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Sample records for abnormal liver functions

  1. Prevalence of abnormal liver function tests in rheumatoid arthritis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Abnormal Liver Function Tests (LFTs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at the rheumatology out-patient clinic, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Rheumatology out-patient clinic at KNH. Participants: One hundred and seven RA ...

  2. Safety and Yield of Diagnostic ERCP in Liver Transplant Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests

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    Jayapal Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abnormal liver enzymes postorthotopic liver transplant (OLT may indicate significant biliary pathology or organ rejection. There is very little known in the literature regarding the current role of diagnostic ERCP in this scenario. Aim. To review the utility of diagnostic ERCP in patients presenting with abnormal liver function tests in the setting of OLT. Methods. A retrospective review of diagnostic ERCPs in patients with OLT from 2002 to 2013 from a prospectively maintained, IRB approved database. Results. Of the 474 ERCPs performed in OLT patients, 210 (44.3%; 95% CI 39.8–48.8 were performed for abnormal liver function tests during the study period. Majority of patients were Caucasian (83.8%, male (62.4% with median age of 55 years (IQR 48–62 years. Biliary cannulation was successful in 99.6% of cases and findings included stricture in 45 (21.4 %; biliary stones/sludge in 23 (11%; biliary dilation alone in 31 (14.8%; and normal in 91 (43.3%. Three (1.4% patients developed mild, self-limiting pancreatitis; one patient (0.5% developed cholangitis and two (1% had postsphincterotomy bleeding. Multivariate analyses showed significant association between dilated ducts on imaging with a therapeutic outcome. Conclusion. Diagnostic ERCP in OLT patients presenting with liver function test abnormalities is safe and frequently therapeutic.

  3. Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development

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    Leah Y. Liu

    2013-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10 decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50 decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes.

  4. Pheochromocytoma with Markedly Abnormal Liver Function Tests and Severe Leukocytosis

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    Chai Ryoung Eun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor arising from the medulla of the adrenal glands, which causes an overproduction of catecholamines. The common symptoms are headache, palpitations, and sweating; however, various other clinical manifestations might also be present. Accurate diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important because surgical treatment is usually successful, and associated clinical problems are reversible if treated early. A 49-year-old man with a history of uncontrolled hypertension and diabetes mellitus presented with chest pain, fever, and sweating. His liver function tests and white blood cell counts were markedly increased and his echocardiography results suggested stress-induced cardiomyopathy. His abdominal computed tomography showed a 5×5-cm-sized tumor in the left adrenal gland, and laboratory tests confirmed catecholamine overproduction. After surgical resection of the left adrenal gland, his liver function tests and white blood cell counts normalized, and echocardiography showed normal cardiac function. Moreover, his previous antihypertensive regimen was deescalated, and his previously uncontrolled blood glucose levels normalized without medication.

  5. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome

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    Vamshidhar R. Vootla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  6. Abnormal Liver Function Tests in an Anorexia Nervosa Patient and an Atypical Manifestation of Refeeding Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vootla, Vamshidhar R; Daniel, Myrta

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is defined as electrolyte and fluid abnormalities that occur in significantly malnourished patients when they are refed orally, enterally, or parenterally. The principal manifestations include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, vitamin deficiencies, volume overload and edema. This can affect multiple organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological systems, secondary to the above-mentioned abnormalities. Rarely, patients may develop gastrointestinal symptoms and show abnormal liver function test results. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa who developed refeeding syndrome and simultaneous elevations of liver function test results, which normalized upon the resolution of the refeeding syndrome.

  7. Should we look for celiac disease among all patients with liver function test abnormalities?

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    Mohammad Hassan Emami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD has been found in up to 10% of the patients presenting with unexplained abnormal liver function tests (LFT. As there is no precise data from our country in this regard, we investigated the prevalence of CD in patients presenting with abnormal LFT. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, we measured IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (t-TG antibody (with ELISA technique within the first-level screening steps for all patients presenting with abnormal LFT to three outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, IRAN. All subjects with an IgA anti-tTG antibody value of >10 μ/ml (seropositive were undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. CD was defined as being seropositive with Marsh I or above in histopathology and having a good response to gluten free diet (GFD. Results: During the study, 224 patients were evaluated, out of which, 10 patients (4.4% were seropositive for CD. Duodenal biopsies were performed in eight patients and revealed six (2.7% cases of Marsh I or above (four Marsh IIIA, two Marsh I, all of them had good response to GFD. The overall prevalence of CD among patients with hypertransaminasemia, autoimmune hepatitis, and cryptogenic cirrhosis was determined as 10.7% (3/28, 3.4% (2/59, and 5.3% (1/19, respectively. Conclusion: Serological screening with IgA anti-tTG antibody test should be routinely performed in patients presenting with abnormal LFT and especially those with chronic liver diseases including hypertransaminasemia, autoimmune hepatitis, and cryptogenic cirrhosis.

  8. Frequency and Prognostic Significance of Abnormal Liver Function Tests in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver funct...

  9. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests. PMID:25780634

  10. 肾移植术后的肝功能异常%The abnormality of liver function following renal transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林荣禧; 欧良明; 陈子宣; 洪佳平; 林文洪; 吴卫真; 杨顺良

    1998-01-01

    为探讨肝功能异常对肾移植患者存活的影响,对48例肾移植前后发生肝功能异常的病例资料进行分析.术前乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性,伴或不伴丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)升高者32例,术后肝功能正常者18例,肝功能异常但经治疗预后好者6例,预后差者8例;术前仅ALT升高者9例,术后肝功能正常者3例,肝功能异常但经治疗预后好者5例,预后差者1例;术前肝功能正常,术后发生肝功能异常者28例,大部分系药物的肝毒性所致,经治疗预后好者14例,预后差者14例.认为HBsAg阳性和ALT异常并非肾移植术的禁忌证;对药物的肝毒性应引起足够的重视.%In ordertoinvestigate the effects of the abnormality of liver function on the survival of the patients undergoing renal transplantation,the data of 48 patients having liver function abnormality pre-and post-transplantation of kidney were analyzed. After operation, 32 cases showed positive hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)with or without an increase of ALT.After operation,liver function was normal in 18 cases.6 cases revealed abnormal liver function with favourable prognosis following treatment,while other 8 cases with unfavourable prognosis.Nine cases only showed an increase of ALT before operation.After operation.1iver function was normal in 3 cases;liver function was abnormal with good prognosis in 5,bad prognosis in one.28cases of preoperative normal liver function showed postoperative liver function abnormality mostly induced by the hepatoxication of the drugs.Of them,14 cases obtained good prognosis and 14 badprognosis after the treatment.It was suggested that positive HBsAg and ALT abnormality was not the controindications for renal transplantation and full attention should paytothe drug's hepatoxication.

  11. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  12. Adenosine kinase deficiency disrupts the methionine cycle and causes hypermethioninemia, encephalopathy, and abnormal liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjursell, Magnus K; Blom, Henk J; Cayuela, Jordi Asin; Engvall, Martin L; Lesko, Nicole; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Brandberg, Göran; Halldin, Maria; Falkenberg, Maria; Jakobs, Cornelis; Smith, Desiree; Struys, Eduard; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Claes M; Lundeberg, Joakim; Wedell, Anna

    2011-10-07

    Four inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are known to cause hypermethioninemia by directly interfering with the methionine cycle. Hypermethioninemia is occasionally discovered incidentally, but it is often disregarded as an unspecific finding, particularly if liver disease is involved. In many individuals the hypermethioninemia resolves without further deterioration, but it can also represent an early sign of a severe, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder. Further investigation of unclear hypermethioninemia is therefore important. We studied two siblings affected by severe developmental delay and liver dysfunction. Biochemical analysis revealed increased plasma levels of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) but normal or mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels, indicating a block in the methionine cycle. We excluded S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) deficiency, which causes a similar biochemical phenotype, by using genetic and biochemical techniques and hypothesized that there was a functional block in the SAHH enzyme as a result of a recessive mutation in a different gene. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous c.902C>A (p.Ala301Glu) missense mutation in the adenosine kinase gene (ADK), the function of which fits perfectly with this hypothesis. Increased urinary adenosine excretion confirmed ADK deficiency in the siblings. Four additional individuals from two unrelated families with a similar presentation were identified and shown to have a homozygous c.653A>C (p.Asp218Ala) and c.38G>A (p.Gly13Glu) mutation, respectively, in the same gene. All three missense mutations were deleterious, as shown by activity measurements on recombinant enzymes. ADK deficiency is a previously undescribed, severe IEM shedding light on a functional link between the methionine cycle and adenosine metabolism. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

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    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  14. Hyperferritinemia and hyperuricemia may be associated with liver function abnormality in obese adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The iron status in human body and its association with liver function in adolescents was rarely studied. The objective was to investigate the association among the levels of serum ferritin, uric acid and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in adolescents.A total of 2090 adolescents negative for hepatitis B surface antigen from one junior high school (786, 12-13 years, three senior high schools (973, 15-16 years and one college (331, 18-19 years participated in this survey. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements, including complete blood count, ALT, serum ferritin and uric acid were performed. An ALT>42 U/L was defined as elevated, a ferritin level >200 µg/L was defined as hyperferritinemia. A uric acid level >460 µmol/L in males and >340 µmol/L in females was defined as hyperuricemia. The chi-squared test, linear regression and multivariate logistic regression were used for the data analysis. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 76 (3.6% students and were more prevalent in males than females (6.4% vs. 2.0%, p100 µg/L. The logistic regression analysis found that body mass index, hyperferritinemia and hyperuricemia were significant factors associated with the ALT elevation, but gender, age, and white blood cell count were not.Hyperferritinemia and hyperuricemia are two independently significant factors associated with ALT elevation among obese adolescents. More studies are needed to corroborate any hypothesis related to these phenomena.

  15. High prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes in South African patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of liver function test abnormalities in South African black and Indian adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes clinic. iabetes clinic. Recorded data included the past medical and drug history, history of alcohol abuse, anthropometry, lipid profile and liver ...

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  17. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  18. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation

  19. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyeong-Won [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Immune-network Pioneer Research Center, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung Ryel [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do-Sim [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory of Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Raekil [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  20. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  1. Guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramb, Rob; Davison, Suzanne M; Dillon, John F; Foulerton, Mark; Godfrey, Edmund M; Hall, Richard; Harrower, Ulrike; Hudson, Mark; Langford, Andrew; Mackie, Anne; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Sennett, Karen; Sheron, Nicholas C; Verne, Julia; Walmsley, Martine; Yeoman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine. The quality of evidence and grading of recommendations was appraised using the AGREE II tool. These guidelines deal specifically with the management of abnormal liver blood tests in children and adults in both primary and secondary care under the following subheadings: (1) What constitutes an abnormal liver blood test? (2) What constitutes a standard liver blood test panel? (3) When should liver blood tests be checked? (4) Does the extent and duration of abnormal liver blood tests determine subsequent investigation? (5) Response to abnormal liver blood tests. They are not designed to deal with the management of the underlying liver disease. PMID:29122851

  2. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-01-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with 133 Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, [/sup 99m/Tc]RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis

  3. Role of scintigraphy in focally abnormal sonograms of fatty livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbona, R.; Mishkin, S.; Derbekyan, V.; Novales-Diaz, J.A.; Roy, A.; Sanders, L.

    1988-06-01

    Fatty infiltration of the liver may cause a range of focal abnormalities on hepatic sonography which may simulate hepatic nodular lesions. Discrete deposits of fat or islands of normal tissue which are uninvolved by fatty infiltration may stand out as potential space-occupying lesions on the sonograms. Twelve patients with such focally abnormal ultrasound images were referred for liver scintigraphy with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 99m/Tc colloidal SPECT studies to clarify the issue. These examinations helped identify, in nine of 12 patients, the innocent nature of the sonographic abnormalities which were simply related to the fat deposition process. Further, (/sup 99m/Tc)RBC scans defined the additional pathologic process in three patients in whom actual space-occupying lesions were indeed present in the liver. Scintigraphy has an important role to play in the understanding of focal hepatic ultrasound abnormalities particularly in unsuspected hepatic steatosis.

  4. Liver enzyme abnormalities in taking traditional herbal medicine in Korea: A retrospective large sample cohort study of musculoskeletal disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Kim, Me-Riong; Byun, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hyejin; Byung Park, Ki; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to report the incidence of liver injury from herbal medicine in musculoskeletal disease patients as large-scale studies are scarce. Considering that herbal medicine is frequently used in patients irrespective of liver function in Korea, we investigated the prevalence of liver injury by liver function test results in musculoskeletal disease patients. Of 32675 inpatients taking herbal medicine at 7 locations of a Korean medicine hospital between 2005 and 2013, we screened for liver injury in 6894 patients with liver function tests (LFTs) at admission and discharge. LFTs included t-bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP. Liver injury at discharge was assessed by LFT result classifications at admission (liver injury, liver function abnormality, and normal liver function). In analyses for risk factors of liver injury at discharge, we adjusted for age, sex, length of stay, conventional medicine intake, HBs antigen/antibody, and liver function at admission. A total 354 patients (prevalence 5.1%) had liver injury at admission, and 217 (3.1%) at discharge. Of the 354 patients with liver injury at admission, only 9 showed a clinically significant increase after herbal medicine intake, and 225 returned to within normal range or showed significant liver function recovery. Out of 4769 patients with normal liver function at admission, 27 (0.6%) had liver injury at discharge. In multivariate analyses for risk factors, younger age, liver function abnormality at admission, and HBs antigen positive were associated with injury at discharge. The prevalence of liver injury in patients with normal liver function taking herbal medicine for musculoskeletal disease was low, and herbal medicine did not exacerbate liver injury in most patients with injury prior to intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coagulation abnormalities in patients with chronic liver disease in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.A.; Ghani, M.H.; Ghori, M.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the coagulation abnormalities and relationship between abnormal clotting tests and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) among chronic liver disease (CLD) patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Methods: Adult CLD patients admitted at Liaquat University Hospital Jamshoro, during Nov 2004 - Oct 2005, were included in the study. The patients blood were tested for coagulation abnormalities including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count and plasma fibrinogen. Association was seen between the abnormal clotting tests and the gastrointestinal bleeding by calculating relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval. Results: PT was prolonged in 88% and aPTT was raised in 71% cases of CLD. Both PT and aPTT were prolonged in 67% CLD cases. Approximately 37% CLD cases had decreased platelet count and 15% cases had decreased serum fibrinogen level. Relative risk of GI bleeding with abnormal clotting tests in CLD cases were weakly positive for PT (RR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.49-2.10), negative for aPTT (RR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.47-1.45), strongly positive for decreased platelet counts (RR = 1.96; 95% CI, 1.08-3.56) and also for decreased fibrinogen level (RR = 1.47; 95% CI, 0.64-3.35). Conclusion: Coagulation abnormalities were profound in CLD. Decrease platelet counts and fibrinogen levels were related with GI bleeding but PT and aPTT were not significantly related with GI bleeding in patients with chronic liver disease. Nevertheless, these parameters (PT and aPTT) were still used as prognostic markers. (author)

  6. A STUDY ON HAEMATOLOGICAL ABNORMALITIES IN DECOMPENSATED CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Moothezhathu Kesavadas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Liver plays an important role in normal erythropoiesis and synthesis of clotting factors. Chronic liver disease (CLD patients are frequently associated with abnormalities in haematological parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was an observational study conducted among diagnosed CLD patients over a period of 1 year from 2013 to 2014. Various haematological abnormalities in 75 CLD patients were studied. Relevant details were obtained in structured format. RESULTS The mean age of the study group 49.2 years. Male-to-female ratio was 5.8:1. Aetiologies of cirrhosis were alcoholism (61.3%, diabetes mellitus (26.7% and dyslipidaemia (13%. 88% patients were anaemic with severe anaemia (Hb <8 gm% observed in 33.3% patients with mean Hb being 8.76 gm%. Mean Hb in alcohol-related CLDs were lower than CLDs due to other aetiologies (8.62 gm% vs. 9.36 gm%. Most common anaemia observed was normocytic normochromic anaemia (40.9%. 26.7% had leucopenia and 88% had thrombocytopenia. Normal ferritin levels were observed in 6.7%, decreased in 16% and increased in the remaining cases of which a level of more than 900 ng/mL was observed in 18.7% cases. Mean CTP (ChildTurcotte-Pugh score of the study group was 11.1. 80% of patients belong to child C. Patients with high ferritin levels had high CTP score (P-0.001. Platelet count decreases as CTP score increases (P-0.000 and as spleen size increases (P-0.001. CONCLUSION Most common haematological abnormalities observed were thrombocytopenia and anaemia. Severe anaemia was seen in males and alcoholics. Thrombocytopenia was more in those with advanced liver disease and large spleen. High serum ferritin level correlate well with advanced liver disease.

  7. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver ...

  8. Apolipoprotein and lipid abnormalities in chronic liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spósito A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Total serum lipids, as well as apolipoproteins A-I (apo A-I and B (apo B, were determined in 74 patients with chronic liver failure without cholestasis and in 82 normal subjects. The VLDL, LDL and HDL lipid fractions were reduced in the liver failure group by 36%, 24% and 46%, respectively (P<0.001. Apolipoproteins A-I and B were also reduced by 26% and 25%, respectively (P<0.001. However, the reduction of HDL cholesterol (HDLc was more pronounced than that of apo A-I and the HDLc:apo A-I ratio was significantly lower in the liver failure group. After separating these patients into groups with plasma albumin lower than 3.0, between 3.0 and 3.5, and higher than 3.5 g/dl, the HDLc:apo A-I ratio was proportional to plasma albumin, but the correlation was not statistically significant. When these patients were separated by the Child classification of liver function, there was a correlation between the HDLc:apo A-I ratio and liver function. The differences in the HDLc:apo A-I ratio between the Child groups B and C, and A and C were statistically significant (P<0.05. We conclude that there is a more pronounced reduction in HDL cholesterol than in apo A-I in liver failure patients. Therefore, the HDLc:apo A-I ratio is a marker of liver function, probably because there is a decreased lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase production by the diseased liver

  9. Abnormal Gas Diffusing Capacity and Portosystemic Shunt in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon-Seung; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kwak, Min-Jung; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary dysfunctions including the hepatopulmonary syndrome and portosystemic shunt are important complications of hepatic cirrhosis. To investigate the severity and nature of abnormal gas diffusing capacity and its correlation to portosystemic shunt in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods Forty-four patients with chronic liver disease (15 chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 16 Child-Pugh class A, and 13 Child-Pugh class B) without other diseases history were enrolled in the study. Evaluation of liver function tests, arterial blood gases analysis, ultrasonography, pulmonary function test including lung diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco), forced vital capacity(FVC), forced expiratory volume 1 seconds(FEV1), total lung capacity(TLC), DLco/AV(alveolar volume) and thallium-201 per rectum scintigraphy were performed. We were analyzed correlations between pulmonary function abnormalities and heart/liver (H/L) ratio in patients with chronic liver diseases. Results In CAH, percentage of patients with DLco and DLco/VA (Child-Pugh class A and B patients. The means of DLco and DLco/VA were significantly (P Child-Pugh class. The mean H/L ratio in Child-Pugh class B increased markedly (P Child-Pugh class A. The frequency of specific pulmonary function abnormality in patients with Child-Pugh class B was significantly (P Child-Pugh class A and CAH. There was a inverse linear correlation between H/L ratio and DLco (r = -0.339, P < 0.05) and DLco/VA (r = -0.480, P < 0.01). Conclusion A total of 62% of patients with advanced liver disease have abnormal pulmonary diffusion capacity with a reduced DLco or DLco/VA and abnormal portosystemic shunt (increased H/L ratio) is common hemodynamic abnormality. Therefore, inverse linear correlation between DLco or DLco/VA and H/L ratio may be an important factor in predicting pulmonary complication and meaningful diagnostic and prognostic parameters in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. PMID:27785203

  10. Pulmonary dysfunction in advanced liver disease: frequent occurrence of an abnormal diffusing capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourani, J.M.; Bellamy, P.E.; Tashkin, D.P.; Batra, P.; Simmons, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Abnormalities in pulmonary function have been reported in association with chronic liver disease of varied etiology. The aim of this study was to better define the frequency and nature of these abnormalities in patients who were being evaluated for liver transplantation. We performed a battery of pulmonary function tests and chest radiographs in 116 consecutive patients (50 men, 66 women; aged 19 to 70 years, mean 44.6 years) with severe advanced liver disease who were hospitalized specifically for evaluation for possible orthotopic liver transplantation and were able to perform technically satisfactory tests. In 17 patients, quantitative whole-body technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion scanning was also performed for assessment of possible right-to-left shunting through intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. The most commonly affected test of lung function was the single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which was abnormal in 48%, 45%, and 71% of patients who never smoked, former smokers, and current smokers, respectively. Ventilatory restriction was noted in 25% of all patients, airflow obstruction (reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity) in only 3%, and a widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in 45%. Diffusion impairment was accompanied by a restrictive defect in only 35% of the patients and by an abnormally widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient in 60%. When diffusion impairment was accompanied by an oxygenation defect, it was also associated with a significantly increased right-to-left shunt fraction (mean 24.9%) assessed from quantitative whole-body perfusion imaging

  11. Quantitative PET of liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  12. Quantitative PET of liver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  13. Liver Function in the Pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... The assessment of function of the isolated perfused liver remains complex. Much of this problem relates to an inability to compare function in vitro with that in vivo, because of a lack of knowledge of hepatic blood flow. This article documents measurement of total hepatic and portal blood flow in vivo in pigs, ...

  14. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  15. Associations between Zinc Deficiency and Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Himoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element which has favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and apoptotic effects. The liver mainly plays a crucial role in maintaining systemic Zn homeostasis. Therefore, the occurrence of chronic liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or fatty liver, results in the impairment of Zn metabolism, and subsequently Zn deficiency. Zn deficiency causes plenty of metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis and hepatic encephalopathy. Inversely, metabolic abnormalities like hypoalbuminemia in patients with liver cirrhosis often result in Zn deficiency. Recent studies have revealed the putative mechanisms by which Zn deficiency evokes a variety of metabolic abnormalities in chronic liver disease. Zn supplementation has shown beneficial effects on such metabolic abnormalities in experimental models and actual patients with chronic liver disease. This review summarizes the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities deriving from Zn deficiency and the favorable effects of Zn administration in patients with chronic liver disease. In addition, we also highlight the interactions between Zn and other trace elements, vitamins, amino acids, or hormones in such patients.

  16. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  17. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Chamuleau, R. A.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schipper, H. G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; van der Heyde, M. N.

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single-photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99mTc-colloid as tracer. The method was

  18. 'Nonportal' splanchnic venous supply to the liver: abnormal findings on CT, US and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuij; Matsui, Osamu

    1999-01-01

    In this pictorial essay we will illustrate the spectrum and discuss the etiologies of abnormal imagging findings due to 'nonportal' plachnic venous supply to the liver and how these can be distinguished from true mass lesions

  19. Scintigraphic assessment of liver function in patients requiring liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cieślak, K.P.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis addresses various aspects of assessment of liver function using a quantitative liver function test, 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS). HBS enables direct measurement of at least one of the liver’s true processes with minimal external interference and offers the

  20. How to interpret liver function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Levick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Careful interpretation of liver function tests within the clinical context can help elucidate the cause and severity of the underlying pathology. Predominantly raised alkaline phosphatase represents the cholestatic pattern of biliary pathology, whilst predominantly raised alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase represent the hepatocellular pattern of hepatocellular pathology. The severity of liver dysfunction or biliary obstruction is reflected in the bilirubin level and the degree of liver synthetic function can also be indicated by the albumin level. Beyond the liver function tests, prothrombin time provides another marker of liver synthetic function and a low platelet count suggests portal hypertension.

  1. Correlation with liver scintigram, reticuloendothelial function test, plasma endotoxin level and liver function tests in chronic liver diseases. Multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Ideguchi, Seiji and others

    1989-02-01

    Liver scintigrams with Tc-99m phytate were reviewed in a total of 64 consecutive patients, comprising 28 with chronic hepatitis and 36 with liver cirrhosis. Reticuloendothelial (RES) function, plasma endotoxin (Et) levels and findings of general liver function tests were used as reference parameters to determine the diagnostic ability of liver scintigraphy. Multivariate analyses revealed that liver scintigrams had a strong correlation with RES function and Et levels in terms of morphology of the liver and hepatic and bone marrow Tc-99m uptake. General liver function tests revealed gamma globulin to be correlated with hepatic uptake and the degree of splenogemaly on liver scintigrams; and ICG levels at 15 min to be correlated with bone marrow and splenic uptake. Accuracy of liver scintigraphy was 73% for chronic hepatitis, which was inferior to general liver function tests (83%). When both modalities were combined, diangostic accuracy increased to 95%. Liver scintigraphy seems to be useful as a complementary approach. (Namekawa, K).

  2. Liver Function Tests in Tuberculoid Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Korane

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 24 patients with untreated tuberculoid leprosy were taken up for study, They were the same group of patients in whom the authors have earlier reported involvement of liver in 85 % cases. Five healthy controls, studied also belonged to the same series. Liver function tests included prothrombin time, serum bilirubin, zinc sulphate turbidity, serum proteins and serum transaminases. No significant alterations in the liver function were observed. This is because the changes in the liver were so minimal and focal that they were not reflected in the various liver function tests.

  3. Clinical features of male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis or hepatitis B cirrhosis complicated by abnormal glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qidan

    2016-02-01

    face, spider angioma, hepatomegaly, hepatorenal syndrome, malnutrition, ascites, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding between the ALC and HBC patients with abnormal glucose metabolism (χ2=3.785, 2.651, 1974, 3.316, 3.771, 5.843, 7.251, 5.214, 5.778, 2.966, and 6.312, all P<0.05. Compared with the HBC patients with abnormal glucose metabolism, the ALC patients with abnormal glucose metabolism had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin, a significantly greater mean corpuscular volume, a significantly higher level of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and a significantly lower level of albumin (t=4.775, 7.887, 5.143, 6.124, and 5.210, all P<0.05. There were significant differences in the fasting blood glucose level, insulin level 2 hours after meal, and insulin resistance index between the ALC and HBC patients with abnormal glucose metabolism (t=2.770, 6.331, and 3.770, all P<0.05. ConclusionThe male patients with ALC or HBC gradually develop abnormal glucose metabolism with the deterioration of liver function, with individual etiology and features of liver cirrhosis, and the manifestations of abnormal glucose metabolism are not obvious. Related examinations should be performed for these male patients with liver cirrhosis of various causes, to confirm the existence of abnormal glucose metabolism.

  4. Prevalence of abnormal plasma liver enzymes in older people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morling, J R; Strachan, M W J; Hayes, P C; Butcher, I; Frier, B M; Reynolds, R M; Price, J F

    2012-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of abnormal plasma liver enzymes in a representative sample of older adults with Type 2 diabetes. Plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase were measured in a randomly selected, population-based cohort of 1066 men and women aged 60-75 years with Type 2 diabetes (the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study). Overall, 29.1% (95% CI 26.1-31.8) of patients had one or more plasma liver enzymes above the upper limit of the normal reference range. Only 10.1% of these patients had a prior history of liver disease and a further 12.4% reported alcohol intake above recommended limits. Alanine aminotransferase was the most commonly raised liver enzyme (23.1% of patients). The prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was significantly higher in men (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.83), in the youngest 5-year age band (odds ratio 2.02, 95% CI 1.44-2.84), in patients with diabetes duration enzyme abnormality. The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes in people with Type 2 diabetes is high, with only modest variation between clinically defined patient groups. Further research is required to determine the prognostic value of raised, routinely measured liver enzymes to inform decisions on appropriate follow-up investigations. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  5. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational transmission of liver abnormalities in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al-Griw

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/ or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day. The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring

  6. Abnormal Gas Diffusing Capacity and Portosystemic Shunt in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Moon-Seung; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Yoo-Sin; Kim, Shin-Hee; Kwak, Min-Jung; Kang, Ju-Seop

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary dysfunctions including the hepatopulmonary syndrome and portosystemic shunt are important complications of hepatic cirrhosis. To investigate the severity and nature of abnormal gas diffusing capacity and its correlation to portosystemic shunt in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods Forty-four patients with chronic liver disease (15 chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 16 Child-Pugh class A, and 13 Child-Pugh class B) without other diseases history were enrolled in the ...

  7. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.L.M.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.; Leeuwen, D.J. van; Schippor, H.G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; Heyde, M.N. van der

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99m Tc-colloid as tracer. The method was assessed in 11 patients by comparing the pre- and post-operative volume measurement with the volume of the resected liver mass. Liver function was determined by measuring the galactose elimination capacity and the caffeine clearance. After a postoperative follow-up period of 50 days, the liver had regenerated maximally to a volume of 75 ± 2% of the preoperative liver mass. Maximal restoration of liver function was achieved 120 days after operation and amounted to 75 ± 10% for the caffeine clearance and to 100 ± 25% for the galactose elimination capacity. This study shows that SPECT is a useful method for assessing liver regeneration in patients after partial hepatectomy. The study furthermore shows that caffeine clearance correlates well with total liver volume, whereas the galactose elimination capacity overestimates total liver volume after partial hepatectomy. 22 refs

  8. `Nonportal` splanchnic venous supply to the liver: abnormal findings on CT, US and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuij [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University, School of Medicine (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    In this pictorial essay we will illustrate the spectrum and discuss the etiologies of abnormal imagging findings due to `nonportal` plachnic venous supply to the liver and how these can be distinguished from true mass lesions. With 18 figs., 35 refs.

  9. Pituitary-testicular function in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, M; Gluud, C; Johnsen, S G

    1981-01-01

    In forty-two patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and without recent alcohol ingestion the pituitary-testicular function was studied in an effort to relate the endocrine abnormalities with the degree of liver cell dysfunction, evaluated on a quantitative basis. Compared with values in twenty-o...

  10. Prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in end-stage liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathala, Ahmed; Safar, Bander; Al Muhaideb, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in end-stage liver disease (ESLD) being evaluated for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is unclear based on variable definition used for CAD. The aim of this study to investigate the prevalence of abnormal stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) imaging, as a marker for CAD, among patients with ESLD who were referred for stress MPS imaging as a routine work up before OLT. This was a single-center, retrospective study. We reviewed data on 167 patients who were referred for MPS as a routine work up before OLT over the last 2 years. All patients underwent evaluation for CAD risk factors [age, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and smoking], and stress MPS as per standard protocol. The total number of patients referred for stress MPS was 167. Seven patients (4% of total study population) were excluded from the study due to poor and/or nondiagnostic studies. 147 patients (92%) had normal, but only 13 patients (8%) had abnormal MPS scans. DM and male gender were the most independent risk factors for abnormal MPS with P value of 0.046, and 0.26, respectively. There was no significant association between the abnormal MPS result and HTN, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, age or etiology of the liver disease. Based on our data, the prevalence of abnormal MPS and left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with ESLD was found to be 8%. DM and male gender were the most independent predictor factors for abnormal MPS. True prevalence of CAD and usefulness of MPS in patients with ESLD can only be studied using a very large and randomized prospective study

  11. Age dependence of rat liver function measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the galactose elimination capacity, the capacity of urea-N synthesis and antipyrine clearance were studied in male Wistar rats at the age of 8, 20 and 44 weeks. Further, liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450, microsomal protein and glutathione were measured. All...... liver function measurements increased from the age of 8 to 44 weeks when expressed in absolute values. In relation to body weight, these function measurements were unchanged or reduced from week 8 to week 20. At week 44, galactose elimination capacity and capacity of urea-N synthesis related to body...... weight were increased by 10% and 36%, respectively, and antipyrine plasma clearance was reduced to 50%. Liver tissue concentrations of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and microsomal protein increased with age when expressed in absolute values, but were unchanged per g liver, i.e., closely related to liver...

  12. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  13. Assessment of adrenal function in liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, there are reports of adrenal dysfunction in whole spectrum of liver disease. Adrenal insufficiency (AI has been shown to correlate with progression of liver disease. Hence this study was conducted to assess adrenal function in subjects with acute liver disease (ALD, chronic liver disease (CLD and post liver transplantation (LT. Material and Methods: This study included 25 healthy controls, 25 patients of ALD, 20 subjects of CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1 and 30 with Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2, and 10 subjects with LT. All subjects were assessed clinically, biochemically and for adrenal functions. Results: AI was present in 9 (34.6% patients with ALD, 20 (40% patients with CLD and 4 (40% in subjects with LT. AI was more common in CLD-2 (18 patients - 60% than CLD-1 (2 patients - 10%. All patients with chronic liver disease had significantly lower basal cortisol (8.8±4.8, P=0.01, stimulated cortisol (18.2±6.3, P <0.00001 and incremental cortisol (9.4±4.6, P <0.00001 as compared to controls. There was increase in percentage of subjects with adrenal dysfunction with progression of liver disease as assessed by Child-Pugh staging. AI was predicted by lower levels of serum protein, serum albumin, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and higher levels of serum bilirubin and INR. Adrenal functions showed recovery following liver transplantation. Conclusions: AI forms important part of spectrum of acute and chronic liver disease. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of AI, and these patients should be evaluated for adrenal dysfunction periodically.

  14. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5...... of the liver, and BARD (body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes) score for evaluation of liver fibrosis, were performed in all subjects. In comparison to controls, subjects with prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels......, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood...

  15. Investigation of impairment of liver function in local residents of Miaofeng Village, Wushan County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Zhongxia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo assess the impairment of liver function and investigate possible causes in local residents in Miaofeng Village, Mali Town, Wushan County, Gansu Province, China, and to provide a basis for the etiological study of idiopathic liver damage. MethodsThe residents in Miaofeng Village were screened for liver function and an epidemiological study was conducted. Serological testing was performed for those with abnormal screening results. Trace elements in drinking water and soil such as arsenic, chromium, and selenium were also tested. ResultsOf all residents, 23.8% and 10.7% showed abnormal levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. Positivity of HBsAg was detected in 11 cases, fatty liver was identified in 3 cases, and absence of selenium in soil was also confirmed. ConclusionA proportion of local residents in Miaofeng Village have impaired liver function and the absence of selenium in soil may be a contributing factor to this phenomenon.

  16. Tansig activation function (of MLP network) for cardiac abnormality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Ja'afar; Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq; Rizman, Zairi Ismael; Rahman, Muhammad Izzuddin Abd

    2018-02-01

    Heart abnormality often occurs regardless of gender, age and races. This problem sometimes does not show any symptoms and it can cause a sudden death to the patient. In general, heart abnormality is the irregular electrical activity of the heart. This paper attempts to develop a program that can detect heart abnormality activity through implementation of Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) network. A certain amount of data of the heartbeat signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) will be used in this project to train the MLP network by using several training algorithms with Tansig activation function.

  17. Diverticular Disease of the Colon: Neuromuscular Function Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bernardini, Nunzia; Dore, Maria P

    2016-10-01

    Colonic diverticular disease is a frequent finding in daily clinical practice. However, its pathophysiological mechanisms are largely unknown. This condition is likely the result of several concomitant factors occurring together to cause anatomic and functional abnormalities, leading as a result to the outpouching of the colonic mucosa. A pivotal role seems to be played by an abnormal colonic neuromuscular function, as shown repeatedly in these patients, and by an altered visceral perception. There is recent evidence that these abnormalities might be related to the derangement of the enteric innervation, to an abnormal distribution of mucosal neuropeptides, and to low-grade mucosal inflammation. The latter might be responsible for the development of visceral hypersensitivity, often causing abdominal pain in a subset of these patients.

  18. Abnormal lung function at preschool age asthma in adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajunen, Katariina; Kalliola, Satu; Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anne; Sarna, Seppo; Malmberg, L Pekka; Pelkonen, Anna S; Mäkelä, Mika J

    2018-05-01

    Asthma often begins early in childhood. However, the risk for persistence is challenging to evaluate. This longitudinal study relates lung function assessed with impulse oscillometry (IOS) in preschool children to asthma in adolescence. Lung function was measured with IOS in 255 children with asthma-like symptoms aged 4-7 years. Baseline measurements were followed by exercise challenge and bronchodilation tests. At age 12-16 years, 121 children participated in the follow-up visit, when lung function was assessed with spirometry, followed by a bronchodilation test. Asthma symptoms and medication were recorded by a questionnaire and atopy defined by skin prick tests. Abnormal baseline values in preschool IOS were significantly associated with low lung function, the need for asthma medication, and asthma symptoms in adolescence. Preschool abnormal R5 at baseline (z-score ≥1.645 SD) showed 9.2 odds ratio (95%CI 2.7;31.7) for abnormal FEV1/FVC, use of asthma medication in adolescence, and 9.9 odds ratio (95%CI 2.9;34.4) for asthma symptoms. Positive exercise challenge and modified asthma-predictive index at preschool age predicted asthma symptoms and the need for asthma medication, but not abnormal lung function at teenage. Abnormal preschool IOS is associated with asthma and poor lung function in adolescence and might be utilised for identification of asthma persistence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Severity of Fatty Liver Disease Relating to Metabolic Abnormalities Independently Predicts Coronary Calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ying-Hsiang; Wu, Yih-Jer; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Hou, Charles Jia-Yin; Yeh, Hung-I.; Tsai, Cheng-Ho; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Hung, Chung-Lieh

    2011-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the metabolic disorders presented in liver. The relationship between severity of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerotic burden remains largely unknown. Methods and Materials. We analyzed subjects undergoing coronary calcium score evaluation by computed tomography (MDCT) and fatty liver assessment using abdominal ultrasonography. Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic risk score (MRS) were obtained in all subjects. A graded, semiquantitative score was established to quantify the severity of NAFLD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to depict the association between NAFLD and calcium score. Results. Of all, 342 participants (female: 22.5%, mean age: 48.7 ± 7.0 years) met the sufficient information rendering detailed analysis. The severity of NAFLD was positively associated with MRS (X 2 = 6.12, trend P < 0.001) and FRS (X 2 = 5.88, trend P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment for clinical variables and life styles, the existence of moderate to severe NAFLD was independently associated with abnormal calcium score (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The severity of NAFLD correlated well with metabolic abnormality and was independently predict coronary calcification beyond clinical factors. Our data suggests that NAFLD based on ultrasonogram could positively reflect the burden of coronary calcification

  20. Quality of Liver and Kideny Function Test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    results for kidney functions and liver functions in. HIV diagnostic and monitoring laboratory are extremely important for decision making with patients under ART programs, and the consequences of erroneous results are huge (8, 9). 1University of Bahir Dar, Biological Inorganic Chemistry, P.O.Box-79, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

  1. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

    2013-11-07

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production.

  2. Lipid and liver abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanna, S; Scicali, R; Di Pino, A; Knop, F K; Piro, S; Rabuazzo, A M; Purrello, F

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate lipid abnormalities and liver steatosis in patients with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to individuals with HbA1c-defined normoglycaemia. Ninety-one subjects with prediabetes according to HbA1c, i.e. from 5.7 to 6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol), 50 newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥6.5% [≥48 mmol/mol]), and 67 controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7% (prediabetes were characterised by: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure, triglycerides levels and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, similar BARD score, and higher total body fat mass. In comparison to subjects with diabetes, subjects with prediabetes exhibited: similar blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein AI ratio, similar FLI, reduced prevalence of and less severe hepatic steatosis, lower BARD score, increased percent fat and lower total body muscle mass. In comparison to controls, subjects with diabetes showed: lower apolipoprotein AI and HDL cholesterol levels, higher blood pressure and triglycerides levels, higher FLI, increased prevalence of and more severe hepatic steatosis, higher BARD score, and higher total body muscle mass. Moreover, HbA1c was correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, AST, and ALT. Subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, respectively, are characterised by abnormalities in lipid profile and liver steatosis, thus exhibiting a severe risk profile for cardiovascular and liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular and molecular etiology of hepatocyte injury in a murine model of environmentally induced liver abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Al-Griw

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposures to a wide variety of environmental substances are negatively associated with many biological cell systems both in humans and rodents. Trichloroethane (TCE, a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, is used in large quantities as a dissolvent, metal degreaser, chemical intermediate, and component of consumer products. This increases the likelihood of human exposure to these compounds through dermal, inhalation and oral routes. The present in vivo study was aimed to investigate the possible cellular and molecular etiology of liver abnormality induced by early exposure to TCE using a murine model. The results showed a significant increase in liver weight. Histopathological examination revealed a TCE-induced hepatotoxicity which appeared as heavily congested central vein and blood sinusoids as well as leukocytic infiltration. Mitotic figures and apoptotic changes such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragments were also identified. Cell death analysis demonstrates hepatocellular apoptosis was evident in the treated mice compared to control. TCE was also found to induce oxidative stress as indicated by an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation, an oxidative stress marker. There was also a significant decrease in the DNA content of the hepatocytes of the treated groups compared to control. Agarose gel electrophoresis also provided further biochemical evidence of apoptosis by showing internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the liver cells, indicating oxidative stress as the cause of DNA damage. These results suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new chemical prior to its arrival into the consumer market.

  4. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeppl, Timm B; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-06-01

    Despite its 0.5-1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multimodal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Abnormal reticuloendothelial function in patients with active vasculitis and idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Woude, F J; Piers, D A; van der Giessen, M; Hoedemaeker, P J; Hauw The, T; van der Hem, G K

    1983-02-01

    Reticuloendothelial function was assessed in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 patients with Wegener's granulomatosus, and 20 patients with idiopathic membranous sup(99m)Tc-labeled heat-damaged red blood cells. With this method organ uptake could be measured by quantitative scintigraphy. There was no relation between the Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve and the Tsub(1/2) of the splenic uptake curve. The Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve was normal in all the patient groups. However, there was a significant shift from spleen to liver uptake in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulomatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy in comparison with a control group. There was no relation with age, level of circulating immune complexes, complement level, kidney function, or immunosuppressive treatment. We conclude that an increase of the liver component of reticuloendothelial function may compensate abnormalities in splenic function. This stresses the importance of quantitative scanning to detect such abnormalities. The study provides evidence for disease related hyposplenism in patients with active systemical lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulamatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy.

  6. Abnormal reticuloendothelial function in patients with active vasculitis and idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woude, F.J. van der; Piers, D.A.; Giessen, M. van der; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Hauw The, T.; Hem, G.K. van der; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

    1983-01-01

    Reticuloendothelial function was assessed in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 8 patients with Wegener's granulomatosus, and 20 patients with idiopathic membranous sup(99m)Tc-labeled heat-damaged red blood cells. With this method organ uptake could be measured by quantitative scintigraphy. There was no relation between the Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve and the Tsub(1/2) of the splenic uptake curve. The Tsub(1/2) of the blood disappearance curve was normal in all the patient groups. However, there was a significant shift from spleen to liver uptake in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulomatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy in comparison with a control group. There was no relation with age, level of circulating immune complexes, complement level, kidney function, or immunosuppressive treatment. We conclude that an increase of the liver component of reticuloen-dothelial function may compensate abnormalities in splenic function. This stresses the importance of quantitative scanning to detect such abnormalities. The study provides evidence for disaase related hyposplenism in patients with active systemical lupus erythematosus, active Wegener's granulamatosus, and membranous glomerulopathy. (orig.)

  7. Abnormal Structure–Function Relationship in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2012-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. Although recent studies have found abnormal brain function and white matter organization in SD, the extent of gray matter alterations, their structure–function relationships, and correlations with symptoms remain unknown. We compared gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) in 40 SD patients and 40 controls using voxel-based morphometry and cortical distance estimates. These measures were examined for relationships with blood oxygen level–dependent signal change during symptomatic syllable production in 15 of the same patients. SD patients had increased GMV, CT, and brain activation in key structures of the speech control system, including the laryngeal sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior/middle temporal and supramarginal gyri, and in a structure commonly abnormal in other primary dystonias, the cerebellum. Among these regions, GMV, CT and activation of the IFG and cerebellum showed positive relationships with SD severity, while CT of the IFG correlated with SD duration. The left anterior insula was the only region with decreased CT, which also correlated with SD symptom severity. These findings provide evidence for coupling between structural and functional abnormalities at different levels within the speech production system in SD. PMID:21666131

  8. Tissue hepatic blood volume and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyama, Mamoru

    1997-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scan has an advantage that it can measure regional organ blood flow and volume not only quantitatively but also non-invasively. In order to estimate the liver function, tissue hepatic blood volume was measured using C 15 O inhalation in conjunction with positron emission tomography. PET scans of the liver were performed after the single breath inhalation of 20 mCi of high specific activity 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide in 105 patients which were classified 3 groups; normal, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. They consist of 61, 14, and 30 patients, respectively. Significant differences between normal and cirrhotic patients were noted in tissue hepatic blood volume (mean 20.4, 18.2, 16.0 ml/100 g, respectively). Tissue hepatic blood volume (tHBV) correlated with the reaction of the peripheral reticuloendothelial compartment and protein synthesis, because there was a potent correlation between tHBV and hepatic fibrosis. In normal livers, we were able to demonstrate significant differences in tissue hepatic blood volume among liver segments. (author)

  9. The emerging role of transport systems in liver function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, Bruno; Heger, Michal; de Graaf, Wilmar; Paumgartner, Gustav; van Gulik, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Liver function tests are of critical importance for the management of patients with severe or terminal liver disease. They are also used as prognostic tools for planning liver resections. In recent years many transport systems have been identified that also transport substances employed in liver

  10. [Effects of an oxacephem antibiotic on liver function in orthopedic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyama, M; Otori, K; Yokota, S; Aoto, H; Sawada, M; Yago, K; Fujita, T; Kumagai, Y

    1999-07-01

    The subjects were 531 patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. Flomoxef was administered, and liver function was examined before and after administration. Abnormal liver function after administration of flomoxef was found in 14.3% of patients. In male patients, a high rate of 18.8% was observed. A particularly high rate of 37.0% was obtained among patients who showed GOT values of more than 40 U/L before treatment with flomoxef. The prevalence of abnormal GOT and GPT values after administration of flomoxef was 3.6% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those obtained with other cephem antibiotics. These rates of occurrence of abnormally high GOT and GPT are obviously higher than those submitted at the time of approval and reported in the drug use investigation. The prevalence of abnormal liver function values was high in patients receiving flomoxef, and particularly high in male patients and patients whose GOT was high before administration of flomoxef. Therefore, sufficient check of liver function appears important when administration of flomoxef to these types of patients is intended.

  11. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi [Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  12. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  13. Liver-specific rescuing of CEACAM1 reverses endothelial and cardiovascular abnormalities in male mice with null deletion of Ceacam1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Russo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mice with global null mutation of Ceacam1 (Cc1−/−, display impairment of insulin clearance that causes hyperinsulinemia followed by insulin resistance, elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis, and visceral obesity. In addition, they manifest abnormal vascular permeability and elevated blood pressure. Liver-specific rescuing of Ceacam1 reversed all of the metabolic abnormalities in Cc1−/−liver+ mice. The current study examined whether Cc1−/− male mice develop endothelial and cardiac dysfunction and whether this relates to the metabolic abnormalities caused by defective insulin extraction. Methods and results: Myography studies showed reduction of agonist-stimulated nitric oxide production in resistance arterioles in Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−liver+ mice. Liver-based rescuing of CEACAM1 also attenuated the abnormal endothelial adhesiveness to circulating leukocytes in parallel to reducing plasma endothelin-1 and recovering plasma nitric oxide levels. Echocardiography studies revealed increased septal wall thickness, cardiac hypertrophy and reduced cardiac performance in Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. Insulin signaling experiments indicated compromised IRS1/Akt/eNOS pathway leading to lower nitric oxide level, and activated Shc/MAPK pathway leading to more endothelin-1 production in the aortae and hearts of Cc1−/−, but not Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. The increase in the ratio of endothelin-1 receptor A/B indicated an imbalance in the vasomotor activity of Cc1−/− mice, which was normalized in Cc1−/−xliver+ mice. Conclusions: The data underscore a critical role for impaired CEACAM1-dependent hepatic insulin clearance pathways and resulting hyperinsulinemia and lipid accumulation in aortae and heart in regulating the cardiovascular function. Keywords: Insulin clearance, Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin resistance, Endothelial function, Cardiomyopathy

  14. Abnormal Functional Connectivity Density in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youxue; Xie, Bing; Chen, Heng; Li, Meiling; Liu, Feng; Chen, Huafu

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in individuals who have experienced life-threatening mental traumas. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PTSD may be associated with the abnormal functional integration among brain regions. In the current study, we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, a novel voxel-wise data-driven approach based on graph theory, to explore aberrant FC through the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the PTSD. We calculated both short- and long-range FCD in PTSD patients and healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, PTSD patients showed significantly increased long-range FCD in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), but no abnormal short-range FCD was found in PTSD. Furthermore, seed-based FC analysis of the left DLPFC showed increased connectivity in the left superior parietal lobe and visual cortex of PTSD patients. The results suggested that PTSD patients experienced a disruption of intrinsic long-range functional connections in the fronto-parietal network and visual cortex, which are associated with attention control and visual information processing.

  15. Pattern of abnormal ultrasonographic findings in patients with clinical suspicion of chronic liver disease in Sokoto and its environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadisu Mohammrd Ma`aji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the various abnormal transabdominal ultrasound findings in patients with clinical suspicion of chronic liver disease in our environment with a view of comparing our findings with other existing literatures. Methods: A total of 61 consecutive patients with clinical signs and symptoms of chronic liver disease attending medical outpatient clinic at the Department of Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Teaching Hospital Sokoto and Federal Medical Centre Birnin Kebbi were scanned at Radiology Departments for any abnormal intraabdominal findings from May 2011 to April 2012. All the patients were scanned with Apogee 800 plus (Japan 2002 and Concept D (Dynamic Imaging Scotland Ultrasound scanners with a variable frequency probes at 5-12 MHz. Results: A total of 61 abdominal ultrasounds were performed during this study period. All the cases met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was (46.0依12.6 years (ranged 50 years. The mean liver size was (13.25依1.48 cm (ranged 11 cm and (14.00依0.77 cm (ranged 0.77 cm for right and left lobe respectively. The mean spleen size was (15.90依1.22 cm (ranged 6 cm. The sex distribution was males 43 (70.49% and females 18 (29.5%. Of the 61 cases included, the indication for the abdominal ultrasonography were hepatitis 1 (1.6%, liver cirrhosis 20 (50.82%, obstructive jaundice 2 (3.28%, chronic liver disease 25 (40.98% and chronic abdominal swelling 2 (3.2%. Conclusions: In conclusion, our study has demonstrated various abnormal transabdominal ultrasound findings in patients suspected with chronic liver disease in our locality. Ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of chronic liver disease in daily clinical practice. However, the sensitivity can be improved if a high frequency probe is used and done by experienced and dedicated operators. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard especially when patients are clinically asymptomatic.

  16. Abnormal pulmonary function in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klings, Elizabeth S; Wyszynski, Diego F; Nolan, Vikki G; Steinberg, Martin H

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 +/- 14.7% predicted) and DLCO (64.5 +/- 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DLCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function.

  17. Latent and Abnormal Functional Connectivity Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Xing, Yishi; Kang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disrupted brain networks. Neuroimaging techniques provide noninvasive methods of investigating abnormal connectivity patterns in ASD. In the present study, we compare functional connectivity networks in people with ASD with those in typical controls, using neuroimaging data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) project. Specifically, we focus on the characteristics of intrinsic functional connectivity based on data collected by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Our aim was to identify disrupted brain connectivity patterns across all networks, instead of in individual edges, by using advanced statistical methods. Unlike many brain connectome studies, in which networks are prespecified before the edge connectivity in each network is compared between clinical groups, we detected the latent differentially expressed networks automatically. Our network-level analysis identified abnormal connectome networks that (i) included a high proportion of edges that were differentially expressed between people with ASD and typical controls; and (ii) showed highly-organized graph topology. These findings provide new insight into the study of the underlying neuropsychiatric mechanism of ASD.

  18. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals' capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects.

  19. A study on relationship between liver scintigram and various kinds of liver function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between GOT, γ-globulin, alkaline phosphatase, ICG-R 15 and liver scintigram (anterior view) was studied in 37 patients with miscellaneous liver diseases. The length of the splenic image and the difference between right side and left side widths of the liver were indicated as liver scintigraphic findings. 1. γ-globulin and alkaline phosphatase tended to be slightly higher with remarkable splenic image. 2. All three patients with over 35% of ICG-R 15 had atrophic type of the right lobe showing more than 13 cm of the spleen. At first sight, they were diagnosed as having liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, some of the patients who had normal or slightly abnormal ICG-R 15 were suspected of having liver cirrhosis because of the long splenic image, but all had remarkable swelling of the right lobe. 3. The patients whom the difference between the right side and the left side widths was below 3 cm contained many patients with liver cirrhosis acompanied by atrophic type of the right lobe and remarkably abnormal ICG-R 15 . (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Markers of liver function and inflammatory cytokines modulation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training modulates inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of liver function in patients with nonalcoholic ... and is associated with over nutrition and under activity, ... of these subjects with leptin reduced liver fat and liver enzyme ... tissue, muscle-released interleukin-6 inhibition of tumor.

  1. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klings, Elizabeth S.; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Nolan, Vikki G.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Methods: Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Measurements and Main Results: Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 ± 14.7% predicted) and DlCO (64.5 ± 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DlCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Conclusions: Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function. PMID:16556694

  2. Photosensitivity and Acute Liver Insufficiency in Late-Onset Erythropoietic Protoporphyria with a Chromosome 18q Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Oshikawa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP is rare, and it is usually associated with an acquired somatic mutation of the ferrochelatase gene secondary to hematological malignancy such as myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative disorder. In 0.5–1% of patients with EPP, deposition of protoporphyrin in the liver leads to progressive liver insufficiency. Herein, we report the case of a 67-year-old female who developed EPP with typical photosensitivity and hemolytic anemia. Six months later, she was admitted with acute liver damage with a rapidly progressing course, and developed liver insufficiency. She recovered from the liver insufficiency after undergoing plasmapheresis and red blood cell exchange transfusion. A bone marrow examination revealed normal features; however, a cytogenetic analysis identified an abnormal clone of cells with a translocation between chromosomes 13q12 and 18q21.1. This is the first report of a patient who recovered from liver insufficiency. The results of this report suggest that plasmapheresis and red blood cell exchange transfusion are effective for treating liver insufficiency in patients with late-onset EPP.

  3. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  4. Functional capacity and muscular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuters, Vaneska S; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima S; Vigário, Patrícia S; Almeida, Cloyra P; Buescu, Alexandre; Ferreira, Márcia M; de Castro, Carmen L N; Gold, Jaime; Vaisman, Mario

    2009-10-01

    Neuromuscular abnormalities and low exercise tolerance are frequently observed in overt hypothyroidism, but it remains controversial if they can also occur in subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). The aim of this study is to evaluate neuromuscular symptoms, muscle strength, and exercise capacity in sHT, compared with healthy euthyroid individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed with 44 sHT and 24 euthyroid outpatients from a university hospital. Neuromuscular symptoms were questioned. Muscle strength was tested for neck, shoulder, arm, and hip muscle groups, using manual muscle testing (MMT). Quadriceps muscle strength was tested with a chair dynamometer and inspiratory muscle strength (IS) by a manuvacuometer. Functional capacity was estimated based on the peak of oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min), using the Bruce treadmill protocol. Cramps (54.8% versus 25.0%; P muscle strength by MMT and the coexistence of neuromuscular complaints in patients with sHT may indicate neuromuscular dysfunction.

  5. Liver function tests using the stable istope 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Hirschberg, K.; Krumbiegel, P.; Junghans, P.; Reinhardt, R.; Teichmann, B.

    1988-01-01

    Several liver function tests using oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with 15 N and the subsequent determination of 15 N in a certain fraction of urine or in the total urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key function of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning some disturbances of liver functions. (author)

  6. Liver function tests using the stable isotope /sup 15/N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, H; Jung, K; Hirschberg, K; Krumbiegel, P; Junghans, P; Reinhardt, R; Matkowitz, R; Teichmann, B

    1988-01-01

    Several liver function tests using oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with /sup 15/N and the subsequent determination of /sup 15/N in a certain fraction of urine or in the total urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key function of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds, the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning some disturbances of liver functions.

  7. Abnormal rich club organization and functional brain dynamics in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Sporns, Olaf; Collin, Guusje; Scheewe, Thomas; Mandl, René C W; Cahn, Wiepke; Goñi, Joaquín; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2013-08-01

    The human brain forms a large-scale structural network of regions and interregional pathways. Recent studies have reported the existence of a selective set of highly central and interconnected hub regions that may play a crucial role in the brain's integrative processes, together forming a central backbone for global brain communication. Abnormal brain connectivity may have a key role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To examine the structure of the rich club in schizophrenia and its role in global functional brain dynamics. Structural diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Forty-eight patients and 45 healthy controls participated in the study. An independent replication data set of 41 patients and 51 healthy controls was included to replicate and validate significant findings. MAIN OUTCOME(S) AND MEASURES: Measures of rich club organization, connectivity density of rich club connections and connections linking peripheral regions to brain hubs, measures of global brain network efficiency, and measures of coupling between brain structure and functional dynamics. Rich club organization between high-degree hub nodes was significantly affected in patients, together with a reduced density of rich club connections predominantly comprising the white matter pathways that link the midline frontal, parietal, and insular hub regions. This reduction in rich club density was found to be associated with lower levels of global communication capacity, a relationship that was absent for other white matter pathways. In addition, patients had an increase in the strength of structural connectivity-functional connectivity coupling. Our findings provide novel biological evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by a selective

  8. Fatty liver as a risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy to metabolically abnormal in non-overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Fukuda, Takuya; Ohbora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Fukui, Michiaki

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies identified that metabolically abnormal non-obese phenotype is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about risk factor for progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. We hypothesized that fatty liver had a clinical impact on progression from metabolically healthy non-overweight to metabolically abnormal phenotype. In this retrospective cohort study, 14,093 Japanese (7557 men and 6736 women), who received the health-checkup program from 2004 to 2012, were enrolled. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index 23.0-25.0 and ≥25.0 kg/m 2 . Four metabolic factors (impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration) were used for definition of metabolically healthy (less than two factors) or metabolically abnormal (two or more). We divided the participants into three groups: metabolically healthy non-overweight (9755 individuals, men/women = 4290/5465), metabolically healthy overweight (2547 individuals, 1800/747) and metabolically healthy obesity (1791 individuals, 1267/524). Fatty liver was diagnosed by ultrasonography. Over the median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 873 metabolically healthy non-overweight, 512 metabolically healthy overweight and 536 metabolically healthy obesity individuals progressed to metabolically abnormal. The adjusted hazard risks of fatty liver on progression were 1.49 (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.83, p = 0.005) in metabolically healthy non-overweight, 1.37 (1.12-1.66, p = 0.002) in metabolically healthy overweight and 1.38 (1.15-1.66, p overweight individuals.

  9. Dual-Functional Nanoparticles Targeting CXCR4 and Delivering Antiangiogenic siRNA Ameliorate Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Chiang, Tsaiyu; Liu, Jia-Yu; Chern, Guann-Gen; Hsu, Fu-Fei; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Ya-Chi; Chen, Yunching

    2016-07-05

    The progression of liver fibrosis, an intrinsic response to chronic liver injury, is associated with hepatic hypoxia, angiogenesis, abnormal inflammation, and significant matrix deposition, leading to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to the complex pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, antifibrotic drug development has faced the challenge of efficiently and specifically targeting multiple pathogenic mechanisms. Therefore, CXCR4-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated to deliver siRNAs against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into fibrotic livers to block angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that was incorporated into the NPs, served dual functions: it acted as a targeting moiety and suppressed the progression of fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We demonstrated that CXCR4-targeted NPs could deliver VEGF siRNAs to fibrotic livers, decrease VEGF expression, suppress angiogenesis and normalize the distorted vessels in the fibrotic livers in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced mouse model. Moreover, blocking SDF-1α/CXCR4 by CXCR4-targeted NPs in combination with VEGF siRNA significantly prevented the progression of liver fibrosis in CCl4-treated mice. In conclusion, the multifunctional CXCR4-targeted NPs delivering VEGF siRNAs provide an effective antifibrotic therapeutic strategy.

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in men with liver cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of end-stage liver disease and orthotopic liver transplantation in the pituitary function and hormone metabolism before and after liver transplantation.Methods: In a prospective study, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2 and prolactin (PRL of 30 male patients with cirrhosis were determined two to four hours before and six months after liver transplantation. The results were compared according to the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD.Results: male patients with liver cirrhosis have hypogonadism. FSH was normal, but inappropriately low due to androgen failure; E2 and PRL, on their turn, were high. After liver transplantation, FSH and LH levels increased (p 18. The severity of cirrhosis had no influence on FSH, PRL and LH.

  11. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. This decrease seems to be due to decreased liver function, decreasing hepatic blood flow, and increased portosystemic shunting. Oral testosterone loading may therefore be of prognostic significance in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.......The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...

  12. Isotopic study of liver function after narcosis in small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Qui Cuong; Kiss, Bela; Jakab, Tivadar; Szilvasi, Istvan; Spett, Borbala

    1984-01-01

    Dinamic functional study of the liver was performed by sup(99m)Tc-TECHIDA in narcotized (Halothane) mice and rabbits. Hepatic uptake of the radiopharmaceutical decreased in narcotized group significantly. Excretion also decreased but statistically insignificantly. These alterations in the liver function could be attributed to the hypotensive effect of Halothane. (author)

  13. Liver Function Status in some Nigerian Children with Protein Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To ascertain functional status of the liver in Nigeria Children with Protein energy malnutrition. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests were performed on a total of 88 children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM). These were compared with 22 apparently well-nourished children who served as controls.

  14. Liver Function Study using {sup 131}I-BSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Hideo; Lio, Masahiro; Chibe, Kazuo; Kameda, Haruo; Ueda, Hideo [Tokyo University Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Luchi, Masahiko; Ishiwa, Mamoru [Kofu Municipal Hospital, Kofu (Japan)

    1971-03-15

    Liver function tests are indispensable for diagnosis of liver diseases. It is desirable to conduct several kinds of test for over-all evaluation of liver function, considering the various aspects of metabolism performed in the liver. Diagnosis of the existence and severity of liver diseases, especially in cases without jaundice and judgment of prognosis and effects of treatment must be made by various liver function tests. So far, the BSP loading test has been widely used as the most sensitive index of liver function, since BSP greatly contributes to the diagnosis of liver disease without jaundice and evaluation of prognosis. However, the clinical use of the BSP test seems to be decreasing, because side effects, such as pain and anaphylaxis-like shock, occasionally causing death, have been reported (1). Indocyanine-Green (ICG) appears to be replacing the BSP test as a safer dye for the dye excretion test (2,3), but it has not yet been widely used for clinical purpose because of problems of product stability and measurement procedures. The authors previously used {sup 35}S-BSP to analyze the mechanism of liver uptake of the dye and determined maximum hepatic uptake capacity of BSP in normal controls and for various liver diseases (4). At the same time it was noted that, in the presence of function disturbance, the liver cannot adequately handle even a tracer dose of BSP, and blood clearance of a tracer dose of BSP is not exclusively dependent on hepatic blood flow, but is also dependent on the hepatocellular function of dye uptake (5). BSP and ICG have been also used as a bilirubin analogue for analysis of clearance after a single intravenous injection (6) and to biliary excretion of the dye under continuous infusion in normal subjects as well as in various liver diseases (7). A clinical test must be safe and simple for routine use. The measurement of {sup 35}S-BSP is rather complicated while {sup 131}I-BSP, the basic properties of which were intensively studied (8

  15. Evaluation of regeneration of liver function in pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaxin; Chen Xiaopeng; Rui Ging; Shong Qun; Chen Fangman; Lu Meijing; Chen Yongquan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To establish a pig model of auxiliary partial liver transplantation and observe the liver function regeneration of host liver and graft. Methods: The portal vein providing for the host liver were gradually contracted; the donor hepatic veins were eng-to-side anastomosed to inferior vena cava in host caudal; graft was transplanted into the space under the host liver, part of receivers relieved portal vein angiography and color Doppler flow imaging was performed 3 days after surgery. Liver function of double livers in relievers was checked up, 3 days and 1 week after surgery respectively. Results: After surgery 10 relievers survived over 1 week, blood enzymology from hepatic vein of grafts 1 week after surgery were not ameliorative significantly compared with those 3 days after surgery (P > 0.05). Blood enzymology indexes from hepatic veins of grafts 1 week after surgery were were improved significantly compared with 3 days after surgery (P < 0.05). The graft did not reveal atrophic and gained favorable function. Conclusion: Favorable regeneration in the auxiliary partial liver transplantation model has achieved. Ideal foundation has been established for simulating and investigating human auxiliary liver transplantation. (authors)

  16. Shear wave elastography results correlate with liver fibrosis histology and liver function reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan-Hong; Hu, Xiang-Dong; Zhai, Lin; Liu, Ji-Bin; Qiu, Lan-Yan; Zu, Yuan; Liang, Si; Gui, Yu; Qian, Lin-Xue

    2016-05-07

    To evaluate the correlation of shear wave elastography (SWE) results with liver fibrosis histology and quantitative function reserve. Weekly subcutaneous injection of 60% carbon tetrachloride (1.5 mL/kg) was given to 12 canines for 24 wk to induce experimental liver fibrosis, with olive oil given to 2 control canines. At 24 wk, liver condition was evaluated using clinical biochemistry assays, SWE imaging, lidocaine metabolite monoethylglycine-xylidide (MEGX) test, and histologic fibrosis grading. Clinical biochemistry assays were performed at the institutional central laboratory for routine liver function evaluation. Liver stiffness was measured in triplicate from three different intercostal spaces and expressed as mean liver stiffness modulus (LSM). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and its metabolite MEGX were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography repeated in duplicate. Liver biopsy samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and liver fibrosis was graded using the modified histological activity index Knodell score (F0-F4). Correlations among histologic grading, LSM, and MEGX measures were analyzed with the Pearson linear correlation coefficient. At 24 wk liver fibrosis histologic grading was as follows: F0, n = 2 (control); F1, n = 0; F2, n = 3; F3, n = 7; and F4, n = 2. SWE LSM was positively correlated with histologic grading (r = 0.835, P function reserve in experimental severe fibrosis and cirrhosis.

  17. Consequences on offspring of abnormal function in ageing gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, J J; Pérez-Albalá, S; Cano, A

    2000-01-01

    The present review aims to analyse (i) the molecular, biochemical and cellular changes that accompany oocyte and sperm ageing in any of the internal or external environments where they can reside, and (ii) the consequences of the abnormal function in ageing gametes on pre- and post-implantation development and later life of offspring. This review also aims to propose and discuss cellular/molecular mechanisms framed within the 'free radical theory of ageing'. It appears that the ageing of gametes prior to fertilization may affect many molecular, biochemical and cellular pathways that may jeopardize not only pre- and post-implantation embryo/fetal development but also later life of offspring. Consequences of gamete ageing range from decreased vigour (with the concomitant decrease in intelligence, reproductive fitness and longevity) of apparently normal-looking offspring to severe congenital, epigenetic and/or genetic anomalies. All these effects may be easily prevented by efficient diffusion of both the potential risks of gamete ageing and the steps that should be taken by couples wishing to achieve pregnancy to guarantee a correct maturational synchronization of gametes at fertilization. Although in-vitro antioxidant therapy appears to protect from or retard the ageing process of gametes, it may not assure the total absence of negative effects on the resulting offspring.

  18. Biochemical and functional abnormalities in hypercholesterolemic rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, K.B.; Ebbe, S.; Mazoyer, E.; Carpenter, D.; Yee, T.

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to elucidate changes in rabbit platelet lipids induced by a cholesterol rich diet and to explore the possible correlation of these lipid changes with platelet abnormalities. Pronounced biochemical alterations were observed when serum cholesterol levels of 700-1000 mg% were reached. Hypercholesterolemic (HC) platelets contained 37% more neutral lipids and 16% less phospholipids than the controls. Lysolecithin, cholesterol esters and phosphatidylinositol (PI) levels were increased in HC platelets, and the levels of phosphatidylcholine (PC) were decreased. The cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of lipidemic platelets increased from 0.55 +/- 0.011 to 0.89 +/- 0.016 (P less than 0.01) in eight weeks. HC platelets had 90% more arachidonic acid (AA) in the PI than normal platelets. No significant changes in AA of PC were observed. Platelet function was monitored by the uptake and release of [14C]serotonin in platelet rich plasma (PRP), using varying concentrations of collagen as an aggregating agent. The uptake of [14C]serotonin in HC and normal platelets ranged from 78-94%. The percent of [14C]serotonin released from normal and HC platelets was proportional to the concentration of collagen. However, lipidemic platelets were hyperreactive to low concentrations of collagen. Incorporation of 50 microM acetylsalicylic acid into the aggregating medium suppressed the release of [14C]serotonin in normal PRP by more than 90%, but had only a partial effect on lipidemic PRP

  19. Loss of brain function - liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic coma; Encephalopathy - hepatic; Hepatic encephalopathy; Portasystemic encephalopathy ... 2017:417-421. Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal ... of liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  20. Evaluation of liver function tests of HIV positive patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver enzymes-alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase (AST, ALT and ALP), bilirubin and serum proteins were determined using standard laboratory methods and these parameters were used to evaluate the liver function of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive patients receiving ...

  1. Assessment of biochemical liver function tests in relation to age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Multiorgan failure including liver dysfunction is a common finding in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, the cause of which is multifactorial with advancing age said to be a major determinant. There is a paucity of data on liver function among SCA patients in relation to age in northern Nigerian ...

  2. Hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging in patients with liver disease: correlation of liver enhancement with biochemical liver function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Schaefer, Stephanie G.; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Spengler, Ulrich [Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a valuable biomarker for liver function. The strongest correlation with liver enhancement was found for the MELD Score. (orig.)

  3. Severe abnormal Heart Rate Turbulence Onset is associated with deterioration of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Christian; Al-Kassou, Baravan; Lehmann, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with liver cirrhosis, cardiac dysfunction is frequent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cardiac dysfunction in cirrhosis seems to be linked to autonomic dysfunction. This study investigates the role of autonomic dysfunction assessed by Heart Rate...... Turbulence (HRT) analyses in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Inclusion criteria was (1) diagnosis of cirrhosis by clinical, imaging or biopsy and (2) evaluation by standard 12-lead-ECG and 24h holter monitoring and (3) at least 3 premature ventricular contractions. The exclusion...... criterion was presence of cardiac diseases, independent of liver cirrhosis. Biochemical parameters were analysed using standard methods. HRT was assessed using Turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS). The endpoint was deterioration of liver cirrhosis defined as increased MELD and readmission for complications...

  4. [Perioperative changes of coagulation functions in the local advanced liver cancer patients receiving liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Qing-Yu; Yuan, Yun-Fei

    2008-07-01

    Liver transplantation is widely accepted as an effective therapy of hepatoma. Perioperative dynamic observation of coagulation function is important for graft-receivers. This study was to explore perioperative changes of coagulation functions in the local advanced liver cancer patients who received liver transplantation. Clinical data of 31 local advanced liver cancer patients, underwent liver transplantation from Sep. 2003 to Jan. 2007, were analyzed. Platelet (PLT) counting, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (Fib) and international normalized ratio (INR) before operation, at anhepatic phase and the first week after operation were analyzed to evaluate congulation function. The coagulation functions of most patients were normal before operation. The six parameters varied significantly at anhepatic phase and on most days of the first week after operation when compared with the preoperative levels (Pfunctions of local advanced liver cancer patients shift from hypocoagulatory to hypercoagulatory or normal in perioperative period, therefore, prevention of bleeding should be focused on at anhepatic phase and on 1-2 days after operation while prevention of thrombosis should be focused on after the first week after operation. The degree of liver cirrhosis and Child-Pugh level could help to evaluate postoperative coagulation disorder.

  5. The Therapeutic Function of the Instructor in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgin, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    Describes three main types of therapeutic problems which college instructors of abnormal psychology courses may encounter with their students. Students may seek the instructor's assistance in helping a relative or acquaintance or for self-help. Often a student may not seek help but may display pathological behavior. (AM)

  6. 15N liver function tests - concept, validity, clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.; Hirschberg, K.; Reinhardt, R.; Junghans, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several liver function tests using the oral application of a nitrogen compound labelled with 15 N and the subsequent determination of 15 N in a certain fraction of urine by emission spectrometry are described. Because of the key position of the liver in the metabolism of nitrogen compounds the results of these tests allow conclusions concerning disturbances of special liver functions. Instructions for the clinical use of the '[ 15 N]Ammonium Test', '[ 15 N]Hippurate Test' the '[ 15 N]Methacetin Test', and the '[ 15 N]Glycine Test' are given. (author)

  7. Platelet Arachidonic Acid Deficiency May Contribute to Abnormal Platelet Function During Parenteral Fish Oil Monotherapy in a Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Justine M; Field, Catherine J; Goruk, Sue; Wizzard, Pamela; Dicken, Bryan J; Bruce, Aisha; Wales, Paul W

    2016-05-01

    Fish oil monotherapy has been an advance for treating intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). However, such patients are at risk of bleeding complications from liver disease and because fish oil can inhibit thrombosis. We have previously reported abnormal platelet function in neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy during parenteral nutrition (PN). The purpose of this study was to determine if abnormal fatty acid composition of the platelets could explain the prior observed antiplatelet effect. Neonatal piglets were assigned to 2 treatments: PN with fish oil monotherapy (FO; n = 4) or PN with soy oil (SO; n = 5). On day 14, plasma was collected and platelets isolated by centrifuging. The fatty acid content in plasma and platelet plug were measured using gas liquid chromatography and compared with controls (CON; n = 5). The arachidonic acid (AA) content in the FO group was on average half that of the SO group, in both the platelets (FO, 3.5% vs SO, 7.6%; P = .021; CON, 4.5%-11%) and the plasma (FO, 3.8% vs SO, 9.2%; P = .002; CON, 6.1%-9.5%). No bleeding complications were observed for any piglets during PN treatment. Using platelet mapping, we have previously shown that neonatal piglets given fish oil monotherapy have abnormal platelet function in the AA pathway. This report demonstrates that such an abnormality can be explained by platelet AA deficiency. Platelet mapping and platelet fatty acid analysis should be undertaken in human infants treated with fish oil monotherapy during PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. Liver volume in thalassaemia major: relationship with body weight, serum ferritin, and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Law Manyee; Howard, Robert [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    It is not known whether body weight alone can adjust for the volume of liver in the calculation of the chelating dose in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients, who frequently have iron overload and hepatitis. The hypothesis is that liver volume in children and adolescents suffering from {beta}-thalassaemia major is affected by ferritin level and liver function. Thirty-five {beta}-thalassaemia major patients aged 7-18 years and 35 age- and sex-matched controls had liver volume measured by MRI. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels were obtained in the thalassaemia major patients. Body weight explained 65 and 86% of the change in liver volume in {beta}-thalassaemia major patients and age-matched control subjects, respectively. Liver volume/kilogram body weight was significantly higher (P<0.001) in thalassaemia major patients than in control subjects. There was a significant correlation between ALT level and liver volume/kilogram body weight (r=0.55, P=0.001). Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher liver volume/kilogram body weight (mean 42.9{+-}12 cm{sup 3}/kg) than control subjects (mean 23.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg) and patients with normal ALT levels (mean 27.4{+-}3.6 cm{sup 3}/kg). Body weight is the most important single factor for liver-volume changes in thalassaemia major patients, but elevated ALT also has a significant role. Direct liver volume measurement for chelation dose adjustment may be advantageous in patients with elevated ALT. (orig.)

  9. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  10. Large-Scale Functional Brain Network Abnormalities in Alzheimer’s Disease: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford C. Dickerson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD have begun to reveal abnormalities in large-scale memory and cognitive brain networks. Since the medial temporal lobe (MTL memory system is a site of very early pathology in AD, a number of studies have focused on this region of the brain. Yet it is clear that other regions of the large-scale episodic memory network are affected early in the disease as well, and fMRI has begun to illuminate functional abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices as well in MCI and AD. Besides predictable hypoactivation of brain regions as they accrue pathology and undergo atrophy, there are also areas of hyperactivation in brain memory and cognitive circuits, possibly representing attempted compensatory activity. Recent fMRI data in MCI and AD are beginning to reveal relationships between abnormalities of functional activity in the MTL memory system and in functionally connected brain regions, such as the precuneus. Additional work with “resting state” fMRI data is illuminating functional-anatomic brain circuits and their disruption by disease. As this work continues to mature, it will likely contribute to our understanding of fundamental memory processes in the human brain and how these are perturbed in memory disorders. We hope these insights will translate into the incorporation of measures of task-related brain function into diagnostic assessment or therapeutic monitoring, which will hopefully one day be useful for demonstrating beneficial effects of treatments being tested in clinical trials.

  11. Where should the safe limits of alcohol consumption stand in light of liver enzyme abnormalities in alcohol consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onni Niemelä

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for abnormal liver enzymes in a large age- and gender stratified population-based sample of apparently healthy individuals with or without alcohol consumption and other health-related risk factors (adiposity, physical inactivity, smoking.Data on alcohol use, smoking, diet and physical activity were recorded using structured questionnaires from 13,976 subjects (6513 men, 7463 women, aged 25-74 years in the national FINRISK studies. Alcohol data was used to categorize the participants into abstainers, light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities were measured using standard kinetic methods.Male light drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers showed significantly higher relative risks of abnormal GGT than abstainers: 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.71, p < 0.01, 2.72 (2.08 to 3.56, p < 0.0005, and 6.10 (4.55 to 7.17, p < 0.0005, respectively. Corresponding values for women were 1.22 (0.99 to 1.51, p = 0.065, 1.90 (1.44 to 2.51, p < 0.0005, and 5.91 (3.80 to 9.17, p < 0.0005. Estimated threshold doses for a significant GGT elevation was 14 standard weekly alcohol doses for men and 7 for women. Excess body weight and age over 40 years modulated the thresholds towards smaller quantities of alcohol. The risk of abnormal GGT was also significantly influenced by physical inactivity and smoking. The relative risks of abnormal ALT activities were increased in male heavy drinkers, especially in those presenting with adiposity and sedentary lifestyle.Alcohol use markedly increases the risk for abnormal liver enzyme activities in those presenting with age over 40 years, obesity, smoking or sedentary lifestyle. The data should be considered in public health recommendations and in the definitions of safe limits of alcohol use.

  12. Hepatic mitochondrial function analysis using needle liver biopsy samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. METHODS: An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean. Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n = 6 each showed low coefficient of variation (<10% in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR. Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

  13. THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RENAL FUNCTION IN LIVER DISEASES USING COCKCROFT-GAULT FORMULAE AND CREATININE CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem Ravi Teja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Kidney dysfunction in liver disease can be due to different aetiologies and can have diverse manifestations. Most of the abnormalities of kidney function in cirrhosis are of functional origin namely, sodium retention, impaired free water excretion and renal vasoconstriction with decrease in renal perfusion and glomerular filtration rate. Renal dysfunction in chronic liver disease usually follows a progressive course- the final phase being Hepatorenal Syndrome (HRS. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included patients with chronic liver disease being treated as inpatients in the Department of General Medicine, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram. Evidence for chronic liver disease being defined by a compatible clinical profile (signs of liver cell failure or reduced liver span along with biochemical (altered liver function tests, reversal of albuminglobulin ratio or sonographic evidence (altered echotexture of liver or tissue diagnosis (positive liver biopsy for cirrhosis. RESULTS Eighteen percent, i.e. 5 out of the 28 patients with creatinine clearance more than 60 mL/minute by Cockcroft-Gault formula were found to have creatinine clearance values less than 40 mL/minute when done by timed urine collection P value calculated was found to be less than 0.0001, which is statistically significant. CONCLUSION In chronic liver disease, serum creatinine alone is not a reliable marker to assess renal dysfunction. Calculating creatinine clearance by using Cockcroft-Gault formula overestimates renal function in cirrhotics. Creatinine clearance measured by timed urine collections should be done routinely to assess renal reserve in advanced liver disease. Alcoholism appears to have adverse effect on renal function when compared with other aetiologies of cirrhosis.

  14. Physiological Motion and Registration of Abnormalities in Liver During Focused Ultrasound Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sunita; Rh, Abhilash

    Continuous deformation and dislocation of soft tissues in the abdominal and thoracic region presents a major issue for effective targeting of all non-invasive ablative modalities such as radiotherapy/surgery and Focused Ultrasound Surgery. Most significant among these is the movement of the target organs due to physiological processes such as respiration. The movement is found to be most significant for liver and kidneys. We studied movement and compensation strategies with the aim to implement them during ultrasound ablation using our robotic system for targeted FUS dose delivery. The motion pattern of the liver can be assumed to be in a single plane as it closely follows the movement of the diaphragm. However, the movement of kidneys is three dimensional and follows complicated patterns. Kidney motion is highly subject specific and has poor repeatability. In our research, we quantify the relation of liver movement and the breathing pattern so as to achieve real-time movement compensation using a prediction-correlation approach.

  15. Local and Global Function Model of the Liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Jackson, Andrew [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a local and global function model in the liver based on regional and organ function measurements to support individualized adaptive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A local and global model for liver function was developed to include both functional volume and the effect of functional variation of subunits. Adopting the assumption of parallel architecture in the liver, the global function was composed of a sum of local function probabilities of subunits, varying between 0 and 1. The model was fit to 59 datasets of liver regional and organ function measures from 23 patients obtained before, during, and 1 month after RT. The local function probabilities of subunits were modeled by a sigmoid function in relating to MRI-derived portal venous perfusion values. The global function was fitted to a logarithm of an indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (an overall liver function measure). Cross-validation was performed by leave-m-out tests. The model was further evaluated by fitting to the data divided according to whether the patients had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or not. Results: The liver function model showed that (1) a perfusion value of 68.6 mL/(100 g · min) yielded a local function probability of 0.5; (2) the probability reached 0.9 at a perfusion value of 98 mL/(100 g · min); and (3) at a probability of 0.03 [corresponding perfusion of 38 mL/(100 g · min)] or lower, the contribution to global function was lost. Cross-validations showed that the model parameters were stable. The model fitted to the data from the patients with HCC indicated that the same amount of portal venous perfusion was translated into less local function probability than in the patients with non-HCC tumors. Conclusions: The developed liver function model could provide a means to better assess individual and regional dose-responses of hepatic functions, and provide guidance for individualized treatment planning of RT.

  16. 131I-BSP liver function test by BSP tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Koichi

    1974-01-01

    131 I-BSP liver function test after BSP intravenous tolerance was discussed, assuming that the reason why measurements of 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and 131 I-BSP disappearance rate in blood showed respectable overlapping between normal group and group with slight liver disorders as compared with BSP test and the reason why differential diagnosis was difficult were due to underestimate of tolerance volume of 131 I-BSP. 131 I-BSP was observed with time as to 70 persons with normal liver function and 257 cases of liver diseases, using 5, 3 and 2 mg of non-radioactive BSP tolerance volume per kilogram of body weight. 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and 131 I-BSP disappearance rate in blood are possible to separate overlapping over control in each measurement value at 3-5 mg/kg of tolerance, and in comparison of 3 mg and 5 mg, the latter showed a little excellent result. So, it was decided that tolerance of 3 mg/kg was a proper dose, considering tolerance to liver cells. 131 I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes was a little excellent in accuracy and disappearance rate in blood after BSP tolerance is simple and profitable for practical use because collection of blood was only one time and measurement could be made with whole blood. As mentioned above, this method is seemed to be useful to practice of liver function test. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Administration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells restores liver regeneration and improves liver function in obese mice with hepatic steatosis after partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, Fernando; Bahamonde, Javiera; Huang, Ya-Lin; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2017-01-28

    The liver has the remarkable capacity to regenerate in order to compensate for lost or damaged hepatic tissue. However, pre-existing pathological abnormalities, such as hepatic steatosis (HS), inhibits the endogenous regenerative process, becoming an obstacle for liver surgery and living donor transplantation. Recent evidence indicates that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) administration can improve hepatic function and increase the potential for liver regeneration in patients with liver damage. Since HS is the most common form of chronic hepatic illness, in this study we evaluated the role of MSCs in liver regeneration in an animal model of severe HS with impaired liver regeneration. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a regular diet (normal mice) or with a high-fat diet (obese mice) to induce HS. After 30 weeks of diet exposure, 70% hepatectomy (Hpx) was performed and normal and obese mice were divided into two groups that received 5 × 10 5 MSCs or vehicle via the tail vein immediately after Hpx. We confirmed a significant inhibition of hepatic regeneration when liver steatosis was present, while the hepatic regenerative response was promoted by infusion of MSCs. Specifically, MSC administration improved the hepatocyte proliferative response, PCNA-labeling index, DNA synthesis, liver function, and also reduced the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. These effects may be associated to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors by MSCs and the hepatic upregulation of key cytokines and growth factors relevant for cell proliferation, which ultimately improves the survival rate of the mice. MSCs represent a promising therapeutic strategy to improve liver regeneration in patients with HS as well as for increasing the number of donor organs available for transplantation.

  18. Prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Chen, Yintao; Dong, Siyuan; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients and identify contributing risk factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China, and 1,198 type 2 diabetic patients with complete data were recruited. Elevated ALT and AST levels were defined as >40 U/L. Prevalence of abnormal liver enzymes was analyzed and multivariable analysis was used to identify independent risk factors. 10.3% and 6.1% diabetic patients had elevated ALT and elevated AST, respectively. The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes was gender-related; it was 13.8% in men and 7.5% in women for elevated ALT, and 7.4% in men and 3.1% in women for elevated AST. High triglyceride was positively associated with both elevated ALT (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08-3.01, p = 0.024) and elevated AST (OR 2.24, 95%CI 1.08-4.65, p = 0.031), while taking anti-diabetes medicine was inversely related to both elevated ALT (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.80, p = 0.005) and elevated AST (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17-0.82, p = 0.014). The risk of elevated ALT in diabetic patients increased with the presence of obesity (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.07-6.01, p = 0.034), and was lower in women (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.72, p = 0.003). Hypertension (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.41-13.30, p = 0.011), current drinking status (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.21-6.96, p = 0.017) and national minority (OR 3.26, 95%CI 1.31-8.12, p = 0.011) were risk factors for elevated AST. A relatively high prevalence of abnormal serum liver enzymes in diabetic patients was demonstrated in China, especially in males. More attention should be paid to preventing liver injuries in diabetic patients.

  19. A new liver function test using the asialoglycoprotein-receptor system on the liver cell membrane, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Hiroshi; Kawa, Soukichi; Kubota, Yoshitsugu

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the vilidity of a new liver function test using liver scintigraphy based on the asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor system on the liver cell membrane in rats with galactosamine-induced acute liver disorder and those with carbon tetra-chloride-induced chronic liver disorder. Neoglycoprotein (GHSA) produced by combining human serum albumin with 32 galactose units was labeled with 99m Tc and administered (50 μg/100 g body weight) to rats with acute or chronic liver disorder. Clearance curves were produced based on liver scintigrams and analysed using the two-compartment model to obtain parameters. In acute liver disorder, the prolongation of 99m Tc-GHSA clearance and the decrease in ASGP receptor activities correlated well to the increase in serum GOT and the decrease in the esterified to total cholesterol ratio (E/T ratio); in chronic liver disorder, they correlated significantly to the increase in the content of liver hydroxyproline (Hyp) which increased in proportion to the severity of liver fibrosis studied histologically, and to the decrease in the contents of cytochrome P-450 and cytochrome b 5 in liver microsomes. Significant correlation was observed between the prolongation of 99m Tc-GHSA clearance and the decrease in ASGP receptor activities in both acute and chronic liver disorders. These findings indicate that the measurement of 99m Tc-GHSA clearance can be a new liver function test sensitively reflecting the severity of liver damage. (author)

  20. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-05-06

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. LV function monitoring to discard functional abnormalities in athletes with altered ventricular re-polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, A.; Camacho, V.; Mena, E.; Tembl, A.; Estorch, M.; Carrio, I.; Serra-Grima, R.; Borras, X.; Cinca, J.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities (MRA) in athletes may suggest the presence of associated heart disease. Assessment of LV function during exercise may contribute to rule out heart disease and help to decide continuation of physical training. The aim of the study was to assess whether athletes with MRA show a particular response of LV function to exhausting exercise. Material and Methods: Thirty-nine male athletes underwent monitoring of LV function with a miniaturised radionuclide detector (VEST, Capintec, Inc.) during bicycle exhausting exercise. There were 22 athletes with MRA in the ECG at rest (negative T waves equal or more than 2mm in up to 3 ECG leads) and 17 with normal ECG. All were symptom free. Age and physical fitness were comparable in both groups. Clinical examination, ECG, exercise test and echocardiography were performed in all athletes. Results: In all cases LV wall thickness was that expected for highly conditioned sportsmen. Both groups of athletes attained a similar energy expenditure. During exercise, athletes with MRA showed a tendency to normalise re-polarization. There were no differences in heart rate, LV end-systolic volume, LVEF, cardiac output , and peak ejection and filling rates at rest, 50%, 75%, 85% and 100% of peak HR, nor at 2, 5 and 10 min of recovery between both groups of athletes. At rest stroke volume was lower in athletes with MRA (60% vs. 64%, p=0.044). There were also no differences in LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), except at peak HR, when EDV increased in athletes with normal ECG while it decreased in athletes with MRA (p=0.047). Conclusions: The presence of marked ventricular re-polarization abnormalities in athletes does not substantially affect exercise performance nor LV function and should not preclude physical training. The VEST is a useful means to assess LV function during exhausting upright bicycle exercise

  2. Ultrasonography of the liver anatomy, procedure, normal and abnormal findings in diseased states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Morimichi

    1996-01-01

    Although the very first attempt to use ultrasound for diagnostic purpose in medicine may be traced back to the 1940's, the modern ultrasound imaging has only been started in 1963 by G. Kossoff, who developed the idea of grayscale ultrasonography together with the automatic waterbath scanner, Octoson, to examine pelvic and other abdominal organs. The signal processing, logarithmic compression of incoming backscattered echo signals, greatly Improved image quality and thus facilitated the use of ultrasound imaging in clinical diagnostic purposes. The bistable, black and white ultrasound equipment were used in the 60's, and even sophisticated B-mode contact scanners had been completely replaced by the real-time B-mode equipment and then the technique started to be used widely in medical imaging in clinical and radiology departments. These rather drastic changes took place since the introduction of the phased array technique introduced by Somer in 1967 and later the linear array method introduced by Bom in 1970. Other rare metabolic diseases have to be analyzed carefully for the differential diagnosis. In summary, ultrasonography is a useful measure to identify the presence of pathologic changes in the liver. The information obtained is mostly of morphological nature, though some additional findings could be obtained by careful analysis of the sonographic features. Examination is quick, non-invasive and findings are fairly reproducible and even very small lesions could be identified. Combined use of the ultrasound imaging with other modalities such as the radio isotope scanning, X ray, CT or MRI will be very helpful in identifying and characterising the lesions in the liver

  3. Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration. PMID:3758617

  4. Liver-resident NK cells and their potential functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Rui

    2017-09-18

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a heterogeneous population of innate lymphocytes with phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. In particular, recent studies have identified a unique subset of NK cells residing within the liver that are maintained as tissue-resident cells, confer antigen-specific memory responses and exhibit different phenotypical and developmental characteristics compared with conventional NK (cNK) cells. These findings have encouraged researchers to uncover tissue-resident NK cells at other sites, and detailed analyses have revealed that these tissue-resident NK cells share many similarities with liver-resident NK cells and tissue-resident memory T cells. Here, we present a brief historical perspective on the discovery of liver-resident NK cells and discuss their relationship to cNK cells and other emerging NK cell subsets and their potential functions.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.72.

  5. Volumetric and functional recovery of the remnant liver after major liver resection with prior portal vein embolization : recovery after PVE and liver resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, J.W.; de Graaf, W.; van Lienden, K.P.; Busch, O.R.; Heger, M.; van Delden, O.M.; Gouma, D.J.; Bennink, R.J.; Laméris, J.S.; van Gulik, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Portal vein embolization is an accepted method to increase the future remnant liver preoperatively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative portal vein embolization on liver volume and function 3 months after major liver resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is

  6. Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in liver cancer cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Jinyan; Liu, Yunxia; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhao, Man; Ye, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumorigenesis. Hence, the alterations of metabolism enhance the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aspirin is able to inhibit the growth of cancers through targeting nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). However, the role of aspirin in disrupting abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that aspirin can suppress the abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC cells through inhibiting acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (ACSL1), a lipid metabolism-related enzyme. Interestingly, oil red O staining showed that aspirin suppressed lipogenesis in HepG2 cells and Huh7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspirin attenuated the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol in the cells, respectively. Strikingly, we identified that aspirin was able to down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Moreover, we validated that aspirin decreased the nuclear levels of NF-κB in HepG2 cells. Mechanically, PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-κB, could down-regulate ACSL1 at the levels of mRNA and protein in the cells. Functionally, PDTC reduced the levels of lipid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which aspirin inhibits abnormal lipid metabolism of HCC. Therapeutically, aspirin is potentially available for HCC through controlling abnormal lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • Aspirin inhibits the levels of liquid droplets, triglyceride and cholesterol in HCC cells. • Aspirin is able to down-regulate ACSL1 in HCC cells. • NF-κB inhibitor PDTC can down-regulate ACSL1 and reduces lipogenesis in HCC cells. • Aspirin suppresses the abnormal lipid metabolism in HCC cells via disrupting an NFκB-ACSL1 signaling.

  7. Quality of Liver and Kidney Function Tests among Public Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy and precision of clinical chemistry laboratories in western region of Amhara national regional state of Ethiopia in testing liver and kidney functions. Methods: Eight laboratories in hospitals and a Regional Health Research Laboratory Center participated in this study from ...

  8. Study of liver function and expression of some detoxification genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmad Ali Badr

    2015-10-19

    Oct 19, 2015 ... In this study we investigate the effect(s) of MTBE on liver function indices and ... Methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline oxygenate, is added to ..... ether (MTBE) in CD-1 mice and F-344 rats. J Appl Toxicol.

  9. Liver Function In Patients With Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the sensitive ELISA technique, 213 patients with sickle cell anemia (112 males and 101 females) aged 6 months to 18 years were screened for Hepatitis B infection using Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen. A biochemical evaluation of liver function was carried out on all ...

  10. Evaluation of selected parameters of rat liver and kidney function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of administration of yohimbine, an aphrodisiac on some functional parameters of rat liver and kidney were investigated. White male albino rats weighing between 200-250g were grouped into two such that one group was orally administered with 14mg/kg body weight on daily basis for 15days while the control ...

  11. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith C A Cluitmans

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA. This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence of deformed red blood cells with thorny protrusions, acanthocytes, in the circulation.The goal of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant red cell morphology and the corresponding functional consequences. This could shed light on the etiology of the neurodegeneration.We performed a qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological, immunofluorescent, biochemical and functional analysis of the red cells of several patients with PKAN and, for the first time, of the red cells of their family members.We show that the blood of patients with PKAN contains not only variable numbers of acanthocytes, but also a wide range of other misshapen red cells. Immunofluorescent and immunoblot analyses suggest an altered membrane organization, rather than quantitative changes in protein expression. Strikingly, these changes are not limited to the red blood cells of PKAN patients, but are also present in the red cells of heterozygous carriers without neurological problems. Furthermore, changes are not only present in acanthocytes, but also in other red cells, including discocytes. The patients' cells, however, are more fragile, as observed in a spleen-mimicking device.These morphological, molecular and functional characteristics of red cells in patients with PKAN and their family members offer new tools for diagnosis and present a window into the pathophysiology of neuroacanthocytosis.

  12. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  13. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol‐dependent individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D.; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J.; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M.; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Lingford‐Hughes, Anne R.; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50‐mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly‐drug‐dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network‐based statistical analysis of resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol‐dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly‐drug‐dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol‐dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly‐substance‐dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology. PMID:28247526

  14. Hepatic encephalopathy in a liver transplant recipient with stable liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Juan Pablo; Meneses, Luis; Pérez, Rosa M; Arrese, Marco; Benítez, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Postshunt hepatic encephalopathy after liver transplantation (LT) is an infrequent condition and is commonly associated with portal occlusion or stenosis and the presence of a patent portosystemic shunt. Portal vein stenosis (PVS) or thrombosis (PVT) are uncommon complications after LT. The overall frequency of both complications is reported to be less than 3%. When PVS or PVT develop early after LT, the occlusion of the portal vein can have catastrophic consequences to the graft including acute liver failure and graft loss. Late PVT/PVS are asymptomatic in approximately 50% of the cases and mainly diagnosed by a routine ultrasound. Symptomatic postshunt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a very infrequent condition after LT that has been scarcely reported in the literature. We present here the case of a liver recipient with normal graft function who presented with hepatic encephalopathy 3 months after LT with stable liver function but a severe portal stenosis and the presence of a spontaneous portosystemic shunt whose successful endovascular treatment was followed by the complete resolution of the HE.

  15. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal GABAergic function and negative affect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephan F; Demeter, Elise; Phan, K Luan; Tso, Ivy F; Welsh, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Deficits in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system have been reported in postmortem studies of schizophrenia, and therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia often involve potentiation of GABA receptors (GABAR) to augment antipsychotic therapy and treat negative affect such as anxiety. To map GABAergic mechanisms associated with processing affect, we used a benzodiazepine challenge while subjects viewed salient visual stimuli. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients and 13 healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they viewed salient emotional images. Subjects received intravenous lorazepam (LRZ; 0.01 mg/kg) or saline in a single-blinded, cross-over design (two sessions separated by 1-3 weeks). A predicted group by drug interaction was noted in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) as well as right superior frontal gyrus and left and right occipital regions, such that psychosis patients showed an increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, rather than the decreased signal exhibited by the comparison group. A main effect of reduced BOLD signal in bilateral occipital areas was noted across groups. Consistent with the role of the dmPFC in processing emotion, state negative affect positively correlated with the response to the LRZ challenge in the dmPFC for the patients and comparison subjects. The altered response to LRZ challenge is consistent with altered inhibition predicted by postmortem findings of altered GABAR in schizophrenia. These results also suggest that negative affect in schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder is associated-directly or indirectly-with GABAergic function on a continuum with normal behavior.

  17. Study on liver function tests in A-bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Iwao; Mine, Yutaka; Ito, Naomi

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of liver function abnormality was examined in the health screening for A-bomb survivors performed at Nagasaki in l986. Parameters were as follows: GOT, GPT, ALP, ZTT, gamma-GTP, LAP, and LDH. A-bomb survivors were divided into Group A - those exposed within 2,000 m from the hypocenter, Group B - those exposed between 2,000 and l0,000 m, and Group C - those who entered the city within 2 weeks after A-bombing. The incidence of abnormality in GOT, GPT, gamma-GTP, and LAP was higher in men than women in every age group. Women aged 50 years or older had a higher incidence of abnormality in ALP and LDH, in contrast to men aged 60 years or older having a higher incidence for ZTT. There was no definitive tendency among groups for the incidence of abnormal findings, except for GOT showing a higher value among women in Group A. (Namekawa, K)

  18. Contribution of abnormal muscle and liver glucose metabolism to postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrakou, A.; Kelley, D.; Veneman, T.; Jenssen, T.; Pangburn, T.; Reilly, J.; Gerich, J.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the role of muscle and liver in the pathogenesis of postprandial hyperglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we administered an oral glucose load enriched with [14C]glucose to 10 NIDDM subjects and 10 age- and weight-matched nondiabetic volunteers and compared muscle glucose disposal by measuring forearm balance of glucose, lactate, alanine, O2, and CO2. In addition, we used the dual-lable isotope method to compare overall rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), suppression of endogenous glucose output, and splanchnic glucose sequestration. During the initial 1-1.5 h after glucose ingestion, plasma glucose increased by approximately 8 mM in NIDDM vs. approximately 3 mM in nondiabetic subjects (P less than 0.01); overall glucose Ra was nearly 11 g greater in NIDDM than nondiabetic subjects, but glucose Rd was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects. The greater overall glucose Ra of NIDDM subjects was due to 6.8 g greater endogenous glucose output (13.7 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.0 g, P less than 0.01) and 3.8 g less oral glucose splanchnic sequestration of the oral load (31.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 27.5 +/- 0.9 g, P less than 0.05). Although glucose taken up by muscle was not significantly different in NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects (39.3 +/- 3.5 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.5 g/5 h), a greater amount of the glucose taken up by muscle in NIDDM was released as lactate and alanine (11.7 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.3 g in nondiabetic subjects, P less than 0.01), and less was stored (11.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 16.9 +/- 1.5 g, P less than 0.05). We conclude that increased systemic glucose delivery, due primarily to reduced suppression of endogenous hepatic glucose output and, to a lesser extent, reduced splanchnic glucose sequestration, is the predominant factor responsible for postprandial hyperglycemia in NIDDM

  19. Automatic quantitative analysis of liver functions by a computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinpo, Takako

    1984-01-01

    In the previous paper, we confirmed the clinical usefulness of hepatic clearance (hepatic blood flow), which is the hepatic uptake and blood disappearance rate coefficients. These were obtained by the initial slope index of each minute during a period of five frames of a hepatogram by injecting sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid 37 MBq. To analyze the information simply, rapidly and accurately, we developed a automatic quantitative analysis for liver functions. Information was obtained every quarter minute during a period of 60 frames of the sequential image. The sequential counts were measured for the heart, whole liver, both left lobe and right lobes using a computer connected to a scintillation camera. We measured the effective hepatic blood flow, from the disappearance rate multiplied by the percentage of hepatic uptake as follows, (liver counts)/(tatal counts of the field) Our method of analysis automatically recorded the reappearance graph of the disappearance curve and uptake curve on the basis of the heart and the whole liver, respectively; and computed using BASIC language. This method makes it possible to obtain the image of the initial uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-colloid into the liver by a small dose of it. (author)

  20. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5-10% progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients.Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55. Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status.

  1. Abnormal chloride homeostasis in the substancia nigra pars reticulata contributes to locomotor deficiency in a model of acute liver injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altered chloride homeostasis has been thought to be a risk factor for several brain disorders, while less attention has been paid to its role in liver disease. We aimed to analyze the involvement and possible mechanisms of altered chloride homeostasis of GABAergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr in the motor deficit observed in a model of encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure, by using glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 - green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice. METHODS: Alterations in intracellular chloride concentration in GABAergic neurons within the SNr and changes in the expression of two dominant chloride homeostasis-regulating genes, KCC2 and NKCC1, were evaluated in mice with hypolocomotion due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE. The effects of pharmacological blockade and/or activation of KCC2 and NKCC1 functions with their specific inhibitors and/or activators on the motor activity were assessed. RESULTS: In our mouse model of acute liver injury, chloride imaging indicated an increase in local intracellular chloride concentration in SNr GABAergic neurons. In addition, the mRNA and protein levels of KCC2 were reduced, particularly on neuronal cell membranes; in contrast, NKCC1 expression remained unaffected. Furthermore, blockage of KCC2 reduced motor activity in the normal mice and led to a further deteriorated hypolocomotion in HE mice. Blockade of NKCC1 was not able to normalize motor activity in mice with liver failure. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered chloride homeostasis is likely involved in the pathophysiology of hypolocomotion following HE. Drugs aimed at restoring normal chloride homeostasis would be a potential treatment for hepatic failure.

  2. Lack of significant metabolic abnormalities in mice with liver-specific disruption of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavery, Gareth G

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, and patients with GC excess share many clinical features, such as central obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes, systemic GC concentrations seem to be invariably normal. Tissue GC concentrations determined by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and local cortisol (corticosterone in mice) regeneration from cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in mice) by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme, principally expressed in the liver. Transgenic mice have demonstrated the importance of 11β-HSD1 in mediating aspects of the metabolic syndrome, as well as HPA axis control. In order to address the primacy of hepatic 11β-HSD1 in regulating metabolism and the HPA axis, we have generated liver-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout (LKO) mice, assessed biomarkers of GC metabolism, and examined responses to high-fat feeding. LKO mice were able to regenerate cortisol from cortisone to 40% of control and had no discernible difference in a urinary metabolite marker of 11β-HSD1 activity. Although circulating corticosterone was unaltered, adrenal size was increased, indicative of chronic HPA stimulation. There was a mild improvement in glucose tolerance but with insulin sensitivity largely unaffected. Adiposity and body weight were unaffected as were aspects of hepatic lipid homeostasis, triglyceride accumulation, and serum lipids. Additionally, no changes in the expression of genes involved in glucose or lipid homeostasis were observed. Liver-specific deletion of 11β-HSD1 reduces corticosterone regeneration and may be important for setting aspects of HPA axis tone, without impacting upon urinary steroid metabolite profile. These discordant data have significant implications for the use of these biomarkers of 11β-HSD1 activity in clinical studies. The paucity of metabolic abnormalities in LKO points to important compensatory effects by HPA

  3. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased...

  4. Unani Treatment Decreased Fibrosis and Improved Liver Functions in Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Siddiqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, liver transplantation remains the only curative option for the patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. The survival rate and recurrent diseases remain the major issues in the patient post-transplantation. Unani medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine which has been treating chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (Talayyaful-Kabid for centuries. The current study aimed to assess the impact of Unani treatment on decompensated cirrhosis and collect data to warrant further clinical trials. Authors conducted a case series on five patients with decompensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The disease was confirmed through FibroScan and ultrasound and treated with Unani treatment orally for seven months. Results were evaluated based on FibroScan, liver function test (LFT, EuroQol-5D (EQ5D, Child-Pugh and TTO-TIME (trade-off question. Significant improvements in LFT, fibrosis and quality of life were achieved in the studied patients. The literature related to the herbal constituents of chief medicines used to treat in this case was reviewed. The herbs proved their potential anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, immuno-modulator and antiviral activities, suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in the cases. The preliminary findings indicated the potential therapeutic role of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis. Clinical trials should be conducted to explore further therapeutic potential of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis.

  5. Long-term Renal Function in Living Kidney Donors Who Had Histological Abnormalities at Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Lara M; Massie, Allan B; Muzaale, Abimereki D; Bagnasco, Serena M; Orandi, Babak J; Alejo, Jennifer L; Boyarsky, Brian J; Anjum, Saad K; Montgomery, Robert A; Dagher, Nabil N; Segev, Dorry L

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that living kidney donors are at an increased risk of end-stage renal disease. However, predicting which donors will have renal dysfunction remains challenging, particularly among those with no clinical evidence of disease at the time of donation. Although renal biopsies are not routinely performed as part of the donor evaluation process, they may yield valuable information that improves the ability to predict renal function in donors. We used implantation protocol biopsies to evaluate the association between histological abnormalities in the donated kidney and postdonation renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) of the remaining kidney in living kidney donors. Longitudinal analysis using mixed-effects linear regression was used to account for multiple eGFR measures per donor. Among 310 donors between 1997 and 2012, median (IQR) follow-up was 6.2 (2.5-8.7; maximum 14.0) years. In this cohort, the overall prevalence of histological abnormalities was 65.8% (19.7% abnormal glomerulosclerosis, 23.9% abnormal interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA), 4.8% abnormal mesangial matrix increase, 32.0% abnormal arteriolar hyalinosis, and 32.9% abnormal vascular intimal thickening). IFTA was associated with a 5-mL/min/1.73 m decrease of postdonation eGFR after adjusting for donor age at donation, sex, race, preoperative systolic blood pressure, preoperative eGFR, and time since donation (P < 0.01). In this single-center study, among healthy individuals cleared for living donation, IFTA was associated with decreased postdonation eGFR, whereas no other subclinical histological abnormalities provided additional information.

  6. Abnormal histopathology, fat percent and hepatic apolipoprotein A I and apolipoprotein B100 mRNA expression in fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and their improvement by soybean lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yalu; Ruan, Jiming; Luo, Junrong; Wang, Tiancheng; Yang, Fei; Cao, Huabin; Huang, Jianzhen; Hu, Guoliang

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the etiopathogenesis of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) and the protective effects of soybean lecithin against FLHS in laying hens, 135 healthy 300-day-old Hyline laying hens were randomly divided into groups: control (group 1), diseased (group 2), and protected (group 3). Each group contained 45 layers with 3 replicates. The birds in these 3 groups were fed a control diet, a high-energy/low-protein (HELP) diet or the HELP diet supplemented with 3% soybean lecithin instead of maize. The fat percent in the liver was calculated. Histopathological changes in the liver were determined by staining, and the mRNA expression levels of apolipoproteinA I (apoA I) and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) in the liver were determined by RT-PCR. The results showed that the fat percent in the liver of group 2 was much higher (P steatosis in the liver cell on d 30 and 60. The mRNA expression levels of apoA I and apoB100 in the livers were variable throughout the experiment. The expression level of apoA I in group 2 significantly decreased on d 60 (P < 0.05); the expression level of apoB100 slightly increased on d 30 in group 2, while it sharply decreased on d 60. Compared to group 1, the expression level of apoB100 showed no significant difference in group 3 (P < 0.05). This study indicated that FLHS induced pathological changes and abnormal expression of apoA I and apoB100 in the livers of laying hens and that soybean lecithin alleviated these abnormal changes. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Cerebral blood flow and liver function in patients with encephalopathy due to acute and chronic liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T; Schroeder, T; Ranek, L

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in hepatic encephalopathy, to ascertain whether this was related to the changes in liver function and whether these changes gave any prognostic information. CBF, determined by the intravenous xenon-133 method......, and liver functions, assessed by the prothrombin index, bilirubin concentration, and the galactose elimination capacity, were studied in patients with acute fulminant liver failure and in patients with encephalopathy due to chronic liver diseases--that is, cirrhosis of various etiologies. The CBF range...

  8. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Jun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL. Methods The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs treated with lithocholic acid (LCA and siRNA-CRP. Results The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. Conclusion CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  9. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Ji Hye; Choi, Jong Ho; Bae, Si Hyun; Oh, Seh Hoon; Kim, Gi Jin

    2016-09-01

    Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lithocholic acid (LCA) and siRNA-CRP. The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease.

  10. Reversible cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, E.L.; Firestein, G.S.; Weiss, J.L.; Heuser, R.R.; Leitl, G.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Brinker, J.A.; Ciuffo, A.A.; Becker, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of peripheral cold exposure on myocardial perfusion and function were studied in 13 patients with scleroderma without clinically evident myocardial disease. Ten patients had at least one transient, cold-induced, myocardial perfusion defect visualized by thallium-201 scintigraphy, and 12 had reversible, cold-induced, segmental left ventricular hypokinesis by two-dimensional echocardiography. The 10 patients with transient perfusion defects all had anatomically corresponding ventricular wall motion abnormalities. No one in either of two control groups (9 normal volunteers and 7 patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms) had cold-induced abnormalities. This study is the first to show the simultaneous occurrence of cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in patients with scleroderma. The results suggest that cold exposure in such patients may elicit transient reflex coronary vasoconstriction resulting in reversible myocardial ischemia and dysfunction. Chronic recurrent episodes of coronary spasm may lead to focal myocardial fibrosis

  11. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in relation to liver function in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    ). No significant difference was observed when comparing serum testosterone concentrations. Patients were divided into three groups in accordance with the severity of liver cirrhosis, using biochemical and clinical criteria. Patients with the best-preserved liver function (no. = 11) and patients with moderately...... affected liver function (no. = 18) had significantly (P less than 0.05) raised serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH when compared with both controls and patients with severely affected liver function (no. = 13). Serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH in the latter group showed...... groups of patients. Dexamethasone suppression did not change the concentration of testosterone significantly, but oestrone and oestradiol concentrations decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) in controls and patients. In patients, but not in controls, a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in FSH...

  12. Abnormal functional motor lateralization in healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, Mario; Fazio, Leonardo; De Salvia, Michela; Petito, Annamaria; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Bellomo, Antonello; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2012-07-30

    Earlier neuroimaging studies of motor function in schizophrenia have demonstrated reduced functional lateralization in the motor network during motor tasks. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visually guided motor task in 18 clinically unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched controls to investigate if abnormal functional lateralization is related to genetic risk for this brain disorder. Whereas activity associated with motor task performance was mainly contralateral with only a marginal ipsilateral component in healthy participants, unaffected siblings had strong bilateral activity with significantly greater response in ipsilateral and contralateral premotor areas as well as in contralateral subcortical motor regions relative to controls. Reduced lateralization in siblings was also identified with a measure of laterality quotient. These findings suggest that abnormal functional lateralization of motor circuitry is related to genetic risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronological evaluation of liver enhancement in patients with chronic liver disease at Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3-T MR imaging. Does liver function correlate with enhancement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shinichi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Awai, Kazuo; Nakaura, Takeshi; Morita, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronological relationship between scan delay and liver enhancement for the hepatobiliary phase on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and evaluate the effects of liver function on liver enhancement. Hepatobiliary-phase images were retrospectively evaluated in 125 patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatobiliary phase images were obtained at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after injection. We calculated relative liver enhancement (RLE) at t min after injection by dividing the signal intensity (SI) of the liver at t min by precontrast SI. We compared RLE values at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min and evaluated the detectability of focal hepatic lesions. We analyzed the effect of liver function on RLE with the generalized linear model. There was not significant difference in RLE and lesion detectability at 15 and 20 min. RLE in the Child-Pugh C group was significantly lower than in the Child-Pugh A and B groups. The serum albumin level and prothrombin time were significantly correlated with the liver enhancement. A delay time of 15 min for the hepatobiliary phase was thought to be adequate in patients with mild liver dysfunction. The serum albumin level and prothrombin time would be predictive of liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase. (author)

  14. Functional and anatomical connectivity abnormalities in left inferior frontal gyrus in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bumseok; Wible, Cynthia G; Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Kubicki, Marek

    2009-12-01

    Functional studies in schizophrenia demonstrate prominent abnormalities within the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and also suggest the functional connectivity abnormalities in language network including left IFG and superior temporal gyrus during semantic processing. White matter connections between regions involved in the semantic network have also been indicated in schizophrenia. However, an association between functional and anatomical connectivity disruptions within the semantic network in schizophrenia has not been established. Functional (using levels of processing paradigm) as well as diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 controls and 10 chronic schizophrenics were acquired and analyzed. First, semantic encoding specific activation was estimated, showing decreased activation within the left IFG in schizophrenia. Second, functional time series were extracted from this area, and left IFG specific functional connectivity maps were produced for each subject. In an independent analysis, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between groups, and to correlate these values with functional connectivity maps. Schizophrenia patients showed weaker functional connectivity within the language network that includes left IFG and left superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus. FA was reduced in several white matter regions including left inferior frontal and left internal capsule. Finally, left inferior frontal white matter FA was positively correlated with connectivity measures of the semantic network in schizophrenics, but not in controls. Our results indicate an association between anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities within the semantic network in schizophrenia, suggesting further that the functional abnormalities observed in this disorder might be directly related to white matter disruptions. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Microvascular and Macrovascular Abnormalities and Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Grodstein, Francine; Newman, Anne B; Chaves, Paulo H M; Odden, Michelle C; Klein, Ronald; Sarnak, Mark J; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the associations between microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and cognitive and physical function Cross-sectional analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1998-1999). Community. Individuals with available data on three or more of five microvascular abnormalities (brain, retina, kidney) and three or more of six macrovascular abnormalities (brain, carotid artery, heart, peripheral artery) (N = 2,452; mean age 79.5). Standardized composite scores derived from three cognitive tests (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit-Symbol Substitution Test, Trail-Making Test (TMT)) and three physical tests (gait speed, grip strength, 5-time sit to stand) Participants with high microvascular and macrovascular burden had worse cognitive (mean score difference = -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.37 to -0.24) and physical (mean score difference = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.38 to -0.26) function than those with low microvascular and macrovascular burden. Individuals with high microvascular burden alone had similarly lower scores than those with high macrovascular burden alone (cognitive function: -0.16, 95% CI = -0.24 to -0.08 vs -0.13, 95% CI = -0.20 to -0.06; physical function: -0.15, 95% CI = -0.22 to -0.08 vs -0.12, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.06). Psychomotor speed and working memory, assessed using the TMT, were only impaired in the presence of high microvascular burden. Of the 11 vascular abnormalities considered, white matter hyperintensity, cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate, large brain infarct, and ankle-arm index were independently associated with cognitive and physical function. Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities assessed using noninvasive tests of the brain, kidney, and peripheral artery were independently associated with poor cognitive and physical function in older adults. Future research should evaluate the usefulness of these tests in prognostication. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015

  16. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, Eduard J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P.; Biemond, Bart J.; Bresser, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age

  17. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  18. Changes of plasma VEGF levels and liver function in patients with liver cancer before and after interventional treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Qi Jun; Gao Jia

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effect of the interventional treatment for the angiogenesis and liver function in patients with liver cancer within short time, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of VEGF in plasma. The level of liver function was measured through automatic biochemistry analyzer. The results indicated that the level of VEGF in patients with liver cancer decreased after interventional treatment than that of before treatment (P<0.05). The level of total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and total bile acid decreased after interventional treatment (P<0.05). The level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were increased than before (P<0.05). The interventional treatment inhibit the expression of the VEGF in the tumor tissue and limited the angiogenesis within short time, but to some extent may caused the injury of the hepatocytes and the synthetic and excremental function in patients with liver cancer. (authors)

  19. The Impact of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Renal Function in Children with Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pacifico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and chronic kidney disease has attracted interest and attention over recent years. However, no data are available in children. We determined whether children with NAFLD show signs of renal functional alterations, as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and urinary albumin excretion. We studied 596 children with overweight/obesity, 268 with NAFLD (hepatic fat fraction ≥5% on magnetic resonance imaging and 328 without NAFLD, and 130 healthy normal-weight controls. Decreased GFR was defined as eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Abnormal albuminuria was defined as urinary excretion of ≥30 mg/24 h of albumin. A greater prevalence of eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was observed in patients with NAFLD compared to those without liver involvement and healthy subjects (17.5% vs. 6.7% vs. 0.77%; p < 0.0001. The proportion of children with abnormal albuminuria was also higher in the NAFLD group compared to those without NAFLD, and controls (9.3% vs. 4.0% vs. 0; p < 0.0001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that NAFLD was associated with decreased eGFR and/or microalbuminuria (odds ratio, 2.54 (confidence interval, 1.16–5.57; p < 0.05 independently of anthropometric and clinical variables. Children with NAFLD are at risk for early renal dysfunction. Recognition of this abnormality in the young may help to prevent the ongoing development of the disease.

  20. Circulating lipocalin 2 is neither related to liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease nor to residual liver function in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elisabeth M; Pohl, Rebekka; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Schacherer, Doris; Eisinger, Kristina; Wiest, Reiner; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-09-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is induced in the injured liver and associated with inflammation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum LCN2 is a non-invasive marker to assess hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, LCN2 was measured by ELISA in serum of 32 randomly selected patients without fatty liver (controls), 24 patients with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis mainly due to alcohol. Systemic LCN2 was comparable in patients with liver steatosis, those with liver cirrhosis and controls. LCN2 negatively correlated with bilirubin in both cohorts. In cirrhosis, LCN2 was not associated with more advanced liver injury defined by the CHILD-PUGH score and model for end-stage liver disease score. Resistin but not C-reactive protein or chemerin positively correlated with LCN2. LCN2 levels were not increased in patients with ascites or patients with esophageal varices. Consequently, reduction of portal pressure by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt did not affect LCN2 levels. Hepatic venous blood (HVS), portal venous blood and systemic venous blood levels of LCN2 were similar. HVS LCN2 was unchanged in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis compared to those with well-compensated disease arguing against increased hepatic release. Current data exclude that serum LCN2 is of any value as steatosis marker in patients with NAFLD and indicator of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in relation to liver function in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    Serum concentrations of oestrone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than 0.01) raised in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (no. = 42) compared with age-matched controls (no. = 20). No signi......Serum concentrations of oestrone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than 0.01) raised in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (no. = 42) compared with age-matched controls (no. = 20...... affected liver function (no. = 18) had significantly (P less than 0.05) raised serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH when compared with both controls and patients with severely affected liver function (no. = 13). Serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH in the latter group showed...

  2. Impaired coupling of local and global functional feedbacks underlies abnormal synchronization and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyungchul; Shin, Kyung Soon; Shin, Dongkwan; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, June Sic; Jang, Joon Hwan; Chung, Chun Kee; Kwon, Jun Soo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2013-04-10

    Abnormal synchronization of brain oscillations is found to be associated with various core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanism of this association remains yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that coupled local and global feedback (CLGF) circuits in the cortical functional network are related to the abnormal synchronization and also correlated to the negative symptom of schizophrenia. Analysis of the magnetoencephalography data obtained from patients with chronic schizophrenia during rest revealed an increase in beta band synchronization and a reduction in gamma band power compared to healthy controls. Using a feedback identification method based on non-causal impulse responses, we constructed functional feedback networks and found that CLGF circuits were significantly reduced in schizophrenia. From computational analysis on the basis of the Wilson-Cowan model, we unraveled that the CLGF circuits are critically involved in the abnormal synchronization and the dynamical switching between beta and gamma bands power in schizophrenia. Moreover, we found that the abundance of CLGF circuits was negatively correlated with the development of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, suggesting that the negative symptom is closely related to the impairment of this circuit. Our study implicates that patients with schizophrenia might have the impaired coupling of inter- and intra-regional functional feedbacks and that the CLGF circuit might serve as a critical bridge between abnormal synchronization and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  3. Early graft function and carboxyhemoglobin level in liver transplanted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasser; Negmi, H; Elmasry, N; Sadek, M; Riaz, A; Al Ouffi, H; Khalaf, H

    2007-10-01

    Heme-Oxygenase-1 catalyzes hemoglobin into bilirubin, iron, and carbon monoxide, a well known vasodilator. Heme-Oxygenase-1 expression and carbon monoxide production as measured by blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, increase in end stage liver disease patients. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between carboxyhemoglobin level and early graft function in patients undergoing liver transplant surgeries. In a descriptive retrospective study, 39 patients who underwent liver transplantation between the year 2005 and 2006 at KFSH&RC, are included in the study. All patients received general anesthesia with isoflurane in 50% oxygen and air. Levels of oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentration in percentage were recorded at preoperative time, anhepatic phase, end of surgery, ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The level of lactic acid, prothrombin time (PT), partial thrombin time (PTT), serum total bilirubin and ammonia were also recorded at ICU admission and 24 hr after surgery. The numbers of blood units transfused were recorded. 39 patients were included in the study with 13/39 for living donor liver transplant (LDLT) compared to 26/39 patients scheduled for deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT). The mean age was 35.9 +/- 16.9 years while the mean body weight was 60.3 +/- 20.9 Kg. Female to male ratio was 21/18. The median packed red blood cell (PRBC) units was 4 (Rang 0-40). There was a significant increase in carboxyhemoglobin level during the anhepatic phase, end of surgery and on ICU admission compared with preoperative value (pcarboxyhemoglobin level on ICU admission and 24 hrs postoperatively were positively correlated with the changes in serum total bilirubin and prothrombin time (R = 0.35, 0.382, 0.325 and 0.31) respectively pcarboxyhemoglobin concentration and PT and total bilirubin while still the correlation with lactic acid was weak. There was no correlation between average perioperative carboxyhemoglobin concentration

  4. Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Adelaine; Ortiz-Neira, Clara L.; Abou Reslan, Walid; Kaura, Deepak; Sharon, Raphael; Anderson, Ronald; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) typically presents with hepatomegaly and other signs of liver dysfunction. We present an 11-month-old child having only minimally elevated liver enzymes as an indication of liver involvement. Using sonography as the initial diagnostic tool followed by MRI, LCH of the liver was revealed. A review of sonographic, CT, MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography findings in liver LCH is presented. We recommend that physicians consider sonography and MRI screening for liver involvement in patients with newly diagnosed LCH, as periportal involvement may be present with little or no liver function abnormality present, as in this patient. (orig.)

  5. Abnormal liver stiffness assessed using transient elastography (Fibroscan® in HIV-infected patients without HBV/HCV coinfection receiving combined antiretroviral treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM using transient elastography (Fibroscan® can identify individuals with potential underlying liver disease. We evaluated the prevalence of abnormal LSM values as assessed using LSM and its predictors in HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving combined antiretroviral treatment (cART without HBV/HCV coinfection. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 93 patients who had consistently been undergoing cART for more than 12 months at Severance Hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea, from June to December 2010. LSM values >5.3 kPa were defined as abnormal. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (41.9% had abnormal LSM values. On multivariate correlation analysis, the cumulative duration of boosted and unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs were the independent factors which showed a negative and positive correlation to LSM values, respectively (β = -0.234, P = 0.023 and β = 0.430, P<0.001. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were selected as the independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively (odds ratio [OR], 0.941; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.889-0.997; P = 0.039 and OR, 1.032; 95% CI, 1.004-1.060; P = 0.023. CONCLUSION: The high percentage of HIV-infected asymptomatic patients receiving cART without HBV/HCV coinfection had abnormal LSM values. The cumulative exposure duration of boosted-PIs and γ-GT level were independent predictors which showed a negative and positive correlation with abnormal LSM values, respectively.

  6. Uncomplicated obesity is associated with abnormal aortic function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channon Keith M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Obese subjects with insulin resistance and hypertension have abnormal aortic elastic function, which may predispose them to the development of left ventricular dysfunction. We hypothesised that obesity, uncomplicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, is independently associated with aortic function. Methods and results We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure aortic compliance, distensibility and stiffness index in 27 obese subjects (BMI 33 kg/m2 without insulin resistance and with normal cholesterol and blood pressure, and 12 controls (BMI 23 kg/m2. Obesity was associated with reduced aortic compliance (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2 mm2/mmHg in controls, p -1 × 10-3, p Conclusion Aortic elastic function is abnormal in obese subjects without other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the independent importance of obesity in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Evaluation of Lung Function in Liver Transplant Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, L; Sankarankutty, A K; Silva, O C; Mente, E D

    2018-04-01

    A wide variety of pulmonary conditions are found in cirrhotic patients and may compromise the pleura, diaphragm, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature, influencing the results of liver transplantation. To evaluate the pulmonary function (lung capacities, volumes, and gasometric study) of patients with liver cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation. Cirrhotic patients, subdivided into 3 groups stratified by liver disease severity using the Child-Pugh-Turcotte score, were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In spirometry, the parameters evaluated were total lung capacity, forced volume in the first second, and the relationship between forced volume in the first minute and forced vital capacity. Blood gas analysis was performed. In the control group, arterial oxygenation was evaluated by peripheral oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. Of the 55 patients (75% men, 51 ± 12.77 years), 11 were Child A (73% men, 52 ± 14.01 years), 23 were Child B (75% men, 51 ± 12.77 years), and 21 were Child C (95% men, 50 ± 12.09 years). The control group had 20 individuals (50% men, 47 ± 8.15 years). Pulmonary capacities and volumes by the parameters evaluated were within the normal range. Arterial blood gas analysis detected no hypoxemia, but a tendency to low partial gas pressure was noted. In this population of cirrhotic patients the parameters of spirometry were normal in relation to the lung capacities and volumes in the different groups. No hypoxemia was detected, but a tendency to hypocapnia in the blood gas was noted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Abnormal regional homogeneity in patients with essential tremor revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Fang

    Full Text Available Essential tremor (ET is one of the most common movement disorders in human adults. It can be characterized as a progressive neurological disorder of which the most recognizable feature is a tremor of the arms or hands that is apparent during voluntary movements such as eating and writing. The pathology of ET remains unclear. Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI, as a non-invasive imaging technique, was employed to investigate abnormalities of functional connectivity in ET in the brain. Regional homogeneity (ReHo was used as a metric of RS-fMRI to assess the local functional connectivity abnormality in ET with 20 ET patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC. The ET group showed decreased ReHo in the anterior and posterior bilateral cerebellar lobes, the bilateral thalamus and the insular lobe, and increased ReHo in the bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the left primary motor cortex and left supplementary motor area. The abnormal ReHo value of ET patients in the bilateral anterior cerebellar lobes and the right posterior cerebellar lobe were negatively correlated with the tremor severity score, while positively correlated with that in the left primary motor cortex. These findings suggest that the abnormality in cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor pathway is involved in tremor generation and propagation, which may be related to motor-related symptoms in ET patients. Meanwhile, the abnormality in the prefrontal and parietal regions may be associated with non-motor symptoms in ET. These findings suggest that the ReHo could be utilized for investigations of functional-pathological mechanism of ET.

  9. Hepatocyte transplants improve liver function and encephalopathy in portacaval shunted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Wieslawa Agnieszka; Stasiak, Anna; Maksymowicz, Michał; Kobos, Jozef; Unzeta, Mercedes; Mussur, Miroslaw

    2014-07-01

    Rats with portacaval shunt (PCS) are useful experimental models of human hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver dysfunction. We have previously shown that PCS modifies amine neurotransmitter systems in the CNS and increases voluntary alcohol intake by rats. Hepatocyte transplantation, used in acute liver failure, has recently also been applied to chronic liver diseases, which prompted us to investigate whether the altered brain amine system and the drinking behavior in long-term shunted rats could be normalized by hepatocyte transplants. Hepatocytes, isolated from syngeneic donors by collagenase digestion, were injected (3 × 10(6) cells/rat) into the pancreatic tail region, 6 months after PCS. Hepatic function was evaluated by measuring urine urea and plasma L-histidine concentrations. A free choice test with two bottles (tap water and 10% ethyl alcohol) was performed for 3 days to assess the rats' preference for alcohol. The rats were euthanized 2 months posttransplantation. Brain histamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were measured by radioenzymatic assay and by HPLC-EC, respectively, N-tele-methylhistamine by GC/MS while MAOA and MAOB activities by isotopic procedures. Portacaval shunt rats with hepatocyte transplants gave more urea than before transplantation, with lower plasma L-His levels and higher body weight versus the PCS counterparts. Also, those rats consumed less alcohol. The CNS amines and 5-HIAA concentrations, as well as MAO-B activity, being abnormally high in untreated PCS rats, significantly reduced after PCS hepatocyte treatment. The results support the therapeutic values of hepatocyte transplants in chronic liver diseases and the temporary character of PCS-exerted CNS dysfunctions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Computer-aided diagnostic system of diffuse liver diseases using scintiscanning, 1. Application of linear discriminant function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T; Ogawa, F; Okabe, H; Murakami, K [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Yoshida, S

    1976-07-01

    An approach to an automated diagnostic system for diffuse parenchymal diseases of the liver is made based on hepatic scintigraphy and an electronic computer. The findings of hepatic scintigram with /sup 198/Au-colloid were analysed for 7 items, various patterns of hepatic image on anterior view, various patterns of hepatic image on right lateral view, criteria for visualization of bone marrow on anterior view, criteria for visualization of bone marrow on right lateral view, criteria for visualization of spleen on anterior view, degree of splenomegaly, and value of effective hepatic blood flow (KL-value). Each item was subdivided into several categories. Multivariate discriminant analysis was used for differential diagnosis of liver diseases with a dummy variable, based on the 25 categories of the 7 item on 100 abnormal hepato-scintigrams confirmed histologically, and on 20 normal subjects. This study was 90.0% accurate in normal liver, 81.1% accurate in acute hepatitis, 71.1% in inactive chronic hepatitis, 78.2% in active chronic hepatitis, 93.3% in Ko-type of liver cirrhosis, and 77.8% in the Otu-type of liver cirrhosis. The final diagnostic accuracy was 81.7% in all cases for training group. The accuracy of hepatic scintigraphy was 13% and 19% higher than that of laboratory findings in differentiating two groups of liver cirrhosis and two groups of chronic hepatitis respectively. To obtain maximum diagnostic information for discriminating among etiologies, ranges of discriminant function coefficients in these items were compared with in each group of liver diseases. The most useful diagnostic finding were the configurations of the hepatic images on the anterior and the right lateral views. Visualization of the spleen and the degree of splenomegaly were also useful for differentiation in each group of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.

  11. Abnormal pulmonary function and associated risk factors in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteta, Manuel; Campbell, Andrew; Nouraie, Mehdi; Rana, Sohail; Onyekwere, Onyinye; Ensing, Gregory; Sable, Craig; Dham, Niti; Darbari, Deepika; Luchtman-Jones, Lori; Kato, Gregory J.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Castro, Oswaldo L.; Minniti, Caterina P.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive and restrictive pulmonary changes develop in children with sickle cell disease, but reports conflict as to the type of change that predominates. We prospectively performed spirometry, plethysmography and lung diffusing capacity in 146 children aged 7–20 years with hemoglobin SS or Sβ0-thalassemia. Nineteen percent of the patients had obstructive physiology as defined according to guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. In addition, 9% had restrictive physiology and 11% had abnormal but not categorized physiology. Increasing age, patient- or family-reported history of asthma or wheezing, and higher lactate dehydrogenase concentration were independent predictors of obstruction as reflected in lower FEV1/FVC. In conclusion, abnormal pulmonary function, most often obstructive, is common in children with hemoglobin SS and Sβ0-thalassemia. Full pulmonary function testing should be performed in children with hemoglobin SS or Sβ0 thalassemia, especially with history of asthma or wheezing and accentuated elevations in hemolytic markers. PMID:24309610

  12. Liver histology and follow up of 68 patients with ulcerative colitis and normal liver function tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Broomé, U; Glaumann, H; Hultcrantz, R

    1990-01-01

    Hepatobiliary disorders are well known complications in patients with ulcerative colitis but it is not possible to predict those patients with ulcerative colitis who will eventually develop liver disease. In this study, liver biopsies from 74 patients with ulcerative colitis have been reevaluated. None of the patients showed clinical or biochemical signs of liver disease at the time of biopsy. Thirty seven (50%) had a completely normal liver biopsy. The others showed minimal portal inflammati...

  13. Characterization of genetically engineered mouse hepatoma cells with inducible liver functions by overexpression of liver-enriched transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Tonello, Jane Marie; Sambuichi, Takanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2018-01-01

    New cell sources for the research and therapy of organ failure could significantly alleviate the shortage of donor livers that are available to patients who suffer from liver disease. Liver carcinoma derived cells, or hepatoma cells, are the ideal cells for developing bioartificial liver systems. Such cancerous liver cells are easy to prepare in large quantities and can be maintained over long periods under standard culture conditions, unlike primary hepatocytes. However, hepatoma cells possess only a fraction of the functions of primary hepatocytes. In a previous study, by transducing cells with liver-enriched transcription factors that could be inducibly overexpressed-hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1α, HNF1β, HNF3β [FOXA2], HNF4α, HNF6, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ and C/EBPγ-we created mouse hepatoma cells with high liver-specific gene expression called the Hepa/8F5 cell line. In the present study, we performed functional and genetic analyses to characterize the Hepa/8F5 cell line. Further, in three-dimensional cultures, the function of these cells improved significantly compared to parental cells. Ultimately, these cells might become a new resource that can be used in basic and applied hepatic research. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural and functional brain abnormalities place phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (FTD in the FTD spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M.E. Steketee

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: PhFTD and bvFTD show overlapping cortical structural abnormalities indicating a continuum of changes especially in the frontotemporal regions. Together with functional changes suggestive of a compensatory response to incipient pathology in the left prefrontal regions, these findings are the first to support a possible neuropathological etiology of phFTD and suggest that phFTD may be a neurodegenerative disease on the FTD spectrum.

  15. Abnormality of thyroid function tests in geriatric population undergoing chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Altay

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Elderly dialysis patients had higher thyroid function test abnormalities than controls. They had lower fT3 levels than controls such as young and middle age chronic dialysis patients. However, what does it mean for clinical process and how its clinical expression is not clearly known, especially in an elderly patients. Large, prospective, randomized and controlled trials are necessary for this topic. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 54-58

  16. Abnormal functional brain asymmetry in depression: evidence of biologic commonality between major depression and dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Stewart, Jonathan W; Hellerstein, David; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Alschuler, Daniel; McGrath, Patrick J

    2012-04-30

    Prior studies have found abnormalities of functional brain asymmetry in patients having a major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to replicate findings of reduced right hemisphere advantage for perceiving dichotic complex tones in depressed patients, and to determine whether patients having "pure" dysthymia show the same abnormality of perceptual asymmetry as MDD. It also examined gender differences in lateralization, and the extent to which abnormalities of perceptual asymmetry in depressed patients are dependent on gender. Unmedicated patients having either a MDD (n=96) or "pure" dysthymic disorder (n=42) and healthy controls (n=114) were tested on dichotic fused-words and complex-tone tests. Patient and control groups differed in right hemisphere advantage for complex tones, but not left hemisphere advantage for words. Reduced right hemisphere advantage for tones was equally present in MDD and dysthymia, but was more evident among depressed men than depressed women. Also, healthy men had greater hemispheric asymmetry than healthy women for both words and tones, whereas this gender difference was not seen for depressed patients. Dysthymia and MDD share a common abnormality of hemispheric asymmetry for dichotic listening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of 6-Month Calorie Restriction and Exercise on Serum and Liver Lipids and Markers of Liver Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R.; Alfonso, Anthony J.; Lefevre, Michael; Rood, Jennifer C.; Williamson, Donald A.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with insulin resistance are increasingly recognized as major health burdens. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relation between liver lipid content and serum lipids, markers of liver function and inflammation in healthy overweight subjects, and to determine whether caloric restriction (CR) (which improves insulin resistance) reduces liver lipids in association with these same measures. Methods and Procedures Forty-six white and black overweight men and women (BMI = 24.7-31.3 kg/m2) were randomized to “control (CO)” = 100% energy requirements; “CR” = 25%; “caloric restriction and increased structured exercise (CR+EX)”= 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through exercise; or “low-calorie diet (LCD)” = 15% weight loss by liquid diet followed by weight-maintenance, for 6 months. Liver lipid content was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and computed tomography (CT). Lipid concentrations, markers of liver function (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK)), and whole-body inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured in fasting blood. Results At baseline, increased liver lipid content (by MRS) correlated (P triglyceride (r = 0.52), ALT (r = 0.42), and hsCRP (r = 0.33) concentrations after adjusting for sex, race, and alcohol consumption. With CR, liver lipid content was significantly lowered by CR, CR+EX, and LCD (detected by MRS only). The reduction in liver lipid content, however, was not significantly correlated with the reduction in triglycerides (r = 0.26; P = 0.11) or with the changes in ALT, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, or markers of whole-body inflammation. Discussion CR may be beneficial for reducing liver lipid and lowering triglycerides in overweight subjects without known NAFLD. PMID:18421281

  18. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Richard W.; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G.; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2−/− mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2−/− mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2−/− platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2−/− platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2−/− bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2−/− mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production. PMID:23861251

  19. Abnormal functional brain connectivity and personality traits in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Silvestri, Gabriella; Petrucci, Antonio; Basile, Barbara; Masciullo, Marcella; Makovac, Elena; Torso, Mario; Spanò, Barbara; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Harrison, Neil A; Bianchi, Maria L E; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common muscular dystrophy observed in adults, is a genetic multisystem disorder affecting several other organs besides skeletal muscle, including the brain. Cognitive and personality abnormalities have been reported; however, no studies have investigated brain functional networks and their relationship with personality traits/disorders in patients with DM1. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the potential relationship between personality traits/disorders and changes to functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with DM1. We enrolled 27 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 matched healthy control individuals. Patients underwent personality assessment using clinical interview and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 administration; all participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations were conducted at the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Santa Lucia Foundation, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, and Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Measures of personality traits in patients and changes in functional connectivity within the DMN in patients and controls. Changes in functional connectivity and atypical personality traits in patients were correlated. We combined results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and clinical interview to identify a continuum of atypical personality profiles ranging from schizotypal personality traits to paranoid personality disorder within our DM1 patients. We also demonstrated an increase in functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate and left parietal DMN nodes in DM1 patients compared with controls. Moreover, patients with DM1 showed strong associations between DMN functional connectivity and schizotypal-paranoid traits. Our findings provide novel

  20. Gut microbiome can control antitumor immune function in liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI study in mice that found a connection between gut bacteria and antitumor immune responses in the liver has implications for understanding mechanisms that lead to liver cancer and for potential treatments. The study was published in Science.

  1. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  2. Grey matter abnormalities in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Griffiths, Kristi R; Foster, Sheryl L; Linton, James; Williams, Leanne M; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S

    2017-01-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder refers to the presence of neurological symptoms not explained by neurological disease. Although this disorder is presumed to reflect abnormal function of the brain, recent studies in adults show neuroanatomical abnormalities in brain structure . These structural brain abnormalities have been presumed to reflect long-term adaptations to the disorder, and it is unknown whether child and adolescent patients, with illness that is typically of shorter duration, show similar deficits or have normal brain structure. High-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were acquired in 25 patients (aged 10-18 years) and 24 healthy controls. Structure was quantified in terms of grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Post hoc, we examined whether regions of structural difference related to a measure of motor readiness to emotional signals and to clinical measures of illness duration, illness severity, and anxiety/depression. Patients showed greater volumes in the left supplementary motor area (SMA) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) (corrected p disorder.

  3. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T1-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku

    1995-01-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T 1 -weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T 1 W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186±0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987±0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p 2 -weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239±0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174±0.097) (p 15 (r=0.501, p 1 -WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author)

  4. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun

    2006-06-01

    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  5. Abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence: evidence from a voxelwise degree centrality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo X

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Luo,1,2 Linghong Guo,1 Xi-Jian Dai,3 Qinglai Wang,2 Wenzhong Zhu,2 Xinjun Miao,2 Honghan Gong1 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Radiology, Wenzhou Chinese Medicine Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs in alcohol dependence using voxelwise degree centrality analysis approach, and their relationships with clinical features.Materials and methods: Twenty-four male alcohol dependence subjects free of medicine (mean age, 50.21±9.62 years and 24 age- and education-matched male healthy controls (mean age, 50.29±8.92 years were recruited. The alcohol use disorders identification test and the severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire (SADQ were administered to assess the severity of alcohol craving. Voxelwise degree centrality approach was used to assess the abnormal intrinsic functional hubs features in alcohol dependence. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships between the clinical features and abnormal intrinsic functional hubs.Results: Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependence subjects exhibited significantly different degree centrality values in widespread left lateralization brain areas, including higher degree centrality values in the left precentral gyrus (BA 6, right hippocampus (BA 35, 36, and left orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11 and lower degree centrality values in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, bilateral secondary visual network (BA 18, and left precuneus (BA 7, 19. SADQ revealed a negative linear correlation with the degree centrality value in the left precentral gyrus (R2=0.296, P=0.006.Conclusion: The specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs appear

  6. The spectrum of epilepsy and electroencephalographic abnormalities due to SHANK3 loss-of-function mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J Lloyd; Quach, Michael M

    2016-10-01

    The coincidence of autism with epilepsy is 27% in those individuals with intellectual disability. 1 Individuals with loss-of-function mutations in SHANK3 have intellectual disability, autism, and variably, epilepsy. 2-5 The spectrum of seizure semiologies and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities has never been investigated in detail. With the recent report that SHANK3 mutations are present in approximately 2% of individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities and 1% of individuals with autism, determining the spectrum of seizure semiologies and electrographic abnormalities will be critical for medical practitioners to appropriately counsel the families of patients with SHANK3 mutations. A retrospective chart review was performed of all individuals treated at the Blue Bird Circle Clinic for Child Neurology who have been identified as having either a chromosome 22q13 microdeletion encompassing SHANK3 or a loss-of-function mutation in SHANK3 identified through whole-exome sequencing. For each subject, the presence or absence of seizures, seizure semiology, frequency, age of onset, and efficacy of therapy were determined. Electroencephalography studies were reviewed by a board certified neurophysiologist. Neuroimaging was reviewed by both a board certified pediatric neuroradiologist and child neurologist. There is a wide spectrum of seizure semiologies, frequencies, and severity in individuals with SHANK3 mutations. There are no specific EEG abnormalities found in our cohort, and EEG abnormalities were present in individuals diagnosed with epilepsy and those without history of a clinical seizure. All individuals with a mutation in SHANK3 should be evaluated for epilepsy due to the high prevalence of seizures in this population. The most common semiology is atypical absence seizure, which can be challenging to identify due to comorbid intellectual disability in individuals with SHANK3 mutations; however, no consistent seizure semiology, neuroimaging

  7. Liver damages and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of Atherinella brasiliensis (Actynopterigii, Atherinopsidade from two beaches in Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welingtom S. Fernandez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few environmental studies using biomarkers for the species Atherinella brasiliensis in Brazil. In the present work, the presence of hepatic histopathological lesions and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes were investigated in A. brasiliensis from Lamberto, a beach under influence of domestic wastes and marine activities. For comparison, fish were also sampled in Puruba, a non-polluted beach, located in the northeastern of São Paulo State. The frequency of lesions found in liver was in higher numbers in individuals from Lamberto than Puruba beach. The most critical injuries observed in A. brasiliensis were the presence of necrotic areas, leucocytes infiltration and piknotic nucleus. A high occurrence of cells with vacuolization was also observed. The hepatic lesion index of the fish from Lamberto beach showed significant high values (Iorg=13 when compared with fish from Puruba beach (Iorg=7 suggesting the influence of the several human activities in the studied site. Notched and blebed nucleous were observed in this study, and significant differences were found between the studied sites. However, these differences did not reflect the total nuclear alterations.Existem poucos estudos no Brasil usando biomarcadores em Atherinella brasiliensis. No presente trabalho foram investigadas a presença de lesões histopatológicas hepáticas e as alterações nucleares em eritrócitos de A. brasiliensis amostrados na praia do Lamberto, local submetido à influência de resíduos domésticos e atividades humanas. Para comparação, indivíduos da espécie foram também amostrados na praia de Puruba, local não impactado, localizado no noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Peixes provenientes da praia do Lamberto apresentaram lesões hepáticas em número maior do que aqueles da praia de Puruba. Áreas necróticas, infiltração de leucócitos e núcleos picnóticos foram os danos de maior importância observados em A. brasiliensis, apesar de uma

  8. Normothermic machine perfusion reduces bile duct injury and improves biliary epithelial function in rat donor livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Westerkamp, Andrie C; Sutton, Michael E; Kuipers, Michiel; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Ottens, Petra J; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Bile duct injury may occur during liver procurement and transplantation, especially in livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) has been shown to reduce hepatic injury compared to static cold storage (SCS). However, it is unknown whether NMP provides better preservation of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of NMP on bile duct preservation in both DCD and non-DCD livers. DCD and non-DCD livers obtained from Lewis rats were preserved for 3 hours using either SCS or NMP, followed by 2 hours ex vivo reperfusion. Biomarkers of bile duct injury (gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in bile) were lower in NMP-preserved livers compared to SCS-preserved livers. Biliary bicarbonate concentration, reflecting biliary epithelial function, was 2-fold higher in NMP-preserved livers (P bile was significantly higher in NMP-preserved livers (7.63 ± 0.02 and 7.74 ± 0.05 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively) compared with SCS-preserved livers (7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.49 ± 0.04 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of donor extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated significantly decreased injury of the biliary epithelium of NMP-preserved donor livers (including the loss of lateral interdigitations and mitochondrial injury). Differences between NMP and SCS were most prominent in DCD livers. Compared to conventional SCS, NMP provides superior preservation of bile duct epithelial cell function and morphology, especially in DCD donor livers. By reducing biliary injury, NMP could have an important impact on the utilization of DCD livers and outcome after transplantation. Liver Transplantation 22 994-1005 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Liver function test with 99mTc-labelled bilirubin in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, B.; Kaempfer, I.; Schneider, G.

    1989-01-01

    Because of central role of bilirubin in the metabolism of liver it is well suited for liver function tests. Different parameters of hepatocellular partial function and histological findings were studied in patients suffering from functional hyperbilirubinaemia (n = 15), liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and 6 patients recovering from acute hepatitis. After intravenous injection of 99m Tc-bilirubin blood clearance and intestinal excretion in percentages of bilirubin were determined. In patients with cirrhosis the initial phase as well as the intestinal excretion of bilirubin were delayed. This liver function test is useful in the pediatric special diagnosis for investigations during the course of the illness and for assessment of therapeutic activities. (author)

  10. A Study on the Significance of the Colloidal Radiogold Disappearance Rate as a Simple Clinical Liver Function Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chang Gi

    1969-01-01

    Liver function in diffuse parenchymal liver such as cirrhosis of the liver depend largely on the effective hepatic blood flow rather than on the individual cell functions. Clinical methods of measuring the hepatic blood flow were developed recently by the application of colloidal disappearance rate. In order to correlate the radiogold disappearance rate to conventional biochemical liver function tests, 21 normal subjects and 80 cases of cirrhosis of the liver were studied with both methods. The results are summarized as following: 1) The validity of external counting method to measure the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was confirmed by in vitro counting of the serial blood samples. 2) The blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was essentially the same as the liver uptake rate of colloidal radiogold in normal and cirrhotic subjects with various degrees of functional disturbance. And it seemed there was no serious extrahepatic removal of the colloidal radiogold. 3) The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not significant changed by the posture change, but was enhanced by ingestion of 500 ml of water. 4) The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not influenced y single dose of Telepaque, while BSP retention was increased after Telepaque. 5) The mean disappearance half time of colloidal radiogold in normal subjects was 2.49±0.391 (S.D.) minutes. The mean normal disappearance rate constant (K value) was 0.285±0.0428 (S.D.)/minute. 6) The colloidal radiogold disappearance half time was abnormally prolonged (over 3.2 mm) in 87.7±3.68 (S.D.) % of cirrhotic subjects. 7) In patients of liver cirrhosis the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold correlated well to serum albumin and globulin levels and BSP retention which were considered to reflect functions of hepatic parenchymal cells. There was, however, no correlation between colloidal disappearance rate and thymol turbidity test, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

  11. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transfusion Is Safe and Improves Liver Function in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Ruonan; Lin, Hu; Fu, Junliang; Zou, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Aimin; Shi, Jianfei; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; He, Weiping; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Liu, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe, life-threatening complication, and new and efficient therapeutic strategies for liver failure are urgently needed. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusions have been shown to reverse fulminant hepatic failure in mice and to improve liver function in patients with end-stage liver diseases. We assessed the safety and initial efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) transfusions for ACLF patients associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A total of 43 ACLF patients were enrolled for this open-labeled and controlled study; 24 patients were treated with UC-MSCs, and 19 patients were treated with saline as controls. UC-MSC therapy was given three times at 4-week intervals. The liver function, adverse events, and survival rates were evaluated during the 48-week or 72-week follow-up period. No significant side effects were observed during the trial. The UC-MSC transfusions significantly increased the survival rates in ACLF patients; reduced the model for end-stage liver disease scores; increased serum albumin, cholinesterase, and prothrombin activity; and increased platelet counts. Serum total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased after the UC-MSC transfusions. UC-MSC transfusions are safe in the clinic and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for HBV-associated ACLF patients. PMID:23197664

  12. Morphological and functional abnormalities of salience network in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Weidan; Li, Li; Zhang, Huiran; Ouyang, Xuan; Liu, Haihong; Zhao, Jingping; Li, Lingjiang; Xue, Zhimin; Xu, Ke; Tang, Haibo; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Fei

    2012-10-01

    A salience network (SN), mainly composed of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been suggested to play an important role in salience attribution which has been proposed as central to the pathology of paranoid schizophrenia. The role of this SN in the pathophysiology of paranoid schizophrenia, however, still remains unclear. In the present study, voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were combined to identify morphological and functional abnormalities in the proposed SN in the early-stage of paranoid schizophrenia (ESPS). Voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity analyses were applied to 90 ESPS patients and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Correlation analyses were performed to examine the relationships between various clinical variables and both gray matter morphology and functional connectivity within the SN in ESPS. Compared to the HC group, the ESPS group showed significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in both bilateral AI and ACC. Moreover, significantly reduced functional connectivity within the SN sub-networks was identified in the ESPS group. These convergent morphological and functional deficits in SN were significantly associated with hallucinations. Additionally, illness duration correlated with reduced GMV in the left AI in ESPS. In conclusion, these findings provide convergent evidence for the morphological and functional abnormalities of the SN in ESPS. Moreover, the association of illness duration with the reduced GMV in the left AI suggests that the SN and the AI, in particular, may manifest progressive morphological changes that are especially important in the emergence of ESPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E

    2009-01-01

    tolerance test before discharge. LV function was assessed using echocardiographic measurements (LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, restrictive diastolic filling pattern, early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio [E/e'], and left...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend)

  14. Structural and Functional Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Patients With Vasospastic Angina Pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ong, Peter; Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen

    2015-01-01

    Coronary spasm is involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and syncope. In recent years, imaging tools such as computerized tomographic angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical...... coherence tomography have been applied to study the coronary pathology in patients with vasospastic angina. Patients with vasospastic angina represent a heterogeneous cohort of patients with regard to the extent of concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. They share the common pathophysiological phenomenon...... of this article is to review structural and functional coronary artery abnormalities in patients with vasospastic angina....

  15. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diletta Pezzani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  16. Prevalence, severity, and relationships of lung lesions, liver abnormalities, and rumen health scores measured at slaughter in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, D J; Thomson, D U; Bartle, S J; Osterstock, J B; Prouty, F L; Reinhardt, C D

    2014-06-01

    An array of management tools exists within the beef industry to improve animal welfare and productivity; however, the ability to assess the outcomes of these tools is needed. Deficiencies in management commonly manifest as bovine respiratory disease complex or nutritional disorders such as acidosis; therefore, lung, liver, and rumen gross pathology lesions present at slaughter were measured as part of the Harvest Audit Program (HAP) and associations with performance determined. Individual gross pathology data from 19,229 cattle at commercial packing plants in Kansas and Texas were collected. Corresponding individual preharvest and carcass data were obtained on a subset of 13,226 cattle. Associations between lesions and performance were modeled using multivariable mixed effect models. Regression coefficients were used for estimation of lesion associative effects on continuous outcomes and odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Across the entire population, 67.3% of the cattle had no pulmonary lesions; 22.5 and 9.8% of cattle displayed mild and severe lesions, respectively. Severe pulmonary lesions were associated with a decreased ADG of 0.07 kg and a HCW 7.1 kg less than cohorts with no pulmonary lesions (P < 0.01). Overall, 68.6% of cattle observed had normal livers. Of cattle severely affected by liver abscesses (A+; 4.6%), 14.9% also displayed severe pulmonary lesions and 28.3% displayed mild pulmonary lesions. Rumenitis lesions were observed in 24.1% of the overall study population. Of cattle with mildly abscessed livers (A-), moderately abscessed livers (A), and severely abscessed livers, 20.6, 21.6, and 9.24% displayed mild or severe rumenitis lesions at slaughter. Severe rumenitis lesions were associated with a significant decrease in ADG and HCW (0.025 and 2.20 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). Although the majority of the cattle in this population would be considered low risk, after adjustments for cattle with multiple lesions, 22.9% of cattle in the overall

  17. Safety and efficacy of Y-90 microsphere treatment in patients with primary and metastatic liver cancer: The tumor selectivity of the treatment as a function of tumor to liver flow ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezarn William A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment records and follow-up data on 40 patients with primary and metastatic liver malignancies who underwent a single whole-liver treatment with Y-90 resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres® Sirtex Medical, Lake Forest, IL were retrospectively reviewed. The objective of the study was to evaluate the anatomic and physiologic determinants of radiation dose distribution, and the dose response of tumor and liver toxicity in patients with liver malignancies who underwent hepatic arterial Y-90 resin microsphere treatment. Methods Liver and tumor volume calculations were performed on pre-treatment CT scans. Fractional tumor and liver flow characteristics and lung shunt fractions were determined using hepatic arterial Tc-99m MAA imaging. Absorbed dose calculations were performed using the MIRD equations. Liver toxicity was assessed clinically and by liver function tests. Tumor response to therapy was assessed by CT and/or tumor markers. Results Of the 40 patients, 5 had hepatocellular cancer (HCC, and 35 had metastatic liver tumors (15 colorectal cancer, 10 neuroendocrine tumors, 4 breast cancer, 2 lung cancer, 1 ovarian cancer, 1 endometrial cancer, and 2 unknown primary adenocarcinoma. All patients were treated in a salvage setting with a 3 to 80 week follow-up (mean: 19 weeks. Tumor volumes ranged from 15.0 to 984.2 cc (mean: 294.9 cc and tumor to normal liver uptake ratios ranged from 2.8 to 15.4 (mean: 5.4. Average administered activity was 1.2 GBq (0.4 to 2.4 GBq. Liver absorbed doses ranged from 0.7 to 99.5 Gy (mean: 17.2 Gy. Tumor absorbed doses ranged from 40.1 to 494.8 Gy (mean: 121.5 Gy. None of the patients had clinical venoocclusive disease or therapy-induced liver failure. Seven patients (17.5 % had transient and 7 patients (17.5 % had persistent LFT abnormalities. There were 27 (67.5% responders (complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Tumor response correlated with higher tumor flow ratio as measured by

  18. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  19. Abnormalities of Functional Brain Networks in Pathological Gambling: A Graph-Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eTschernegg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in pathological gambling. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional MRI data in pathological gambling. We compared 19 patients with pathological gambling to 19 healthy controls using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT. None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (SMA, reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients.These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that pathological gambling is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in pathological gambling cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders.

  20. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  1. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Bharti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPathological and MRI-based evidence suggests that multiple brain structures are likely to be involved in functional disconnection between brain areas. Few studies have investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and corticobasal syndrome (CBS. In this study, we investigated within- and between-network rsFC abnormalities in these two conditions.MethodsTwenty patients with PSP, 11 patients with CBS, and 16 healthy subjects (HS underwent a resting-state fMRI study. Resting-state networks (RSNs were extracted to evaluate within- and between-network rsFC using the Melodic and FSLNets software packages.ResultsIncreased within-network rsFC was observed in both PSP and CBS patients, with a larger number of RSNs being involved in CBS. Within-network cerebellar rsFC positively correlated with mini-mental state examination scores in patients with PSP. Compared to healthy volunteers, PSP and CBS patients exhibit reduced functional connectivity between the lateral visual and auditory RSNs, with PSP patients additionally showing lower functional connectivity between the cerebellar and insular RSNs. Moreover, rsFC between the salience and executive-control RSNs was increased in patients with CBS compared to HS.ConclusionThis study provides evidence of functional brain reorganization in both PSP and CBS. Increased within-network rsFC could represent a higher degree of synchronization in damaged brain areas, while between-network rsFC abnormalities may mainly reflect degeneration of long-range white matter fibers.

  2. UPF2 is a critical regulator of liver development, function and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoren, Lina A; Nørgaard, Gitte A; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    regulatory potential of the NMD pathway in mammals will require the functional assessment of NMD in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use mouse genetics to address the role of UPF2, a core NMD component, in the development, function and regeneration of the liver. We find that loss....... CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our data demonstrate the critical role of the NMD pathway in liver development, function and regeneration and highlights the importance of NMD for mammalian biology....... of NMD during fetal liver development is incompatible with postnatal life due to failure of terminal differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Upf2 in the adult liver results in hepatosteatosis and disruption of liver homeostasis. Finally, NMD was found to be absolutely required for liver regeneration...

  3. Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition

  4. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury

  5. Abnormal rich club organization and impaired correlation between structural and functional connectivity in migraine sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Lijun; Yin, Qin; Dun, Wanghuan; Xu, Xiaolin; Liu, Jixin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    Because of the unique position of the topologically central role of densely interconnected brain hubs, our study aimed to investigate whether these regions and their related connections would be particularly vulnerable to migraine. In our study, we explored the rich club structure and its role in global functional dynamics in 30 patients with migraine without aura and 30 healthy controls. DTI and resting fMRI were used to construct structural connectivity (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) networks. An independent replication data set of 26 patients and 26 controls was included to replicate and validate significant findings. As compared with the controls, the structural networks of patients exhibited altered rich club organization with higher level of feeder connection density, abnormal small-world organization with increased global efficiency and decreased strength of SC-FC coupling. As these abnormal topological properties and headache attack duration exhibited a significant association with increased density of feeder connections, our results indicated that migraine may be characterized by a selective alteration of the structural connectivity of the rich club regions, tending to have higher 'bridgeness' with non-rich club regions, which may increase the integration among pain-related brain circuits with more excitability but less inhibition for the modulation of migraine.

  6. The exploration of the changes in bone metabolism in patients with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Shaolin; Li Xiaohong; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    To explore the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, BGP and PTH in 91 patients with hyperthyroidism, 37 patients with hypothyroidism, 51 controls, were measured by means of IRMA, calcaneus heel bone density (BMD) was measured by means of 241 Am single photon absorptiometry. BGP levels in hyperthyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). BGP levels in hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.001). PTH levels in hyperthyroidism were a little lower than those in controls (P < 0.05). PTH levels in hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). The measurement of BMD showed that the prevalence rates of osteoporosis (OP) in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were significantly higher than those in controls. In hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism groups the age of OP tends to be younger. The patients with hyperthyroidism over 55 years of age were all suffered from OP. The changes in BGP and PTH were earlier than BMD, so BGP and PTH can be used as sensitive indicator of the changes in bone metabolism with abnormal thyroid function, especially for curative effect observations

  7. Hepatitis B and C virus infections and liver function in AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impaired liver function tests and co-infection with hepatitis viruses in AIDS patients are common in western countries. Objective: To assess liver function and prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in AIDS patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Design: A prospective study.

  8. TH-A-9A-04: Incorporating Liver Functionality in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, V; Epelman, M; Feng, M; Cao, Y; Wang, H; Romeijn, E; Matuszak, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Liver SBRT patients have both variable pretreatment liver function (e.g., due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatments) and sensitivity to radiation, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work aims to explicitly incorporate liver perfusion into treatment planning to redistribute dose to preserve well-functioning areas without compromising target coverage. Methods: Voxel-based liver perfusion, a measure of functionality, was computed from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Two optimization models with different cost functions subject to the same dose constraints (e.g., minimum target EUD and maximum critical structure EUDs) were compared. The cost functions minimized were EUD (standard model) and functionality-weighted EUD (functional model) to the liver. The resulting treatment plans delivering the same target EUD were compared with respect to their DVHs, their dose wash difference, the average dose delivered to voxels of a particular perfusion level, and change in number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving a particular dose. Two-dimensional synthetic and three-dimensional clinical examples were studied. Results: The DVHs of all structures of plans from each model were comparable. In contrast, in plans obtained with the functional model, the average dose delivered to high-/low-functioning voxels was lower/higher than in plans obtained with its standard counterpart. The number of high-/low-functioning voxels receiving high/low dose was lower in the plans that considered perfusion in the cost function than in the plans that did not. Redistribution of dose can be observed in the dose wash differences. Conclusion: Liver perfusion can be used during treatment planning potentially to minimize the risk of toxicity during liver SBRT, resulting in better global liver function. The functional model redistributes dose in the standard model from higher to lower functioning voxels, while achieving the same target EUD

  9. Functional study on two artificial liver bioreactors with collagen gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Bing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo improve the hollow fiber bioreactor of artificial liver. MethodsRat hepatocytes mixed with collagen solution were injected into the external cavity of a hollow fiber reactor to construct a bioreactor of hepatocytes suspended in collagen gel (group Ⅰ. Other rat hepatocytes suspended in solution were injected into the external cavity of a hollow fiber reactor with a layer of collagen on the wall of the external cavity to construct a bioreactor of collagen layer and hepatocytes (group Ⅱ. For each group, the culture solution circulated through the internal cavity of the hollow fiber bioreactor; the bioreactor was put in a culture box for 9 d, and the culture solution in the internal cavity was exchanged for new one every 24 h; the concentrations of albumin (Alb, urea, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the culture solution samples were measured to examine the hepatocyte function of the bioreactor. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 130. Continuous data were expressed as mean±SD, and comparison between groups was made by paired t test. ResultsFor groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, Alb levels reached peak values on day 3 of culture (1.41±0.08 g/L and 0.65±0.05 g/L; from day 3 to 9, group I had a significantly higher Alb level than group Ⅱ (t>7.572, P<0.01. For groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, urea levels reached peak values on days 3 and 5 of culture (1.73±0.14 mmol/L and 1.56±0.18 mmol/L; from days 5 to 9, group I had a significantly higher urea level than group Ⅱ (t>8.418, P<0.01. For groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, LDH levels reached peak values on day 9 of culture (32.03±9.13 U/L and 70.17±25.28 U/L; from days 1 to 9, group I had a significantly lower LDH level than group Ⅱ(t>5.633, P<0.01. Therefore, the bioreactor of hepatocytes suspended in collagen gel (group Ⅰ showed a better hepatocyte function and less hepatic enzyme leakage compared with the bioreactor of collagen layer and hepatocytes (group Ⅱ. Conclusion

  10. Recurrent postoperative CRPS I in patients with abnormal preoperative sympathetic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William E; Ahmad, Mahmood

    2008-02-01

    A complex regional pain syndrome of an extremity that has previously resolved can recur after repeat surgery at the same anatomic site. Complex regional pain syndrome is described as a disease of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative and postoperative sympathetic function and the recurrence of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) in patients after repeat carpal tunnel surgery. Thirty-four patients who developed CRPS I after initial carpal tunnel releases and required repeat open carpal tunnel surgeries were studied. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) was used to assess preoperative sympathetic function 5-7 days prior to surgery and to assess postoperative sympathetic function 19-22 days after surgery or 20-22 days after resolution of the CRPS I. Sympathetic nervous system function was prospectively examined by testing reflex-evoked vasoconstrictor responses to sympathetic stimuli recorded with LDI of both hands. Patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on LDI responses to sympathetic provocation. Group I (11 of 34) patients had abnormal preoperative LDI studies in the hands that had prior surgeries, whereas group II (23 of 34) patients had normal LDI studies. Each patient in this study had open repeat carpal tunnel surgery. In group I, 8 of 11 patients had recurrent CRPS I, whereas in group II, 3 of 23 patients had recurrent CRPS I. All of the recurrent CRPS I patients were successfully treated with sympathetic blockade, occupational therapy, and pharmacologic modalities. Repeat LDI after recurrent CRPS I resolution was abnormal in 8 of 8 group I patients and in 1 of 3 group II patients. CRPS I can recur after repeat hand surgery. Our study results may, however, identify those individuals who may readily benefit from perioperative therapies. Prognostic I.

  11. Chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients: MR analysis of the coincidence between functional and morphologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Lull, Juan José; García-Martí, Gracián; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Moratal-Pérez, David; Poyatos, Cecilio; Robles, Montserrat; Sanjuán, Julio

    2007-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate if functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities associated with auditory emotional stimuli coexist with focal brain reductions in schizophrenic patients with chronic auditory hallucinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all participants gave written informed consent. Twenty-one right-handed male patients with schizophrenia and persistent hallucinations (started to hear hallucinations at a mean age of 23 years +/- 10, with 15 years +/- 8 of mean illness duration) and 10 healthy paired participants (same ethnic group [white], age, and education level [secondary school]) were studied. Functional echo-planar T2*-weighted (after both emotional and neutral auditory stimulation) and morphometric three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) software. Brain activation images were extracted by subtracting those with emotional from nonemotional words. Anatomic differences were explored by optimized voxel-based morphometry. The functional and morphometric MR images were overlaid to depict voxels statistically reported by both techniques. A coincidence map was generated by multiplying the emotional subtracted functional MR and volume decrement morphometric maps. Statistical analysis used the general linear model, Student t tests, random effects analyses, and analysis of covariance with a correction for multiple comparisons following the false discovery rate method. Large coinciding brain clusters (P < .005) were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Smaller coinciding clusters were found in the left posterior and right anterior cingular gyri, left inferior frontal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. The middle and superior temporal and the cingular gyri are closely related to the abnormal neural network involved in the auditory emotional dysfunction seen in schizophrenic patients.

  12. Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormal interoceptive activity and functional connectivity in the insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Jason A; Drevets, Wayne C; Moseman, Scott E; Bodurka, Jerzy; Barcalow, Joel C; Simmons, W Kyle

    2014-08-01

    Somatic complaints and altered interoceptive awareness are common features in the clinical presentation of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recently, neurobiological evidence has accumulated demonstrating that the insula is one of the primary cortical structures underlying interoceptive awareness. Abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula may thus contribute to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of MDD. We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level-dependent responses between 20 unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy control participants during a task requiring attention to visceral interoceptive sensations and also assessed the relationship of this blood oxygenation level-dependent response to depression severity, as rated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Additionally, we examined between-group differences in insula resting-state functional connectivity and its relationship to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale ratings of depression severity. Relative to the healthy control subjects, unmedicated MDD subjects exhibited decreased activity bilaterally in the dorsal mid-insula cortex (dmIC) during interoception. Activity within the insula during the interoceptive attention task was negatively correlated with both depression severity and somatic symptom severity in depressed subjects. Major depressive disorder also was associated with greater resting-state functional connectivity between the dmIC and limbic brain regions implicated previously in MDD, including the amygdala, subgenual prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Moreover, functional connectivity between these regions and the dmIC was positively correlated with depression severity. Major depressive disorder and the somatic symptoms of depression are associated with abnormal interoceptive representation within the insula. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-01

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed. PMID:28009983

  14. Abnormal brain functional connectivity leads to impaired mood and cognition in hyperthyroidism: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhi, Mengmeng; Hou, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yuqun; Yue, Yingying; Yuan, Yonggui

    2017-01-24

    Patients with hyperthyroidism frequently have neuropsychiatric complaints such as lack of concentration, poor memory, depression, anxiety, nervousness, and irritability, suggesting brain dysfunction. However, the underlying process of these symptoms remains unclear. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we depicted the altered graph theoretical metric degree centrality (DC) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 33 hyperthyroid patients relative to 33 healthy controls. The peak points of significantly altered DC between the two groups were defined as the seed regions to calculate FC to the whole brain. Then, partial correlation analyses were performed between abnormal DC, FC and neuropsychological performances, as well as some clinical indexes. The decreased intrinsic functional connectivity in the posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC) and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG), as well as the abnormal seed-based FC anchored in default mode network (DMN), attention network, visual network and cognitive network in this study, possibly constitutes the latent mechanism for emotional and cognitive changes in hyperthyroidism, including anxiety and impaired processing speed.

  15. Globus pallidus MR signal abnormalities in children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanquinet, Sylviane; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Merlini, Laura [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Morice, Claire; Cousin, Vladimir; McLin, Valerie A. [University Hospital of Geneva, Swiss Center for Liver Disease in Children, Geneva (Switzerland); Courvoisier, Delphine S. [University Hospital of Geneva, Division of Quality of Care, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-10-15

    Detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in children is difficult. We aimed to assess the changes in imaging of the central nervous system in children with chronic liver disease using MR imaging, diffusion, and {sup 1}H -spectroscopy. Forty three children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting (111.4±56.9 months) and 24 controls (72.0±51.8 months) underwent brain MRI/spectroscopy on a 1.5T to examine T1, T2, ADC, Cho/Cr, ml/Cr, Glx/Cr ratio spectroscopy in the globus pallidus. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the ratios of globus pallidus/putamen T1 signal: isointense (i), hyperintense (h), much more hyperintense (h+). The relationship with clinical and biological data was analyzed. T1 signal intensity and ml/Cr were significantly different between controls and group h+ (p=0.001). ADC did not differ significantly between groups. Age correlated strongly with the presence of a T1 signal ratio (p > 0.001). There was no correlation between imaging findings and biological parameters. In children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting, the presence of a hyperintense T1 signal in the globus pallidus correlated strongly with age. Biological and clinical parameters were not predictive of these changes. MRI may become a useful screening tool for hepatic encephalopathy in children. (orig.)

  16. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control) and from cirrhotic livers (LC) (Child A-LC and Child C-LC). Immunohistochemical (IHC), Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver. PMID:21059220

  17. Globus pallidus MR signal abnormalities in children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanquinet, Sylviane; Anooshiravani, Mehrak; Merlini, Laura; Morice, Claire; Cousin, Vladimir; McLin, Valerie A.; Courvoisier, Delphine S.

    2017-01-01

    Detection of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy in children is difficult. We aimed to assess the changes in imaging of the central nervous system in children with chronic liver disease using MR imaging, diffusion, and "1H -spectroscopy. Forty three children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting (111.4±56.9 months) and 24 controls (72.0±51.8 months) underwent brain MRI/spectroscopy on a 1.5T to examine T1, T2, ADC, Cho/Cr, ml/Cr, Glx/Cr ratio spectroscopy in the globus pallidus. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the ratios of globus pallidus/putamen T1 signal: isointense (i), hyperintense (h), much more hyperintense (h+). The relationship with clinical and biological data was analyzed. T1 signal intensity and ml/Cr were significantly different between controls and group h+ (p=0.001). ADC did not differ significantly between groups. Age correlated strongly with the presence of a T1 signal ratio (p > 0.001). There was no correlation between imaging findings and biological parameters. In children with chronic liver disease and/or porto-systemic shunting, the presence of a hyperintense T1 signal in the globus pallidus correlated strongly with age. Biological and clinical parameters were not predictive of these changes. MRI may become a useful screening tool for hepatic encephalopathy in children. (orig.)

  18. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

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    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  19. Assessment of Dengue Fever Severity Through Liver Function Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Alvi, A. H.; Nawaz, A. A.; Butt, A.; Hanif, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the utility of liver function tests (LFTs) for early recognition and prediction of severity of Dengue fever in hospitalized patients. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Services Institute of Medical Science and Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore, from September - December 2010. Methodology: Admitted cases of Dengue fever were divided into 3 groups; mild, moderate and severe increases in aminotransferases. Elevation in LFTs was co-related with good or bad outcome i.e. (survival or complication free stay) or (death or complications). Results were analyzed in SPSS version 18. Results: Out of the 353 patients with mean age of 37.12 +- 15.45 years, 245 (69.4%) were males and 108 (30.6%) were females. Seventy five patients (21.2%) had mild elevation of aminotransferases (2 fold increases), 265 patients (75.1%) had moderate increases (3 to 4 fold) and 13 (3.7%) had severe (> 4 fold increase). ALT was statistically higher in patients with septicemia, hepatic and renal failure (p-value 0.05). AST was higher in almost all complications. Prolonged hospital stay was associated with raised LFTs and greater complications and mortality. AST was found to be twice as much raised as ALT. Conclusion: AST and ALT were statistically higher in patients with worse outcome thus can lead to early recognition of high risk cases. (author)

  20. Abnormal small-world brain functional networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients with poor insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hui; Cui, Yan; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Xiaocui; Zhong, Mingtian; Yi, Jinyao; Cai, Lin; Yao, Dezhong; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-09-01

    There are limited data on neurobiological correlates of poor insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study explored whether specific changes occur in small-world network (SWN) properties in the brain functional network of OCD patients with poor insight. Resting-state electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded for 12 medication-free OCD patients with poor insight, 50 medication-free OCD patients with good insight, and 36 healthy controls. Both of the OCD groups exhibited topological alterations in the brain functional network characterized by abnormal small-world parameters at the beta band. However, the alterations at the theta band only existed in the OCD patients with poor insight. A relatively small sample size. Subjects were naïve to medications and those with Axis I comorbidity were excluded, perhaps limiting generalizability. Disrupted functional integrity at the beta bands of the brain functional network may be related to OCD, while disrupted functional integrity at the theta band may be associated with poor insight in OCD patients, thus this study might provide novel insight into our understanding of the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu eXiangzhe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are almost unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs, followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized shortest path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing the functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  3. Abnormal prefrontal cortex resting state functional connectivity and severity of internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenwang; Zhang, Ting; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yu, Dahua; Zhang, Ming; Yuan, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) among adolescents has become an important public concern and gained more and more attention internationally. Recent studies focused on IGD and revealed brain abnormalities in the IGD group, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, the role of PFC-striatal circuits in pathology of IGD remains unknown. Twenty-five adolescents with IGD and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in our study. Voxel-based morphometric (VBM) and functional connectivity analysis were employed to investigate the abnormal structural and resting-state properties of several frontal regions in individuals with online gaming addiction. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, IGD subjects showed significant decreased gray matter volume in PFC regions including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right supplementary motor area (SMA) after controlling for age and gender effects. We chose these regions as the seeding areas for the resting-state analysis and found that IGD subjects showed decreased functional connectivity between several cortical regions and our seeds, including the insula, and temporal and occipital cortices. Moreover, significant decreased functional connectivity between some important subcortical regions, i.e., dorsal striatum, pallidum, and thalamus, and our seeds were found in the IGD group and some of those changes were associated with the severity of IGD. Our results revealed the involvement of several PFC regions and related PFC-striatal circuits in the process of IGD and suggested IGD may share similar neural mechanisms with substance dependence at the circuit level.

  4. Abnormal functional architecture of amygdala-centered networks in adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Moji; Veer, Ilya M; van Hoof, Marie-José; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Wee, Nic J; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, debilitating, and difficult to treat psychiatric disorder. Very little is known of how PTSD affects neuroplasticity in the developing adolescent brain. Whereas multiple lines of research implicate amygdala-centered network dysfunction in the pathophysiology of adult PTSD, no study has yet examined the functional architecture of amygdala subregional networks in adolescent PTSD. Using intrinsic functional connectivity analysis, we investigated functional connectivity of the basolateral (BLA) and centromedial (CMA) amygdala in 19 sexually abused adolescents with PTSD relative to 23 matched controls. Additionally, we examined whether altered amygdala subregional connectivity coincides with abnormal grey matter volume of the amygdaloid complex. Our analysis revealed abnormal amygdalar connectivity and morphology in adolescent PTSD patients. More specifically, PTSD patients showed diminished right BLA connectivity with a cluster including dorsal and ventral portions of the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices (p < 0.05, corrected). In contrast, PTSD patients showed increased left CMA connectivity with a cluster including the orbitofrontal and subcallosal cortices (p < 0.05, corrected). Critically, these connectivity changes coincided with diminished grey matter volume within BLA and CMA subnuclei (p < 0.05, corrected), with CMA connectivity shifts additionally relating to more severe symptoms of PTSD. These findings provide unique insights into how perturbations in major amygdalar circuits could hamper fear regulation and drive excessive acquisition and expression of fear in PTSD. As such, they represent an important step toward characterizing the neurocircuitry of adolescent PTSD, thereby informing the development of reliable biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Abnormal GABAergic function and face processing in schizophrenia: A pharmacologic-fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Ivy F; Fang, Yu; Phan, K Luan; Welsh, Robert C; Taylor, Stephan F

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenia is suggested by postmortem studies and the common use of GABA receptor-potentiating agents in treatment. In a recent study, we used a benzodiazepine challenge to demonstrate abnormal GABAergic function during processing of negative visual stimuli in schizophrenia. This study extended this investigation by mapping GABAergic mechanisms associated with face processing and social appraisal in schizophrenia using a benzodiazepine challenge. Fourteen stable, medicated schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients (SZ) and 13 healthy controls (HC) underwent functional MRI using the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) technique while they performed the Socio-emotional Preference Task (SePT) on emotional face stimuli ("Do you like this face?"). Participants received single-blinded intravenous saline and lorazepam (LRZ) in two separate sessions separated by 1-3weeks. Both SZ and HC recruited medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate during the SePT, relative to gender identification. A significant drug by group interaction was observed in the medial occipital cortex, such that SZ showed increased BOLD signal to LRZ challenge, while HC showed an expected decrease of signal; the interaction did not vary by task. The altered BOLD response to LRZ challenge in SZ was significantly correlated with increased negative affect across multiple measures. The altered response to LRZ challenge suggests that abnormal face processing and negative affect in SZ are associated with altered GABAergic function in the visual cortex, underscoring the role of impaired visual processing in socio-emotional deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interhemispheric functional disconnection because of abnormal corpus callosum integrity in bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yamamoto, Akihide; Takahashi, Masato; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-11-01

    A significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) value has been shown in anterior parts of the corpus callosum in patients with bipolar disorder. We investigated the association between abnormal corpus callosum integrity and interhemispheric functional connectivity (IFC) in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined the association between FA values in the corpus callosum (CC-FA) and the IFC between homotopic regions in the anterior cortical structures of bipolar disorder ( n =16) and major depressive disorder ( n =22) patients with depressed or euthymic states. We found a positive correlation between the CC-FA and IFC values between homotopic regions of the ventral prefrontal cortex and insula cortex, and significantly lower IFC between these regions in bipolar disorder patients. The abnormal corpus callosum integrity in bipolar disorder patients is relevant to the IFC between homotopic regions, possibly disturbing the exchange of emotional information between the cerebral hemispheres resulting in emotional dysregulation. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  7. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Chu Shaolin; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E 2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E 2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P 2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  8. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  9. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring on liver function in short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinshagen, K; Zahn, K; Buch, C von; Zoeller, M; Hagl, C I; Ali, M; Waag, K-L

    2008-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a functional or anatomic loss of major parts of the small bowel leading to severe malnutrition. The limiting factor for the survival of these patients remains parenteral nutrition-related liver damage leading to end-stage liver failure. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has been proven to enhance peristalsis, to decrease bacterial overgrowth and to extend the mucosal contact time for the absorption of nutrients. The aim of this study was to show the impact of LILT on the development of parenteral nutrition-related liver damage. A cohort of 55 patients with short bowel syndrome managed with LILT in our institution between 1987 and 2007 was retrospectively reviewed. LILT was performed at a mean age of 24 months (range 4 - 150 months). Mean follow-up time was 83.76 months (range 5 - 240 months). We obtained reliable data from 31 patients with regard to liver enzymes and function parameters in blood samples before LILT and at the present time. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients prior to LILT. Liver enzymes ALAT (mean 121 U/l), ASAT (mean 166 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 2.49 mg/dl) were elevated preoperatively in 27/31 children. After the lengthening procedure, ALAT (mean 50 U/l), ASAT (mean 63 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 1.059 mg/dl) normalized except in 5 of 8 patients who could not be weaned from parenteral nutrition after LILT. Liver function parameters such as the international normal ratio (INR) were slightly elevated in 5/31 patients. Albumin was generally low, probably due to parenteral nutrition. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients preoperatively, showing 4 patients with low-grade, 6 patients with intermediate and 4 patients with high-grade fibrosis. End-stage liver disease with cirrhosis was an exclusion criterion for LILT. All patients with liver fibrosis showed a normalization of liver enzymes when they were weaned from parenteral nutrition. But patients with higher grade liver fibrosis tend to develop

  11. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between ...

  12. Correlation between liver function tests and metabolic syndrome in hepatitis-free elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Sheng Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship between liver function tests (LFTs and metabolic syndrome (MetS as several studies have shown positive correlations between some of the LFTs, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT, and MetS but have not fully explored the same in the elderly. Owing to the progress in public health, the aging of the general population becomes a major issue. Design: We enrolled subjects aged over 60 years who underwent routine health checkups in a Health Screening Center after excluding subjects with a history of hepatitis B or C infection, excessive alcohol consumption, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, or receiving medications for these diseases. Finally, 9,282 participants were eligible for analysis. Statistical Analysis: All data were tested for normal distribution with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and for homogeneity of variances with the Levene′s test. A t-test was used to evaluate the differences between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to observe correlations between different parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves of each LFT were used to predict MetS. Areas under curves and 95% confidence interval were also estimated and compared. Results: With the exception of aspartate aminotransferase and α-fetal protein, the results of LFTs, including total and direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALT, and γ-GT, were altered in the group with MetS. Furthermore, the levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women were independently associated with all MetS components and had the highest areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Conclusion: Abnormal LFTs are highly correlated with MetS in the hepatitis-free elderly, with levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women being the most important factors. LFTs may represent an auxiliary tool for the

  13. EFFECTS OF RESVERATROL ON LIVER FUNCTION OF OBESE FEMALE WISTAR RATS

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    Nádia Araújo Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, lipolytic, and antifibrotic properties, which may be useful in supplementation of obese patients and with liver problems. This study evaluated the effects of 6-week resveratrol supplementation on the lipid profile and liver function of female Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity. Sixty-four Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 16: the control group (C; the control obese group (CO; the resveratrol group (R; and the resveratrol obese group (RO. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized for blood collection and subsequent euthanasia for collection of liver biopsy. The parameters for body weight, liver weight, retroperitoneal fat weight, serum lipid and liver profiles and histopathological analysis were evaluated. The 6-week resveratrol administration did not induce weight loss nor did it reduce the lipid profile; however, it decreased the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP and reduced the incidence of steatosis (75.0% in group RO compared with group CO (81.2%. Thus, we concluded that resveratrol supplementation for the short period of six weeks had a beneficial effect on liver function by reducing hepatic steatosis and the liver enzymes AST and ALP in obese female rats. Keywords: liver function; obesity; rats; resveratrol.

  14. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Frontopolar Subregions in Treatment-Nonresponsive Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettes, Peter W; Moayedi, Massieh; Dunlop, Katharine; Mansouri, Farrokh; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Giacobbe, Peter; Davis, Karen D; Lam, Raymond W; Kennedy, Sidney H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Blumberger, Daniel M; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with major depressive disorder develop treatment-nonresponsive depression (TNRD); novel interventions targeting the substrates of this illness population are desperately needed. Convergent evidence from lesion, stimulation, connectivity, and functional neuroimaging studies implicates the frontopolar cortex (FPC) as a particularly important region in TNRD pathophysiology; regions functionally connected to the FPC, once identified, could present favorable targets for novel brain stimulation treatments. We recently published a parcellation of the FPC based on diffusion tensor imaging data, identifying distinct medial and lateral subregions. Here, we applied this parcellation to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained in 56 patients with TNRD and 56 matched healthy control subjects. In patients, the medial FPC showed reduced connectivity to the anterior midcingulate cortex and insula. The left lateral FPC showed reduced connectivity to the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex and increased connectivity to the fusiform gyri. In addition, TNRD symptom severity correlated significantly with connectivity of the left lateral FPC subregion to a medial orbitofrontal cortex region of the classical reward network. Taken together, these findings suggest that changes in FPC subregion connectivity may underlie several dimensions of TNRD pathology, including changes in reward/positive valence, nonreward/negative valence, and cognitive control domains. Nodes of functional networks showing abnormal connectivity to the FPC could be useful in generating novel candidates for therapeutic brain stimulation in TNRD. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal functional connectivity of the medial cortex in euthymic bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, William R; Lee, James N; Johnson, Susanna; Gale, Phillip; Thatcher, John

    2014-06-03

    This project utilized functional MRI (fMRI) and a motor activation paradigm to investigate neural circuitry in euthymic bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that circuitry involving the cortical midline structures (CMS) would demonstrate abnormal functional connectivity. Nineteen subjects with recurrent bipolar disorder and 18 controls were studied using fMRI and a motor activation paradigm. We used functional connectivity analyses to identify circuits with aberrant connectivity. We found increased functional connectivity among bipolar subjects compared to healthy controls in two CMS circuits. One circuit included the medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus and the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus. The other included the medial aspect of the right superior frontal gyrus, the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus and the right medial frontal gyrus and surrounding region. Our results indicate that CMS circuit dysfunction persists in the euthymic state and thus may represent trait pathology. Future studies should address whether these circuits contribute to relapse of illness. Our results also suggest the possibility that aberrations of superior frontal circuitry may impact default mode network and cognitive processes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Elasticity-based development of functionally enhanced multicellular 3D liver encapsulated in hybrid hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Joon; Son, Myung Jin; Ahn, Jiwon; Oh, Soo Jin; Lee, Mihee; Kim, Ansoon; Jeung, Yun-Ji; Kim, Han-Gyeul; Won, Misun; Lim, Jung Hwa; Kim, Nam-Soon; Jung, Cho-Rock; Chung, Kyung-Sook

    2017-12-01

    Current in vitro liver models provide three-dimensional (3-D) microenvironments in combination with tissue engineering technology and can perform more accurate in vivo mimicry than two-dimensional models. However, a human cell-based, functionally mature liver model is still desired, which would provide an alternative to animal experiments and resolve low-prediction issues on species differences. Here, we prepared hybrid hydrogels of varying elasticity and compared them with a normal liver, to develop a more mature liver model that preserves liver properties in vitro. We encapsulated HepaRG cells, either alone or with supporting cells, in a biodegradable hybrid hydrogel. The elastic modulus of the 3D liver dynamically changed during culture due to the combined effects of prolonged degradation of hydrogel and extracellular matrix formation provided by the supporting cells. As a result, when the elastic modulus of the 3D liver model converges close to that of the in vivo liver (≅ 2.3 to 5.9 kPa), both phenotypic and functional maturation of the 3D liver were realized, while hepatic gene expression, albumin secretion, cytochrome p450-3A4 activity, and drug metabolism were enhanced. Finally, the 3D liver model was expanded to applications with embryonic stem cell-derived hepatocytes and primary human hepatocytes, and it supported prolonged hepatocyte survival and functionality in long-term culture. Our model represents critical progress in developing a biomimetic liver system to simulate liver tissue remodeling, and provides a versatile platform in drug development and disease modeling, ranging from physiology to pathology. We provide a functionally improved 3D liver model that recapitulates in vivo liver stiffness. We have experimentally addressed the issues of orchestrated effects of mechanical compliance, controlled matrix formation by stromal cells in conjunction with hepatic differentiation, and functional maturation of hepatocytes in a dynamic 3D

  17. Functional pitch of a liver: fatty liver disease diagnosis with photoacoustic spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Meng, Zhuoxian; Lin, Jiandie; Carson, Paul; Wang, Xueding

    2014-03-01

    To provide more information for classification and assessment of biological tissues, photoacoustic spectrum analysis (PASA) moves beyond the quantification of the intensities of the photoacoustic (PA) signals by the use of the frequency-domain power distribution, namely power spectrum, of broadband PA signals. The method of PASA quantifies the linear-fit to the power spectrum of the PA signals from a biological tissue with 3 parameters, including intercept, midband-fit and slope. Intercept and midband-fit reflect the total optical absorption of the tissues whereas slope reflects the heterogeneity of the tissue structure. Taking advantage of the optical absorption contrasts contributed by lipid and blood at 1200 and 532 nm, respectively and the heterogeneous tissue microstructure in fatty liver due to the lipid infiltration, we investigate the capability of PASA in identifying histological changes of fatty livers in mouse model. 6 and 9 pairs of normal and fatty liver tissues from rat models were examined by ex vivo experiment with a conventional rotational PA measurement system. One pair of rat models with normal and fatty livers was examined non-invasively and in situ with our recently developed ultrasound and PA parallel imaging system. The results support our hypotheses that the spectrum analysis of PA signals can provide quantitative measures of the differences between the normal and fatty liver tissues and that part of the PA power spectrum can suffice for characterization of microstructures in biological tissues. Experimental results also indicate that the vibrational absorption peak of lipid at 1200nm could facilitate fatty liver diagnosis.

  18. Abnormal rectoanal function in children recovered from chronic constipation and encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, V A

    1984-12-01

    It is unknown if abnormal anal sphincter function as assessed by anorectal manometry is still present years after resolution of chronic constipation and encopresis. Twenty healthy controls, 12 children with constipation but no encopresis, and 20 children with chronic constipation and encopresis underwent anorectal manometric testing, using intraluminal pressure transducers and a balloon for rectal distention. Anorectal measurements were repeated in the 20 constipated and encopretic children 2.5-4 yr after treatment began; 11 children had recovered for at least 1 yr. The mean values of anal resting tone and of anal pull-through pressure were lower in the constipated and encopretic children than in the 20 control children (p less than 0.003). Percent relaxation of the rectosphincteric reflex after rectal distention of 30 and 60 ml was lower in constipated children with and without encopresis than in controls (p less than 0.003), whereas the means of rectosphincteric reflex threshold were comparable in the three groups of children. Three years after initiation of treatment with milk of magnesia, high-fiber diet, and bowel training techniques, the mean values of anal resting tone, anal pull-through pressure, and percent relaxation of rectosphincteric reflex remained significantly lower in both recovered and nonrecovered constipated and encopretic patients compared with controls. It was suggested that the underlying cause of chronic constipation is the decreased ability of the internal anal sphincter to relax with rectal distention, and the hypotonia of the anal canal is responsible for the encopresis. Abnormal anorectal functions were still present years after cessation of treatment and recovery and put the recovered patient at risk for recurrence of chronic constipation and encopresis.

  19. Cerebral Correlates of Abnormal Emotion Conflict Processing in Euthymic Bipolar Patients: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Pauline; Polosan, Mircea; Pichat, Cédric; Bougerol, Thierry; Baciu, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder experience cognitive and emotional impairment that may persist even during the euthymic state of the disease. These persistent symptoms in bipolar patients (BP) may be characterized by disturbances of emotion regulation and related fronto-limbic brain circuitry. The present study aims to investigate the modulation of fronto-limbic activity and connectivity in BP by the processing of emotional conflict. Fourteen euthymic BP and 13 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a word-face emotional Stroop task designed to dissociate the monitoring/generation of emotional conflict from its resolution. Functional connectivity was determined by means of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) approach. Relative to HS, BP were slower to process incongruent stimuli, reflecting higher amount of behavioral interference during emotional Stroop. Furthermore, BP showed decreased activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the monitoring and a lack of bilateral amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the emotional conflict. In addition, during conflict monitoring, BP showed abnormal positive connectivity between the right DLPFC and several regions of the default mode network. Overall, our results highlighted dysfunctional processing of the emotion conflict in euthymic BP that may be subtended by abnormal activity and connectivity of the DLPFC during the conflict monitoring, which, in turn, leads to failure of amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the conflict. Emotional dysregulation in BP may be underpinned by a lack of top-down cognitive control and a difficulty to focus on the task due to persistent self-oriented attention.

  20. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T{sub 1}-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T{sub 1} W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186{+-}0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987{+-}0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p<0.001), while T{sub 2}-weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239{+-}0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174{+-}0.097) (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and deterioration of ICG R{sub 15} (r=0.501, p<0.005), prolongation of prothrombine time (r=-0.392, p<0.05) and decrease of choline esterase (r=-0.336, p<0.05). There was, however, little correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and ammonia and Fisher ratio. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between high intensity of globus pallidus on T{sub 1}-WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author).

  1. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1987-01-01

    Liver haemodynamics and liver function were measured in 34 alcoholic cirrhotic men before entry and after 12 months (median) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg t.i.d.). Comparing data at entry with those at follow-up in the total patient......, testosterone-treated patients did not differ significantly from placebo-treated patients regarding any of the measured variables. No significant relationships could be demonstrated between ethanol consumption and liver haemodynamics and liver function, but the number of patients consuming more than 100 g...... ethanol per day decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) from 22 (65%) before entry to one (3%) during follow-up. In conclusion, oral testosterone treatment of men with alcoholic cirrhosis does not explain the significant improvement of liver haemodynamics and function observed in this study. However...

  2. Rb and p53 Liver Functions Are Essential for Xenobiotic Metabolism and Tumor Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nantasanti, Sathidpak; Toussaint, Mathilda J. M.; Youssef, Sameh A.; Tooten, Peter C. J.; de Bruin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressors Retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 are frequently inactivated in liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) or infections with Hepatitis B or C viruses. Here, we discovered a novel role for Rb and p53 in xenobiotic metabolism, which represent a key function of the liver

  3. Long-term obestatin treatment of mice type 2 diabetes increases insulin sensitivity and improves liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejski, Paweł A; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Ewa; Strowski, Mathias Z; Nowak, Krzysztof W

    2017-06-01

    Obestatin and ghrelin are peptides encoded by the preproghrelin gene. Obestatin inhibits food intake, in addition to regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we test the ability of obestatin at improving metabolic control and liver function in type 2 diabetic animals (type 2 diabetes mellitus). The effects of chronic obestatin treatment of mice with experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus on serum levels of glucose and lipids, and insulin sensitivity are characterized. In addition, alterations of hepatic lipid and glycogen contents are evaluated. Obestatin reduced body weight and decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, and β-hydroxybutyrate levels, as well as total and low-density lipoprotein fractions of cholesterol. In addition, obestatin increased high-density lipoproteins cholesterol levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, obestatin diminished liver mass, hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol contents, while glycogen content was higher in livers of healthy and mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with obestatin. These changes were accompanied by reduction of increased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase in T2DM mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obestatin increased adiponectin levels and reduced leptin concentration. Obestatin influenced the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by increasing Fabp5 and decreasing G6pc, Pepck, Fgf21 mRNA in the liver. Obestatin increased both, AKT and AMPK phosphorylation, and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein levels as well as mRNA expression in the liver. Obestatin improves metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus, restores hepatic lipid contents and decreases hepatic enzymes. Therefore, obestatin could potentially have a therapeutic relevance in treating of insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunctions in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Nasobronchial allergy and pulmonary function abnormalities among coir workers of Alappuzha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Venugopal; Karunakaran, Raseela; Ravindran, C

    2010-07-01

    Coir is a commercially important natural fiber obtained from the coconut husk. Coir can be woven into strong twine or rope, and is used for padding mattresses, upholstery, etc. Coir industry provides a major share of occupation to the natives of Alappuzha district of Kerala State. It has been noticed earlier that there is increased incidence of nasobronchial allergy among the population involved in this industry. This study was aimed at recognizing the symptomatology and pulmonary functional impairment among symptomatic coir workers. All coir workers who attended our institute over a period of three years were included in the study. Detailed occupational history was taken; symptom profile was studied in detail, clinical examination and pulmonary function tests conducted. Among the 624 symptomatic coir workers selected for this purpose, 64 patients had purely nasal symptoms, while 560 had symptoms of nasobronchial allergy. 357 patients had reversible obstruction on PFT, while 121 had only small airway obstruction. We conclude that coir work induced nasobronchial allergy and pulmonary function abnormalities. In absence of CT scan and bronchial challenge testing it may be inappropriate to label coir work as occupational hazard. However the present study may be used as thought provoking study to initiate further understanding.

  5. Abnormal functional integration across core brain networks in migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Ren, Xiaoying; Zhang, Ming; Ren, Guoyin; Lu, Xiaoqi

    2017-01-01

    As a complex subjective experience, pain processing may be related to functional integration among intrinsic connectivity networks of migraine patients without aura. However, few study focused on the pattern alterations in the intrinsic connectivity networks of migraine patients without aura. Thirty-one migraine patients without aura and 31 age- and education-matched healthy controls participated in this study. After identifying the default mode network, central executive network and salience network as core intrinsic connectivity networks by using independent component analysis, functional connectivity, and effective connectivity during the resting state were used to investigate the abnormalities in intrinsic connectivity network interactions. Migraine patients without aura showed decreased functional connectivity among intrinsic connectivity networks compared with healthy controls. The strength of causal influences from the right frontoinsular cortex to the right anterior cingulate cortex became weaker, and the right frontoinsular cortex to the right medial prefrontal cortex became stronger in migraine patients without aura. These changes suggested that the salience network may play a major role in the pathophysiological features of migraine patients without aura and helped us to synthesize previous findings into an aberrant network dynamical framework.

  6. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, G.H.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, J.; Abbas, M.N.

    1999-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their correlation to pulmonary function abnormalities in individuals exposed to polluted air, 438 workers, and their family members were studied at Thermal Power Station (TPS), Sheikhmanda (Quetta). Individuals with a stay of less than three years at TPS and patients with known chronic respiratory infections (tuberculosis and its squelae, bronchiectasis) were excluded from the study. Remaining 175 males (mean age 43.4 years) and 71 females (mean age 34.2 years) were divided into three groups A, B, C on the basis of their exposure time to polluted air per day during the three years. Each groups was further subdivided into smoker and non-smoker members. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in the individuals exposed to polluted air as compared to non-exposed individuals (P<0.05). A strong positive correlation (r=0.91) exists between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in smoker groups; however, no definite correlation (r=0.06) was found between respiratory symptoms and respiratory function abnormalities in non-smoker groups. Function abnormalities was noted only in smoker groups and non-smokers of even maximally exposed group (group C) had almost no respiratory function abnormalities. (author)

  8. Chromosome 15 structural abnormalities: effect on IGF1R gene expression and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cannarella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R, mapping on the 15q26.3 chromosome, is required for normal embryonic and postnatal growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the IGF1R gene expression and function in three unrelated patients with chromosome 15 structural abnormalities. We report two male patients with the smallest 15q26.3 chromosome duplication described so far, and a female patient with ring chromosome 15 syndrome. Patient one, with a 568 kb pure duplication, had overgrowth, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation, obesity, cryptorchidism, borderline low testis volume, severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and gynecomastia. We found a 1.8-fold increase in the IGF1R mRNA and a 1.3-fold increase in the IGF1R protein expression (P < 0.05. Patient two, with a 650 kb impure duplication, showed overgrowth, developmental delay, mild mental retardation, precocious puberty, low testicular volume and severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. The IGF1R mRNA and protein expression was similar to that of the control. Patient three, with a 46,XX r(15 (p10q26.2 karyotype, displayed intrauterine growth retardation, developmental delay, mental and psychomotor retardation. We found a <0.5-fold decrease in the IGF1R mRNA expression and an undetectable IGF1R activity. After reviewing the previously 96 published cases of chromosome 15q duplication, we found that neurological disorders, congenital cardiac defects, typical facial traits and gonadal abnormalities are the prominent features in patients with chromosome 15q duplication. Interestingly, patients with 15q deletion syndrome display similar features. We speculate that both the increased and decreased IGF1R gene expression may play a role in the etiology of neurological and gonadal disorders.

  9. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  10. Functional MR imaging of the liver; Funktionelle MR-Tomographie der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibmer, A.; Nolz, R.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Trauner, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Innere Medizin III, Klinische Abteilung fuer Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Wien (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    The diagnostics of diffuse liver disease traditionally rely on liver biopsies and histopathological analysis of tissue specimens. However, a liver biopsy is invasive and carries some non-negligible risks, especially for patients with decreased liver function and those requiring repeated follow-up examinations. Over the last decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed into a valuable tool for the non-invasive characterization of focal liver lesions and diseases of the bile ducts. Recently, several MRI methods have been developed and clinically evaluated that also allow the diagnostics and staging of diffuse liver diseases, e. g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, liver cirrhosis, hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis. The sequelae of diffuse liver diseases, such as a decreased liver functional reserve or portal hypertension, can also be detected and quantified by modern MRI methods. This article provides the reader with the basic principles of functional MRI of the liver and discusses the importance in a clinical context. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnostik diffuser Lebererkrankungen stuetzt sich klassisch auf die Leberbiopsie und deren histopathologische Analyse. Dieses Verfahren ist allerdings fuer die Patienten unangenehm und schmerzhaft, birgt v. a. bei Patienten mit Lebererkrankungen ein gewisses Risiko und eignet sich daher nur sehr eingeschraenkt zur Verlaufskontrolle bei chronischen Erkrankungen. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) der Leber nimmt schon jetzt eine zentrale Stellung in der Diagnostik von Raumforderungen der Leber und von Erkrankungen der Gallenwege ein. Darueber hinaus bietet dieses nichtinvasive Verfahren Moeglichkeiten, diffuse Erkrankungen des Leberparenchyms zu diagnostizieren und ihren Schweregrad abzuschaetzen, z. B. bei nichtalkoholischer Leberverfettung, Hepatitis, Leberfibrose, Zirrhose, Haemochromatose und Siderose und anderen. Folgen einer parenchymatoesen Lebererkrankung, wie die portale

  11. Reward Abnormalities Among Women with Full and Subthreshold Bulimia Nervosa: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Method Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Results Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (versus tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). Discussion Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypo-functioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. PMID:21997421

  12. GFI1B mutation causes a bleeding disorder with abnormal platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, W S; Morel-Kopp, M-C; Chen, Q; Liang, H P; Bromhead, C J; Wright, S; Turakulov, R; Ng, A P; Roberts, A W; Bahlo, M; Ward, C M

    2013-11-01

    GFI1B is a transcription factor important for erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte development but previously unknown to be associated with human disease. A family with a novel bleeding disorder was identified and characterized. Genetic linkage analysis and massively parallel sequencing were used to localize the mutation causing the disease phenotype on chromosome 9. Functional studies were then performed in megakaryocytic cell lines to determine the biological effects of the mutant transcript. We have identified a family with an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia, red cell anisopoikilocytosis, and platelet dysfunction. The severity of bleeding is variable with some affected individuals experiencing spontaneous bleeding while other family members exhibit only abnormal bleeding with surgery. A single nucleotide insertion was identified in GFI1B that predicts a frameshift mutation in the fifth zinc finger DNA-binding domain. This mutation alters the transcriptional activity of the protein, resulting in a reduction in platelet α-granule content and aberrant expression of key platelet proteins. GFI1B mutation represents a novel human bleeding disorder, and the described phenotype identifies GFI1B as a critical regulator of platelet shape, number, and function. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Model and methods to assess hepatic function from indocyanine green fluorescence dynamical measurements of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2018-03-30

    The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, presented as plasma disappearance rate is, presently, a reliable method to estimate the hepatic "function". However, this technique is not instantaneously available and thus cannot been used intra-operatively (during liver surgery). Near-infrared spectroscopy enables to assess hepatic ICG concentration over time in the liver tissue. This article proposes to extract more information from the liver intensity dynamics by interpreting it through a dedicated pharmacokinetics model. In order to account for the different exchanges between the liver tissues, the proposed model includes three compartments for the liver model (sinusoids, hepatocytes and bile canaliculi). The model output dependency to parameters is studied with sensitivity analysis and solving an inverse problem on synthetic data. The estimation of model parameters is then performed with in-vivo measurements in rabbits (El-Desoky et al. 1999). Parameters for different liver states are estimated, and their link with liver function is investigated. A non-linear (Michaelis-Menten type) excretion rate from the hepatocytes to the bile canaliculi was necessary to reproduce the measurements for different liver conditions. In case of bile duct ligation, the model suggests that this rate is reduced, and that the ICG is stored in the hepatocytes. Moreover, the level of ICG remains high in the blood following the ligation of the bile duct. The percentage of retention of indocyanine green in blood, which is a common test for hepatic function estimation, is also investigated with the model. The impact of bile duct ligation and reduced liver inflow on the percentage of ICG retention in blood is studied. The estimation of the pharmacokinetics model parameters may lead to an evaluation of different liver functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of biochemical analysis of the liver function in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liver diseases in HIV infected persons can occur due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections, chronic alcoholism, and hepatic tuberculosis as well as antiretroviral drugs. Coinfection by HIV and HBV is frequently encountered with negative impact on HIV progression. The aim of this study was to ...

  15. Changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Ping Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with rotavirus (RV enteritis. Methods: A total of 70 children with RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and served as the observation group. The liver function and myocardial zymogram before and after treatment were detected. The proportion of RV enteritis children with liver and myocardial damage was calculated. The effect of dehydration on the liver function and myocardial zymogram in children with RV enteritis was analyzed. A total of 65 children with non-RV enteritis who were admitted in our hospital at the same stage were served as the control group. Results: The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels, and liver myocardial damage children proportion in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05. The serum ALT, AST, CK, CK-MB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels in the observation group were significantly elevated with the acceleration of dehydration degree (P<0.05. In the observation group, 45 children had liver and myocardial damage, whose ALT, AST, CK, CKMB, LDH, and α-HBDH levels after treatment were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of liver function and myocardial zymogram can accurately reflect the condition in children with RV enteritis, which can provide an evidence for the formulation of clinical treatment protocol.

  16. Physiologic assessment before video thoracoscopic resection for lung cancer in patients with abnormal pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benattia, Amira; Debeaumont, David; Guyader, Vincent; Tardif, Catherine; Peillon, Christophe; Cuvelier, Antoine; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2016-06-01

    Impaired respiratory function may prevent curative surgery for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) reduces postoperative morbility-mortality and could change preoperative assessment practices and therapeutic decisions. We evaluated the relation between preoperative pulmonary function tests and the occurrence of postoperative complications after VATS pulmonary resection in patients with abnormal pulmonary function. We included 106 consecutive patients with ≤80% predicted value of presurgical expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and/or diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and who underwent VATS pulmonary resection for NSCLC from a prospective surgical database. Patients (64±9.5 years) had lobectomy (n=91), segmentectomy (n=7), bilobectomy (n=4), or pneumonectomy (n=4). FEV1 and DLCO preoperative averages were 68%±21% and 60%±18%. Operative mortality was 1.89%. Only FEV1 was predictive of postoperative complications [odds ratio (OR), 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.926-0.991, P=0.016], but there was no determinable threshold. Twenty-five patients underwent incremental exercise testing. Desaturations during exercise (OR, 0.462; 95% CI, 0.191-0.878, P=0.039) and heart rate (HR) response (OR, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.895-0.993, P=0.05) were associated with postoperative complications. FEV1 but not DLCO was a significant predictor of pulmonary complications after VATS pulmonary resection despite a low rate of severe morbidity. Incremental exercise testing seems more discriminating. Further investigation is required in a larger patient population to change current pre-operative threshold in a new era of minimally invasive surgery.

  17. Abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are related to sustained attention deficits in MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Loitfelder

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Resting state (RS functional MRI recently identified default network abnormalities related to cognitive impairment in MS. fMRI can also be used to map functional connectivity (FC while the brain is at rest and not adhered to a specific task. Given the importance of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for higher executive functioning in MS, we here used the ACC as seed-point to test for differences and similarities in RS-FC related to sustained attention between MS patients and controls. DESIGN: Block-design rest phases of 3 Tesla fMRI data were analyzed to assess RS-FC in 31 patients (10 clinically isolated syndromes, 16 relapsing-remitting, 5 secondary progressive MS and 31 age- and gender matched healthy controls (HC. Participants underwent extensive cognitive testing. OBSERVATIONS: In both groups, signal changes in several brain areas demonstrated significant correlation with RS-activity in the ACC. These comprised the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, insular cortices, the right caudate, right middle temporal gyrus, angular gyri, the right hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Compared to HC, patients showed increased FC between the ACC and the left angular gyrus, left PCC, and right postcentral gyrus. Better cognitive performance in the patients was associated with increased FC to the cerebellum, middle temporal gyrus, occipital pole, and the angular gyrus. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for adaptive changes in RS-FC in MS patients compared to HC in a sustained attention network. These results extend and partly mirror findings of task-related fMRI, suggesting FC may increase our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  18. HEPATIC FUNCTION AFTER GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED PIG LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN BABOONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekser, Burcin; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Hassett, Andrea Cortese; Yazer, Mark H.; Long, Cassandra; Meyer, Michael; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Lin, Chih Che; Hara, Hidetaka; van der Windt, Dirk J.; Dons, Eefje M.; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K.C.; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Background If ‘bridging’ to allotransplantation is to be achieved by a pig liver xenograft, adequate hepatic function needs to be assured. Methods We have studied hepatic function in baboons after transplantation of livers from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO,n=1) or GTKO pigs transgenic for CD46 (GTKO/CD46,n=5). Monitoring was by liver function tests and coagulation parameters. Pig-specific proteins in the baboon serum/plasma were identified by Western blot. In 4 baboons, coagulation factors were measured. The results were compared with values from healthy humans, baboons, and pigs. Results Recipient baboons died or were euthanized after 4-7 days following internal bleeding associated with profound thrombocytopenia. However, parameters of liver function, including coagulation, remained in the near-normal range, except for some cholestasis. Western blot demonstrated that pig proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, plasminogen) were produced by the liver from day 1. Production of several pig coagulation factors was confirmed. Conclusions After the transplantation of genetically-engineered pig livers into baboons (1) many parameters of hepatic function, including coagulation, were normal or near-normal; (2) there was evidence for production of pig proteins, including coagulation factors, and (3) these appeared to function adequately in baboons, though inter-species compatibility of such proteins remains to be confirmed. PMID:20606605

  19. Efficacy and safety of endometrial ablation for treating abnormal uterine bleeding in pre- and postmenopausal women with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Li, Xiu-Lan; Liu, Ji-Juan; Song, Xiao-Hong; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Li, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Pan, Calvin Q

    2016-12-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) occurs in 10-30% of women of reproductive age and up to 61% of cirrhotic women. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of endometrial ablation (NovaSure therapy) for AUB in cirrhotic women. This prospective, two-arm, observational study enrolled patients for NovaSure treatment, and they were followed for 12 months. Primary measurements were the amenorrhea rate and changes of pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC) scores at 1-month post-therapy. Key secondary end-points included the longevity of amenorrhea at 12 months, safety profile, and progression of cirrhosis. Among 88 women, 26 were cirrhotic and 62 were non-cirrhotic. At 1-month post-NovaSure treatment, a significant reduction of mean PBLAC scores was observed in cirrhotic patients compared to those at baseline (0.4 ± 1.3 vs 215.2 ± 410.9, P < 0.001), and the amenorrhea rate was 88.5%. The efficacy outcomes of the PBLAC scores and amenorrhea rate were maintained until the end of the 12-month follow-up. A significant improvement in quality of life scores was observed 1-month post-therapy compared to those at baseline (5.4 ± 3.1 vs 20.5 ± 5.5, P < 0.001). Patients' satisfaction rates were 100% and 92.31% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The aforementioned outcomes were comparable with those in non-cirrhotic patients. No significant progression of cirrhosis or safety concern was reported. Cirrhotic patients on NovaSure therapy had a high rate of amenorrhea 1-month post-treatment, which maintained longevity for 12 months. The safety profile was similar to that in non-cirrhotic patients. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Study on the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Kejian; Zhang Qi; Xu Yundi; Guan Yu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of leptin levels in females with abnormal thyroid function. Methods: Serum leptin levels were determined with RIA in 60 cases of hyperthyroidism, 36 cases of hypothyroidism and 30 normal controls. In patients with thyroid dysfunction and treated, serum leptin levels were again measured after completion of therapy. Results: The serum leptin levels were positively correlated to BMI in all the cases (p 0.05). The serum leptin levels in hypothyroid patients after treatment (6.77 ± 2.35 μg/L) were significantly higher than those before treatment (4.19 ± 1.84 μg/L) (p < 0.05). No obvious differences in the levels of serum leptin were observed before and after treatment in the hyperthyroid group. Conclusion: Normal thyroid hormone levels may be an important factor to achieve an adequate leptin gene expression so as to maintain an energy metabolic balance and thyroid dysfunction will influence the normal regulation of leptin

  1. Serotonin transporter variant drives preventable gastrointestinal abnormalities in development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Li, Zhishan; Stevanovic, Korey; Saurman, Virginia; Anderson, George M.; Snyder, Isaac; Blakely, Randy D.; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly common behavioral condition that frequently presents with gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. It is not clear, however, how gut dysfunction relates to core ASD features. Multiple, rare hyperfunctional coding variants of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT, encoded by SLC6A4) have been identified in ASD. Expression of the most common SERT variant (Ala56) in mice increases 5-HT clearance and causes ASD-like behaviors. Here, we demonstrated that Ala56-expressing mice display GI defects that resemble those seen in mice lacking neuronal 5-HT. These defects included enteric nervous system hypoplasia, slow GI transit, diminished peristaltic reflex activity, and proliferation of crypt epithelial cells. An opposite phenotype was seen in SERT-deficient mice and in progeny of WT dams given the SERT antagonist fluoxetine. The reciprocal phenotypes that resulted from increased or decreased SERT activity support the idea that 5-HT signaling regulates enteric neuronal development and can, when disturbed, cause long-lasting abnormalities of GI function. Administration of a 5-HT4 agonist to Ala56 mice during development prevented Ala56-associated GI perturbations, suggesting that excessive SERT activity leads to inadequate 5-HT4–mediated neurogenesis. We propose that deficient 5-HT signaling during development may contribute to GI and behavioral features of ASD. The consequences of therapies targeting SERT during pregnancy warrant further evaluation. PMID:27111230

  2. Left ventricular function abnormalities as a manifestation of silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C R; Conti, C R; Pepine, C J

    1986-11-01

    A large body of evidence exists indicating that left ventricular dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with severe coronary artery disease and represents silent or asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. Such dysfunction probably occurs early in the time course of every ischemic episode in patients with coronary artery disease whether symptoms are eventually manifested or not. The pathophysiology of silent versus symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemia appears to be identical. Silent ischemia-related left ventricular dysfunction can be documented during spontaneous or stress-induced perturbations in the myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio. It also may be detected by nitroglycerin-induced improvement in ventricular function or by salutary changes in wall motion following revascularization. Silent left ventricular dysfunction is a very early occurrence during ischemia and precedes electrocardiographic abnormalities. In this light, its existence should always be kept in mind when dealing with patients with ischemic heart disease. It can be hypothesized that because silent ischemia appears to be identical to ischemia with symptoms in a pathophysiologic sense, prognosis and treatment in both cases should be the same.

  3. Reward abnormalities among women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2011-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that women with full and subthreshold bulimia nervosa show abnormal neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake relative to healthy control women. Females with and without full/subthreshold bulimia nervosa recruited from the community (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution. Women with bulimia nervosa showed trends for less activation than healthy controls in the right anterior insula in response to anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake (vs. tasteless solution) and in the left middle frontal gyrus, right posterior insula, right precentral gyrus, and right mid dorsal insula in response to consumptions of milkshake (vs. tasteless solution). Bulimia nervosa may be related to potential hypofunctioning of the brain reward system, which may lead these individuals to binge eat to compensate for this reward deficit, though the hypo-responsivity might be a result of a history of binge eating highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Procalcitonin Impairs Liver Cell Viability and Function In Vitro: A Potential New Mechanism of Liver Dysfunction and Failure during Sepsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Liver dysfunction and failure are severe complications of sepsis and result in poor outcome and increased mortality. The underlying pathologic mechanisms of hepatocyte dysfunction and necrosis during sepsis are only incompletely understood. Here, we investigated whether procalcitonin, a biomarker of sepsis, modulates liver cell function and viability. Materials and Methods. Employing a previously characterized and patented biosensor system evaluating hepatocyte toxicity in vitro, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2/C3A were exposed to 0.01–50 ng/mL procalcitonin for 2×72 h and evaluated for proliferation, necrosis, metabolic activity, cellular integrity, microalbumin synthesis, and detoxification capacity. Acetaminophen served as positive control. For further standardization, procalcitonin effects were confirmed in a cellular toxicology assay panel employing L929 fibroblasts. Data were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey’s test. Results. Already at concentrations as low as 0.25 ng/mL, procalcitonin induced HepG2/C3A necrosis (P<0.05 and reduced metabolic activity, cellular integrity, synthesis, and detoxification capacity (all P<0.001. Comparable effects were obtained employing L929 fibroblasts. Conclusion. We provide evidence for procalcitonin to directly impair function and viability of human hepatocytes and exert general cytotoxicity in vitro. Therapeutical targeting of procalcitonin could thus display a novel approach to reduce incidence of liver dysfunction and failure during sepsis and lower morbidity and mortality of septic patients.

  5. Evaluation of Factors Influencing Liver Function Test in On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbano Shahbazi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver dysfunction during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG is a rare complication but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The ability to identify high-risk patients may be helpful in planning appropriate management strategies. We aimed to evaluate the factors influencing liver function tests during on-pump CABG. Methods: In 146 patients scheduled for on-pump CABG, the liver function test was done preoperatively and on the first postoperative day. Some preoperative and intraoperative risk factors were checked and then the postoperative liver function tests were compared with the preoperative ones. Probable relationships between these changes and the preoperative and intraoperative risk factors were studied. Results: A medical history of diabetes had a significant relationship with the changes in direct bilirubin. Preoperative central venous pressure had a significant relationship with the changes in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Use of intra-aortic balloon pump and duration of aortic cross-clamp were significantly related to the changes in the liver function tests except for alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. Conclusion: It seems that the techniques for the reduction of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp duration may be useful to protect liver function. We recommend that a larger population of patients be studied to confirm these findings.

  6. Abnormal functional global and local brain connectivity in female patients with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Daniel; Borchardt, Viola; Lord, Anton R.; Boehm, Ilka; Ritschel, Franziska; Zwipp, Johannes; Clas, Sabine; King, Joseph A.; Wolff-Stephan, Silvia; Roessner, Veit; Walter, Martin; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous resting-state functional connectivity studies in patients with anorexia nervosa used independent component analysis or seed-based connectivity analysis to probe specific brain networks. Instead, modelling the entire brain as a complex network allows determination of graph-theoretical metrics, which describe global and local properties of how brain networks are organized and how they interact. Methods To determine differences in network properties between female patients with acute anorexia nervosa and pairwise matched healthy controls, we used resting-state fMRI and computed well-established global and local graph metrics across a range of network densities. Results Our analyses included 35 patients and 35 controls. We found that the global functional network structure in patients with anorexia nervosa is characterized by increases in both characteristic path length (longer average routes between nodes) and assortativity (more nodes with a similar connectedness link together). Accordingly, we found locally decreased connectivity strength and increased path length in the posterior insula and thalamus. Limitations The present results may be limited to the methods applied during preprocessing and network construction. Conclusion We demonstrated anorexia nervosa–related changes in the network configuration for, to our knowledge, the first time using resting-state fMRI and graph-theoretical measures. Our findings revealed an altered global brain network architecture accompanied by local degradations indicating wide-scale disturbance in information flow across brain networks in patients with acute anorexia nervosa. Reduced local network efficiency in the thalamus and posterior insula may reflect a mechanism that helps explain the impaired integration of visuospatial and homeostatic signals in patients with this disorder, which is thought to be linked to abnormal representations of body size and hunger. PMID:26252451

  7. Influence of abnormal glucose metabolism on coronary microvascular function after a recent myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the association between abnormal glucose metabolism and abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity after AMI is high among patients with abnormal glucose metabolism, ...... (140 microg/kg/min) to obtain the hyperemic flow profiles. The CFR was defined as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline peak diastolic coronary flow velocities. RESULTS: Median CFR was 1.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4 to 2.4], and 109 (60%) patients had a CFR...

  8. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang Hesheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Johnson, Timothy D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hussain, Hero [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which

  9. The use of radiocolloids for the evaluation of the liver macrophagic junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    By using gelatin traced with 113m-In, the author shows in this monograph, through the scintigraphic method, the following: 1. the utility of radiocolloids on evaluating the liver macrophagic function; 2. the liver macrophagic function in some hepatic diseases and its degree of damage; 3. the mechanism of the abnormal scintigraphic aspect in the liver diseases. (Author) [pt

  10. /sup 14/C-D-galactose breath test for evaluation of liver function in patients with chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspary, W F; Schaffer, J

    1978-01-01

    D-galactose metabolism and demethylation of aminopyrine by healthy controls and patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and cirrhosis (Ci), were assessed by a breath analysis technique measuring /sup 14/CO2 exhalation after oral ingestion of /sup 14/C-D-galactose or /sup 14/C-aminopyrine. Patients with CAH and Ci exhibited decreased /sup 14/CO2-exhalation rates following /sup 14/-D-galactose or /sup 14/C-aminopyrine. D-galactose oxidation capacity of the liver can be assessed by a breath analysis technique in analogy to the demethylating function for aminopyrine. The ordinary oral D-galactose tolerance test seems, however, superior in comparison to the /sup 14/C-D-galactose tolerance test, in discriminating between healthy controls and patients with chronic liver disease.

  11. Liver Function Testing with Nuclear Medicine Techniques Is Coming of Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, Roelof J.; Tulchinsky, Mark; de Graaf, Wilmar; Kadry, Zakiyah; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Liver function is a broad term, as the organ participates in a multitude of different physiological and biochemical processes, including metabolic, synthetic, and detoxifying functions. However, it is the function of the hepatocyte that is central to sustaining normal life and dealing with disease

  12. Modeled Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposure and Liver Function in a Mid-Ohio Valley Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Groth, Alyx C; Winquist, Andrea; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Bartell, Scott M; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-08-01

    , Steenland K. 2016. Modeled perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure and liver function in a Mid-Ohio Valley community. Environ Health Perspect 124:1227-1233; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510391.

  13. Carriers with functional null mutations in LAMA3 have localized enamel abnormalities due to haploinsufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gostynska, Katarzyna B.; Yuen, Wing Yan; Pasmooij, Anna Maria Gerdina; Stellingsma, Cornelius; Pas, Hendri H.; Lemmink, Henny; Jonkman, Marcel F.

    2017-01-01

    The hereditary blistering disease junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is always accompanied by structural enamel abnormalities of primary and secondary dentition, characterized as amelogenesis imperfecta. Autosomal recessive mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 encoding the heterotrimer laminin

  14. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, J. Nienke; Veer, Ilya M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Werff, Steven J. A.; Demenescu, Liliana R.; Aleman, Andre; Veltman, Dick J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  15. Resting-state functional connectivity abnormalities in limbic and salience networks in social anxiety disorder without comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, J.N.; Veer, I.M.; van Tol, M.J.; van der Werff, S.J.A.; Demenescu, L.R.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D.J.; Zitman, F. G.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; van der Wee, N.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The neurobiology of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is not yet fully understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies in SAD have identified abnormalities in various brain areas, particularly the amygdala and elements of the salience network. This study is the first to examine resting-state

  16. Brain abnormalities on MRI in non-functioning pituitary adenoma patients treated with or without postoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattler, Margriet G. A.; Meiners, Linda C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van den Bergh, Alphons C. M.; van Beek, Andre P.

    Background and purpose: To assess and compare brain abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in non-functioning pituitary macro-adenoma (NFA) patients treated with or without postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Material and methods: In 86 NFA patients, treated between 1987 and 2008 at the

  17. A population study of the association between thyroid autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, I.B.; Laurberg, P.; Knudsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    autoantibodies in serum and abnormalities in thyroid function and structure, and to study the thyroid volume in subjects with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. Design A population study including 4649 randomly selected subjects. Measurements Blood tests were used to analyse for thyroid peroxidase...

  18. Gallbladder Function and Hepatic Structural Changes in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Zavgorodnya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, pediatric nonalcoholic liver disease has reached epidemic proportions, becoming one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases in the global child population. Purpose: to study the relationship of the functional state of the gallbladder with structural changes in the liver in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods. We examined 34 children aged from 8 to 17 years old. Hepatic steatosis was determined using the FibroScan® 502 touch with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP. According to the results of transient elastometry and ultrasound of the abdomen with the gallbladder function study, patients were divided into 4 groups: the 1st group consisted of 7 patients with steatosis and hypofunction of gallbladder (20.5 %, group 2 included 6 patients with steatosis and gallbladder normofunction (17.65 %, group 3 consisted of 11 patients without hepatic steatosis with hypofunction of gallbladder (32.35 %, group 4 included 10 patients without hepatic steatosis with gallbladder normofunction (29.4 %. Results. The sonographic studies demonstrated children of the 1st group (steatosis with gallbladder hypokinesia to have significantly larger sizes of liver lobes compared to group 4 (children without steatosis with gallbladder normofunction. Also, the stiffness of the liver parenchyma was highest in patients with hepatic steatosis and gallbladder hypokinesia. Discussion. The combination of hepatic steatosis and hypokinesia of the gallbladder in children is accompanied by a significant increase in liver size, increased stiffness of the liver parenchyma and increasing degree of steatosis. The data indicate the relationship of the gallbladder function and the liver structural changes.

  19. Well Preserved Renal Function in Children With Untreated Chronic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Ulla B; Németh, Antal

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of studies with hepatorenal syndrome, it is widely regarded that renal function is impacted in chronic liver disease (CLD). Therefore, we investigated renal function in children with CLD. In a retrospective study of 277 children with CLD, renal function was investigated as glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), measured as clearance of inulin and para-amino hippuric acid or clearance of iohexol. The data were analyzed with regard to different subgroups of liver disease and to the grade of damage. Hyperfiltration (>+2 SD of controls) was found in the subgroups of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (44%), glycogenosis (75%), and acute fulminant liver failure (60%). Patients with biliary atresia, most other patients with metabolic disease and intrahepatic cholestasis, and those with vascular anomalies and cryptogenic cirrhosis had normal renal function. Decreased renal function was found in patients with Alagille's syndrome (64% < -2 SD). Increased GFR and ERPF was found in patients with elevated transaminases, low prothrombin level, high bile acid concentration, and high aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio. Most children with CLD had surprisingly well preserved renal function and certain groups had even hyperfiltration. The finding that children with decompensated liver disease and ongoing liver failure had stable kidney function suggests that no prognostic markers of threatening hepatorenal syndrome were at hand. Moreover, estimation of GFR based on serum creatinine fails to reveal hyperfiltration.

  20. Optimisation of graft function in liver transplantation: functional and metabolic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jonge (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPart one of this thesis contains the general introduction to partial and whole liver transplantation. Chapter 2 addresses the concept of auxiliary partial liver transplantation. Auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation was first introduced as a less invasive procedure for

  1. Long-term culture of human liver tissue with advanced hepatic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soon Seng; Xiong, Anming; Nguyen, Khanh; Masek, Marilyn; No, Da Yoon; Elazar, Menashe; Shteyer, Eyal; Winters, Mark A; Voedisch, Amy; Shaw, Kate; Rashid, Sheikh Tamir; Frank, Curtis W; Cho, Nam Joon; Glenn, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-02

    A major challenge for studying authentic liver cell function and cell replacement therapies is that primary human hepatocytes rapidly lose their advanced function in conventional, 2-dimensional culture platforms. Here, we describe the fabrication of 3-dimensional hexagonally arrayed lobular human liver tissues inspired by the liver's natural architecture. The engineered liver tissues exhibit key features of advanced differentiation, such as human-specific cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and the ability to support efficient infection with patient-derived inoculums of hepatitis C virus. The tissues permit the assessment of antiviral agents and maintain their advanced functions for over 5 months in culture. This extended functionality enabled the prediction of a fatal human-specific hepatotoxicity caused by fialuridine (FIAU), which had escaped detection by preclinical models and short-term clinical studies. The results obtained with the engineered human liver tissue in this study provide proof-of-concept determination of human-specific drug metabolism, demonstrate the ability to support infection with human hepatitis virus derived from an infected patient and subsequent antiviral drug testing against said infection, and facilitate detection of human-specific drug hepatotoxicity associated with late-onset liver failure. Looking forward, the scalability and biocompatibility of the scaffold are also ideal for future cell replacement therapeutic strategies.

  2. Validation of noninvasive indices of global systolic function in patients with normal and abnormal loading conditions: a simultaneous echocardiography pressure-volume catheterization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotti, Raquel; Bermejo, Javier; Benito, Yolanda; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Ripoll, Cristina; Martínez-Legazpi, Pablo; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Elízaga, Jaime; González-Mansilla, Ana; Barrio, Alicia; Bañares, Rafael; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive indices based on Doppler echocardiography are increasingly used in clinical cardiovascular research to evaluate left ventricular global systolic chamber function. Our objectives were to clinically validate ultrasound-based methods of global systolic chamber function to account for differences between patients in conditions of abnormal load, and to assess their sensitivity to load confounders. Twenty-seven patients (8 dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 normal ejection fraction, and 9 end-stage liver disease) underwent simultaneous echocardiography and left heart catheterization with pressure-conductance instrumentation. The reference index, maximal elastance (Emax), was calculated from pressure-volume loop data obtained during acute inferior vena cava occlusion. A wide range of values were observed for left ventricular systolic chamber function (Emax: 2.8±1.0 mm Hg/mL), preload, and afterload. Among the noninvasive indices tested, the peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference showed the best correlation with Emax (R=0.75). A significant but weaker correlation with Emax was observed for ejection fraction (R=0.41), midwall fractional shortening (R=0.51), global circumferential strain (R=-0.53), and strain rate (R=-0.46). Longitudinal strain and strain rate failed to correlate with Emax, as did noninvasive single-beat estimations of this index. Principal component and multiple regression analyses demonstrated that peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference was less sensitive to load, whereas ejection fraction and longitudinal strain and strain rate were heavily influenced by afterload. Current ultrasound methods have limited accuracy to characterize global left ventricular systolic chamber function in a given patient. The Doppler-derived peak ejection intraventricular pressure difference should be preferred for this purpose because it best correlates with the reference index and is more robust in conditions of abnormal load.

  3. Evaluation of liver function tests in scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Gehan Ibrahim Abdelrazek; Abdulrahman, Awni Ali

    2012-08-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous, systemic disorder which affects the connective tissue of the skin, internal organs, and the walls of blood vessels. It is characterized by alterations of the microvasculature, disturbances of the immune system and by massive deposition of collagen and other matrix substances in the connective tissue. This study was done to evaluate the frequency of liver disease in patients with scleroderma and, secondarily, to study the frequency of infection of hepatitis B and C virus in these patients and determine frequency of serum auto-antibodies in this disease. We studied patients with scleroderma, localized or systemic, in the outpatient clinic of rheumatology and dermatology departments, at King Khalid University Hospital. As for a comparison, healthy persons coming to the clinic with the same mean age were considered as control group. Forty patients with the diagnosis of scleroderma included in this work, 35% had elevated gamma-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT), 30% had elevated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and in 17.5%, the alanine-amino-transferase (ALT) was above the reference values. The ALT had changed to be more in scleroderma patients than in controls. Twenty percent (20%) of the patients tested positive for anti-smooth muscle antibodies (anti-SMA) and only one patient had anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA). There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding antibody testing. Anti-HCV antibodies were observed in one patient, and HBsAg was detected in another scleroderma patient. There was no patient with clinically significant hepatic disease. In this study, although changes in liver enzymes in patients with scleroderma were not uncommon, there was no scleroderma patient with clinical manifestations of liver disease.

  4. Nuclear medicine liver-function tests for pregnant women and children. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.; Hirschberg, K.; Faust, H.; Guenther, K.; Schneider, G.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive, non-radiaoactive liver-function test is proposed. After an oral dose of 3 mg methacetin per kilogram body mass, the kinetics of 15 N excretion via urine were characterized by the quotient of the 15 N amounts of excreted in two successive urine samples (Q value). The stable nitrogen isotope 15 N, was found to be an excellent and easily detectable indicator of the sum of all methacetin metabolites present in urine. Alterations in the nature or ratio of methacetin metabilites due to liver diseases could not be found. From the investigation of 11 men 3 pregnant women and 156 children, a clear difference was observed in Q values of healthy persons and patients suffering from liver-cell-activity diseases. The discriminating power of our new liver-function test is shown to be equivalent to that of the 14 CO 2 breath test. (orig.)

  5. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  6. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-01-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI image...

  7. Role of functional imaging in treatment plan optimization of stereotactic body radiation therapy for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Berardino; Jumeau, Raphael; Deantonio, Letizia; Adib, Salim; Godin, Sarah; Zeverino, Michele; Moeckli, Raphael; Bourhis, Jean; Prior, John O; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2016-10-13

    We report the first known instance of the clinical use of 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS) for the optimization of radiotherapy treatment planning and for the follow-up of acute toxicity in a patient undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. In our experience, HBS allowed the identification and the sparing of more functioning liver areas, thus potentially reducing the risk of radiation-induced liver toxicity.

  8. Thyroid function and some related biochemical parameters in bilharzial liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, W. Abdel Massih

    1983-01-01

    Bilharziasis in its different forms is estimated to affect at least 200 million people in the world (W.H.O., 1973). In egypt, it affects 60 - 70% of the rural population (WcMullen, 1963). Bilharzial ova reaches the liver with the portal blood stream causing a fibro - cellular reaction in and around the portal tract resulting in hepatic periportal fibrosis with various clinical stages (Abdalla et al., 1978 b). The effect of liver disease on thyroid function is still a subject of controversy and contradiction. While some reports are published on the effect of non-bilharzial liver disease on thyroid function, there is scanty studies as regards to bilharzial liver diseases . Most of the studies carried out to evaluate thyroid function in bilharzial liver disease, were focused on the estimation of one or two parameters of thyroid function e.g., T 3 and TSH. The available review of literature was focused on some parameters of thyroid function ignoring the others thyroid function tests and not considering the hormone carrier proteins. Thus resulting inconsistent and contradictory results (Ghareeb, 1962; El Haieg and Ibrahim, 1977)

  9. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  10. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  11. Influence of paternal 252Cf neutron exposure on abnormal sperm, embryonal lethality, and liver tumorigenesis in the F1 offspring of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadateru; Lee, Juing-Yi

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether neutron-induced genetic damage in parental germline cells can lead to the development of cancer in the offspring. Seven-week-old C3H male mice were irradiated with 252 Cf neutrons at a dose of 0, 50, 100, or 200 cGy. Two weeks or 3 months after irradiation, the male mice were mated with virgin 9-week-old C57BL females. Two weeks after irradiation, the irradiated male mice showed an increased incidence of sperm abnormalities, which led to embryo lethalities in a dose-dependent manner when they were mated with unirradiated female mice. Furthermore, liver tumors in male offspring of male mice in the 50 cGy group were significantly increased in 19 of 44 (43.2%) animals, in clear contrast to the unirradiated group (1 of 31; 3.2%) (P 1 generation may be caused by genetic transmission of hepatoma-associated trait (s) induced by 252 Cf neutron irradiation. (author)

  12. Control of oxygen tension recapitulates zone-specific functions in human liver microphysiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; George, Subin M; Gough, Albert H; Sharma, Anup D; Wu, Juanfang; DeBiasio, Richard; Vernetti, Lawrence A; Taylor, D Lansing

    2017-10-01

    This article describes our next generation human Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System (LAMPS). The key demonstration of this study was that Zone 1 and Zone 3 microenvironments can be established by controlling the oxygen tension in individual devices over the range of ca. 3 to 13%. The oxygen tension was computationally modeled using input on the microfluidic device dimensions, numbers of cells, oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes, the diffusion coefficients of oxygen in different materials and the flow rate of media in the MicroPhysiology System (MPS). In addition, the oxygen tension was measured using a ratiometric imaging method with the oxygen sensitive dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (RTDP) and the oxygen insensitive dye, Alexa 488. The Zone 1 biased functions of oxidative phosphorylation, albumin and urea secretion and Zone 3 biased functions of glycolysis, α1AT secretion, Cyp2E1 expression and acetaminophen toxicity were demonstrated in the respective Zone 1 and Zone 3 MicroPhysiology System. Further improvements in the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System included improved performance of selected nonparenchymal cells, the inclusion of a porcine liver extracellular matrix to model the Space of Disse, as well as an improved media to support both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. In its current form, the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System is most amenable to low to medium throughput, acute through chronic studies, including liver disease models, prioritizing compounds for preclinical studies, optimizing chemistry in structure activity relationship (SAR) projects, as well as in rising dose studies for initial dose ranging. Impact statement Oxygen zonation is a critical aspect of liver functions. A human microphysiology system is needed to investigate the impact of zonation on a wide range of liver functions that can be experimentally manipulated. Because oxygen zonation has such diverse physiological effects in the liver, we

  13. In Vitro Generation of Functional Liver Organoid-Like Structures Using Adult Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sarada Devi; Schirmer, Katharina; Münst, Bernhard; Heinz, Stefan; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Wölfl, Stefan; Simon-Keller, Katja; Marx, Alexander; Øie, Cristina Ionica; Ebert, Matthias P; Walles, Heike; Braspenning, Joris; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In this study we used differentiated adult human upcyte® cells for the in vitro generation of liver organoids. Upcyte® cells are genetically engineered cell strains derived from primary human cells by lenti-viral transduction of genes or gene combinations inducing transient proliferation capacity (upcyte® process). Proliferating upcyte® cells undergo a finite number of cell divisions, i.e., 20 to 40 population doublings, but upon withdrawal of proliferation stimulating factors, they regain most of the cell specific characteristics of primary cells. When a defined mixture of differentiated human upcyte® cells (hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) was cultured in vitro on a thick layer of Matrigel™, they self-organized to form liver organoid-like structures within 24 hours. When further cultured for 10 days in a bioreactor, these liver organoids show typical functional characteristics of liver parenchyma including activity of cytochromes P450, CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 as well as mRNA expression of several marker genes and other enzymes. In summary, we hereby describe that 3D functional hepatic structures composed of primary human cell strains can be generated in vitro. They can be cultured for a prolonged period of time and are potentially useful ex vivo models to study liver functions.

  14. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius S Carreira

    Full Text Available The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  15. Assessment of tumor vascularization with functional computed tomography perfusion imaging in patients with cirrhotic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Ping; Zhao, De-Li; Jiang, Hui-Jie; Huang, Ya-Hua; Li, Da-Qing; Wan, Yong; Liu, Xin-Ding; Wang, Jin-E

    2011-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor in China, and early diagnosis is critical for patient outcome. In patients with HCC, it is mostly based on liver cirrhosis, developing from benign regenerative nodules and dysplastic nodules to HCC lesions, and a better understanding of its vascular supply and the hemodynamic changes may lead to early tumor detection. Angiogenesis is essential for the growth of primary and metastatic tumors due to changes in vascular perfusion, blood volume and permeability. These hemodynamic and physiological properties can be measured serially using functional computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging and can be used to assess the growth of HCC. This study aimed to clarify the physiological characteristics of tumor angiogenesis in cirrhotic liver disease by this fast imaging method. CTP was performed in 30 volunteers without liver disease (control subjects) and 49 patients with liver disease (experimental subjects: 27 with HCC and 22 with cirrhosis). All subjects were also evaluated by physical examination, laboratory screening and Doppler ultrasonography of the liver. The diagnosis of HCC was made according to the EASL criteria. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, pre- and post-contrast triple-phase CT and CTP study. A mathematical deconvolution model was applied to provide hepatic blood flow (HBF), hepatic blood volume (HBV), mean transit time (MTT), permeability of capillary vessel surface (PS), hepatic arterial index (HAI), hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) and hepatic portal perfusion (HPP) data. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences in perfusion parameters between the background cirrhotic liver parenchyma and HCC and between the cirrhotic liver parenchyma with HCC and that without HCC. In normal liver, the HAP/HVP ratio was about 1/4. HCC had significantly higher HAP and HAI and lower HPP than background liver parenchyma adjacent to the HCC. The value of HBF at the tumor

  16. Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S

    2017-12-01

    To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that

  17. A liver-function test using 15N-labelled ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, K.; Hirscherg, K.; Faust, H.; Matkowitz, R.

    1985-01-01

    Malfunction of the liver involves disturbances of urea synthesis and ammonia detoxification. These phenomena became apparent, especially during ammonia loading of patients. The functional state of the liver can be assessed by oral administration of 15 NH 4 Cl and subsequent analysis of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonia in urine by emission spectrometry. Clinical tests based on the ratio of the excess abundances (see Appendix) of 15 N-ammonia to 15 N-urea excreted in urine 3 h after oral administration gave values for patients with liver disease which differed significantly from those for healthy subjects. Absorption disturbances, which often accompany liver diseases, do not influence the effectiveness of the method. (orig.)

  18. Liver-function test using /sup 15/N-labelled ammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, K; Hirscherg, K; Faust, H; Matkowitz, R

    1985-08-01

    Malfunction of the liver involves disturbances of urea synthesis and ammonia detoxification. These phenomena became apparent, especially during ammonia loading of patients. The functional state of the liver can be assessed by oral administration of /sup 15/NH/sub 4/Cl and subsequent analysis of /sup 15/N-urea and /sup 15/N-ammonia in urine by emission spectrometry. Clinical tests based on the ratio of the excess abundances (see Appendix) of /sup 15/N-ammonia to /sup 15/N-urea excreted in urine 3 h after oral administration gave values for patients with liver disease which differed significantly from those for healthy subjects. Absorption disturbances, which often accompany liver diseases, do not influence the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The functional state of perfused liver tissue in X-ray irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Lapteva, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of studying the functional state of perfused liver tissue isolated from rates after irradiation in the 18.06x10 - 2 Kl/kg dose, which has been estimated by transamination process rate catalized alanine-(KF 2.6x1.2, ALT and aspartate by aminotransferases (KF 2.6x1.1, ACT), gluconeogenesis and urea production intensity presented. When comparing the results obtained on the perfused liver deprived of homeostatic body effects it has been found that the liver isolated from the body for the first 24 hours of the radiation sickness development possesses a higher radiation activity which manifests itself in intensification of the processes of gluconeogenesis and transamination with substrate addition. The third 24 hours upon irradiation in the isolated liver the intensity of the gluconeogenesis and transamination processes is attenuated

  1. Functional state of perfused liver tissue in X-ray irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Lapteva, T.A. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Biologii i Biofiziki)

    1981-01-01

    The results of studying the functional state of perfused liver tissue isolated from rats after irradiation in the 18.06x10/sup -2/ Kl/kg dose, which has been estimated by transamination process rate catalized alanine-(KF 2.6x1.2, ALT and aspartate by aminotransferases (KF 2.6x1.1, ACT), gluconeogenesis and urea production intensity presented. When comparing the results obtained on the perfused liver deprived of homeostatic body effects it has been found that the liver isolated from the body for the first 24 hours of the radiation sickness development possesses a higher radiation activity which manifests itself in intensification of the processes of gluconeogenesis and transamination with substrate addition. The third 24 hours upon irradiation in the isolated liver the intensity of the gluconeogenesis and transamination processes is attenuated.

  2. Polycystic Ovary-Like Abnormalities (PCO-L) in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, G; Gallo, C; Catteau-Jonard, S; Lefebvre-Maunoury, C; Pigny, P; Duhamel, A; Dewailly, D

    2012-11-01

    In the general population, about 30% of asymptomatic women have polycystic ovary-like abnormalities (PCO-L), i.e. polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) at ultrasound and/or increased anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) serum level. PCOM has also been reported in 30-50% of women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). The aim of this study was to verify whether both PCOM and excessive AMH level indicate PCO-L in FHA and to elucidate its significance. We conducted a retrospective analysis using a database and comparison with a control population. Subjects received ambulatory care in an academic hospital. Fifty-eight patients with FHA were compared to 217 control women with nonendocrine infertility and body mass index of less than 25 kg/m(2). There were no interventions. We measured serum testosterone, androstenedione, FSH, LH, AMH, and ovarian area values. The antral follicle count (AFC) was used as a binary variable (i.e. negative or positive) because of the evolution of its sensitivity over the time of this study. The ability of these variables (except AFC) to detect PCO-L in both populations was tested by cluster analysis. One cluster (cluster 2) suggesting PCO-L was detected in the control population (n = 52; 24%), whereas two such clusters were observed in the FHA population (n = 22 and n = 6; 38 and 10%; clusters 2 and 3, respectively). Cluster 2 in FHA had similar features of PCO-L as cluster 2 in controls, with higher prevalence of positive AFC (70%) and PCOM (70%), higher values of ovarian area and higher serum AMH (P < 0.0001 for all), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than in cluster 1. Cluster 3 in FHA was peculiar, with frankly elevated AMH levels. In the whole population (controls + FHA), PCO-L was significantly associated with lower FSH values (P < 0.0001). PCO-L in FHA is a frequent and usually incidental finding of unclear significance, as in controls. The association of PCO-L with hypothalamic amenorrhea should not lead to a mistaken diagnosis of

  3. Abnormal wiring of the connectome in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Ulrika; Roine, Timo; Salmi, Juha; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Tani, Pekka; Lepp?m?ki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent brain imaging findings suggest that there are widely distributed abnormalities affecting the brain connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using graph theoretical analysis, it is possible to investigate both global and local properties of brain’s wiring diagram, i.e., the connectome. Methods We acquired diffusion-...

  4. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang-Hung Yang; Tsung-Szu Yeh; Tung-Ping Su; Jyh-Cheng Chen; Ren-Shyan Liu

    2004-01-01

    =95). Significantly negative correlation was demonstrated in superior temporal gyms of right temporal lobe (corrected p = 0.003, voxel size 113). Significantly positive correlation between PIQ and rCMRglc was shown in posterior lobe of cerebellum (corrected p < 0.001, voxel size =244). There was no significantly negative correlation between PIQ and rCMRglc. Conclusions: This study provided neuroimaging evidence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities which was related to cognition function impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy patient. All lesions were located with ipislateral hemisphere but outside the seizure foci. This may suggest that cognition impairment is not directly related to seizure foci but may be related with remoting areas. The epilepsy patients whose seizures will prove to be refractory should be identified as early as possible, and thus the need for new prognostic factors of intractable epilepsy is evident. Since multiple seizure foci indicated poor prognosis, quantification of Brodmann area 4, 32, 18 and cerebellum in FDG PET images may be a prognostic factor. (authors)

  5. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M.; Perales, Jose C.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo 2H/13C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis. PMID:22493093

  6. Scaffold-free 3D bio-printed human liver tissue stably maintains metabolic functions useful for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizawa, Hideki; Nagao, Eri; Shimamura, Mitsuru; Zhang, Guangyuan; Torii, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    The liver plays a central role in metabolism. Although many studies have described in vitro liver models for drug discovery, to date, no model has been described that can stably maintain liver function. Here, we used a unique, scaffold-free 3D bio-printing technology to construct a small portion of liver tissue that could stably maintain drug, glucose, and lipid metabolism, in addition to bile acid secretion. This bio-printed normal human liver tissue maintained expression of several kinds of hepatic drug transporters and metabolic enzymes that functioned for several weeks. The bio-printed liver tissue displayed glucose production via cAMP/protein kinase A signaling, which could be suppressed with insulin. Bile acid secretion was also observed from the printed liver tissue, and it accumulated in the culture medium over time. We observed both bile duct and sinusoid-like structures in the bio-printed liver tissue, which suggested that bile acid secretion occurred via a sinusoid-hepatocyte-bile duct route. These results demonstrated that our bio-printed liver tissue was unique, because it exerted diverse liver metabolic functions for several weeks. In future, we expect our bio-printed liver tissue to be applied to developing new models that can be used to improve preclinical predictions of long-term toxicity in humans, generate novel targets for metabolic liver disease, and evaluate biliary excretion in drug development.

  7. Imaging-based liver function tests. Past, present and future; Bildgestuetzte Leberfunktionstests. Stand der Technik und zukuenftige Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, D.; Hamm, B.; Denecke, T. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Luedemann, L. [Essen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics

    2015-10-15

    Preoperative assessment of liver function and prediction of postoperative functional reserve are important in patients scheduled for liver resection. While determination of absolute liver function currently mostly relies on laboratory tests and clinical scores, postoperative remnant liver function is estimated volumetrically using imaging data obtained with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate estimation of hepatic function is also relevant for intensive care patients, oncologic patients, and patients with diffuse liver disease. The indocyanine green (ICG) test is still the only established test for estimating true global liver function. However, more recent tools such as the LiMAx test also allow global assessment of hepatic function. These tests are limited when liver function is inhomogeneously distributed, which is the case in such conditions as unilateral cholestasis or after portal vein embolization. Imaging-based liver function tests were first developed in nuclear medicine and, compared with laboratory tests, have the advantage of displaying the spatial distribution of liver function. Nuclear medicine scans are obtained using tracers such as 99mTc galactosyl and 99mTc mebrofenin. Liver function is typically assessed using planar scintigraphy. However, three-dimensional volumetry is possible with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT). Another technique for image-based liver function estimation is Gd-EOB-enhanced MRI. While metabolization of Gd-EOB in the body is similar to that of ICG and mebrofenin, its distribution in the liver can be displayed by MRI with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Moreover, MRI-based determination of liver function can be integrated into routine preoperative imaging. This makes MRI an ideal candidate for preoperative determination of liver function, though the best pulse sequence and the parameter to be derived from the image information remain to be identified. Another

  8. Liver Function Indicators Performed Better to Eliminate Cardioembolic Stroke than to Identify It from Stroke Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ge; Yuan, Ruozhen; Hao, Zilong; Lei, Chunyan; Xiong, Yao; Xu, Mangmang; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the etiology of ischemic stroke is essential to acute management and secondary prevention. The value of liver function indicators in differentiating stroke subtypes remains to be evaluated. A total of 1333 acute ischemic stroke patients were included. Liver function indicators collected within 24 hours from stroke onset, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin (BILI), were collapsed into quartiles (Q) and also dichotomized by Q1. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent association between liver function indicators and cardioembolic stroke (SCE). Area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted, and sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), positive prospective value (PPV), and negative prospective value (NPV) were determined to evaluate the predictive value of liver function indicators for SCE. AST, GGT, and BILI were associated with SCE. After adjustment, only AST was related to SCE independently. The incidence of SCE in the Q1 of AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly in the Q1 of AST, was quite low. The ability of AST, GGT, and BILI to identify SCE was poor, with low AUC, Sen, and PPV. The value of AST, GGT, and BILI in eliminating SCE from stroke subtypes was good, with high Spe and moderate NPV, and was enhanced after combining each liver function indicator. Results of present study demonstrated that AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly AST, had a potential to eliminate SCE from stroke subtypes, and the ability of eliminating SCE would be strengthened after combining each liver function indicator together. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

    2008-02-01

    The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals. Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests. There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting. Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting. It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10-12 days postexercise. Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice.

  10. Defining normal liver stiffness range in a normal healthy Chinese population without liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic liver disease, different optimal liver stiffness cut-off values correspond to different stages of fibrosis, which are specific for the underlying liver disease and population. AIMS: To establish the normal ranges of liver stiffness in the healthy Chinese population without underlying liver disease. METHODS: This is a prospective cross sectional study of 2,528 healthy volunteers recruited from the general population and the Red Cross Transfusion Center in Hong Kong. All participants underwent a comprehensive questionnaire survey, measurement of weight, height, and blood pressure. Fasting liver function tests, glucose and cholesterol was performed. Abdominal ultrasound and transient elastography were performed on all participants. RESULTS: Of the 2,528 subjects, 1,998 were excluded with either abnormal liver parenchyma on ultrasound, chronic medical condition, abnormal blood tests including liver enzymes, fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, high body mass index, high blood pressure, or invalid liver stiffness scan. The reference range for the 530 subjects without known liver disease was 2.3 to 5.9 kPa (mean 4.1, SD 0.89. The median liver stiffness was higher in males compared with females (4.3 vs 4.0 kPa respectively, p55 years (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The healthy reference range for liver stiffness in the Chinese population is 2.3 to 5.9 kPa. Female gender and older age group was associated with a lower median liver stiffness.

  11. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki; Ishii, Toshiya; Okuse, Chiaki; Sase, Shigeru; Itoh, Fumio; Suzuki, Michihiro

    2016-09-14

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF) correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC) was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC) (p = 0.014). Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  12. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Shigefuku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF. Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC. The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC (p = 0.014. Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p < 0.05. It is important to recognize the difference between NAFLD and CHC. We concluded that changes in hepatic blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  13. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  15. Changes in markers of liver function in relation to changes in perfluoroalkyl substances - A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Samira; Stubleski, Jordan; Kärrman, Anna; Larsson, Anders; Fall, Tove; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica

    2018-08-01

    While it is known that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) induce liver toxicity in experimental studies, the evidence of an association in humans is inconsistent. The main aim of the present study was to examine the association of PFAS concentrations and markers of liver function using panel data. We investigated 1002 individuals from Sweden (50% women) at ages 70, 75 and 80 in 2001-2014. Eight PFASs were measured in plasma using isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Bilirubin and hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were determined in serum using an immunoassay methodology. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the changes in markers of liver function and changes in PFAS levels. The changes in majority of PFAS concentrations were positively associated with the changes in activity of ALT, ALP, and GGT and inversely associated with the changes in circulating bilirubin after adjustment for gender and the time-updated covariates LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides, BMI, statin use, smoking, fasting glucose levels and correction for multiple testing. For example, changes in perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were associated with the changes liver function markers β BILIRUBIN  = -1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.93 to -1.19, β ALT  = 0.04, 95% CI 0.03-0.06, and β ALP  = 0.11, 95% CI 0.06-0.15. Our longitudinal assessment established associations between changes in markers of liver function and changes in plasma PFAS concentrations. These findings suggest a relationship between low-dose background PFAS exposure and altered liver function in the general population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The spectrum of motor function abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, D; Blondeau, K; Sifrim, D; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has traditionally been regarded as the most severe end of the spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux disease and is of great clinical importance in view of the association with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Studies have documented high levels of esophageal acid exposure in Barrett's esophagus. Various pathogenetic mechanisms underlie this phenomenon. These include abnormalities in esophageal peristalsis, defective lower esophageal sphincter pressures, gastric dysmotility and bile reflux. Whilst these factors provide evidence for an acquired cause of Barrett's esophagus, an underlying genetic predisposition cannot be ruled out. Although the past decade has brought about many new discoveries in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus, it has also added further controversy to this complex disorder. A detailed analysis of the gastrointestinal motor abnormalities occurring in Barrett's esophagus follows, with a review of the currently available literature and an update on this condition that continues to be of interest to the gastroenterologist.

  17. Influence of matrix nature on the functional efficacy of biomedical cell product for the regeneration of damaged liver (experimental model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A comparative analysis of the functional efficacy of biomedical cell products (BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver based on biopolymer scaffolded porous and hydrogel matrices was performed on the experimental model of acute liver failure. Materials and methods. Matrices allowed for clinical use were employed for BMCP in the form of a sponge made from biopolymer nanostructured composite material (BNCM based on a highly purified bacterial copolymers of poly (β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-oxyvalerate and polyethylene glycol and a hydrogel matrix from biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH. Cellular component of BMCP was represented by liver cells and multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells. The functional efficacy of BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver was evaluated on the experimental model of acute liver failure in Wistar rats (n = 40 via biochemical, morphological, and immunohistochemical methods. Results. When BMCP was implanted to regenerate the damaged liver on the basis of the scaffolded BNCM or hydrogel BMCH matrices, the lethality in rats with acute liver failure was absent; while in control it was 66.6%. Restoration of the activity of cytolytic enzyme levels and protein-synthetic liver function began on day 9 after modeling acute liver failure, in contrast to the control group, where recovery occurred only by days 18–21. Both matrices maintained the viability and functional activity of liver cells up to 90 days with the formation of blood vessels in BMCP. The obtained data confirm that scaffolded BNCM matrix and hydrogel BMCH matrix retain for a long time (up to 90 days the vital activity of the adherent cells in the BMCP composition, which allows using them to correct acute liver failure. At the same time, hydrogel matrix due to the presence of bioactive components contributes to the creation of the best conditions for adhesion and cell activity which accelerate the regeneration processes

  18. Global abnormalities in lymphatic function following systemic therapy in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, S K; Peters, A M; Zammit, C; Ryan, N; Ballinger, J; Glass, D M; Allen, S; Stanton, A W B; Mortimer, P S; Purushotham, A D

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a result of interaction between several pathophysiological processes, and is not simply a 'stopcock' effect resulting from removal of axillary lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a constitutional 'global' lymphatic dysfunction in patients who develop BCRL. Lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 30 women who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection at least 3 years previously, of whom 15 had BCRL and 15 did not. No patient had any clinical abnormality of the lower limb. The control group comprised 24 women with no history of cancer or lower-limb lymphoedema. (99m) Tc-Nanocoll was injected subcutaneously into the first webspace of each foot, followed by whole-body imaging. Scans were reported as abnormal if there was delay in lymph transport or rerouting through skin or deep system. Quantification was expressed as the percentage injected activity accumulating in ilioinguinal nodes. Mean(s.d.) ilioinguinal nodal accumulation at 150 min was significantly lower in women with BCRL than in those without (2·7(2·5) versus 5·9(4·8) per cent respectively; P = 0·006). Abnormal findings on lower-limb lymphoscintigraphy were observed in 17 of the 30 patients: ten of the 15 women who had BCRL and seven of the 15 who did not. None of the 24 control subjects had abnormal scan findings. Women with BCRL had reduced lower-limb lymph drainage, supporting the hypothesis of a predisposition to BCRL. A surprisingly high proportion of patients with breast cancer also demonstrated lymphatic dysfunction, despite clinically normal lower limbs. Possible explanations could be a systemic effect of breast cancer or its treatment, or an unidentified association between breast cancer and lymphatic dysfunction. ISRCTN84866416 ( http://www.isrctn.com). © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. How study of respiratory physiology aided our understanding of abnormal brain function in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, S; Papp, L A; Gorman, J M

    2000-12-01

    There is a substantial body of literature demonstrating that stimulation of respiration (hyperventilation) is a common event in panic disorder patients during panic attack episodes. Further, a number of abnormalities in respiration, such as enhanced CO2 sensitivity, have been detected in panic patients. This led some to posit that there is a fundamental abnormality in the physiological mechanisms that control breathing in panic disorder and that this abnormality is central to illness etiology. More recently, however, evidence has accumulated suggesting that respiratory physiology is normal in panic patients and that their tendency to hyperventilate and to react with panic to respiratory stimulants like CO2 represents the triggering of a hypersensitive fear network. The fear network anatomy is taken from preclinical studies that have identified the brain pathways that subserve the acquisition and maintenance of conditioned fear. Included are the amygdala and its brain stem projections, the hippocampus, and the medial prefrontal cortex. Although attempts to image this system in patients during panic attacks have been difficult, the theory that the fear network is operative and hyperactive in panic patients explains why both medication and psychosocial therapies are clearly effective. Studies of respiration in panic disorder are an excellent example of the way in which peripheral markers have guided researchers in developing a more complete picture of the neural events that occur in psychopathological states.

  20. Functional role of monocytes and macrophages for the inflammatory response in acute liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different etiologies such as drug toxicity, acute viral hepatitis B or acetaminophen poisoning can cause acute liver injury (ALI or even acute liver failure (ALF. Excessive cell death of hepatocytes in the liver is known to result in a strong hepatic inflammation. Experimental murine models of liver injury highlighted the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for initiating and driving this inflammatory response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1-beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, CCL2 as well as activating other non-parenchymal liver cells, e.g. endothelial or hepatic stellate cells (HSC. Many of these proinflammatory mediators can trigger hepatocytic cell death pathways, e.g. via caspase activation, but also activate protective signaling pathways, e.g. via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Recent studies in mice demonstrated that these macrophage actions largely depend on the recruitment of monocytes into the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6c+ (Gr1+ monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1/CCL2 promote monocyte subset infiltration upon liver injury. In contrast, the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1 are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets upon injury. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation and interactions with other hepatic cell types in the injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in ALF.

  1. Expression of liver-specific functions in rat hepatocytes following sublethal and lethal acetaminophen poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygstrup, N; Jensen, S A; Krog, B

    1996-01-01

    AIM: In order to study the short-term effect of moderate and severe reduction of liver function by acetaminophen poisoning of different severity on gene expression for liver-specific functions, rats were given 3.75 and 7.5 g per kg body weight acetaminophen intragastrically. The lower dose...... is associated with low mortality; after the higher dose, most rats die at between 12 and 24 h. METHODS: In the morning, 1 1/2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after the injection, the rats were killed and RNA was extracted from liver tissue. By slot-blot hybridization mRNA steady-state levels were determined for enzymes...

  2. Rb and p53 Liver Functions Are Essential for Xenobiotic Metabolism and Tumor Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathidpak Nantasanti

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressors Retinoblastoma (Rb and p53 are frequently inactivated in liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC or infections with Hepatitis B or C viruses. Here, we discovered a novel role for Rb and p53 in xenobiotic metabolism, which represent a key function of the liver for metabolizing therapeutic drugs or toxins. We demonstrate that Rb and p53 cooperate to metabolize the xenobiotic 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC. DDC is metabolized mainly by cytochrome P450 (Cyp3a enzymes resulting in inhibition of heme synthesis and accumulation of protoporphyrin, an intermediate of heme pathway. Protoporphyrin accumulation causes bile injury and ductular reaction. We show that loss of Rb and p53 resulted in reduced Cyp3a expression decreased accumulation of protoporphyrin and consequently less ductular reaction in livers of mice fed with DDC for 3 weeks. These findings provide strong evidence that synergistic functions of Rb and p53 are essential for metabolism of DDC. Because Rb and p53 functions are frequently disabled in liver diseases, our results suggest that liver patients might have altered ability to remove toxins or properly metabolize therapeutic drugs. Strikingly the reduced biliary injury towards the oxidative stress inducer DCC was accompanied by enhanced hepatocellular injury and formation of HCCs in Rb and p53 deficient livers. The increase in hepatocellular injury might be related to reduce protoporphyrin accumulation, because protoporphrin is well known for its anti-oxidative activity. Furthermore our results indicate that Rb and p53 not only function as tumor suppressors in response to carcinogenic injury, but also in response to non-carcinogenic injury such as DDC.

  3. Expression and function of the atypical cadherin FAT1 in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valletta, Daniela; Czech, Barbara; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Müller, Martina; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The expression of the atypical cadherin FAT1 is increased in chronic liver disease. ► FAT1 expression goes up during the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). ► Activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. ► FAT1 enhanced NFkB activity and resistance to apoptosis in activated HSCs. ► FAT1 is a new therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis can be considered as wound healing process in response to hepatocellular injury. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event of hepatic fibrosis since activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and reversion of liver fibrosis is accompanied by clearance of activated HSCs by apoptosis. The atypical cadherin FAT1 has been shown to regulate diverse biological functions as cell proliferation and planar cell polarity, and also to affect wound healing. Here, we found increased FAT1 expression in different murine models of chronic liver injury and in cirrhotic livers of patients with different liver disease. Also in hepatic tissue of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FAT1 expression was significantly enhanced and correlated with collagen alpha I(1) expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed no significant differences in staining intensity between hepatocytes in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue but myofibroblast like cells in fibrotic septa of cirrhotic livers showed a prominent immunosignal. Furthermore, FAT1 mRNA and protein expression markedly increased during in vitro activation of primary human and murine HSCs. Together, these data indicated activated HSCs as cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. To gain insight into the functional role of FAT1 in activated HSCs we suppressed FAT1 in these cells by siRNA. We newly found that FAT1 suppression in activated HSCs caused a downregulation of NFκB activity. This

  4. Expression and function of the atypical cadherin FAT1 in chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valletta, Daniela; Czech, Barbara [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang E. [Grosshadern Tissue Bank and Center for Liver Cell Research, Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (Germany); Mueller, Martina [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Hellerbrand, Claus, E-mail: claus.hellerbrand@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression of the atypical cadherin FAT1 is increased in chronic liver disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 expression goes up during the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 enhanced NFkB activity and resistance to apoptosis in activated HSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAT1 is a new therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. -- Abstract: Hepatic fibrosis can be considered as wound healing process in response to hepatocellular injury. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a key event of hepatic fibrosis since activated HSCs are the cellular source of enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and reversion of liver fibrosis is accompanied by clearance of activated HSCs by apoptosis. The atypical cadherin FAT1 has been shown to regulate diverse biological functions as cell proliferation and planar cell polarity, and also to affect wound healing. Here, we found increased FAT1 expression in different murine models of chronic liver injury and in cirrhotic livers of patients with different liver disease. Also in hepatic tissue of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis FAT1 expression was significantly enhanced and correlated with collagen alpha I(1) expression. Immunohistochemistry revealed no significant differences in staining intensity between hepatocytes in normal and cirrhotic liver tissue but myofibroblast like cells in fibrotic septa of cirrhotic livers showed a prominent immunosignal. Furthermore, FAT1 mRNA and protein expression markedly increased during in vitro activation of primary human and murine HSCs. Together, these data indicated activated HSCs as cellular source of enhanced FAT1 expression in diseased livers. To gain insight into the functional role of FAT1 in activated HSCs we suppressed FAT1 in these

  5. Biliary tract enhancement in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI correlates with liver function biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Yoshifumi; Goshima, Satoshi; Kajita, Kimihiro; Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koyasu, Hiromi; Matsuo, Masayuki; Bae, Kyongtae T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between gadoxetic-acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements and laboratory and clinical biomarkers of liver function and fibrosis. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty nine consecutive patients with suspected liver disease or liver tumor underwent gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging measurements during the hepatobiliary phase included biliary tract structure-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR). These measurements were compared with Child-Pugh classification, end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Results: The SIRs of cystic duct and common bile duct were significantly correlated with Child-Pugh classification (P = 0.012 for cystic duct and P < 0.0001 for common bile duct), MELD score (P = 0.0016 and P = 0.0033), and APRI (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0015). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve were: (74%, 88%, 0.86) with the SIR of common bile duct for the detection of patients with Child-Pugh class B or C; (100%, 87%, 0.94) with the SIR of cystic duct for MELD score (>10); (65%, 76%, 0.70) with the SIR of common bile duct for APRI (>1.5). Conclusion: Gadoxetic-acid contrast enhancement of cystic duct and common bile duct could be used as biomarkers to assess liver function.

  6. Biliary tract enhancement in gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI correlates with liver function biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Yoshifumi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194 (Japan); Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194 (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kawada, Hiroshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Koyasu, Hiromi; Matsuo, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 501-1194 (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between gadoxetic-acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging measurements and laboratory and clinical biomarkers of liver function and fibrosis. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty nine consecutive patients with suspected liver disease or liver tumor underwent gadoxetic-acid-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging measurements during the hepatobiliary phase included biliary tract structure-to-muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR). These measurements were compared with Child-Pugh classification, end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Results: The SIRs of cystic duct and common bile duct were significantly correlated with Child-Pugh classification (P = 0.012 for cystic duct and P < 0.0001 for common bile duct), MELD score (P = 0.0016 and P = 0.0033), and APRI (P = 0.0022 and P = 0.0015). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve were: (74%, 88%, 0.86) with the SIR of common bile duct for the detection of patients with Child-Pugh class B or C; (100%, 87%, 0.94) with the SIR of cystic duct for MELD score (>10); (65%, 76%, 0.70) with the SIR of common bile duct for APRI (>1.5). Conclusion: Gadoxetic-acid contrast enhancement of cystic duct and common bile duct could be used as biomarkers to assess liver function.

  7. Health status and measurement of some liver function parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good health program is necessary to optimize health care opportunities so as to make appropriate adjustments for optimal service delivery by our health workers in all health sectors. Aim: To determine some hepatic function parameters as a correlate of health status amongst staff of Niger Delta University ...

  8. Liver function tests and risk prediction of incident type 2 diabetes : evaluation in two independent cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der A, Daphne L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Peelen, Linda M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Liver function tests might predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. An independent study evaluating utility of these markers compared with an existing prediction model is yet lacking. Methods and Findings: We performed a case-cohort study, including random subcohort (6.5%) from 38,379

  9. "CONGENTIAL PANHYPOPITUITARISM ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED LIVER FUNCTION TESTS AND CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Khalili-Matinzadeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The term congenital hypopituitarism defines deficiency of all of the pituitary hormones. Hypoglycemia and microphallus (in males are common findings, and some infants have shown evidence of the neonatal hepatitis syndrome. We report a case of congenital panhypopituitarism with deficiency of six major hormones and association with severe hypoglycemia, impaired liver function tests and congenital heart disease.

  10. Lipid profiling and transcriptomic analysis reveals a functional interplay between estradiol and growth hormone in liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes de

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2,...

  11. Effects of Catha edulis on kidney and liver function among chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Catha edulis on kidney and liver function among chewing adults in Meru ... socio-cultural tradition in Kenya and as such poses a public health problem. ... Objective: To investigate the possible effects of Catha edulis on the levels of ...

  12. ADH1B and ADH1C Genotype, Alcohol Consumption and Biomarkers of Liver Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Benn, Marianne; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of alcohol consumption on liver function is difficult to determine because of reporting bias and potential residual confounding. Our aim was to determine this effect using genetic variants to proxy for the unbiased effect of alcohol. METHODS: We used variants in ADH1B and A...

  13. The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion pump : Functional evaluation of a new machine perfusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A.; Maathuis, M. H. J.; Hart, N. A. 't; Bellekom, A. A.; Hofker, H. S.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Verkerke, G. J.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; Verdonck, P.; Ploeg, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.

    2006-01-01

    To improve preservation of donor livers, we have developed a portable hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system as an alternative for static cold storage. A prototype of the system was built and evaluated on functionality. Evaluation criteria included 24 h of adequate pressure controlled perfusion,

  14. Serum levels of DDT and liver function of malaria control personnel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... a carcinogen in animal models,7 no such effects have been. Research ... found in people with excessive exposure to DDT, such as pesticide-factory workers.8 However, impaired liver function,9 ... of cement dwellings, which were treated with a different DDT ..... Men with intensive occupational exposure to.

  15. Kidney function and mortality post-liver transplant in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aastha Sethi1, Michelle M Estrella1, Richard Ugarte2, Mohamed G Atta1 1Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score incorporates serum creatinine and was introduced to facilitate allocation of orthotopic liver transplantation (LT. The objective is to determine the impact of MELD and kidney function on all-cause mortality. Among LTs performed in a tertiary referral hospital between 1995 and 2009, 419 cases were studied. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for death. Over mean follow-ups of 8.4 and 3.1 years during the pre-MELD and MELD era, 57 and 63 deaths were observed, respectively. Those transplanted during the MELD era had a higher likelihood of hepatorenal syndrome (8% vs 2%, P < 0.01, lower kidney function (median estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 77.8 vs 92.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, P < 0.01, and more pretransplantation renal replacement therapy (RRT (5% vs 1%; P < 0.01. All-cause mortality risk was similar in the MELD vs the pre-MELD era (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.58–1.65. The risk of death, however, was nearly 3-fold greater (95% CI: 1.14–6.60 among those requiring pre-transplant RRT. Similarly, eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 post-transplant was associated with a 2.5-fold higher mortality (95% CI: 1.48–4.11. The study suggests that MELD implementation had no impact on all-cause mortality post-LT. However, the need for pre-transplant RRT and post-transplant kidney dysfunction was associated with a more than 2-fold greater risk of subsequent death. Keywords: eGFR, mortality, MELD, liver transplant

  16. /sup 131/I-BSP liver function test by BSP tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, K [Minami Osaka Hospital (Japan)

    1974-11-01

    /sup 131/I-BSP liver function test after BSP intravenous tolerance was discussed, assuming that the reason why measurements of /sup 131/I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and /sup 131/I-BSP disappearance rate in blood showed respectable overlapping between normal group and group with slight liver disorders as compared with BSP test and the reason why differential diagnosis was difficult were due to underestimate of tolerance volume of /sup 131/I-BSP. /sup 131/I-BSP was observed with time as to 70 persons with normal liver function and 257 cases of liver diseases, using 5, 3 and 2 mg of non-radioactive BSP tolerance volume per kilogram of body weight. /sup 131/I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes and /sup 131/I-BSP disappearance rate in blood are possible to separate overlapping over control in each measurement value at 3 to 5 mg/kg of tolerance, and in comparison of 3 mg and 5 mg, the latter showed a little excellent result. So, it was decided that tolerance of 3 mg/kg was a proper dose, considering tolerance to liver cells. /sup 131/I-BSP retention rate at 30 minutes was a little excellent in accuracy and disappearance rate in blood after BSP tolerance is simple and profitable for practical use because collection of blood was only one time and measurement could be made with whole blood. As mentioned above, this method is seemed to be useful to practice of liver function test.

  17. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  18. Liver Function in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Randomized to Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Versus Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Piotr; Paluszkiewicz, Rafał; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Bogna; Wróblewski, Tadeusz; Remiszewski, Piotr; Grodzicki, Mariusz; Krawczyk, Marek

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the influence of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on liver function in bariatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a randomized clinical trial (NCT01806506). Rapid weight loss and malabsorption after bariatric surgery in patients with NAFLD or steatohepatitis (NASH) may impair liver function. Sixty-six morbidly obese patients randomized to SG or RYGB were included in a secondary outcome analysis. Intraoperative liver biopsies were categorized with NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) and liver function tests were done before surgery and after 1, 6 and 12 months. NASH was present in 54.5% RYGB and 51.5% SG patients (P > 0.05). At 12 months excess weight loss was 68.7 ± 19.7% after SG and 62.8 ± 18.5% after RYGB (P > 0.05). At 1 month international normalized ratio (INR) increased after RYGB (0.98 ± 0.05 vs 1.14 ± 0.11; P liver function than after SG.

  19. 99m technetium-labelled acetanilidoimino-diacetate to diagnose the functioning of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molter, M.; Kloss, G.

    1979-01-01

    The proposed agent for liver function diagnosis has got a very low renal secretion. If is suited for scintigraphic representation of liver, gall-bladder and bile-ducts. To an aqueous solution of (2,3,4,5,6 penta-fluoracetanilido)-iminodiacetate and/or (4-n-pentylacetanilido)-iminodiacetate is admixed a tin (II) salt (pH between 4 and 9) and as a label 99m Tc pertechnetate in a physiological salt solution. Production and effect are described in detail. (RB) [de

  20. Structural and functional abnormalities of default mode network in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a study combining DTI and fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Live failure can cause brain edema and aberrant brain function in cirrhotic patients. In particular, decreased functional connectivity within the brain default-mode network (DMN has been recently reported in overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE patients. However, so far, little is known about the connectivity among the DMN in the minimal HE (MHE, the mildest form of HE. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to test our hypothesis that both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN were disturbed in MHE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty MHE patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. We explored the changes of structural (path length, tracts count, fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] derived from DTI tractography and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI connectivity of the DMN in MHE patients. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the structural/functional indices and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, MHE patients showed both decreased FA and increased MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN to left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, and decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and left PHG, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC. MD values of the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the left PHG positively correlated to the ammonia levels, the temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC showed positive correlation to the digital symbol tests scores of patients. CONCLUSION: MHE patients have both disturbed structural and functional connectivity within the DMN. The decreased functional connectivity was also detected between some regions without abnormal structural connectivity, suggesting that the

  1. Abnormal Intrinsic Functional Hubs in Severe Male Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Evidence from a Voxel-Wise Degree Centrality Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Li, Lan; Shao, Yi; Gong, Honghan; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xianjun; Ye, Chenglong; Nie, Si; Chen, Liting; Peng, Dechang

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with changes in brain structure and regional function in certain brain areas. However, the functional features of network organization in the whole brain remain largely uncertain. The purpose of this study was to identify the OSA-related spatial centrality distribution of the whole brain functional network and to investigate the potential altered intrinsic functional hubs. Forty male patients with newly confirmed severe OSA on polysomnography, and well-matched good sleepers, participated in this study. All participants underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan and clinical and cognitive evaluation. Voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) was measured across the whole brain, and group difference in DC was compared. The relationship between the abnormal DC value and clinical variables was assessed using a linear correlation analysis. Remarkably similar spatial distributions of the functional hubs (high DC) were found in both groups. However, OSA patients exhibited a pattern of significantly reduced regional DC in the left middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule, and DC was increased in the right orbital frontal cortex, bilateral cerebellum posterior lobes, and bilateral lentiform nucleus, including the putamen, extending to the hippocampus, and the inferior temporal gyrus, which overlapped with the functional hubs. Furthermore, a linear correlation analysis revealed that the DC value in the posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with Montreal cognitive assessment scores, The DC value in the left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal lobule were negatively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index and arousal index in OSA patients. Our findings suggest that OSA patients exhibited specific abnormal intrinsic functional hubs including relatively reduced and increased DC. This expands

  2. Accuracy of liver function tests for predicting adverse maternal and fetal outcomes in women with preeclampsia: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Koopmans, Corine M.; Iyengar, Shalini; Zamora, Javier; Ismail, Khaled M. K.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Liver function tests are routinely performed in women as part of a battery of investigations to assess severity at admission and later to guide appropriate management. Objective. To determine the accuracy with which liver function tests predict complications in women with preeclampsia by

  3. Accuracy of liver function tests for predicting adverse maternal and fetal outcomes in women with preeclampsia : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thangaratinam, Shakila; Koopmans, Corine M.; Iyengar, Shalini; Zamora, Javier; Ismail, Khaled M. K.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Khan, Khalid S.

    Background. Liver function tests are routinely performed in women as part of a battery of investigations to assess severity at admission and later to guide appropriate management. Objective. To determine the accuracy with which liver function tests predict complications in women with preeclampsia by

  4. The utility of liver function tests for mortality prediction within one year in primary care using the algorithm for liver function investigations (ALFI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J McLernon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although liver function tests (LFTs are routinely measured in primary care, raised levels in patients with no obvious liver disease may trigger a range of subsequent expensive and unnecessary management plans. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prediction model to guide decision-making by general practitioners, which estimates risk of one year all-cause mortality in patients with no obvious liver disease. METHODS: In this population-based historical cohort study, biochemistry data from patients in Tayside, Scotland, with LFTs performed in primary care were record-linked to secondary care and prescription databases to ascertain baseline characteristics, and to mortality data. Using this derivation cohort a survival model was developed to predict mortality. The model was assessed for calibration, discrimination (using the C-statistic and performance, and validated using a separate cohort of Scottish primary care practices. RESULTS: From the derivation cohort (n = 95 977, 2.7% died within one year. Predictors of mortality included: age; male gender; social deprivation; history of cancer, renal disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease or respiratory disease; statin use; and LFTs (albumin, transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyltransferase. The C-statistic for the final model was 0.82 (95% CI 0.80-0.84, and was similar in the validation cohort (n = 11 653 0.86 (0.79-0.90. As an example of performance, for a 10% predicted probability cut-off, sensitivity = 52.8%, specificity = 94.0%, PPV = 21.0%, NPV = 98.5%. For the model without LFTs the respective values were 43.8%, 92.8%, 15.6%, 98.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The Algorithm for Liver Function Investigations (ALFI is the first model to successfully estimate the probability of all-cause mortality in patients with no apparent liver disease having LFTs in primary care. While LFTs added to the model's discrimination and sensitivity, the

  5. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Li; Su-Fang, Li; Hai-Ying, Han; Zhang-Ye, Dong; Jia, Luo; Zhi-Hua, Guo; Hong-Fang, Xiong; Yu-Feng, Zang; Zhan-Jiang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  6. The Abnormal Functional Connectivity between the Hypothalamus and the Temporal Gyrus Underlying Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozheng; Chen, Wei; Tu, Yunhai; Hou, Hongtao; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xingli; Guo, Zhongwei; Bai, Guanghui; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Hypothalamic communication with the rest of the brain is critical for accomplishing a wide variety of physiological and psychological functions, including the maintenance of neuroendocrine circadian rhythms and the management of affective processes. Evidence has shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients exhibit increased functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Neurofibrillary tangles are also found in the hypothalamus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and AD patients exhibit abnormal changes in the HPA. However, little is known of how the hypothalamus interacts with other brain regions in AD patients with depression (D-AD). Functional connectivity (FC) analysis explores the connectivity between brain regions that share functional properties. Here, we used resting-state (rs) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and the FC method to measure hypothalamic connectivity across the whole brain in 22 D-AD patients and 21 non-depressed AD patients (nD-AD). Our results showed that D-AD patients had reduced FC among the hypothalamus, the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) compared with the FC of nD-AD patients, suggesting that the abnormal FC between the hypothalamus and the temporal lobe may play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression in AD patients.

  7. Synthesis of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as liver targeting MRI contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, Farshad; Fattahi, Bahare; Azizi, Najmodin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was the preparation of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles to use as a liver targeting contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For this purpose, Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles were synthesized via the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were coated with silica via the Stober method and finally the coated nanoparticles were functionalized with mebrofenin. Formation of crystalline magnetite particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX) of the final product showed that silica had been effectively bonded onto the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles and the coated nanoparticles functionalized with mebrofenin. The magnetic resonance imaging of the functional nanoparticles showed that the Fe_3O_4–SiO_2-mebrofenin composite is an effective MRI contrast agent for liver targeting. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by simple and economical method. • Preperation of functional MNPs as a MRI contrast agent for liver targeting. • Gaining a good r_2 relaxivity of the coated functional nanoparticles.

  8. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  9. The influence of liver and pancreas surgery on the thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczynska Katarzyna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, the increasing number of oncologic patients with liver or pancreatic tumours are subjected to surgical treatment, as it can provide a long-term survival or sometimes cure. As a result, numerous new clinical questions regarding metabolic disturbances in these patients have been arisen. Among others, the impact of the pancreas and liver surgery extent in relation to the thyroid function remains to be elucidated. Materials and methods The study comprised 51 patients (25 men and 26 women, mean age ± SD 61.6 ± 10.4 yrs, mean ± SD with pancreatic or liver tumours, qualified for abdominal operation. Serum levels of FT3, FT4 and TSH were measured on the day before (time “0” and on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day after surgery in two (2 subgroups reflecting the extent of surgery: twenty seven (27 patients (14 men and 13 women, mean age ± SD 61.5 ± 11.8 yrs after major surgery (Whipple’s surgery, right and left hemihepatectomy, segmentectomy of the liver, distal pancreatectomy, total duodenopancreatectomy and twenty four (24 patients (11 men and 13 women, mean age ± SD 61.8 ± 8.9 yrs after minor, palliative surgery (exploratory laparotomy, gastroenterostomy, triple by-pass, liver tumour embolization, hepaticojejunostomy. Additionally, the obtained results were analyzed in relation to the type of the disease (pancreatic surgery vs liver surgery. Results Mean serum FT3 level decreased significantly during the study in major and minor surgery subgroups (prd and 5th day after major surgery was lower in pancreatic tumour patients in comparison to liver tumour patients (p=0.002, p=0.032, respectively. Similarly, mean FT3 concentration on the 3rd day in minor surgery subgroup was lower in pancreatic tumour patients in comparison to liver tumour patients (p=0.015. Discussion Our findings have confirmed essential reduction of FT3 values after abdominal surgery, independently of surgery extent. Additionally, pancreatic tumour

  10. LIVER FUNCTION CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH SPONDYLOARTHRITIS TAKING NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS OVER A LONG PERIOD: RESULTS OF A 10-YEAR PROGRESS PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rebrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess liver function changes in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA taking NSAIDs regularly over a long period.Patients and methods. The data obtained during a 10-year PROGRESS prospective single-center cohort study of functional status, activity, and comorbidity (including gastrointestinal tract diseases in patients with SpA were analyzed. The data of 363 SpA patients receiving NSAIDs regularly over a long period and followed up for 10 years were also explored. The changes that had occurred over a decade in the liver enzyme levels, the number of discontinued NSAID treatments because of a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels, and the number of prescriptions of hepatoprotective agents were analyzed.Results. For 10 years, 18 patients with SpA discontinued their NSAID intake due to elevated liver enzyme levels (≥3 times greater than the reference value; during that time, the same increase in enzyme levels was observed in 2 healthy individuals (χ2 =1.39; p=0.2. In the patients with SpA as compared to the healthy individuals, the relative risk of abnormal liver function was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.009–1.405; odds ratio was 2.9 (95% CI, 0.65–12.95. There was no increased risk for discontinuation of some NSAIDs, including nimesulide (χ2 =0.03, p=0.85, the frequency of using hepatoprotective drugs was proved to be highest for diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, nimesulide, and ketoprofen.Conclusion. The regular long-term (as long as 10 years use of NSAIDs to treat SpA is associated with treatment discontinuation because of elevated enzyme levels in every 10 patients. The maximum rate of discontinuation of NSAIDs due to a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels is observed 6–8 years after their regular use, so long-term NSAID therapy requires continuous monitoring of hepatic safety. The longterm intake of nimesulide, as compared with other NSAIDs, is shown to be unassociated with the higher rate of its discontinuation because of

  11. Preserved local but disrupted contextual figure-ground influences in an individual with abnormal function of intermediate visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joseph L.; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Rees, Geraint; Bentin, Shlomo; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception depends not only on local stimulus features but also on their relationship to the surrounding stimulus context, as evident in both local and contextual influences on figure-ground segmentation. Intermediate visual areas may play a role in such contextual influences, as we tested here by examining LG, a rare case of developmental visual agnosia. LG has no evident abnormality of brain structure and functional neuroimaging showed relatively normal V1 function, but his intermediate visual areas (V2/V3) function abnormally. We found that contextual influences on figure-ground organization were selectively disrupted in LG, while local sources of figure-ground influences were preserved. Effects of object knowledge and familiarity on figure-ground organization were also significantly diminished. Our results suggest that the mechanisms mediating contextual and familiarity influences on figure-ground organization are dissociable from those mediating local influences on figure-ground assignment. The disruption of contextual processing in intermediate visual areas may play a role in the substantial object recognition difficulties experienced by LG. PMID:22947116

  12. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Resting State Network Detection Based on Linear ICA Analysis in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xia-An; Zhao, Junxia; Xu, Qian; Sun, Qi; Wang, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    Some functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) researches in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients have shown that ASD patients have significant impairment in brain response. However, few researchers have studied the functional structure changes of the eight resting state networks (RSNs) in ASD patients. Therefore, research on statistical differences of RSNs between 42 healthy controls (HC) and 50 ASD patients has been studied using linear independent component analysis (ICA) in this paper. Our researches showed that there was abnormal functional connectivity (FC) of RSNs in ASD patients. The RSNs with the decreased FC and increased FC in ASD patients included default mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), core network (CN), visual network (VN), self-referential network (SRN) compared to HC. The RSNs with the increased FC in ASD patients included auditory network (AN), somato-motor network (SMN). The dorsal attention network (DAN) in ASD patients showed the decreased FC. Our findings indicate that the abnormal FC in RSNs extensively exists in ASD patients. Our results have important contribution for the study of neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms in ASD patients.

  13. Role of Liver Function Enzymes in Diagnosis of Choledocholithiasis in Biliary Colic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hussein Mirshamsi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Liver functional tests due to inflammatory process which induced by cholecystitis might changed and some clinicians suggested that these changes might help us to stone prediction in common bile ducts and decrease hazards of performing ERCP and other invasive procedures. Present study was performed for assessment of role of liver functional test in diagnosis of common bile duct stone in patients with cholecystitis and help in their management. Present prospective study was performed between April 2010 and March 2011 on 350 patients who come to our hospital with cholecystitis or biliary colic diagnosis. Patients with cholesistitis diagnosis were underwent operation for removing gall bladder stone and retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed for patients with suspicious to biliary colic and common bile duct (CBD stones. Ultrasonography, Aspartate Aminotransferases (AST, Alanine Aminotransferases (ALT, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP and direct and total serum bilirubin were measured for all of participated patients. Mean of AST. ALT, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were had no significant differences between two study groups. In logistic regression analysis, after entering into the model only CBD diameter (OR: 20; P=0.00 and elevated serum level of ALT (OR: 2; P=0.04 were remained into the model and were known as independent predictor of cholelithiasis. Elevated level of liver enzymes had not main role in CBD diagnosis and ERCP had no to perform for suspicious CBD stone only with elevated liver enzyme and even with normal ultrasonography findings. Endosonography as non invasive procedure recommend for patients before ERCP.

  14. American Liver Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cirrhosis Clinical Trials Galactosemia Gilbert Syndrome Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency(LALD) Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Liver Biopsy Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Liver Function Tests ...

  15. Volume-assisted estimation of liver function based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR relaxometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haimerl, Michael; Schlabeck, Mona; Verloh, Niklas; Fellner, Claudia; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Radiology, Regensburg (Germany); Zeman, Florian [University Hospital Regensburg, Center for Clinical Trials, Regensburg (Germany); Nickel, Dominik [MR Applications Development, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Barreiros, Ana Paula [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg (Germany); Loss, Martin [University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Surgery, Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To determine whether liver function as determined by indocyanine green (ICG) clearance can be estimated quantitatively from hepatic magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry with gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). One hundred and seven patients underwent an ICG clearance test and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including MR relaxometry at 3 Tesla. A transverse 3D VIBE sequence with an inline T1 calculation was acquired prior to and 20 minutes post-Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. The reduction rate of T1 relaxation time (rrT1) between pre- and post-contrast images and the liver volume-assisted index of T1 reduction rate (LVrrT1) were evaluated. The plasma disappearance rate of ICG (ICG-PDR) was correlated with the liver volume (LV), rrT1 and LVrrT1, providing an MRI-based estimated ICG-PDR value (ICG-PDR{sub est}). Simple linear regression model showed a significant correlation of ICG-PDR with LV (r = 0.32; p = 0.001), T1{sub post} (r = 0.65; p < 0.001) and rrT1 (r = 0.86; p < 0.001). Assessment of LV and consecutive evaluation of multiple linear regression model revealed a stronger correlation of ICG-PDR with LVrrT1 (r = 0.92; p < 0.001), allowing for the calculation of ICG-PDR{sub est}. Liver function as determined using ICG-PDR can be estimated quantitatively from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR relaxometry. Volume-assisted MR relaxometry has a stronger correlation with liver function than does MR relaxometry. (orig.)

  16. Value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in assessing liver function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI specifically enhanced with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA in assessing the liver function in general population. MethodsUpper abdominal MRI images and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced images, as well as some clinical information, were collected from 41 cases meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Taking the spleen as the control organ, liver-spleen signal intensity contrast (SIliver/spleen and relative liver enhancement (RLE were calculated at 10 min and 20 min after injecting Gd-EOB-DTPA. Differences were evaluated using the independent-samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test. Corrections were analyzed via Spearman’s rank correlation. ResultsBoth SIliver/spleen at 10 min and 20 min after injection of contrast agent were correlated with Child classification (P<0.05. SIliver/spleen at 20 min had a greater correlation coefficient (r=-0.526 than that at 10 min. The SIliver/spleen with plain scan had no significant correlation with Child classification (P>0.05. RLE at 20 min, but not at 10 min, was correlated with Child classification (r=-0.362, P=0049. Between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups, SIliver/spleen showed no significant difference (P>0.05. However, SIliver/spleen at 10 min and 20 min, as well as RLE20 min, showed significant differences between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups (P<0.05. SIliver/spleen at 20 min also exhibited a significant difference between the elevated and normal ALT and TBil groups (both P<0.05. ConclusionGd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI can monitor liver function changes, and SIliver/spleen at 20 min may have an important value in assessing the liver function in general population.

  17. A new liver function test using the asialoglycoprotein-receptor system on the liver cell membrane, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawa, Soukichi; Hazama, Hiroshi; Kojima, Michimasa

    1986-01-01

    We produced labeled neoglycoprotein (GHSA) that is physiologically equivalent to ASGP, and quantitatively examined whether its uptake by the liver is dose-related using the following methods: 1) binding assay between GHSA and ASGP receptors, 2) measurement of the liver extraction ratio in the initial circulation following administration into the portal vein, and 3) measurement of clearance in normal rats and rats with galacosamine-induced acute liver disorder. The binding assay showed a linear relationship between the concentration of 125 I-GHSA and the amount of ASGP receptors obtained from the rat liver. A membrane assay using 125 I-GHSA and the liver cell membrane revealed similar results. The liver extraction ratio in the initial circulation following the administration into the portal vein of normal rabbits was highly dose-dependent (r = -0.95 in the range of 5 - 100 μg GHSA). Serial imaging of 99m Tc-GHSA during two-hour period after administration into the peripheral blood showed specific accumulation in the liver beginning immediately after the intravenous injection and subsequent transport mainly via the biliary system into the small intestine in the normal rat and mainly into the urine in the bile duct ligated rat. As a dynamic model of 99m Tc-GHSA, its circulation through the heart and liver and inactivated release from the liver was used, and two-compartment analysis was made on measurement curves in the heart and liver to obtain clearance parameters. The concentration of administered 99m Tc-GHSA (50 - 100 μg/100 g body weight) showed a positive linear relationship with clearance. Administration of 50 μg/100 g body weight of 99m Tc-GHSA revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between clearance and ASGP receptor activity in normal rats and rats with galactosamine-induced acute liver disorder. (J.P.N.)

  18. Interactions of the heart and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bernardi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    There is a mutual interaction between the function of the heart and the liver and a broad spectrum of acute and chronic entities that affect both the heart and the liver. These can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting...... the heart and the liver at the same time. In chronic and acute cardiac hepatopathy, owing to cardiac failure, a combination of reduced arterial perfusion and passive congestion leads to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic hypoxic hepatitis. These conditions may impair the liver function and treatment should...... be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek to secure perfusion of vital organs. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, physical and/or pharmacological stress may reveal a reduced cardiac performance with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysical abnormalities termed cirrhotic...

  19. Linked functional network abnormalities during intrinsic and extrinsic activity in schizophrenia as revealed by a data-fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryu-Ichiro; Itahashi, Takashi; Okada, Rieko; Hasegawa, Sayaka; Tani, Masayuki; Kato, Nobumasa; Mimura, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Abnormalities in functional brain networks in schizophrenia have been studied by examining intrinsic and extrinsic brain activity under various experimental paradigms. However, the identified patterns of abnormal functional connectivity (FC) vary depending on the adopted paradigms. Thus, it is unclear whether and how these patterns are inter-related. In order to assess relationships between abnormal patterns of FC during intrinsic activity and those during extrinsic activity, we adopted a data-fusion approach and applied partial least square (PLS) analyses to FC datasets from 25 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-matched normal controls. For the input to the PLS analyses, we generated a pair of FC maps during the resting state (REST) and the auditory deviance response (ADR) from each participant using the common seed region in the left middle temporal gyrus, which is a focus of activity associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). PLS correlation (PLS-C) analysis revealed that patients with schizophrenia have significantly lower loadings of a component containing positive FCs in default-mode network regions during REST and a component containing positive FCs in the auditory and attention-related networks during ADR. Specifically, loadings of the REST component were significantly correlated with the severities of positive symptoms and AVH in patients with schizophrenia. The co-occurrence of such altered FC patterns during REST and ADR was replicated using PLS regression, wherein FC patterns during REST are modeled to predict patterns during ADR. These findings provide an integrative understanding of altered FCs during intrinsic and extrinsic activity underlying core schizophrenia symptoms.

  20. Assessment of biochemical liver function tests in relation to age among steady state sickle cell anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuyam, S A; Abubakar, A; Lawal, N; Yusuf, R; Aminu, S M; Hassan, A; Musa, A; Bello, A K; Yahaya, I A; Okafor, P A

    2017-11-01

    Multiorgan failure including liver dysfunction is a common finding in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients, the cause of which is multifactorial with advancing age said to be a major determinant. There is a paucity of data on liver function among SCA patients in relation to age in northern Nigerian hospitals, including Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria. This study was to assess the biochemical liver function tests (LFTs) as they relate to age among SCA patients in steady state, with a view to improving the overall monitoring of these patients. This study was carried out in ABUTH, Zaria, Northern Nigeria. LFTs were carried out in 100 SCA and 100 apparently healthy participants (controls). The SCA group was made up of fifty adults and fifty children diagnosed of SCA, whereas the control group was made up of fifty adults and fifty children who were apparently healthy and had hemoglobin AA. Paired two-tailed Student's t-test for matched samples and Pearson's linear correlation statistical methods were employed for the data analysis using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and AST/ALT ratio were significantly higher in SCA patients compared to the controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.05, P = 0.05 and P = 0.001, respectively). Serum total protein (TP) and ALB were significantly lower (P = 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) in SCA patients compared with the controls. The levels of TB, ALT, AST, ALP, and AST/ALT were significantly lower in SCA adults compared to SCA children, whereas TP and ALB were higher in SCA adults compared to the SCA children. There were significant negative correlations between age and each of TB, ALT, AST, ALP, and AST/ALT, and significant positive correlations between age and each of TP and ALB in SCA patients. There are mild LFTs derangements

  1. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  2. Chronic liver injury in mice promotes impairment of skin barrier function via tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol is frequently used to induce chronic liver injury in laboratory animals. Alcohol causes oxidative stress in the liver and increases the expression of inflammatory mediators that cause hepatocellular damage. However, during chronic liver injury, it is unclear if/how these liver-derived factors affect distal tissues, such as the skin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skin barrier function during chronic liver injury. Hairless mice were administered 5% or 10% ethanol for 8 weeks, and damages to the liver and skin were assessed using histological and protein-analysis methods, as well as by detecting inflammatory mediators in the plasma. After alcohol administration, the plasma concentration of the aspartate and alanine aminotransferases increased, while albumin levels decreased. In mice with alcohol-induced liver injury, transepidermal water loss was significantly increased, and skin hydration decreased concurrent with ceramide and type I collagen degradation. The plasma concentrations of [Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in mice with induced liver injury. TNF receptor (TNFR) 2 expression was upregulated in the skin of alcohol-administered mice, while TNFR1 levels remained constant. Interestingly, the impairment of skin barrier function in mice administered with 10% ethanol was ameliorated by administering an anti-TNF-α antibody. We propose a novel mechanism whereby plasma TNF-α, via TNFR2 alone or with TNFR1, plays an important role in skin barrier function during chronic liver disease in these mouse models.

  3. Estimating functional liver reserve following hepatic irradiation: Adaptive normal tissue response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Jackson, Andrew; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the limit of functional liver reserve for safe application of hepatic irradiation using changes in indocyanine green, an established assay of liver function. Materials and methods: From 2005 to 2011, 60 patients undergoing hepatic irradiation were enrolled in a prospective study assessing the plasma retention fraction of indocyanine green at 15-min (ICG-R15) prior to, during (at 60% of planned dose), and after radiotherapy (RT). The limit of functional liver reserve was estimated from the damage fraction of functional liver (DFL) post-RT [1 − (ICG-R15 pre-RT /ICG-R15 post-RT )] where no toxicity was observed using a beta distribution function. Results: Of 48 evaluable patients, 3 (6%) developed RILD, all within 2.5 months of completing RT. The mean ICG-R15 for non-RILD patients pre-RT, during-RT and 1-month post-RT was 20.3%(SE 2.6), 22.0%(3.0), and 27.5%(2.8), and for RILD patients was 6.3%(4.3), 10.8%(2.7), and 47.6%(8.8). RILD was observed at post-RT damage fractions of ⩾78%. Both DFL assessed by during-RT ICG and MLD predicted for DFL post-RT (p < 0.0001). Limiting the post-RT DFL to 50%, predicted a 99% probability of a true complication rate <15%. Conclusion: The DFL as assessed by changes in ICG during treatment serves as an early indicator of a patient’s tolerance to hepatic irradiation

  4. Short and long-term soy diet vs. casein protects liver steatosis independent of the arginine content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the major cause of abnormal liver function, is often associated with obesity. Arginine (ARG) plays a role in modulating body weight/fat, but there are limited data as to the role that ARG may play in soy protein’s ability to protect from liver steatosis. Th...

  5. Liver function in patients exposed to a toluene in a hydrocarbon processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E; Fernandez D'Pool, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since the hepatotoxic role of toluene in exposed workers from the petroleum and petrochemical industries chronically exposed to low concentration has no been entirely dilucidated, this transversal study was undertaken in order to clarify the situation in the local industries. A group of 33 non-exposed men workers of such industries (group control, aged 33.0 +/- 4.88 years) were compared with 33 toluene-exposed men (aged 35.0 +/- 9.33 years) from the related industries, with a minimal of 6 months exposition time to toluene and without liver disease history. In addition to a complete occupational diseases medical history, each subject was tested by both a venous blood sample (to determine prothrombin, total and fractioned bilirubin, total and fractioned proteins, liver enzymes and cholesterol) and urine sample (hippuric acid). Also the environmental concentration of toluene in working areas was determined by gas chromatography, which was below the recommended standard levels in working areas. Although the analyzed parameters were in the normal range, it was observed that those workers with known alcohol ingestion and toluene exposition had several abnormalities. The results of this study confirm that toluene may have a synergistic hepatotoxic effect in toluene-exposed workers that are alcohol consumers. The alcohol in considered as a confounding factor and it is not possible to rule out in the etiology of hepatic changes detected in the study

  6. Positive Rates and Factors Associated with Abnormal Lung Function of Greenhouse Workers in China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Gao, Panjun; Gu, Yishuo; Xiao, Pei; Liu, Mengxuan; Chen, Juan; Cen, Yacai; Ma, Wenjun; Li, Tao

    2017-08-24

    Since the number of greenhouse workers are increasing in China, this observational cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate lung function and discuss the potential risk factors, to provide evidence in the surveillance of greenhouse workers' health. 678 greenhouse workers in Gansu Province, China were enrolled. A questionnaire which included demographic and occupational information was used. Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁), and FEV₁:FVC ratios (FEV₁/FVC), maximal expiratory flow after 50% of the FVC has not been exhaled (MEF 50 ), maximal expiratory flow after 25% of the FVC has not been exhaled (MEF 25 ) and maximal mid-expiratory flow curve (MMEF) were measured as lung function indicators. The mean values and standard deviations (SDs) of VC% predicted, FVC% predicted, FEV₁% predicted and FEV₁/FVC ratio were 106.07 ± 13.36, 107.60 ± 13.95, 97.19 ± 14.80 and 89.76 ± 10.78 respectively. The positive rates of above four and abnormal lung ventilation function were 2.9%, 2.8%, 11.2%, 4.6% and 6.5% respectively. Gender, age, BMI and number of greenhouses owned were influence factors of lung ventilation function ( p greenhouses owned were influence factors for small airway function ( p greenhouse might influence lung function of the workers. Small airway function indicators could be used as priority indicators for the surveillance of greenhouse workers' health.

  7. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skopińska-Rózewska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  8. Restoration of Liver Function and Portosystemic Pressure Gradient after TIPSS and Late TIPSS Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, U.; Hansmann, J.; Duex, M.; Noeldge, G.; Sauer, P.; Richter, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    TIPSS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) may be indicated to control bleeding from esophageal and gastric varicose veins, to reduce ascites, and to treat patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and veno-occlusive disease. Numerous measures to improve the safety and methodology of the procedure have helped to increase the technical and clinical success. Follow-up of TIPSS patients has revealed shunt stenosis to occur more often in patients with preserved liver function (Child A, Child B). In addition, the extent of liver cirrhosis is the main factor that determines prognosis in the long term. Little is known about the effects of TIPSS with respect to portosystemic hemodynamics. This report deals with a cirrhotic patient who stopped drinking 7 months prior to admission. He received TIPSS to control ascites and recurrent esophageal bleeding. Two years later remarkable hypertrophy of the left liver lobe and shunt occlusion was observed. The portosystemic pressure gradient dropped from 24 mmHg before TIPSS to 11 mmHg and remained stable after shunt occlusion. The Child's B cirrhosis prior to TIPSS turned into Child's A cirrhosis and remained stable during the follow-up period of 32 months. This indicates that liver function of TIPSS patients may recover due to hypertrophy of the remaining non-cirrhotic liver tissue. In addition the hepatic hemodynamics may return to normal. In conclusion, TIPSS cannot cure cirrhosis but its progress may be halted if the cause can be removed. This may result in a normal portosystemic gradient, leading consequently to shunt occlusion

  9. Determination of the integrated CT number of the whole liver in patients with severe hepatitis. As an indicator of the functional reserve of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Muto, Yasutoshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshida, Takashi; Tomita, Eiichi (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the functional reserve of the liver of patients with severe hepatitis by computed tomography (CT), in particular employing the integrated CT number of the whole liver (ICTN). ICTN was calculated by integrating the product of 'area' times 'mean CT number' of the liver in each CT slice for the entire height of the liver. The following results were obtained: (1) In patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH) as well as those with subacute hepatitis (SAH), ICTN was found to be significantly lower as compared to that of patients with acute hepatitis (AH) or non-hepatic diseases. In addition, in FH and SAH patients, ICTN showed a larger degree of decrease when compared with such conventional parameters as either estimated liver volume or mean hepatic CT number. Thus, ICTN seems to more sensitively reflect the changes in functional reserve of the liver. (2) ICTN showed significant positive correlations with prothrombin time and plasma BCAA/AAA ratio, and a significant negative correlation with plasma methionine level. (3) Time course of changes in ICTN correlated well with the clinical features of severe hepatitis. In particular, patients with initial ICTN values above 20 lcenter dotHU/m/sup 2/ of body surface area showed significantly higher survival rate than those with initial ICTN below 20. In conclusion, ICTN well indicates the functional reserve of the liver, and is further suggested to be valuable as a parameter to predict the prognosis of patients with severe hepatitis. (author).

  10. Biochemical liver function test parameter levels in relation to treatment response in liver metastatic colorectal patients treated with FOLFOX4 with or without bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denić Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Combined use of bevacizumab and conventional anticancer drugs leads to a significant improvement of treatment response in patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC. Conventional treatment protocols exert undesired effects on the liver tissue. Hepatotoxic effects are manifested as a disturbance of liver function test parameters. The relation between clinical outcome and disorder of biochemical parameters has not been completely evaluated. Objective. The objective of our study was to examine whether clinical outcome in patients with liver metastatic CRC correlates with the level of liver function test parameters. Methods. The study included 96 patients with untreated liver metastatic CRC who received FOLFOX4 protocol with or without bevacizumab. Biochemical liver parameters were performed before and after the treatment completion. Treatment response was evaluated as disease regression, stable disease, and disease progression. The patients were divided into three groups according to the accomplished treatment response. Results. In the group of patients with disease regression the post-treatment levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin were statistically significantly increased. In contrast to this, gamma-glutamyltransferase and protein post-treatment values were significantly lower in relation to initial values. In patients with stable disease, difference was found only in the level of proteins being lower after the treatment. In patients with disease progression, values of aspartate aminotransferase and bilirubin were significantly increased after completed treatment. Conclusion. Treatment responses are not completely associated with the level of liver function test parameters. The only parameter which correlated with treatment response is gamma-glutamyltransferase. Its decrease is accompanied with disease regression.

  11. [Non-structural abnormalities of CNS function resulting in coincidence of endocrinopathies, epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Jerzy; Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Pietrzyk, Jacek A; Urbanik, Andrzej; Kroczka, Sławomir; Drozdz, Ryszard; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    chiasm glioma (2 patients), suprasellar germinal tumor (1 patient), ii) children with Hashimoto encephalopathy (2 patients), iii) children with Prader-Willi syndrome (20 patients), with Klinefelter syndrome (10 patients), with Albright syndrome (9 patients). Of the 49 patients, a group of 6 children representative for individual disorders was selected. In those patients, the etiology of both endocrine disorders, epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders was suspected to be common, and the diagnosis was usually delayed. 1. Cranial irradiation and chemotherapy, encephalopathy associated with Hashimoto disease and some of the syndromes with the chromosomal and genetic background are the causes of non-structural CNS abnormalities and coincidence of endocrinopathies, epilepsy and psychoneurologic disorders. 2. MR/CT CNS imaging should be performed in any case of central neurological disorders, disorders of behavior, epilepsy or seizures, but also in patients with delayed psycho-motor development, delayed or accelerated growth and pubertal development. All of the above-mentioned manifestations may be symptoms of structural CNS abnormalities and their early treatment determines the child's future. 3. Excluding structural CNS abnormalities allows for forming suspicions associated with diseases resulting in non-structural disorders of the CNS function, predisposing to coincidence of endocrine and neurological disorders. 4. In the diagnosis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy, a decisive factor is exclusion of structural, infectious, traumatic and metabolic causes, intoxications, epilepsy and presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with high level of against TPO antibodies. In cases of steroids resistance, a good therapeutic effect may be achieved by plasmapheresis, Rituximab therapy and progestagene inhibition of the menstrual cycle.

  12. Protective function of complement against alcohol-induced rat liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Igor L; Väkevä, Antti; Järveläinen, Harri A; Meri, Seppo; Lindros, Kai O

    2004-11-01

    The complement system can promote tissue damage or play a homeostatic role in the clearance and disposal of damaged tissue. We assessed the role of the terminal complement pathway in alcohol-induced liver damage in complement C6 (C6-/-) genetically deficient rats. C6-/- and corresponding C6+/+ rats were continuously exposed to ethanol by feeding ethanol-supplemented liquid diet for six weeks. Liver samples were analyzed for histopathology and complement component deposition by immunofluorescence microscopy. Prostaglandin E receptors and cytokine mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR and plasma cytokines by ELISA. Deposition of complement components C1, C3, C8 and C9 was observed in C6+/+ rats, but not in C6-/- animals. The histopathological changes, the liver weight increase and the elevation of the plasma pro-/anti-inflammatory TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratio were, on the other hand, more marked in C6-/- rats. Furthermore, ethanol enhanced the hepatic mRNA expression of the prostaglandin E receptors EP2R and EP4R exclusively in the C6-/- rats. Our results indicate that a deficient terminal complement pathway predisposes to tissue injury and promotes a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. This suggests that an intact complement system has a protective function in the development of alcoholic liver damage.

  13. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiation rats suffering pesticide toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M; Abdel-Hamid, F M; Abu-Ghadir, A R [Radiation biology department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Radio isotope Department, Nuclear Reseach Center, and atomic Energy, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The effect of exposure to single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg kelthane/kg body weight/day for successively 3 days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, certain serum and liver enzymes creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage of tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative spleen weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after orally administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6-phosphatase. Non significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma-irradiation and/or kelthane treatment. Endogenous clearance of creatinine and phosphorous as well as tubular phosphorous reabsorption were determined to assess the glomerular filtration and tubular function. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation either alone or after treatment with kelthane caused significant decrease in creatinine and phosphorous clearance while phosphorous reabsorption was not appreciably affected. 4 tabs.

  14. Impairment of liver and kidney functions in gamma irradiation rats suffering pesticide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Hamid, F.M.; Abu-Ghadir, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exposure to single whole body gamma irradiation dose at 6.5 Gy and/or either oral administration of 50 or 100 mg kelthane/kg kelthane/kg body weight/day for successively 3 days, or daily feeding with 200 mg kelthane/kg body weight for 3, 6, and 12 weeks has been studied on relative liver and kidney weights, certain serum and liver enzymes creatinine and inorganic phosphorous clearance, as well as percentage of tubular phosphorous reabsorption in male animals. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation alone or combined with kelthane treatment caused significant increase in the relative spleen weight besides significant decrease in serum and liver alkaline phosphatase and serum cholinesterase. Exposure to gamma irradiation after orally administration of 100 mg or feeding dietary kelthane caused significant decrease in liver glucose-6-phosphatase. Non significant changes in aspartic and alanine transaminases could be recorded due to gamma-irradiation and/or kelthane treatment. Endogenous clearance of creatinine and phosphorous as well as tubular phosphorous reabsorption were determined to assess the glomerular filtration and tubular function. The data obtained revealed that exposure to gamma-irradiation either alone or after treatment with kelthane caused significant decrease in creatinine and phosphorous clearance while phosphorous reabsorption was not appreciably affected. 4 tabs

  15. Proteomic analysis of physiological function response to hot summer in liver from lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangjun; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zijun; Zhao, Huiling; Huang, Dongwei; Cheng, Guanglong; Yang, Yongxin

    2017-04-01

    Lactation performance of dairy cattle is susceptible to heat stress. The liver is one of the most crucial organs affected by high temperature in dairy cows. However, the physiological adaption by the liver to hot summer conditions has not been well elucidated in lactating dairy cows. In the present study, proteomic analysis of the liver in dairy cows in spring and hot summer was performed using a label-free method. In total, 127 differentially expressed proteins were identified; most of the upregulated proteins were involved in protein metabolic processes and responses to stimuli, whereas most of the downregulated proteins were related to oxidation-reduction. Pathway analysis indicated that 3 upregulated heat stress proteins (HSP90α, HSP90β, and endoplasmin) were enriched in the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, whereas several downregulated NADH dehydrogenase proteins were involved in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The protein-protein interaction network indicated that several upregulated HSPs (HSP90α, HSP90β, and GRP78) were involved in more interactions than other proteins and were thus considered as central hub nodes. Our findings provide novel insights into the physiological adaption of liver function in lactating dairy cows to natural high temperature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effects of Intensive Statin Therapy on Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auscher, Søren; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with greater mortality and adverse cardiovascular effects. As statins possess a range of beneficial pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system, we sought to assess the cardioprotective...... effects of statins on left ventricular function in patients with AMI in relation to glycometabolic state. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized trial, 140 patients with AMI were randomized to intensive statin therapy receiving statin loading with 80 mg of rosuvastatin followed by 40 mg daily or standard...... statin therapy. Patients were assessed with an oral glucose tolerance test and their left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography measuring regional longitudinal systolic strain (RLSS) in the infarct area. RESULTS: Overall RLSS in the infarct area improved by a mean...

  17. Thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin in relation to liver function and serum testosterone in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased with progressing liver dysfunction. Serum concentrations of tetraiodothyronine (T4), TBG and T4/TBG ratio did not correlate significantly with liver function. Serum T3 concentrations...

  18. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a

  19. Abnormal functional connectivity and cortical integrity influence dominant hand motor disability in multiple sclerosis: a multimodal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jidan; Nantes, Julia C; Holmes, Scott A; Gallant, Serge; Narayanan, Sridar; Koski, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Functional reorganization and structural damage occur in the brains of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) throughout the disease course. However, the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity (FC) reorganization in the sensorimotor network and motor disability in MS is not well understood. This study used resting-state fMRI, T1-weighted and T2-weighted, and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to investigate the relationship between abnormal FC in the sensorimotor network and upper limb motor disability in people with MS, as well as the impact of disease-related structural abnormalities within this network. Specifically, the differences in FC of the left hemisphere hand motor region between MS participants with preserved (n = 17) and impaired (n = 26) right hand function, compared with healthy controls (n = 20) was investigated. Differences in brain atrophy and MT ratio measured at the global and regional levels were also investigated between the three groups. Motor preserved MS participants had stronger FC in structurally intact visual information processing regions relative to motor impaired MS participants. Motor impaired MS participants showed weaker FC in the sensorimotor and somatosensory association cortices and more severe structural damage throughout the brain compared with the other groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that regional MTR predicted motor disability beyond the impact of global atrophy whereas regional grey matter volume did not. More importantly, as the first multimodal analysis combining resting-state fMRI, T1-weighted, T2-weighted and MTR images in MS, we demonstrate how a combination of structural and functional changes may contribute to motor impairment or preservation in MS. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4262-4275, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Radiation-induced brain structural and functional abnormalities in presymptomatic phase and outcome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Han; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Xie, Fei; Liu, Lizhi; Qiu, Shijun; Li, Li; Shen, Dinggang

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy, a major method of treatment for brain cancer, may cause severe brain injuries after many years. We used a rare and unique cohort of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with normal-appearing brains to study possible early irradiation injury in its presymptomatic phase before severe, irreversible necrosis happens. The aim is to detect any structural or functional imaging biomarker that is sensitive to early irradiation injury, and to understand the recovery and progression of irradiation injury that can shed light on outcome prediction for early clinical intervention. We found an acute increase in local brain activity that is followed by extensive reductions in such activity in the temporal lobe and significant loss of functional connectivity in a distributed, large-scale, high-level cognitive function-related brain network. Intriguingly, these radiosensitive functional alterations were found to be fully or partially recoverable. In contrast, progressive late disruptions to the integrity of the related far-end white matter structure began to be significant after one year. Importantly, early increased local brain functional activity was predictive of severe later temporal lobe necrosis. Based on these findings, we proposed a dynamic, multifactorial model for radiation injury and another preventive model for timely clinical intervention. Hum Brain Mapp 39:407-427, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Abnormal cerebral functional connectivity in esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Xiang, JianBo; Qian, Nong; Sun, SuPing; Hu, LiJun; Yuan, YongGui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of the default mode network (DMN) in the psychopathological mechanisms of theory of mind deficits in patients with an esophageal cancer concomitant with depression in resting the state. Twenty-five cases of esophageal cancer with theory of mind deficits (test group) that meet the diagnostic criteria of esophageal cancer and neuropsychological tests, including Beck depression inventory, reading the mind in the eyes, and Faux pas, were included, Another 25 cases of esophageal cancer patients but without theory of mind deficits (control group) were enrolled. Each patient completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity intensities within the cerebral regions in the DMN of all the enrolled patients were analyzed. The results of each group were compared. The functional connectivity of the bilateral prefrontal central region with the precuneus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral ventral anterior cingulate gyrus in the patients of the test group were all reduced significantly (P theory of mind deficits. The theory of mind deficits might have an important function in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.

  2. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of the left caudate nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunhui; Juhás, Michal; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Hu, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Cui, Hongsheng; Ding, Yongzhuo; Kang, Lu; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yuhua; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Ping

    2016-06-03

    Altered brain activities in the cortico-striato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuitry are implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, whether the underlying changes occur only within this circuitry or in large-scale networks is still not thoroughly understood. This study performed voxel-based functional connectivity analysis on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from thirty OCD patients and thirty healthy controls to investigate whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in OCD. Relative to the healthy controls, OCD patients showed decreased functional connectivity within the CSTC circuitry but increased functional connectivity in other brain regions. Furthermore, decreased left caudate nucleus-thalamus connectivity within the CSTC circuitry was positively correlated with the illness duration of OCD. This study provides additional evidence that CSTC circuitry may play an essential role and alteration of large-scale brain networks may be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive, neurophysiological, and functional correlates of proverb interpretation abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Michael; Light, Gregory A; Prugh, Jocelyn; Coulson, Seana; Braff, David L; Kutas, Marta

    2007-07-01

    A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation, which could be due to: (1) aberrant activation of disorganized semantic associations, or (2) working memory (WM) deficits. We assessed 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 normal control participants on proverb interpretation, and evaluated these two hypotheses by examining within patients the correlations of proverb interpretation with disorganized symptoms and auditory WM, respectively. Secondarily, we also explored the relationships between proverb interpretation and a spectrum of cognitive functions including auditory sensory-memory encoding (as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP)); executive function; and social/occupational function. As expected, schizophrenia patients produced less accurate and less abstract descriptions of proverbs than did controls. These proverb interpretation difficulties in patients were not significantly correlated with disorganization or other symptom factors, but were significantly correlated (p proverb interpretation in schizophrenia, but implicate WM deficits, perhaps as a part of a syndrome related to generalized frontal cortical dysfunction.

  4. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  5. Oculomotor executive function abnormalities with increased tic severity in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, Cameron B; Patel, Saumil S; Morris, Jeffrey S; Chuang, Alice Z; Butler, Ian J; Sereno, Anne B

    2015-02-01

    Reports conflict as to whether Tourette syndrome (TS) confers deficits in executive function. This study's aim was to evaluate executive function in youths with TS using oculomotor tasks while controlling for confounds of tic severity, age, medication, and severity of comorbid disorders. Four saccade tasks requiring the executive functions of response generation, response inhibition, and working memory (prosaccade, antisaccade, 0-back, and 1-back) were administered. Twenty youths with TS and low tic severity (TS-low), nineteen with TS and moderate tic severity (TS-moderate), and 29 typically developing control subjects (Controls) completed the oculomotor tasks. There were small differences across groups in the prosaccade task. Controlling for any small sensorimotor differences, TS-moderate subjects had significantly higher error rates than Controls and TS-low subjects in the 0-back and 1-back tasks. In the 1-back task, these patients also took longer to respond than Controls or TS-low subjects. In a highly controlled design, the findings demonstrate for the first time that increased tic severity in TS is associated with impaired response inhibition and impaired working memory and that these executive function deficits cannot be accounted for by differences in age, medication or comorbid symptom severity. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  7. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  8. Effect of abnormal thyroid function on the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Mourits, M. P.; Koornneef, L.; Berghout, A.; van der Gaag, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many clinicians have the impression that treatment of thyroid dysfunction ameliorates ophthalmopathy in Graves' disease. The aim of our study was to relate thyroid function to the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy. We studied 90 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and Graves' hyperthyroidism in

  9. Abnormalities of lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, H; Tønnesen, E; Clemmensen, O

    1992-01-01

    We examined the blood lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking salazopyrin. We studied cell surface markers, natural killer cell activity and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Our results point to temporary immunosuppression...... as evidenced by lymphopenia with a large "null cell" population, reduced natural killer cell activity, and impaired lymphocyte response to mitogens....

  10. Correlation between plasma endothelin-1 levels and severity of septic liver failure quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test. A prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus F Kaffarnik

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the degree of liver dysfunction, quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test and endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 in septic surgical patients.28 septic patients (8 female, 20 male, age range 35-80y were prospectively investigated on a surgical intensive care unit. Liver function, defined by LiMAx test, and measurements of plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were carried out within the first 24 hours after onset of septic symptoms, followed by day 2, 5 and 10. Patients were divided into 2 groups (group A: LiMAx ≥100 μg/kg/h, moderate liver dysfunction; group B: LiMAx <100 μg/kg/h, severe liver dysfunction for analysis and investigated regarding the correlation between endothelin-1 and the severity of liver failure, quantified by LiMAx test.Group B showed significant higher results for endothelin-1 than patients in group A (P = 0.01, d5; 0.02, d10. For TNF-α, group B revealed higher results than group A, with a significant difference on day 10 (P = 0.005. IL-6 showed a non-significant trend to higher results in group B. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed a significant correlation between LiMAx and endothelin-1 (-0.434; P <0.001, TNF-α (-0.515; P <0.001 and IL-6 (-0.590; P <0.001.Sepsis-related hepatic dysfunction is associated with elevated plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6. Low LiMAx results combined with increased endothelin-1 and TNF-α and a favourable correlation between LiMAx and cytokine values support the findings of a crucial role of Endothelin-1 and TNF-α in development of septic liver failure.

  11. [Exposure to toxic dose of adrenaline on the functional state of the liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, S V; Vlasova, K M; Anashkina, A A

    2017-01-01

    The blood biochemical parameters characterizing the functional state of the liver, and the morphological profile of the body after a single exposure to a toxic dose of adrenaline were studied. Studies were conducted on 60 adult rats (female) weighing 0.15-0.2 kg, were divided into groups: intact animals; experience - animals, injected with epinephrine hydrochloride intraperitoneally in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg. All kinds of Biological material (blood, liver) were collected out through one and ten days after the start of the experiment. The degree of influence of high doses of epinephrine were evaluated in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein (PSP) in liver homogenates, the concentration of average weight molecules (MSM), the activity of ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, total protein concentration, glucose and lactate in the blood plasma, as well as the determination of the prothrombin time (PTT) with the counting on the basis thereof of international normalized ration (INR). Histology of the liver was studied by light microscopy. It was found that throughout the experiment, there was an increased in the concentration of lipid peroxidation products and protein in liver homogenates, there was an increase in the concentration of MSM 1.7. Twenty-four hours after the administration of a toxic dose of adrenaline observed hyperenzymemia that manifested an increase in the activity of ALT and AST, was an increase in LDH. After 10-day five after the start of the experiment established the presence hyperenzymemia activity decreased ALT and AST, LDH activity remained elevated, total protein level was higher than in the group of animal in which investigations were conducted one day after the start of the experiment, PTV also continued to decline. In histological sections of the development of a pathological condition characterized by circulatory disturbance - plasmatization, both in central and in small vessels. From the hepatocytes both in the center and the periphery

  12. Abnormal functional activation and maturation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and cerebellum during temporal discounting in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Clodagh M; Christakou, Anastasia; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Daly, Eileen M; Ecker, Christine; Johnston, Patrick; Spain, Debbie; Robertson, Dene M; Murphy, Declan G; Rubia, Katya

    2017-11-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor decision-making and temporal foresight. This may adversely impact on their everyday life, mental health, and productivity. However, the neural substrates underlying poor choice behavior in people with ASD, or its' neurofunctional development from childhood to adulthood, are unknown. Despite evidence of atypical structural brain development in ASD, investigation of functional brain maturation in people with ASD is lacking. This cross-sectional developmental fMRI study investigated the neural substrates underlying performance on a temporal discounting (TD) task in 38 healthy (11-35 years old) male adolescents and adults with ASD and 40 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing healthy controls. Most importantly, we assessed group differences in the neurofunctional maturation of TD across childhood and adulthood. Males with ASD had significantly poorer task performance and significantly lower brain activation in typical regions that mediate TD for delayed choices, in predominantly right hemispheric regions of ventrolateral/dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, striatolimbic regions, and cerebellum. Importantly, differential activation in ventromedial frontal cortex and cerebellum was associated with abnormal functional brain maturation; controls, in contrast to people with ASD, showed progressively increasing activation with increasing age in these regions; which furthermore was associated with performance measures and clinical ASD measures (stereotyped/restricted interests). Findings provide first cross-sectional evidence that reduced activation of TD mediating brain regions in people with ASD during TD is associated with abnormal functional brain development in these regions between childhood and adulthood, and this is related to poor task performance and clinical measures of ASD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5343-5355, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Toxic-oil syndrome. Gallium-67 scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage studies in patients with abnormal lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cruz, J.L.; Oteo, L.A.; Lopez, C.; Curto, L.M.; Burgaleta, C.; Campos, A.; Sueiro, A.

    1985-01-01

    The toxic-oil syndrome (TOS) is a multisystem disorder whose etiology and pathogenesis are as yet unknown. Lung alterations persist in a significant number of TOS patients due to the underlying vascular lesion. Computer-assisted 67 Ga scanning and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) studies were performed in 14 TOS patients with sustained abnormal diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Dco). No significant difference was observed between the 67 Ga uptake index of the TOS and control populations. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the number of effector cells recovered from the lungs of TOS patients and controls by bronchoalveolar lavage. However, a rise in IgA and IgG concentrations (p less than 0.002) and a fall in alpha 1-antitrypsin (p less than 0.05) and transferrin (p less than 0.01) were observed in the TOS group. Phospholipid and lecithin concentrations in the lavage fluid were similar for patients and controls. The alveolar macrophage function assayed in three TOS patients was normal. These observations raise new questions about the outcome of lung pathology in TOS and warrant further follow-up studies of the lung abnormalities observed

  14. Effects of hyperthermia on the normal liver using scintigraphic methods. Functional changes of the rabbit whole-liver by local hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kiyotaka; Shinotsuka, Akira; Takenaka, Hiroki; Hirono, Yoshisada

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate effect of hyperthermia to the liver in rabbits. The whole liver was heated at 43degC for 30 min by a RF capacitive heating device, and subsequent changes were observed by scintigraphy using 99m Tc-EHIDA and 99m Tc-Sn-colloid. The excretory ratio (Ke value) of 99m Tc-EHIDA and the uptake ratio (K value) of 99m Tc-Sn-colloid were measured to estimate hyperthermia induced hepatic injury for a month. Blood chemistry analysis was also conducted during this period. Also, the uptake of 3 H-methyl-thymidine into the DNA of hepatocyted was assayed 2 and 5 days after heating. Concurrently, histopathological changes were observed. The Ke value showed a transient increase and returned to the level prior to heating after approximately one week. A distinct increase in GPT was observed. The uptake of 3 H-methyl-thymidine showed a marked rise 2 days after hyperthermia, which demonstrated regeneration of the previously damaged hepatocytes. Pathologically, overall liver congestion and hepatocytes necrosis were noted. Also, both enlargement of the nuclei and binuclear hepatocytes were present, pathologically proving hepatocytes regeneration. The K value showed a transient decrease, showing that the reticuloendothelial function and blood flow of the liver were temporarily reduced. These results indicate the whole liver function damaged by hyperthermia is reversible. (author)

  15. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Patients With Primary Insomnia: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Qun Yan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, there have been many reports about abnormalities regarding structural and functional brain connectivity of the patients with primary insomnia. However, the alterations in functional interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres have not been well understood. The resting-state fMRI approach, which reveals spontaneous neural fluctuations in blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals, offers a method to quantify functional interactions between the hemispheres directly.Methods: We compared interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC between 26 patients with primary insomnia (48.85 ± 12.02 years and 28 healthy controls (49.07 ± 11.81 years using a voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC method. The patients with primary insomnia and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, and education. Brain regions, which had significant differences in VMHC maps between the primary insomnia and healthy control groups, were defined as seed region of interests. A seed-based approach was further used to reveal significant differences of FC between the seeds and the whole contralateral hemisphere.Results: The patients with primary insomnia showed higher VMHC than healthy controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC bilaterally. The seed-based analyses demonstrated increased FC between the left ACC and right thalamus (and the right ACC and left orbitofrontal cortex in patients with primary insomnia, revealing abnormal connectivity between the two cerebral hemispheres. The VMHC values in the ACC were positively correlated with the time to fall asleep and Self-Rating Depression Scale scores (SDS.Conclusions: The results demonstrate that there is abnormal interhemispheric resting-state FC in the brain regions of patients with primary insomnia, especially in the ACC. Our finding demonstrates valid evidence that the ACC is an area of interest in the neurobiology of primary insomnia.

  16. The association of abnormal cerebellar function in children with developmental coordination disorder and reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Anne; Khalid, Shabana

    2002-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder/dyspraxia (DCD) are at high risk of reading and writing delay. The difficulties with motor skills are heterogeneous and many children have features of poor cerebellar function, reflected in problems with posture, balance and fast accurate control of movement. This study confirmed a high level of parental reporting of reading and writing delay in a clinical group of 23 children with DCD, defined on the basis of both clinical examination and standardized testing of motor function. Direct measurement of reading delay, identified still further children in the group. Those children with reading delay had associated findings typical of phonological awareness difficulties. The children also underwent a standardized test of neurological function and although they all had difficulties with cerebellar function, no distinctive pattern emerged for those whose presentation was complicated by delayed reading and writing. Both the children with DCD and 136 typically developing children, completed the pilot parental questionnaire on gross motor skills. The three skills of catching a ball, jumping on a moving playground roundabout and handwriting, distinguished the children with DCD. This study therefore confirms that children with DCD should be assessed for difficulties in phonological awareness. Additionally, children aged between 7 and 12 years are on the whole, highly competent in a range of gross motor skills and further study might determine whether a simple parental questionnaire might detect children who would benefit from further assessment. The study also suggests that all the children with DCD have cerebellar dysfunction and further work with a larger group might determine particular patterns associated with reading delay.

  17. Lung scan abnormalities in asthma and their correlation with lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, P.; Burton, G.H.; Seed, W.A.; Charing Cross Hospital, London

    1986-01-01

    We have used asthma as a model of airways disease to test how well an automated, quantitative method of analysis of lung scans correlates with physiological measurements of disturbed lung function and gas exchange. We studies 25 asthmatics (age 16-73) of widely differing severity (forced expiratory volume in 1-s FEV 1 22%-123% of predicted value), who had airways tests, arterial blood gas analysis, and krypton-technetium lung scans within a short time of each other. In all patients with airways obstruction and in some with normal function during remission, scans showed the typical appearances of multiple defects of ventilation and perfusion. The severity of ventilation defects was assessed from the posterior view of the krypton scan compared to an age- and sex-matched normal range to yield an underventilation score. This correlated closely with the severity of airways obstruction as measured by forced expiratory manouevres. Ventilation and perfusion defects were usually imperfectly matched; the severity of this was computed using a subtraction method applied to the counts on the posterior krypton and technetium scans. The degree of mismatch was inversely related to the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (r=-0.86). The results suggest that computer scan analysis can provide usual functional information about the lung in airways disease. (orig.)

  18. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Noa; Shai, Amir Bar; Alkalay, Yifat; Israeli, Shani; Korenstein, Rafi; Kramer, Mordechai R; Fireman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls). Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time.

  19. Abnormal Functional Connectivity Between Default and Salience Networks in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Larson, Melissa P; Shah, Lubdha M; Weeks, Howard R; King, Jace B; Mallik, Atul K; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) (occurring prior to 18 years of age) is a developmental brain disorder that is among the most severe and disabling psychiatric conditions affecting youth. Despite increasing evidence that brain connectivity is atypical in adults with bipolar disorder, it is not clear how brain connectivity may be altered in youths with PBD. This cross-sectional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study included 80 participants recruited over 4 years: 32 youths with PBD, currently euthymic (13 males; 15.1 years old), and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects (27 males; 14.5 years old). Functional connectivity between eight major intrinsic connectivity networks, along with connectivity measurements between 333 brain regions, was compared between PBD and HC subjects. Additionally, connectivity differences were evaluated between PBD and HC samples in negatively correlated connections, as defined by 839 subjects of the Human Connectome Project dataset. We found increased inter- but not intranetwork functional connectivity in PBD between the default mode and salience networks (p = .0017). Throughout the brain, atypical connections showed failure to develop anticorrelation with age during adolescence in PBD but not HC samples among connections that exhibit negative correlation in adulthood. Youths with PBD demonstrate reduced anticorrelation between default mode and salience networks. Further evaluation of the interaction between these networks is needed in development and with other mood states such as depression and mania to clarify if this atypical connectivity is a PBD trait biomarker. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cirrhotic liver parenchyma: A comparison between gadolinium–diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and gadolinium–ethoxybenzyl–diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yi Lin

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: The enhancement effect of the liver parenchyma using both MRI contrast agents was not affected by the degree of liver cirrhosis or abnormal liver function. However, it was affected by the serum-bilirubin levels in the Gd–EOB–DTPA-enhanced MRIs. Furthermore, enhancement of the liver was higher when using Gd–EOB–DTPA in the VP, DP, and HP. This knowledge is helpful when performing dynamic MRIs to diagnose focal hepatic lesions in the heterogeneous liver parenchyma.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide, immune activation, and liver abnormalities in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected individuals receiving HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Rajasuriar, Reena; Velayudham, Pushparaj; Iser, David; Solomon, Ajantha; Sebolao, Baotuti; Tran, Andrew; Spelman, Tim; Matthews, Gail; Cameron, Paul; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Dore, Gregory J; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Lewin, Sharon R

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between microbial translocation, immune activation, and liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14, CXCL10, and CCL-2 levels were elevated in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection. Levels of LPS, soluble CD14, and CCL-2 declined following receipt of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the CXCL10 level remained elevated. No markers were associated with liver disease severity on liver biopsy (n = 96), but CXCL10, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were all associated with elevated liver enzyme levels during receipt of HBV-active cART. Stimulation of hepatocyte cell lines in vitro with IFN-γ and LPS induced a profound synergistic increase in the production of CXCL10. LPS may contribute to liver disease via stimulating persistent production of CXCL10. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Lead nitrate induced unallied expression of liver and kidney functions in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Priti; Patil, Bhagyashree; Kanase, Aruna

    2005-06-01

    To determine the effects of lead where lead accumulates maximum (liver followed by kidney), liver and kidney functions were studied using low oral dose of lead nitrate for prolonged duration. Dose of 20 mg lead nitrate/kg body wt/day was used in male albino rats. AST and ALT levels altered independently. When ALT remained unaltered after 7 and 21 days of treatment, it is decreased by 13.21% after 14 days treatment. AST was marginally lowered after 7 days, increased after 14 days and increased marginally after 21 days. Bilirubin (conjugated, unconjugated and total) decreased after 7 and 14 days and increased after 21 days. Urea increase was directly proportional to duration. Creatinine remained unaltered.

  3. Nuclear medicine liver function tests for pregnant women and children. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.; Moebius, G.; Hirschberg, K.; Guenther, K.; Schneider, G.

    1985-01-01

    Stable isotopes, such as 13 C, should be substituted for the long-lived radionuclide 14 C in the 14 C breath test when doing liver function tests in children and pregnant women. For comparison 13 C, 15 N-methacetin and 14 C-methacetin were synthesized as suitable diagnostic agents. Methods are described for the measurement of 14 C and 13 C in the breath. After oral administration of labelled methacetin to healthy subjects and patients with liver diseases a good correspondence between 13 C- and 14 C-measurements in the same subject on the one hand, and a good discrimination between controls and patients on the other hand were shown. Findings with regard to 14 C measurements in urine are discussed supporting the supposed advantage of 13 C-methacetin over 14 C-methacetin application. (orig.)

  4. Toxicological Aspects of Carbaryl on liver functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to show the toxicological effects of daily oral doses of carbaryl on different metabolic activities through biochemical determinations in male rats by feeding diet treated with 28 mg/kg for four consecutive weeks, followed by one and two weeks of recovery periods. Results revealed disturbance in liver functions which were elucidated through marked increases of serum glutamic oxalacetic (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic (SGPT) transaminases and alkaline phosphatase (SALP). Carbaryl also induced hypoglycemia, increase in liver glycogen content, decrease in kidney and brain glycogen, decrease in serum bilirubin and total lipids, reduction in blood cholesterol, increase in serum calcium with decrease in serum inorganic phosphorus. Thyroxine hormone(T 4 ) was increased while triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was decreased

  5. Lipid profiling and transcriptomic analysis reveals a functional interplay between estradiol and growth hormone in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernández-Pérez

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2 may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a

  6. Detecting abnormalities in left ventricular function during exercise by respiratory measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, A.; Itoh, H.; Taniguchi, K.; Hiroe, M.

    1989-01-01

    The degree of exercise-induced cardiac dysfunction and its relation to the anaerobic threshold were evaluated in 23 patients with chronic heart disease. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed with a cycle ergometer with work rate increased by 1 W every 6 seconds. Left ventricular function, as reflected by ejection fraction, was continuously monitored with a computerized cadmium telluride detector after the intravenous injection of technetium-labeled red blood cells. The anaerobic threshold (mean, 727 ± 166 ml/min) was determined by the noninvasive measurement of respiratory gas exchange. As work rate rose, the left ventricular ejection fraction increased but reached a peak value at the anaerobic threshold and then fell below resting levels. Ejection fraction at rest, anaerobic threshold, and peak exercise were 41.4 ± 11.3%, 46.5 ± 12.0%, and 37.2 ± 11.0%, respectively. Stroke volume also increased from rest (54.6 ± 17.0 ml/beat) to the point of the anaerobic threshold (65.0 ± 21.2 ml/beat) and then decreased at peak exercise (52.4 ± 18.7 ml/beat). The slope of the plot of cardiac output versus work rate decreased above the anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold occurred at the work rate above which left ventricular function decreased during exercise. Accurate determination of the anaerobic threshold provides an objective, noninvasive measure of the oxygen uptake above which exercise-induced deterioration in left ventricular function occurs in patients with chronic heart disease

  7. Structural and functional changes associated with normal and abnormal fundus autofluorescence in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Vivienne C; Duncker, Tobias; Holopigian, Karen; Carr, Ronald E; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Tsang, Stephen H; Hood, Donald C

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the structure and visual function of regions bordering the hyperautofluorescent ring/arcs in retinitis pigmentosa. Twenty-one retinitis pigmentosa patients (21 eyes) with rings/arcs and 21 normal individuals (21 eyes) were studied. Visual sensitivity in the central 10° was measured with microperimetry. Retinal structure was evaluated with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The distance from the fovea to disruption/loss of the inner outer segment (IS/OS) junction and thicknesses of the total receptor plus retinal pigment epithelial complex and outer segment plus retinal pigment epithelial complex layers were measured. Results were compared with measurements of the distance from the fovea to the inner and outer borders of the ring/arc seen on fundus autofluorescence. Disruption/loss of the inner outer segment junction occurred closer to the inner border of the ring/arc and it was closer to the fovea in eight eyes. For 19 eyes, outer segment plus and receptor plus RPE complex thicknesses were significantly decreased at locations closer to the fovea than the appearance of the inner border of hyperautofluorescence. Mean visual sensitivity was decreased inside, across, and outside the ring/arc by 3.5 ± 3.8, 8.9 ± 4.8, and 17.0 ± 2.4 dB, respectively. Structural and functional changes can occur inside the hyperfluorescent ring/arc in retinitis pigmentosa.

  8. CARDIAC STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES IN FEMALES WITH UNTREATED HYPOPITUITARISM DUE TO SHEEHAN SYNDROME: RESPONSE TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Ramzan, Mahroosa; Allai, Mohd Sultan; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Data on cardiac abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism are limited. We investigated echocardiographic abnormalities in females with untreated hypopituitarism and their response to treatment. Twenty-three females with treatment-naïve hypopituitarism and 30 matched healthy controls were evaluated for cardiac structure and function. Echocardiographic evaluation was done at presentation and after achieving a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Fourteen (61%) patients had mitral regurgitation, and 11 (48%) had pericardial effusion as against none among controls. Indices of left ventricular (LV) size like LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD; 44.5 ± 3.5 mm in cases vs. 47.6 ± 3.8 mm in controls, P = .004), and LV diastolic volume (LVEDV; 91.8 ± 18.0 mL versus 106.5 ± 20.4 mL, P = .009) were significantly lower in the SS group compared with controls. LV mass (LVM) was 70.8 ± 19.2 g in cases and 108.0 ± 33.2 g in controls (P = .02). Similarly, indices of LV systolic function like stroke volume (SV; 59.1 ± 12.0 mL in cases and 74.4 ± 15.8 mL in controls; P = .000), ejection fraction (EF; 64.3 ± 6.2 % in cases against 69.9 ± 9.2 % in controls; P = .03), and fractional shortening (FS; 34.9 ± 4.7% versus 40.1 ± 4.4%, P = .000) were significantly decreased in patients compared with controls. Cardiac abnormalities normalized with restoration of a euthyroid and eucortisol state. Pericardial effusion, mitral regurgitation, and diminished LVM are common in females with untreated hypopituitarism. ACTH = adrenocorticotrophic hormone BMI = body mass index DT = deceleration time EDV = end-diastolic volume EF = ejection fraction FS = fractional shortening GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin growth factor-1 ITT = insulin tolerance test IVSd = interventricular septal diameter LH = luteinizing hormone LV = left ventricular LVEDD = LV end diastolic dimension LVEDV = LV end diastolic volume LVM = LV mass MRI = magnetic resonance imaging MVP = mitral value prolapse PPH

  9. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eBaglio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. Aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in borderline intellectual functioning children.Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale and a Magnetic Resonance (MR examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel based morphometry (VBM analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional gray matter volume in bilateral sensori-motor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased gray matter volume in right parahippocampal gyrus. Gray matter volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices.Our is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to general population, contributes to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  10. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Results of Seed and Data-Driven Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Charles W; Robinson, Michael E; Lai, Song; O'Shea, Andrew; Craggs, Jason G; Price, Donald D; Staud, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Although altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is a characteristic of many chronic pain conditions, it has not yet been evaluated in patients with chronic fatigue. Our objective was to investigate the association between fatigue and altered resting-state FC in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Thirty-six female subjects, 19 ME/CFS and 17 healthy controls, completed a fatigue inventory before undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two methods, (1) data driven and (2) model based, were used to estimate and compare the intraregional FC between both groups during the resting state (RS). The first approach using independent component analysis was applied to investigate five RS networks: the default mode network, salience network (SN), left frontoparietal networks (LFPN) and right frontoparietal networks, and the sensory motor network (SMN). The second approach used a priori selected seed regions demonstrating abnormal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in ME/CFS patients at rest. In ME/CFS patients, Method-1 identified decreased intrinsic connectivity among regions within the LFPN. Furthermore, the FC of the left anterior midcingulate with the SMN and the connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex with the SN were significantly decreased. For Method-2, five distinct clusters within the right parahippocampus and occipital lobes, demonstrating significant rCBF reductions in ME/CFS patients, were used as seeds. The parahippocampal seed and three occipital lobe seeds showed altered FC with other brain regions. The degree of abnormal connectivity correlated with the level of self-reported fatigue. Our results confirm altered RS FC in patients with ME/CFS, which was significantly correlated with the severity of their chronic fatigue.

  11. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal visual system in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, A.P.; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Rostrup, Egill

    2000-01-01

    in very young infants and in infants with brain damage. We examined 15 preterm infants, 12 children suspected of having a cerebral visual impairment and 10 children with a normal visual system, all of whom were either spontaneously asleep or sedated with chloral hydrate. Cortical response to stroboscopic...... showed a signal decrease. The activated cortical volumes showed a linear relation to age for healthy children younger than 90 weeks PMA, but were small in children with visual impairment. In two children with unilateral damage to the optic radiations, activation was strongly asymmetrical with greatest......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young children may provide information about the development of the visual cortex, and may have predictive value for later visual performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fMRI for examining cerebral processing of vision...

  12. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  13. Pulmonary function abnormalities associated with exposure to automobile exhaust in a diesel bus garage and roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, B P; Alam, J; Roychowdhury, A

    2003-01-01

    In Kolkata city the road transports are maintained by private and Government organization. A major work force belonged to the State Transport Corporation (KSTC), Government of West-Bengal. The pollution caused by these vehicles affects the workers health and caused different types of respiratory problems. This study was undertaken to assess the pulmonary function status of these workers. City KSTC garage workers were investigated and categorically divided into two group: garage mechanics and the (2) those transporting the passengers (drivers and conductors). Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were recorded by Spirovit-SP-10 (Schiller Ltd, Switzerland) and Wright's Peak Flow Meter (UK) on 236 workers. The different flow volumes, FEV(1), FEV(1%), and flow rates, FEF(02-121), FEF(25-75%), etc. were calculated. The administrative people had higher PFT than the other categories. Drivers and conductors have almost equal mean PFT values but mechanical workers had slightly higher. PFT values according to different age ranges and duration of exposure showed gradual decrement as age and duration of exposure increased. Non-smokers had higher lung volumes compared to smokers and ex-smokers. Restrictive, obstructive and combined types of impairments were noticed in 28.4%, 1.7% and 2.9%, respectively, workers. The restrictive impairment was found to be 30.4% in conductors; 28.9% in drivers, 27.9% in mechanics and 21.7% in administration people. Obstructive type of impairment was found to be 2.9% in both drivers and conductors. The effect of pollution by dust and fumes may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments, restrictive impairments being greater.

  14. A tryptophan derivative, ITE, enhances liver cell metabolic functions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Lu, Juan; He, Bin; Tang, Lingling; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Danhua; Cao, Hongcui; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Cell encapsulation provides a three-dimensional support by incorporating isolated cells into microcapsules with the goal of simultaneously maintaining cell survival and function, as well as providing active transport for a bioreactor in vitro similarly to that observed in vivo. However, the biotra-nsformation and metabolic functions of the encapsulated cells are not satisfactory for clinical applications. For this purpose, in this study, hepatoma-derived Huh7 cells/C3A cells were treated with 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), an endogenous non-toxic ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor, in monolayer cultures and on microspheres. The mRNA and protein levels, as well as the metabolic activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, albumin secretion and urea synthesis were determined. When the Huh7 and C3A cells cultured in a monolayer on two‑dimensional surfaces, ITE enhanced the protein levels and the metabolic activities of the major cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1, and slightly increased albumin secretion and urea synthesis. Moreover, when cultured on microspheres, ITE also substantially increased the protein levels and metabolic activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1 in both liver cell lines. On the whole, our findings indicate that ITE enhances the enzymatic activities of major CYP450 enzymes and the metabolic functions of liver cells cultured in monolayer or on microspheres, indicating that it may be utilized to improve the functions of hepatocytes. Thus, it may be used in the future for the treatment of liver diseases.

  15. A tryptophan derivative, ITE, enhances liver cell metabolic functions in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Lu, Juan; He, Bin; Tang, Lingling; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Danhua; Cao, Hongcui; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Cell encapsulation provides a three-dimensional support by incorporating isolated cells into microcapsules with the goal of simultaneously maintaining cell survival and function, as well as providing active transport for a bioreactor in vitro similarly to that observed in vivo. However, the biotransformation and metabolic functions of the encapsulated cells are not satisfactory for clinical applications. For this purpose, in this study, hepatoma-derived Huh7 cells/C3A cells were treated with 2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), an endogenous non-toxic ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor, in monolayer cultures and on microspheres. The mRNA and protein levels, as well as the metabolic activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, albumin secretion and urea synthesis were determined. When the Huh7 and C3A cells cultured in a monolayer on two-dimensional surfaces, ITE enhanced the protein levels and the metabolic activities of the major cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1, and slightly increased albumin secretion and urea synthesis. Moreover, when cultured on microspheres, ITE also substantially increased the protein levels and metabolic activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP1B1 in both liver cell lines. On the whole, our findings indicate that ITE enhances the enzymatic activities of major CYP450 enzymes and the metabolic functions of liver cells cultured in monolayer or on microspheres, indicating that it may be utilized to improve the functions of hepatocytes. Thus, it may be used in the future for the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:27959388

  16. Genetic and functional analyses demonstrate a role for abnormal glycinergic signaling in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilorge, M; Fassier, C; Le Corronc, H; Potey, A; Bai, J; De Gois, S; Delaby, E; Assouline, B; Guinchat, V; Devillard, F; Delorme, R; Nygren, G; Råstam, M; Meier, J C; Otani, S; Cheval, H; James, V M; Topf, M; Dear, T N; Gillberg, C; Leboyer, M; Giros, B; Gautron, S; Hazan, J; Harvey, R J; Legendre, P; Betancur, C

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity. Recent studies of rare structural and sequence variants have identified hundreds of loci involved in ASD, but our knowledge of the overall genetic architecture and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remains incomplete. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the adult nervous system but exert an excitatory action in immature neurons. GlyRs containing the α2 subunit are highly expressed in the embryonic brain, where they promote cortical interneuron migration and the generation of excitatory projection neurons. We previously identified a rare microdeletion of the X-linked gene GLRA2, encoding the GlyR α2 subunit, in a boy with autism. The microdeletion removes the terminal exons of the gene (GLRA2(Δex8-9)). Here, we sequenced 400 males with ASD and identified one de novo missense mutation, p.R153Q, absent from controls. In vitro functional analysis demonstrated that the GLRA2(Δex8)(-)(9) protein failed to localize to the cell membrane, while the R153Q mutation impaired surface expression and markedly reduced sensitivity to glycine. Very recently, an additional de novo missense mutation (p.N136S) was reported in a boy with ASD, and we show that this mutation also reduced cell-surface expression and glycine sensitivity. Targeted glra2 knockdown in zebrafish induced severe axon-branching defects, rescued by injection of wild type but not GLRA2(Δex8-9) or R153Q transcripts, providing further evidence for their loss-of-function effect. Glra2 knockout mice exhibited deficits in object recognition memory and impaired long-term potentiation in the prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these results implicate GLRA2 in non-syndromic ASD, unveil a novel role for GLRA2 in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, and link altered glycinergic signaling to social and cognitive

  17. Evidence of abnormal left ventricular function in patients with thalassaemia major: an echocardiography based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Hyder, S.N.

    2009-01-01

    Thalassaemia represent one of the most common single gene disorder causing a major public health problem in Pakistan. Nearly 100,000 people are born worldwide with this severe blood disorder every year. Over the last 3 decades, the development of regular transfusion therapy and iron chelation has dramatically improved the quality of life and transformed thalassaemia from a rapidly fatal disease to a chronic disease compatible with prolonged survival. Objective of this observational cross sectional study was to determine the effects of chronic anaemia and transfusional iron overload on the left ventricular function using Doppler echocardiography. This study was conducted in the Department of Paediatric Cardiology, The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan from first April 2006 to September 30, 2007. The study comprised of 50 consecutive cases of beta-Thalassaemia major and 30 controls with normal haemoglobin and electrophoresis pattern. beta- Thalassaemia major patients were diagnosed on the basis of haemoglobin electrophoresis. Patients with any congenital or acquired heart disease, concurrent infective disorder and with history of cardiac surgery were excluded from the study. 2-D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography was performed in all the study cases and controls. Statistical comparison of study cases and controls was conducted by using unpaired t-test. The age of the patients ranged from 2 years to 25 years with mean age of 9.65 years. Males were 34 (68%) and females were 16 (32%). None of the study cases was on regular chelation programme while 31 (62%) patients were on irregular chelation with single dose of intravenous desferrioxamine only at the time of blood transfusion. 19 (38%) of the patients had LV dysfunction in the form of isolated systolic dysfunction in 2 (4%), isolated diastolic dysfunction in 15 (30%) while global dysfunction in 2 (4%) of the patients. Left ventricular dimensions, stroke volume and E/A ratio were

  18. Motor network plasticity and low-frequency oscillations abnormalities in patients with brain gliomas: a functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Niu

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity is often associated with the process of slow-growing tumor formation, which remodels neural organization and optimizes brain network function. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether motor function plasticity would display deficits in patients with slow-growing brain tumors located in or near motor areas, but who were without motor neurological deficits. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to probe motor networks in 15 patients with histopathologically confirmed brain gliomas and 15 age-matched healthy controls. All subjects performed a motor task to help identify individual motor activity in the bilateral primary motor cortex (PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA. Frequency-based analysis at three different frequencies was then used to investigate possible alterations in the power spectral density (PSD of low-frequency oscillations. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a nonparametric test was performed to determine the difference in power between the two groups. Significantly reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the left and right PMC was observed in patients compared with controls (P<0.05. We also found significantly decreased PSD in patients compared to that in controls, in all three frequency bands (low: 0.01-0.02 Hz; middle: 0.02-0.06 Hz; and high: 0.06-0.1 Hz, at three key motor regions. These findings suggest that in asymptomatic patients with brain tumors located in eloquent regions, inter-hemispheric connection may be more vulnerable. A comparison of the two approaches indicated that power spectral analysis is more sensitive than functional connectivity analysis for identifying the neurological abnormalities underlying motor function plasticity induced by slow-growing tumors.

  19. Novel insights into the function and dynamics of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten A; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Genovese, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that altered components and posttranslational modifications of proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) may both initiate and drive disease progression. The ECM is a complex grid consisting of multiple proteins, most of which play a vital role in containing......) explore key structural and functional components of the ECM as exemplified by monogenetic disorders leading to severe pathologies, 2) discuss selected pathological posttranslational modifications of ECM proteins resulting in altered functional (signaling) properties from the original structural proteins......, and 3) discuss how these findings support the novel concept that an increasing number of components of the ECM harbor signaling functions that can modulate fibrotic liver disease. The ECM entails functions in addition to anchoring cells and modulating their migratory behavior. Key ECM components...

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals for the imaging of functional abnormalities of the developing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senekowitsch, R.; Kriegel, H.

    1986-01-01

    The measurement of physiological parameters in man is possible with the help of positron emission tomography (PET) and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with short lived positron emitters as C 11, N 13, O 15 and F 18. With the use of this substances it is possible to make a tomographic map defining regional metabolic parameters in normal and diseased brain. This technique has therefore also be named 'in vivo autoradiography'. The possibility of applying C 11 or F 18 labeled deoxyglucose with PET for detecting regional and local changes in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in brain development in children of 5 days to 1 year of age is discussed. Beyond this a relationship between cerebral metabolic rate of glucose, cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen by use of this technique after inhalation of O 15 and C 11-labeled CO 2 is shown. Attention is drawn to the application of C 11-methyl-spiperone and PET to visualize dopamine receptor density in the brain. The receptor density and the ability of receptors to bind neutrotransmitters is found to be influenced by prenatal irradiation. It is expected that relations between alterations in the developing brain and its postnatal function may be explored in this way. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of structural cardiac abnormalities and diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alexandra P; Calderon, Iracema M P; Costa, Roberto A A; Roscani, Meliza G; Magalhães, Claudia G; Borges, Vera T M

    2015-05-01

    The main manifestation of hyperglycaemia during pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus. It can herald diabetes mellitus type 2 and its deleterious long-term effects, such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic function in women with gestational diabetes mellitus, one of the first signs of future cardiovascular disease. A total of 21 women with gestational diabetes mellitus and 23 healthy pregnant women (control group) between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation underwent echocardiographic assessment. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was made in agreement with the American Diabetes Association criteria. Echocardiographic images obtained were analysed according to the criteria of the American Society of Echocardiography. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation coefficient, analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus had higher posterior wall and interventricular septum thickness, increased left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index, lower early diastolic annular velocity and early diastolic annular velocity/late diastolic annular velocity ratio. There was a positive correlation between left ventricular mass index and fasting glucose and pregnancy body mass index. Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus seem to have a different diastolic profile as well as a mildly dysfunctional pattern on echocardiogram, which may show a need for greater glycaemic control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Potential use of MEG to understand abnormalities in auditory function in clinical populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eLarson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoencephalography (MEG provides a direct, non-invasive view of neural activity with millisecond temporal precision. Recent developments in MEG analysis allow for improved source localization and mapping of connectivity between brain regions, expanding the possibilities for using MEG as a diagnostic tool. In this paper, we first describe inverse imaging methods (e.g., minimum-norm estimation and functional connectivity measures, and how they can provide insights into cortical processing. We then offer a perspective on how these techniques could be used to understand and evaluate auditory pathologies that often manifest during development. Here we focus specifically on how MEG inverse imaging, by providing anatomically-based interpretation of neural activity, may allow us to test which aspects of cortical processing play a role in (central auditory processing disorder ([C]APD. Appropriately combining auditory paradigms with MEG analysis could eventually prove useful for a hypothesis-driven understanding and diagnosis of (CAPD or other disorders, as well as the evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention strategies.

  3. New-onset diabetes mellitus after living-donor liver transplantation: association with graft synthetic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shintaro; Kaido, Toshimi; Iida, Taku; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    It is now known that post-transplant graft function after deceased-donor liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) differ; however, there is no report assessing the relationship between graft function and the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT). We conducted this study to identify the predictive risk factors for NODAT, including graft function after LDLT. The subjects of this study were 175 adult recipients who underwent LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, and survived for more than 3 months (median observation period, 1046 days). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year incidences of NODAT after LDLT were 26.1, 32.0, and 33.4%, respectively. Pre-transplant diabetes was associated with poor survival (p = 0.0048), whereas NODAT was not associated with patient survival. In the multivariate analysis, recipient age ≥40, a tacrolimus trough level ≥8 ng/mL 3 months after LDLT, and cholinesterase (ChE) <185 IU/L 3 months after LDLT were the independent risk factors for NODAT. Poor graft synthetic function 3 months after LDLT as well as older age of the recipient and a higher tacrolimus concentration were strongly associated with NODAT development after LDLT.

  4. Neurohumoral fluid regulation in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1998-01-01

    and lungs. It is still an enigma why patients with chronic liver disease are at the same time overloaded and functional hypovolaemic with a hyperdynamic, hyporeactive circulation. Further research is needed to find the solution to this apparent haemodynamic conflict concerning the abnormal neurohumoral...

  5. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics.

  6. Fyn kinase genetic ablation causes structural abnormalities in mature retina and defective Müller cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Solano, Marbella; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Treviño, Mario; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Lamas, Monica

    2016-04-01

    Fyn kinase is widely expressed in neuronal and glial cells of the brain, where it exerts multiple functional roles that affect fundamental physiological processes. The aim of our study was to investigate the, so far unknown, functional role of Fyn in the retina. We report that Fyn is expressed, in vivo, in a subpopulation of Müller glia. We used a mouse model of Fyn genetic ablation and Müller-enriched primary cultures to demonstrate that Fyn deficiency induces morphological alterations in the mature retina, a reduction in the thickness of the outer and inner nuclear layers and alterations in postnatal Müller cell physiology. These include shortening of Müller cell processes, a decrease in cell proliferation, inactivation of the Akt signal transduction pathway, a reduced number of focal adhesions points and decreased adhesion of these cells to the ECM. As abnormalities in Müller cell physiology have been previously associated to a compromised retinal function we evaluated behavioral responses to visual stimulation. Our results associate Fyn deficiency with impaired visual optokinetic responses under scotopic and photopic light conditions. Our study reveals novel roles for Fyn kinase in retinal morphology and Müller cell physiology and suggests that Fyn is required for optimal visual processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Central Arterial Function Measured by Non-invasive Pulse Wave Analysis is Abnormal in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas D; Parent, John J; Gao, Zhiqian; Khoury, Philip R; Dupont, Elizabeth; Smith, Jennifer N; Wong, Brenda; Urbina, Elaine M; Jefferies, John L

    2017-08-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutation of dystrophin. Cardiovascular involvement includes dilated cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive assessment of vascular function has not been evaluated in DMD. We hypothesize arterial wave reflection is abnormal in patients with DMD. Pulse wave analysis was performed on DMD patients with a SphygmoCor SCOR-PVx System to determine central blood pressure and augmentation index (AIx) as an assessment of arterial wave reflection. Results were compared to a control group. A total of 43 patients with DMD were enrolled, and compared to 43 normal controls. Central systolic blood pressure was lower, while both AIx-75 (7.8 ± 9.6% vs. 2.1 ± 10.4%, p 0.01, DMD vs. normal) and AIx-not corrected (16.8 ± 10.1% vs. -3.6 ± 10.9, p wave reflection when compared to normal controls, which may represent increased arterial stiffness. Overall there appears to be no effect on ventricular systolic function, however the long-term consequence in this group is unknown. Further study is required to determine the mechanism of these differences, which may be related to the effects of systemic steroids or the role of dystrophin in vascular function.

  8. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unique functional abnormalities in youth with combined marijuana use and depression: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Ford

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown a relationship between early onset marijuana (MJ use and depression, however this relationship is complex and poorly understood. Here, we utilized passive music listening and fMRI to examine functional brain activation to a rewarding stimulus in 75 participants (healthy controls (HC, patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, frequent MJ users (MJ, and the combination of MDD and MJ (MDD+MJ. For each participant a preferred and neutral piece of instrumental music was determined (utilizing ratings on a standardized scale, and each completed two 6-minute fMRI scans of a passive music listening task. Data underwent preprocessing and 61 participants were carried forward for analysis (17 HC, 15 MDD, 15 MJ, 14 MDD+MJ. Two statistical analyses were performed using SPM8, an ANCOVA with two factors (group x music-type and a whole brain, multiple regression analysis incorporating two predictors of interest (MJ use in past 28 days; and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI score. We identified a significant group x music-type interaction. Post hoc comparisons showed the preferred music had significantly greater activation in the MDD+MJ group in areas including the right middle and inferior frontal gyri extending into the claustrum and putamen and the anterior cingulate. No significant differences were identified in MDD, MJ or HC groups. Multiple regression analysis showed that activation in medial frontal cortex was positively correlated with amount of MJ use, and activation in areas including the insula was negatively correlated with BDI score. Results showed modulation in brain activation during passive music listening specific to MDD, frequent MJ users. This supports the suggestion that frequent MJ use, when combined with MDD, is associated with changes in neurocircuitry involved in reward-processing in ways that are absent with either frequent marijuana use or MDD alone. This could help inform clinical recommendations for youth with

  10. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  11. Prolongation of liver-specific function for primary hepatocytes maintenance in 3D printed architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Yoon, Sangtae; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Lee, Seung Bum; Ryu, Ki-Young; Jeong, Jaemin; Choi, Dongho

    2018-01-23

    Isolated primary hepatocytes from the liver are very similar to in vivo native liver hepatocytes, but they have the disadvantage of a limited lifespan in 2D culture. Although a sandwich culture and 3D organoids with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an attractive assistant cell source to extend lifespan can be used, it cannot fully reproduce the in vivo architecture. Moreover, long-term 3D culture leads to cell death because of hypoxic stress. Therefore, to overcome the drawback of 2D and 3D organoids, we try to use a 3D printing technique using alginate hydrogels with primary hepatocytes and MSCs. The viability of isolated hepatocytes was more than 90%, and the cells remained alive for 7 days without morphological changes in the 3D hepatic architecture with MSCs. Compared to a 2D system, the expression level of functional hepatic genes and proteins was higher for up to 7 days in the 3D hepatic architecture. These results suggest that both the 3D bio-printing technique and paracrine molecules secreted by MSCs supported long-term culture of hepatocytes without morphological changes. Thus, this technique allows for widespread expansion of cells while forming multicellular aggregates, may be applied to drug screening and could be an efficient method for developing an artificial liver.

  12. The effect of TACE plus PSE on the liver function of hepatic cancer with portal hypertension and hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhenglong; Jin Hongxian; Cheng Yongde; Zhan Yingjiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus partial spleen embolization (PSE) on the liver function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 85 patients with HCC complicated with portal hypertension and hypersplenism, including group A 45 patients with treatment of TACE plus PSE and group B 40 patients with single TACE were observed. The liver function was evaluated with Child Pugh scores before and after the procedure. Results: There was no difference in the levels of TBIL, ALT, ALB and Child Pugh scores between groups A and B (P>0.05) but remarkable change after therapy was shown at one week later (P<0.05, P<0.01). The liver function tests showed remarkable improvement in the TACE plus PSE group. Conclusion: TACE combined with PSE is a safe and effective procedure for patients with HCC associated with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hypersplenism. (authors)

  13. Changes of liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Senhua; Xie Guoqiang; Zeng Zeming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the liver function damage and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels changes in patients suffering from trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC III), type IV collagen ( IV C) levels (with RIA), mono-amine oxidase (MAO) activity (with chemo-colorimetry) and liver function tests (including ALT, AGT, total protein, albumin, total bile acid, with automated biochemical analysis system) were determined in 30 controls and 30 patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Results: Severe liver function damage was demonstrated in all the patients. The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels were significantly increased (vs controls, P<0.01) and correlated well with the degree of hepatic damage. Conclusion: Liver damage occurred early in patients with trichloroethylene induced dermatitis, accompanied with laboratory evidence of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  14. Unacylated ghrelin does not alter mitochondrial function, redox state and triglyceride content in rat liver in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gortan Cappellari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in liver mitochondrial function with more oxidized redox state and enhanced inflammation may contribute to the onset of obesity- and insulin resistance-associated hepatic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steato-hepatitis. Unacylated ghrelin (UnAG is a gastric hormone reported to be associated with lower oxidative stress in different cell types, but its potential effects on liver mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation in vivo remains undetermined. We investigated the impact of chronic UnAG overexpression (Tg Myh6/Ghrl leading to systemic upregulation of circulating hormone on mitochondrial ATP production, redox state (oxidized-to-total glutathione and inflammation markers in lean mice. Compared to wild-type animals (wt, Tg Myh6/Ghrl had superimposable liver weight, triglyceride content and plasma lipid profile. Liver mitochondrial enzyme activities and ATP production as well as oxidized-to-total glutathione were also similar in the two groups. In addition, no differences were observed in tissue inflammation marker TNF-alpha between wild-type and Tg Myh6/Ghrl animals. Thus, chronic systemic UnAG upregulation does not alter liver triglyceride content, mitochondrial function, redox state and inflammation markers in lean mice. These findings do not support a major role of UnAG as a physiological modulator of in vivo liver oxidative-lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  15. Effect of evacuation on liver function after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Hiromasa; Hashimoto, Shigeatsu; Satoh, Hiroaki; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused residents to switch from their normal lives to lives focused on evacuation. We evaluated liver function before and after this disaster to elucidate the effects of evacuation on liver function. This study was a longitudinal survey of 26,006 Japanese men and women living near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. This study was undertaken using data from annual health checkups conducted for persons aged 40-90 years between 2008 and 2010. Follow-up examinations were conducted from June 2011 to the end of March 2013, with a mean follow up of 1.6 years. Changes in liver function before and after the disaster were compared among evacuees and non-evacuees. We also assessed groups according to alcohol drinking status. The prevalence of liver dysfunction significantly increased in all participants from 16.4% before to 19.2% after the disaster. The incidence of liver dysfunction was significantly higher in evacuees than in non-evacuees. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that evacuation was significantly associated with liver dysfunction among residents. This is the first study to show that evacuation due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster was associated with an increase in liver dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tc-99m GSA scintigraphy for evaluation of liver function. Correlations with histological grading and staging (new Inuyama classification)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Ikuyo; Ohashi, Kenjirou; Fukui, Atsushi; Nikai, Akira; Maeyama, Shiro

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the parameters of Tc-99m galactosyl human serum albumin (Tc-99m GSA) as indicators of residual liver function by comparing with laboratory data and histological grading and staging. The study population consists of 82 patients with liver diseases including chronic hepatitis (60), compensated liver cirrhosis (12) and decompensated liver cirrhosis (10). Five parameters of Tc-99m GSA (HH 15 , LHL 15 , LHL/HH, ncEI 5 and EI 5 ) were measured and correlated with laboratory data and histological grading, which indicates necro-inflammatory activity, and staging, which indicates fibrosis (New Inuyama Classification). All 5 parameters showed significant correlation with the laboratory data for liver function including serum albumin, platelet count, and prothrombin time. LHL 15 showed a particularly strong correlation with serum albumin, total bilirubin, TTT, ZTT, and prothrombin time. Regarding histological correlation, only LHL 15 showed a significant correlation with both histological grading and staging. HH 15 and LHL/HH revealed significant correlations with staging only. Extraction indexes were not correlated significantly with histological grading and staging. Among the five parameters we tested, LHL 15 is the most potent indicator of liver function. HH 15 , LHL 15 and LHL/HH appear-useful to non-invasive assess histological fibrosis of the liver non-invasively. (author)

  17. Arrhythmia risk in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the functioning of the heart andthe liver have been described, with heart diseasesaffecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart,and conditions that simultaneously affect both. Theheart is one of the most adversely affected organs inpatients with liver cirrhosis. For example, arrhythmiasand electrocardiographic changes are observed inpatients with liver cirrhosis. The risk for arrhythmia isinfluenced by factors such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy,cardiac ion channel remodeling, electrolyte imbalances,impaired autonomic function, hepatorenal syndrome, metabolic abnormalities, advanced age, inflammatory syndrome, stressful events, impaired drug metabolism and comorbidities. Close monitoring of cirrhotic patients is needed for arrhythmias, particularly when QT intervalprolonging drugs are given, or if electrolyte imbalances or hepatorenal syndrome appear. Arrhythmia risk may persist after liver transplantation due to possible QT interval prolongation, persistence of the parasympathetic impairment, post-transplant reperfusion and chronic immunosuppression, as well as consideration of the fact that the transplant itself is a stressful event for the cardiovascular system. The aims of the present article were to provide a review of the most important data regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biomarkers of arrhythmia risk in patients with liver cirrhosis, to elucidate the association with long-term outcome, and to propose future research directions.

  18. Impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Muhammad Shah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat species. Materials and Methods: Six mature, healthy goats (combine breed and sex with average weight 25 kg were selected for this study. The therapeutic (20 mg/kg b.w. and high doses (40 and 60 mg of florfenicol were administered for 3 days with 24 h interval. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following the each administered dose. Results: The results showed that the therapeutic dose of florfenicol produced nonsignificant effect on serum urea, creatinine, total protein (TP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and bilirubin on all timings, and increased (p<0.05 the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT levels for 48 h. Whereas the high doses of florfenicol (40 and 60 mg significantly altered the kidney and liver functional indicators in the blood. In contrast with control, the serum urea level was (p<0.01 increased at all timing points. Creatinine values were altered (p<0.01, <0.05 in increasing manner from 24 to 96 h. The high dose of 40 mg decreased the TP (p<0.05 for 72 h and 60 mg persisted same effect (p<0.01 up to 120 h. The indices of ALP, GGT, SGOT, and SGPT were raised (p<0.01, <0.05 at all timings. The bilirubin indexes also (p<0.05 elevated from 48 to 72. Conclusion: It was concluded that the high doses of florfenicol produced reversible dose-dependent effects on functional indicators of kidney and liver such as urea, creatinine, TP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, and bilirubin.

  19. TAM receptor tyrosine kinase function and the immunopathology of liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S K; Wilhelm, A; Antoniades, C G

    2016-06-01

    Tyro3, Axl, MERTK (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinases are implicated in the regulation of the innate immune response through clearance of apoptotic cellular debris and control of cytokine signaling cascades. As a result they are pivotal in regulating the inflammatory response to tissue injury. Within the liver, immune regulatory signaling is employed to prevent the overactivation of innate immunity in response to continual antigenic challenge from the gastrointestinal tract. In this review we appraise current understanding of the role of TAM receptor function in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, with a focus on its impact upon hepatic inflammatory pathology. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Coronary Abnormalities and Cardiac Function in a Murine Model of Kawasaki Disease Using High-frequency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Echocardiography could identify the consecutive changes of coronary artery in KD mice. Echocardiography is more convenient and direct in evaluating the coronary abnormalities in this animal model.

  1. Hyperactive locomotion in a Drosophila model is a functional readout for the synaptic abnormalities underlying fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Risa; Redmond, Patrick L; Ghatpande, Prajakta; Roy, Sougata; Kornberg, Thomas B; Hanke, Thomas; Knapp, Stefan; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

    2017-05-02

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of heritable intellectual disability and autism and affects ~1 in 4000 males and 1 in 8000 females. The discovery of effective treatments for FXS has been hampered by the lack of effective animal models and phenotypic readouts for drug screening. FXS ensues from the epigenetic silencing or loss-of-function mutation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 ( FMR1 ) gene, which encodes an RNA binding protein that associates with and represses the translation of target mRNAs. We previously found that the activation of LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) downstream of augmented synthesis of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 2 receptor (BMPR2) promotes aberrant synaptic development in mouse and Drosophila models of FXS and that these molecular and cellular markers were correlated in patients with FXS. We report that larval locomotion is augmented in a Drosophila FXS model. Genetic or pharmacological intervention on the BMPR2-LIMK pathway ameliorated the synaptic abnormality and locomotion phenotypes of FXS larvae, as well as hyperactivity in an FXS mouse model. Our study demonstrates that (i) the BMPR2-LIMK pathway is a promising therapeutic target for FXS and (ii) the locomotion phenotype of FXS larvae is a quantitative functional readout for the neuromorphological phenotype associated with FXS and is amenable to the screening novel FXS therapeutics. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma exchange combining with plasma bilirubin adsorption effectively removes toxic substances and improves liver functions of hepatic failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, X-Q; Li, Z-Q; Chen, Z; Guo, D; Jia, Q-Y; Jiang, S-C; Cai, J

    2018-02-01

    Hepatic failure (HF) is a kind of complex disease characterizing with liver dysfunction and a few clinical complications. Artificial liver support system (ALSS) has been applied to HF patients to improve dysfunctional liver in recent years. This study aims to evaluate therapeutic effects of ALSS approaches, including plasma exchange (PE), plasma diafiltration (PDF) and plasma bilirubin adsorption (PBA), on liver function of HF patients. This study is a retrospective analysis involving 516 patients diagnosed as HF between February 2014 and February 2015. Patients were randomly divided into PE, PDF, PE plus PBA, and PDF plus PBA group. Meanwhile, single-drug group and combined-drug group were also divided. The liver functions, capability of removing toxic substances and coagulation functions were evaluated both pre-treatment and post-treatment. The side effects and hospital improvement rate were also observed post-treatment. Hospital improvement rate achieves to 69.6%. TBIL levels and MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (phigher compared to PE and PDF group (p=0.002, 0.002, respectively). MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in each group (pbetter role in removing toxic substances, improving liver functions of HF patients.

  4. Liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy can be classified into 3 major categories according to the properties of the radiopharmaceuticals used, i.e., methods using radiopharmaceuticals which are (1) incorporated by hepatocytes, (2) taken up by reticulo endothelial cells, and (3) distributed in the blood pool of the liver. Of these three categories, the liver scintigraphy of the present research falls into category 2. Radiopharmaceuticals which are taken up by endothelial cells include 198 Au colloids and 99m Tc-labelled colloids. Liver scintigraphy takes advantage of the property by which colloidal microparticles are phagocytosed by Kupffer cells, and reflect the distribution of endothelial cells and the intensity of their phagocytic capacity. This examination is indicated in the following situations: (i) when you suspect a localized intrahepatic lesion (tumour, abscess, cyst, etc.), (ii) when you want to follow the course of therapy of a localized lesion, (iii) when you suspect liver cirrhosis, (iv) when you want to know the severity of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis, (v) when there is hepatomegaly and you want to determine the morphology of the liver, (vi) differential diagnosis of upper abdominal masses, and (vii) when there are abnormalities of the right diaphragm and you want to know their relation to the liver

  5. Predictors of renal function recovery among patients undergoing renal replacement therapy following orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Maria Claudia Cruz; Souza, Nádia Karina Guimarães de; Ammirati, Adriano Luiz; Matsui, Thais Nemoto; Carneiro, Fabiana Dias; Ramos, Ana Claudia Mallet de Souza; Iizuca, Ilson Jorge; Coelho, Maria Paula Vilela; Afonso, Rogério Carballo; Ferraz-Neto, Ben-Hur; Almeida, Marcio Dias de; Durão, Marcelino; Batista, Marcelo Costa; Monte, Julio Cesar; Pereira, Virgílio Gonçalves; Santos, Oscar Pavão Dos; Santos, Bento Cardoso Dos

    2017-01-01

    Renal dysfunction frequently occurs during the periods preceding and following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and in many cases, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required. Information regarding the duration of RRT and the rate of kidney function recovery after OLT is crucial for transplant program management. We evaluated a sample of 155 stable patients undergoing post-intensive care hemodialysis (HD) from a patient population of 908 adults who underwent OLT. We investigated the average time to renal function recovery (duration of RRT required) and determined the risk factors for remaining on dialysis > 90 days after OLT. Log-rank tests were used for univariate analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with the risk of remaining on HD. The results of our analysis showed that of the 155 patients, 28% had pre-OLT diabetes mellitus, 21% had pre-OLT hypertension, and 40% had viral hepatitis. Among the patients, the median MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score was 27 (interquartile range [IQR] 22-35). When they were listed for liver transplantation, 32% of the patients had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD, and 50% had serum creatinine (Scr) levels > 1.5 mg/dL or were on HD at the time of OLT. Of the transplanted patients, 25% underwent pre-OLT intermittent HD, and 14% and 41% underwent continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) pre-OLT and post-OLT, respectively. At 90 days post-OLT, 118 (76%) patients had been taken off dialysis, and 16 (10%) patients had died while undergoing HD. The median recovery time of these post-OLT patients was 33 (IQR 27-39) days. In the multivariate analysis, fulminant hepatic failure as the cause of liver disease (prenal function after OLT, and those who were diagnosed with fulminant hepatic failure, had no pre-OLT hypertension, received a lower transfused volume of intraoperative FFP and did not undergo pre-OLT intermittent HD had a higher probability

  6. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Gabriela C.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L.; Araújo, Julia F.P. de [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Brandão, Poliane A.A.; Carneiro, Maria T.W.D. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Zicker, Marina C. [Department of Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Adaliene V.M. [Department of Basic Nursing, Nursing School, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil); Takiya, Christina M.; Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M. de; Morales, Marcelo M. [Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Silva, Ana Paula [Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Experimental Endocrinology Research, Development and Innovation Group, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Postgraduate Program in Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda-Alves, Leandro [Experimental Endocrinology Research, Development and Innovation Group, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Postgraduate Program in Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, Ian V. [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Graceli, Jones B., E-mail: jbgraceli@gmail.com [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100 ng/kg/day) for 15 days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may

  7. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Gabriela C.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L.; Araújo, Julia F.P. de; Brandão, Poliane A.A.; Carneiro, Maria T.W.D.; Zicker, Marina C.; Ferreira, Adaliene V.M.; Takiya, Christina M.; Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M. de; Morales, Marcelo M.; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V.; Graceli, Jones B.

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100 ng/kg/day) for 15 days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may

  8. Radionuclide assessment of the liver function changes in patients with phlegmonas in the facio-maxillary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, L; Budkevich, I; Uskov, I; Minchev, D

    1991-01-01

    The effect of endogenic intoxication on the liver function in 171 patients with different severity of the inflammatory process is investigated. Static liver scintigraphy is made at different intervals after the surgical intervention. The scintigrams are analyzed by conventional methods. 12 healthy volunteers are examined for determination of the relative activity of the preparation ({sup 99m}Tc-labelled colloid Fiton) which was found to be 42.6{+-}0.3 pulses/cm{sup 2} (image area - 138{+-}5.5 cm{sup 2}). It was observed a reliable correlation between the body intoxication indices (leucocite intoxication index, paramecine test and mean molecules level) and the liver relative activity indices. The method is assessed as an trustworthy tool not only for evaluation of liver function changes in inflammatory diseases, but also for treatment efficiency determination and pathological process forecasting. 2 tabs., 11 refs.

  9. ENZYME MARKERS ACTIVITY AND BILE FORMATION FUNCTION OF LIVER IN CASES OF TUBERCULOSTATICS AND HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS AFFECTION IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Burmas; L. S. Fira; P. H. Lyhackyy

    2016-01-01

    Background. Currently, the growing incidence of toxic lesions of the liver is associated with industrial chemicalization and uncontrolled use of hepatotoxic drugs in everyday life. There are about one thousand drugs with high or low hepatotoxicity, such as anti-TB drugs. Objective. In this research we studied the intracellular enzymes activity and bile formation function of the liver in rats of different ages in cases of tuberculostatic (isoniazid and rifampicin) affection and chromium (p...

  10. The Assessment of Liver Reserve Function by Spectrophotometry based on Determination of Phenacetin and Paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rui; Ma, Yongmei; Ma, Wanshan; Lu, Sumei

    2015-01-01

    To establish a technical system for assessing liver reserve function based on spectrophotometry by detection of phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples. Taking detected contents of phenacetin and paracetamol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as standard, which was proved to be able to detect drug concentrations with high resolution and accuracy, we established a technical system based on the spectrophotometric technique to assay phenacetin and paracetamol, including the color system, the maximum absorption wavelength, the influence factors of color system, and the optimal conditions for hydrolysis. Then we verified our established system compared with that under HPLC by recovery test. This study established a technical system to detect phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples using spectrophotometry. Mainly, 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added to samples for hydrolysis for 30 minutes, then, adding 0.02% 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS), 1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTA) and 2% sodium hydroxide (or 3% sodium carbonate) (ratio of 1:6:1:2 or 3), and the absorbance was measured at 500 nm and 570 nm to calculate their concentrations. Using an established spectrophotometric system to detect phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples could assess liver reserve function, which was proved comparable with HPLC in resolution and repeatability.

  11. Features of History, Anthropometric Data and Individual Functions of the Liver in Children with Prolonged Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Tyajka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neonatal jaundice is one of the urgent problems in neonatology. There is a tendency to increase the incidence of prolonged jaundice. The aim of our study was to explore the features of history, anthropometric data and some liver functions in children with prolonged jaundice. Materials and methods. The study involved 111 children with prolonged jaundice aged from 3 weeks to 3 months. In all children with prolonged jaundice, we have examined complete blood count, urinalysis, blood chemistry (determination of total bilirubin and fractions, total protein, albumin, glucose and used instrumental methods of examination — ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and cranial ultrasonography, electrocardiography. Most children with prolonged jaundice were breastfed and were term infants. Results. Indicators of physical development at birth (body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference in children with prolonged jaundice and in healthy children had not statistically significant differences. Neonatal jaundice was prolonged in children, who were born from the first pregnancy, — 60 children (54.1 %. A high level of total and indirect bilirubin was accompanied by a low level of albumin in the blood serum of children with prolonged jaundice. Protein-synthesis function of the liver was reduced in children with prolonged jaundice.

  12. Routine testing of liver function before and after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is it necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Liver function tests (LFTs) include alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin. The role of routine testing before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was evaluated in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 355 patients were retrospectively analyzed by examining the LFTs the day before, the day after, and 3 weeks after the surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Student t test were performed to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: Alterations in the serum AST, ALT, and GGT were seen on the first postoperative day. Minor changes were seen in bilirubin and ALP. An overall disturbance in the LFTs was seen in more than two-thirds of the cases. Repeat LFTs performed after 3 weeks on follow-up were found to be within normal limits. CONCLUSION: Mild-to-moderate elevation in preoperative LFTs may not be associated with any deleterious effect, and, in the absence of clinical indications, routine preoperative or postoperative liver function testing is unnecessary.

  13. Functional Budd-Chiari Syndrome Associated With Severe Polycystic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Precil Diego Miranda de Menezes Neves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was referred to a quaternary care center due to significantly increased abdominal girth. Her physical examination revealed tense ascites and abdominal collateral veins. A 10-L paracentesis improved abdominal discomfort and disclosed a transudate, suggestive of portal hypertension. A computed tomographic scan revealed massive hepatomegaly caused by multiple cysts of variable sizes, distributed throughout all hepatic segments. Contrast-enhanced imaging uncovered extrinsic compression of hepatic and portal veins, resulting in functional Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal hypertension. Although image-guided drainage followed by sclerosis of dominant cysts could potentially lead to alleviation of the extrinsic compression, the associated significant risk of cyst hemorrhage and infection precluded this procedure. In this scenario, the decision was to submit the patient to a liver-kidney transplantation. After 1 year of this procedure, the patient maintains normal liver and kidney function and refers significant improvement in quality of life.

  14. Abnormal functional connectivity of brain network hubs associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Meng, Chun; Jiang, Ying; Tang, Qunfeng; Wang, Shuai; Xie, Xiyao; Fu, Xiangshuai; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Jidong

    2016-04-03

    Abnormal brain networks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, detailed network hub and connectivity changes remained unclear in treatment-naive patients with OCD. Here, we sought to determine whether patients show hub-related connectivity changes in their whole-brain functional networks. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and voxel-based graph-theoretic analysis to investigate functional connectivity strength and hubs of whole-brain networks in 29 treatment-naive patients with OCD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis was applied for potential associations with OCD symptom severity. OCD selectively targeted brain regions of higher functional connectivity strength than the average including brain network hubs, mainly distributed in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits and additionally parietal, occipital, temporal and cerebellar regions. Moreover, affected functional connectivity strength in the cerebellum, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and superior occipital cortex was significantly associated with global OCD symptom severity. Our results provide the evidence about OCD-related brain network hub changes, not only in the CSTC circuits but more distributed in whole brain networks. Data suggest that whole brain network hub analysis is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transfusion Is Safe and Improves Liver Function in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Ruonan; Lin, Hu; Fu, Junliang; Zou, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Aimin; Shi, Jianfei; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; He, Weiping; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Liu, Zhenwen; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the safety and initial efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transfusions for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. No significant side effects were observed, and the UC-MSC transfusions significantly increased the survival rates in ACLF patients. It was found that UC-MSC transfusions are safe in the clinic and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for HBV-associated ACLF patients.

  16. Cortical mechanics and myosin-II abnormalities associated with post-ovulatory aging: implications for functi