RAT DESPITE HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE-INDUCED NATRIURESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Olga; Tanaka, Masae; Sebastian, Anthony; Morris, R. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP), the pressor effect of selective dietary chloride loading depends on a positive external sodium balance. Methods In 43 male SHRSP fed a Japanese style diet containing a low normal amount of NaCl (0.4%) we compared the effects on telemetrically measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) of hydrochlorothiazide, 25 mg/kg per day, alone (“TZ”, n=11); hydrochlorothiazide combined with either KCl (“KCLTZ”, 2%K, n=10) or KHCO3 (“KBCTZ”, 2%K, n=11) and no hydrochlorothiazide (“CTL”, n=11) over a 10-week period starting at 10 weeks of age. Results With either TZ or KBCTZ, SBP did not increase above baseline values. However, KCLTZ induced a sustained increase in SBP of 17 mmHg (phydrochlorothiazide (CTL), 38 mmHg (phydrochlorothiazide, but did not differ between KCLTZ and KBCTZ. Changes in SBP occurring on the 2nd day after treatment assignment predicted final changes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in the SHRSP, dietary KCl loading can induce a pressor effect despite concomitant hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis that elicits a negative external sodium balance. The results provide evidence that in the SHRSP the pressor effect of selective chloride loading does not depend on a positive external sodium balance, but rather on a mechanism actuated by chloride per se. PMID:19851120

  7. Abnormal Endogenous Repression of GA Signaling in a Seedless Table Grape Cultivar with High Berry Growth Response to GA Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiako K. Acheampong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellin (GA application is routinely used in the table grape industry to increase berry size and cluster length. Although grapevine cultivars show a wide range of growth responsiveness to GA3 application, the reasons for these differences is unclear. To shed light on this issue, two commercial grapevine cultivars with contrasting berry response to GA were selected for comparative analysis, in which we tested if the differences in response: (1 is organ-specific or cultivar-related; (2 will be reflected in qualitative/quantitative differences in transcripts/proteins of central components of GA metabolism and signaling and levels of GA metabolites. Our results showed that in addition to the high response of its berries to GA, internodes and rachis of cv. Black finger (BF presented a greater growth response compared to that of cv. Spring blush (SB. In agreement, the results exposed significant quantitative differences in GA signaling components in several organs of both cultivars. Exceptionally higher level of all three functional VvDELLA proteins was recorded in young BF organs, accompanied by elevated VvGID1 expression and lower VvSLY1b transcripts. Absence of seed traces, low endogenous GA quantities and lower expression of VvGA20ox4 and VvGA3ox3 were also recorded in berries of BF. Our results raise the hypothesis that, in young organs of BF, low expression of VvSLY1b may be responsible for the massive accumulation of VvDELLA proteins, which then leads to elevated VvGID1 levels. This integrated analysis suggests causal relationship between endogenous mechanisms leading to anomalous GA signaling repression in BF, manifested by high quantities of VvDELLA proteins, and greater growth response to GA application.

  8. Virtual-reality distraction and cold-pressor pain tolerance: does avatar point of view matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Herbert, Linda J; Weiss, Karen E; Jimeno, Monica

    2010-10-01

    This study tested the effects of distraction using virtual-reality (VR) technology on acute pain tolerance in young adults. Forty-one undergraduate students, aged 18-23 years, used a VR head-mounted display helmet, steering wheel, and foot pedal to play an auto racing video game while undergoing exposure to very cold water (cold pressor set at 1 °C). Two different game views were tested that were hypothesized to affect the degree to which participants felt "present" in the virtual environment: a first-person view, in which the participant saw the virtual environment through the eyes of the game character being manipulated; and a third-person view, in which the participant viewed the game character from a distance. The length of time participants tolerated the cold-water exposure (pain tolerance) under each distraction condition was compared to a baseline (no distraction) trial. Subjects also rated the degree to which they felt "present" in the virtual environment after each distraction trial. Results demonstrated that participants had significantly higher pain tolerance during both VR-distraction conditions relative to baseline (no distraction) trials. Although participants reported a greater sense of presence during the first-person condition than the third-person condition, pain-tolerance scores associated with the two distraction conditions did not differ. The types of VR applications in which presence may be more or less important are discussed.

  9. Sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test does not increase the muscle force generation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2011-06-01

    A positive inotropic action by the sympathetic nervous system on skeletal muscles has been observed and investigated in animal and in vitro studies. This action provided a theoretical basis for the putative ergogenic action of catecholamines and adrenergic agonists, although there is no clear evidence of this effect in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of inotropic effects associated to physiological sympathetic activation in healthy subjects. The muscle force capacity was investigated in the tibialis anterior (n = 9 subjects) and in the soleus (n = 9) muscles electrically stimulated with single pulses and double pulses with variable interspike interval (4-1,000 ms) and short pulse trains (frequency: 5-14 Hz) before, during, and after sympathetic activation by the cold pressor test (CPT). CPT significantly decreased by 10.4 ± 7.2 and 10.6 ± 4.4% the force produced by single and double pulse stimulation, respectively, and produced smaller decreases in the force obtained by train stimulation in the tibialis anterior, while no significant changes were observed in either type of contraction in the soleus muscle. CPT failed to induce any increase in the force capacity of the investigated muscles. The prevalent decrease in force evidenced in this study supports the concept that the weakening sympathetic action on type I fiber, already shown to occur in humans, prevails over the putative potentiating action.

  10. Abnormal GABAA-mediated metabolic response in the MDX mouse - an explanation for the mental deficit in Duchenne muscular dystrophy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, C.; Bubb, W.A.; Maitland, A.; Head, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder associated with lack of the 728 kDa protein dystrophin. In addition to the well-known muscle wasting, sufferers also experience a 15 point downshift in IQ. Recently reduced clustering of GABA A receptors in cerebellar Purkinje and hippocampal CA1 neurons has been shown in the murine homologue of DMD, the mdx mouse. In this work, the functional efficacy of GABA A receptors in mdx mice (C57B1/10Sc-Sn-mdx) and control was tested by examining the metabolism of [1- 13 C]D-glucose under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and also by examining the metabolic response to the GABA A agonist muscimol (5-aminomethyl-3-hydroxyisoxazole). Although total measured [ 13 C] was identical in mdx cf. control mice, the fractional enrichment of all metabolites was increased in mdx mice, suggesting decreased inhibitory input in these animals. Further, although flux into metabolites from [1- 13 C]D-glucose decreased as expected in control mice in the presence of muscimol, the GABA a agonist had weaker effect in mdx mice, consistent with weaker GABA A activation. Finally, the response of mdx mouse brain tissue slices to mild hypoxia (partially mediated by GABA A ) was altered cf. control mice, with increased production of lactate and decreased flux into Krebs cycle intermediates. These data are consistent with a functional lesion of a subset of GABA A receptors in DMD

  11. Abnormal heart-rate response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing identifies cardiac dysfunction in symptomatic patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Sundeep; Kumar, Naresh; Behbahani, Hushyar; Bagai, Akshay; Singh, Binoy K; Menasco, Nick; Lewis, Gregory D; Sperling, Laurence; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Symptomatic non-obstructive coronary artery disease is a growing clinical dilemma for which contemporary testing is proving to be of limited clinical utility. New methods are needed to identify cardiac dysfunction. This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted from December 2013 to August 2015 in two outpatient cardiology clinics (symptomatic cohort) and 24 outpatient practices throughout the US (healthy cohort) with centralized methodology and monitoring to compare heart-rate responses during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Participants were 208 consecutive patients (median age, 61; range, 32-86years) with exercise intolerance and without prior heart or lung disease in whom coronary anatomy was defined and 116 healthy subjects (median age, 45; range, 26-66years). Compared to stress ECG, the novel change in heart-rate as a function of work-rate parameter (ΔHR-WR Slope) demonstrated significantly higher sensitivity to detect under-treated atherosclerosis with similar specificity. In men, area under the ROC curve increased from 60% to 94% for non-obstructive CAD and from 64% to 80% for obstructive CAD. In women, AUC increased from 64% to 85% for non-obstructive CAD and from 66% to 90% for obstructive CAD. ΔHR-WR Slope correctly reclassified abnormal studies in the non-obstructive CAD group from 22% to 81%; in the obstructive CAD group from 18% to 84% and in the revascularization group from 35% to 78%. Abnormal heart-rate response during CPET is more effective than stress ECG for identifying under-treated atherosclerosis and may be of utility to identify cardiac dysfunction in symptomatic patients with normal routine cardiac testing. Copyright © 2016 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Observational learning and pain-related fear: an experimental study with colored cold pressor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Kim; Goubert, Liesbet; Peters, Madelon L; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to experimentally test whether pain-related fear can be acquired through observational learning, whether extinction occurs after actual exposure to the aversive stimulus, and whether pain-related fear was associated with increased pain ratings. During an observation phase, female volunteers watched a video showing models performing cold pressor tasks (CPT), of which the color served as a conditioned stimulus (CS). In a differential fear conditioning paradigm, each of 2 colors were either paired with models' painful (CS+) or neutral (CS-) facial expressions. Exposure consisted of participants performing CPTs of both colors (10°C). Self-reported fear of pain and expected pain ratings were obtained after the observation period, while actual pain and avoidance measures were obtained during and after exposure. Results show that after observing another person performing the CPT associated with the painful faces, subjects report more fear of pain and expect more intense and unpleasant pain as compared with the CPT associated with the neutral faces. This effect of observational learning on pain-related fear persisted until after exposure. During and after exposure no stimulus-type effect for pain ratings was found. This study provides preliminary evidence for observational learning of pain-related fear in humans. Fear of pain can be more disabling than pain itself, and is a risk factor for chronic pain. Knowledge about the acquisition of pain-related fear may help to develop novel pain management programs. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the effects of observational learning on pain-related fear. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of generalised sympathetic activation by cold pressor test on cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Micieli, G; Bosone, D; Losano, G; Bini, R; Cavallini, A; Passatore, M

    1998-07-15

    There is no general agreement regarding several aspects of the role of the sympathetic system on cerebral haemodynamics such as extent of effectiveness, operational range and site of action. This study was planned to identify the effect of a generalised sympathetic activation on the cerebral haemodynamics in healthy humans before it is masked by secondary corrections, metabolic or myogenic in nature. A total of 35 healthy volunteers aged 20-35 underwent a 5 min lasting cold pressor test (CPT) performed on their left hand. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity in the middle cerebral arteries and arterial blood pressure were recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography and with a non-invasive finger-cuff method, respectively. The ratio of arterial blood pressure to mean blood velocity (ABP/Vm) and Pulsatility Index (PI) were calculated throughout each trial. CPT induced an increase in mean ABP (range 2-54 mmHg depending on the subject) and only a slight, though significant, increase in blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (+2.4 and +4.4% on ipsi- and contralateral side, respectively). During CPT, the ratio ABP/Vm increased and PI decreased in all subjects on both sides. These changes began simultaneously with the increase in blood pressure. The increase in ABP/Vm ratio is attributed to an increase in the cerebrovascular resistance, while the concomitant reduction in PI is interpreted as due to the reduction in the compliance of the middle cerebral artery. The results suggest that generalised increases in the sympathetic discharge, causing increases in ABP, can prevent concomitant increases in CBF by acting on both small resistance and large compliant vessels. This effect is also present when a slight increase in blood pressure occurs, which suggests a moderate increase in the sympathetic discharge, i.e. when ABP remains far below the upper limit of CBF autoregulation.

  14. Action plan for response to abnormal conditions in Hanford high level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks containing flammable gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.J.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive liquid waste tends to produce hydrogen as a result of the interaction of gamma radiation and water. In tanks containing organic chelating agents, additional hydrogen gas as well as nitrous oxide and ammonia can be produced by thermal and radiolytic decomposition of these organics. Several high-level radioactive liquid waste storage tanks, located underground at the Hanford Site, contain waste that retains the gases produced in them until large quantities are released rapidly to the tank vapor space. Tanks filled to near capacity have relatively little vapor space; therefore, if the waste suddenly releases a large amount of hydrogen and nitrous oxide, a flammable gas mixture may result. The most notable waste tank with a flammable gas problem is tank 241-SY-101. Waste in this tank has occasionally released enough flammable gas to burn if an ignition source had been present inside of the tank. Several other waste tanks exhibit similar behavior to a lesser magnitude. Administrative controls have been developed to assure that these Flammable Gas Watch List tanks are safely maintained. Responses have also been developed for off-normal conditions which might develop in these tanks. In addition, scientific and engineering studies are underway to further understand and mitigate the behavior of the Flammable Gas Watch List tanks

  15. Identification of nickel response genes in abnormal early developments of sea urchin by differential display polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tae Kwon; Lee, Gunsup; Rhee, Yong; Park, Heung-Sik; Chang, Man; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Jaean; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2012-10-01

    Bioassays and biomarkers have been previously developed to assess the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the sea urchin. In this study, malformation in the early developmental processes was observed in sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) larvae exposed to 10 ppm Ni for over 30 h. The most critical stage at which the triggering of nickel effects takes place is thought to be the blastula stage, which occurs after fertilization in larval development. To investigate the molecular-level responses of sea urchin exposed to heavy metal stress and to explore the differentially expressed genes that are induced or repressed by nickel, differential display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR) was used with sea urchin mRNAs. The malformation-related genes expressed in the early life stages of the sea urchin were cloned from larvae exposed to 10 ppm of nickel for 15 h, and accessed via DD-PCR. Sequence analysis results revealed that each of the genes evidenced high homology with EGF2, PCSK9, serine/threonine protein kinase, apolipophorin precursor protein, and MGC80921 protein/transcript variant 2. This result may prove useful in the development of novel biomarkers for the assessment of heavy metal stresses on sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormalities in the Polysomnographic, Adenosine and Metabolic Response to Sleep Deprivation in an Animal Model of Hyperammonemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Marini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with liver cirrhosis can develop hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE, accompanied by pronounced daytime sleepiness. Previous studies with healthy volunteers show that experimental increase in blood ammonium levels increases sleepiness and slows the waking electroencephalogram. As ammonium increases adenosine levels in vitro, and adenosine is a known regulator of sleep/wake homeostasis, we hypothesized that the sleepiness-inducing effect of ammonium is mediated by adenosine. Eight adult male Wistar rats were fed with an ammonium-enriched diet for 4 weeks; eight rats on standard diet served as controls. Each animal was implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG electrodes and a microdialysis probe. Sleep EEG recording and cerebral microdialysis were carried out at baseline and after 6 h of sleep deprivation. Adenosine and metabolite levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and targeted LC/MS metabolomics, respectively. Baseline adenosine and metabolite levels (12 of 16 amino acids, taurine, t4-hydroxy-proline, and acetylcarnitine were lower in hyperammonemic animals, while putrescine was higher. After sleep deprivation, hyperammonemic animals exhibited a larger increase in adenosine levels, and a number of metabolites showed a different time-course in the two groups. In both groups the recovery period was characterized by a significant decrease in wakefulness/increase in NREM and REM sleep. However, while control animals exhibited a gradual compensatory effect, hyperammonemic animals showed a significantly shorter recovery phase. In conclusion, the adenosine/metabolite/EEG response to sleep deprivation was modulated by hyperammonemia, suggesting that ammonia affects homeostatic sleep regulation and its metabolic correlates.

  17. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  18. Effect of brief mindfulness intervention on tolerance and distress of pain induced by cold-pressor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Sisi; Chang, Shaochen; Chen, Wenjun; Si, Mei

    2013-08-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that short-term meditation intervention can lead to greater tolerance and lower pain or distress ratings of experimentally induced pain. However, few attempts have been made to examine the effects of short-term mindfulness-based intervention on the tolerance and distress of pain, when delivered in a therapist-free form. The present research explored the effect of brief mindfulness intervention using pre-recorded instruction on pain experimentally induced by the cold-pressor task. The effects of the mindfulness strategy, the distraction strategy and spontaneous strategy, all through the instructions of pre-recorded voices, were compared. The subjects were drawn from healthy college students and randomly assigned to the aforementioned three groups. Our results showed that compared with using spontaneous strategies, the mindfulness intervention significantly improved the participants' pain tolerance and reduced their immersion distress. The distraction strategy also significantly improved the participants' pain tolerance. However, it did not have a significant effect on the participants' level of distress during the immersion period. Our results suggest that brief mindfulness intervention without a therapist's personal involvement is capable of helping people cope with pain induced by the cold-pressor task. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Abnormal responses to the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide of cultured fibroblasts from patients with dysplastic nevus syndrome and hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.J.; Greene, M.H.; Adams, D.; Paterson, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS) is a preneoplastic melanocyte abnormality which occurs in families affected by hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma (HCMM). A putative role of host-environmental interactions in the etiology of hereditary melanoma has been strengthened by the recent finding that fibroblasts derived from HCMM/DNS patients demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to u.v.-irradiation in vitro. An extension of these studies is reported in which we have examined the invitro responses to a model environmental carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO), of six non-tumor skin fibroblast strains from HCMM/DNS patients representing five families. Three of the six HCMM/DNS strains showed enhanced cell killing with sensitivities greater than that of a xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant strain but less than those of ataxia telangiectasia and XP Group D cell strains. The inhibition and recovery of de novo DNA synthesis, together with the expression of repair synthesis, following 4NQO exposure appeared to be normal in HCMM/DNS strains, irrespective of their subsequent clonogenic potential. The data point to a metabolic anomaly which may contribute to the carcinogenic risk of the melanoma prone preneoplastic state presented by some DNS patients

  20. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  1. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  3. Correlation of abnormal response of left ventricular ejection fraction after exercise and left ventricular cavity-to-myocardium count ratio of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Hueisch-J [Kaohsiung Medical Univ., Taiwan (China). School of Technology for Medical Science; Lin, Ching-C; Wang, Jhi-J [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Ho, Shung-T [National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China). School of Medicine; Kao, Albert [China Medical Coll., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Hospital

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of the left ventricular cavity-to-myocardium count ratio (C/M ratio) of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to identify abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) responses after exercise in patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD). We studied 50 patients with recent CAD undergoing rest and exercise first-pass ventriculography to calculate LVEF and rest and exercise Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion SPECT to calculate left ventricular C/M ratios. Group A, consisting of 25 CAD patients with normal responses (increased LVEF{>=}5% after exercise), had significantly higher rest and exercise C/M ratios than those of the group B, consisting of 25 CAD patients with abnormal responses (increased LVEF <5% after exercise) after exercise. However, the C/M ratios between exercise and rest did not differ significantly between groups A and B. In addition, there was significant correlation between LVEF and C/M ratios in all of the patients. C/M ratios of Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion SPECT are useful parameters for identifying patients with abnormal LVEF responses among patients with CAD. (author)

  4. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  5. C.57 C > T Mutation in MIR 184 is Responsible for Congenital Cataracts and Corneal Abnormalities in a Five-generation Family from Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Caiado Canedo, Ana L; Wright, Kenneth W; Rabinowitz, Yaron S

    2015-01-01

    A c.57 C > T mutation in the seed region of MIR184 located at the 15q25.1 chromosomal region has been independently associated with autosomal dominant keratoconus with early-onset anterior polar cataract in the Northern Irish family and with autosomal dominant EDICT (Endothelial Dystrophy, Iris hypoplasia, Congenital cataracts, and stromal Thinning) syndrome. In this study we report a five-generation family originating in Galicia, Spain with early onset cataracts and variable corneal abnormalities which include non-ectatic corneal thinning and severe early-onset keratoconus. We identified a heterozygous c.57 C > T mutation in miR-184 in the proband and two additional affected relatives on the maternal side. This finding represents a third independent occurrence of this mutation in familiar ocular disease thus strengthening the link between miR-184 abnormalities and inherited eye defects.

  6. Enhanced diacylglycerol production by phospholipase D activation is responsible for abnormal increase in concanavalin A cap formation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from Chediak-Higashi syndrome (beige) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Hirotake; Tanabe, Fuminori

    2014-07-01

    We previously reported that enhanced ceramide production induces calpain-mediated proteolysis of protein kinase C (PKC) in leukocytes from Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS). In the present study, we demonstrated that phospholipase D (PLD) inhibitors ameliorated abnormal increases in concanavalin A (Con A) cap formation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from beige mouse, an animal model of CHS. PLD activity in PMNs from beige mice enhanced at 30 to 60s after Con A stimulation. In Con A-stimulated beige PMNs, both neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) and acidic sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) activities enhanced, and ceramide levels are also increased. We found that ceramide levels were reversed by the treatment of beige PMNs with propranolol which inhibits phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase. In addition, we showed that diacylgycerol (DAG) analogs enhance both N-SMase and A-SMase activities in PMNs from normal mice. We subsequently examined the association of CHS1 with PLD, and showed that expression of a truncated mutant of CHS1 in 293T cells induced abnormally rapid activation of PLD after phorbol ester stimulation. Moreover, we showed that specific inhibitors of 14-3-3 proteins, which interact with CHS1/LYST and bind PKC, did not affect abnormal increases in Con A cap formation in beige PMNs. These results suggest that the enhanced DAG production via the PLD pathway is associated with abnormal increases in Con A cap formation in beige PMNs, and that CHS1 may be involved in the regulation of PLD activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Abortion for foetal abnormalities in Ireland; the limited scope of the Irish Government's response to the A, B and C judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Stephen; Claire-Michelle, Smyth

    2013-04-01

    Abortion has been a controversial topic in Irish law and one which the Government has been forced to address following the decision of the European Court of Human Rights in A, B and C v. Ireland. The Working Group established to make recommendations have specifically been instructed to deal only with the issues raised in the A, B and C judgment and legislate on the basic of the 'X case'. This restricted approach calls for legalisation of abortion only where the life of the mother is at risk, a position unique only to Ireland and Andorra within Europe. The vast majority of member states to the European Convention on Human Rights allow for legal abortion on the basis of foetal abnormality and with this emerging consensus the margin of appreciation hitherto afforded by the European Court to member states is diminishing. The advancement and availability of non-invasive genetic tests that can determine foetal abnormalities together with the ruling in R. R. v. Poland leaves Ireland in a precarious position for omitting any reference to foetal abnormalities in any proposed legislation.

  8. Cold pressor test myocardial perfusion SPECT as a predictor of the development of ischemia at exercise in the follow up of asymptomatic patients with moderate cardiovascular risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traverso, Sonia S.; Redruello, Marcela F.; Grynberg, Laura E.; Cragnolino, Daniel E.; Maciel, Neiva R.; Masoli, Osvaldo H.; Perez Balino, Nestor A.; Meretta, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have published the correlation between myocardial perfusion SPECT (MP) during cold pressor test (CPT) and intracoronary acetylcholine and its usefulness as independent marker of endothelial dysfunction (ED). Objective: To analyze the incidence of positivization of MP exercise studies in the follow up of asymptomatic patients with moderate cardiovascular risk (CV) and ED detected by PF. Material and Methods: Of 301 patients of the PARADIGMA Registry (normal exercise MP SPECT and clinical probability [es

  9. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  10. AV3V lesions attenuate the cardiovascular responses produced by blood-borne excitatory amino acid analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, E. J.; Beltz, T. G.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    Systemic injections of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) analogs, kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), produce a pressor response in conscious rats that is caused by a centrally mediated activation of sympathetic drive and the release of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This study tested the hypothesis that the tissue surrounding the anteroventral part of the third ventricle (AV3V) plays a role in the expression of the pressor responses produced by systemically injected EAA analogs. Specifically, we examined whether prior electrolytic ablation of the AV3V region would affect the pressor responses to KA and NMDA (1 mg/kg iv) in conscious rats. The KA-induced pressor response was smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned rats (11 +/- 2 vs. 29 +/- 2 mmHg; P response in sham-lesioned but not AV3V-lesioned rats (+27 +/- 3 vs. +1 +/- 2 mmHg; P response in ganglion-blocked sham-lesioned rats was abolished by a vasopressin V1-receptor antagonist. Similar results were obtained with NMDA. The pressor response to AVP (10 ng/kg iv) was slightly smaller in AV3V-lesioned than in sham-lesioned ganglion-blocked rats (45 +/- 3 vs. 57 +/- 4 mmHg; P responses to systemically injected EAA analogs are smaller in AV3V-lesioned rats. The EAA analogs may produce pressor responses by stimulation of EAA receptors in the AV3V region, or the AV3V region may play an important role in the expression of these responses.

  11. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  12. Abnormal temporal lobe response in Alzheimer's disease during cognitive processing as measured by 11C-2-deoxy-D-glucose and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; de Leon, M.J.; Ferris, S.H.; Kluger, A.; George, A.E.; Reisberg, B.; Sachs, H.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Elderly controls and probable Alzheimer's disease patients underwent serial positron emission tomography (PET) studies during a baseline condition and while performing a verbal memory task. For the temporal lobes, all 7 Alzheimer patients demonstrated a relative shift in glucose metabolic rates to the right hemisphere during the memory condition relative to baseline, and 5 of 7 controls showed a shift to the left hemisphere. Baseline absolute regional metabolic rates replicate previous findings and were somewhat less useful than the memory challenge in differentiating patients from controls. These results indicate that a temporal lobe abnormality in Alzheimer's disease is related to memory performance

  13. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  14. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  16. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  17. Congenital abnormalities associated with hemivertebrae in relation to hemivertebrae location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Gerard; Launay, Franck; Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Viehweger, Elke; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Numerous congenital abnormalities have been reported in association with hemivertebrae (HV). No data exist about their incidence depending on the location of the HV. From 1980 to 2003, 75 patients with 80 HV responsible for evolutive congenital scoliosis were managed by HV resection using a double approach and short anterior and posterior convex fusion. The associated abnormalities were evaluated with MRI, echocardiography and renal ultrasound. Associated genitourinary abnormalities were found in 24% of patients, cardiac abnormalities in 8% and intrathecal abnormalities in 15%. Medullar abnormalities were more frequent in case of vertebral malformations at lumbosacral level.

  18. "He says, she says": a comparison of fathers' and mothers' verbal behavior during child cold pressor pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Erin C; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J

    2011-11-01

    Mothers' behavior has a powerful impact on child pain. Maternal attending talk (talk focused on child pain) is associated with increased child pain whereas maternal non-attending talk (talk not focused on child pain) is associated with decreased child pain. The present study compared mothers' and fathers' verbal behavior during child pain. Forty healthy 8- to 12-year-old children completed the cold pressor task (CPT)-once with their mothers present and once with their fathers present in a counterbalanced order. Parent verbalizations were coded as Attending Talk or Non-Attending Talk. Results indicated that child symptom complaints were positively correlated with parent Attending Talk and negatively correlated with parent Non-Attending Talk. Furthermore, child pain tolerance was negatively correlated with parent Attending Talk and positively correlated with parent Non-Attending Talk. Mothers and fathers did not use different proportions of Attending or Non-Attending Talk. Exploratory analyses of parent verbalization subcodes indicated that mothers used more nonsymptom-focused verbalizations whereas fathers used more criticism (a low-frequency occurence). The findings indicate that for both mothers and fathers, verbal attention is associated with higher child pain and verbal non-attention is associated with lower child pain. The results also suggest that mothers' and fathers' verbal behavior during child pain generally does not differ. To date, studies of the effects of parental behavior on child pain have focused almost exclusively on mothers. The present study compared mothers' and fathers' verbal behavior during child pain. The results can be used to inform clinical recommendations for mothers and fathers to help their children cope with pain. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluation of normal and abnormal behavior in the period to three years of age involves many variables. Parental attitudes, determined by many factors such as previous childrearing experience, the bonding process, parental psychological status and parental temperament, often influence the labeling of behavior as normal or abnormal. This article describes the forms of crying, sleep and wakefulness, and affective responses from infancy to three years of age.

  20. Acarbose, the α-glucosidase inhibitor, attenuates the blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow responses to meal in elderly patients with postprandial hypotension concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Wei; Li, Jing; Li, Ying; Qian, Duan; Chen, Lei; Wei, Xiansen; Jin, Jiangli; Wang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is a unique clinical phenomenon in the elderly, but its underlying pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated, and drug treatment is still in clinical exploratory stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the fall in postprandial blood pressure and splanchnic blood flow, and to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of PPH by taking acarbose. The study included 20 elderly inpatients diagnosed with PPH concomitant with abnormal glucose metabolism at stable condition. They were treated with 50 mg acarbose with their meal to observe the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and blood glucose level, and to monitor the hemodynamics of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) before and after treatment. Without acarbose treatment, patients after a meal had significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, faster postprandial heart rate, higher postprandial glucose level at each period, and increased postprandial SMA blood flow compared with that at fasting state (P<0.05). Acarbose treatment significantly attenuated the decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressures from 35.50±12.66 to 22.25±6.90 mmHg (P=0.000), the increase of heart rate from 9.67±5.94 to 5.33±3.20 beats/min (P=0.016), the increase of postprandial blood glucose from 3.55±1.69 to 2.28±1.61 mmol/l (P=0.000), the increase of postprandial SMA blood flow from 496.80±147.15 to 374.55±97.89 ml/min (P=0.031), and the incidence of PPH, syncope, falls, dizziness, weakness, and angina pectoris (P<0.05). The maximal decrease of postprandial systolic blood pressure was positively associated with the maximal increase in postprandial SMA blood flow (r=0.351, P=0.026). Acarbose treatment showed no significant side effects. The increase in postprandial splanchnic perfusion is one of the reasons for PPH formation. Acarbose may exert its role in PPH treatment by reducing postprandial gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Giving

  1. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  2. Permanent induction of morphological abnormalities in the penis and penile skeletal muscles in adult rats treated neonatally with diethylstilbestrol or estradiol valerate: a dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Hari O; Braden, Tim D; Williams, Carol S; Dalvi, Prasad; Mansour, Mansour M; Williams, John W

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of neonatal exposure to different doses of diethylstilbestrol (DES) or estradiol valerate (EV) on penile morphology, penile skeletal muscles, and fertility. Male pups received DES or EV at a dose of 10 microg, 1 microg, 100 ng, 10 ng, or 1 ng per rat on alternate days from postnatal days 2-12. Fertility was tested at 120 days, and tissues were examined at 150 days. Generally, DES and EV induced similar effects within the 10- and 1-microg groups. Fertility was reduced to 0; the weight, length, and diameter of the penis and the weight of penile skeletal muscles, especially bulbocavernosus muscle, were decreased (P penis were replaced by fat cells. Conversely, all of the above parameters were similar in controls and the lower dose groups, except in the 100-ng DES group, in which 4 of 7 males did not sire pups (compared with 1 of 7 in controls and 2 of 6 in the 100-ng EV group). The loss of fertility in these 4 males of the DES group and 1 male of the EV group was associated with partial release of the preputial sheath and abnormal penile morphology. Plasma testosterone was reduced (P testosterone.

  3. Effects of volume loading and pressor agents in idiopathic orthostatic tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic orthostatic tachycardia (IOT) is characterized by an increase in heart rate (HR) with standing of > or = 30 bpm that is associated with elevated catecholamine levels and orthostatic symptoms. A dynamic orthostatic hypovolemia and alpha1-adrenoreceptor hypersensitivity have been demonstrated in IOT patients. There is evidence of an autonomic neuropathy affecting the lower-extremity blood vessels. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the effects of placebo, the alpha1-adrenoreceptor agonist midodrine (5 to 10 mg), the alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine (0.1 mg), and I.V. saline (1 L) in 13 patients with IOT. Supine and upright blood pressure (BP) and HR were measured before and at 1 and 2 hours after intervention. Midodrine decreased both supine and upright HR (all HR values are given as bpm) at 2 hours (from 78+/-2 supine to 108+/-5 upright before treatment and from 69+/-2 supine to 95+/-5 upright after treatment, Pmidodrine decreased supine systolic BP mildly. CONCLUSIONS: IOT responds best acutely to saline infusion to correct the underlying hypovolemia. Chronically, this can be accomplished with increased salt and water intake in conjunction with fludrocortisone. The response of patients to the alpha1-agonist midodrine supports the hypothesis of partial dysautonomia and indicates that the use of alpha1-agonists to pharmacologically replace lower-extremity postganglionic sympathetics is an appropriate overall goal of therapy. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that the tachycardia and elevated catecholamine levels associated with IOT are principally due to hypovolemia and loss of adequate lower-extremity vascular tone.

  4. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domain deficient mice develop normally but have an abnormal response to β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Spindler

    Full Text Available A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA and D (PKD and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown.To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction.These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  5. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  6. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  8. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  9. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  10. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  11. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  13. Cardiovascular response to acute cold stress in non-obese and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the cardiovascular response to cold pressor test in non-obese and obese healthy adults. Methods: The study included 400 subjects, of which the study group included 200 adults who had body mass index (BMI) of more than 30 Kg/m2 and 200 non-obese adults were ...

  14. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  15. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  16. Abnormal visuomotor processing in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siân E. Robson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtle disturbances of visual and motor function are known features of schizophrenia and can greatly impact quality of life; however, few studies investigate these abnormalities using simple visuomotor stimuli. In healthy people, electrophysiological data show that beta band oscillations in sensorimotor cortex decrease during movement execution (event-related beta desynchronisation (ERBD, then increase above baseline for a short time after the movement (post-movement beta rebound (PMBR; whilst in visual cortex, gamma oscillations are increased throughout stimulus presentation. In this study, we used a self-paced visuomotor paradigm and magnetoencephalography (MEG to contrast these responses in patients with schizophrenia and control volunteers. We found significant reductions in the peak-to-peak change in amplitude from ERBD to PMBR in schizophrenia compared with controls. This effect was strongest in patients who made fewer movements, whereas beta was not modulated by movement in controls. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of visual gamma between patients and controls. These data demonstrate that clear abnormalities in basic sensorimotor processing in schizophrenia can be observed using a very simple MEG paradigm.

  17. Uranium ({sup 238}U)-induced ROS and cell cycle perturbations, antioxidant responses and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in the freshwater iridescent shark fish Pangasius sutchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi, E-mail: kanthad.arunachalam@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to {sup 238}U deteriorated the antioxidant defenses like SOD, CAT and LPO. • Flow cytometric analysis revealed the increase in G2/M phase and S phase. • Micronucleus frequencies increased with Increased {sup 238}U exposure and time. • Exposure to waterborne {sup 238}U induces both chemical and radiotoxicity in P. sutchi. • ROS-mediated {sup 238}U toxic mechanism and the antioxidant responses has been proposed. - Abstract: The strategic plan of this study is to analyze any possible radiological impact on aquatic organisms from forthcoming uranium mining facilities around the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in the future. The predominantly consumed and dominant fish species Pangasius sutchi, which is available year-round at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, was selected for the study. To comprehend the outcome and to understand the mode of action of {sup 238}U, the fish species Pangasius sutchi was exposed to ¼ and ½ of the LC{sub 50} doses of waterborne {sup 238}U in a static system in duplicate for 21 days. Blood and organs, including the gills, liver, brain and muscles, were collected at different time periods—0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 7, days 14 days and 21 days—using ICP-MS to determine the toxic effects of uranium and the accumulation of {sup 238}U concentrations. The bioaccumulation of {sup 238}U in P. sutchi tissues was dependent on exposure time and concentration. The accumulation of uranium was, in order of magnitude, measured as gills > liver > brain > tissue, with the highest accumulation in the gills. It was observed that exposure to {sup 238}U significantly reduced antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidase. The analysis of DNA fragmentation by comet assay and cell viability by flow cytometry was performed at different time intervals. DNA histograms by flow cytometry analysis revealed an increase in the G2/M phase and the S phase. The long-term {sup 238}U exposure studies in fish showed increasing

  18. The physician's breach of the duty to inform the parent of deformities and abnormalities in the foetus: "wrongful life" actions, a new frontier of medical responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Gulino, Matteo; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2014-07-01

    A recent decision of the Italian Highest Court for the first time legitimized wrongful life suits. The Court stated the following principles: (a) the contract between the mother and the doctor has also protective effects in favour of third parties (father, siblings and the disabled child) who have the right to be compensated; (b) the right to compensation is neither based on the right not to be born nor on the right to be born healthy, but rather it is based on the breach of duty of care which coincides with the child's disabled status; (c) siblings may suffer the reduced availability of their parents; (d) the doctor is held responsible for not providing full information to the mother about the foetal deformity. The Supreme Court once again emphasized the importance of information on the matter of very personal choices, such as termination of pregnancy in case of foetal malformations. In the present case, the gynaecologist breached the duty to inform, especially after the patient requested diagnostic tests designed to highlight any foetal malformations and informed the doctor of the possibility of an eventual subsequent termination of pregnancy if foetal malformations were found.

  19. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  20. Abnormal response to the anorexic effect of GHS-R inhibitors and exenatide in male Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dahe; Wang, Qi; Ran, Haiying; Liu, Kai; Wang, Yao; Wang, Juanjuan; Liu, Yazhen; Chen, Ruichuan; Sun, Yuxiang; Liu, Runzhong; Ding, Feng

    2014-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease characterized by persistent hunger and hyperphagia. The lack of the Snord116 small nucleolar RNA cluster has been identified as the major contributor to PWS symptoms. The Snord116 deletion (Snord116del) mouse model manifested a subset of PWS symptoms including hyperphagia and hyperghrelinemia. In this study, male Snord116del mice were characterized and tested for their acute and chronic responses to anorexic substances related to the ghrelin pathway. In comparison with their wild-type littermates, the food intake rate of Snord116del mice was 14% higher when fed ad libitum, and 32% to 49% higher within 12 hours after fasting. Fasted Snord116del mice were less sensitive to the acute anorexic effect of competitive antagonist [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP6, YIL-781, and reverse agonist [d-Arg(1),d-Phe(5),d-Trp(7,9),Leu(11)]-substance P (SPA) of ghrelin receptor GHS-R. All 3 GHS-R inhibitors failed to inhibit chronic food intake of either Snord116del or wild-type mice due to rapid adaptation. Although fasted Snord116del mice had normal sensitivity to the acute anorexic effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist exenatide, those fed ad libitum required a higher dose and more frequent delivery to achieve ∼15% suppression of long-term food intake in comparison with wild-type mice. Ghrelin, however, is unlikely to be essential for the anorexic effect of exenatide in fed mice, as shown by the fact that exenatide did not reduce ghrelin levels in fed mice and food intake of ghrelin(-/-) mice fed ad libitum could be suppressed by exenatide. In conclusion, this study suggests that GHS-R may not be an effective therapeutic target, and in contrast, exenatide may produce anorexic effect in PWS individuals.

  1. Defective cancellous bone structure and abnormal response to PTH in cortical bone of mice lacking Cx43 cytoplasmic C-terminus domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Davis, Hannah M.; Sorenson, Chad; Hon, Mary C.; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D.; Allen, Matthew R.; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2015-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) forms gap junction channels and hemichannels that allow the communication among osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Cx43 carboxy-terminal (CT) domain regulates channel opening and intracellular signaling by acting as a scaffold for structural and signaling proteins. To determine the role of Cx43 CT domain in bone, mice in which one allele of full length Cx43 was replaced by a mutant lacking the CT domain (Cx43ΔCT/fl) were studied. Cx43ΔCT/fl mice exhibit lower cancellous bone volume but higher cortical thickness than Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating that the CT domain is involved in normal cancellous bone gain but opposes cortical bone acquisition. Further, Cx43ΔCT is able to exert the functions of full length osteocytic Cx43 on cortical bone geometry and mechanical properties, demonstrating that domains other than the CT are responsible for Cx43 function in cortical bone. In addition, parathyroid hormone (PTH) failed to increase endocortical bone formation or energy to failure, a mechanical property that indicates resistance to fracture, in cortical bone in Cx43ΔCT mice with or without osteocytic full length Cx43. On the other hand, bone mass and bone formation markers were increased by the hormone in all mouse models, regardless of whether full length or Cx43ΔCT were or not expressed. We conclude that Cx43 CT domain is involved in proper bone acquisition; and that Cx43 expression in osteocytes is dispensable for some but not all PTH anabolic actions. PMID:26409319

  2. Teaching Abnormal Psychology in a Multimedia Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, JoAnne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the techniques used in teaching an abnormal psychology class in a multimedia environment with two computers and a variety of audiovisual equipment. Students respond anonymously to various questions via keypads mounted on their desks, then immediately view and discuss summaries of their responses. (MJP)

  3. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gachon University Gil Hospital of Korea, 1198, Guwol-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: forrest88@hanmail.net; Lee, Byeong-il [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Chonnam National University Hospital of Korea, 671, Jebong-no, Dong-gu, Gwangju 0-757 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dewpapa@hanmail.net; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, The Seoul National University of Korea, 28, Yeongeon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8{+-}1.1 yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0{+-}2.5 yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6{+-}2.5 pack years. Myocardial [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 deg. C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43{+-}0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37{+-}0.41 ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25{+-}0.33 vs. 1.59{+-}0.29 ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90{+-}24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122{+-}28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81{+-}1.99 vs. 5.03{+-}1.27 ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  5. An investigation into enlarging and reducing the size of mirror reflections of the hand on experimentally-induced cold-pressor pain in healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Gohil, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Mirror visual feedback may be a useful clinical tool for reducing pain. Research suggests that reducing the size of a non-painful reflected hand can alleviate complex regional pain syndrome in the affected hand that is out of view. In contrast, research on healthy humans exposed to experimentally induced pain suggests that reducing the appearance of the size of a reflected body part can increase pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enlarging and reducing the visual appearance of the size of a hand using mirror visual feedback on pain threshold, intensity and tolerance in healthy human participants exposed to cold-pressor pain. Participants were a convenience sample of 20 unpaid, healthy pain free volunteers aged 18 years or above. Each participant took part in one experiment where they completed cold-pressor pain tests whilst observing normal, enlarged and reduced size reflections of a hand congruent to a hand immersed in the ice cold water. A 4×2 factorial repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on time to pain threshold and pain tolerance, and pain intensity with Condition (four levels: no reflection, reduced reflection, normal reflection, enlarged reflection) being the within-subject factors and Sex (two levels: female, male) between-subject factors. There were no significant effects for Condition, Sex, or Condition×Sex interaction for pain threshold, intensity or tolerance (p>0.05). There were no significant differences between the 3 mirror reflection conditions for agreement with the statements: "It felt like I was looking directly at my hand rather than at a mirror image"; "It felt like the hand I was looking at was my hand"; and "Did it seem like the hand you saw was a right hand or a left hand?". Enlarging or reducing the size of a hand using mirror visual feedback did not alter pain perception in healthy human participants exposed to cold-pressor pain. The different sizes of hands generated by mirror visual

  6. [Otoneurologic abnormalities in insulin-dependent diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Renaud, K; Domínguez-Rubio, B; Ibarra-Olmos, A; González-Bárcena, D

    1998-01-01

    To assess the auditory and vestibular function in patients with diabetes. We studied and followed for three years, 10 patients (6 females) of 20.6 years of age (SD 5.5 years), with insulindependent diabetes mellitus of 9.5 years (SD 3.7 years). The patients were selected for having peripheral neuropathy without prolipherative retinopathy and otologic disease or individual factors which could cause neurootologic symptoms. Their glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow were 150 mL/min (SD 50) and 543 mL/min (SD 113). Initially all patients had normal audiologic responses, including auditory brainstem responses, but had abnormally and simetrically diminished horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses. A year later one patient had vertigo and asymmetric vestibulo-ocular responses. In the third year, another patient showed similar abnormalities and a third one showed sensorineural hearing loss. Our results suggest that patients with insulindependent diabetes mellitus may suffer neuro-otological deterioration.

  7. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  8. Maternal attitude towards first trimester screening for fetal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Nerea; Burgos, Jorge; Barbazán, Maria José; Recio, Virginia; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txanton

    2016-05-01

    To explore the maternal attitude towards the screening for structural abnormalities at the 11-13-week scan, according to the severity of the abnormality. A secondary aim was to analyse which maternal characteristics influence in the maternal response. This is a descriptive study based on the responses to 300 self-administrated questionnaires completed immediately before routine ultrasounds scan. A totally of 296 (98.7%) women participated in the study. If the baby had any abnormality 93.9% would prefer to know at 12 weeks, 96.6% if the abnormality was lethal, 95.3% if the abnormality involves severe handicap, 91.2% if the abnormality can only be suspected, but not confirmed until the pregnancy is more advanced (16 or 20 weeks), 77.0% if the abnormality was minor and 79.4% women would like to know at 12 weeks if the baby appeared normal. Maternal age, gestational age at the time of the questionnaire and maternal attitude towards termination of pregnancy were the only factors affecting maternal responses. Pregnant women prefer to be informed in the first trimester about any abnormality in their fetuses, even in cases of minor or only suspected abnormalities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Abnormal peripheral circulation in heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, A; Laperche, T; Caviezel, B; Dahan, M; Gourgon, R

    1994-06-01

    Left ventricular failure leads to circulatory failure which causes clinical symptoms and in which regional blood flow changes play an important role. An abnormality of systemic vasodilatation on exercise or on pharmacological intervention has been shown. This affects both the resistance and conductive vessels and is mainly functional, related to neurohormonal stimulation with a predominance of vasoconstrictive factors amongst which increased adrenergic tone probably plays an essential part. A modification of the endothelium-dependent response has recently been confirmed. The presence of structural vascular abnormalities (increase in parietal sodium and water concentrations, "remodelling" remains debatable in the human. These abnormalities have a common factor in their chronicity and take time to regress with medical treatment or after cardiac transplantation. Physical training seems to induce more marked and, above all, more rapid effects.

  10. Neuroendocrine humoral and vascular components in the pressor pathway for brain angiotensin II: a new axis in long term blood pressure control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Hamlyn

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS administration of angiotensin II (Ang II raises blood pressure (BP. The rise in BP reflects increased sympathetic outflow and a slower neuromodulatory pressor mechanism mediated by CNS mineralocorticoid receptors (MR. We investigated the hypothesis that the sustained phase of hypertension is associated also with elevated circulating levels of endogenous ouabain (EO, and chronic stimulation of arterial calcium transport proteins including the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1, the type 6 canonical transient receptor potential protein (TRPC6, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2. Wistar rats received a chronic intra-cerebroventricular infusion of vehicle (C or Ang II (A, 2.5 ng/min, for 14 days alone or combined with the MR blocker, eplerenone (A+E, 5 µg/day, or the aldosterone synthase inhibitor, FAD286 (A+F, 25 µg/day. Conscious mean BP increased (P50-fold in the A+F group. Central Ang II increased arterial expression of NCX1, TRPC6 and SERCA2 (2.6, 1.75 and 3.7-fold, respectively; P<0.01 but not when co-infused with E or F. Adrenal and pituitary EO were unchanged. We conclude that brain Ang II activates a CNS-humoral axis involving plasma EO. The elevated EO reprograms peripheral ion transport pathways known to control arterial Na(+ and Ca(2+ homeostasis; this increases contractility and augments sympathetic effects. The new axis likely contributes to the chronic pressor effect of brain Ang II.

  11. Blockade of ATP-sensitive potassium channels prevents the attenuation of the exercise pressor reflex by tempol in rats with ligated femoral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Katsuya; Stone, Audrey J; Stocker, Sean D; Kaufman, Marc P

    2012-08-01

    We reported previously that tempol attenuated the exercise pressor and muscle mechanoreceptor reflexes in rats whose femoral arteries were ligated, whereas tempol did not attenuate these reflexes in rats whose femoral arteries were freely perfused. Although the mechanism whereby tempol attenuated these reflexes in rats whose femoral artery was ligated was independent of its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species, its nature remains unclear. An alternative explanation for the tempol-induced attenuation of these reflexes involves ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) and calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca)), both of which are opened by tempol. We tested the likelihood of this explanation by measuring the effects of either glibenclamide (0.1 mg/kg), which blocks K(ATP) channels, or iberiotoxin (20 or 40 μg/kg), which blocks BK(Ca) channels, on the tempol-induced attenuation of the exercise pressor and muscle mechanoreceptor reflexes in decerebrated rats whose femoral arteries were ligated. We found that glibenclamide prevented the tempol-induced attenuation of both reflexes, whereas iberiotoxin did not. We also found that the amount of protein comprising the pore of the K(ATP) channel in the dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs whose femoral artery was ligated was significantly greater than that in the dorsal root ganglia innervating hindlimbs whose femoral arteries were freely perfused. In contrast, the amounts of protein comprising the BK(Ca) channel in the dorsal root ganglia innervating the ligated and freely perfused hindlimbs were not different. We conclude that tempol attenuated both reflexes by opening K(ATP) channels, an effect that hyperpolarized muscle afferents stimulated by static contraction or tendon stretch.

  12. AT1 and AT2 Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex Modulate the Cardiovascular Response Evoked by Acute Exposure to Restraint Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Taíz F S; Fassini, Aline; Corrêa, Fernando M

    2018-01-01

    The prelimbic cortex (PL) is an important structure in the neural pathway integrating stress responses. Brain angiotensin is involved in cardiovascular control and modulation of stress responses. Blockade of angiotensin receptors has been reported to reduce stress responses. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is a stress model, which evokes sustained blood pressure increase, tachycardia, and reduction in tail temperature. We therefore hypothesized that PL locally generated angiotensin and angiotensin receptors modulate stress autonomic responses. To test this hypothesis, we microinjected an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin antagonists into the PL, prior to ARS. Male Wistar rats were used; guide cannulas were bilaterally implanted in the PL for microinjection of vehicle or drugs. A polyethylene catheter was introduced into the femoral artery to record cardiovascular parameters. Tail temperature was measured using a thermal camera. ARS was started 10 min after PL treatment with drugs. Pretreatment with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (0.5 nmol/100 nL) reduced the pressor response, but did not affect ARS-evoked tachycardia. At a dose of 1 nmol/100 nL, it reduced both ARS pressor and tachycardic responses. Pretreatment with candesartan, AT1 receptor antagonist reduced ARS-evoked pressor response, but not tachycardia. Pretreatment with PD123177, AT2 receptor antagonist, reduced tachycardia, but did not affect ARS pressor response. No treatment affected ARS fall in tail temperature. Results suggest involvement of PL angiotensin in the mediation of ARS cardiovascular responses, with participation of both AT1 and AT2 receptors. In conclusion, results indicate that PL AT1-receptors modulate the ARS-evoked pressor response, while AT2-receptors modulate the tachycardic component of the autonomic response.

  13. Phenotype abnormality: 46 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 46 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u552i abnormal for trait of behavioral.../cria224u2ria224u38i stomatal complex ... abnormal ... response to light stimulus ... behavioral quality

  14. Phenotype abnormality: 34 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u540i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named response to cytokinin stimulus ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  15. Phenotype abnormality: 35 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 35 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u541i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named response to gravity ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  16. Phenotype abnormality: 33 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 33 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u539i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named response to auxin stimulus ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  17. The effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment on blood pressure (BP), norepinephrine pressor responsiveness and BP response to acute nifedipine administration in genetic hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef; Pintérová, Mária; Dobešová, Zdenka; Líšková, Silvia; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2006), s. 773-774 ISSN 0194-911X. [Annual Meeting of the European Council for Cardiovascular Research (ECCR) /11./. 29.09.2006-01.10.2006, La Colle sur Loup] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7786 Keywords : pertussis toxin * blood pressure * norepinephrine * nifedipine Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  18. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  19. Muscle afferent receptors engaged in augmented sympathetic responsiveness in peripheral artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua eLi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex (EPR is a neural control mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular responses to exercise. As exercise is initiated, thin fiber muscle afferent nerves are activated by mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in the contracting muscles. This leads to reflex increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate primarily through activation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Studies of humans and animals have indicated that the EPR is exaggerated in a number of cardiovascular diseases. For the last several years, studies have specifically employed a rodent model to examine the mechanisms at receptor and cellular levels by which responses of SNA and blood pressure to static exercise are heightened in peripheral artery disease (PAD, one of the most common cardiovascular disorders. A rat model of this disease has well been established. Specifically, femoral artery occlusion is used to study intermittent claudication that is observed in human PAD. The receptors on thin fiber muscle afferents that are engaged in this disease include transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1, purinergic P2X and acid sensing ion channel (ASIC. The role played by nerve growth factor (NGF in regulating those sensory receptors in the processing of amplified EPR was also investigated. The purpose of this review is to focus on a theme namely that PAD accentuates autonomic reflex responses to exercise and further address regulatory mechanisms leading to abnormal sympathetic responsiveness. This review will present some of recent results in regard with several receptors in muscle sensory neurons in contribution to augmented autonomic reflex responses in PAD. Review of the findings from recent studies would lead to a better understanding in integrated processing of sympathetic nervous system in PAD.

  20. Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Cirrhosis: the Possible Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moezi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhosis is characterized by marked abnormalities in the cardiovascular system. A hyperdynamic splanchnic and systemic circulation is typical of cirrhotic patients and has been observed in all experimental forms of portal hypertension. The hyperdynamic circulation is most likely initiated by arterial vasodilatation, leading to central hypovolemia, sodium retention, and an increased intravascular volume. Despite the baseline increase in cardiac output, ventricular inotropic and chronotropic responses to stimuli are blunted, a condition known as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. This review briefly examines the major mechanisms that may underlie these cardiovascular abnormalities, concentrating on nitric oxide, endocannabinoids, prostaglandins, carbon monoxide, endogenous opioids, and adrenergic receptor changes. Future work should address the complex interrelationships between these systems.

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies polymorphisms associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl in the preoperative cold pressor-induced pain test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Takahashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Opioid analgesics are widely used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. The analgesic effects of opioids are well known to vary among individuals. The present study focused on the genetic factors that are associated with interindividual differences in pain and opioid sensitivity. We conducted a multistage genome-wide association study in subjects who were scheduled to undergo mandibular sagittal split ramus osteotomy and were not medicated until they received fentanyl for the induction of anesthesia. We preoperatively conducted the cold pressor-induced pain test before and after fentanyl administration. The rs13093031 and rs12633508 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs near the LOC728432 gene region and rs6961071 SNP in the tcag7.1213 gene region were significantly associated with the analgesic effect of fentanyl, based on differences in pain perception latency before and after fentanyl administration. The associations of these three SNPs that were identified in our exploratory study have not been previously reported. The two polymorphic loci (rs13093031 and rs12633508 were shown to be in strong linkage disequilibrium. Subjects with the G/G genotype of the rs13093031 and rs6961071 SNPs presented lower fentanyl-induced analgesia. Our findings provide a basis for investigating genetics-based analgesic sensitivity and personalized pain control. Keywords: Opioid sensitivity, Analgesia, Fentanyl, Polymorphism, GWAS

  2. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  3. Skeletal muscle abnormalities and genetic factors related to vertical talus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Laura J; Gurnett, Christina A; Connolly, Anne M; Pestronk, Alan; Dobbs, Matthew B

    2011-04-01

    Congenital vertical talus is a fixed dorsal dislocation of the talonavicular joint and fixed equinus contracture of the hindfoot, causing a rigid deformity recognizable at birth. The etiology and epidemiology of this condition are largely unknown, but some evidence suggests it relates to aberrations of skeletal muscle. Identifying the tissue abnormalities and genetic causes responsible for vertical talus has the potential to lead to improved treatment and preventive strategies. We therefore (1) determined whether skeletal muscle abnormalities are present in patients with vertical talus and (2) identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities in these patients. We identified associated congenital anomalies and genetic abnormalities present in 61 patients affected with vertical talus. We obtained abductor hallucis muscle biopsy specimens from the affected limbs of 11 of the 61 patients and compared the histopathologic characteristics with those of age-matched control subjects. All muscle biopsy specimens (n = 11) had abnormalities compared with those from control subjects including combinations of abnormal variation in muscle fiber size (n = 7), type I muscle fiber smallness (n = 6), and abnormal fiber type predominance (n = 5). Isolated vertical talus occurred in 23 of the 61 patients (38%), whereas the remaining 38 patients had associated nervous system, musculoskeletal system, and/or genetic and genomic abnormalities. Ten of the 61 patients (16%) had vertical talus in one foot and clubfoot in the other. Chromosomal abnormalities, all complete or partial trisomies, were identified in three patients with vertical talus who had additional congenital abnormalities. Vertical talus is a heterogeneous birth defect resulting from many diverse etiologies. Abnormal skeletal muscle biopsies are common in patients with vertical talus although it is unclear whether this is primary or secondary to the joint deformity. Associated anomalies are present in 62

  4. Modification of vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II in pregnant women by intravenously infused 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, R B; Worley, R J; MacDonald, P C; Gant, N F

    1978-06-15

    In gravid women who are destined to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), normal pregnancy-associated refractoriness to the pressor effects of administered angiotensin II (A-II) is lost several weeks before the onset of hypertension. From a study of the determinants of A-II pressor responsiveness in normal gravid women, it appears likely that the loss of resistance to A-II is principally unrelated to plasma renin activity or to plasma A-II levels. However, it recently has been shown that the vascular refractoriness to A-II in normal women can be reduced significantly by the administration of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors, indomethacin or aspirin. In seven women who had developed PIH and who had lost their refractoriness to A-II, the infusion of 5alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (5alpha-DHP) was associated with restoration of refractoriness to the pressor effects of A-II. Moreover, in five normotensive gravid women beyond 28 weeks' gestation in whom the refractoriness to A-II was reduced by the administration of indomethacin, the intravenous infusion of 5alpha-DPH was associated with restoration of refractoriness to the pressor effects of A-II. These observations are consistent with the view that a progesterone metabolite(s) may be important in the maintenance of normal blood pressure during human pregnancy.

  5. The effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Geven, Richard W; Williams, Kent T

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal in-flight events. Numerous accident reports describe situations in which pilots responded to abnormal events in ways that were different from what they had practiced many times before. One explanation for these missteps is that training and testing for these skills have become a highly predictable routine for pilots who arrive to the training environment well aware of what to expect. Under these circumstances, pilots get plentiful practice in responding to abnormal events but may get little practice in recognizing them and deciding which responses to offer. We presented 18 airline pilots with three abnormal events that are required during periodic training and testing. Pilots were presented with each event under the familiar circumstances used during training and also under less predictable circumstances as they might occur during flight. When presented in the routine ways seen during training, pilots gave appropriate responses and showed little variability. However, when the abnormal events were presented unexpectedly, pilots' responses were less appropriate and showed great variability from pilot to pilot. The results suggest that the training and testing practices used in airline training may result in rote-memorized skills that are specific to the training situation and that offer modest generalizability to other situations. We recommend a more complete treatment of abnormal events that allows pilots to practice recognizing the event and choosing and recalling the appropriate response. The results will aid the improvement of existing airline training practices.

  6. Abnormal Changes of Synaptic Excitability in Migraine with Aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Sendacki, Mascha; Moeller, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Migraine patients are characterized by altered cortical excitability and information processing between attacks. The relationship between these abnormalities is still poorly understood. In this study, visual evoked potentials (VEP) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were recorded simultan......Migraine patients are characterized by altered cortical excitability and information processing between attacks. The relationship between these abnormalities is still poorly understood. In this study, visual evoked potentials (VEP) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were recorded...... in migraineurs. The results demonstrate a reduced responsiveness of the occipital cortex to interventions that change cortical excitability in migraine. Moreover, altered glutamatergic neurotransmission seems to mediate the relation between abnormal cortical information processing and excitability in migraineurs....

  7. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  8. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  9. Torpedo maculopathy: A primary choroidal capillary abnormality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Chawla

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old healthy male patient's fundus revealed findings consistent with torpedo maculopathy. Swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT showed a dome-shaped elevation of the retina at the level of ellipsoid zone. On OCT angiography segmented at the level of the choriocapillaris, a cluster of convoluted fine vessels was seen, and further, deeper scans of the larger choroidal vessels showed a slower flow. From these observations along with the embryological correlation of choriocapillaris development, a possibility of an abnormality preventing proper fenestration of the choriocapillaris along the horizontal raphe being responsible for this anomaly is suggested.

  10. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymon, M.L.; Willis, R.B.; Ehlayel, M.S.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Lacassie, Y.; Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA; Children's Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1997-01-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20 1 / 2 -year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi

  11. Radiological and orthopedic abnormalities in Satoyoshi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haymon, M.L. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Willis, R.B. [Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Orthopedics; Ehlayel, M.S. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics; Lacassie, Y. [Div. of Genetics, Dept. of Pediatrics, Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, Orleans, LA (United States)]|[Louisiana State Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Center for Molecular and Human Genetics]|[Children`s Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics

    1997-05-01

    Satoyoshi syndrome is a are disorder on unknown etiology characterized by progressive, painful intermittent muscle spasms, serve skeletal abnormalities mimicking a skeletal dyplasia, malabsorption, alopecia, and amenorrhea. We further report on a 20{sup 1}/{sub 2}-year-old Caucasian woman whith characteristic manifestation of the syndrome. Since the establishment of the diagnostic 1 year ago, she has been treated with prednisone with good response. However, treatment of the multiple deformities and fractures has been difficult and challenging. The early recognition and treatment of this disorder is of utmost importance, as the skeletal deformities and fractures seem to be secondary to the muscular spasms, as suggested by Satoyoshi.

  12. Chewing-induced hypertension in afferent baroreflex failure: A sympathetic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Cristina Fuente; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease with extremely labile blood pressure due to baroreflex deafferentation. Patients have marked surges in sympathetic activity, frequently surrounding meals. We conducted an observational study to document the autonomic responses to eating in patients with FD, and to determine whether sympathetic activation was caused by chewing, swallowing or stomach distension. Blood pressure and RR intervals were measured continuously while chewing gum (n= 15), swallowing food (n=20) and distending the stomach with a gastrostomy feed (n=9). Responses were compared to those of normal controls (n=10) and of patients with autonomic failure (n=10) who have chronically impaired sympathetic outflow. In patients with FD, swallowing food was associated with a marked, but transient pressor response (p<0.0001) and additional signs of sympathetic activation including tachycardia, diaphoresis and flushing of the skin. Chewing gum evoked a similar increase in blood pressure that was higher in patients with FD than in controls (p=0.0001), but was absent in patients with autonomic failure. In patients with FD distending the stomach with a gastrostomy feed failed to elicit a pressor response. The results provide indirect evidence that chewing triggers sympathetic activation. The increase in blood pressure that is exaggerated in patients with FD due to blunted afferent baroreceptor signalling. The chewing pressor response may be useful as a counter-manoeuvre to raise blood pressure and prevent symptomatic orthostatic hypotension in patients with FD. PMID:26435473

  13. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  14. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  15. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  16. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  17. Fear, disgust, and abnormal eating attitudes: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Tony; Troop, Nicholas A; Treasure, Janet L; Murphy, Tara

    2002-09-01

    Clinical descriptions of eating disorders emphasize the role of fear (e.g., fear of weight gain, weight phobia, morbid dread of fatness). The present study explored whether disgust, an emotion that is linked intimately with food, may also be an important emotional response to eating and weight-related issues in women with abnormal eating attitudes. Forty nonclinical female participants were presented with a series of food, drink, body shape, and emotion-related stimuli. They were asked to rate each on a number of responses associated with fear and disgust. In addition, participants completed standard questionnaire measures of eating attitudes, phobias, and disgust sensitivity. Ratings of fear and disgust were higher in women with abnormal eating attitudes than in those without for high-calorie foods and for overweight body shapes, but not for drinks and slim body shapes. In response to fear and disgust relevant images, women with abnormal eating attitudes also rated emotional responses higher, but this was restricted to the appropriate emotion (i.e., higher levels of fear in response to fear stimuli and higher levels of disgust in response to disgust stimuli). In women with abnormal eating attitudes, both disgust and fear responses to food and body shape issues are equally salient. Thus, an emphasis on fear in eating disorders, to the exclusion of disgust, may be unwarranted. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effect of healthy aging on renal vascular responses to local cooling and apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hardikkumar M; Mast, Jessica L; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2013-07-01

    Sympathetically mediated renal vasoconstriction may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in older adults, but empirical data in support of this concept are lacking. In 10 young (26 ± 1 yr) and 11 older (67 ± 2 yr) subjects, we quantified acute hemodynamic responses to three sympathoexcitatory stimuli: local cooling of the forehead, cold pressor test (CPT), and voluntary apnea. We hypothesized that all stimuli would increase mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and renal vascular resistance index (RVRI) and that aging would augment these effects. Beat-by-beat MAP, heart rate (HR), and renal blood flow velocity (from Doppler) were measured in the supine posture, and changes from baseline were compared between groups. In response to 1°C forehead cooling, aging was associated with an augmented MAP (20 ± 3 vs. 6 ± 2 mmHg) and RVRI (35 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 9%) but not HR. In older adults, there was a positive correlation between the cold-induced pressor response and forehead pain (R = 0.726), but this effect was not observed in young subjects. The CPT raised RVRI in both young (56 ± 13%) and older (45 ± 8%) subjects, but this was not different between groups. Relative to baseline, end-expiratory apnea increased RVRI to a similar extent in both young (46 ± 14%) and older (41 ± 9%) subjects. During sympathetic activation, renal vasoconstriction occurred in both groups. Forehead cooling caused an augmented pressor response in older adults that was related to pain perception.

  19. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  20. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  1. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  2. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F.; Floris, R.

    1987-01-01

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  3. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  4. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  5. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  6. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  7. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  8. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  9. How to read an electrocardiogram (ECG). Part 2:Abnormalities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Electrical conduction and its abnormalities. Contraction of the heart muscle occurs in response to electrical depolarisation – the rapid spread of electrical activity throughout the myocardium which is facilitated by specialised conduction tissue. This process normally begins with spontaneous depolarisation of cells in the sinus ...

  10. Abnormal epidermal changes after argon laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, R.A.; Knobler, R.M.; Aberer, E.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Ott, E. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria))

    1991-02-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a congenital port-wine stain on the forehead was treated three times at 2-month intervals with an argon laser. Six months after the last treatment, moderate blanching and mild scaling confined to the treated area was observed. A biopsy specimen of the treated area revealed a significant decrease in ectatic vessels. However, epidermal changes similar to those of actinic keratosis with disorganized cell layers and marked cytologic abnormalities were seen. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes for a defect in DNA repair was negative. Multiple, argon laser-induced photothermal effects may be responsible for the changes observed in our case and may lead to premalignant epidermal transformation.

  11. Operator training for the abnormal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzec, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Training of nuclear power plant control room operators, on actions to be taken for an abnormal event, has classically been limited to discussion, on-shift and/or during requalification training classes, of symptoms, logical thought processes, systems analysis, and operator experience. The prerequisites for these discussions are a common technical vocabulary, and a minimum basic comprehension of nuclear power plant fundamentals, plant component theory of operation, system configuration, system control philosophy and operating procedures. Nuclear power plant control room operators are not the only personnel who are or should be involved in these discussions. The shift supervisors, operations management, and auxiliary equipment operators require continuing training in abnormal operations, as well. More in-depth training is necessary for shift supervisors and control room operators. The availability of vendor simulators has improved the effectiveness of training efforts for these individuals to some extent by displaying typical situations and plant performance characteristics and by providing a degree of ''hands on'' experience. The evolution of in-depth training with these simulators is reviewed

  12. Abnormal Event Detection Using Local Sparse Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose to detect abnormal events via a sparse subspace clustering algorithm. Unlike most existing approaches, which search for optimized normal bases and detect abnormality based on least square error or reconstruction error from the learned normal patterns, we propose an abnormality...... measurement based on the difference between the normal space and local space. Specifically, we provide a reasonable normal bases through repeated K spectral clustering. Then for each testing feature we first use temporal neighbors to form a local space. An abnormal event is found if any abnormal feature...

  13. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  14. Usefulness of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging combined with low-dose dobutamine stress to detect an abnormal ventricular stress response in children and young adults after fontan operation at young age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbers-Visser, D.; Harkel, D Jan Ten; Kapusta, L.; Strengers, J.L.; Dalinghaus, M.; Meijboom, F.J.; Pattynama, P.M.; Bogers, A.J.; Helbing, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    After Fontan operation, patients are limited in increasing cardiac output and in exercise capacity. This has been related to impaired preload or other factors leading to decreased global ventricular performance with stress. To study these factors, the stress responses of functionally univentricular

  15. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  16. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Chromosomal Abnormalities and Common Trombophilic Mutations in Cases with Recurrent Miscarriage. Ahmet Karatas, Recep Eroz, Mustafa Albayrak, Tulay Ozlu, Bulent Cakmak, Fatih Keskin ...

  18. Repolarization abnormalities in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter J; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The recognition of ventricular repolarization abnormalities in the newborn carries several and significant implications, because it calls attention to the possibility of dealing with an infant affected by the long QT syndrome (LQTS). This article provides key elements for the correct measurement of the QT interval in newborns and succinctly reviews some aspects of the disease. It gives normative values on the QT interval distribution in the first month of life based on a prospective study in more than 44,000 infants. It shows the probability, based on the QTc observed in two recordings, to find disease-causing mutations. The data indicate clearly that widespread electrocardiographic screening in the newborn allows early identification of most, if not all, the infants affected by LQTS with marked QT prolongation and thus of those at higher risk for life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. Through the affected infants, it becomes possible to identify the family members affected by LQTS, including the "silent mutation carriers"; our study shows that disease-causing mutations are found in 51% of the family members. Because early recognition leads to the implementation of effective preventive strategies, it follows that electrocardiographic screening will avoid preventable deaths either in the first year of life when they are usually labeled as "sudden infant death syndrome" or later in life. The case is made for medicolegal implications whenever neonatologists and pediatricians fail to inform the parents of a newborn child of the prevalence of LQTS (one in 2000), of the effectiveness of existing therapies, and of the diagnosis with a simple electrocardiogram.

  19. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  20. Nail abnormalities in patients with vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Ilteris Oguz; Gungor, Sule; Kocaturk, Ozgur Emek; Duman, Hatice; Durmuscan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary skin disorder affecting 0.1-4% of the general population. The nails may be affected in patients with an autoimmune disease such as psoriasis, and in those with alopecia areata. It has been suggested that nail abnormalities should be apparent in vitiligo patients. We sought to document the frequency and clinical presentation of nail abnormalities in vitiligo patients compared to healthy volunteers. We also examined the correlations between nail abnormalities and various clinical parameters. This study included 100 vitiligo patients and 100 healthy subjects. Full medical histories were collected from the subjects, who underwent thorough general and nail examinations. All nail changes were noted. In the event of clinical suspicion of a fungal infection, additional mycological investigations were performed. Nail abnormalities were more prevalent in the patients (78%) than in the controls (55%) (p=0.001). Longitudinal ridging was the most common finding (42%), followed by (in descending order): leukonychia, an absent lunula, onycholysis, nail bed pallor, onychomycosis, splinter hemorrhage and nail plate thinning. The frequency of longitudinal ridging was significantly higher in patients than in controls (pNail abnormalities were more prevalent in vitiligo patients than in controls. Systematic examination of the nails in such patients is useful because nail abnormalities are frequent. However, the causes of such abnormalities require further study. Longitudinal ridging and leukonychia were the most common abnormalities observed in this study.

  1. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  2. First Trimester Ultrasound Screening for Congenital Abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach used, especially with the introduction of first trimester ultrasound as a reliable screening method. Objective: To give a comprehensive review of the basis for first trimester ultrasound screening for congenital abnormalities, it's utilization in the prenatal screening for chromosomal, structural and genetic abnormalities ...

  3. An Abnormal Psychology Community Based Interview Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Geoffry D.

    1977-01-01

    A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…

  4. Sensory abnormalities in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Visconti, Paola

    2017-11-04

    The clinical picture of children with autism spectrum disorder is characterized by deficits of social interaction and communication, as well as by repetitive interests and activities. Sensory abnormalities are a very frequent feature that often go unnoticed due to the communication difficulties of these patients. This narrative review summarizes the main features of sensory abnormalities and the respective implications for the interpretation of several signs and symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, and therefore for its management. A search was performed in PubMed (United States National Library of Medicine) about the sensory abnormalities in subjects (particularly children) with autism spectrum disorder. Sensory symptoms are common and often disabling in children with autism spectrum disorder, but are not specific for autism, being a feature frequently described also in subjects with intellectual disability. Three main sensory patterns have been described in autism spectrum disorder: hypo-responsiveness, hyper-responsiveness, and sensory seeking; to these, some authors have added a fourth pattern: enhanced perception. Sensory abnormalities may negatively impact the life of these individuals and their families. An impairment not only of unisensory modalities but also of multisensory integration is hypothesized. Atypical sensory reactivity of subjects with autism spectrum disorder may be the key to understand many of their abnormal behaviors, and thus it is a relevant aspect to be taken into account in their daily management in all the contexts in which they live. A formal evaluation of sensory function should be always performed in these children. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Tissue transglutaminase in normal and abnormal wound healing: review article

    OpenAIRE

    Verderio, EAM; Johnson, T; Griffin, M

    2004-01-01

    A complex series of events involving inflammation, cell migration and proliferation, ECM stabilisation and remodelling, neovascularisation and apoptosis are crucial to the tissue response to injury. Wound healing involves the dynamic interactions of multiple cells types with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors. Impaired wound healing as a consequence of aging, injury or disease may lead to serious disabilities and poor quality of life. Abnormal wound healing may al...

  6. Abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential in anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction: frequency, pattern, and a determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Oh, Sun-Young; Lee, Hyung

    2011-08-15

    There has been no systematic study that carefully investigates the characteristic features of abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) response associated with the AICA territory infarction. To investigate the frequency, the characteristic patterns of abnormal cVEMP associated with AICA territory infarction, and the crucial site for producing abnormal cVEMP response in the AICA territory infarction. We studied 16 consecutive cases of unilateral AICA territory infarction diagnosed by brain MRI. VEMP was induced by a short click sound and was recorded in contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle. Each patient underwent a quantitative audiovestibular evaluation, including bithermal caloric test and pure tone audiogram. Eight patients (50%) exhibited abnormal cVEMP response on the side of the AICA territory infarction. All patients with abnormal cVEMP showed an absent or decreased response in amplitude but no difference in latency. Patients with abnormal VEMP were significantly more likely to have canal paresis (CP), sensorineural hearing loss, or both compared with patients who had normal cVEMP. Conversely, abnormal cVEMP was more frequently observed among patients with CP than among those without CP. There was no difference in lesion sites according to brain MRI among patients with or without abnormal cVEMP response. Our findings suggest that the peripheral vestibular structure with the inner ear probably plays a crucial role in producing abnormal cVEMP response associated with AICA territory infarction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health and safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period January through March 1993. There is one abnormal occurrence at a nuclear power plant disposed in this report that involved a steam generator tube rupture at Palo Verde Unit 2, and none for fuel cycle facilities. Three abnormal occurrences involving medical misadminstrations (two therapeutic and one diagnostic) at NRC-licensed facilities are also discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  8. Pathophysiology of somatosensory abnormalities in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Khan, Nashaba; Defazio, Giovanni; Rothwell, John C; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Changes in sensory function that have been described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can be either 'pure' disorders of conscious perception such as elevations in sensory threshold, or disorders of sensorimotor integration, in which the interaction between sensory input and motor output is altered. In this article, we review the extensive evidence for disrupted tactile, nociceptive, thermal and proprioceptive sensations in PD, as well as the influences exerted on these sensations by dopaminergic therapy and deep brain stimulation. We argue that abnormal spatial and temporal processing of sensory information produces incorrect signals for the preparation and execution of voluntary movement. Sensory deficits are likely to be a consequence of the dopaminergic denervation of the basal ganglia that is the hallmark of PD. A possible mechanism to account for somatosensory deficits is one in which disease-related dopaminergic denervation leads to a loss of response specificity, resulting in transmission of noisier and less-differentiated information to cortical regions. Changes in pain perception might have a different explanation, possibly involving disease-related effects outside the basal ganglia, including involvement of peripheral pain receptors, as well as structures such as the periaqueductal grey matter and non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems.

  9. Gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities using videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I; Antonietti, M; Houivet, E; Hachulla, E; Maunoury, V; Bienvenu, B; Viennot, S; Smail, A; Duhaut, P; Dupas, J-L; Dominique, S; Hatron, P-Y; Levesque, H; Benichou, J; Ducrotté, P

    2014-07-01

    To date, there are no large studies on videocapsule endoscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Consequently, the prevalence and features of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in SSc have not been determined. To determine both prevalence and characteristics of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities in unselected patients with SSc, using videocapsule endoscopy. To predict which SSc patients are at risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal abnormalities. Videocapsule endoscopy was performed on 50 patients with SSc. Prevalence of gastrointestinal mucosal abnormalities was 52%. Potentially bleeding vascular mucosal lesions were predominant, including: watermelon stomach (34.6%), gastric and/or small intestinal telangiectasia (26.9%) and gastric and/or small intestinal angiodysplasia (38.5%). SSc patients with gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions more often exhibited: limited cutaneous SSc (P = 0.06), digital ulcers (P = 0.05), higher score of nailfold videocapillaroscopy (P = 0.0009), anaemia (P = 0.02), lower levels of ferritin (P correlation between gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions and presence of severe extra-digestive vasculopathy (digital ulcers and higher nailfold videocapillaroscopy scores). This latter supports the theory that SSc-related diffuse vasculopathy is responsible for both cutaneous and digestive vascular lesions. Therefore, we suggest that nailfold videocapillaroscopy may be a helpful test for managing SSc patients. In fact, nailfold videocapillaroscopy score should be calculated routinely, as it may result in identification of SSc patients at higher risk of developing potentially bleeding gastrointestinal vascular mucosal lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sensorineural Deafness, Distinctive Facial Features and Abnormal Cranial Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2008-01-01

    The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are among the most common genetic causes of spermatogenic disruptions. Carriers of chromosomal abnormalities are at increased risk of infertility, miscarriage or birth of a child with unbalanced karyotype due to the production of unbalanced gametes. The natural selection against chromosomally abnormal sperm usually prevents fertilization with sperm barring in cases of serious chromosomal abnormalities. However, assisted reproductive technologies in general and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in particular, enable the transmission of chromosomal abnormalities to the progeny. Therefore, cytogenetic studies are important in patients with male factor infertility before assisted reproduction treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the types and frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities in 724 patients with infertility and to estimate the risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection in subgroups of patients depending on the severity of spermatogenic disruption, aiming at identifying groups of patients in need of cytogenetic studies. Karyotype analysis was performed in 724 blood samples of men attending infertility clinic. Chromosomal preparation was performed by standard techniques. At least 20 GTG-banded metaphase plates with the resolution from 450 to 750 bands per haploid set were analysed in each case. When chromosomal mosaicism was suspected, this number was increased to 50. Abnormal karyotypes were observed in 48 (6.6% patients, including 67% of autosomal abnormalities and 33% of gonosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities were represented by structural rearrangements. Reciprocal translocations were the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities in the studied group, detected with the frequency of 2.6% (n = 19, followed by Robertsonian translocation, observed with the frequency of 1.2% (n = 9. The frequency of inversions was 0.6% (n = 4. Gonosomal abnormalities included 14 cases

  12. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Prediction of heart abnormality using MLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Januar, Yulni; Mat, Muhammad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Awang, Mat Kamil

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality does not choose gender, age and races when it strikes. With no warning signs or symptoms, it can result to a sudden death of the patient. Generally, heart's irregular electrical activity is defined as heart abnormality. Via implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network, this paper tries to develop a program that allows the detection of heart abnormality activity. Utilizing several training algorithms with Purelin activation function, an amount of heartbeat signals received through the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed to condition the MLP network.

  14. Transcranial Doppler and cardiovascular responses during cardiovascular autonomic tests in migraineurs during and outside attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Boesen, F

    1995-01-01

    The transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cardiovascular responses to established tests of autonomic function were studied in 50 migraineurs (23 of whom experienced aura and 27 who did not) and 30 healthy control subjects. In addition to the measurements outside attacks, 10 migraineurs were also tested...... to a head-up tilt test, a cold-pressor test and a Valsalva manoeuvre. The cardiovascular reflexes in response to the Valsalva manoeuvre suggested a mild parasympathetic hypofunction in migraineurs, both those with and those without aura. On the basis of the present results and previous findings by others...

  15. Dissociation between neural and vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation : contribution of local adrenergic receptor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J.; Robertson, D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathetic activation produced by various stimuli, eg, mental stress or handgrip, evokes regional vascular responses that are often nonhomogeneous. This phenomenon is believed to be the consequence of the recruitment of differential central neural pathways or of a sympathetically mediated vasodilation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar heterogeneous response occurs with cold pressor stimulation and to test the hypothesis that local differences in adrenergic receptor function could be in part responsible for this diversity. In 8 healthy subjects, local norepinephrine spillover and blood flow were measured in arms and legs at baseline and during sympathetic stimulation induced by baroreflex mechanisms (nitroprusside infusion) or cold pressor stimulation. At baseline, legs had higher vascular resistance (27+/-5 versus 17+/-2 U, P=0.05) despite lower norepinephrine spillover (0.28+/-0.04 versus 0.4+/-0.05 mg. min(-1). dL(-1), P=0.03). Norepinephrine spillover increased similarly in both arms and legs during nitroprusside infusion and cold pressor stimulation. On the other hand, during cold stimulation, vascular resistance increased in arms but not in legs (20+/-9% versus -7+/-4%, P=0.03). Increasing doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine were infused intra-arterially in arms and legs to estimate beta-mediated vasodilation and alpha-induced vasoconstriction, respectively. beta-Mediated vasodilation was significantly lower in legs compared with arms. Thus, we report a dissociation between norepinephrine spillover and vascular responses to cold stress in lower limbs characterized by a paradoxical decrease in local resistance despite increases in sympathetic activity. The differences observed in adrenergic receptor responses cannot explain this phenomenon.

  16. [Dental abnormalities after treatment for childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladosievičová, B; Jurkovič, R; Izakovičová Hollá, L

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer therapy often increases the risk of dental complications, such as tooth and roots agenesis, microdontia, abnormal development of tooth enamel, increased risk of cavity and other abnormalities. In a comparison with other late adverse effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantion, a relative small number of clinical stud-ies observing patients for more than two years after completion of anticancer treatment was published. In this article, we review the incidence of dental abnormalities caused by commonly used anticancer treatment modalities as well as discuss their risk factors. Early identification of high-risk patients, early detection and management of dental abnormalities and better education of patients or their guardians, may have an impact on quality of life of cancer survivors.

  17. On two abnormal sharks from Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    The description of the two abnormal sharks, Carchariaswalbeehmi and Eulamia dussumieri collected from Gujarat, India, is given Of these C walbeehmi was double-headed The other shark E dussumieri had thumb snouted albino...

  18. Video Traffic Analysis for Abnormal Event Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for new road guidelines; for rapid deploymen...

  19. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because they do not affect hearing. However, sometimes cosmetic surgery is recommended. Skin tags may be tied off, ... 5 years old. More severe abnormalities may require surgery for cosmetic reasons as well as for function. Surgery to ...

  20. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  1. Errata :Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosomal Abnormalities in Couples with Recurrent Abortions in Lagos, Nigeria. Akinde OR, Daramola A O, Taiwo I A, Afolayan M O and Akinsola Af. Sonographic Mammary Gland Density Pattern in Women in Selected ommunities of Southern Nigeria.

  2. Video traffic analysis for abnormal event detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We propose the use of video imaging sensors for the detection and classification of abnormal events to : be used primarily for mitigation of traffic congestion. Successful detection of such events will allow for : new road guidelines; for rapid deplo...

  3. Prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities in adolescents, first morning clean mid-stream urine specimens were obtained from 2500 individuals and examined by dipstick and light microscopy. Adolescents with abnormal screening results were reexamined after two weeks and those who had abnormal results twice were subjected to systemic clinical examination and further clinical and laboratory investigations. Eight hundred and three (32.1% individuals had urinary abnormalities at the first screening, which significantly decreased to 345 (13.8% at the second screening, (P <0.001. Hematuria was the most common urinary abnormalities detected in 245 (9.8% adolescents who had persistent urine abnormalities; 228 (9.1% individuals had non glomerular hematuria. The hematuria was isolated in 150 (6% individuals, combined with leukocyturia in 83 (3.3% individuals, and combined with proteinuria in 12 (0.5% individuals. Leukocyturia was detected in 150 (6% of all studied adolescents; it was isolated in 39 (1.6% individuals and combined with proteinuria in 28 (1.1% of them. Asymp- tomatic bacteriuria was detected in 23 (0.9% of all studied adolescents; all the cases were females. Proteinuria was detected in 65 (2.6% of all the studied adolescents; 45 (1.8% indivi- duals had <0.5 g/day and twenty (0.8% individuals had 0.5-3 g/day. Asymptomatic urinary abnormalities were more common in males than females and adolescents from rural than urban areas (P <0.01 and (P <0.001, respectively. The present study found a high prevalence of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities among adolescents in our population.

  4. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  5. Familial eccrine syringofibroadenomatosis with associated ophthalmologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Palay, D; Templeton, S F

    1998-08-01

    Eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) is a rare benign adnexal tumor, generally with sporadic occurrence and not linked to other diseases. Only one familial occurrence of ESFA has been reported. We describe the familial occurrence of multiple ESFAs in a father and his two sons, all of whom also had similar eyelid abnormalities and progressive corneal scarring. This description of hereditary ESFA is the first to link ESFA with periocular and ocular abnormalities.

  6. Rai1 Haploinsufficiency Is Associated with Social Abnormalities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini R. Rao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors; with different degrees of severity in each of the core areas. Haploinsufficiency and point mutations of RAI1 are associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, a genetic condition that scores within the autism spectrum range for social responsiveness and communication, and is characterized by neurobehavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sleep disturbance, and self-injurious behaviors. Methods: To investigate the relationship between Rai1 and social impairment, we evaluated the Rai1+/− mice with a battery of tests to address social behavior in mice. Results: We found that the mutant mice showed diminished interest in social odors, abnormal submissive tendencies, and increased repetitive behaviors when compared to wild type littermates. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Rai1 contributes to social behavior in mice, and prompt it as a candidate gene for the social behaviors observed in Smith-Magenis Syndrome patients.

  7. Abnormal fixational eye movements in strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasia, Fatema F; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Shaikh, Aasef G

    2018-02-01

    Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision. Eye movements were measured in 13 patients with strabismus and 16 controls during fixation and visually guided saccades under monocular viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and intersaccadic drifts were analysed in the viewing and non-viewing eye of patients with strabismus and controls. We found an increase in fixational instability in patients with strabismus compared with controls. We also found an increase in the disconjugacy of fixational saccades and intrasaccadic ocular drift in patients with strabismus compared with controls. The disconjugacy was worse in patients with large-angle strabismus and absent stereopsis. There was an increase in eye position variance during drifts in patients with strabismus. Our findings suggest that both fixational saccades and intersaccadic drifts are abnormal and likely contribute to the fixational instability in patients with strabismus. Fixational instability could be a useful tool for mass screenings of children to diagnose strabismus in the absence of amblyopia and latent nystagmus. The increased disconjugacy of fixational eye movements and visually guided saccades in patients with strabismus reflects the disruption of the fine-tuning of the motor and visual systems responsible for achieving binocular fusion in these patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Sgorbini, Micaela; Marmorini, Paola; Corazza, Michele

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and describe ocular abnormalities in healthy Standardbred foals within 48 h of birth. One hundred and two neonatal foals. All foals had an unassisted delivery. On the basis of physical examination and the results of hematological and biochemical parameters, all foals were unaffected by systemic diseases. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed within 48 h of birth. Foals with ocular hemorrhages were re-examined weekly until the abnormalities were resolved. 65/102 (63.7%) foals did not show ocular abnormalities, while in 37/102 (36.3%) cases, ocular abnormalities were present. Retinal and subconjunctival hemorrhages were recorded in 19/102 (18.6%), and in 13/102 (12.7%), respectively. In 4/102 (3.9%) animals, an entropion of the lower eyelid was present. Only one foal (1%) showed a congenital nuclear unilateral cataract. No other ocular abnormalities were detected. However, all foals showed various degrees of remnants of hyaloid system. One week after the first ocular examination, retinal hemorrhages had resolved in 100% of the eyes, whereas subconjunctival hemorrhages had disappeared in all eyes by the second week following the first examination. The acquired ocular lesions observed with relatively high frequency in the examined healthy Standardbred foals were ocular hemorrhages, which always showed a good outcome. Although these abnormalities were present at birth, they were not considered strictly congenital but likely acquired during parturition. Instead, congenital ocular abnormalities were rarely diagnosed, and the entropion of the lower eyelid was the most common disease in the breed. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth Print Email Ultrasound examinations are often done as ... What causes urinary tract abnormalities to occur before birth? In about one of 500 births, some abnormality ...

  10. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  11. Chromosomal abnormality in patients with secondary amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safai, Akbar; Vasei, Mohammad; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Azad, Fariborz; Tabibi, Narjes

    2012-04-01

    Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which there is cessation of menses after at least one menstruation. It is a symptom of different diseases, such as hormonal disturbances which range from pituitary to ovarian origin, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Knowledge of the distinct cause of secondary amenorrhea is of tremendous benefit for the management and monitoring of patients. In this study, we determine the chromosomal abnormalities in patients with secondary amenorrhea in Southwest Iran. We selected 94 patients with secondary amenorrhea who referred to our Cytogenetic Ward from 2004 until 2009. For karyotyping, peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures were set up by conventional technique. In this study, 5.3% (n=5) of patients with secondary amenorrhea presented with chromosomal abnormalities, of which all contained an X element. The chromosomal abnormalities were: i) 45, X (n=1); ii) 47, XXX (n=1); iii) 45, X [13]/ 45, Xi(X)q[17] (n=1);  iv) 45, X[12]/46,X,+mar[12] (n=1); and v) 46,X,del(Xq)(q23q28) (n=1). Our study revealed that some causes of secondary amenorrhea could be due to chromosomal abnormalities. Therefore, cytogenetic studies should be important tests in the evaluation of patients with secondary amenorrhea.

  12. [Correlation between TORCH infections and abnormal pregnant outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Cheng, Jun-Zhen; Wang, Feng-Hui

    2013-04-01

    To understand the correlation between TORCH infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes, so as to provide recommendations for birth defect interventions. The serum samples from 900 pregnant women were tested for TORCH-IgM by capture ELISA. The women with positive results were followed up and the outcomes of their pregnancies were investigated. The total TORCH-IgM positive rate of the pregnant women was 4.11% (37/900). The IgM positive rates of CMV, HSV II , RV and TOX were 2.00% (18/900), 0.78% (7/900), 0.44% (4/900), and 0.89% (8/900) respectively. Thirty-one TORCH-IgM positive pregnant women continued their pregnancies and 20 of them were found abnormal pregnancy outcomes, accounting for 64.52%. TORCH infections are important risk factors responsible for abnormal pregnant outcomes. The screening of TORCH should be performed during pregnancy, and the appropriate interventions can reduce the occurrence of abnormal pregnancy and prevent birth defects.

  13. Physiologic chart for rapid identification of causes of abnormal haemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, B B

    1994-11-01

    The systemic haemodynamic state is expressed by paired values of Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and Stroke Index (SI), varying for every heart beat. Algebraic product of SI and Heart Rate (HR) then defines the perfusion-related Cardiac Index (CI), which is the dynamic modulator of Oxygen Delivery Index (DO2I). Since MAP, SI and CI can each attain a normal, infranormal or supranormal level, there is a total of 9 haemodynamic states, plus 3 CI states. A patient with normal haemodynamics has MAP, SI and CI within his/her normal ranges. The remaining 8 abnormal haemodynamic states and 2 abnormal CI states are the vectorial end-result of a combination of abnormal levels of haemodynamic modulating pathways, i.e., intravascular volume, inotropy, vasoactivity and chronotropy. The Haemodynamic Management Chart (HMC) identifies the inter-relationship between the deviations in volume, inotropy and vasoactivity responsible for the observed haemodynamic state in respect to the desired haemodynamic state (Haemodynamic Therapeutic Goal [HTG]). The deviation in CI from its normal level then determines the deviation in chronotropy. In contrast to current management methodology of trial and error, the HMC enables the clinician to continuously manage a patient's haemodynamics within the HTG. This is expected to produce a shorter therapy and improved outcome.

  14. Anger management style moderates effects of emotion suppression during initial stress on pain and cardiovascular responses during subsequent pain-induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Suppression of emotion, anger in particular, may be linked to heightened pain intensity during a subsequent painful event, but it is not clear whether an individual's anger management style (trait anger-out or trait anger-in) moderates effects on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during pain. To determine whether (a) trait anger-out and/or trait anger-in moderate effects of Emotion-Induction (anger, anxiety)xEmotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) manipulations during mental arithmetic on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during and following a cold pressor pain task, such that "mismatch" relationships emerge (preferred anger management style is discrepant from situation demands), and (b) general emotional expressivity accounts for these effects. Healthy nonpatients (N=187) were assigned to 1 of 6 conditions for a mental arithmetic task. Cells were formed by crossing 2 Emotion-Induction (anxiety, anger)x3 Emotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) conditions. After mental arithmetic, participants underwent a cold pressor followed by recovery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), heart rate (HR), and pain intensity ratings were recorded. Spielberger Anger Expression Inventory tapped anger management style. General Linear Model procedures tested Emotion-Induction x Emotion SuppressionxAnger-Out or Anger-In (continuous)xPeriod (baseline, cold pressor, recovery) effects on pain intensity, SBP, DBP, and HR. A 4-way interaction emerged for pain intensity: Only for those in the anger-induction/experiential suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to pain recovery. Three-way interactions emerged for SBP and DBP: Only for those in expressive suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to SBP during and following cold pressor and to DBP following cold pressor. General emotion expressivity did not account for anger-out effects. A mismatch situation may apply for high

  15. Cardiac abnormality prediction using HMLP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Ahmad, K. A.; Mat, Muhamad Hadzren; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Ahmad, Shahril

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races but depends on the lifestyle. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and usually detected once it already critical which lead to a sudden death to the patient. Basically, cardiac abnormality is the irregular electrical signal that generate by the pacemaker of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect cardiac abnormality activity through implementation of Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP and HMLP network by using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) algorithm and to test the network performance.

  16. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  17. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  18. Folate metabolism abnormalities in autism: potential biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Slattery, John C; Quadros, Edward V

    2017-08-03

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been linked to abnormalities in folate metabolism. Polymorphisms in folate genes may act in complex polygenic ways to increase the risk of developing ASD. Autoantibodies that block folate transport into the brain have been associated with ASD and children with ASD and these autoantibodies respond to high doses of a reduced form of folate known as folinic acid (leucovorin calcium). Some of the same abnormalities are also found in mothers of children with ASD and supplementing folate during preconception and gestational periods reduces the risk to the offspring from developing ASD. These data suggest that folate pathway abnormalities may be a major metabolic disturbance underlying ASD that can be leveraged as biomarkers to improve symptoms and prevent ASD.

  19. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National...... the "before" to the "after" period. This increase was significantly higher for exposed than non-exposed women regarding contacts to GP, admissions to hospitals, and drug use. CONCLUSION: Women with abnormal cytology results constitute a selected group with a higher health care use than other women even before...

  20. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  1. Enhanced monitoring of abnormal emergency department demands

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-06-13

    This paper presents a statistical technique for detecting signs of abnormal situation generated by the influx of patients at emergency department (ED). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of abnormal situations caused by abnormal patient arrivals to the ED. More specifically, This work proposed the application of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models combined with the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test for anomaly-detection. ARMA was used as the modelling framework of the ARMA-based GLR anomaly-detection methodology. The GLR test was applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the ARMA model to detect anomalies when the data did not fit the reference ARMA model. The ARMA-based GLR hypothesis testing scheme was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital center, France. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  3. Abnormal fetal head shape: aetiology and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; David, Anna; Thomasson, Louise

    2007-01-01

    and define management pathways for fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Methods: Our FMU databases were searched to ascertain all fetuses with an abnormal skull shape. Sonographic findings, diagnosis and outcome were reviewed. Results: Of the 370 cases identified, 31.6% were associated with spinabifida......Background: Abnormal head shape is an uncommon finding on prenatal ultrasound, often associated with breech presentation, spinabifida, aneuploidy or secondary to oligohydramnios or fetal position. Other aetiologies are rarer and may be more difficult to define. Objective: To determine the aetiology...... incidence of genetic syndromes, in the absence of a clear diagnosis, referral to a tertiary centre and genetic input is advised as detection of subtle sonographic features may aid diagnosis, allowing for targeted molecular analysis. An algorithm for management will be proposed....

  4. Osseous temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Kolbenstvedt, A.; Rikshospitalet, Oslo

    1990-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was compared with hypocycloidal tomography in 30 joints of 15 adults with rheumatic disease. CT included 1.5 mm thick axial scans (at 1.0 mm intervals) with reformatted oblique sagittal and oblique coronal sections. Multisection (at 2.0 mm intervals) tomography included oblique sagittal and occasionally, oblique coronal sections. CT demonstrated bone abnormalities in 21 and tomography in 20 joints, indicating high agreement between the imaging modalities regarding number of abnormal TMJs. Bone structures were, however, better visualized by multiplanar CT due to superior contrast and spatial resolution particularly in the most lateral and medial parts of the joint, indicating superiority of CT for depicting subtle bony TMJ abnormalities in patients with rheumatic disease. (orig.)

  5. Abnormal vibration induced illusion of movement in essential tremor: evidence for abnormal muscle spindle afferent function

    OpenAIRE

    Frima, N; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Vibration induced illusion of movement (VIIM) is abnormal in patients with idiopathic focal dystonia, an abnormality which corrects with fatigue of the vibrated muscle. Since dystonia and essential tremor sometimes coexist in families, we investigated the perception of VIIM and the effect of fatigue on VIIM in patients with essential tremor.

  6. Temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.; Tveito, L.; Dale, K.; Ruud, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    Transantral (infraorbital, transmaxillary) examination of the temporomandibular joint was compared with conventional transcranial examination and lateral tomography of patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 23 to 83. Abnormalities were most frequently found at tomography, and equally frequent at transantral and transcranial examinations. The various examinations appeared to be rather supplementary. Bone erosion was frequently observed at transantral examination, which appeared to be the preferable radiographic method for detecting arthritis of this joint. Combined with transcranial examination, the method is recommended for the evaluation of temporomandibular joint abnormalities in rheumatoid arthritis if tomographic equipment is not available. (Auth.)

  7. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  8. Global brain blood-oxygen level responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr, and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip, but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex

  9. Abnormalities in central auditory maturation in children with language-based learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Phillip M; Sharma, Anu; Dorman, Michael; Martin, Kathryn

    2006-09-01

    To examine maturation of the central auditory pathways in children with language-based learning problems (LP). Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) recorded from 26 children with LP were compared to CAEPs recorded from 38 typical children. CAEP responses were recorded in response to a speech sound, /uh/, which was presented in a stimulus train with decreasing inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 2000, 1000, 560, and 360 ms. We identified three atypical morphological categories of CAEP responses in the LP group. Category 1 responses revealed delayed P1 latencies and absent N1/P2 components. Category 2 responses revealed typical P1 responses, but delayed N1 and P2 responses. Category 3 responses revealed generally low-amplitude CAEP responses. A fourth sub-group of LP children had normal CAEP responses. Overall, the majority of children with LP had abnormal CAEP responses. These children fell into distinct categories based on the abnormalities in maturational patterns of their CAEP responses. We describe a rate sensitive stimulation paradigm which may be used to identify and categorize LP children who exhibit abnormal patterns of central auditory maturation.

  10. Central mechanism of the cardiovascular responses caused by L-proline microinjected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in unanesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Azevedo, Silvana; Busnardo, Cristiane; Corrêa, Fernando Morgan Aguiar

    2016-12-01

    Previously, we reported that microinjection of L-proline (L-Pro) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) caused vasopressin-mediated pressor responses in unanesthetized rats. In the present study, we report on the central mechanisms involved in the mediation of the cardiovascular effects caused by the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN. Microinjection of increasing doses of L-Pro (3-100nmol/100nL) into the PVN caused dose-related pressor and bradycardic responses. No cardiovascular responses were observed after the microinjection of equimolar doses (33nmol/100nL) of its isomer D-Proline (D-Pro) or Mannitol. The PVN pretreatment with either a selective non-NMDA (NBQX) or selective NMDA (LY235959 or DL-AP7) glutamate receptor antagonists blocked the cardiovascular response to L-Pro (33nmol/100nL). The dose-effect curve for the pretreatment with increasing doses of LY235959 was located at the left in relation to the curves for NBQX and DL-AP7, showing that LY235959 is more potent than NBQX, which is more potent than DL-AP7 in inhibiting the cardiovascular response to L-Pro. The cardiovascular response to the microinjection of L-Pro into the PVN was not affected by local pretreatment with N ω -Propyl-l-arginine (N-Propyl), a selective inhibitor of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), suggesting that NO does not mediate the responses to L-Pro in the PVN. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionotropic receptors in the PVN, blocked by both NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists, mediate the pressor response to L-Pro that results from activation of PVN vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons and vasopressin release into the systemic circulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An efficient protocol for the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Sofia; Carvalho, Filipa; Ramalho, Carla; Lima, Vera; Francisco, Tânia; Machado, Ana Paula; Brandão, Otília; Sousa, Mário; Matias, Alexandra; Barros, Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Characterization of chromosomal abnormalities in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths using both classical and molecular cytogenetics. Chromosomal abnormalities are responsible for 40-50% of all early pregnancy losses. Conventional cytogenetics is associated with 10-40% of culture failure. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a DNA-based technique that screens chromosome imbalances in the whole genome and may overcome this problem, although additional methods are required to distinguish between different ploidies, mosaicisms and maternal cell contamination. For a full characterization of chromosomal aberrations in 232 spontaneous miscarriages or foetal deaths we applied a sequential protocol that uses conventional cytogenetics, plus CGH and touch fluorescence in situ hybridization (Touch FISH). Successful karyotyping was obtained in 173/232 (74.6%) of the cases, 66/173 (38.2%) of which had an abnormal chromosomal complement. CGH and Touch FISH analyses revealed another 19 abnormal cases in the 63 failures of culture. Overall there were 85/233 (36.6%) cases with an abnormal chromosomal complement, with examples from all three trimesters. Comparing cases, with or without chromosomal abnormalities, no statistical differences were found between women with one or recurrent miscarriages. On the contrary, significant differences were found comparing mean maternal ages or mean gestational ages, in cases with or without chromosomes abnormalities. Adopting this sequential protocol, chromosomal complement information was available even in cases with culture failure.

  12. Ophthalmologic abnormalities among deaf students in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The association between deafness and ocular problems is well established; however the nature and prevalence of these problems are diverse across the globe. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the nature and prevalence of ophthalmologic abnormalities in deaf students and offer treatment to ...

  13. Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Pediatric Neurology Department, Cairo University, 2Clinical Genetics ... Research Centre,3Human Cytogenetics Department, Human Genetics and. Genome ..... cVH. 2/23 cri du chat. 1/23 del. 18q21.1- qter. 1/23. Breathing abnormalities. 3. 13. 3. -. 1. -. -. -. -. Feeding problems. 8. 34.8. -. 5. 2. -. -. 1. -. Autistic behavior. 3. 13.

  14. Prevelence and Pattern of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: There is paucity of published data on the prevalence and pattern of electrocardiographic abnormalities (ECGA) seen in adult Nigerians referred for this investigation. This study determined the prevalence and pattern of some ECGA in Nigerian adults. Methods: This is a hospital based audit to determine the ...

  15. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... HOMA-IR (P = 0.03) in the case group as compared to the control group. We conclude that a family history of diabetic parents can lead to lipid parameters abnormalities and CVD risk factor via aggregation of inherited defected genes. Key words: Diabetes, oxidized-low density lipoprotein (LDL), Apo B100, ...

  16. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  17. Prevalence Of Dental Abnormalities Among Handicapped Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 34% of them had various dental abnormalities, the most commonly encountered being enamel hypoplasia which constituted 12.3%, and more than half of which was chronologic (58.9%). This was predominant among the mentally handicapped (13.5%) and the blind (12.5%). Tetracyline staining was also a common ...

  18. Dynamic Abnormal Grain Growth in Refractory Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Philip J.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature plastic deformation of the body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory metals Mo and Ta can initiate and propagate abnormal grains at significantly lower temperatures and faster rates than is possible by static annealing alone. This discovery reveals a new and potentially important aspect of abnormal grain growth (AGG) phenomena. The process of AGG during plastic deformation at elevated temperatures, termed dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG), was observed at homologous temperatures between 0.52 and 0.72 in both Mo and Ta sheet materials; these temperatures are much lower than those for previous observations of AGG in these materials during static annealing. DAGG was used to repeatedly grow single crystals several centimeters in length. Investigations to date have produced a basic understanding of the conditions that lead to DAGG and how DAGG is affected by microstructure in BCC refractory metals. The current state of understanding for DAGG is reviewed in this paper. Attention is given to the roles of temperature, plastic strain, boundary mobility and preexisting microstructure. DAGG is considered for its potential useful applications in solid-state crystal growth and its possibly detrimental role in creating undesired abnormal grains during thermomechanical processing.

  19. Somatic chromosomal abnormalities in couples undergoing infertility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999). Oligozoospermia is .... age of abnormal metaphases needed to distinguish between low level and true mosaicism. This borderline ... Moore A. K., Lynch K., Arny M. J. and Grow D. R. 2008 Turner mosaicism (45,X/46,XX) diagnosed in a ...

  20. Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available The present report presents the findings of SIMRAC project GAP 045 entitled ‘Heat stress protection in abnormally hot environments’. It is intended as a reference to develop guidelines which, in turn would assist mine management in establishing safe...

  1. The prevalence of electroencephalographic abnormalities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... South African studies. There is little South African data examining either prevalence or usefulness of EEG abnormalities among adult psychiatric patients. Some work has been done in adolescents. Szabo1 reviewed all admissions to the adolescent inpatient unit at Tara. Hospital between 1990 and 1995.

  2. Lentiginosis, Deafness and Cardiac Abnormalities | Cronje | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three members of a family with features of the 'leopard' syndrome are described. The important findings were generalized lentigo, deafness, and cardiac and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Progressive obstructive cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias are features of the condition which may be present, and are potentially ...

  3. Craniofacial abnormalities among patients with Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and types of craniofacial abnormalities observed in patients with trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome (ES. METHODS This descriptive and retrospective study of a case series included all patients diagnosed with ES in a Clinical Genetics Service of a reference hospital in Southern Brazil from 1975 to 2008. The results of the karyotypic analysis, along with clinical data, were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 50 patients, of which 66% were female. The median age at first evaluation was 14 days. Regarding the karyotypes, full trisomy of chromosome 18 was the main alteration (90%. Mosaicism was observed in 10%. The main craniofacial abnormalities were: microretrognathia (76%, abnormalities of the ear helix/dysplastic ears (70%, prominent occiput (52%, posteriorly rotated (46% and low set ears (44%, and short palpebral fissures/blepharophimosis (46%. Other uncommon - but relevant - abnormalities included: microtia (18%, orofacial clefts (12%, preauricular tags (10%, facial palsy (4%, encephalocele (4%, absence of external auditory canal (2% and asymmetric face (2%. One patient had an initial suspicion of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS or Goldenhar syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the literature description of a characteristic clinical presentation for ES, craniofacial alterations may be variable among these patients. The OAVS findings in this sample are noteworthy. The association of ES with OAVS has been reported once in the literature.

  4. Somatic chromosomal abnormalities in couples undergoing infertility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996; Johnson 1998). Consid- ering pooled data obtained from more than 9000 azoosper- mic and oligozoospermic men, a 5.8% incidence of chromo- somal abnormalities has been found. Of these, 4.2% affect the gonosomes and 1.5% the autosomes, respectively (John- son 1998). In detail, sex chromosome anomalies ...

  5. Fetal chromosome abnormalities and congenital malformations: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Our objective were to determine and evaluate the role of genetic counseling and amniocentesis in early detection of chromosomal abnormalities or congenital malformations among women at risk. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 784 pregnant women. Results: The cause for seeking genetic ...

  6. Structural and molecular hair abnormalities in trichothiodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christine; Morris, Andrea; Schlücker, Sebastian; Imoto, Kyoko; Price, Vera H; Menefee, Emory; Wincovitch, Stephen M; Levin, Ira W; Tamura, Deborah; Strehle, Katrin R; Kraemer, Kenneth H; DiGiovanna, John J

    2006-10-01

    We examined hair from 15 patients with trichothiodystrophy (TTD), a rare inherited disorder with brittle, cystine-deficient hair. They had a wide variety of phenotypes, from brittle hair only to severe intellectual impairment and developmental delay. Polarizing light microscopic examination showed alternating light and dark (tiger tail) bands under polarizing microscopy. Confocal microscopy captured structural features of breaks in intact TTD hairs. The autofluorescent appearance was regular and smooth in normal donors and markedly irregular in sections of TTD hairs possibly reflecting abnormalities in melanin distribution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed numerous surface irregularities. All TTD hair samples had reduced sulfur content. We observed an inverse correlation (R(val)=0.9) between sulfur content and percent of hairs with shaft abnormalities (trichoschisis, trichorrhexis nodosa, or ribbon/twist). There was no association between clinical disease severity and percent of abnormal hairs. Raman spectra of hairs from TTD patients and normal donors revealed a larger contribution of energetically less favored disulfide conformers in TTD hairs. Our data indicate that the brittleness of the TTD hair is dependent upon abnormalities at several levels of organization. These changes make TTD hairs excessively prone to breakage and weathering.

  7. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  8. Schizophrenogenic Parenting in Abnormal Psychology Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Otto F.

    1989-01-01

    Considers the treatment of family causation of schizophrenia in undergraduate abnormal psychology textbooks. Reviews texts published only after 1986. Points out a number of implications for psychologists which arise from the inclusion in these texts of the idea that parents cause schizophrenia, not the least of which is the potential for…

  9. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; De Jesus, Danilo R; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Schutter, Dennis J L G

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders.

  10. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  11. Plant abnormality monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yusuke; Uchida, Shunsuke; Fujimori, Haruo.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a device capable of detecting abnormal symptoms of equipments having failed portions and portions to be repaired and requiring concentrated monitoring in a plant during operation, for example, nuclear power plants, in an early stage without losing reliability. Namely, the abnormality of the plant is judged based on the comparison of plant operation parameters and their allowable values in the method of monitoring plant abnormality. In this case, the allowable values of the plant operation parameters allowed to be changed based on the information on the state of equipments which shows the state of constitutional equipments of the plant. In addition, when a measured plant operation parameter exceeds the allowable value of each of the previously set plant operation parameters, allowable values of other plant operation parameters having relation with the plant operation parameters can be changed. According to the present invention, since the allowable range of the plant operation parameters for the equipments to be repaired and failed equipments can be made narrower than that of ordinary equipments, abnormal symptoms can be detected on the normal side in an early stage. (I.S.)

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE EEG changes and neuroimaging abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Background:Autism is currently viewed as a genetically determined neurode- velopmental disorder although its definite underlying etiology remains to be established. Aim of the Study: Our purpose was to assess autism related morphological neuroimaging changes of the brain and EEG abnormalities in correlation to the.

  13. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed ...

  14. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L

    1998-04-01

    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  15. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

  16. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  17. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  18. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Q

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qingyan Bo,1 Roberto Orsenigo,2 Junyi Wang,1 Louis Griffel,3 Clifford Brass3 1Beijing Novartis Pharma Co. Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries. This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025 as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%, and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08. Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had

  19. Corpus callosum abnormalities: neuroradiological and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashim, Aqeela H; Blaser, Susan; Raybaud, Charles; MacGregor, Daune

    2016-05-01

    To study neuroradiological features in pediatric patients with corpus callosum abnormalities, using new functional subtyping for the corpus callosum, and to correlate the features with the clinical presentation. We performed a retrospective review of 125 patients with radiologically identified abnormalities of the corpus callosum seen between 1999 and 2012. The study reviewed clinical features, genetic etiology, and chromosomal microarray (CMA) results. We used a new functional classification for callosal abnormalities based on embryological and anatomical correlations with four classes: complete agenesis, anterior agenesis (rostrum, genu, body), posterior agenesis (isthmus, splenium), and complete hypoplasia (thinning). We also studied the presence of extracallosal abnormalities. The new functional callosal subtyping did not reveal significant differences between the various subtypes in association with neurological outcome; however, the presence of cardiac disease was found more frequently in the group with complete agenesis. Thirty-seven per cent (46/125) had identifiable causes: of these, 48% (22/46) had a monogenic disorder, 30% (14/46) had a pathogenic chromosomal copy-number variant detected by CMA or karyotype, and 22% (10/46) had a recognizable clinical syndrome for which no confirmatory genetic test was available (namely Aicardi syndrome/septo-optic dysplasia and Goldenhar syndrome). The diagnostic yield for a significant CMA change was 19%. The presence of Probst bundles was found to be associated with a better neurodevelopmental outcome. The functional classification system alone 'without clinical data' cannot predict the functional outcome. The presence of extracallosal brain abnormalities and an underlying genetic diagnosis predicted a worse neurodevelopmental outcome. This study highlights the importance of CMA testing and cardiac evaluation as part of a routine screen. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Hemostatic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogia, Aarti; Sikka, Meera; Sharma, Satender; Rusia, Usha

    2018-01-27

    Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a neoplastic plasma cell disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. Diverse hemostatic abnormalities have been reported in patients with myeloma which predispose to bleeding and also thrombosis. Methods: Complete blood count, biochemical parameters and parameters of hemostasis i.e. platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), factor VIII assay results, plasma fibrinogen, D-dimer and lupus anticoagulant, were assessed in 29 MM patients and 30 age matched controls. Results: The most frequent abnormal screening parameter was APTT. Of the six indicative of a bleeding tendency i.e. thrombocytopenia, prolonged PT, APTT, TT, reduced plasma fibrinogen and factor VIII, at least one was abnormal in 8 (27.6%) patients. Of the four prothrombotic markers, lupus anticoagulant, D-dimer, elevated factor VIII and plasma fibrinogen, one or more marker was present in 24 (82.7%). D-dimer was the most common prothrombotic marker, being elevated in 22 (75.9%) patients. One or more laboratory parameter of hemostasis was abnormal in all 29 (100%) patients. Though thrombotic complications are reported to be less frequent as compared to hemorrhagic manifestations, one or more marker of thrombosis was present in 24 (82.7%) patients. Conclusion: This study provided laboratory evidence of hemostatic dysfunction which may be associated with thrombotic or bleeding complications at diagnosis in all MM patients. Hence, screening for these abnormalities at the time of diagnosis should help improved prognosis in such cases. Creative Commons Attribution License

  1. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  2. Investigation on two abnormal phenomena about thermal conductivity enhancement of BN/EG nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The thermal conductivity of boron nitride/ethylene glycol (BN/EG nanofluids was investigated by transient hot-wire method and two abnormal phenomena was reported. One is the abnormal higher thermal conductivity enhancement for BN/EG nanofluids at very low-volume fraction of particles, and the other is the thermal conductivity enhancement of BN/EG nanofluids synthesized with large BN nanoparticles (140 nm which is higher than that synthesized with small BN nanoparticles (70 nm. The chain-like loose aggregation of nanoparticles is responsible for the abnormal increment of thermal conductivity enhancement for the BN/EG nanofluids at very low particles volume fraction. And the difference in specific surface area and aspect ratio of BN nanoparticles may be the main reasons for the abnormal difference between thermal conductivity enhancements for BN/EG nanofluids prepared with 140- and 70-nm BN nanoparticles, respectively.

  3. Photoparoxysmal responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Muszkat

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-five outpatients with photoparoxysmal response (PPR during routine EEG were studied. The PPR showed prevalence in women (75.4%. Seizures were found in 66.1% of cases. The rest recordings were abnormal in 41.8% with prevalence of generalized paroxysm. Eight patterns of PPR were observed, being polyspike mixed to slow wave the most frequent (53%. The epileptic group showed a bimodal distribution in the several bands of photic stimulation, near 8 and 20-24 Hz. A sustained paroxysmal abnormality persisting after the photic stimulation was present in 6 epileptic patients.

  4. Delayed Mismatch Field Latencies in Autism Spectrum Disorder with Abnormal Auditory Sensitivity: A Magnetoencephalographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuzaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although abnormal auditory sensitivity is the most common sensory impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. In previous studies, we reported that this abnormal sensitivity in patients with ASD is associated with delayed and prolonged responses in the auditory cortex. In the present study, we investigated alterations in residual M100 and MMFs in children with ASD who experience abnormal auditory sensitivity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure MMF elicited by an auditory oddball paradigm (standard tones: 300 Hz, deviant tones: 700 Hz in 20 boys with ASD (11 with abnormal auditory sensitivity: mean age, 9.62 ± 1.82 years, 9 without: mean age, 9.07 ± 1.31 years and 13 typically developing boys (mean age, 9.45 ± 1.51 years. We found that temporal and frontal residual M100/MMF latencies were significantly longer only in children with ASD who have abnormal auditory sensitivity. In addition, prolonged residual M100/MMF latencies were correlated with the severity of abnormal auditory sensitivity in temporal and frontal areas of both hemispheres. Therefore, our findings suggest that children with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity may have atypical neural networks in the primary auditory area, as well as in brain areas associated with attention switching and inhibitory control processing. This is the first report of an MEG study demonstrating altered MMFs to an auditory oddball paradigm in patients with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity. These findings contribute to knowledge of the mechanisms for abnormal auditory sensitivity in ASD, and may therefore facilitate development of novel clinical interventions.

  5. Autonomic skin responses in females with Fabry disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Bach, Flemming W.; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    Fabry disease is a genetic lysosomal disorder with dysfunction of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A causing accumulation of glycolipids in multiple organs including the nervous system and with neuropathy as a prominent manifestation. Neurological symptoms include pain and autonomic...... dysfunction. This study examined peripheral autonomic nerve function in 19 female patients with Fabry disease and 19 sex and age-matched controls by measuring (1) sweat production following acetylcholine challenge; (2) the sympathetically mediated vasoconstrictor responses to inspiratory gasp, stress......, and the cold pressor test; and (3) cutaneous blood flow following capsaicin. The vasoconstrictor response to inspiratory gasp was increased in Fabry patients compared to controls (p = 0.03), while the response to cold and mental stress did not change. Female patients with Fabry disease had a reduced sweat...

  6. Catecholamine responses to changes in posture during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, P G; Gerrard, J; Lind, T

    1985-06-01

    Human pregnancy may induce changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to endogenous catecholamines. This was investigated in multigravid women with little likelihood of unsuspected vascular disease. The responses of blood pressure, pulse rate, plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline to a change in posture from semi-recumbency to standing were assessed in six normotensive women at 36 weeks gestation and in six non-pregnant control subjects. Standing for 10 min caused a surge in blood pressure, pulse rate and plasma noradrenaline in non-pregnant women. The pregnant women, whose basal levels of noradrenaline were higher than those in non-pregnant women, showed a slower noradrenergic response to postural change, and this response had less effect upon the cardiovascular indices. Blood pressure dropped immediately on standing and pulse rate remained unaffected throughout. It is suggested that some women may maintain a non-pregnant level of pressor sensitivity during pregnancy and thereby become hypertensive.

  7. Migraine and structural abnormalities in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to provide an overview of recent studies of structural brain abnormalities in migraine and to discuss the potential clinical significance of their findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain structure continues to be a topic of extensive research in migraine. Despite advances...... in neuroimaging techniques, it is not yet clear if migraine is associated with grey matter changes. Recent large population-based studies sustain the notion of increased prevalence of white matter abnormalities in migraine, and possibly of silent infarct-like lesions. The clinical relevance of this association...... is not clear. Structural changes are not related to cognitive decline, but a link to an increased risk of stroke, especially in patients with aura, cannot be ruled out. SUMMARY: Migraine may be a risk factor for structural changes in the brain. It is not yet clear how factors such as migraine sub-type, attack...

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2011-11-01

    Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder.

  10. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  11. Computed tomography in abnormalities of the hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, J.D.; Jonkers, A.; Klasen, H.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Hillen, B. (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Anatomie en Embryologie)

    1982-06-26

    The value of computed tomography in the assessment of abnormalities of the hip is demonstrated with the aid of an anatomical preparation and in patients with, respectively, congenital dislocation of a hip, dislocation of the hip in spina bifida, an acetabular fracture and a Ewing tumour. The anteversion of the acetabulum and femur and the instability index of the hip joint can be measured by means of computed tomography.

  12. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  13. Inflammatory Cytokines in Maternal Circulation and Placenta of Chromosomally Abnormal First Trimester Miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Calleja-Agius

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of abnormal placental karyotype on the inflammatory response within the villous tissue and peripheral circulation of women with miscarriage was evaluated. Villous (=38 and venous blood samples (=26 were obtained from women with missed miscarriage. Tissue chromosome analysis indicated 23 abnormal and 15 normal karyotypes. Concentration of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, and interleukin (IL-10 were measured using flowcytometric bead array in fresh villous homogenate, cultured villous extracts, culture medium, maternal whole blood, and plasma. Plasma TNF/IL-10 ratios were significantly (<0.05 lower in miscarriages with abnormal karyotype. In the abnormal karyotype group, there were significantly higher levels of TNF (<0.01, IL-10 (<0.01, TNF-R1 (<0.001, and TNF-R2 (<0.001 in the villous extracts and culture-conditioned medium compared to normal karyotype group. In miscarriage with abnormal karyotype, there is an exacerbated placental inflammatory response, in contrast to miscarriage of normal karyotype where maternal systemic response is increased.

  14. [Nutritional abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Joaquim; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Barreiro, Esther

    2014-07-22

    Nutritional abnormalities are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a frequency ranging from 2 to 50%, depending on the geographical area and the study design. Diagnostic tools include anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy radioabsortiometry and deuterium dilution, being the body mass and the lean mass indices the most frequently used parameters. While the most important consequences of nutritional abnormalities are muscle dysfunction and exercise limitation, factors implicated include an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, and between anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammation, tobacco smoking, poor physical activity, hypoxemia, some drugs and aging/comorbidities. The most important molecular mechanism for malnutrition associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease appears to be the mismatching between protein synthesis and breakdown. Among the therapeutic measures proposed for these nutritional abnormalities are improvements in lifestyle and nutritional support, although the use of anabolic drugs (such as secretagogues of the growth hormone) offers a new therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Content difference between normal and abnormal obsessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Cougle, Jesse R; Muris, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Although it has long been thought that experiencing an obsession is a psychiatric symptom, more recent literature, has seen the normalisation of obsessions and other presumably clinical phenomena. That is, not only people suffering from psychiatric disorders experience obsessions but non-clinical individuals also do so. Furthermore, it has been argued that such normal obsessions are very similar to abnormal ones, in terms of content. However, in the present study, evidence was obtained indicating that normal and abnormal obsessions do differ in content. A sample of 133 healthy undergraduates was given a list of 70 obsessions, with some originating from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, and others stemming from healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had ever experienced these obsessions. Participants endorsed significantly more normal than abnormal obsessions, suggesting that the two kinds of obsessions do differ from each other. In addition, the experience of clinical obsessions was more strongly associated with scores on a measure of OCD symptoms, than was the experience of normal obsessions.

  16. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Luo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process.

  17. Recurrent Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, John J; Park, Tae Sung; Wan, Thomas S K

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of chromosomal abnormality associated with leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is broad and heterogeneous when compared to chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloid neoplasms. Recurrent chromosomal translocations such as t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16) are frequently detected, but hundreds of other uncommon chromosomal aberrations from AML also exist. This chapter discusses 22 chromosomal abnormalities that are common structural, numerical aberrations, and other important but infrequent (less than 1 %) translocations emphasized in the WHO classification. Brief morphologic, cytogenetic, and clinical characteristics are summarized, so as to provide a concise reference to cancer cytogenetic laboratories. Morphology based on FAB classification is used together with the current WHO classification due to frequent mentioning in a vast number of reference literatures. Characteristic chromosomal aberrations of other myeloid neoplasms such as myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm will be discussed in separate chapters-except for certain abnormalities such as t(9;22) in de novo AML. Gene mutations detected in normal karyotype AML by cutting edge next generation sequencing technology are also briefly mentioned.

  18. Spermatogenesis Abnormalities following Hormonal Therapy in Transwomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirachai Jindarak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure spermatogenesis abnormalities in transwomen at the time of sex reassignment surgery (SRS and to analyze the association between hormonal therapy duration and infertility severity. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. University hospital. Patients. One-hundred seventy-three transwomen who underwent SRS from January 2000 to December 2015. Interventions. All orchidectomy specimens were retrospectively reviewed and classified. History of hormonal therapy duration was retrieved from medical records. Main Outcome Measures. Histological examinations of orchidectomy specimens were performed to assess spermatogenesis. Results. One-hundred seventy-three orchidectomy specimens were evaluated. Histological examinations showed maturation arrest in 36.4%, hypospermatogenesis in 26%, Sertoli cell-only syndrome in 20.2%, normal spermatogenesis in 11%, and seminiferous tubule hyalinization in 6.4% of the specimens. Spermatogenesis abnormality severity was not associated with the total therapy duration (P=0.81 or patient age at the time of surgery (P=0.88. Testicular volumes and sizes were associated with spermatogenesis abnormality severity (P=0.001 and P=0.026, right testicle and left testicle, resp.. Conclusion(s. Feminizing hormonal treatment leads to reductions in testicular germ cell levels. All transwomen should be warned about this consequence, and gamete preservation should be offered before starting hormonal treatment.

  19. Oculomotor abnormalities in children with Niemann-Pick type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, James; Frisson, Steven; Chakrapani, Anupam; Gissen, Paul; Hendriksz, Chris; Vijay, Suresh; Olson, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare recessive disorder associated with progressive supranuclear gaze palsy. Degeneration occurs initially for vertical saccades and later for horizontal saccades. There are studies of oculomotor degeneration in adult NP-C patients [1, 2] but no comparable studies in children. We used high-resolution video-based eye tracking to record monocular vertical and horizontal eye movements in 2 neurological NP-C patients (children with clinically observable oculomotor abnormalities) and 3 pre-neurological NP-C patients (children without clinically observable oculomotor abnormalities). Saccade onset latency, saccade peak velocity and saccade curvature were compared to healthy controls (N=77). NP-C patients had selective impairments of vertical saccade peak velocity and vertical saccade curvature, with slower peak velocities and greater curvature. Changes were more pronounced in neurological than pre-neurological patients, showing that these measures are sensitive to disease progress, but abnormal curvature and slowed downward saccades were present in both groups, showing that eye-tracking can register disease-related changes before these are evident in a clinical exam. Both slowing, curvature and the detailed characteristics of the curvature we observed are predicted by the detailed characteristics of RIMLF population codes. Onset latencies were not different from healthy controls. High-resolution video-based eye tracking is a promising sensitive and objective method to measure NP-C disease severity and neurological onset. It may also help evaluate responses to therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Immunohistochemical abnormalities of fibrillin in cardiovascular tissues in Marfan's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, K J; Nousari, H C; Anhalt, G J; Stone, C D; Laschinger, J C

    1997-04-01

    Molecular defects in the glycoprotein fibrillin are believed to be responsible for impaired structural integrity of cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular tissues in Marfan's syndrome (MFS). Traditionally, excellent results have been achieved with the Bentall composite graft repair of aneurysms of the ascending aorta in MFS. However, because of the potential complications associated with prosthetic valves, there is growing interest in techniques that preserve the native aortic valve. Between May 1994 and February 1995, 15 patients with a history of concomitant or remote aortic root aneurysms or dissection underwent operation for valvular heart disease. Specimens of aortic valve, ascending aortic wall, and mitral valve were obtained specifically to observe differences in fibrillin content and architecture between patients with (n = 9) and without (n = 6) MFS. In addition, control specimens of aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve were obtained from 4 patients with isolated valvular or coronary artery disease but no evidence of connective tissue disorders or other aortic pathologic conditions. Fibrillin immunostaining using indirect immunofluorescence was used. Specimens were coded and graded by a blinded observer to determine quantity, homogeneity, and fragmentation of fibrillin. Observed fibrillin abnormalities in MFS and control patients were limited to the midportion (elastin-associated microfibrils) of the aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve tissues. Fibrillin abnormalities of aortic valve, aortic wall, and mitral valve tissues were seen in all patients with MFS and were most severe in those older than 20 years. Similar fibrillin abnormalities of aortic valve and aortic wall specimens were observed in control patients more than 60 years old. Even in the setting of a normal-appearing aortic valve, the current rationale for widespread use of valve-sparing repairs of aortic root aneurysms in patients with MFS and patients older than 60 years should be

  1. Abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry predicts adverse outcomes in patients with abnormal analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Hilary A; Dejbakhsh, Sheila Z; Parast, Mana M; Laurent, Louise C; Woelkers, Douglas A

    2014-10-01

    Our aim was to determine if uterine artery (UtA) Doppler studies would risk-stratify women with abnormal serum analytes on prenatal genetic screening into those at baseline and increased risk for preeclampsia and small-for-gestational age (SGA). This retrospective cohort study examined outcomes of patients with ⩾one abnormal analyte (PAPP-A3.0, AFP>2.5, inhibin>2.0, or unconjugated estriolUtA pulsatility index (PI). Preeclampsia, preterm preeclampsia, SGA (birthweight (BW) one abnormal analyte, UtA Doppler screening, and delivery outcomes. Twenty-four (18%) had an elevated UtA PI (PI>1.6); preeclampsia occurred in 16 (12%) and 26 (20%) delivered a SGA neonate. Abnormal UtA Doppler PI increased the likelihood of a composite outcome of preeclampsia or SGA from 27% to 71% (LR 6.48 (2.93, 14.30)); a negative UtA Doppler PI reduced the likelihood to 18% (LR 0.57 (0.42, 0.78)). Abnormal UtA Doppler PI increased the likelihood of a more severe composite outcome of preterm preeclampsia or IUGR from 11% to 39% (LR 5.49 (3.03, 9.97)); a negative UtA Doppler study reduced the likelihood to 4% (LR 0.35 (0.16, 0.80)). In patients with abnormal serum analytes, abnormal UtA Doppler PI is significantly associated with preeclampsia or SGA and improves the prediction of these adverse outcomes by 9-15-fold. Providers can incorporate UtA Doppler PI into an abbreviated surveillance regimen; they can be reassured that a normal study markedly decreases the risk of a severe early adverse outcome. Copyright © 2014 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of radiation-induced genetic damage using sperm abnormality assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori; Nakai, Sayaka

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative experiment on radiation-induced sperm abnormalities was made with mice, golden hamsters, and crab-eating monkeys. Sperm sites showing morphological abnormalities following irradiation were divided into head, neck, head plus neck, and others (including middle piece and tail). Local x-ray irradiation (200 KVp at a rate of 30 rad min) to the testes was undertaken in mice and golden hamsters, and local gamma-ray irradiation ( 137 Cs at a rate of 30 rad min) to the testes were undertaken in crab-eating monkeys. The head and neck were sensitive to radiation, showing morphological abnormalities. The number of abnormal sperms reached the peak at 5 - 6 wk after irradiation in mice and golden hamsters; at 6 wk with 300 rad and at 8 wk with 100 and 200 rad in crab-eating monkeys. Doubling doses for sperm abnormalities were 30 rad in mice and approximately 50 rad in golden hamsters. The dose-response curves on sperm abnormalities in crab-eating monkeys approximated to those in golden hamsters. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Vigorous Exercise Can Cause Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Healthy Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosaida, Alladdin; Chen, Jen Jen; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Leu, Szu-Yun; Chin, Terry; Schwindt, Christina D

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is more common in adolescents with asthma, it also manifests in healthy individuals without asthma. The steady-state exercise protocol is widely used and recommended by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) as a method to diagnose exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Airway narrowing in response to exercise is thought to be related to airway wall dehydration secondary to hyperventilation. More rigorous exercise protocols may have a role in detecting exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in those who otherwise have a normal response to steady-state exercise challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two different exercise protocols--a constant work rate protocol and a progressive ramp protocol--on pulmonary function testing in healthy adolescents. We hypothesized that vigorous exercise protocols would lead to reductions in lung function in healthy adolescents. A total of 56 healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.2 ± 3.3 [SD] years) were recruited to perform two exercise protocols: constant work rate exercise test to evaluate for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (as defined by ATS) and standardized progressive ramp protocol. Pulmonary function abnormalities were defined as a decline from baseline in FEV1 of greater than 10%. Ten participants (17.8%) had a significant drop in FEV1. Among those with abnormal lung function after exercise, three (30%) were after the ATS test only, five (50%) were after the ramp test only, and two (20%) were after both ATS and ramp tests. Healthy adolescents demonstrate subtle bronchoconstriction after exercise. This exercise-induced bronchoconstriction may be detected in healthy adolescents via constant work rate or the progressive ramp protocol. In a clinical setting, ramp testing warrants consideration in adolescents suspected of having exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and who have normal responses to steady-state exercise testing.

  4. Abnormality of Auricular Muscles in Congenital Auricular Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamashita, Ken; Sugai, Asuka; Gonda, Ayako; Kitada, Ayaka; Saito, Tamotsu; Urushidate, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    It has been suggested that there is a close association of abnormality in auricular muscles with various congenital auricular deformities. However, there has been no investigation to determine what muscles are involved and how they affect the deformity. The authors examined abnormalities of auricular muscles for patients with various auricular deformities. The authors examined 77 auricles of 62 patients with congenital auricular deformities, including cryptotia, Stahl's ear, prominent ear, lop ear, and others. The superior and posterior auricular muscles from the extrinsic auricular muscle group and the auricular oblique and transverse muscles from the auricular intrinsic muscle group were investigated. The authors found characteristic features of the abnormality of the muscle for each auricular deformity. In nearly all cases of cryptotia, abnormality was found in the superior auricular, auricular oblique, and auricular transverse muscles. Abnormal insertion was found mainly in the superior auricular muscle and was the main cause of cryptotia. In Stahl's ear, the major abnormality was abnormal insertion of the auricular transverse muscle, which creates an abnormal cartilaginous prominence in the scapha. The abnormality in cases of prominent ear was clearly limited mostly to the auricular transverse muscle and, in some cases, to the posterior auricular muscle. In lop ear, abnormality was mostly found in the auricular transverse muscle, with elongation, and in the superior auricular or auricular oblique muscle in some cases. There is a tendency for a specific muscle abnormality to be found in each deformity. It is important to identify the abnormal muscle and correct the abnormality during the operation.

  5. Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, M M; Tefferi, A

    2016-02-05

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal stem cell disorder associated with peripheral blood monocytosis and an inherent tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. CMML has overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Clonal cytogenetic changes are seen in ~30%, whereas gene mutations are seen in >90% of patients. Common cytogenetic abnormalities include; trisomy 8, -Y, -7/del(7q), trisomy 21 and del(20q), with the Mayo-French risk stratification effectively risk stratifying patients based on cytogenetic abnormalities. Gene mutations frequently involve epigenetic regulators (TET2 ~60%), modulators of chromatin (ASXL1 ~40%), spliceosome components (SRSF2 ~50%), transcription factors (RUNX1 ~15%) and signal pathways (RAS ~30%, CBL ~15%). Of these, thus far, only nonsense and frameshift ASXL1 mutations have been shown to negatively impact overall survival. This has resulted in the development of contemporary, molecularly integrated (inclusive of ASXL1 mutations) CMML prognostic models, including Molecular Mayo Model and the Groupe Français des Myélodysplasies model. Better understanding of the prevalent genetic and epigenetic dysregulation has resulted in emerging targeted treatment options for some patients. The development of an integrated (cytogenetic and molecular) prognostic model along with CMML-specific response assessment criteria are much needed future goals.

  6. Hemorheological abnormalities in lipoprotein lipase deficient mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tieqiang; Guo Jun; Li Hui; Huang Wei; Xian Xunde; Ross, Colin J.D.; Hayden, Michael R.; Wen Zongyao; Liu George

    2006-01-01

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a metabolic disturbance often seen in clinical practice. It is known to induce life-threatening acute pancreatitis, but its role in atherogenesis remains elusive. Hemorheological abnormality was thought to play an important role in pathogenesis of both pancreatitis and atherosclerosis. However, hemorheology in severe HTG was not well investigated. Recently, we established a severe HTG mouse model deficient in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in which severe HTG was observed to cause a significant increase in plasma viscosity. Disturbances of erythrocytes were also documented, including decreased deformability, electrophoresis rate, and membrane fluidity, and increased osmotic fragility. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that most erythrocytes of LPL deficient mice deformed with protrusions, irregular appearances or indistinct concaves. Analysis of erythrocyte membrane lipids showed decreased cholesterol (Ch) and phospholipid (PL) contents but unaltered Ch/PL ratio. The changes of membrane lipids may be partially responsible for the hemorheological and morphologic abnormalities of erythrocytes. This study indicated that severe HTG could lead to significant impairment of hemorheology and this model may be useful in delineating the role of severe HTG in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemic pancreatitis and atherosclerosis

  7. Cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, M M; Tefferi, A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal stem cell disorder associated with peripheral blood monocytosis and an inherent tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. CMML has overlapping features of myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms. Clonal cytogenetic changes are seen in ~30%, whereas gene mutations are seen in >90% of patients. Common cytogenetic abnormalities include; trisomy 8, -Y, -7/del(7q), trisomy 21 and del(20q), with the Mayo–French risk stratification effectively risk stratifying patients based on cytogenetic abnormalities. Gene mutations frequently involve epigenetic regulators (TET2 ~60%), modulators of chromatin (ASXL1 ~40%), spliceosome components (SRSF2 ~50%), transcription factors (RUNX1 ~15%) and signal pathways (RAS ~30%, CBL ~15%). Of these, thus far, only nonsense and frameshift ASXL1 mutations have been shown to negatively impact overall survival. This has resulted in the development of contemporary, molecularly integrated (inclusive of ASXL1 mutations) CMML prognostic models, including Molecular Mayo Model and the Groupe Français des Myélodysplasies model. Better understanding of the prevalent genetic and epigenetic dysregulation has resulted in emerging targeted treatment options for some patients. The development of an integrated (cytogenetic and molecular) prognostic model along with CMML-specific response assessment criteria are much needed future goals

  8. Oxidative and inflammatory signals in obesity-associated vascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reho, John J; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2017-07-15

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part due to vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. The hypertension and other health complications that arise from these vascular defects increase the risk of heart diseases and stroke. Prooxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways as well as adipocyte-derived factors have emerged as critical mediators of obesity-associated vascular abnormalities. Designing treatments aimed specifically at improving the vascular dysfunction caused by obesity may provide an effective therapeutic approach to prevent the cardiovascular sequelae associated with excessive adiposity. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting the role of oxidative stress and cytokines and inflammatory signals within the vasculature as well as the impact of the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the regulation of vascular function and arterial stiffening in obesity. In particular, we focus on the highly plastic nature of the vasculature in response to altered oxidant and inflammatory signaling and highlight how weight management can be an effective therapeutic approach to reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and improve vascular function. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. [Neurocognitive and behavioural abnormalities in paediatric sleep-related breathing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteller Moré, Eduard; Barceló Mongil, Mercé; Segarra Isern, Francesc; Piñeiro Aguín, Zenaida; Pujol Olmo, Albert; Soler, Eusebi Matiñó; Ademà Alcover, Joan Manel

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities in children may be a consequence of sleep-related breathing disorders. The effectiveness of assessments based on questioning parents is dubious and objective assessment tools are therefore required. To ascertain the impact of these abnormalities in children with sleep-related breathing disorders and compare the reliability of questioning parents in relation to validated psychological tests. A prospective study was performed on 20 children with sleep-related breathing disorders and 20 healthy control children between 3 and 12 years of age. Both groups were subjected to a battery of validated psychological tests. The results of both groups were compared with each other and with the response to clinical questionnaires given to parents in the problem group. More than 75% of the cases in the problem group presented abnormalities with regard to attention, anxiety, memory and spatial structuring. The percentage involvement in all concepts was higher in the problem group. Comparisons of attention (40% of children affected in the control group and 80% in the problem group), memory (50% and 84.2%), and spatial structuring (45% and 75%) were statistically significant. More abnormality was observed in the parameters assessed with psychological tests than the equivalent concept obtained from interviewing the parents. Comparison of abnormal concentration assessed from the questionnaires (40% of children affected) with attention during the psychological test (80%), memory (15% and 84.21%), and delayed language development (10%) compared to spatial structuring (75%) was statistically significant. A high prevalence of behavioural and neurocognitive abnormalities was observed in children with sleep-related breathing disorders compared to a control group of healthy children. The use of objective assessment such as psychological tests revealed more abnormalities than were expressed by parents in response to clinical interviews.

  10. The range and prevalence of pathological abnormalities associated with lameness in working horses from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broster, C E; Burn, C C; Barr, A R S; Whay, H R

    2009-05-01

    Lameness is highly prevalent in working horses, but published reports on the associated pathological abnormalities are lacking. With over 42 million horses in developing countries and the majority used for work, lameness has major welfare implications. To describe the range and prevalence of pathological abnormalities associated with lameness in working horses. A standard lameness assessment was adapted for field use in working equids. Data on pathological abnormalities and pain responses in the feet, limbs and spine were collected through observation, palpation, manipulations and gait assessment in working horses from India (n = 110) and Pakistan (n = 117). Lameness at the walk was scored on a scale of 0-4 (sound-nonweightbearing). All horses examined were lame. Overall, 98% showed a gait abnormality in all 4 limbs and 87% had at least one limb scoring 3 or 4 on the lameness scale. Multiple pathological abnormalities within each limb were associated with lameness, with similar results in both countries. Chronic foot pathology was seen in every horse; 94% horses showed signs of chronic joint disease; 83% had digital flexor tendonitis in at least one limb. Lameness and pathological abnormalities were associated with specific pain responses in the feet, limbs and spine. The extremely high prevalence of multilimb lameness and its association with pain is of great concern. The multiple pathological abnormalities present in working horses makes lameness complex to address. The results of this detailed study of lameness should facilitate the identification of risk factors and the implementation of interventions to reduce the prevalence of lameness in working equids.

  11. MRI study on urinary abnormalities of fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ming; Zhang Yuzhen; Wang Qiuyan; Zhang Zhongyang; Li Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the important complemental function of MRI in dignosing the urinary abnormalities of the fetus by analyzing MR features. Methods: MRI findings in 34 fetal urinary abnormalities were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Upper urinary tract dilatation was found in 12 cases: one case presented obstructed right renal dysplasia and was on the follow-up, postnatal MR imaging proved the duplex anomaly in one case, one case showed left PUJO on postnatal US imaging and prepared to surgery, 7 cases were normal on postnatal US imaging, 2 cases were lost to follow up. Bilateral urinary anomalies were found in 7 cases: Muhicystic renal dysplasia (n=3), Combined horseshoe kidney in 2 fetuses and bilateral renal aplasia in one case. Bilateral renal dysplasia was diagnosed in 2 cases, one was still bom and proved by autopsy and the other was lost to follow up. The case of bilateral renal agenesis displayed the appearance of sirenomelia on general specimen. The case of right renal agenesis associated contralateral kidney dyspalsia (n=1) was lost to follow up. MR imaging showed low signal intensity of lung and oligohydramnios in the bilateral anomalies. Unilateral urinary anomalies was found in 15 cases, including 9 cases of unilateral renal dysplasia. Two fetuses were aborted and 3 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR. One was lost to follow up; 3 cases were on the follow-up. There were 4 cases of unilateral renal agenesis, two fetuses were aborted and 2 fetuses were proved with postnatal US or MR imaging. The case of ectopic kidney was proved with postnatal US imaging. One case of urachal cyst was aborted without autopsy. In the unilateral anomalies, the volume of amniotic fluid was normal, and the fetal lung presented homogenious high signal intensity. Conclusion: As a complemental method, MRI is of great value in displaying and dignosing the urinary abnormalities of fetus. (authors)

  12. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Arnold H; Fenoy, Kathleen A

    2009-05-01

    Developmental remnants around the foramen magnum, or proatlas segmentation abnormalities, have been recorded in postmortem studies but very rarely in a clinical setting. Because of their rarity, the pathological anatomy has been misunderstood, and treatment has been fraught with failures. The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management. Our craniovertebral junction (CVJ) database started in 1977 and comprises 5200 cases. This prospective study has retrieval capabilities. Neurodiagnostic studies changed with the evolution of imaging. Seventy-two patients were recognized as having symptomatic proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Ventral bony masses from the clivus or medial occipital condyle occurred in 66% (44/72), lateral or anterolateral compressive masses in 37% (27 of 72 patients), and dorsal bony compression in 17% (12 of 72 patients). Hindbrain herniation was associated in 33%. The age at presentation was 3 to 23 years. Motor symptoms occurred in 72% (52 of 72 patients); palsies in Cranial Nerves IX, X, and XII in 33% (24 of 72 patients); and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 25% (18 of 72 patients). Trauma precipitated symptoms in 55% (40 of 72 patients). The best definition of the abnormality was demonstrated by 3-dimensional computed tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was aimed at decompression of the pathology and stabilization. Remnants of the occipital vertebrae around the foramen magnum were recognized in 72 of 5200 CVJ cases (7.2%). Magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional computed tomography of the CVJ provides the best definition and understanding of the lesions. Brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerve deficits are common clinical presentations in the first and second decades of life. Treatment is aimed at decompression of the pathology and CVJ stabilization.

  13. Haematological abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Aamer; Al Arfaj, Abdurahman Saud; khalil, Najma; Alarfaj, Husain

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency and pattern of haematological abnormalities (HA) in SLE patients at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, and their relationship with organ involvement. This retrospective study included patients who were diagnosed and treated for SLE from 1982 to 2008 at King Khalid University hospital, Riyadh. Demographic and haematological parameters at diagnosis and the last follow-up, disease manifestations, organ involvement and clinical hematological complications were recorded. Association of HA with organ involvement was explored by multivariate analysis. A total of 624 patients (90.7% females, mean age 34.3±11.9 years) were studied. HA were present in 516 (82.7 %) patients at the time of diagnosis. Anemia was the most frequent HA in 63.0% patients followed by lymphopenia in 40.3%, leukopenia in 30.0%, thrombocytopenia in 10.9% and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in 4.6% patients. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were diagnosed in 7.4% and 2.6% patients respectively. After a mean follow-up of 9.3±5.3 years, 329/491 (67%) patients still had some HA present. Anemia remained the most common abnormality (51.7% patients) followed by lymphopenia in 33.1%, and thrombocytopenia in 4.8% patients. Leucopenia was associated with oral ulcers (p=0.021) and alopecia (p=0.031), anemia with renal disease (p=0.017), AIHA with neurological involvement (p=0.003), elevated IgG with malar rash (p=0.027), and low C3 with serositis (p=0.026). HA are very common at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up in SLE, and some of these abnormalities are associated with organ damage. This information may help in better management planning of SLE patients.

  14. Acute Radiological Abnormalities after Bronchial Thermoplasty: A Prospective Cohort Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Hooghe, Julia N. S.; van den Berk, Inge A. H.; Annema, Jouke T.; Bonta, Peter I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a novel treatment for severe asthma based on radiofrequency energy delivery to the larger airways. Although impressive radiological abnormalities have been reported, the incidence, pattern, and behavior over time of acute radiological abnormalities

  15. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ED), guard cell length (GCL) and guard cell width (GCW) of normal and abnormal leaf of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd were studied. This can be useful for further research of physical mechanism of abnormal leaf. Epidermal cells were ...

  16. Abnormal brain activation in excoriation (skin-picking) disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian L.; Hampshire, Adam; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    encompassing bilateral dorsal striatum (maximal in right caudate), bilateral anterior cingulate and right medial frontal regions. These abnormalities were, for the most part, outside the dorsal planning network typically activated by executive planning tasks. Conclusions: Abnormalities of neural regions...

  17. Phenotype abnormality: 41 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 41 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u547i abnormal for trait of behavioral...ganelle ... abnormal ... anatomical structure arrangement ... behavioral quality

  18. Phenotype abnormality: 38 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 38 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u544i abnormal for trait of behavioral...idermis ... abnormal ... anatomical structure arrangement ... behavioral quality

  19. Phenotype abnormality: 36 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 36 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u542i abnormal for trait of behavioral...tyledon ... abnormal ... anatomical structure arrangement ... behavioral quality

  20. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agenesis) of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain ( corpus callosum ). The brain abnormalities can cause severe intellectual disability and developmental delay, abnormal muscle stiffness (spasticity), weak ...

  1. Evidence of brain abnormality in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuber, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Bauer, J.; Singh, D.D.; Elger, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Markers of brain abnormalities in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) were studied to explore whether physical brain disorder is associated with an increased risk of PNES. Evidence of epileptiform EEG changes, MRI abnormalities, and neuropsychological (NPS)

  2. MR imaging of cerebral abnormalities in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thickman, D; Mintz, M; Mennuti, M; Kressel, H Y

    1984-12-01

    In view of the lack of ionizing radiation, ability to image in a variety of planes, and high contrast resolution, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may have a role in obstetrical management. Three fetuses with severe cerebral abnormalities were studied by MR in utero. The findings were correlated with ultrasound examinations and with autopsy results. Ventricular dilatation and progression of hydrocephalus were detected by MR. Although fetal motion may affect image quality, diagnostically useful images were obtained with imaging times of 2.5 min.

  3. Childhood autism and auditory system abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoglou, Magdalini; Ververi, Athina; Antoniadis, Alexandros; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2010-05-01

    Hearing disorders are common among children with autism, ranging from peripheral and sensorineural hearing deficit or loss to auditory hypersensitivity with bizarre reactions to sounds. The auditory abnormalities and consequent sensory deprivation exacerbate the communication deficit of autism, and early auditory assessment holds an important place in the planning of intervention and the overall prognosis of patients. Physiologic, pathologic, imaging, and neurochemical studies have revealed an array of aberrations in the perception and processing of the audiologic stimuli, including (among others) maturational defects, atypical lateralization, and serotonin dysfunction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A

  5. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I): Full Aneuploidy

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs) carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploi...

  6. Recurrent abnormalities can be used for risk group stratification in pediatric AMKL: A retrospective intergroup study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. de Rooij (Johan); R. Masetti (Riccardo); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); J.-M. Cayuela (Jean-Michel); J. Trka (Jan); D. Reinhardt (Dirk); Rasche, M. (Mareike); E. Sonneveld (Edwin); T.A. Alonzo (Todd); M.W.J. Fornerod (Maarten); M. Zimmermann (Martin); Pigazzi, M. (Martina); R. Pieters (Rob); S. Meshinchi (S.); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); F. Locatelli (Franco)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenetic abnormalities and early treatment response are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of AML. Deep sequencing has identified CBFA2T3/GLIS2 and NUP98/KDM5A as recurrent aberrations, occurring in similar

  7. [Application of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Zhai, Y; Zhang, Z H; Li, Y; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and promotion value of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Fourty three patients who had received TB type endometrial ablation system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding from January, 2015 to January, 2016 in theDepartment of gynecology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were enrolled in this study. The intra-operative and post-operative complications and improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea were observed. Results: There were nointra-operative complication occurred, such as uterine perforation, massive hemorrhage or surrounding organ damage. At 6 months after operation, 32 patients developed amenorrhea, 6 developed menstrual spotting, 3 developed menstruation with a small volume and 1 had a normal menstruation. No menstruation with an increased volume occurred. The occurrence of amenorrhea was 76.19% and the response rate was 97.62%.At 6 months after operation, 1 case had no response, 2 cases had partial response and 11 cases had complete response among the 14 cases of pre-operative dysmenorrhea; only 3 cases still had anemia among the 23 cases of pre-operative anemia. Compared with before treatment, patients with dysmenorrhea and anemia both significantly reduced with a statistically significant difference( P abnormal uterine bleeding, which could have clinical promotion practice.

  8. Sympathetic neural and cardiovascular responses during static handgrip exercise in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickford, Abigail S L; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Parker, Rosemary S; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2016-12-01

    Women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy are at greater risk for future cardiovascular events; however, the mechanisms for this increased risk are unknown. Evidence suggests that an exercise stimulus unmasks latent hypertensive tendencies, identifying individuals at the greatest risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The current study examined the hypothesis that women with a hypertensive pregnancy history exhibit an augmented exercise pressor response. Normotensive women with a history of healthy pregnancy (CON; n = 9) and hypertensive pregnancy (HP+; n = 12) were studied during the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured during a cold pressor test (CPT), and, following a sufficient period of recovery, during static handgrip to fatigue (SHG) and post-exercise circulatory arrest (PECA). The BP, HR, and MSNA responses to the CPT were similar between groups. The SBP response to SHG and PECA was similar between groups, but DBP and HR were significantly greater in HP+ women (both p history of hypertensive pregnancy display an enhanced cardiovascular reactivity to an exercise stimulus compared to women with a healthy pregnancy history. This response may be indicative of impaired cardiovascular control that precedes the clinical manifestation of hypertension or cardiovascular events.

  9. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  10. Abnormal Behavior in Relation to Cage Size in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, H. H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines the effects of cage size on stereotyped and normal locomotion and on other abnormal behaviors in singly caged animals, whether observed abnormal behaviors tend to co-occur, and if the development of an abnormal behavior repertoire leads to reduction in the number of normal behavior categories. (Author/RK)

  11. Abnormally large magnetospheric electric field on 9 November 2004 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was a solar event around 1850 UT on 9th November 2004, associated with an abnormally large solar wind flow pressure and large southward interplanetary magnetic field, causing an abnormally large prompt penetration electric field between 1850 and 2100 UT. Abnormally large vertical F-region drifts by Jicamarca ...

  12. ECG classification and abnormality detection using cascade forward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the use of MATLAB based artificial neural network tools for ECG analysis for finding out whether the ECG is normal or abnormal and if it is abnormal, what is the abnormality. There are various arrhythmia like Ventricular premature beats, asystole, couplet, bigeminy, fusion beats etc. To classify this,

  13. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  14. Abnormal and normal obsessions: a reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Muris, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Contemporary cognitive approaches to obsession assume that the content of clinical obsessions does not differ from non-clinical obsessive intrusions. This assumption goes back to a classic study by Rachman and De Silva [(1978). Abnormal and normal obsessions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 16, 233-248]. In the present paper, it is argued that Rachman and De Silva did not postulate a complete indifference between clinical and non-clinical obsessions. Study 1 is a simple statistical analysis of data presented by Rachman and De Silva. This analysis suggested that psychologists are able to discriminate clinical and non-clinical obsessions beyond chance level, merely by looking at the content of obsessions. In study 2, a list of 23 clinical and 47 non-clinical obsessions was presented to 11 psychotherapists and 90 psychology undergraduates. Both therapists and students were able to distinguish clinical and non-clinical obsession beyond chance level. It is concluded that some clinical obsessions can be identified as being evidently abnormal, and that additional theory and research is needed to identify the causes of these recognisable obsessions.

  15. Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Kumar, Priyanka; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2016-01-01

    Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood. Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls. We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift. This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.

  16. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  17. Brain Abnormalities in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an idiopathic inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system that is characterized by severe attacks of optic neuritis (ON and myelitis. Until recently, NMO was considered a disease without brain involvement. However, since the discovery of NMO-IgG/antiaqaporin-4 antibody, the concept of NMO was broadened to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD, and brain lesions are commonly recognized. Furthermore, some patients present with brain symptoms as their first manifestation and develop recurrent brain symptoms without ON or myelitis. Brain lesions with characteristic locations and configurations can be helpful in the diagnosis of NMOSD. Due to the growing recognition of brain abnormalities in NMOSD, these have been included in the NMO and NMOSD diagnostic criteria or guidelines. Recent technical developments such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry reveal new findings related to brain abnormalities in NMOSD that were not identified using conventional MRI. This paper focuses on the incidence and characteristics of the brain lesions found in NMOSD and the symptoms that they cause. Recent studies using advanced imaging techniques are also introduced.

  18. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  19. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic dysfunction in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We studied the peripheral nervous system, myopathology, and autonomic system of four CTX patients and performed a literature review of the reported CTX patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods Four biochemically and genetically confirmed CTX patients, belonging to two families, were included for study and all received nerve conduction study (NCS, muscle biopsy for histopathologic and ultrastructural study, skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fiber (INEF density measurement, autonomic testings including sympathetic skin response, R-R interval variation and head-up tilt test using an automated tilt table to record the changes of blood pressure and heart rate in different postures. The Q-Sweat test was also applied for the detection of sweat amount and onset time of response. The clinical characteristics, study methods and results of 13 studies of peripheral neuropathy in CTX patients in the literature were also recorded for analysis. Results The results of NCS study showed axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy in three CTX cases and mixed axonal and demyelinating sensor-motor polyneuropathy in one. The myopathological and histopathologic studies revealed mild denervation characteristics, but the ultrastructural study revealed changes of mitochondria and the membranous system, and increased amounts of glycogen, lipofuscin and lipid deposition. The ANS study revealed different degrees of abnormalities in the applied tests and the INEF density measurement showed small fiber neuropathy in three of the four CTX patients. The literature review of peripheral neuropathy in CTX revealed different types of peripheral neuropathy, of which axonal peripheral neuropathy was the most common. Conclusions Peripheral neuropathy, especially the

  20. Report to congress on abnormal occurrences: January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1992. The abnormal occurrences involving medical therapy misadministrations at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant, and none were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  1. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  2. Real-time Multiple Abnormality Detection in Video Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Simon Hartmann; Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in video sequences has recently gained an increasing attention within the research community. Although progress has been seen, there are still some limitations in current research. While most systems are designed at detecting specific abnormality, others which...... are capable of detecting more than two types of abnormalities rely on heavy computation. Therefore, we provide a framework for detecting abnormalities in video surveillance by using multiple features and cascade classifiers, yet achieve above real-time processing speed. Experimental results on two datasets...... show that the proposed framework can reliably detect abnormalities in the video sequence, outperforming the current state-of-the-art methods....

  3. Role of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the acute hypertensive response to intracerebroventricular cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, Maria Piera; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Volpe, Anna Rita; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    In the rat, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of cadmium, a pollutant with long biological half-life, causes a sustained increase in blood pressure at doses that are ineffective by peripheral route. Since cadmium inhibits calcium-calmodulin constitutive nitric oxide (NO) synthase in cytosolic preparations of rat brain, this mechanism may be responsible for the acute pressor action of this heavy metal.To test this possibility, we evaluated the effect of i.c.v. injection of 88 nmol cadmium in normotensive unanaesthetized Wistar rats, which were i.c.v. pre-treated with: (1) saline (control), (2) L-arginine (L-Arg), to increase the availability of substrate for NO biosynthesis, (3) D-arginine (D-Arg), (4) 3-[4-morpholinyl]-sydnonimine-hydrochloride (SIN-1), an NO donor, or (5) CaCl2, a cofactor of brain calcium-calmodulin-dependent cNOSI. In additional experiments, the levels of L-citrulline (the stable equimolar product derived from enzymatic cleavage of L-Arg by NO synthase) were determined in the brain of vehicle- or cadmium-treated rats.The pressor response to cadmium reached its nadir at 5 min (43±4 mmHg) and lasted over 20 min in controls. L-Citrulline/protein content was reduced from 35 up to 50% in the cerebral cortex, pons, hippocampus, striatus, hypothalamus (P<0.01) of cadmium-treated rats compared with controls. Central injection of NG nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) also reduced the levels of L-citrulline in the brain.Both the magnitude and duration of the response were attenuated by 1.21 and 2.42 μmol SIN-1 (32±3 and 15±4 mmHg, P<0.05), or 1 μmol CaCl2 (6±4 mmHg, P<0.05). Selectivity of action exerted by SIN-1 was confirmed by the use of another NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Both L-Arg and D-Arg caused a mild but significant attenuation in the main phase of the pressor response evoked by cadmium. However, only L-Arg reduced the magnitude of the delayed, pressor response. Despite their similarity in

  4. Gynecologic anatomic abnormalities following anorectal malformations repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova-Sanchez, Alejandra; Reck, Carlos A; McCracken, Kate A; Lane, Victoria A; Gasior, Alessandra C; Wood, Richard J; Levitt, Marc A; Hewitt, Geri D

    2018-04-01

    Patients may present with gynecologic concerns after previous posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) for repair of an anorectal malformation (ARM). Common findings include an inadequate or shortened perineal body, as well as introital stenosis, retained vaginal septum, and remnant rectovestibular fistula. An inadequate or shortened perineal body may impact fecal continence, sexual function and recommendations regarding obstetrical mode of delivery. We describe our experience with female patients referred to our center for evaluation of their previously repaired ARM, with a specific focus on perineal body anatomy and concomitant gynecologic abnormalities. We outline our collaborative evaluation process and findings as well as subsequent repair and outcomes. A single site retrospective chart review from May 2014 to May 2016 was performed. Female patients with a history of prior ARM repair who required subsequent reoperative surgical repair with perineoplasty were included. The decision for reoperation was made collaboratively after a multidisciplinary evaluation by colorectal surgery, urology, and gynecology which included examination under anesthesia (EUA) with cystoscopy, vaginoscopy, rectal examination, and electrical stimulation of anal sphincters. The type of original malformation, indication for reoperative perineoplasty, findings leading to additional procedures performed at time of perineoplasty, postoperative complications, and the length of follow up were recorded. During the study period 28 patients were referred for evaluation after primary ARM repair elsewhere and 15 patients (60%) met inclusion criteria. Thirteen patients (86.6%) originally had a rectovestibular fistula with prior PSARP and 2 patients (13.4%) originally had a cloacal malformation with prior posterior sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty. The mean age at the time of the subsequent perineoplasty was 4.6years (0.5-12). Patients had an inadequate perineal body requiring reoperative

  5. Abnormal proactive and reactive cognitive control during conflict processing in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; De Paepe, Annick; Aarts, Kristien; Otte, Georges; Van Dorpe, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    According to the Dual Mechanisms of Control framework, cognitive control consists of two complementary components: proactive control refers to anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information, whereas reactive control acts as a correction mechanism that is activated when a conflict occurs. Possibly, the well-known diminished inhibitory control in response to negative stimuli in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients stems from a breakdown in proactive control, and/or anomalies in reactive cognitive control. In our study, MDD patients specifically showed increased response latencies when actively inhibiting a dominant response to a sad compared with a happy face. This condition was associated with a longer duration of a dominant ERP topography (800-900 ms poststimulus onset) and a stronger activity in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting abnormal reactive control when inhibiting attention to a negative stimulus. Moreover, MDD patients showed abnormalities in proactive cognitive control when preparing for the upcoming imperative stimulus (abnormal modulation of the contingent negative variation component), accompanied by more activity in brain regions belonging to the default mode network. All together, deficits to inhibit attention to negative information in MDD might originate from an abnormal use of both proactive resources and reactive control processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Symptoms of anxiety and depression are related to cardiovascular responses to active, but not passive, coping tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian S; Sheffield, David

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety and depression have been linked to blunted blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) reactions to mental stress tests; however, most studies have not included indices of underlying hemodynamics nor multiple stress tasks. This study sought to examine the relationships of anxiety and depression with hemodynamic responses to acute active and passive coping tasks. A total of 104 participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales and mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks while BP, HR, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output (CO) were assessed. After adjustment for traditional risk factors and baseline cardiovascular activity, depression scores were negatively associated with systolic BP, HR, and CO responses to the mental arithmetic task, while anxiety scores were inversely related to the systolic BP response to mental arithmetic. High anxiety or depression scores appear to be associated with blunted cardiac reactions to mental arithmetic (an active coping task), but not to the cold pressor test or speech tasks. Future research should further examine potential mechanisms and longitudinal pathways relating depression and anxiety to cardiovascular reactivity. TCTR20160208004.

  7. Symptoms of anxiety and depression are related to cardiovascular responses to active, but not passive, coping tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat

    Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety and depression have been linked to blunted blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR reactions to mental stress tests; however, most studies have not included indices of underlying hemodynamics nor multiple stress tasks. This study sought to examine the relationships of anxiety and depression with hemodynamic responses to acute active and passive coping tasks. Methods: A total of 104 participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales and mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks while BP, HR, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac output (CO were assessed. Results: After adjustment for traditional risk factors and baseline cardiovascular activity, depression scores were negatively associated with systolic BP, HR, and CO responses to the mental arithmetic task, while anxiety scores were inversely related to the systolic BP response to mental arithmetic. Conclusion: High anxiety or depression scores appear to be associated with blunted cardiac reactions to mental arithmetic (an active coping task, but not to the cold pressor test or speech tasks. Future research should further examine potential mechanisms and longitudinal pathways relating depression and anxiety to cardiovascular reactivity. Clinical trial registration number: TCTR20160208004

  8. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thalamus contains third-order relay neurons of the trigeminal system, and animal models as well as preliminary imaging studies in small cohorts of migraine patients have suggested a role of the thalamus in headache pathophysiology. However, larger studies using advanced imaging...... techniques in substantial patient populations are lacking. In the present study, we investigated changes of thalamic volume and shape in a large multicenter cohort of patients with migraine. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI data acquired at 3 tesla in 131 patients with migraine (38 with aura; 30.8 ± 9 years...... a fully automated multiatlas approach. Deformation-based shape analysis was performed to localize surface abnormalities. Differences between patients with migraine and healthy subjects were assessed using an ANCOVA model. After correction for multiple comparisons, performed using the false discovery rate...

  9. Abnormal neuronal migration: radiologic-clinic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Fernandez, M.; Menor Serrano, F.; Bordon Ferre, F.; Garcia Tena, J.; Esteban Hernandez, E.; Sanguesa Nebot, C.; Marti Bonnati, L.

    1994-01-01

    We present our experience in 18 pediatric patients with abnormal neuronal migration. Seven cases of heterotopia of the gray matter, 7 agyria-pachygyria complexes, 1 case of polymicrogyria, 2 cases of schizencephaly and 1 case of hemimegalencephaly were diagnosed by means of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. The clinical picture was reviewed in each case, with special attention to the occurrence of convulsions, psycho motor development and visual changes. In general, the greater the morphological change, the greater the neurological involvement in these patients. However, the two cases of schizencephaly presented mild clinical expression. Magnetic resonance increases the diagnostic yield in neuronal migration disorders. Nevertheless, either ultrasonography or, especially, computed tomography is useful as a first diagnostic approach in these malformative disorders. (Author)

  10. Congenital abnormalities of the posterior fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Boltshauser, Eugen; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and importance of the evaluation of the posterior fossa have increased significantly over the past 20 years owing to advances in neuroimaging. Nowadays, conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques allow detailed evaluation of the complex anatomic structures within the posterior fossa. A wide spectrum of congenital abnormalities has been demonstrated, including malformations (anomalies due to an alteration of the primary developmental program caused by a genetic defect) and disruptions (anomalies due to the breakdown of a structure that had a normal developmental potential). Familiarity with the spectrum of congenital posterior fossa anomalies and their well-defined diagnostic criteria is crucial for optimal therapy, an accurate prognosis, and correct genetic counseling. The authors discuss the spectrum of posterior fossa malformations and disruptions, with emphasis on neuroimaging findings (including diagnostic criteria), neurologic presentation, systemic involvement, prognosis, and risk of recurrence. RSNA, 2015

  11. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presman, Benjamin; Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven R

    2015-01-01

    and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. METHODS: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg......BACKGROUND: Persistent postsurgical pain is a well-recognized problem after a number of common surgical procedures, such as amputation, thoracotomy, and inguinal hernia repair. Less is known about persistent pain after cosmetic surgical procedures. We, therefore, decided to study the incidence...... University Hospital, Denmark. The questionnaire included questions about pain and sensory abnormalities located to the abdominal skin, and physical and psychological function; patient satisfaction with surgery was rated on a 4-point scale. RESULTS: One hundred seventy patients answered the questionnaire...

  12. Glutamatergic system abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hamazaki, Kei; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the glutamatergic system in the biological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have demonstrated an association between glutamatergic system abnormalities and PTSD diagnosis or severity. We aimed to examine whether abnormalities in serum glutamate and in the glutamine/glutamate ratio were associated with PTSD diagnosis and severity in severely injured patients at risk for PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This is a nested case-control study in TPOP (Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid) trial. Diagnosis and severity of PTSD were assessed 3 months after the accidents using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The associations of glutamate levels and the glutamine/glutamate ratio with diagnosis and severity of PTSD and MDD were investigated by univariate and multiple linear regression analyses. Ninety-seven of 110 participants (88 %) completed assessments at 3 months. Serum glutamate levels were significantly higher for participants with full or partial PTSD than for participants without PTSD (p = 0.049) and for participants with MDD than for participants without MDD (p = 0.048). Multiple linear regression analyses showed serum glutamate levels were significantly positively associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.02) and MDD severity (p = 0.03). The glutamine/glutamate ratio was also significantly inversely associated with PTSD severity (p = 0.03), but not with MDD severity (p = 0.07). These findings suggest that the glutamatergic system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of PTSD and the need for new treatments targeting the glutamatergic system to be developed for PTSD.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of abnormal events: a follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Lee, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Impact analyses included in environmental assessments for a selected nuclear power plant, petroleum storage facility, crude oil pipeline, and geopressure well that have experienced operational, abnormal events are compared with the data quantifying the environmental impacts of the events. Comparisons of predicted vs actual impacts suggests that prediction of the types of events and associated impacts could be improved; in some instances, impacts have been underestimated. Analysis of abnormal events is especially important in environmental assessment documents addressing a technology that is novel or unique to a particular area. Incorporation of abnormal event impact analysis into project environmental monitoring and emergency response plans can help improve these plans and can help reduce the magnitude of environmental impacts resulting from said events

  14. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedoddin, Babak; Markowitz, John C

    2015-01-01

    Grief, the psychological reaction to the loss of a significant other, varies complexly in its cause, experience, evolution, and prognosis. Although most bereaved individuals experience a normal grieving process, some develop complicated grief (CG) or major depressive disorder (MDD). The DSM-5, which controversially altered the nosology, recognizes grief-related major depression (GRMD) as a diagnostic subtype if a patient meets MDD criteria two weeks post bereavement. The (DSM-5) tries to distinguish between grief and MDD, but remains a symptom-based, centered approach to grief that is not patient centered. This article reviews grief in its normal and abnormal dimensions. Using an illustrative clinical case in which interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was employed, we discuss the need for a more patient-centered approach to treating abnormal grief, considering the patient's personal history, perceptions, experiences of bereavement, and interpersonal environment. Clinical studies need to better identify subgroups of individuals susceptible to abnormal grief and to evaluate their response to early interventions.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of abnormal events: a follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Lee, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Impact analyses included in environmental assessments for a selected nuclear power plant, petroleum storage facility, crude oil pipeline, and geopressure well that have experienced operational, abnormal events are compared with the data quantifying the environmental impacts of the events. Comparisons of predicted vs actual impacts suggests that prediction of the types of events and associated impacts could be improved; in some instances, impacts have been underestimated. Analysis of abnormal events is especially important in environmental assessment documents addressing a technology that is novel or unique to a particular area. Incorporation of abnormal event impact analysis into project environmental monitoring and emergency response plans can help improve these plans and can help reduce the magnitude of environmental impacts resulting from said events.

  16. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Hochberg, F.H.; Shaeffer, P.

    2000-01-01

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  17. Improvement of the abnormal diagnosis technology by the development of an abnormal parts assignment system for the engineered safety features actuating system of the HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirato, Yoji; Kozawa, Takayuki; Saito, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The safety protection sequence panel of HTTR is a control panel to actuate an engineering safety system for protecting the reactor core, reactor coolant pressure boundary, and containment vessel boundary at the time of an accident of the nuclear reactor facilities. The safety code stipulates that the control panel should receive safety check at a frequency of once a month during reactor operation. When abnormality has been found, it is required to eliminate its causes and restore normal operation as soon as possible. However, since this control panel is composed of a complex control circuit, the cause check during abnormality requires the confirmation by a knowledgeable person spending quite a lot of time for chart checking, which leads to a delay of restoration. To achieve a rapid restoration, the abnormal part assignment system (APAS), which can specify abnormality instantaneously even by a common operator, was developed. It has been confirmed that with this system, rapid initial response and prompt restoration can be effectively made. (A.O.)

  18. Micronuclei and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in fishes from the Great Lakes Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Ryan P.; Blazer, Vicki; Shaw, Cassidy H.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    Biological markers (biomarkers) sensitive to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination in fishes are widely used to identify exposure effects in aquatic environments. The micronucleus assay was incorporated into a suite of indicators to assess exposure to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination at five Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), as well as one non-AOC (reference) site. The assay allowed enumeration of micronuclei as well as other nuclear abnormalities for both site and species comparisons. Erythrocyte abnormality data was also compared to skin and liver tumor prevalence and hepatic transcript abundance. Erythrocyte abnormalities were observed at all sites with variable occurrence and severity among sites and species. Benthic-oriented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) expressed lower rates of erythrocyte abnormalities, but higher rates of skin and liver neoplasms, when compared to pelagic-oriented largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at the same site. The reduced erythrocyte abnormalities, increased transcript abundance associated with Phase I and II toxicant responsive pathways, and increased neoplastic lesions among benthic-oriented taxa may indicate the development of contaminant resistance of these species to more acute effects.

  19. [Abnormal Serum Total Protein Measurement by Lipoprotein-X in an Infant with Biliary Atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futatsugi, Akiko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kubota, Noriko; Nishijima, Fumie; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Ishimine, Nau; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Hori, Atsushi; Hidaka, Hiroya

    2015-11-01

    Lipoprotein-X (LP-X) in cholestatic jaundice causes abnormal reaction in assays for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but the effects on other test items are unknown. Here, we report an infant with biliary atresia showing abnormal reaction in total serum protein assay using the biuret method, and lipoprotein-X (LP-X) was then detected. In this 11-month-old female infant, jaundice was observed at 2 months old, and a diagnosis of biliary atresia was made. On biochemical tests at 12 months old, the total serum protein concentrations detected by the biuret method were very high, and the response curve and linearity of dilution were abnormal. LP-X was detected by agar electrophoresis. In addition and recovery experiments with normal serum fractionation of the patient's LP-X-rich lipoprotein fraction prepared by ultracentrifugation, normal γ-globulin fractionation showed an abnormal reaction by the biuret method. In infants with biliary atresia, we showed that the total serum protein assay by the biuret method was influenced by LP-X-rich lipoprotein, which may be caused by abnormal reaction of LP-X and γ-globulin. [Case Report].

  20. Effects of observing normal and abnormal goal-directed hand movements on somatosensory cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung

    2018-01-01

    Existing evidence indicates the importance of observing correct, normal actions on the motor cortical activities. However, the exact neurophysiological mechanisms, particularly in the somatosensory system, remain unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of observing normal and abnormal hand movements on the contralateral primary somatosensory (cSI), contralateral (cSII) and ipsilateral (iSII) secondary somatosensory activities. Experiment I was designed to investigate the effects of motor outputs on the somatosensory processing, in which subjects were instructed to relax or manipulate a small cube. Experiment II was tailored to examine the somatosensory responses to the observation of normal (Normal) and abnormal (Abnormal) hand movements. The subjects received electrical stimulation to right median nerve and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings during the whole experimental period. Regional cortical activation and functional connectivity were analyzed. Compared to the resting condition, a reduction in cSI and an enhancement of SII activation was found when subjects manipulated a cube, suggesting the motor outputs have an influence on the somatosensory responses. Further investigation of the effects of observing different hand movements showed that cSII activity was significantly stronger in the Normal than Abnormal condition. Moreover, compared with Abnormal condition, a higher cortical coherence of cSI-iSII at theta bands and cSII-iSII at beta bands was found in Normal condition. Conclusively, the present results suggest stronger activation and enhanced functional connectivity within the somatosensory system during the observation of normal than abnormal hand movements. These findings also highlight the importance of viewing normal, correct hands movements in the stroke rehabilitation. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Abnormal processing of deontological guilt in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Barbara; Mancini, Francesco; Macaluso, Emiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Guilt plays a significant role in the occurrence and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Two major types of guilt have been identified: one deriving from the transgression of a moral rule (deontological guilt DG), another (altruistic guilt AG), relying on the assumption of having compromised a personal altruistic goal. Clinical evidence suggests that OCD patients are particularly sensitive to DG, but not AG. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated brain response of OCD patients while processing DG and AG stimuli. A previously validated fMRI paradigm was used to selectively evoke DG and AG, and anger and sadness, as control emotions in 13 OCD patients and 19 healthy controls. Patients' behavioral results showed a prominent attitude to experience guilt, compared to controls, while accomplishing task. fMRI results revealed that patients have reduced activation in the anterior cingulate (ACC) and frontal gyrus when experiencing guilt, regardless of its specific type (DG or AG). When separately considering each type of guilt (against each of its control), patients showed decreased activation in the ACC, the insula and the precuneus, for DG. No significant differences were observed between groups when processing AG, anger or sad stimuli. This study provides evidence for an abnormal processing of guilt, and specifically DG, in OCD patients. We suggest that decreased activation may reflect patients' cerebral efficiency, which derives from their frequent exposure to guilty feelings ("neural efficiency hypothesis"). In conclusion, our study confirms a selective abnormal processing of guilt, and specifically DG, in OCD.

  2. Abnormal network connectivity in frontotemporal dementia: evidence for prefrontal isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Norman A S; Grady, Cheryl L; Strother, Stephen; Tang-Wai, David F; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra; Freedman, Morris; Pollock, Bruce G; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn; Chow, Tiffany W

    2013-01-01

    Degraded social function, disinhibition, and stereotypy are defining characteristics of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), manifesting in both the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and semantic dementia (SD) subtypes. Recent neuroimaging research also associates FTD with alterations in the brain's intrinsic connectivity networks. The present study explored the relationship between neural network connectivity and specific behavioral symptoms in FTD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to investigate neural network changes in bvFTD and SD. We used independent components analysis (ICA) to examine changes in frontolimbic network connectivity, as well as several metrics of local network strength, such as the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, regional homogeneity, and seed-based functional connectivity. For each analysis, we compared each FTD subgroup to healthy controls, characterizing general and subtype-unique network changes. The relationship between abnormal connectivity in FTD and behavior disturbances was explored. Across multiple analytic approaches, both bvFTD and SD were associated with disrupted frontolimbic connectivity and elevated local connectivity within the prefrontal cortex. Even after controlling for structural atrophy, prefrontal hyperconnectivity was robustly associated with apathy scores. Frontolimbic disconnection was associated with lower disinhibition scores, suggesting that abnormal frontolimbic connectivity contributes to positive symptoms in dementia. Unique to bvFTD, stereotypy was associated with elevated default network connectivity in the right angular gyrus. The behavioral variant was also associated with marginally higher apathy scores and a more diffuse pattern of prefrontal hyperconnectivity than SD. The present findings support a theory of FTD as a disorder of frontolimbic disconnection leading to unconstrained prefrontal connectivity. Prefrontal hyperconnectivity may

  3. Microenvironmental abnormalities induced by viral cooperation: Impact on lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo; Carbone, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    When stringent criteria have been used, the Epstein Barr virus (EBV), the Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been identified with sufficient evidence to be causative agents of non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas. Initially, single viral infection was considered fully responsible for the oncogenic properties of each virus, while it is now established that in many cases, multiple viral agents collaborate as cofactors in inducing lymphomas, especially in the presence of HIV-dependent immunodeficiency. Viruses cooperate by using their specific pathogenetic mechanisms in different combinations. The aim of this review is to describe the cooperation between different viruses in the development of lymphomas including the evidences supporting their pathogenetic role. Viral cooperation, a mechanism by which different viruses coinfecting human tissues have synergistic or regulatory effects on carcinogenesis, targets neoplastic B cells as well as cells of the microenvironment, such as reactive T-cells, B cells and macrophages, as well as non-immune cells such as endothelial cells, that contribute to tumor microenvironment. The most important viral genes involved in cooperation include HIV-1 tat and vpu, EBV LMP-1 and EBNA-2 and KSHV KIE2, Rta and LANA. Lymphomagenesis related to viral cooperation represents an interesting topic where microenvironmental abnormalities may be particularly relevant, particularly because antiviral targeted therapies and therapies producing the reconstitution of the immune system may constitute areas of interest aiming at improving the outcome of virus associated lymphomas. While the immune component of the lymphoma microenvironment can be easily studied by immunological and molecular techniques, the definition of the non-immune component of the lymphoma microenvironment is largely incomplete and may be the issue of future investigations. Understanding the pathogenetic role of

  4. Abnormalities in auditory efferent activities in children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchnik, Chava; Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Hildesheimer, Minka; Arie, Miri; Bar-Haim, Yair; Henkin, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Two efferent feedback pathways to the auditory periphery may play a role in monitoring self-vocalization: the middle-ear acoustic reflex (MEAR) and the medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) reflex. Since most studies regarding the role of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization were conducted in animals, human data are scarce. The working premise of the current study was that selective mutism (SM), a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by consistent failure to speak in specific social situations despite the ability to speak normally in other situations, may serve as a human model for studying the potential involvement of auditory efferent activity during self-vocalization. For this purpose, auditory efferent function was assessed in a group of 31 children with SM and compared to that of a group of 31 normally developing control children (mean age 8.9 and 8.8 years, respectively). All children exhibited normal hearing thresholds and type A tympanograms. MEAR and MOCB functions were evaluated by means of acoustic reflex thresholds and decay functions and the suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, respectively. Auditory afferent function was tested by means of auditory brainstem responses (ABR). Results indicated a significantly higher proportion of children with abnormal MEAR and MOCB function in the SM group (58.6 and 38%, respectively) compared to controls (9.7 and 8%, respectively). The prevalence of abnormal MEAR and/or MOCB function was significantly higher in the SM group (71%) compared to controls (16%). Intact afferent function manifested in normal absolute and interpeak latencies of ABR components in all children. The finding of aberrant efferent auditory function in a large proportion of children with SM provides further support for the notion that MEAR and MOCB may play a significant role in the process of self-vocalization. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities, congenital abnormalities and transfusion syndrome in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Kiil, C; Larsen, L U

    2007-01-01

    observational study were women with twin pregnancies diagnosed before 14 + 6 gestational weeks. The monochorionic pregnancies were scanned every second week until 23 weeks in order to rule out early TTTS. All pregnancies had an anomaly scan in week 19 and fetal echocardiography in week 21 that was performed...... by specialists in fetal echocardiography. Zygosity was determined by DNA analysis in all twin pairs with the same sex. RESULTS: Among the 495 pregnancies the prenatal detection rate for severe structural abnormalities including chromosomal aneuploidies was 83% by the combination of a first-trimester nuchal...... translucency scan and the anomaly scan in week 19. The incidence of severe structural abnormalities was 2.6% and two-thirds of these anomalies were cardiac. There was no significant difference between the incidence in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, nor between twins conceived naturally or those conceived...

  6. Imaging Characteristics of Venous Parenchymal Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoux, Audrey; Triquenot-Bagan, Aude; Andriuta, Daniela; Wallon, David; Guegan-Massardier, Evelyne; Leclercq, Claire; Martinaud, Olivier; Castier-Amouyel, Mélody; Godefroy, Olivier; Bugnicourt, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    There are few published data on the patterns of parenchymal imaging abnormalities in a context of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). The objectives of the present study were to describe the patterns of parenchymal lesions associated with CVT and to determine the lesion sites. We included 44 consecutively hospitalized patients with CVT and parenchymal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of CVT had been confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns for CVT were retrospectively analyzed with regard to the lesion's type, shape, and site. The most frequent stroke subtype was hemorrhagic ischemia (in 56.8% of cases), followed by intracerebral hematoma (in 22.72% of cases) and nonhemorrhagic ischemia (in 20.45% of cases). Although there were no significant differences between these 3 groups with regard to the clinical and radiological characteristics, we observed a nonsignificant trend ( P =0.08) toward a shorter time interval between hospital admission and magnetic resonance imaging for nonhemorrhagic stroke. The CVT parenchymal abnormalities were centered on 6 main foci and were related to the site of venous occlusion: (1) the inferior parietal lobule (n=20; 44.5%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=10) or pure cortical veins (n=10); (2) the inferior and posterior temporal regions (n=10; 22.75%), associated mainly with occlusion of the transverse sinus (n=9); (3) the parasagittal frontal region (n=6; 13.6%), associated mainly with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus (n=4) or the transverse sinus (n=4); (4) the thalamus (n=5; 11.3%) associated with occlusion of the straight sinus (n=5); (5) the cerebellar hemisphere (n=2; 4.5%), associated in both cases with occlusion of the transverse sinus; and (6) the deep hemispheric regions (n=3; 6.8%), associated with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus in all cases. Parenchymal lesions caused by CVT display specific

  7. Antenatal diagnosis and management of urinary abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodny, A H

    1987-10-01

    Although much time, effort, and money have been expended in the area of fetal surgery and even though considerable unfortunate media publicity has resulted, the actual clinical problem is not one of great magnitude. Currently all those interested in this area agree that consideration of any intrauterine manipulation or surgery should be reserved for a fetus who has bilateral involvement that is progressive, destructive, and associated with oligohydramnios. Except for rare instances, this eliminates all fetuses except those with some type of urethral obstruction. Significant urethral obstruction accounts for approximately 10 per cent of all patients who have a prenatal diagnosis of a urologic abnormality. Of this 10 per cent, some will not be progressive, some will not be destructive, some will not involve both kidneys, and some will not develop oligohydramnios. Some of these patients will be diagnosed early enough in pregnancy to allow termination of the pregnancy if the involvement is significant and if termination is acceptable to the family. Some will be diagnosed late enough in pregnancy so that if the lungs are mature or can be stimulated to mature, early delivery and postnatal management can be elected. Some will have other associated lethal anomalies that can be diagnosed and would preclude any consideration of intrauterine manipulation or therapy. Some will have irreversible renal failure. Occasionally, the mother may refuse any proposed intrauterine therapy. Thus we are probably considering, on a theoretic basis, well under 1 per cent of all fetuses who have a prenatal diagnosis of urologic abnormalities. There may be some unusual situations that justify intrauterine manipulation. One that we encountered involved a fetus with an abdominal mass so large that a cesarean section was deemed necessary (Figs. 12 and 13). Aspiration of the mass just before delivery was performed to allow a vaginal delivery. Another case involved a pregnant woman who developed

  8. Abnormal epidermal barrier in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Almost 2 decades ago, Williams and Elias suggested a unifying concept for the pathogenesis of disorders of cornification, according to which the integrity of the epidermal barrier and its effective function is an important factor in the regulation of epidermal DNA synthesis. Interference with the barrier integrity or function will result in epidermal hyperplasia and may be the primary event leading to hyperproliferative skin diseases, such as psoriasis. We have analyzed alterations to several structures of the epidermal barrier that might be responsible for barrier dysfunction and thus lead to hyperproliferation of the epidermis in an attempt to repair the barrier and, as a result, might be inducers of psoriasis. There are several convincing reports indicating that inhibiting of epidermal transglutaminase may lead to epidermal hyperproliferation and that this stimulus might trigger psoriasis among genetically predisposed patients. Disturbance of epidermal barrier function caused by derangement of lipid or cholesterol or ceramide synthesis leads to increased DNA synthesis and epidermal hyperplasia and as a result might be an inducer of psoriasis. We could find little evidence to show that defective defense of the epidermis or an abnormal response of it to bacteria plays a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Accumulating data indicate that there is an association of psoriasis and mutations of genes within the epidermal differentiation complex, which are crucial for the development, maturation, cornification, cross-linking, and terminal differentiation of the epidermis, called psoriasis susceptibility locus 4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrocardiogram Abnormalities and Coronary Calcification in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Sabour

    2010-03-01

    Results: LVH was found in 2.7% (n = 15 of the women. The prevalence of T-axis abnormality was 6% (n = 34, whereas 8.5% (n = 48 had a QRS-T angle abnormality. CAC was found in 62% of the women. Compared to women with a normal T-axis, women with borderline or abnormal T-axes were 3.8 fold more likely to have CAC (95% CI: 1.4-10.2. Similarly, compared to women with a normal QRS-T angle, in women with borderline or abnormal QRS-T angle, CAC was 2.0 fold more likely to be present (95% CI: 1.0-4.1. Conclusion: Among women with ECG abnormalities reflecting subclinical ischemia, CAC is commonly found and may in part explain the increased coronary heart disease risk associated with these ECG abnormalities.

  10. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Offspring of Young Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund; Schmidt, Anne Aarslev; Mulvihill, John J

    2018-01-01

    Danish cancer survivors and 40 859 offspring (40 794 live-born children and 65 fetuses) of 19 536 siblings. Chromosomal abnormalities include numeric and structural abnormalities. Odds ratios were estimated by multiple logistic regression models comparing the risk of chromosomal abnormalities among...... compared with their siblings' offspring (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 1.44, two-sided P = .94), with similar risk between male and female survivors. Cancer survivors were not more likely than their siblings to have children with a chromosomal abnormality.......To examine whether cancer survivors diagnosed before age 35 years are more likely to have offspring with chromosomal abnormalities than their siblings, chromosomal abnormalities were determined in a population-based cohort of 14 611 offspring (14 580 live-born children and 31 fetuses) of 8945...

  12. Incidence of fetal chromosome abnormalities in insulin dependent diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1991-01-01

    In order to screen for fetal neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities, amniocentesis was carried out in 334 women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) between 1979 and 1987. Two cases (0.6%; 95% confidence limits 0.1-2.2%) of fetal chromosome abnormality were found: one case...... of Klinefelter's syndrome and one case of de novo translocation. This is comparable to the overall incidence of chromosome abnormality found at birth and is also comparable to the incidence of fetal chromosome abnormality (1.0%) found by amniocentesis at our Department in a group of 2,264 young non......-diabetic women with little risk of contracting genetic disorders. The results suggest that maternal IDDM does not increase the risk of fetal chromosome abnormality and consequently screening by amniocentesis for chromosome abnormalities among diabetic women does not seem to be indicated....

  13. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüysüz, Beyhan; Gazioğlu, Nurperi; Ungür, Savaş; Aji, Dolly Yafet; Türkmen, Seval

    2009-01-01

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered.

  14. The time of onset of abnormal calcification in spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia, short limb-abnormal calcification type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tueysuez, Beyhan [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Gazioglu, Nurperi [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Uenguer, Savas [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Aji, Dolly Yafet [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatrics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Tuerkmen, Seval [Istanbul University, Department of Pediatric Genetics, Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul (Turkey); Universitatsklinikum Berlin, Charite Virchow-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    A 1-month-old boy with shortness of extremities on prenatal US was referred to our department with a provisional diagnosis of achondroplasia. His height was normal but he had short extremities and platyspondyly, premature carpal epiphyses on both hands, and short tubular bones with irregular metaphyses on radiographs. Re-evaluation of the patient at the age of 1 year revealed very short height and premature calcification of the costal cartilages and epiphyses. Spondylometaepiphyseal dysplasia (SMED), short limb-abnormal calcification type was diagnosed. This condition is a very rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder, and most of the patients die in early childhood due to neurological involvement. At the age of 2 years and 5 months, a CT scan showed narrowing of the cervical spinal canal. One month later he died suddenly because of spinal cord injury. In conclusion early diagnosis is very important because the recurrence risk is high and patients may die due to early neurological complications. The time of onset of abnormal calcifications, a diagnostic finding of the disease, is at the age of around 1 year in most patients. When abnormal calcifications are not yet present, but radiological changes associated with SMED are present, this rare disease must be considered. (orig.)

  15. Development and experimental validation of computational methods to simulate abnormal thermal and structural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, J.L.; Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been actively engaged in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to abnormal thermal and structural environments. These engineered systems contain very hazardous materials. Assessing the degree of safety/risk afforded the public and environment by these engineered systems, therefore, is of upmost importance. The ability to accurately predict the response of these systems to accidents (to abnormal environments) is required to assess the degree of safety. Before the effect of the abnormal environment on these systems can be determined, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of the environment. Ascertaining the nature of the environment, in turn, requires the ability to physically characterize and numerically simulate the abnormal environment. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the level of safety provided by these engineered systems by either of two approaches: (1) a purely regulatory approach, or (2) by a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This paper will address the latter of the two approaches

  16. Adenosine deaminase organic effect in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, A.M.; Samarai, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of the organic substances on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Various concentrations of 2-mercaptopurine, Ame-tycine, Adenosine analogues (Guanine, Thymine) and ATP were tested to see their effect on ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF. ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF was remarkably decreased with the increasing of concentrations of substances tested. These effects may have important therapeutic implications. (author)

  17. Brain MRI abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fei, E-mail: feiwang1973@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Yaou, E-mail: asiaeurope80@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Duan Yunyun, E-mail: duanyun2003@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Education Ministry Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 45 Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore brain MRI findings in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to investigate specific brain lesions with respect to the localization of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Materials and methods: Forty admitted patients (36 women) who satisfied the 2006 criteria of Wingerchuk et al. for NMO were included in this study. All patients received a neurological examination and MRI scanning including brain and spinal cord. MRIs were classified as normal, nonspecific, multiple sclerosis-like, typical abnormalities. MS-like lesions were too few to satisfy the Barkhof et al. criteria for MS. Confluent lesions involving high AQP-4 regions were considered typical. Non-enhancing deep white matter lesions other than MS-like lesions or typical lesions were classified as nonspecific. Results: Brain MRI lesions were delineated in 12 patients (25%). Four patients (10%) had hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions. Six (15%) patients were nonspecific, and 2 (5%) patients had multiple sclerosis-like lesions. Conclusion: Brain MRIs are negative in most NMO, and brain lesions do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO. Hypothalamus, brainstem or periventricle lesions, corresponding to high sites of AQP-4 in the brain, are indicative of lesions of NMO.

  18. Electroencephalographic abnormalities in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The presence of brain dysfunction in violent offenders has been frequently examined with inconsistent results. The aim of the study was to assess the EEG of 84 violent offenders by visual inspection and frequency-domain quantitative analysis in 84 violent prisoners. Low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was also employed for theta band of the EEG spectra. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was present in 50 of the offenders and it was absent in the remaining 34. The prevalence of EEG abnormalities, by visual inspection, was similar for both the ASPD group (82%) and non-ASPD group (79%). The brain topography of these anomalies also did not differ between groups, in contrast to results of the EEG quantitative analysis (QEEG) and LORETA that showed remarkable regional differences between both groups. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of excess of theta-delta activities and decrease of alpha band on the right fronto-temporal and left temporo-parietal regions in the ASPD group. LORETA signified an increase of theta activity (5.08 Hz) in ASPD group relative to non-ASPD group within left temporal and parietal regions. Findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among offenders with ASPD, which was not obvious to visual inspection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  20. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  1. Imaging findings in fetal diaphragmatic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamo, Leonor; Gudinchet, Francois [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Unit of Radiopediatrics, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, Reto [University Hospital Center of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    Imaging plays a key role in the detection of a diaphragmatic pathology in utero. US is the screening method, but MRI is increasingly performed. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is by far the most often diagnosed diaphragmatic pathology, but unilateral or bilateral eventration or paralysis can also be identified. Extralobar pulmonary sequestration can be located in the diaphragm and, exceptionally, diaphragmatic tumors or secondary infiltration of the diaphragm from tumors originating from an adjacent organ have been observed in utero. Congenital abnormalities of the diaphragm impair normal lung development. Prenatal imaging provides a detailed anatomical evaluation of the fetus and allows volumetric lung measurements. The comparison of these data with those from normal fetuses at the same gestational age provides information about the severity of pulmonary hypoplasia and improves predictions about the fetus's outcome. This information can help doctors and families to make decisions about management during pregnancy and after birth. We describe a wide spectrum of congenital pathologies of the diaphragm and analyze their embryological basis. Moreover, we describe their prenatal imaging findings with emphasis on MR studies, discuss their differential diagnosis and evaluate the limits of imaging methods in predicting postnatal outcome. (orig.)

  2. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  3. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms. PMID:22039428

  4. Mammillary Body Volume Abnormalities in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S.; Kumar, Rajesh; Patel, Vandan; Strober, Michael; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Several case reports of Wernicke’s Encephalopathy in AN due to thiamine deficiency have described mammillary body (MB) injury, but systematic studies are lacking. Here we evaluated whether underweight and weight-restored individuals with AN demonstrate evidence of abnormal MB morphology, via retrospective examination of a previously collected data set. Method Using standard-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla, we measured MB volume and fornix area in a cross-sectional study of 12 underweight AN, 20 weight-restored AN, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy comparisons. Due to the small size of these structures, a manual tracing approach was necessary to obtain accurate measurements. A blinded expert rater manually traced MB and fornix structures in each participant. Results We observed significantly smaller MB volumes in the underweight AN group. However, the weight-restored AN group exhibited significantly larger MB volumes. The right fornix was smaller in the weight-restored AN group only. Discussion These findings suggest the possibility that MB volume and fornix area could represent potential biomarkers of acute weight loss and restoration, respectively. Verification of this finding through prospective studies evaluating MB morphology, cognition, and thiamine levels longitudinally across individual illness trajectories might be warranted. PMID:27414055

  5. Prenatal imaging of distal limb abnormalities using OCT in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Irina V.; Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Overbeek, Paul; Larin, Kirill V.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the limbs are common birth defects. These include missing or extra fingers or toes, abnormal limb length, and abnormalities in patterning of bones, cartilage or muscles. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a 3-D imaging modality, which can produce high-resolution (~8 μm) images of developing embryos with an imaging depth of a few millimeters. Here we demonstrate the capability of OCT to perform 3D imaging of limb development in normal embryos and a mouse model with congenital abnormalities. Our results suggest that OCT is a promising tool to analyze embryonic limb development in mammalian models of congenital defects.

  6. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. For this reporting period, there was one abnormal occurrence at nuclear power plants licensed to operate involving significant deficiencies in management controls at Slurry Nuclear Power Station. There was one abnormal occurrence under other NRC-issued licenses; the event involved a medical therapy misadministration. One other abnormal occurrence, involving industrial radiography overexposures, was reported by an Agreement State (Texas). 40 refs

  7. The Persistence of Abnormal Returns: Analysis of Polish Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Puziak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of a company is to build the enterprise value, which is achievable thanks to abnormal profits generated in particular period. Moreover, firms are expected to take measures to maintain abnormal profit in the future. On the other hand, abnormal profits attract competitors, who increase competition and as a result abnormal profits disappear. The persistence of profit is a term that describes a situation, when the company is successful in maintaining the abnormal profit over time. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the persistence of abnormal profit in Polish manufacturing sector. In other words, the question is whether Polish manufacturing companies are able to maintain their abnormal profits over time. The persistence of abnormal profits is investigated using dynamic panel model with generalized method-of-moments estimators. The method is applied to a panel of 5303 Polish companies from manufacturing sector observed over the period 2006-2014. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. First, analysis is performed for developing country. Second, analysis is performed both at the level of entire sector and at division level. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the conducted research: there are significant differences between profit rates within the same industry at division level; estimated persistence of abnormal profit coefficients are at moderate level; there are substantial differences between estimated persistence of profit coefficients for divisions in the same industry.

  8. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...... megakaryocytopoesis, wide, pericyte-coated and morphologically aberrant vessels were detected. MVD was significantly greater in bone marrow and spleen samples from animals with myelofibrosis than in wild-type mice. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that angiogenesis is similarly abnormal in human and murine...... myelofibrosis with intense pericyte coating, presumably related to abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis....

  9. Incidence of fetal chromosome abnormalities in insulin dependent diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, C U; Damm, P; Tabor, A

    1991-01-01

    In order to screen for fetal neural tube defects and chromosome abnormalities, amniocentesis was carried out in 334 women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) between 1979 and 1987. Two cases (0.6%; 95% confidence limits 0.1-2.2%) of fetal chromosome abnormality were found: one case...... of Klinefelter's syndrome and one case of de novo translocation. This is comparable to the overall incidence of chromosome abnormality found at birth and is also comparable to the incidence of fetal chromosome abnormality (1.0%) found by amniocentesis at our Department in a group of 2,264 young non...

  10. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and malnutrition in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-11

    clinical stage 3). Children who were malnourished were 15 (22.4%). Conclusion: Hematological abnormalities and malnutrition occur in HIV positive children. Key words: Haematological, malnutrition, anaemia, children.

  11. A comprehensive study of sparse codes on abnormality detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2017-01-01

    Sparse representation has been applied successfully in abnor-mal event detection, in which the baseline is to learn a dic-tionary accompanied by sparse codes. While much empha-sis is put on discriminative dictionary construction, there areno comparative studies of sparse codes regarding abnormal-ity...... detection. We comprehensively study two types of sparsecodes solutions - greedy algorithms and convex L1-norm so-lutions - and their impact on abnormality detection perfor-mance. We also propose our framework of combining sparsecodes with different detection methods. Our comparative ex-periments are carried...

  12. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes after Abnormal First Trimester Screening for Aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzl, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Women with abnormal first trimester screening but with a normal karyotype are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A nuchal translucency >3.5mm is associated with an increased risk of subsequent pregnancy loss, fetal infection, fetal heart abnormalities and other structural abnormalities. Abnormal first trimester analytes are also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes but the predictive value is less impressive. As a single marker, PAPP-A screening with the possible addition of uterine artery PI assessment in the midtrimester. PMID:20638576

  13. A cholinergic contribution to the circulatory responses evoked at the onset of handgrip exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianna, Lauro C; Fadel, Paul J; Secher, Niels H

    2015-01-01

    A cholinergic (muscarinic) contribution to the initial circulatory response to exercise in humans remains controversial. Herein, we posit that this may be due to exercise mode with a cholinergic contribution being important during isometric handgrip exercise, where the hyperemic response......-induced fall in SVR and, thereby, augmented the pressor response (+13 ± 3 mmHg at 10 s; P exercise. These findings suggest that a cholinergic mechanism is important for the BP...... resistance (SVR) in young healthy males, while performing either 20 s of isometric handgrip contraction at 40% maximum voluntary contraction (protocol 1; n = 9) or 20 s of low-intensity leg cycling exercise (protocol 2; n = 8, 42 ± 8 W). Exercise trials were conducted under control (no drug) conditions...

  14. Transcranial Doppler and cardiovascular responses during cardiovascular autonomic tests in migraineurs during and outside attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Boesen, F

    1995-01-01

    The transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cardiovascular responses to established tests of autonomic function were studied in 50 migraineurs (23 of whom experienced aura and 27 who did not) and 30 healthy control subjects. In addition to the measurements outside attacks, 10 migraineurs were also tested...... to a head-up tilt test, a cold-pressor test and a Valsalva manoeuvre. The cardiovascular reflexes in response to the Valsalva manoeuvre suggested a mild parasympathetic hypofunction in migraineurs, both those with and those without aura. On the basis of the present results and previous findings by others...... during unilateral attacks of migraine without aura. Transcranial Doppler examinations of middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood velocity showed no differences between migraineurs and healthy subjects and no difference between migraineurs experiencing an attack and outside an attack when examined in response...

  15. Location of spina bifida occulta and ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities predict the outcome of treatment for primary nocturnal enuresis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazato, Minoru; Sugaya, Kimio; Nishijima, Saori; Owan, Tomoko; Ogawa, Yoshihide

    2007-01-01

    We examined whether the existence of spina bifida occulta or ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities was related to the outcome of treatment for primary nocturnal enuresis in children. Between April 1996 and September 2005, a total of 77 subjects (53 boys and 24 girls, aged 5-18 years; mean age, 9.9 years) with primary nocturnal enuresis were studied. Plain X-ray films of the spine and ultrasonographic bladder measurements (bladder wall thickness, bladder neck descent and bladder neck opening) were obtained and the correlations with the outcome of treatment using imipramine hydrochloride were assessed. On plain X-ray films of the spine, spina bifida occulta (lumbar vertebrae in three, lumbosacral vertebrae in 19 and sacral vertebrae in 31) was recognized in 53 children (69%). Ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities were recognized in 40 children (52%). Children with lumbar and lumbosacral spina bifida occulta showed a higher rate of concomitant ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities (P = 0.006) and had a poorer response to treatment (P = 0.041) compared with the children who had sacral spina bifida occulta. Children with ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities had a worse response to treatment (P = 0.005) compared to the children without bladder abnormalities. The presence of lumbar spina bifida occulta and ultrasonographic bladder abnormalities was related to the outcome of treatment for primary nocturnal enuresis in children, suggesting that spinal radiography and vesical ultrasonography may be useful predictive tests.

  16. Abnormal voiding parameters in children with severe idiopathic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K L Y; Chao, N S Y; Liu, C S W; Tang, P M Y; Liu, K K W; Leung, M W Y

    2014-07-01

    It is suggested that idiopathic constipation may associate with abnormal voiding parameters. In this study, we investigate the voiding parameters in children with constipation. Since 2010, seventeen consecutive children (12 boys, 5 girls) aged 5-17 (median = 14) with significant constipation according to Rome III criteria and who were not responding to conventional treatment (diet, laxatives & bowel training) for over 6 months were recruited. The rectal diameter (RD) was measured by transpubic ultrasonography (USG), RD >3.5 cm was considered as dilated. Each patient had uroflow measurement and bladder USG done to measure the maximal flow rate (Vmax), voided volume (VV), and post-void residual urine (PVR). Abnormal voiding parameters were defined as Vmax 150% of age-adjusted expected bladder capacity (EBC) and/or PVR >20 ml. Rectal diameter ranged from 1.7 to 8.2 cm (median = 3 cm) and was abnormally dilated in eight children. Vmax was normal in all children (median = 23.7 ml/sec). Voided volume ranged from 30 to 289% of EBC and was abnormal in six children (35.5%). Post-void residual urine varied from 0 to 85 ml and was abnormal in six (35.5 %) children. Three children (17.6 %) had both abnormal VV and PVR. On the whole, the prevalence of abnormal voiding parameters in constipated children was 52.9 %. Mean RD in normal and abnormal parameters groups was 2.8 and 4.7 cm, respectively. Rectal dilation was associated with abnormal voiding parameters (p = 0.015). Abnormal voiding parameters including voided volume and post-void residual urine are prevalent in constipated children. Dilated rectum is associated with abnormal voiding parameters.

  17. Abnormal electrochemical skin conductance in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Dominique; Brunswick, Philippe; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Dusser, Daniel; Fajac, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical skin conductance measurement is an active electrophysiologic method in which incremental low direct voltage is applied on the skin. It generates a current due to reverse iontophoresis which previous studies suggested to be mostly related to chloride anion movements. As sweat chloride movements upon electric stimulation were likely to be impaired in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, we designed a proof-of-concept study to measure electrochemical skin conductance in CF patients and control subjects and to test the ability of this method to discriminate CF from controls. Electrochemical skin conductance was measured in 41 adult patients with classical CF and 20 healthy control subjects. Patients placed their hands and feet on nickel electrodes and an incremental low direct voltage was applied on the anode during 2min. The resulting voltage on the cathode and the current generated between anode and cathode were measured and from them, two electrochemical skin conductance variables were calculated: ESC, obtained when a low voltage of 1.6V was applied, and dESC which took into account electrochemical skin conductances obtained when low and high voltages were applied. ESC measurements on hands and feet were significantly different in CF patients (on feet: 75±10μSi), as compared with control subjects (62±13μSi, pconductance which is easily and rapidly measured is abnormal in CF patients. Trial registry name in the European Clinical Trials Database (eudraCT): "EZSCAN MUCO1: Mesure de la conductance cutanée par chronoampérométrie", N°EUDRACT: 2007-A00221-52. Copyright © 2010 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal intestinal permeability in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Jordan J; Meddings, Jonathan; Heathcote, E Jenny

    2006-09-01

    Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) found in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) cross-react with bacterial proteins and hence molecular mimicry has been proposed as a mechanism for AMA development. Alterations in gastrointestinal permeability would provide a potential route for increased exposure of gut flora to the immune system. In this study we aimed to compare the measured gastrointestinal permeability in patients with PBC to that in patients with liver disease (hepatitis C) and healthy control populations. Subjects drank a mixture of sucrose, lactulose, and mannitol dissolved in water. Eight-hour urinary excretion of the sugars was measured to assess intestinal permeability. Antiendomysial antibody testing was performed to exclude subclinical celiac disease. Eighty-six patients with PBC were evaluated and compared to 69 hepatitis C patients and 155 healthy controls. The mean urinary excretion of sucrose in the PBC patients (133.89 +/- 72.56 mg) was significantly higher than that in hepatitis C patients (101.07+/-63.35) or healthy controls (89.46+/-41.76) (P=0.0001), suggesting abnormal gastric or proximal small intestinal permeability. Sucrose excretion was not increased among patients with hepatitis C compared to healthy controls. The ratio of lactulose:mannitol excretion, reflecting small bowel permeability, was also elevated in the PBC group (0.017+/-0.012) compared to healthy controls (0.012+/-0.007) (P=0.0001) but was equal to that found among patients with hepatitis C (0.016+/-0.011) (P=NS). We conclude that the permeability of both the stomach and the small bowel is increased in patients with PBC, however, it is unclear if it is a cause, consequence, or manifestation of the disease.

  19. Subclinical cerebral abnormalities in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Uchino, Akira; Yuzuriha, Takefumi

    2013-01-01

    Impaired kidney function or chronic kidney disease (CKD), as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), is associated with incident stroke risk. However, few studies have examined the relationship between CKD and subclinical cerebral abnormalities. We examined 675 elderly subjects (mean age 69.9 years), who were living independently at home without apparent dementia, using magnetic resonance imaging. Serum creatinine values, measured by the enzymatic method, were used for the Japanese equation of eGFR. Subclinical lacunar infarction, deep white matter lesions, and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 88 (13.0%), 240 (35.6%) and 158 (23.4%) of the 675 participants, respectively. In the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis, age (OR 2.081/10, 95% CI 1.541-2.810), hypertension (OR 3.656, 95% CI 2.184-6.119), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.961, 95% CI 1.007-3.820), alcohol intake (OR 2.130, 95% CI 1.283-3.535), and eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were significant factors concerning subclinical lacunar infarction. CKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was not significantly associated with subclinical lacunar infarction. Decreased eGFR was not a significant factor associated with white matter lesions (WMLs). Age (OR 2.781/10, 95% CI 2.252-3.435), hypertension (OR 1.746, 95% CI 1.231-2.477), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.854, 95% CI 1.070-3.213), but not eGFR were significant factors concerning WMLs. The present study showed that community-dwelling elderly subjects with late stage 3 CKD were at high risk for prevalent subclinical lacunar infarction. The identification of CKD-specific modifiable risk factors for SBI and WMLs is of increased importance for prevention of subclinical brain ischemic lesions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Automatic detection of abnormalities in mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhail, Zobia; Sarwar, Mansoor; Murtaza, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increased interest has been seen in the area of medical image processing and, as a consequence, Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems. The basic purpose of CAD systems is to assist doctors in the process of diagnosis. CAD systems, however, are quite expensive, especially, in most of the developing countries. Our focus is on developing a low-cost CAD system. Today, most of the CAD systems regarding mammogram classification target automatic detection of calcification and abnormal mass. Calcification normally indicates an early symptom of breast cancer if it appears as a small size bright spot in a mammogram image. Based on the observation that calcification appears as small bright spots on a mammogram image, we propose a new scale-specific blob detection technique in which the scale is selected through supervised learning. By computing energy for each pixel at two different scales, a new feature “Ratio Energy” is introduced for efficient blob detection. Due to the imposed simplicity of the feature and post processing, the running time of our algorithm is linear with respect to image size. Two major types of calcification, microcalcification and macrocalcification have been identified and highlighted by drawing a circular boundary outside the area that contains calcification. Results are quite visible and satisfactory, and the radiologists can easily view results through the final detected boundary. CAD systems are designed to help radiologists in verifying their diagnostics. A new way of identifying calcification is proposed based on the property that microcalcification is small in size and appears in clusters. Results are quite visible and encouraging, and can assist radiologists in early detection of breast cancer

  1. Cognitive abnormalities and neural mechanisms in post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting HU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops usually in response to an overwhelmingly terrifying or a life-threatening event. The symptoms including intrusion, flashback, re-experiencing, hyperarousal and avoidance can seriously impair the cognitive functions. At present, the researches have found PTSD patients had the difficulty in retrieving autobiographical memory and narrative disorder, attention bias toward traumatic stimulus and intellectual decline. Decrease in hippocampus and amygdala's volumes, excess endoplasmic reticulum stress, medial prefrontal cortex's low activation and highly excited response of the amygdala to the traumatic stimulus may be the neural mechanisms of cognitive abnormalities. In- depth research on cognitive abnormalities provides directions for PTSD prevention and treatment, and the cognitive treatment by prolonged exposure and attention control may be the effective method. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.09.14

  2. Early onset erectile dysfunction is usually not associated with abnormal cavernosal arterial Inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajfer, J; Valeriano, J; Sinow, R

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, a marker for atherosclerosis and hence arterial disease, has recently been proffered as the main offender within the vascular system to predict not only the future onset of erectile dysfunction (ED) but also as the main cause of the ED. To glean more insight into whether arterial disease is indeed operative during the early onset of ED, we reviewed the duplex ultrasound scans of 23 men with ED who were younger than 50 years of age. Depending on the criteria used for abnormal arterial responses, it was determined in this cohort of young men that there was only a 4-13% incidence of abnormal arterial responses. These observations suggest that the penile arterial system does not appear to be primarily involved in the etiology of the majority cases of ED that occur in young men.

  3. [Influence of nonindustrial risk factors on congenital abnormalities formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talykova, L V

    2009-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities could result from exposure to occupational hazards. Epidemiologic study of nickel compounds influence on reproductive health in females engaged into nickel purification in Murmansk region enterprises did not reveal increased risk of the anomalies. The study was aimed to define influence of various risk factors connected not to work conditions, but to mother's health, bad habits, age, on congenital abnormalities in newborns.

  4. Some reproductive abnormalities in domestic fowls | Abdu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 102328 birds presented to the avain ambulatory clinic of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for diagnosis between March, 1976 and February, 1992, only 261 were found to have reproductive abnormalities. The abnormalities recorded were, oophoritis (39.2%), egg yolk peritonitis (11.9%), salphingitis (7.7%), ...

  5. Freud Was Right. . . about the Origins of Abnormal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Freud's psychodynamic theory is predominantly based on case histories of patients who displayed abnormal behavior. From a scientific point of view, Freud's analyses of these cases are unacceptable because the key concepts of his theory cannot be tested empirically. However, in one respect, Freud was totally right: most forms of abnormal behavior…

  6. Structural echocardiographic abnormalities seen in HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the individuals had clinical examination, electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography (echo) done. Results: ECG abnormalities were seen in 55.3% of the HIV-positive patients compared with 2.7% of controls (P < 0.001). The overall prevalence of echo abnormalities among the patients was 54%, against 15.3% (P ...

  7. Leech as a cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding: Presentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    days, menstrual cycle of 80ml. Rather than this specific figures, however, abnormal uterine bleeding should be defined in terms of deviation from an individual patient's established menstrual pattern1,2. Leech bite as a cause pf abnormal vaginal bleeding has been reported in ...

  8. QUALITATIVE ABNORMAL FETAL BREATHING MOVEMENTS, ASSOCIATED WITH TRACHEAL ATRESIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAARSMA, R; BEKEDAM, DJ; VISSER, GHA

    A case is reported in which qualitatively, grossly abnormal fetal breathing movements turned out to be indicative of complete tracheal atresia. Fetal breathing movements were vigorous and jerky and of large amplitude; similarly abnormal movements were observed after birth. At postmortem tracheal

  9. Pattern of haematologic abnormalities in incident dialysis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leukopenia, thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia were less common (3.1%, 7.2% and 10.3% respectively). The use of locally derived reference ranges was associated with significantly higher frequencies of occurrence of majority of the haematologic abnormalities studied. Conclusion: Haematological abnormalities ...

  10. Clinical correlates of laboratory abnormalities in patients with severe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical correlates of laboratory abnormalities in patients with severe preeclampsia at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. ... Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research ... We aimed to detect the frequency of these abnormalities in severe preeclamptics in Benin City, and to determine their clinical correlates.

  11. The Incidence of Electrolytes and Acid-Base Abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic patients with prolonged insulin insufficiency can present in the emergency department with life threatening ketoacidosis,el ectrolyte abnormalities,an d morbid arrhythmias. A quick and accurate determination of the metabolic abnormalities with rapid intervention is paramount in their management. The aim of this ...

  12. Prevalence of Low Sperm Count and Abnormal Semen Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    Abnormal Semen Parameters in Male. Partners of Women Consulting at. Infertility Clinic in Abakaliki, Nigeria. *Ugwuja EI1, Ugwu NC1 and Ejikeme BN2. ABSTRACT. In order to provide an insight to the prevalence of low sperm count and abnormal semen parameters in suspected sub- fertile/infertile men in our environment ...

  13. Clinical approach to a patient with abnormal uterine bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abnormal excessive uterine bleeding forms a large proportion of gynaecological complaints. Of postpubertal girls who experience excessive menstrual loss, about one quarter will never regain a normal cycle and flow. As she grows older many other factors may arise causing menstrual abnormalities. South African Family ...

  14. Phenotype abnormality: 45 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u551i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named stamen during process named organ development ... stamen ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  15. Phenotype abnormality: 37 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 37 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u543i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named cotyledon during process named organ development ... cotyledon ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  16. Phenotype abnormality: 48 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 48 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u554i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named vascular leaf during process named organ development ... vascular leaf ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  17. Phenotype abnormality: 39 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 39 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u545i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named flower during process named organ development ... flower ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  18. Phenotype abnormality: 47 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 47 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u553i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named thylakoid membrane during process named thylakoid membrane organization ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  19. Phenotype abnormality: 49 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 49 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u555i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named whole plant during process named cell growth ... whole plant ... abnormal ... cell growth ... behavioral quality

  20. Phenotype abnormality: 31 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 31 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u537i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named localization of cell ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  1. Phenotype abnormality: 44 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u550i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named organ development ... root ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  2. Phenotype abnormality: 32 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 32 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u538i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named organ development ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  3. Phenotype abnormality: 43 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 43 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u549i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named growth ... root ... abnormal ... growth ... behavioral quality

  4. Phenotype abnormality: 40 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u546i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named hypocotyl during process named gravitropism ... hypocotyl ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  5. Phenotype abnormality: 50 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 50 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u556i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named whole plant during process named photomorphogenesis ... whole plant ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  6. Phenotype abnormality: 42 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 42 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u548i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named gravitropism ... root ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  7. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and malnutrition in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hematological abnormalities such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia occur in children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These abnormalities are due to myelosuppression caused by the HIV and contribute to the morbidity and mortality of HIV.infected children. Malnutrition is ...

  8. Abnormal Spatial Asymmetry of Selective Attention in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edgar; Mattingley, Jason B.; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; English, Therese; Hester, Robert; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence for a selective attention abnormality in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hard to identify using conventional methods from cognitive science. This study tested whether the presence of selective attention abnormalities in ADHD may vary as a function of perceptual load and target…

  9. The prevalence and risk factors of abnormal glucose tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy amongst women in the reproductive age worldwide. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) is common amongst women with PCOS. The prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance amongst Nigerian women with PCOS has not been investigated.

  10. durog tylen structural abnormalities and reproductive failure* marie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    devotes a chapter to evidence-based medicine and its use in this field which is helpful. He then, over the next 14 chapters, systematically discusses abnormalities of various parts of the genital tract. These abnormalities include problems of the ovary such as polycystic ovarian disease and endometriosis and pelvic adhesive.

  11. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. Sonographically determined anomalies and outcome in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); W.R. Bhaggoe (W.); M.J.E. Kristelijn (M. J E); T.E. Cohen-Overbeek (Titia); N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); H. Brandenburg (Helen); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractStructural pathology and outcome were studied in 170 chromosomally abnormal fetuses. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities were established in 158 (93 per cent) cases, of which 110 (71 per cent) represented trisomies, 30 (18 per cent) Turner syndrome, and 18 (11 per cent) triploidy.

  13. Abnormalities of the external genitalia and groins among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boys in Bida, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of primary school male pupils in Bida. A detailed clinical examination of the external genitalia and groin was performed on them. Results: Abnormalities were detected in 240 (36.20%) of the 663 boys, with 35 (5.28%) having more than one abnormality. The.

  14. 21 CFR 864.7415 - Abnormal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abnormal hemoglobin assay. 864.7415 Section 864... hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. An abnormal hemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents... hemoglobin types. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR 60618, Sept. 12, 1980] ...

  15. Clinical Findings Documenting Cellular and Molecular Abnormalities of Glia in Depressive Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boldizsár Czéh; Boldizsár Czéh; Szilvia A. Nagy; Szilvia A. Nagy; Szilvia A. Nagy; Szilvia A. Nagy

    2018-01-01

    Depressive disorders are complex, multifactorial mental disorders with unknown neurobiology. Numerous theories aim to explain the pathophysiology. According to the “gliocentric theory”, glial abnormalities are responsible for the development of the disease. The aim of this review article is to summarize the rapidly growing number of cellular and molecular evidences indicating disturbed glial functioning in depressive disorders. We focus here exclusively on the clinical studies and present the...

  16. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 through September 30, 1992. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant. Two abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministrations (both therapeutic) and one involving overexposure of a radiographer at NRC-licensed facilities were discussed in this report. In addition, another abnormal occurrence was reported by an NRC Agreement State. The report also contains information updating a previously reported abnormal occurrence

  17. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, January--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report, the eighth in the series, covers the period from January 1 to March 31, 1977. The NRC has determined that during this period: there were no abnormal occurrences at the 63 nuclear power plants licensed to operate; there were no abnormal occurrences at fuel cycle facilities (other than nuclear power plants); and there was one abnormal occurrence at other licensee facilities. The event involved an inadvertent radiation exposure to two painters while working in an area where industrial radiography was being performed. This report also contains information updating previously reported abnormal occurrences

  18. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 to June 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences at other NRC licensees: a significant breakdown in management and procedural controls at a medical facility and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving radioactive material released during a transportation accident. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  19. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, July--September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from July 1 to September 30, 1988. For this reporting period, there were no abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants licensed to operate. There were two abnormal occurrences under other NRC-issued licenses: multiple medical therapy misadministrations at a single hospital and a medical diagnostic misadministration. There was one abnormal occurrence reported by an Agreement State (Texas) involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  20. Haematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities in a Samoyed family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroch, I.; Ofri, R.; Aizenberg, I.

    1996-01-01

    Haematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities were documented in a samoyed male and its five offspring. Haematological abnormalities, found in repeated tests in all the dogs, included marked eosinophilia, eosinophilic bands and absence of Barr bodies. Two of the dogs had bilateral buphthalmia, retinal detachments and other ocular abnormalities. Three of the dogs had skeletal abnormalities including chondrodysplasia (dwarfism) and brachygnathia (undershot jaw). A similar combination of inherited skeletal and ocular disorders, without the haematological abnormalities, has been described in samoyeds. Acquired causes for the haematological findings, which are similar to the inherited Pelger-Huët anomaly described in several species, have been eliminated. Eosinophilic bands and scarcity of Barr bodies could be a marker, or a previously unreported manifestation, of an inherited disorder in samoyeds

  1. How Does Structured Sparsity Work in Abnormal Event Detection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    behavior. Otherwise, it should be detected as an abnormal frame. However, it is infeasible to apply structured sparsity algorithms directly in abnormal event detection, which are mainly due to two reasons: 1) abnormal event detection has a highly biased training data - only normal videos are used during...... the training, which is the due to the fact that abnormal videos are limited or even unavailable in advance in most video surveillance applications. As a result, there could be only one label in the training data which hampers supervised learning; 2) Even though there are multiple types of normal behaviors, how...... behavior; as abnormal features, their non zeros in coefficients should spread over atoms. sparsity through a relatively small training data. Our method contains three steps. Step 1: Initial dictionary construction, which selects initial atoms to form multiple dictionaries. These atoms are learned based...

  2. Roentgenologic abnormalities in Down's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Takehiko; Russell, W.J.; Komatsuda, Michio; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1968-07-25

    Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less frequently reported findings were also seen. One abnormal vertebral measurement found in this series may be an additional stigma of Down's syndrome. All of the 27 cases studied cytogenetically had chromosomal abnormalities consistent with this disease. This study emphasizes the need for roentgenologic norms for the Japanese, and the desirability of combining chromosome studies with roentgenological abnormalities and clinical observations in diagnosing Down's syndrome. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Abnormal thyroid function tests in psychiatric patients: a red herring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Anna L; Barnhill, John W

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid abnormalities can induce mood, anxiety, psychotic, and cognitive disorders. Thus, thyroid function tests are routinely checked in psychiatric patients. However, up to one-third of psychiatric patients may demonstrate thyroid function test abnormalities that do not reflect true thyroid disease, but rather are a manifestation of secondary effects on one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Originally termed the euthyroid sick syndrome, this phenomenon is now more commonly referred to as "non-thyroidal illness." In psychiatric patients with non-thyroidal illness, patterns of thyroid function test abnormalities may vary considerably based upon factors such as the underlying psychiatric disorder, the presence of substance abuse, or even the use of certain psychiatric medications. Thus, any abnormal thyroid function tests in psychiatric patients should be viewed with skepticism. Given the fact that thyroid function test abnormalities seen in non-thyroidal illness usually resolve spontaneously, treatment is generally unnecessary, and may even be potentially harmful.

  4. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated with Neural Tube Defects (I: Full Aneuploidy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with neural tube defects (NTDs carry a risk of chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with other structural abnormalities, and family history of chromosome aberrations. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs in embryos, fetuses, and newborn patients, and a comprehensive review of numerical chromosomal abnormalities associated with NTDs, such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 9, trisomy 2, trisomy 21, trisomy 7, trisomy 8, trisomy 14, trisomy 15, trisomy 16, trisomy 5 mosaicism, trisomy 11 mosaicism, trisomy 20 mosaicism, monosomy X, and tetraploidy. NTDs may be associated with aneuploidy. Perinatal identification of NTDs should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities and prompt a thorough cytogenetic investigation and genetic counseling.

  5. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Hissen, Sarah L.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress.In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders.Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex‐mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA‐driven.This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Abstract Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post‐exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s−1) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s−1; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood

  6. Tubal abnormalities on hysterosalpingography in primary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an imaging modality used in assessing the fallopian tubes of patients with infertility. There have been reports suggesting that tubal pathologies may be responsible for most cases of sec- ondary infertility. Objective: To evaluate the fallopian tube of women with in-.

  7. Abnormalities of heart rhythm in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido García Luis Martín

    2014-07-01

    The natural history of arrhythmias in the neonatal period differs impor- tantly from arrhythmias presented in other pediatric age groups. They can be classified as: sinus arrhythmia, tachyarrhythmias, long QT syndrome and bradyarrhythmias. It is important that the physicians responsible for the management of these patients recognize the causes for the development of arrhythmias as well as the diagnostic and therapeutic options available.

  8. Acute “Pseudoischemic” ECG Abnormalities after Right Pneumonectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vasic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New onset of electrocardiographic (ECG abnormalities can occur after lung surgery due to the changes in the position of structures and organs in the chest cavity. The most common heart rhythm disorder is atrial fibrillation. So-called “pseudoischemic” ECG changes that mimic classic ECG signs of acute myocardial ischemia are also often noticed. We report the case of a 68-year-old male, with no prior cardiovascular disease, who underwent extensive surgical resection for lung cancer. On a second postoperative day, clinical and electrocardiographic signs of acute myocardial ischemia occurred. According to clinical course, diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic response, we excluded acute coronary syndrome. We concluded that physical lesion of the pericardium, caused by extended pneumonectomy with resection of the pericardium, provoked the symptoms and ECG signs that mimic acute coronary syndrome. Our final diagnosis was postpericardiotomy syndrome after extended pneumonectomy and further treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs was recommended. It is necessary to consider possibility that nature of ECG changes after extended pneumonectomy could be “pseudoischemic.”

  9. Abnormalities of small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Cinotti, A.; Cavallari, L.; Orzincolo, C.; Dovigo, L.; Trotta, F.; Menegale, G.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 21 subjects (2 males and 19 females) affected with systemic sclerosis, was examined by small bowel (oral and intubation methods) and colon enema. The underlying process responsible for abnormalities in the small bowel and colon in systemic sclerosis is a variable and pacthy destruction of the muscularis propria, that produces the structural and functional changes detected on X-ray: Pathologic condition is the same affecting the esophagus. The scout film of the abdomen often reveals colonic distension and fecal impaction, so that it may be quite difficult to prepare adequately the patients for a barium enema. Peristalsis may be virtually absent in short segments, and transit time may be several time longer than that in normal patients. For these reasons, intestinal pseudo-obstruction may appear in systemic sclerosis. The observed radiographic changes are: 1) in the small bowel: a) dilatation of the gut, especially in its proximal portions (duodenum and jejunum), in which the valvulae conniventes are straightened, normal or thinned; b) presence of diverticula, 2-4 cm in diameter, with hemispherical shape without the neck-like opening into the bowel lumen; 2) in the colon, the characteristic finding is an increase in size of individual haustra, forming sacculations or pseudo-diverticula, usually on the antemesenteric border of the transverse colon, better demonstrated on post-evacuation film. Moreover, loss of colonic haustration is also observed associated to colonic elongation and dilatation

  10. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  11. A structural abnormality associated with graded levels of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large number of environmental contaminants reduce circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH), but clear markers of neurological insult associated with modest TH insufficiency are lacking. We have previously identified the presence of an abnormal cluster of misplaced neurons in the corpus callosum (CC), a heterotopia, in adult rats following hypothyroidism induced by the hormone synthesis inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). In this report we have investigated the dose- response relationships to administered dose of PTU, the magnitude of reductions in circulating TH, and the incidence and volume of the heterotopia in adult offspring of PTU-treated dams. Pregnant rat dams were administered 0, 1, 2, 3 or 10 ppm of PTU in the drinking water from gestational day 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day 21 (PN2 1). Serum hormones in the dams were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, but at the lower dose levels (1, 2 and 3ppm) reductions were limited to T4 with no change in serum T3. At higher PTU concentrations, serum T3 was reduced in dams (1 Oppm) and pups on PN14 and 21 (3 and 10 ppm). All hormone levels returned to control levels in adulthood. On PN 130, female offspring were perfused with paraformaldehyde and sections prepared for immunohistochemistry for the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. All sections (40-45 50u through the hippocampus) were examined for the presence of a heterotopia in the CC. A dose-dependent increase in incidence and volume of heterotopic re

  12. Widespread epigenetic abnormalities suggest a broad DNA methylation erasure defect in abnormal human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Houshdaran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis.We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm.This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line.

  13. Induction of external abnormalities in offspring of male mice irradiated with 252Cf neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, Akihiro; Ono, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuriko; Okada, Shigefumi; Sawada, Syozo

    1992-01-01

    To assess the genetic effects of fission neutron, the induction of external malformations was studied in F 1 fetuses after F 0 male mice were irradiated. Male mice of the ICR:MCH strain were irradiated with 252 Cf neutron at doses of 0.238, 0.475, 0.95 and 1.9 Gy. They were mated with non-irradiated female mice at 71-120 days after irradiation. Pregnant females were autopsied on day 18 of gestation and their fetuses were examined for deaths and external abnormalities. No increases of pre- and post-implantation losses were noted at any dose. External abnormalities were observed at rates of 1.40% in the 0.238 Gy, 2.23% in the 0.475 Gy, 3.36% in the 0.95 and 3.26% in the 1.9 Gy groups; the rate in the control group was 1.65%. The dose-response curve was linear up to 0.95 Gy, and then flattened out; the induction rate of external abnormalities was 2.7x10 -4 /gamete/cGy based on the linear regression. These results indicated that fission neutron effectively induces external abnormalities in F 1 fetuses after spermatogonial irradiation. (author). 29 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  14. Frequency of EEG abnormalities in age-matched siblings of autistic children with abnormal sleep EEG patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chez, Michael G; Buchanan, Thomas; Aimonovitch, Mary; Mrazek, Susan; Krasne, Valerie; Langburt, Wayne; Memon, Shoaib

    2004-04-01

    Epileptiform activity in sleep has been described even in the absence of clinical seizures in 43-68% of patients with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Genetic factors may play a significant role in the frequency of epilepsy, yet the frequency in normal age-matched controls is unknown. We studied overnight ambulatory electroencephalograms (EEGs) in 12 nonepileptic, nonautistic children with a sibling with both ASDs and an abnormal EEG. EEG studies were read and described independently by two pediatric epileptologists; 10 were normal studies and 2 were abnormal. The occurrence of abnormal EEGs in our sample (16.6%) was lower than the reported occurrence in children with ASDs. Further, the two abnormal EEGs were of types typically found in childhood and were different from those found in the ASD-affected siblings. The lack of similarity between sibling EEGs suggests that genetic factors alone do not explain the higher frequency of EEG abnormalities reported in ASDs.

  15. Diagnostic value of saline contrast sonohysterography comparing with hysteroscopy for detecting endometrial abnormalities in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Goharzad, Farzaneh

    2011-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common presentation of uterine abnormalities among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. To evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of saline contrast sonohysterography and hysteroscopy for detecting the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. A total of 65 women with abnormal uterine bleeding were enrolled in this study. A prior saline contrast sonohysetrography followed by a hysteroscopy was performed in all cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and test accuracy were calculated. As the most common abnormality, SCSH showed hyperplasia in 19 patients while hysteroscopy diagnosed polyp in 15 cases. A sensitivity of 73.3%, 71.4% and 90.9% were reported for polyp, hyperplasia and submucous myoma respectively whereas the specificity was calculated 96% for polyps, 82.3% for hyperplasia and 90.7% for submucous myoma. Comparing with hysteroscopy, sonohysterography showed a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting submucous myoma but not for endometrial polyp and endometrial hyperplasia.

  16. Oscillatory blood pressure response to the onset of cycling exercise in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbosa, Thales C; Fernandes, Igor A; Magalhães-Jr, Nisval

    2015-01-01

    to this pattern is unclear. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that attenuation of group III/IV muscle afferent feedback by spinal fentanyl impairs the pressor response after 10 s of moderate leg cycling exercise, but this afferent feedback does not appear to be necessary for induction...... of the oscillatory pattern of blood pressure at the onset of exercise. We investigated whether attenuation of the central projections of group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents via lumbar intrathecal administration of the μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl affects the oscillatory blood pressure (BP) response...... to the onset of dynamic exercise. Eight healthy, recreationally active men (28 ± 3 years old) performed 40 s of cycling at 80 W (60 r.p.m.) before (control) and after fentanyl administration, while heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, systolic, mean and diastolic BP and total vascular conductance were...

  17. Heart rate response to post-learning stress predicts memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larra, Mauro F; Schulz, André; Schilling, Thomas M; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Best, Daniel; Kozik, Bartlomiej; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Stressful experiences are often well remembered, an effect that has been explained by beta-adrenergic influences on memory consolidation. Here, we studied the impact of stress induced heart rate (HR) responses on memory consolidation in a post-learning stress paradigm. 206 male and female participants saw 52 happy and angry faces immediately before being exposed to the Cold Pressor Test or a non-stressful control procedure. Memory for the faces and their respective expression was tested twice, after 30 min and on the next day. High HR responders (in comparison to low HR responders as well as to the non-stressful control group) showed enhanced recognition memory one day after learning. Our results show that beta-adrenergic activation elicited shortly after learning enhances memory consolidation and that the stress induced HR response is a predictor for this effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An elastin gene mutation producing abnormal tropoelastin and abnormal elastic fibres in a patient with autosomal dominant cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassabehji, M; Metcalfe, K; Hurst, J; Ashcroft, G S; Kielty, C; Wilmot, C; Donnai, D; Read, A P; Jones, C J

    1998-06-01

    Elastin is the protein responsible for the characteristic elastic properties of many tissues including the skin, lungs and large blood vessels. Loss-of-function mutations in the elastin gene are known to cause the heart defect supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). We and others have identified deletions, nonsense mutations and splice site mutations in SVAS patients that abolish the function of one elastin gene. We have now identified an elastin mutation in a patient with a completely different phenotype, the rare autosomal dominant condition cutis laxa. A frameshift mutation in exon 32 of the elastin gene is predicted to replace 37 amino acids at the C-terminus of elastin by a novel sequence of 62 amino acids. mRNA and immunoprecipitation studies show that the mutant allele is expressed. Electron microscopy of skin sections shows abnormal branching and fragmentation in the amorphous elastin component, and immunocytochemistry shows reduced elastin deposition in the elastic fibres and fewer microfibrils in the dermis. These findings suggest that the mutant tropoelastin protein is synthesized, secreted and incorporated into the elastic matrix, where it alters the architecture of elastic fibres. Interference with cross-linking would reduce elastic recoil in affected tissues and explain the cutis laxa phenotype.

  19. Central nervous system and cervical spine abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breik, Omar; Mahindu, Antony; Moore, Mark H; Molloy, Cindy J; Santoreneos, Stephen; David, David J

    2016-05-01

    Apert syndrome characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare autosomal dominant congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1/65,000 births. With an extensive range of phenotypic and developmental manifestations, its management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A variety of craniofacial, central nervous system (CNS), and cervical spine abnormalities have been reported in these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence of these CNS abnormalities in our case series. Retrospective review of Australian Craniofacial Unit (ACFU) database for Apert patients was performed. Data collected that included demographics, place of origin, age at presentation, imaging performed, and images were reviewed and recorded. Where available, developmental data was also recorded. Ninety-four patients seen and managed at the ACFU had their CNS and cervical spine abnormalities documented. The main CNS abnormalities were prominent convolutional markings (67 %), ventriculomegaly (48 %), crowded foramen magnum (36 %), deficient septum pellucidum (13 %), and corpus callosum agenesis in 11 %. Major C-spine findings were present in 50.8 % of patients and included fusion of posterior elements of C5/C6 (50 %) and C3/4 (27 %). Multilevel fusion was seen in 20 %. Other abnormalities were C1 spina bifida occulta (7 %) and atlanto-axial subluxation (7 %). Multiple CNS and cervical spine (c-spine) abnormalities are common in Apert syndrome. The significance of these abnormalities remains largely unknown. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of these findings on growth, development, and treatment outcomes.

  20. Proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormalities of patellar tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, G.M. [Royal Hospital Haslar, Gosport (United Kingdom); Tauro, P.G. [Northern Hospital,Victoria (Australia); Ostlere, S.J. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    Objective. To assess whether an association exists between patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. Design and patients. The MRI examinations of 630 patients (i.e. 860 knees) referred with anterior knee pain over a 4-year period were assessed in retrospect for the presence of patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. The images of the patients with patellar tendinosis were reviewed and the location within the patellar tendon was recorded. Results. There were 44 knees with proximal patellar tendinosis. Twenty-four of these were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 20 to have abnormal patellar tracking. In the group of 816 knees without proximal patellar tendinosis, 581 were considered to have normal patellar tracking and 235 knees to have abnormal patellar tracking. When the two groups were compared there was a statistically significant difference in the ratio of patients with and without abnormal tracking. Conclusion. In patients referred with anterior knee pain or suspected abnormal patellar tracking there is a significant association between proximal patellar tendinosis and abnormal patellar tracking. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.