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Sample records for abnormal human sex

  1. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: Causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hesketh, T.; Xing, Z. W.

    2006-01-01

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, b...

  2. Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Xing, Zhu Wei

    2006-09-05

    In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. Differential gender mortality has been a documented problem for decades and led to reports in the early 1990s of 100 million "missing women" across the developing world. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. The large cohorts of "surplus" males now reaching adulthood are predominantly of low socioeconomic class, and concerns have been expressed that their lack of marriageability, and consequent marginalization in society, may lead to antisocial behavior and violence, threatening societal stability and security. Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance.

  3. Prevalence of high-risk human papilloma virus types and cervical smear abnormalities in female sex workers in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing nations. Nearly 90% of the cases have been linked to the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV types 16 and 18. The risk of cervical cancer may be high in female sex workers (FSWs due to multiple sexual partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and hrHPV types 16 and 18 in FSWs in Chandigarh, North India using the liquid-based cytology (LBC approach. Materials and Methods: The cervical brush samples were collected from 120 FSW and 98 age-matched healthy controls (HCs. These were subjected to pap smear using conventional method, LBC and the detection of hrHPV types 16 and 18 was carried out using polymerase chain reaction. Results: The LBC samples showed better cytological details and also reduced the number of unsatisfactory smears from 11% in Pap to 1.5% in the LBC. A significantly higher number of inflammatory smears were reported in FSWs (51.7% vs. 34.7%, P = 0.01. The hrHPV types 16/18 were detected in 33/120 (27.5% FSW versus 23/98 (23.5% HCs. The risk of acquiring hrHPV was higher in FSWs, who had age at first sex ≤25 years, higher income and the habit of smoking. Conclusion: The high prevalence of hrHPV among FSWs and HCs suggests the need for the implementation of effective National Screening Programme for early detection of hrHPV types to decrease the burden of cervical cancer, especially in high-risk population.

  4. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus and abnormal pap smears in female sex workers compared to the general population in Antwerp, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vorsters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although female sex workers (FSWs are a well-known high-risk group for Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections, few tailored intervention programmes for HPV have been established worldwide. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of HPV and related cervical lesions hampers the establishment of evidence-based intervention programmes. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV infections and abnormal pap smears in FSWs compared to a control group in Antwerp, Belgium. Methods HPV genotyping and cytology data were analysed from routine Pap smear tests that were collected from both FSWs and the general population (1334 samples for each group between June 2006 and June 2010. Within the laboratory database, all FSWs were matched 1:1 for age and testing date to determine the ORs of hrHPV genotypes, DNA and cytology outcome. Results The prevalence of hrHPV DNA in FSWs was 41.7 % compared to 19.8 % in the age-matched controls with an overall OR of 2.8 (95 % CI: 2.3–3.4. Significant differences were observed in all age groups, and the most significant differences were observed in the cohort under 21 years of age (prevalence of 64.4 % in FSWs versus 14.8 % in controls; OR 10.3 (95 % CI: 5.0–21.2. Significantly more cervical lesions were observed in FSWs, particularly in the 17- to 21-year old age group (OR for LSIL or HSIL: 10.3 (95 % CI: 3.2–33.8. In both groups, HPV 16 was the most prevalent at 12.1 and 6.6 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. HPV 18 was the 8th and 7th most frequent genotype at 5.0 and 2.5 % in the FSW and control groups, respectively. Conclusions FSWs have a significantly higher prevalence of hrHPV and more abnormal Pap smears than does the general population in Antwerp, Belgium. The hrHPV prevalence in FSWs is similar to that reported in the literature. The need for tailored intervention programmes should be investigated further.

  5. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles.......Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles....

  6. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. The human sex ratio from conception to birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzack, Steven Hecht; Stubblefield, J William; Akmaev, Viatcheslav R; Colls, Pere; Munné, Santiago; Scholl, Thomas; Steinsaltz, David; Zuckerman, James E

    2015-04-21

    We describe the trajectory of the human sex ratio from conception to birth by analyzing data from (i) 3- to 6-d-old embryos, (ii) induced abortions, (iii) chorionic villus sampling, (iv) amniocentesis, and (v) fetal deaths and live births. Our dataset is the most comprehensive and largest ever assembled to estimate the sex ratio at conception and the sex ratio trajectory and is the first, to our knowledge, to include all of these types of data. Our estimate of the sex ratio at conception is 0.5 (proportion male), which contradicts the common claim that the sex ratio at conception is male-biased. The sex ratio among abnormal embryos is male-biased, and the sex ratio among normal embryos is female-biased. These biases are associated with the abnormal/normal state of the sex chromosomes and of chromosomes 15 and 17. The sex ratio may decrease in the first week or so after conception (due to excess male mortality); it then increases for at least 10-15 wk (due to excess female mortality), levels off after ∼20 wk, and declines slowly from 28 to 35 wk (due to excess male mortality). Total female mortality during pregnancy exceeds total male mortality. The unbiased sex ratio at conception, the increase in the sex ratio during the first trimester, and total mortality during pregnancy being greater for females are fundamental insights into early human development.

  8. Genital tract abnormalities among female sex workers who douche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal douche products have been associated with cervical cancer. We examined female sex workers (FSWs) in Nigeria who douche with lemon or lime juice and compared the findings with that of nonusers. We obtained Pap smears and performed colposcopy of the vulva, vagina and cervix. A total of 374 FSWs ...

  9. Sex-specific cognitive abnormalities in early-onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Veguilla

    Full Text Available Objectives: Brain maturation differs depending on the area of the brain and sex. Girls show an earlier peak in maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Although differences between adult females and males with schizophrenia have been widely studied, there has been less research in girls and boys with psychosis. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in verbal and visual memory, verbal working memory, auditory attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility between boys and girls. Methods: We compared a group of 80 boys and girls with first-episode psychosis to a group of controls. Results: We found interactions between group and sex in verbal working memory (p = 0.04 and auditory attention (p = 0.01. The female controls showed better working memory (p = 0.01 and auditory attention (p = 0.001 than males. However, we did not find any sex differences in working memory (p = 0.91 or auditory attention (p = 0.93 in the psychosis group. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the presence of sex-modulated cognitive profiles at first presentation of early-onset psychosis.

  10. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Sex differences in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanston, John E; Strother, Lars

    2017-01-02

    This Mini-Review summarizes a wide range of sex differences in the human visual system, with a primary focus on sex differences in visual perception and its neural basis. We highlight sex differences in both basic and high-level visual processing, with evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. We argue that sex differences in human visual processing, no matter how small or subtle, support the view that females and males truly see the world differently. We acknowledge some of the controversy regarding sex differences in human vision and propose that such controversy should be interpreted as a source of motivation for continued efforts to assess the validity and reliability of published sex differences and for continued research on sex differences in human vision and the nervous system in general. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Screening human populations for abnormal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Morrison, D.P.

    1990-07-01

    A relatively rapid and inexpensive in vitro growback assay was developed that uses the irradiated versus the unirradiated re-growth responses of lymphoblastoid cell lines developed from individual donors as an estimator of donor radioresponse. The purpose of this project was to furnish an estimate of the proportion of strains derived from various study populations that may be regarded as exhibiting abnormal radioresponse. The emphasis in this study was on hypersensitivity, because of the known radiation-hypersensitivity and cancer proneness associated with the genetic disorder ataxia-telangiectasia. Using methods developed especially for survival analyses, the percentage of significantly hypersensitive responses was 5.5% in a donor population composed of ostensibly normal individuals. We also examined lines derived from an unselected cancer patient population. These were not enriched, compared to the reference normal population, for hypersensitive responses. We thus conclude that hypersensitivity in vitro is not associated with increased risk for spontaneous development of cancer. However, the failure to observe an association between hypersensitivity and spontaneous cancer does not preclude a correlation between such sensitivity and radiogenic cancer. At the present stage, we would caution against the application of this assay or related in vitro tests to the situation of an individual, as opposed to a population. While we have clear indications that hypersensitivity in vitro is associated with abnormal radioresponse in vivo, this study has identified sources of variation that must be understood before attempts are made to unambiguously attribute a particular type of radioresponse to an individual

  13. Sex Robots: Between Human and Artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Despite a surplus of human beings in the world, new estimates total 7 and a half billion, we appear to be at the start of an attachment crisis - a crisis in how human beings make intimate relationships. Enter the sex robots, built out of the bodies of sex dolls to help humans, particularly males escape their inability to connect. What does the rise of sex robots tell us about the way that women and girls are imagined, are they persons or property? And to what extent is porn, prostitution and ...

  14. XX male sex reversal with genital abnormalities associated with a de novo SOX3 gene duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalem, Sharon; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Stavropolous, Dmitri J; Wherrett, Diane; Bägli, Darius J; Thomas, Paul; Chitayat, David

    2012-07-01

    Differentiation of the bipotential gonad into testis is initiated by the Y chromosome-linked gene SRY (Sex-determining Region Y) through upregulation of its autosomal direct target gene SOX9 (Sry-related HMG box-containing gene 9). Sequence and chromosome homology studies have shown that SRY most probably evolved from SOX3, which in humans is located at Xq27.1. Mutations causing SOX3 loss-of-function do not affect the sex determination in mice or humans. However, transgenic mouse studies have shown that ectopic expression of Sox3 in the bipotential gonad results in upregulation of Sox9, resulting in testicular induction and XX male sex reversal. However, the mechanism by which these rearrangements cause sex reversal and the frequency with which they are associated with disorders of sex development remains unclear. Rearrangements of the SOX3 locus were identified recently in three cases of human XX male sex reversal. We report on a case of XX male sex reversal associated with a novel de novo duplication of the SOX3 gene. These data provide additional evidence that SOX3 gain-of-function in the XX bipotential gonad causes XX male sex reversal and further support the hypothesis that SOX3 is the evolutionary antecedent of SRY. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Widespread epigenetic abnormalities suggest a broad DNA methylation erasure defect in abnormal human sperm.

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    Sahar Houshdaran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Male-factor infertility is a common condition, and etiology is unknown for a high proportion of cases. Abnormal epigenetic programming of the germline is proposed as a possible mechanism compromising spermatogenesis of some men currently diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. During germ cell maturation and gametogenesis, cells of the germ line undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming. This process involves widespread erasure of somatic-like patterns of DNA methylation followed by establishment of sex-specific patterns by de novo DNA methylation. Incomplete reprogramming of the male germ line could, in theory, result in both altered sperm DNA methylation and compromised spermatogenesis.We determined concentration, motility and morphology of sperm in semen samples collected by male members of couples attending an infertility clinic. Using MethyLight and Illumina assays we measured methylation of DNA isolated from purified sperm from the same samples. Methylation at numerous sequences was elevated in DNA from poor quality sperm.This is the first report of a broad epigenetic defect associated with abnormal semen parameters. Our results suggest that the underlying mechanism for these epigenetic changes may be improper erasure of DNA methylation during epigenetic reprogramming of the male germ line.

  17. The influence of abnormal thyroid function on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Chu Shaolin; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Chai Luhua

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the influence of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on sex hormones and bone metabolism in female patients. Method: A single photon bone absorptiometry was used to measure calcareous bone mineral density (BMD) in 91 female patients with hyperthyroidism, and 37 female patients with hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 51 healthy female subjects with euthyroid. In addition the serum levels of BGP and PTH were determined by means of IRMA. Serum levels of FSH and E 2 were determined by RIA. Results: Serum levels of FSH , E 2 and BGP in hyperthyroidism group were significantly higher than those in control group. The serum levels of PTH were slightly lower than that in control group (P 2 and BGP were significantly lower than those in control group. The assessment of BMD showed that the prevalence rate of osteoporosis (OP) both in hyperthyroidism groups and in hypothyroidism groups was significantly higher than control group. The peak bone density in young and middle-aged female was decreased, and OP was more common in over 60-year-aged female with hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Female patients with abnormal thyroid function are often associated with abnormality of sex hormones. It leads to increasing the incidence of OP. The attack age of OP tends to be younger, especially aged patients with lymphocytic hypothyroidism increases more markedly. Therefore, BMD should be measured in all female patients with a variety of thyroid diseases

  18. Sex-diagnosis of human skulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, de Ellen M.A.

    1996-01-01

    For 41 human skulls from the 19th century in the collection of the Zoological Museum Amsterdam the discriminant function score was calculated using a set of twelve variables in order to arrive at a best-as-possible sex-diagnosis. The function used was developed by Van Vark & Pasveer (1994). This led

  19. Histopathological pattern of gonads in cases of sex abnormalities in dogs: An attempt of morphological evaluation involving potential for neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimira, Stanislaw; Nizanski, Wojciech; Ochota, Malgorzata; Madej, Janusz A

    2015-10-01

    Disturbances in sex differentiation (DSD - disorder of sexual development) may result from disturbances in sex chromosomes or a disturbed development of gonads, or from genotypic disturbances. The objective of this article is to describe the histological structure of gonads in dogs showing sexual disturbances and a case of a cancer resembling gonadoblastoma in one of the animals. Among the 10 examined dogs with disturbances of sex development only a single case of a gonadoblastoma was observed. In animals with sex disturbances, similarly to humans, there exists a potential tendency for neoplastic lesions in dysgenetic gonads. As a rule, its frequency in population is confined due to the early procedure of castration of non-breeding dogs. In the present study dogs demonstrated phenotypical traits of bitches with developmental anomalies such as hyperplastic clitoris with vestigial os penis (baculum), or abnormalities in the location and structure of the vulva. The material for the study included canine gonads of various breeds, sampled from phenotypical bitches, aged 7 months to 4 years - patients of the Department of Reproduction and Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Wroclaw (Poland) in years 2006-2013. The organs were surgically removed from the abdomen and sent for histopathological examination for the purpose of determining their histological structure. The 10 examined cases of altered gonads included 6 bilateral cases of testes (60%), 2 cases of bilateral ovotestis (20%), one case of co-manifestation of testis and ovotestis (10%), and a single case of a testis and a neoplastically altered gonad (gonadoblastoma) (10%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang

    2016-09-15

    Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular...

  2. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular......Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...

  3. Cytogenetic abnormality in man, wider implications of theories of sex chromatin origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILES, C P

    1962-01-01

    Female nuclei may be identified by means of sex chromatin. In general the number of sex chromatin bodies is one less than the number of X chromosomes. An exception to this rule is a case of sex chromatin-positive XO Turner's syndrome. This case suggests the possibility of sex chromatin-positive XY males, and it may be evidence for chromosomal differentiation.

  4. Computed aided system for separation and classification of the abnormal erythrocytes in human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wąsowicz, Michał; Grochowski, Michał; Kulka, Marek; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Ficek, Mateusz; Karpieńko, Katarzyna; Cićkiewicz, Maciej

    2017-12-01

    The human peripheral blood consists of cells (red cells, white cells, and platelets) suspended in plasma. In the following research the team assessed an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time. The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy humans of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were leaded by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds and oxidation modified. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time intervals for individual specimens was scarce. The impact of the two diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a dehydratation of red cells takes place, because of the function of the cells. The analysis of an influence of nanodiamond particles on blood elements was supported by computer system designed for automatic counting and classification of the Red Blood Cells (RBC). The system utilizes advanced image processing methods for RBCs separation and counting and Eigenfaces method coupled with the neural networks for RBCs classification into normal and abnormal cells purposes.

  5. Abnormal lateral geniculate nucleus and optic chiasm in human albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcketton, Larissa; Kelly, Krista R; Schneider, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to measure how the misrouting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) fibers affects the organization of the optic chiasm and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN) in human albinism. We compared the chiasmal structures and the LGN in both pigmented controls and patients with albinism by using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied 12 patients with oculocutaneous albinism and 12 age-matched pigmented controls. Using a 3T MRI scanner, we acquired a T1 -weighted three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) image of the whole brain, oriented so that the optic nerves, chiasm, and tracts were in the same plane. We acquired multiple proton density-weighted images centered on the thalamus and midbrain, and averaged them to increase the signal, enabling precise manual tracing of the anatomical boundaries of the LGN. Albinism patients exhibited significantly smaller diameters of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, and optic chiasm and LGN volume compared with controls (P albinism compared with the control group can be attributed to the abnormal crossing of optic fibers and the reduction of RGCs in the central retina. The volume of the LGN devoted to the center of the visual field may be reduced in albinism due to fewer RGCs representing the area where the fovea would normally lie. Our data may be clinically useful in addressing how genetic deficits compromise proper structural and functional development in the brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Sex-Specific Selection and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Humans and Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changde Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism results from sex-biased gene expression, which evolves when selection acts differently on males and females. While there is an intimate connection between sex-biased gene expression and sex-specific selection, few empirical studies have studied this relationship directly. Here we compare the two on a genome-wide scale in humans and flies. We find a distinctive "Twin Peaks" pattern in humans that relates the strength of sex-specific selection, quantified by genetic divergence between male and female adults at autosomal loci, to the degree of sex-biased expression. Genes with intermediate degrees of sex-biased expression show evidence of ongoing sex-specific selection, while genes with either little or completely sex-biased expression do not. This pattern apparently results from differential viability selection in males and females acting in the current generation. The Twin Peaks pattern is also found in Drosophila using a different measure of sex-specific selection acting on fertility. We develop a simple model that successfully recapitulates the Twin Peaks. Our results suggest that many genes with intermediate sex-biased expression experience ongoing sex-specific selection in humans and flies.

  7. Molecular sex differences in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M Ramsey

    Full Text Available Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females can provide a valuable basis for exploring conditions differentially affected by sex.Using multiplexed immunoassays, we analyzed 174 serum molecules in 9 independent cohorts of typical individuals, comprising 196 males and 196 females. Sex differences in analyte levels were quantified using a meta-analysis approach and put into biological context using k-means to generate clusters of analytes with distinct biological functions. Natural sex differences were established in these analyte groups and these were applied to illustrate sexually dimorphic analyte expression in a cohort of 22 males and 22 females with Asperger syndrome. Reproducible sex differences were found in the levels of 77 analytes in serum of typical controls, and these comprised clusters of molecules enriched with distinct biological functions. Analytes involved in fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation, immune cell growth and activation, and cell death were found at higher levels in females, and analytes involved in immune cell chemotaxis and other indistinct functions were higher in males. Comparison of these naturally occurring sex differences against a cohort of people with Asperger syndrome indicated that a cluster of analytes that had functions related to fatty acid oxidation/hormone regulation was associated with sex and the occurrence of this condition.Sex-specific molecular differences were detected in serum of typical controls and these were reproducible across independent cohorts. This study extends current knowledge of sex differences in biological functions involved in metabolism and immune function. Deviations from typical sex differences were found in a cluster of molecules in Asperger syndrome

  8. Sex Differences in Associations Among Obesity, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Junji; Takeda, Yasuo; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Yamakawa, Junichi; Moriya, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-08-05

    The present study aimed to investigate relationships among abdominal obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relatively lean Japanese men and women. The participants included 8133 men and 15 934 women between 40 and 75 years of age recruited from the government health check-up center in Kanazawa City, Japan. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and high fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed according to the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for the Japanese population, and participants with an eGFR men and women, irrespective of abdominal obesity. However, there was a sex difference in the OR of CKD for obese participants without metabolic abnormalities, such that abdominal obesity without metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher OR for men (multivariate-adjusted OR 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.28) but not for women (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71-1.44). The present findings demonstrated that obesity without metabolic abnormalities was associated with a higher risk of CKD in men but not women in a relatively lean Japanese population.

  9. Only a minority of sex chromosome abnormalities are detected by a national prenatal screening program for Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, Mette Hansen; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: How does a national prenatal screening program for Down syndrome (DS) perform in detecting sex chromosome abnormalities (SCAs)-Turner syndrome (TS), Klinefelter syndrome, 47,XXX and 47,XYY syndromes. SUMMARY ANSWER: The SCA detection rate resulting from DS screening was below 50...... of accompanying conditions. There is limited information about pre- and perinatal status that distinguishes SCA embryogenesis from normal fetal development. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A register-based case-control study from the Danish Central Cytogenetic Register (DCCR), cross-linked with the Danish Fetal...

  10. Molecular Sex Differences in Human Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Ramsey (Jordan); E. Schwarz (Emanuel); P.C. Guest (Paul); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); B. Bogerts (Bernhard); J. Steiner (Johann); L. Ruta (Liliana); S. Baron-Cohen (Simon); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sex is an important factor in the prevalence, incidence, progression, and response to treatment of many medical conditions, including autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric conditions. Identification of molecular differences between typical males and females

  11. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.

    1985-01-01

    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  12. Sex Differences in Human and Animal Toxicology: Toxicokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions. Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it. Occupational epidemiology, the basis for understanding many toxic effects in humans, usually excluded women. Likewise FDA rules excluded women of child-bearing age from drug studies for many years. Aside from sex-specific organs, sex differences and sex × age interactions occur for a wide range of disease states as well as hormone-influenced conditions and drug distribution. Women have more adverse drug reactions than men, The Classic Sex Hormone Paradigm (gonadectomy and replacement) reveals significant interaction of sex and toxicokinetics including absorption, distribution, metabolisms and elimination. Studies should be designed to detect sex differences, describe the mechanisms, and interpret these in a broad social, clinical and evolutionary context with phenomena that do not differ. Sex matters, but how much of a difference is needed to matter remains challenging. PMID:27895264

  13. Diversity of sex chromosome abnormalities in a cohort of 95 Indonesian patients with monosomy X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartapradja Hannie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monosomy × or 45,X is a cytogenetic characteristic for Turner syndrome. This chromosome anomaly is encountered in around 50% of cases, but wide variations of other anomalies have been found. This report is to describe the cytogenetic characteristics of 45,X individuals. To the best of our knowledge, there were no large series of 45,X cases has been reported from Indonesia. Results Ninety five cases with 45,X cell line found, of which 60 were detected by karyotyping, 4 by FISH for sex chromosomes, and 31 by both karyotyping and FISH. Using karyotyping 37 out of 91 cases(40.6% were identified as 45,X individuals, while cases who underwent FISH only 4 out of 35 cases (11.4% showed 45,X result, resulting in total of 39 45,X cases (41.1%, and the rest 56 (58.9% cases are mosaic. Among these cases, 21 out of 95 (22.1% have Y or part of Y as the second or third sex chromosome in their additional cell lines. Result discrepancies revealed in 22 out of 31 cases who underwent both FISH and karyotyping, of which 7 showed normal 46,XX or 46,XY karyotypes, but by FISH, additional monosomy × cell line was found. Most of the cases were referred at the age of puberty (8-13 years old or after that (14-18 years old, 31 and 21 cases respectively, and there were 14 cases were sent in adulthood. Conclusion Wide variations of sex chromosome aberrations have been detected using the combination of conventional cytogenetic and FISH, including detection of low level of mosaicism and Y-chromosome fragments. Result discrepancies using both techniques were found in 22/31 cases, and in order to obtain a more details of sex chromosome constitution of individuals with 45,X cell line both FISH and karyotyping should be carried out simultaneously.

  14. A novel framework for intelligent surveillance system based on abnormal human activity detection in academic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawashi, Malek; Al-Hazaimeh, Obaida M; Saraee, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase. For motion object detection, we used the temporal-differencing algorithm and then located the motions region using the Gaussian function. Furthermore, the shape model based on OMEGA equation was used as a filter for the detected objects (i.e., human and non-human). For object activities analysis, we evaluated and analyzed the human activities of the detected objects. We classified the human activities into two groups: normal activities and abnormal activities based on the support vector machine. The machine then provides an automatic warning in case of abnormal human activities. It also embeds a method to retrieve the detected object from the database for object recognition and identification using content-based image retrieval. Finally, a software-based simulation using MATLAB was performed and the results of the conducted experiments showed an excellent surveillance system that can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment with no human intervention.

  15. Combating human trafficking in the sex trade: can sex workers do it better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Smarajit; Dey, Bharati; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Steen, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The dominant anti-trafficking paradigm conflates trafficking and sex work, denying evidence that most sex workers choose their profession and justifying police actions that disrupt communities, drive sex workers underground and increase vulnerability. We review an alternative response to combating human trafficking and child prostitution in the sex trade, the self-regulatory board (SRB) developed by Durbar Mahila Samanwaya Committee (DMSC, Sonagachi). DMSC-led interventions to remove minors and unwilling women from sex work account for over 80% of successful 'rescues' reported in West Bengal. From 2009 through 2011, 2195 women and girls were screened by SRBs: 170 (7.7%) minors and 45 (2.1%) unwilling adult women were assisted and followed up. The remaining 90.2% received counselling, health care and the option to join savings schemes and other community programmes designed to reduce sex worker vulnerability. Between 1992 and 2011 the proportion of minors in sex work in Sonagachi declined from 25 to 2%. With its universal surveillance of sex workers entering the profession, attention to rapid and confidential intervention and case management, and primary prevention of trafficking-including microcredit and educational programmes for children of sex workers-the SRB approach stands as a new model of success in anti-trafficking work. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sexing the human skull using the mastoid process.

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Shah; Pratik Patel

    2013-01-01

    Sex determination of human or human skeletal remains is considered an initial step in its identification. In cases of fragmented or mutilated body, it is difficult to identify the body. This skillful process is carried out by forensic and anatomy experts. In cases where intact skull is not found, mastoid play a vital role in sex determination as it is the most dimorphic bone of skull. The mastoid region, a fragmentary piece of skull is ideal for sex determination as it is resistant to damage ...

  17. An Allometric Analysis of Sex and Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects on Subcortical Anatomy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Liv; Giedd, Jay N.; Blumenthal, Jonathan; Lerch, Jason P.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Raznahan, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Structural neuroimaging of humans with typical and atypical sex-chromosome complements has established the marked influence of both Yand X-/Y-chromosome dosage on total brain volume (TBV) and identified potential cortical substrates for the psychiatric phenotypes associated with sex-chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). Here, in a cohort of 354 humans with varying karyotypes (XX, XY, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY, XXXXY), we investigate sex and SCA effects on subcortical size and shape; focusing on the striatum, pallidum and thalamus. We find large effect-size differences in the volume and shape of all three structures as a function of sex and SCA. We correct for TBV effects with a novel allometric method harnessing normative scaling rules for subcortical size and shape in humans, which we derive here for the first time. We show that all three subcortical volumes scale sublinearly with TBV among healthy humans, mirroring known relationships between subcortical volume and TBV among species. Traditional TBV correction methods assume linear scaling and can therefore invert or exaggerate sex and SCA effects on subcortical anatomy. Allometric analysis restricts sex-differences to: (1) greater pallidal volume (PV) in males, and (2) relative caudate head expansion and ventral striatum contraction in females. Allometric analysis of SCA reveals that supernumerary X- and Y-chromosomes both cause disproportionate reductions in PV, and coordinated deformations of striatopallidal shape. Our study provides a novel understanding of sex and sex-chromosome dosage effects on subcortical organization, using an allometric approach that can be generalized to other basic and clinical structural neuroimaging settings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sex and sex-chromosome dosage (SCD) are known to modulate human brain size and cortical anatomy, but very little is known regarding their impact on subcortical structures that work with the cortex to subserve a range of behaviors in health and disease. Moreover

  18. Sex for Sale: Globalization and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Annmarie

    2009-01-01

    The practice of trafficking has many different facets; drug trafficking, arms trafficking and human trafficking complete the top three illegal trafficking practices today. Human trafficking may be the third highest illegal trafficking practice, however there is inadequate mainstream information on the affects of the trade and horrifying issues that incorporate trafficking in human beings. This paper will discuss how the globalized world has been enabling trafficking in human beings with a con...

  19. Sexual Selection and the Evolution of Human Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Geary

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Darwin’s (1871 theory of sexual selection and the associated mechanisms of intrasexual competition (e.g., male-male competition and intersexual choice (e.g., female choice of mates have guided the scientific study of sex differences in hundreds of non-human species. These mechanisms and several recent advances in our understanding of the evolution and expression of sex differences in non-human species are described. The usefulness of this theory for approaching the study human sex differences is illustrated with discussion of patterns of women’s mate preferences and choices and with discussion of men’s one-on-one and coalitional competition. A comparison of these aspects of intersexual choice and intrasexual competition in humans and non-human species is provided, as is discussion of cultural variation in the expression of these behaviors. cultural influences (Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974.

  20. Chromosome Structural Alteration an Unusual Abnormality Characterizing Human Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Ring chromosomes are rare cytogenetic abnormalities that occur in less than 10% of hematopoietic malignancies. They are rare in blood disorder. The present review has focused on the ring chromosome associated with oncology malignancies. Materials and Methods: By reviewing the web-based search for all English scientific peer review articles published, was initiated using Medline/PubMed, Mitelman database (http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes/Mitelman, and other pertinent references on websites about ring chromosomes in Oncology. The software program as End Note was used to handle the proper references for instruction to author. Karyotype descriptions were cited according to ISCN.Conclusion: Ring chromosomes are rare chromosomal aberrations, almost many times are of de novo origin, presenting a different phenotype regarding the loss of genetic material. The karyotype represents the main analysis for detection of ring chromosomes, but other molecular technics are necessary for complete characterization. The information of this review article adds to the spectrum of both morphology and genetic rearrangements in the field of oncology malignancies.

  1. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in chronic tinnitus in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjamian, Peyman; Hall, Deborah A.; Palmer, Alan R.; Allan, Thomas W.; Langers, Dave R.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we review studies that have investigated brain morphology in chronic tinnitus in order to better understand the underlying pathophysiology of the disorder. Current consensus is that tinnitus is a disorder involving a distributed network of peripheral and central pathways in the nervous system. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive and it is unclear which structures are involved. Given that brain structure and function are highly related, identification of anatomical differences may shed light upon the mechanism of tinnitus generation and maintenance. We discuss anatomical changes in the auditory cortex, the limbic system, and prefrontal cortex, among others. Specifically, we discuss the gating mechanism of tinnitus and evaluate the evidence in support of the model from studies of brain anatomy. Although individual studies claim significant effects related to tinnitus, outcomes are divergent and even contradictory across studies. Moreover, results are often confounded by the presence of hearing loss. We conclude that, at present, the overall evidence for structural abnormalities specifically related to tinnitus is poor. As this area of research is expanding, we identify some key considerations for research design and propose strategies for future research. PMID:24892904

  2. Human Sex Trafficking in America: What Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litam, Stacey Diane A.

    2017-01-01

    The social justice issue of human sex trafficking is a global form of oppression that places men, women and children at risk for sexual exploitation. Although a body of research exists on the topics of human trafficking, literature specific to the mental health implications for counselors working with this population is limited. Counselors should…

  3. Sex-specific chromosome instability in early human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Natalia V

    2005-08-01

    The predominance of females segregating chromosome aberrations to their offspring has been explained mostly by selection disadvantage of unbalanced products of spermatogenesis. However, analysis of data from the literature supports the idea that somatic cells of early female embryos are similar to female germ cells in that they are prone to malsegregation. The goal of this study was to compare the sex ratio (male to female ratio) of carriers of presumably mitotic-occurring chromosome abnormalities to identify any sex biases. In examining the literature, we found a female prevalence in cases of mosaicism associated with uniparental disomy (UPD) (26 male individuals/conceptions and 45 female individuals/conceptions, sex ratio is 0.58, significantly different from 1.06 in newborn population, P = 0.0292). This predominance was highest at gestational age X mosaics over 46,XY/45,X mosaics in prenatally diagnosed cases, which also suggests a gender-specific postzygotic chromosome loss. The male prevalence in Prader-Willi syndrome with maternal UPD of chromosome 15 also can be explained by sex-specific trisomy correction, with predominant loss of a maternal chromosome causing biparental inheritance and therefore, complete correction of trisomy in females (without UPD). Finally, there is a female predominance in carriers of chromosome rearrangement with pericentromere break (mosaicism for Robertsonian translocation/isochromosome, centric fission, nonacrocentric isochromosome, and whole arm rearrangement), in both prenatal (21 males and 36 females, sex ratio is 0.58, P < 0.0184) and postnatal ill-defined cases (14 males and 35 females, sex ratio is 0.40, P = 0.001). Thus, the findings presented in this paper suggest that, in addition to reduction in male fertility, and to probable selection against abnormal cell line(s), there are two mechanisms that contribute to female preponderance among carriers of mosaicism: sex-specific chromosome loss and sex-specific centromere

  4. Studies into abnormal aggression in humans and rodents: Methodological and translational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Jozsef

    2017-05-01

    Here we review the principles based on which aggression is rendered abnormal in humans and laboratory rodents, and comparatively overview the main methodological approaches based on which this behavior is studied in the two categories of subjects. It appears that the discriminating property of abnormal aggression is rule breaking, which renders aggression dysfunctional from the point of view of the perpetrator. We show that rodent models of abnormal aggression were created by the translation of human conditions into rodent equivalents, and discuss how findings obtained with such models may be "translated back" to human conditions when the mechanisms underlying aggression and its possibilities of treatment are investigated. We suggest that the complementary nature of human and rodent research approaches invite a more intense cross-talk between the two sides of aggression research than the one presently observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vascular abnormalities associated with acute hypoxia in human melanoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, Trude G.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Leinaas, Marit N.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The fraction of hypoxic cells has been shown to differ substantially among human tumors of the same histological type. In this study, a window chamber model was used to identify possible mechanisms leading to the development of highly different hypoxic fractions in A-07 and R-18 human melanoma xenografts. Materials and methods: Chronic and acute hypoxia was assessed in intradermal tumors using an immunohistochemical and a radiobiological assay. Functional and morphological parameters of the vascular networks of tumors growing in dorsal window chambers were assessed with intravital microscopy. Results: R-18 tumors showed significantly higher hypoxic fractions than A-07 tumors, and the difference was mostly due to acute hypoxia. Compared to A-07 tumors, R-18 tumors showed low vascular densities, low vessel diameters, long vessel segments, low blood flow velocities, frequent fluctuations in blood flow, and a high fraction of narrow vessels with absent or very low and varying flux of red blood cells. Conclusion: The high fraction of acute hypoxia in R-18 tumors was a consequence of frequent fluctuations in blood flow and red blood cell flux combined with low vascular density. The fluctuations were most likely caused by high geometric resistance to blood flow in the tumor microvasculature.

  6. Abnormal brain iron homeostasis in human and animal prion disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity in all prion disorders is believed to result from the accumulation of PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc, a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrP(C. Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models. However, systematic studies on the generality of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism(s leading to iron dyshomeostasis in diseased brains are lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that prion disease-affected human, hamster, and mouse brains show increased total and redox-active Fe (II iron, and a paradoxical increase in major iron uptake proteins transferrin (Tf and transferrin receptor (TfR at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, examination of scrapie-inoculated hamster brains at different timepoints following infection shows increased levels of Tf with time, suggesting increasing iron deficiency with disease progression. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD-affected human brains show a similar increase in total iron and a direct correlation between PrP and Tf levels, implicating PrP(Sc as the underlying cause of iron deficiency. Increased binding of Tf to the cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons of sCJD brains further indicates upregulation of TfR and a phenotype of neuronal iron deficiency in diseased brains despite increased iron levels. The likely cause of this phenotype is sequestration of iron in brain ferritin that becomes detergent-insoluble in PrP(Sc-infected cell lines and sCJD brain homogenates. These results suggest that sequestration of iron in PrP(Sc-ferritin complexes induces a state of iron bio-insufficiency in prion disease-affected brains, resulting in increased uptake and a state of iron dyshomeostasis. An additional unexpected observation is the resistance of Tf to digestion by proteinase-K, providing a reliable marker for iron levels in postmortem human brains. These

  7. Male-to-female sex ratios of abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a population of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Cantú

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Distorted sex ratios occur in hematologic disorders. For example, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL displays disproportionate sex ratios with a large male excess. However, the underlying genetics for these disparities are poorly understood, and gender differences for specific cytogenetic abnormalities have not been carefully investigated. We sought to provide an initial characterization of gender representation in genetic abnormalities in CLL by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We confirm the well known skewed male-to-female (M/F sex ratio of ~1.5 in our CLL study population, but also determine the genotypic M/F sex ratio values corresponding to specific FISH DNA probes. Genetic changes in CLL detectable by four FISH probes were statistically compared with respect to gender. Initial FISH evaluations of 4698 CLL patients were retrospectively examined and new findings of the genotypic M/F sex ratios for these probes are reported. This study represents the largest CLL survey conducted in the United States using FISH probes. The CLL database demonstrated that FISH abnormalities (trisomy 12, 13q14.3 deletion and 17p13.1 deletion probes had skewed M/F ratios of ~1.5. Also, by statistical analysis it was shown that ATM gene loss (11q22.3q23.1 deletion solely or with other abnormalities was considerably higher in males with an M/F ratio of 2.5 and significantly different from M/F ratios of 1.0 or 1.5. We hypothesize that interactions involving these autosomal abnormalities (trisomy 12, and deletions of 11q22.3, 13q14.3, and 17p13.1, and the sex chromosomes may provide the genetic basis for the altered phenotypic M/F ratio in CLL.

  8. Sex-different abnormalities in the right second to fourth digit ratio in Japanese individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuya, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Yuko; Inohara, Keisuke; Matsumura, Yukiko; Fujioka, Toru; Wada, Yuji; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is higher in men than in women. The extreme male brain theory proposes that excessive prenatal testosterone activity could be a risk factor for ASDs. However, it is unclear whether prenatal sex hormone activity is a risk factor for women. The ratio of the length of the second to fourth digits (2D:4D) is considered to be a biomarker of the prenatal ratio of testosterone to estrogen. Therefore, this study compared the 2D:4D ratios of women with and without ASDs to determine if prenatal sex hormone activity could be a risk factor for ASDs in women. The study included 35 Japanese men with ASDs, 17 Japanese women with ASDs, 59 typically developed (TD) Japanese men, and 57 TD Japanese women. We measured digit lengths and compared the 2D:4D ratios among the four groups. We also examined the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and the autism-spectrum quotient score of each group. In our cohort, men with ASDs tended to have lower right-hand 2D:4D ratios relative to TD men. In contrast, the right 2D:4D ratios in women with ASDs were higher compared to those of TD women. No significant correlations were found between the 2D:4D ratios and the autism-spectrum quotient scores in any group. The higher right 2D:4D ratios in women could not be explained by age or full-scale intelligent quotients. This group difference was not found for the left 2D:4D or right-left 2D:4D ratios. We found a reverse direction of abnormality in the right 2D:4D ratio for men and women with ASDs. It has been posited that high prenatal testosterone levels lead to a lower 2D:4D ratio. However, a recent animal study showed that testosterone injection to dam leads to a higher right 2D:4D ratio especially for female offspring, which might be mediated by abnormal adipose accumulation in the fingertip. Therefore, the present findings suggest that high prenatal testosterone could be a risk factor both for Japanese men and women with ASDs, elucidating one

  9. Sex-Dependent Gene Expression in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ronen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Males and females have a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, most of which result from hormonal differences. However, differences between male and female embryos initiate very early in development, before hormonal influence begins, suggesting the presence of genetically driven sexual dimorphisms. By comparing the gene expression profiles of male and X-inactivated female human pluripotent stem cells, we detected Y-chromosome-driven effects. We discovered that the sex-determining gene SRY is expressed in human male pluripotent stem cells and is induced by reprogramming. In addition, we detected more than 200 differentially expressed autosomal genes in male and female embryonic stem cells. Some of these genes are involved in steroid metabolism pathways and lead to sex-dependent differentiation in response to the estrogen precursor estrone. Thus, we propose that the presence of the Y chromosome and specifically SRY may drive sex-specific differences in the growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

  10. The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature. Milind G Watve. Book Review Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 79- ... Author Affiliations. Milind G Watve1. ME Society, Abasaheb Garware College, Karve Road, Pune 411 004, India.

  11. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a

  12. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  13. Human-computer interaction requirements for abnormal situation management in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soken, N.; Bullemer, P.; Ramanathan, P.; Reinhart, W. [Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Honeywell Technology Center

    1995-10-01

    Honeywell is leading a multiyear effort to identify the causes of and propose solutions for abnormal situations in industrial processes. The authors define abnormal situations as those that necessitate human intervention because the automated distributed control system (DCS) cannot maintain the plant in an appropriate operating state. These situations are clearly of concern in the process industry because of their impact on revenues, human safety, and the environment. Interactions between the DCS and operating personnel are critical to mitigating abnormal situations in chemical plants. With the collaboration of major petrochemical and oil refining industries, Honeywell conducted on-site evaluations of the operating environments of various types of processes. Through this effort they identified process, equipment, people, and work context factors that contribute to abnormal situations. This paper describes human-computer interaction solution requirements based on the on-site plant evaluations. The results are discussed in terms of improvements to human-computer interactions and user interfaces and enhancements to conventional computer-based DCSs.

  14. Abnormal Vaginal Pap Test After Hysterectomy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stephanie; Yu, Xiaoying; Schmeler, Kathleen; Levison, Judy

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal vaginal cytology and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women with no history of abnormal cytologic screening who had a hysterectomy for conditions other than cervical dysplasia and cancer; and to explore the risk factors associated with VAIN and vaginal cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed identifying 238 women between January 2000 to January 2015 with a history of HIV, previous hysterectomy, and no previous abnormal Pap tests. Medical records from patients with both HIV and history of hysterectomy were reviewed from Thomas Street Health Center and Northwest Community Health Center. Among 238 women, 164(69%) had normal Pap test results, 12(5%) had results showing atypical cells of undermined significance and human papillomavirus-positive, 55(23.1%) had results showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 7(2.9%) had results showing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. No demographic risk factor was associated with abnormal Pap test after hysterectomy. Median follow-up time for the Pap test was 16 years. Of those who underwent vaginal biopsies for an abnormal Pap test, 15(28%) were normal, 23(43%) were VAIN1, 9(16%) were VAIN2, and 7(13%) were VAIN3. No patients had invasive vaginal cancer. Over 30% of HIV-infected women who had no pre-hysterectomy history of an abnormal Pap test had abnormal vaginal Pap tests. Among those who had vaginal biopsies, 29% had VAIN2 or VAIN3, suggesting that Pap tests post-hysterectomy in the HIV population may be indicated.

  15. Abnormal Vaginal Pap Test Results After Hysterectomy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stephanie; Yu, Xiaoying; Schmeler, Kathleen; Levison, Judy

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormal vaginal cytology and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women with no history of abnormal cytologic screening who had a hysterectomy for conditions other than cervical dysplasia and cancer and to explore the risk factors associated with VAIN and vaginal cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed identifying 238 women between January 2000 and January 2015 with a history of HIV, previous hysterectomy, and no previous abnormal Pap test results. Medical records from patients with both HIV and a history of hysterectomy were reviewed from Thomas Street Health Center and Northwest Community Health Center. Among 238 women, 164 (69%) had normal Pap test results, 12 (5%) had results showing atypical cells of undermined significance and human papillomavirus-positive, 55 (23.1%) had results showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and seven (2.9%) had results showing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. No demographic risk factor was associated with abnormal Pap test results after hysterectomy. Median follow-up time for the Pap test was 16 years. Of those who underwent vaginal biopsies for abnormal Pap test results, 15 (28%) had normal results, 23 (43%) had VAIN 1, nine (16%) had VAIN 2, and seven (13%) had VAIN 3. No patients had invasive vaginal cancer. More than 30% of HIV-infected women who had no prehysterectomy history of abnormal Pap test results had abnormal vaginal Pap test results. Among those who had vaginal biopsies, 29% had VAIN 2 or 3, suggesting that Pap testing posthysterectomy in the HIV population may be indicated.

  16. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. PMID:26833838

  17. Association of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Abnormal Anal Cytology among HIV-Infected MSM in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Feng; Gao, Cong; Li, Mufei; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. Methods HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs were collected for examining cytology and HPV genotypes. Results Ninety-five eligible participants with complete questionnaire and laboratory data were included in the analyses. Thirty six of them (37.9%) showed abnormal anal cytology as follows: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) in 19 (20.0%), atypical squamous cells but cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) in 1 (1.1%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in 15 (15.8%), and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 1 (1.1%). HPV6 (20.0%), HPV16 (10.9%), HPV56 (10.9%), HPV52 (9.1%) and HPV39 (9.1%) were observed most frequently among those with normal anal cytology, while different distribution was found in the ones with abnormal anal cytology as HPV6 (19.4%), HPV16 (19.4%), HPV45 (16.7%), HPV52 (16.7%) and HPV18 (11.1%). In addition, HPV16, HPV45, HPV52 and HPV18 were the most frequent high-risk types in patients with abnormal anal cytology. HPV multiplicity was found to be significantly related to the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology (p for trend = 0.04). Conclusions High prevalence of HPV infection and abnormal anal cytology was observed among HIV-infected MSM in China. Infection of multiple HPV types or high-risk types was found to be associated with an increased risk of abnormal anal cytology. PMID:22558293

  18. Chronic exposure of mutant DISC1 mice to lead produces sex-dependent abnormalities consistent with schizophrenia and related mental disorders: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazyan, Bagrat; Dziedzic, Jenifer; Hua, Kegang; Abazyan, Sofya; Yang, Chunxia; Mori, Susumu; Pletnikov, Mikhail V; Guilarte, Tomas R

    2014-05-01

    The glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that hypoactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is an important factor in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related mental disorders. The environmental neurotoxicant, lead (Pb(2+)), is a potent and selective antagonist of the NMDAR. Recent human studies have suggested an association between prenatal Pb(2+) exposure and the increased likelihood of schizophrenia later in life, possibly via interacting with genetic risk factors. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the neurobehavioral consequences of interaction between Pb(2+) exposure and mutant disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (mDISC1), a risk factor for major psychiatric disorders. Mutant DISC1 and control mice born by the same dams were raised and maintained on a regular diet or a diet containing moderate levels of Pb(2+). Chronic, lifelong exposure of mDISC1 mice to Pb(2+) was not associated with gross developmental abnormalities but produced sex-dependent hyperactivity, exaggerated responses to the NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, mildly impaired prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle, and enlarged lateral ventricles. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that environmental toxins could contribute to the pathogenesis of mental disease in susceptible individuals.

  19. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  20. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations during the late first trimester are associated with fetal growth in a fetal sex-specific manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barjaktarovic, M. (Mirjana); T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); T.J. Visser (Theo); R.P. Peeters (Robin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth

  1. A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Xian, Tongzhang; Jia, Xiaofan; Zhang, Lina; Liu, Li; Man, Fuli; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Qi; Guo, Lixin

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients.In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism.Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed.Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P.; Albers, Frans W.J.; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  3. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Holstege, Gert; Wit, Hero P; Albers, Frans W J; Willemsen, Antoon T M

    2007-12-01

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies.

  4. Functional sex differences in human primary auditory cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Georgiadis, Janniko R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Groningen (Netherlands); Holstege, Gert [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Uroneurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Wit, Hero P. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Groningen (Netherlands); Albers, Frans W.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department Otorhinolaryngology, P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    We used PET to study cortical activation during auditory stimulation and found sex differences in the human primary auditory cortex (PAC). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 10 male and 10 female volunteers while listening to sounds (music or white noise) and during a baseline (no auditory stimulation). We found a sex difference in activation of the left and right PAC when comparing music to noise. The PAC was more activated by music than by noise in both men and women. But this difference between the two stimuli was significantly higher in men than in women. To investigate whether this difference could be attributed to either music or noise, we compared both stimuli with the baseline and revealed that noise gave a significantly higher activation in the female PAC than in the male PAC. Moreover, the male group showed a deactivation in the right prefrontal cortex when comparing noise to the baseline, which was not present in the female group. Interestingly, the auditory and prefrontal regions are anatomically and functionally linked and the prefrontal cortex is known to be engaged in auditory tasks that involve sustained or selective auditory attention. Thus we hypothesize that differences in attention result in a different deactivation of the right prefrontal cortex, which in turn modulates the activation of the PAC and thus explains the sex differences found in the activation of the PAC. Our results suggest that sex is an important factor in auditory brain studies. (orig.)

  5. THE AGE OF FREE WILL AND HUMAN VALUES : Sex Tourisms Evolution and Its Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mahfuz; Baghdasaryan, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discussed about sex tourism which refers to how sex tourism works and its history. Human trafficking and sex trafficking was discussed as well as sex tourism which is involved directly to tourism industry was explained. The main goal of this thesis was to raise awareness of sex tourism violations. This thesis is about sex tourism and discussed the definition of rules and regulations from different international organizations and international newspapers and magazines as well a...

  6. Sex differences in the structural connectome of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalhalikar, Madhura; Smith, Alex; Parker, Drew; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Elliott, Mark A; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-14

    Sex differences in human behavior show adaptive complementarity: Males have better motor and spatial abilities, whereas females have superior memory and social cognition skills. Studies also show sex differences in human brains but do not explain this complementarity. In this work, we modeled the structural connectome using diffusion tensor imaging in a sample of 949 youths (aged 8-22 y, 428 males and 521 females) and discovered unique sex differences in brain connectivity during the course of development. Connection-wise statistical analysis, as well as analysis of regional and global network measures, presented a comprehensive description of network characteristics. In all supratentorial regions, males had greater within-hemispheric connectivity, as well as enhanced modularity and transitivity, whereas between-hemispheric connectivity and cross-module participation predominated in females. However, this effect was reversed in the cerebellar connections. Analysis of these changes developmentally demonstrated differences in trajectory between males and females mainly in adolescence and in adulthood. Overall, the results suggest that male brains are structured to facilitate connectivity between perception and coordinated action, whereas female brains are designed to facilitate communication between analytical and intuitive processing modes.

  7. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daphna; Berman, Zohar; Tavor, Ido; Wexler, Nadav; Gaber, Olga; Stein, Yaniv; Shefi, Nisan; Pool, Jared; Urchs, Sebastian; Margulies, Daniel S; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz; Assaf, Yaniv

    2015-12-15

    Whereas a categorical difference in the genitals has always been acknowledged, the question of how far these categories extend into human biology is still not resolved. Documented sex/gender differences in the brain are often taken as support of a sexually dimorphic view of human brains ("female brain" or "male brain"). However, such a distinction would be possible only if sex/gender differences in brain features were highly dimorphic (i.e., little overlap between the forms of these features in males and females) and internally consistent (i.e., a brain has only "male" or only "female" features). Here, analysis of MRIs of more than 1,400 human brains from four datasets reveals extensive overlap between the distributions of females and males for all gray matter, white matter, and connections assessed. Moreover, analyses of internal consistency reveal that brains with features that are consistently at one end of the "maleness-femaleness" continuum are rare. Rather, most brains are comprised of unique "mosaics" of features, some more common in females compared with males, some more common in males compared with females, and some common in both females and males. Our findings are robust across sample, age, type of MRI, and method of analysis. These findings are corroborated by a similar analysis of personality traits, attitudes, interests, and behaviors of more than 5,500 individuals, which reveals that internal consistency is extremely rare. Our study demonstrates that, although there are sex/gender differences in the brain, human brains do not belong to one of two distinct categories: male brain/female brain.

  8. Abnormal WT1 expression in human fetuses with bilateral renal agenesis and cardiac malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Ramm, Grant A

    2012-02-01

    Bilateral renal agenesis has multiple etiologies. Animal models have provided useful information on possible causes of this condition, but its etiology in humans is less clear. We recently described autopsy findings of two human fetuses with bilateral renal agenesis and abnormal expression of WT1 (Wilms tumor 1) in liver mesothelium. We have identified 14 additional fetuses with bilateral renal agenesis from autopsies performed in our institution over the past 10 years and subjected archival liver biopsy specimens from these cases to immunohistochemistry for WT1, as well as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin to assess liver mesenchymal abnormalities. Six of seven fetuses with combined bilateral renal agenesis and cardiac anomalies showed abnormalities of WT1 expression in liver mesothelial cells, which was not seen in other fetuses with bilateral renal agenesis. Except in one case, the fetuses with renal agenesis and cardiac defects also showed liver mesenchymal anomalies (assessed by increased α-SMA expression), which was not present in other renal agenesis fetuses. WT1 is widely expressed in mesothelial cells during development, and we hypothesized that some of the defects are caused by abnormal function of mesenchyme derived from mesothelial cells, similar to the mesothelium-derived defects proposed in animal models. The methods we used are available to many laboratories and can be applied to archival paraffin tissue blocks. We suggest that future similar studies could help to expand the understanding of renal agenesis in humans and could help to subclassify this condition. This would be useful in patient management and counseling. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Raman Spectroscopy of DNA Packaging in Individual Human Sperm Cells distinguishes Normal from Abnormal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, T; Orme, C; Hollars, C; Corzett, M; Balhorn, R

    2009-03-09

    Healthy human males produce sperm cells of which about 25-40% have abnormal head shapes. Increases in the percentage of sperm exhibiting aberrant sperm head morphologies have been correlated with male infertility, and biochemical studies of pooled sperm have suggested that sperm with abnormal shape may contain DNA that has not been properly repackaged by protamine during spermatid development. We have used micro-Raman spectroscopy to obtain Raman spectra from individual human sperm cells and examined how differences in the Raman spectra of sperm chromatin correlate with cell shape. We show that Raman spectra of individual sperm cells contain vibrational marker modes that can be used to assess the efficiency of DNA-packaging for each cell. Raman spectra obtained from sperm cells with normal shape provide evidence that DNA in these sperm is very efficiently packaged. We find, however, that the relative protein content per cell and DNA packaging efficiencies are distributed over a relatively wide range for sperm cells with both normal and abnormal shape. These findings indicate that single cell Raman spectroscopy should be a valuable tool in assessing the quality of sperm cells for in-vitro fertilization.

  10. Sexing the human skull through the mastoid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Luiz Airton Saavedra de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance for sex determination of the measurement of the area formed by the xerographic projection of 3 craniometric points related to the mastoid process: the porion, asterion, and mastoidale points. METHOD: Sixty skulls, 30 male and 30 female, were analyzed. A xerographic copy of each side of the skull was obtained. On each xerographic copy, the craniometric points were marked to demarcate a triangle. The area (mm² of the demarcated triangle for each side of the skull (right (D and left (E sides was determined, and the total value of these measures (T was calculated. RESULTS: Concerning the right area of the male and female skulls, 60% of the values overlapped; for the left area, 51.67% overlapped, and for the total area, 36.67% overlapped. The analysis of the differences between the sexes in the areas studied was significant for the 3 areas. Regarding the total area, which is the preferred measurement because of the asymmetry between the sides of the skull, the value of the mean was 1505.32 mm² for male skulls, which was greater than the maximum value obtained in the female skulls. The value of the mean for female skulls was 1221.24 mm², less than the minimum value obtained for the male skulls. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a significant result in the 3 studied areas, (D, (E, and (T. The total area values show less overlapping of values between the sexes, and therefore can be used for sexing human skulls. For the population studied, values of the total area that were greater than or equal to 1447.40 mm² belonged to male crania (95% confidence. Values for this area that were less than or equal to 1260.36 mm² belonged to female crania (95% confidence.

  11. Sexing the human skull through the mastoid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra; Segre, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance for sex determination of the measurement of the area formed by the xerographic projection of 3 craniometric points related to the mastoid process: the porion, asterion, and mastoidale points. Sixty skulls, 30 male and 30 female, were analyzed. A xerographic copy of each side of the skull was obtained. On each xerographic copy, the craniometric points were marked to demarcate a triangle. The area (mm ) of the demarcated triangle for each side of the skull (right (D) and left (E) sides) was determined, and the total value of these measures (T) was calculated. Concerning the right area of the male and female skulls, 60% of the values overlapped; for the left area, 51.67% overlapped, and for the total area, 36.67% overlapped. The analysis of the differences between the sexes in the areas studied was significant for the 3 areas. Regarding the total area, which is the preferred measurement because of the asymmetry between the sides of the skull, the value of the mean was 1505.32 mm for male skulls, which was greater than the maximum value obtained in the female skulls. The value of the mean for female skulls was 1221.24 mm , less than the minimum value obtained for the male skulls. This study demonstrates a significant result in the 3 studied areas, (D), (E), and (T). The total area values show less overlapping of values between the sexes, and therefore can be used for sexing human skulls. For the population studied, values of the total area that were greater than or equal to 1447.40 mm belonged to male crania (95% confidence). Values for this area that were less than or equal to 1260.36 mm belonged to female crania (95% confidence).

  12. PARTIALLY CONSTRAINED SEX ALLOCATION AND THE INDIRECT EFFECTS OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ON THE HUMAN SEX RATIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian C W; Maalouf, Walid E

    2017-05-01

    Infertility affects around 15% of human couples and in many countries approximately 1-4% of babies are born following Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Several ART techniques are used and these differentially affect the sex ratio of offspring successfully produced. These direct effects on sex ratio also have the potential to influence, indirectly, the sex ratios of offspring born to untreated couples. This is of concern because human sex ratio bias may adversely affect public health. Here the extent of indirect effects of ART that could operate, via Fisherian frequency-dependent natural selection, on the progeny sex ratio of unassisted members of a population is heuristically modelled. Given the degrees to which ART techniques bias sex ratios directly, it is predicted that well over 20% of couples would have to reproduce via ART for there to be any discernible effect on the sex ratios produced, in response, by the remainder of the population. This value is greater than the estimated prevalence of infertility problems among human couples. It is concluded that providing ART to couples with fertility problems does not currently generate significant ethical issues or public health concern in terms of indirect effects on the offspring sex ratios of untreated couples.

  13. Ethics of Sex Tourism in Thailand: Finnish Tourists’ Stance to Prostitution and Human Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, Aino

    2016-01-01

    This thesis researches attitudes, justifications and judgements of sex tourists towards responsible travelling, sex tourism, prostitution, prostitutes and human trafficking. The aim was to find out how sex tourists are thinking about the con-cepts related to the phenomena. The research was executed by surveying using quantitative research method via webropol.com. The questionnaire was spread in discussion forums regard-ing sex and sex tourism. The questionnaire generated altogether 75 res...

  14. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Sun, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-480 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-480 cell line carried a hemizygous missense mutation c.1825G>A(p.Glu609Lys) of ABCD1 gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-480 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Abnormal number cell division of human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cell line, SW 1736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ikeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell division, during which a mother cell usually divides into two daughter cells during one cell cycle, is the most important physiological event of cell biology. We observed one-to-four cell division during imaging of live SW1736 human thyroid anaplastic carcinoma cells transfected with a plasmid expressing the hybrid protein of green fluorescent protein and histone 2B (plasmid eGFP-H2B. Analysis of the images revealed a mother cell divided into four daughter cells. And one of the abnormally divided daughter cells subsequently formed a dinucleate cell.

  16. Sex chromosomes: platypus genome suggests a recent origin for the human X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegren, Hans

    2008-07-08

    The unusual sex chromosomes of platypus are not homologous to the human X and Y chromosomes, implying that the sex chromosomes of placental mammals evolved after the monotreme and placental mammal lineages split about 165 million years ago.

  17. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Batista, S.; Brooks, A.I.; Tischfield, J.A.; Willemsen, G.; Grootheest, G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Milaneschi, Y.; Mbarek, H.; Madar, V.; Peyrot, W.; Vink, J.M.; Verweij, C.L.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Smit, J.H.; Wright, F.A.; Sullivan, P.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and

  18. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  19. Associations of prenatal metabolic abnormalities with insulin and adiponectin concentrations in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Hanley, Anthony J; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2012-04-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that metabolic hormones are present in human milk, but, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the impact of maternal metabolic status assessed during pregnancy on insulin and adiponectin concentrations in milk. We aimed to investigate the associations of prenatal metabolic abnormalities with insulin and adiponectin in human milk and to compare the concentrations of these hormones in early and mature milk. Pregnant women aged ≥20 y with intention to breastfeed and without preexisting type 1 or 2 diabetes were recruited. Participants (n = 170) underwent a 3-h oral-glucose-tolerance test at 30 wk (95% CI: 25, 33 wk) gestation and donated early (the first week postpartum) and mature (3 mo postpartum) milk. Adiponectin and insulin concentrations in early milk were higher than those in mature milk (both P milk after covariate adjustment. Prenatal metabolic measures were not associated with milk adiponectin, but obstetrical measures that included nulliparity (0.171 ± 0.058; P = 0.004), longer duration of gestation (0.546 ± 0.146; P = 0.0002), and unscheduled cesarean delivery (0.387 ± 0.162; P = 0.02) were associated with higher adiponectin in early milk after covariate adjustment, including the time elapsed from delivery to milk collection. Maternal prenatal metabolic abnormalities are associated with high insulin concentrations in mature milk, whereas only obstetrical variables are associated with adiponectin concentrations in early milk.

  20. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY

  1. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Daniela, E-mail: d.kraft@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Ritter, Sylvia, E-mail: s.ritter@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco, E-mail: m.durante@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Physics Department, Technical University Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Seifried, Erhard, E-mail: e.seifried@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Fournier, Claudia, E-mail: c.fournier@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonn, Torsten, E-mail: t.tonn@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Med. Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Transfusion Medicine Dresden, German Red Cross Blood Donation Service North-East, Blasewitzer Straße 68/70, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induced formation and transmission of chromosomal aberrations were assessed. • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in human CD34+ HSPC by mFISH. • We report transmission of stable aberrations in irradiated, clonally expanded HSPC. • Unstable aberrations in clonally expanded HSPC occur independently of irradiation. • Carbon ions and X-rays bear a similar risk for propagation of cytogenetic changes. - Abstract: In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34{sup +} cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60–85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼30–35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼70% and

  2. Sweden's Experiment in Human Sexuality and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyman, Howard S.; Hoyman, Annelis S.

    1971-01-01

    As a prerequisite to understanding Swedish views about sex education, some background knowledge and insight into Sweden's development as a country in rapid transition is reported. Impressions of Swedish sex education, methods and aids, are related. (BY)

  3. Abnormal X : autosome ratio, but normal X chromosome inactivation in human triploid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwood Thomas H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X chromosome inactivation (XCI is that aspect of mammalian dosage compensation that brings about equivalence of X-linked gene expression between females and males by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes (Xi in normal female cells, leaving them with a single active X (Xa as in male cells. In cells with more than two X's, but a diploid autosomal complement, all X's but one, Xa, are inactivated. This phenomenon is commonly thought to suggest 1 that normal development requires a ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set, and 2 that an early event in XCI is the marking of one X to be active, with remaining X's becoming inactivated by default. Results Triploids provide a test of these ideas because the ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set cannot be achieved, yet this abnormal ratio should not necessarily affect the one-Xa choice mechanism for XCI. Previous studies of XCI patterns in murine triploids support the single-Xa model, but human triploids mostly have two-Xa cells, whether they are XXX or XXY. The XCI patterns we observe in fibroblast cultures from different XXX human triploids suggest that the two-Xa pattern of XCI is selected for, and may have resulted from rare segregation errors or Xi reactivation. Conclusion The initial X inactivation pattern in human triploids, therefore, is likely to resemble the pattern that predominates in murine triploids, i.e., a single Xa, with the remaining X's inactive. Furthermore, our studies of XIST RNA accumulation and promoter methylation suggest that the basic features of XCI are normal in triploids despite the abnormal X:autosome ratio.

  4. Human Performance: Psychological and Physiological Sex Differences (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Peabody College for Teachers , Nashville, TN, 1971. 51. Ong, J.j & Rodman, T. Sex and eye-hand preferential difference in star- tracing performance...Developmental Psychology, 1978, Ui_, 263-267. 79. Schuell, H. Sex differences in relation to stuttering : Part I» Journal of Speech Disorders, 1946, U^, 277...298. 80. Schuell, H. Sex differences in relation to stutterings Part II. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1947, J[2, 23-38. Bis Semlear, T. M« Sex

  5. Human sex ratio at amniocentesis and at birth in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Wen Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: The results showed that sex ratio was already skewed toward male at midtrimester. Our data imply that artificial sex selection, if it were present, might have already emerged prior to the timing of amniocentesis. However, more large nationwide studies on sex ratios in Taiwan are warranted.

  6. Structural and functional sex differences in the human hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, D. F.; Chung, W. C.; Kruijver, F. P.; Hofman, M. A.; Ishunina, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain may be the basis not only for sex differences in reproduction, gender identity (the feeling of being male or female), and sexual orientation (heterosexuality vs homosexuality), but also for the sex difference in prevalence of psychiatric and neurological diseases ( Swaab

  7. Decidualized Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Mediate Hemostasis, Angiogenesis, and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles J.; Krikun, Graciela; Hickey, Martha; Huang, S. Joseph; Schatz, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Factor VII binds trans-membrane tissue factor to initiate hemostasis by forming thrombin. Tissue factor expression is enhanced in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells during the luteal phase. Long-term progestin only contraceptives elicit: 1) abnormal uterine bleeding from fragile vessels at focal bleeding sites, 2) paradoxically high tissue factor expression at bleeding sites; 3) reduced endometrial blood flow promoting local hypoxia and enhancing reactive oxygen species levels; and 4) aberrant angiogenesis reflecting increased stromal cell-expressed vascular endothelial growth factor, decreased Angiopoietin-1 and increased endothelial cell-expressed Angiopoietin-2. Aberrantly high local vascular permeability enhances circulating factor VII to decidualized stromal cell-expressed tissue factor to generate excess thrombin. Hypoxia-thrombin interactions augment expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 by stromal cells. Thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor and interlerukin-8 synergis-tically augment angiogenesis in a milieu of reactive oxygen species-induced endothelial cell activation. The resulting enhanced vessel fragility promotes abnormal uterine bleeding. PMID:19208784

  8. Positron emission tomography studies in the normal and abnormal ageing of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comar, D.; Baron, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Until recently, the investigation of the neurophysiological correlates of normal and abnormal ageing of the human brain was limited by methodological constraints, as the technics available provided only a few parameters (e.g. electroencephalograms, cerebral blood flow) monitored in superficial brain structures in a grossly regional and poorly quantitative way. Lately several non invasive techniques have been developed which allow to investigate in vivo both quantitatively and on local basis a number of previously inaccessible important aspects of brain function. Among these techniques, such as single photon emission tomography imaging of computerized electric events, nuclear magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography stands out as the most powerful and promising method since it allows the in vivo measurement of biochemical and pharmacological parameters

  9. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Ouyang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-478 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-478 cell line carried a compound heterozygous mutation, c.896G>A(p.Arg299His) and c.929_930insC(p.Pro310Glnfs*9), of TYR gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-478 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Immune Challenge in Mice Leads to Partly Sex-Dependent Behavioral, Microglial, and Molecular Abnormalities Associated with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin W. Hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies revealed that environmental factors comprising prenatal infection are strongly linked to risk for later development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Considering strong sex differences in schizophrenia and its increased prevalence in males, we designed a methodological approach to investigate possible sex differences in pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal immune challenge was modeled by systemic administration of the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C to C57BL/6 mice at embryonic day 9.5. The consequences on behavior, gene expression, and microglia—brain immune cells that are critical for normal development—were characterized in male vs. female offspring at adulthood. The cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, regions where structural and functional alterations were mainly described in schizophrenia patients, were selected for cellular and molecular analyses. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed most pronounced differences in microglial distribution, arborization, cellular stress, and synaptic interactions in the hippocampus of male vs. female offspring exposed to Poly I:C. Sex differences in microglia were also measured under both steady-state and Poly I:C conditions. These microglial alterations were accompanied by behavioral impairment, affecting for instance sensorimotor gating, in males. Consistent with these results, increased expression of genes related to inflammation was measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of males challenged with Poly I:C. Overall, these findings suggest that schizophrenia's higher incidence in males might be associated, among other mechanisms, with an increased microglial reactivity to prenatal immune challenges, hence determining disease outcomes into adulthood.

  11. Getting past nature as a guide to the human sex ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2013-05-01

    Sex selection of children by pre-conception and post-conception techniques remains morally controversial and even illegal in some jurisdictions. Among other things, some critics fear that sex selection will distort the sex ratio, making opposite-sex relationships more difficult to secure, while other critics worry that sex selection will tilt some nations toward military aggression. The human sex ratio varies depending on how one estimates it; there is certainly no one-to-one correspondence between males and females either at birth or across the human lifespan. Complications about who qualifies as 'male' and 'female' complicate judgments about the ratio even further. Even a judiciously estimated sex ratio does not have, however, the kind of normative status that requires society to refrain from antenatal sex selection. Some societies exhibit lopsided sex ratios as a consequence of social policies and practices, and pragmatic estimates of social needs are a better guide to what the sex ratio should be, as against looking to 'nature'. The natural sex ratio cannot be a sound moral basis for prohibiting parents from selecting the sex of their children, since it ultimately lacks any normative meaning for social choices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Acquired uterine vascular abnormalities associated with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin: Experience at a Korean teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Da Hye; Yi, Sang Wook; Sohn, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang Soo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our experience with the diagnosis and management of acquired uterine vascular abnormalities associated with persistent human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Through this case series, we sought to establish our protocol for the treatment and follow-up of uterine vascular lesions associated with persistent hCG. We examined the clinical presentations of 28 Korean women with acquired vascular uterine abnormalities associated with persistent hCG who were seen in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Gangneung Asan Teaching Hospital, Gangneung-si, Korea between October 2006 and July 2012 and retrospectively reviewed their medical records. The mean patient age was 32.5 ± 6.4 years, and the mean parity was 1.4 ± 1.2. The mean size of the vascular lesions in color Doppler sonography and multidetector computed tomography with angiography was 3.1 ± 1.6 cm and 3.9 ± 1.6 cm, respectively. Multidetector computed tomography revealed arteriovenous malformation-like vascular lesions (n = 15) and pseudoaneurysms (n = 3). Treatments included clinical observation (n = 11), uterine artery embolization (n = 11), hysterectomy (n = 4), and chemotherapy, including single methotrexate (MTX) treatment and combination chemotherapy (n = 9). When the uterine vascular lesion is not decreased, or if weekly clinical follow-up reveals that the serum β-hCG level is persistently elevated or sustained in conjunction with vaginal hemorrhage, a proper management strategy is required. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Repression of hspA2 messenger RNA in human testes with abnormal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, W Y; Han, C T; Hwang, S H; Lee, J H; Kim, S; Kim, Y C

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of hspA2 in testes of infertile men with azoospermia. Prospective study. Center for Reproduction and Genetics, Pundang Je-Saeng General Hospital, Dae-Jin Medical Center, Korea. Azoospermic patients (n = 15) undergoing testicular biopsy for pathologic evaluation were selected. After pathologic evaluation, testicular biopsy specimens were subdivided into three groups: group 1, normal spermatogenesis (n = 5); group 2, spermatocyte arrest (n = 5); and group 3, Sertoli cell-only syndrome (n = 5). The levels of hspA2 mRNA expression were compared in testes of group 1, group 2, and group 3 with the use of a competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Comparison of hspA2 mRNA levels in testes. On competitive RT-PCR analyses for hspA2 mRNA, significant hspA2 expression was observed in group 1, whereas a very low level of hspA2 was expressed in groups 2 and 3. This study demonstrates that hspA2 gene expression is down-regulated in human testes with abnormal spermatogenesis, which in turn suggests that the hspA2 gene might play a specific role during meiosis in human testes.

  14. Isolation and characterization of sex chromosome rearrangements generating male muscle dystrophy and female abnormal oogenesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, T; Yokoyama, T; Ninagi, O; Kakehashi, K; Obara, Y; Nenoi, M; Ishikawa, T; Mita, K; Shimada, T; Abe, H

    2007-07-01

    In deletion-mapping of W-specific RAPD (W-RAPD) markers and putative female determinant gene (Fem), we used X-ray irradiation to break the translocation-carrying W chromosome (W( Ze )). We succeeded in obtaining a fragment of the W( Ze ) chromosome designated as Ze (W), having 3 of 12 W-RAPD markers (W-Bonsai, W-Yukemuri-S, W-Yukemuri-L). Inheritance of the Ze (W) fragment by males indicates that it does not include the Fem gene. On the basis of these results, we determined the relative positions of W-Yukemuri-S and W-Yukemuri-L, and we narrowed down the region where Fem gene is located. In addition to the Ze (W) fragment, the Z chromosome was also broken into a large fragment (Z(1)) having the +( sch ) (1-21.5) and a small fragment (Z(2)) having the +( od ) (1-49.6). Moreover, a new chromosomal fragment (Ze (W)Z(2)) was generated by a fusion event between the Ze (W) and the Z(2) fragments. We analyzed the genetic behavior of the Z(1) fragment and the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment during male (Z/Z(1) Ze (W)Z(2)) and female (Z(1) Ze (W)Z(2)/W) meiosis using phenotypic markers. It was observed that the Z(1) fragment and the Z or the W chromosomes separate without fail. On the other hand, non-disjunction between the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment and the Z chromosome and also between the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment and the W chromosome occurred. Furthermore, the females (2A: Z/Ze (W)Z(2)/W) and males (2A: Z/Z(1)) resulting from non-disjunction between the Ze (W)Z(2) fragment and the W chromosome had phenotypic defects: namely, females exhibited abnormal oogenesis and males were flapless due to abnormal indirect flight muscle structure. These results suggest that Z(2) region of the Z chromosome contains dose-sensitive gene(s), which are involved in oogenesis and indirect flight muscle development.

  15. Sex Reversal in Non-Human Placental Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma, Pietro; Veyrunes, Frédéric; Pailhoux, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Gonads are very peculiar organs given their bipotential competence. Indeed, early differentiating genital ridges evolve into either of 2 very distinct organs: the testis or the ovary. Accumulating evidence now demonstrates that both genetic pathways must repress the other in order for the organs to differentiate properly, meaning that if this repression is disrupted or attenuated, the other pathway may completely or partially be expressed, leading to disorders of sex development. Among these disorders are the cases of XY male-to-female and XX female-to-male sex reversals as well as true hermaphrodites, in which there is a discrepancy between the chromosomal and gonadal sex. Here, we review known cases of XY and XX sex reversals described in mammals, focusing mostly on domestic animals where sex reversal pathologies occur and on wild species in which deviations from the usual XX/XY system have been documented. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The potential pitfalls of studying adult sex ratios at aggregate levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Thomas V; Stoevenbelt, Andrea H; Kuppens, Toon

    2017-09-19

    Human adult sex ratios have been studied extensively across the biological and social sciences. While several studies have examined adult sex ratio effects in a multilevel perspective, many studies have focused on effects at an aggregated level only. In this paper, we review some key issues relating to such analyses. We address not only nation-level analyses, but also aggregation at lower levels, to investigate whether these issues extend to lower levels of aggregation. We illustrate these issues with novel databases covering a broad range of variables. Specifically, we discuss distributional issues with aggregated measures of adult sex ratio, significance testing, and statistical non-independence when using aggregate data. Firstly, we show that there are severe distributional issues with national adult sex ratio, such as extreme cases. Secondly, we demonstrate that many 'meaningless' variables are significantly correlated with adult sex ratio (e.g. the max. elevation level correlates with sex ratio at US state level). Finally, we re-examine associations between adult sex ratios and teenage fertility and find no robust evidence for an association at the aggregate level. Our review highlights the potential issues of using aggregate data on adult sex ratios to test hypotheses from an evolutionary perspective in humans.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Human Trafficking and the Sex Industry in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Pena Rios

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the demand for the sex industry in Japan and the subsequent supply of foreign women from across the world. What drives demand for foreign women to work in the Japanese sex industry? What are the local drivers that bring women into the sex industry? How are the systems in place that brought these women across the world? What is the connection with organized crime, economic instability, and legal systems? This paper seeks to address these questions and pose possible solutions.

  18. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution for longitu...

  19. Cervical cytological abnormalities and human papilloma virus infection in women infected with HIV in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Suchitra; Andrews, Anusmitha; Ramapuram, John; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kini, Hema; Unnikrishnan, B; Adhikari, Prabha; Singh, Prakhar; Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada; Bhat, Samatha; Kadam, Anagha; Shetty, Avinash K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between CD4 count, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 104 HIV-infected women attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic. They underwent Pap smear and cervical HPV DNA testing. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 57.7%. HPV 16 was the commonest genotype found (38.5%); HPV 16 and 18 put together contributed to 73.3% of HPV infection; 27.5% of HIV-infected women had squamous cell abnormalities. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was less likely among women with CD4 count > 500/mm 3 (12%) and in those without opportunistic infections (17.8%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was higher in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or greater lesions (85.7%) as compared to women with normal cytology (52.1%). The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women warrants the need for regular Pap smear screening in these women and routine HPV vaccination for adolescents to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in India. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  1. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology as early pathological changes in human models of spinal muscular atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Chong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, characterized by specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons, is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1 gene and subsequent decreased levels of functional SMN. How the deficiency of SMN, a ubiquitously expressed protein, leads to spinal motor neuron-specific degeneration in individuals affected by SMA remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of SMN in mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human motor neurons by generating SMA type 1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and differentiating these cells into spinal motor neurons. The initial specification of spinal motor neurons was not affected, but these SMA spinal motor neurons specifically degenerated following long-term culture. Moreover, at an early stage in SMA spinal motor neurons, but not in SMA forebrain neurons, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and mitochondrial transport were significantly reduced in axons. Knocking down of SMN expression led to similar mitochondrial defects in spinal motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells, confirming that SMN deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, the application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC mitigated the impairment in mitochondrial transport and morphology and rescued motor neuron degeneration in SMA long-term cultures. Furthermore, NAC ameliorated the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in SMA spinal motor neurons, suggesting that NAC might rescue apoptosis and motor neuron degeneration by improving mitochondrial health. Overall, our data demonstrate that SMN deficiency results in abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology and a subsequent reduction in mitochondrial health, which are implicated in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in SMA.

  2. Abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology as early pathological changes in human models of spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong-Chong; Denton, Kyle R.; Wang, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), characterized by specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons, is caused by mutations in the survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric (SMN1) gene and subsequent decreased levels of functional SMN. How the deficiency of SMN, a ubiquitously expressed protein, leads to spinal motor neuron-specific degeneration in individuals affected by SMA remains unknown. In this study, we examined the role of SMN in mitochondrial axonal transport and morphology in human motor neurons by generating SMA type 1 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiating these cells into spinal motor neurons. The initial specification of spinal motor neurons was not affected, but these SMA spinal motor neurons specifically degenerated following long-term culture. Moreover, at an early stage in SMA spinal motor neurons, but not in SMA forebrain neurons, the number of mitochondria, mitochondrial area and mitochondrial transport were significantly reduced in axons. Knocking down of SMN expression led to similar mitochondrial defects in spinal motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem cells, confirming that SMN deficiency results in impaired mitochondrial dynamics. Finally, the application of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) mitigated the impairment in mitochondrial transport and morphology and rescued motor neuron degeneration in SMA long-term cultures. Furthermore, NAC ameliorated the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential in SMA spinal motor neurons, suggesting that NAC might rescue apoptosis and motor neuron degeneration by improving mitochondrial health. Overall, our data demonstrate that SMN deficiency results in abnormal mitochondrial transport and morphology and a subsequent reduction in mitochondrial health, which are implicated in the specific degeneration of spinal motor neurons in SMA. PMID:26586529

  3. Impact of Abnormal DNA Methylation of Imprinted Loci on Human Spontaneous Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yudong; Tang, Yan; Ye, Desheng; Ma, Weixu; Feng, Shuxian; Li, Xuelan; Zhou, Xingyu; Chen, Xin; Chen, Shiling

    2018-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing concern regarding the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) due to increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA) and imprinting disorders in ART-conceived offspring. Early investigations suggested that aberrant genetic imprinting may be related to pregnancy loss; however, few studies have used human tissue specimens. Here the DNA methylation patterns of 3 imprinted genes, including maternally inherited GRB10 and the paternally inherited IGF2 and PEG3 genes, were evaluated in human chorionic villus samples by pyrosequencing and bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction. The samples were divided into 4 groups: (1) SA of natural conception (NC; n = 84), (2) induced abortion of NC (n = 94), (3) SA after ART (n = 73), and (4) fetal reduction after ART (n = 86). The methylation levels and the percentages of abnormal methylation of the IGF2, GRB10, and PEG3 genes between the ART group and the NC group showed no significant difference. Both IGF2 and GRB10 genes showed higher methylation levels in the SA group compared to the non-SA group. Additionally, determining the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 4 loci, including IGF2 rs3741205, rs3741206, rs3741211, and GRB10 rs2237457, showed that the TC+CC genotype of IGF2 rs3741211 had a 1.91-fold increased risk of SA after ART. However, there was no association between the mutant genotype of IGF2 rs3741211 and the methylation levels of IGF2 and H19, and ART might not affect the distribution of the abovementioned genotypes. It provides support for the opinion that genetic imprinting defects may be associated with SA, which might not be due to ART treatments.

  4. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and

  5. Sex differences in the hypothalamus in the different stages of human life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, Dick F.; Chung, Wilson C. J.; Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Hofman, Michel A.; Hestiantoro, Andon

    2003-01-01

    Quite a number of structural and functional sex differences have been reported in the human hypothalamus and adjacent structures that may be related to not only reproduction, sexual orientation and gender identity, but also to the often pronounced sex differences in prevalence of psychiatric and

  6. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Uwizera, Aline Umutoni; Mwamarangwe, Lambert; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Nel, Annalene; Vyankandondera, Joseph; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  7. The potential pitfalls of studying adult sex ratios at aggregate levels in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Stoevenbelt, Andrea H.; Kuppens, Toon

    2017-01-01

    Human adult sex ratios have been studied extensively across the biological and social sciences. While several studies have examined adult sex ratio effects in a multilevel perspective, many studies have focused on effects at an aggregated level only. In this paper, we review some key issues relating

  8. Trends of human sex ratio at birth and twinning rate in Ibadan, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human sex ratio at birth (SRB) and frequency of twinning are demographic parameters that vary among populations. A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the trend of SRB, as well as twinning rate in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data on sexes of singletons, twins, triplets and quadruplets from 1997 to 2008 collected ...

  9. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; O'Connor, Deborah L; Retnakaran, Ravi; Hamilton, Jill K; Sermer, Mathew; Zinman, Bernard; Hanley, Anthony J

    2010-10-06

    Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may assist in the development of optimal prevention and intervention

  10. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  11. Sex differences of human cortical blood flow and energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Rodell, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Brain energy metabolism is held to reflect energy demanding processes in neuropil related to the density and activity of synapses. There is recent evidence that men have higher density of synapses in temporal cortex than women. One consequence of these differences would be different rates...... cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen as functions of age in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen did not change with age for either sex and there were no differences of mean values of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen between men and women in cerebral...

  12. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorgie, Fiona; Vasey, Katie; Harper, Eric; Richter, Marlise; Nare, Prince; Maseko, Sian; Chersich, Matthew F

    2013-07-26

    Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers' human rights and improving health outcomes in these communities. If

  13. Human rights abuses and collective resilience among sex workers in four African countries: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex work is a criminal offence, virtually throughout Africa. This criminalisation and the intense stigma attached to the profession shapes interactions between sex workers and their clients, family, fellow community members, and societal structures such as the police and social services. Methods We explore the impact of violence and related human rights abuses on the lives of sex workers, and how they have responded to these conditions, as individuals and within small collectives. These analyses are based on data from 55 in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions with female, male and transgender sex workers in Kenya, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Data were collected by sex worker outreach workers trained to conduct qualitative research among their peers. Results In describing their experiences of unlawful arrests and detention, violence, extortion, vilification and exclusions, participants present a picture of profound exploitation and repeated human rights violations. This situation has had an extreme impact on the physical, mental and social wellbeing of this population. Overall, the article details the multiple effects of sex work criminalisation on the everyday lives of sex workers and on their social interactions and relationships. Underlying their stories, however, are narratives of resilience and resistance. Sex workers in our study draw on their own individual survival strategies and informal forms of support and very occasionally opt to seek recourse through formal channels. They generally recognize the benefits of unified actions in assisting them to counter risks in their environment and mobilise against human rights violations, but note how the fluctuant and stigmatised nature of their profession often undermines collective action. Conclusions While criminal laws urgently need reform, supporting sex work self-organisation and community-building are key interim strategies for safeguarding sex workers’ human rights and improving

  14. The genomic landscape of balanced cytogenetic abnormalities associated with human congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redin, Claire; Brand, Harrison; Collins, Ryan L; Kammin, Tammy; Mitchell, Elyse; Hodge, Jennelle C; Hanscom, Carrie; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Seabra, Catarina M; Abbott, Mary-Alice; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Aberg, Erika; Adley, Rhett; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; An, Yu; Anderson, Mary-Anne; Antolik, Caroline; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Atkin, Joan F; Bartell, Tina; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Beyer, Elizabeth; Blumenthal, Ian; Bongers, Ernie M H F; Brilstra, Eva H; Brown, Chester W; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Callewaert, Bert; Chiang, Colby; Corning, Ken; Cox, Helen; Cuppen, Edwin; Currall, Benjamin B; Cushing, Tom; David, Dezso; Deardorff, Matthew A; Dheedene, Annelies; D'Hooghe, Marc; de Vries, Bert B A; Earl, Dawn L; Ferguson, Heather L; Fisher, Heather; FitzPatrick, David R; Gerrol, Pamela; Giachino, Daniela; Glessner, Joseph T; Gliem, Troy; Grady, Margo; Graham, Brett H; Griffis, Cristin; Gripp, Karen W; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanson-Kahn, Andrea; Harris, David J; Hayden, Mark A; Hill, Rosamund; Hochstenbach, Ron; Hoffman, Jodi D; Hopkin, Robert J; Hubshman, Monika W; Innes, A Micheil; Irons, Mira; Irving, Melita; Jacobsen, Jessie C; Janssens, Sandra; Jewett, Tamison; Johnson, John P; Jongmans, Marjolijn C; Kahler, Stephen G; Koolen, David A; Korzelius, Jerome; Kroisel, Peter M; Lacassie, Yves; Lawless, William; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Leppig, Kathleen; Levin, Alex V; Li, Haibo; Li, Hong; Liao, Eric C; Lim, Cynthia; Lose, Edward J; Lucente, Diane; Macera, Michael J; Manavalan, Poornima; Mandrile, Giorgia; Marcelis, Carlo L; Margolin, Lauren; Mason, Tamara; Masser-Frye, Diane; McClellan, Michael W; Mendoza, Cinthya J Zepeda; Menten, Björn; Middelkamp, Sjors; Mikami, Liya R; Moe, Emily; Mohammed, Shehla; Mononen, Tarja; Mortenson, Megan E; Moya, Graciela; Nieuwint, Aggie W; Ordulu, Zehra; Parkash, Sandhya; Pauker, Susan P; Pereira, Shahrin; Perrin, Danielle; Phelan, Katy; Aguilar, Raul E Piña; Poddighe, Pino J; Pregno, Giulia; Raskin, Salmo; Reis, Linda; Rhead, William; Rita, Debra; Renkens, Ivo; Roelens, Filip; Ruliera, Jayla; Rump, Patrick; Schilit, Samantha L P; Shaheen, Ranad; Sparkes, Rebecca; Spiegel, Erica; Stevens, Blair; Stone, Matthew R; Tagoe, Julia; Thakuria, Joseph V; van Bon, Bregje W; van de Kamp, Jiddeke; van Der Burgt, Ineke; van Essen, Ton; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M; van Roosmalen, Markus J; Vergult, Sarah; Volker-Touw, Catharina M L; Warburton, Dorothy P; Waterman, Matthew J; Wiley, Susan; Wilson, Anna; Yerena-de Vega, Maria de la Concepcion A; Zori, Roberto T; Levy, Brynn; Brunner, Han G; de Leeuw, Nicole; Kloosterman, Wigard P; Thorland, Erik C; Morton, Cynthia C; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E

    Despite the clinical significance of balanced chromosomal abnormalities (BCAs), their characterization has largely been restricted to cytogenetic resolution. We explored the landscape of BCAs at nucleotide resolution in 273 subjects with a spectrum of congenital anomalies. Whole-genome sequencing

  15. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T J P; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Brown, Matthew S; de Jong, Pim A; Viergever, Max A; van Ginneken, Bram

    2014-08-01

    Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors' aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in challenging chest CT images. Both systems do

  16. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P., E-mail: thessa@isi.uu.nl; Viergever, Max A. [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M. [Department of Radiology, Meander Medical Centre, 3813 TZ Amersfoort, The Netherlands and Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bozovic, Gracijela [Center for Diagnostic Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate [Cancer Imaging Laboratory, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, ES-31008 Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Rikxoort, Eva M. van [Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brown, Matthew S. [Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Jong, Pim A. de [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Ginneken, Bram van [Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 6525 GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  17. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  18. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental

  19. SEX WORK, LAW, AND VIOLENCE: BEDFORD V. CANADA AND THE HUMAN RIGHTS OF SEX WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hudson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Bedford v. Canada, two levels of Ontario courts ruled that a selection of criminal laws prohibiting prostitution-related activities unjustifiably deprive sex workers of their right to liberty and security of the person.The courts struck down or modified some of the offending provisions to ensure that sex workers are better able to take precautions against violence. While sex workers consider the Ontario Superior Court of Justice ruling a victory and the Ontario Court of Appeal ruling a partial victory, the government, some women’s rights groups, and other defenders of the provisions argue that courts ventured into a “policy thicket”, which is to suggest that they had stepped outside of their legitimate institutional role. Associated concerns include that the decisions effectively constitutionalize prostitution and will pre-empt or curtail Parliament’s consideration of legislative options.      In this paper, the authors clarify misconceptions about the constitutional foundations and implications of Bedford, and explore how the ruling might affect legal and policy-based interactions among various stakeholders. Approaching constitutional rights as discursive mechanisms, rather than as “trumps”, we argue that Bedford will not hinder the continuation of democratic debate about whether, how, and why aspects of sex work should be regulated. To the contrary, Bedford is more likely to enhance the quality of debates by making them more inclusive of the perspectives of sex workers as well as accommodative of growing empirical research that has hitherto been ignored or misrecognized.   Dans l’affaire Bedford v. Canada, deux tribunaux ontariens ont conclu que des dispositions législatives du droit criminel interdisant les activités liées à la prostitution privaient de façon injustifiée les travailleurs et travailleuses du sexe du droit à la liberté et à la sécurité de leur personne. Ces tribunaux ont d

  20. Vulnerability of Nigerian Secondary School to Human Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim is to assess in-school students' knowledge and awareness of, and attitude toward sex trafficking as a way to understanding their personal vulnerability to trafficking. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered in 2004-2005 to a classroom random sample of 689 adolescents in the age range of 16-20 years.

  1. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  2. Sex differences in intrinsic brain functional connectivity underlying human shyness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Wang, Siqi; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Wu, Xi; Yao, Li; Lei, Du; Kuang, Weihong; Bi, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqi; He, Yong; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-12-01

    Shyness is a fundamental trait associated with social-emotional maladaptive behaviors, including many forms of psychopathology. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that hyper-responsivity to social and emotional stimuli occurs in the frontal cortex and limbic system in shy individuals, but the relationship between shyness and brain-wide functional connectivity remains incompletely understood. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we addressed this issue by exploring the relationship between regional functional connectivity strength (rFCS) and scores of shyness in a cohort of 61 healthy young adults and controlling for the effects of social and trait anxiety scores. We observed that the rFCS of the insula positively correlated with shyness scores regardless of sex. Furthermore, we found that there were significant sex-by-shyness interactions in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula (two core nodes of the salience network) as well as the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex: the rFCS values of these regions positively correlated with shyness scores in females but negatively correlated in males. Taken together, we provide evidence for intrinsic functional connectivity differences in individuals with different degrees of shyness and that these differences are sex-dependent. These findings might have important implications on the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying emotional and cognitive processing associated with shyness. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Amniotic fluid deficiency and congenital abnormalities both influence fluctuating asymmetry in developing limbs of human deceased fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Mariquita Antoinette ten Broek

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, as an indirect measure of developmental instability (DI, has been intensively studied for associations with stress and fitness. Patterns, however, appear heterogeneous and the underlying causes remain largely unknown. One aspect that has received relatively little attention in the literature is the consequence of direct mechanical effects on asymmetries. The crucial prerequisite for FA to reflect DI is that environmental conditions on both sides should be identical. This condition may be violated during early human development if amniotic fluid volume is deficient, as the resulting mechanical pressures may increase asymmetries. Indeed, we showed that limb bones of deceased human fetuses exhibited increased asymmetry, when there was not sufficient amniotic fluid (and, thus, space in the uterine cavity. As amniotic fluid deficiency is known to cause substantial asymmetries and abnormal limb development, these subtle asymmetries are probably at least in part caused by the mechanical pressures. On the other hand, deficiencies in amniotic fluid volume are known to be associated with other congenital abnormalities that may disturb DI. More specifically, urogenital abnormalities can directly affect/reduce amniotic fluid volume. We disentangled the direct mechanical effects on FA from the indirect effects of urogenital abnormalities, the latter presumably representing DI. We discovered that both factors contributed significantly to the increase in FA. However, the direct mechanical effect of uterine pressure, albeit statistically significant, appeared less important than the effects of urogenital abnormalities, with an effect size only two-third as large. We, thus, conclude that correcting for the relevant direct factors allowed for a representative test of the association between DI and stress, and confirmed that fetuses form a suitable model system to increase our understanding in patterns of FA and symmetry development.

  4. Thrombin impairs human endometrial endothelial angiogenesis; implications for progestin-only contraceptive-induced abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, John P; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Semerci, Nihan; Huang, S Joseph; Arlier, Sefa; Larsen, Kellie; Fadda, Paolo; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    Progestin-only contraceptives induce abnormal uterine bleeding, accompanied by prothrombin leakage from dilated endometrial microvessels and increased thrombin generation by human endometrial stromal cell (HESC)-expressed tissue factor. Initial studies of the thrombin-treated HESC secretome identified elevated levels of cleaved chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), impairing pericyte-endothelial interactions. Thus, we investigated direct and CSPG4-mediated effects of thrombin in eliciting abnormal uterine bleeding by disrupting endometrial angiogenesis. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluated conditioned medium supernatant and cell lysates from control versus thrombin-treated HESCs. Pre- and post-Depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-administered endometria were immunostained for CSPG4. Proliferation, apoptosis and tube formation were assessed in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) incubated with recombinant human (rh)-CSPG4 or thrombin or both. Thrombin induced CSPG4 protein expression in cultured HESCs as detected by mass spectrometry and ELISA (pabnormal uterine bleeding in DMPA users. Mass spectrometry analysis identified several HESC-secreted proteins regulated by thrombin. Therapeutic agents blocking angiogenic effects of thrombin in HESCs can prevent or minimize progestin-only contraceptive-induced abnormal uterine bleeding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Correlation of in vivo neuroimaging abnormalities with postmortem human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dendritic loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archibald, Sarah L.; Masliah, Eliezer; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the absence of significant opportunistic infection, the most common alterations on neuroimaging in the brains of patients with AIDS include enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces, white-matter loss, volume loss in striatal structures, and white-matter signal abnormalities. Although...

  6. Abnormalities in Expression of Structural, Barrier and Differentiation Related Proteins, and Chondroitin Sulfate in Feline and Human Interstitial Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul J; VanGordon, Samuel B; Seavey, Jonathan; Sofinowski, Troy M; Ramadan, Mohammad; Abdullah, Shivon; Buffington, C A Tony; Hurst, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the urothelium of cats diagnosed with feline interstitial cystitis to determine whether abnormalities in protein expression patterns could be detected and whether the expression pattern was similar to that in patients with human interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. The proteins analyzed are involved in cell adhesion and barrier function, comprise the glycosaminoglycan layer or are differentiation markers. Formalin fixed biopsies from 8 cats with feline interstitial cystitis and from 7 healthy control cats were labeled by immunohistochemistry and scored with a modified version of a system previously used for human samples. Cluster analysis was performed to investigate relationships between markers and samples. Of the feline interstitial cystitis bladders 89% showed abnormal protein expression and chondroitin sulfate patterns while only 27% of normal tissues showed slight abnormalities. Abnormalities were found in most feline interstitial cystitis samples, including biglycan in 87.5%, chondroitin sulfate, decorin, E-cadherin and keratin-20 in 100%, uroplakin in 50% and ZO-1 in 87.5%. In feline interstitial cystitis bladders about 75% of chondroitin sulfate, biglycan and decorin samples demonstrated absent luminal staining or no staining. Cluster analysis revealed that feline interstitial cystitis and normal samples could be clearly separated into 2 groups, showing that the urothelium of cats with feline interstitial cystitis is altered from normal urothelium. Feline interstitial cystitis produces changes in luminal glycosaminoglycan and several proteins similar to that in patients, suggesting some commonality in mechanism. Results support the use of feline interstitial cystitis as a model of human interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: from human to animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835

  8. Genome-wide genetic homogeneity between sexes and populations for human height and body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Jian; Bakshi, Andrew; Zhu, Zhihong; Hemani, Gibran; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Snieder, Harold; Study, Lifelines Cohort; Esko, Tonu; Milani, Lili; Maegi, Reedik; Metspalu, Andres; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Visscher, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex-specific genetic effects have been proposed to be an important source of variation for human complex traits. Here we use two distinct genome-wide methods to estimate the autosomal genetic correlation (r(g)) between men and women for human height and body mass index (BMI), using individual-level

  9. Thickness of the human cranial diploe in relation to age, sex and general body build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Astrup, Jacob G; Sejrsen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have addressed the human total cranial vault thickness and generally found no correlation with sex, age or body weight. However, the thickness of the diploe has not been investigated. Our study has determined the diploeic thickness of the human cranial vault using modern...

  10. The representation of sex workers in South African media: Danger, morals and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Hunt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ideological construct of gender typically positions women below men, and “others” certain types of women even more, especially those distinguished from idealised femininity by aspects of their sexuality. This paper explores the representation of sex work and sex workers in the South African media in 2009 and 2010, a time during which there was an increase in news coverage of sex work during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Analysis of the two data sets revealed that sex work is still often perceived as immoral and dangerous, and that sex workers – overwhelmingly represented as women – are criminalised for their actions while client agency is largely obscured, which is in line with previous studies of South African newspapers. However, a strong liberal representation of sex workers was also found in one data set, which advocates the decriminalisation of sex work in the context of human rights. The use of the term “sex work” and its derivatives, rather than “prostitution”, was found to index this progressive stance.

  11. THE LANCET SERIES ON HIV IN SEX WORKERS; PAPER 4 BURDEN AND HIV IMPACT OF HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS AGAINST SEX WORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R.; Crago, Anna-Louise; Ka Hon Chu, Sandra; Sherman, Susan G.; Saraswathi Seshu, Meena; Buthelezi, Kholi; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed evidence from over 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV impact of human rights abuses against sex workers across policy climates. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations facilitate HIV vulnerability, both directly and indirectly, and undermine effective HIV prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide, physical and sexual violence from law enforcement, clients and intimate partners, unlawful arrest and detention, discrimination in accessing health services, and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, though most profoundly so where sex work is criminalized through punitive law. Protection of sex workers’ human rights is critical to respect, protect and fulfill human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalized population. PMID:25059943

  12. The Electrogenic Na+/K+ Pump Is a Key Determinant of Repolarization Abnormality Susceptibility in Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes: A Population-Based Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Britton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cellular repolarization abnormalities occur unpredictably due to disease and drug effects, and can occur even in cardiomyocytes that exhibit normal action potentials (AP under control conditions. Variability in ion channel densities may explain differences in this susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. Here, we quantify the importance of key ionic mechanisms determining repolarization abnormalities following ionic block in human cardiomyocytes yielding normal APs under control conditions.Methods and Results: Sixty two AP recordings from non-diseased human heart preparations were used to construct a population of human ventricular models with normal APs and a wide range of ion channel densities. Multichannel ionic block was applied to investigate susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. IKr block was necessary for the development of repolarization abnormalities. Models that developed repolarization abnormalities over the widest range of blocks possessed low Na+/K+ pump conductance below 50% of baseline, and ICaL conductance above 70% of baseline. Furthermore, INaK made the second largest contribution to repolarizing current in control simulations and the largest contribution under 75% IKr block. Reversing intracellular Na+ overload caused by reduced INaK was not sufficient to prevent abnormalities in models with low Na+/K+ pump conductance, while returning Na+/K+ pump conductance to normal substantially reduced abnormality occurrence, indicating INaK is an important repolarization current.Conclusions: INaK is an important determinant of repolarization abnormality susceptibility in human ventricular cardiomyocytes, through its contribution to repolarization current rather than homeostasis. While we found IKr block to be necessary for repolarization abnormalities to occur, INaK decrease, as in disease, may amplify the pro-arrhythmic risk of drug-induced IKr block in humans.

  13. The Electrogenic Na+/K+ Pump Is a Key Determinant of Repolarization Abnormality Susceptibility in Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes: A Population-Based Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Oliver J; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Virág, László; Varró, András; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cellular repolarization abnormalities occur unpredictably due to disease and drug effects, and can occur even in cardiomyocytes that exhibit normal action potentials (AP) under control conditions. Variability in ion channel densities may explain differences in this susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. Here, we quantify the importance of key ionic mechanisms determining repolarization abnormalities following ionic block in human cardiomyocytes yielding normal APs under control conditions. Methods and Results: Sixty two AP recordings from non-diseased human heart preparations were used to construct a population of human ventricular models with normal APs and a wide range of ion channel densities. Multichannel ionic block was applied to investigate susceptibility to repolarization abnormalities. I Kr block was necessary for the development of repolarization abnormalities. Models that developed repolarization abnormalities over the widest range of blocks possessed low Na + /K + pump conductance below 50% of baseline, and I CaL conductance above 70% of baseline. Furthermore, I NaK made the second largest contribution to repolarizing current in control simulations and the largest contribution under 75% I Kr block. Reversing intracellular Na + overload caused by reduced I NaK was not sufficient to prevent abnormalities in models with low Na + /K + pump conductance, while returning Na + /K + pump conductance to normal substantially reduced abnormality occurrence, indicating I NaK is an important repolarization current. Conclusions: I NaK is an important determinant of repolarization abnormality susceptibility in human ventricular cardiomyocytes, through its contribution to repolarization current rather than homeostasis. While we found I Kr block to be necessary for repolarization abnormalities to occur, I NaK decrease, as in disease, may amplify the pro-arrhythmic risk of drug-induced I Kr block in humans.

  14. Proteomics analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals novel abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Hyonson; Bowen, Benjamin P; Lefort, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    changes involving the use of proteomics was used here. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic volunteers (n = 8 each); glucose clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity. Muscle protein was subjected to mass spectrometry......OBJECTIVE : Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is an early phenomenon in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Studies of insulin resistance usually are highly focused. However, approaches that give a more global picture of abnormalities in insulin resistance are useful in pointing out new...

  15. The Art of the Possible: Making films on sex work migration and human trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine Plambech

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiction films and documentaries increasingly bring the themes of sex work migration and human trafficking to the big screen. The films often focus on women who have experienced a range of abusive conditions within the sex industry, experiences which in the films typically are all labelled ‘trafficking’ and narrated through the capture of innocents and their rescue. Images of ‘sex slaves’ have thus entered the film scene as iconic figures of pain and suffering, and ‘traffickers’ have emerged as icons of human evil. Building upon the substantial scholarly critique of such films and representations, this article discusses the possibilities of making films about migrant sex workers (some of whom may be trafficked that do not fall into misleading and sensationalised representations. I draw upon two films about women migrant sex workers that I have worked on as an anthropologist and filmmaker—Trafficking (2010 and Becky’s Journey (2014. The point of departure is that there are a range of other aspects that can influence the filmmaking process rather than merely a one-dimensional perspective on sex work and trafficking. While analysing the making of these two films I look at the reasons—both theoretical and practical—for certain production decisions and the ways in which films in the context of multiple challenges are often the result of the art of the possible.

  16. Abnormal Neurocirculatory Control During Exercise in Humans with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeanie; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neurocirculatory control during exercise is one important mechanism leading to exercise intolerance in patients with both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review will provide an overview of mechanisms underlying abnormal neurocirculatory and hemodynamic responses to exercise in patients with kidney disease. Recent studies have shown that ESRD and CKD patients have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP) during both isometric and rhythmic exercise. Subsequent studies examining the role of the exercise pressor reflex in the augmented pressor response revealed that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was not augmented during exercise in these patients, and metaboreflex-mediated increases in MSNA were blunted, while mechanoreflex-mediated increases were preserved under basal conditions. However, normalizing the augmented BP response during exercise via infusion of nitroprusside (NTP), and thereby equalizing baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA, an important modulator of the final hemodynamic response to exercise, revealed that CKD patients had an exaggerated increase in MSNA during isometric and rhythmic exercise. In addition, mechanoreflex-mediated control was augmented, and metaboreceptor blunting was no longer apparent in CKD patients with baroreflex normalization. Factors leading to mechanoreceptor sensitization, and other mechanisms underlying the exaggerated exercise pressor response, such as impaired functional sympatholysis, should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25458430

  17. The influence of sex hormones on seizures in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meervenne, Sofie A E; Volk, Holger A; Matiasek, Kaspar; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2014-07-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological disorder in both humans and dogs. The effect of sex hormones on seizures is well documented in human medicine. Catamenial epilepsy is defined as an increase in frequency and severity of seizures during certain periods of the menstrual cycle. Oestradiol increases seizure activity and progesterone is believed to exhibit a protective effect. The role of androgens is controversial and there is a lack of research focusing on androgens and epilepsy. Indeed, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on epilepsy in dogs. Sterilisation is believed to improve seizure control, but no systematic research has been conducted in this field. This review provides an overview of the current literature on the influence of sex hormones on seizures in humans. The literature on idiopathic epilepsy in dogs was assessed to identify potential risk factors related to sex and sterilisation status. In general, there appears to be an over-representation of male dogs with idiopathic epilepsy but no explanation for this difference in prevalence between sexes has been reported. In addition, no reliable conclusions can be drawn on the effect of sterilisation due to the lack of focused research and robust scientific evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution for longitu......CONTEXT: Growth is a highly complex process regulated by the interaction between sex steroids and the GH IGF-axis. However, other factors such as sex chromosome-related genes play independent roles. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abnormal chromosome constitution...... and sitting height, serum levels of reproductive hormones, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were measured. RESULTS: In boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, growth was accelerated already in childhood, compared with healthy boys. 46,XX-males were significantly shorter than healthy boys but matched the stature of healthy...... and elevated LH levels after puberty, whereas the sex hormone secretion of the 47,XYY boys remained normal. CONCLUSION: We found accelerated growth in early childhood in boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, whereas 46,XX-males were shorter than controls. These abnormal growth patterns were not reflected...

  19. Fe and Cu stable isotopes in archeological human bones and their relationship to sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Balter, Vincent; Herrscher, Estelle; Lamboux, Aline; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2012-07-01

    Accurate sex assignment of ancient human remains usually relies on the availability of coxal bones or well-preserved DNA. Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) stable isotope compositions ((56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu, respectively) were recently measured in modern human blood, and an unexpected result was the discovery of a (56)Fe-depletion and a (65)Cu-enrichment in men's blood compared to women's blood. Bones, being pervasively irrigated by blood, are expected to retain the (56)Fe/(54)Fe and (65)Cu/(63)Cu signature of blood, which in turn is useful for determining the sex of ancient bones. Here, we report the (56)Fe/(54)Fe, (65)Cu/(63)Cu, and (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios from a suite of well-preserved phalanxes (n = 43) belonging to individuals buried in the 17th and 18th centuries at the necropolis of Saint-Laurent de Grenoble, France, and for which the sex was independently estimated from pelvic bone morphology. The metals were purified from the bone matrix by liquid chromatography on ion exchange resin and the isotope compositions were measured by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results show that, as expected from literature data on blood, male bone iron is depleted in (56)Fe and enriched in (65)Cu relative to female. No sex difference is found in the (66)Zn/(64)Zn ratios of bone. The concentration and isotopic data show no evidence of soil contamination. Four samples of five (77%) can be assigned their correct sex, a result comparable to sex assignment using Fe and Cu isotopes in blood (81%). Isotopic analysis of metals may therefore represent a valid method of sex assignment applicable to incomplete human remains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Essential metrics for assessing sex & gender integration in health research proposals involving human participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Day

    Full Text Available Integrating sex and gender in health research is essential to produce the best possible evidence to inform health care. Comprehensive integration of sex and gender requires considering these variables from the very beginning of the research process, starting at the proposal stage. To promote excellence in sex and gender integration, we have developed a set of metrics to assess the quality of sex and gender integration in research proposals. These metrics are designed to assist both researchers in developing proposals and reviewers in making funding decisions. We developed this tool through an iterative three-stage method involving 1 review of existing sex and gender integration resources and initial metrics design, 2 expert review and feedback via anonymous online survey (Likert scale and open-ended questions, and 3 analysis of feedback data and collective revision of the metrics. We received feedback on the initial metrics draft from 20 reviewers with expertise in conducting sex- and/or gender-based health research. The majority of reviewers responded positively to questions regarding the utility, clarity and completeness of the metrics, and all reviewers provided responses to open-ended questions about suggestions for improvements. Coding and analysis of responses identified three domains for improvement: clarifying terminology, refining content, and broadening applicability. Based on this analysis we revised the metrics into the Essential Metrics for Assessing Sex and Gender Integration in Health Research Proposals Involving Human Participants, which outlines criteria for excellence within each proposal component and provides illustrative examples to support implementation. By enhancing the quality of sex and gender integration in proposals, the metrics will help to foster comprehensive, meaningful integration of sex and gender throughout each stage of the research process, resulting in better quality evidence to inform health care for all.

  1. Sex hormone effects on autonomic mechanisms of thermoregulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Stachenfeld, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Autonomic mechanisms are fundamental to human physiological thermoregulation, and female reproductive hormones have substantial influences on several aspects of these mechanisms. Of these, the best recognized are the thermoregulatory responses that occur at menopause (hot flushes) and the changes in body temperature within the menstrual cycle which may help couples predict ovulation. Our goal in this brief review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the influences of reproductive hormones on autonomic mechanisms in human thermoregulation. In general, estrogens tend to promote lower body temperatures via augmentation of heat dissipation responses, whereas progesterone tends to promote higher body temperatures. Recent evidence suggests specific influences of estrogens on central autonomic nuclei involved in control of skin blood flow and sweating. Estrogens also augment vasodilation by direct effects on peripheral blood vessels. Influences of progesterone are less well understood, but include both centrally regulated changes in thermoregulatory set-point as well as and peripheral effects, including augmented vasoconstriction in the skin. We conclude with a brief discussion of thermoregulatory adjustments associated with changing hormone levels during menopause, pregnancy and polycystic ovary syndrome. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Large Scale Gene Expression Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific, Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Benjamin T.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Buckberry, Sam; Breen, James; Clifton, Vicki; Shoubridge, Cheryl; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analyzed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes), followed by the heart (375 genes), kidney (224 genes), colon (218 genes), and thyroid (163 genes). More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs, and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases. PMID:27790248

  3. Large scale gene expression meta-analysis reveals tissue-specific, sex-biased gene expression in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mayne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analysed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes, followed by the heart (375 genes, kidney (224 genes, colon (218 genes and thyroid (163 genes. More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  4. Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human-Induced Pluripotent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    stem cell center reprograms blood cells at expert facility... reprogramming of stem cells occurs at BU. ▪ Personnel exchanges - subject recruitment is done at BUSPH site with BUSPH research assistant. ▪ Other – none...Aim 1. Develop human neurons or glial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), originating from

  5. Cigarette smoking and human papillomavirus in patients with reported cervical cytological abnormality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, M. P.; Hollema, H.; Gouw, A. S.; Pieters, W. J.; Quint, W. G.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between two risk factors for cervical neoplasia: smoking and infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus. It has been suggested that smoking causes a local immunological defect, which could facilitate the infection and persistence of human papillomavirus. DESIGN:

  6. Cigarette-smoking and human papillomavirus in patients with reported cervical cytological abnormality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, M. P. M.; Hollema, H.; Gouw, A. S. H.; Pieters, W. J. L. M.; Quint, W. G. V.

    1993-01-01

    Objective-To assess the relation between two risk factors for cervical neoplasia: smoking and infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus. It has been suggested that smoking causes a local immunological defect, which could facilitate the infection and persistence of human papillomavirus.

  7. Family Life and Human Development (Sex Education): The Prince George's County Public Schools Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    The Prince George's County schools' sex education program for grades K-12 was developed and implemented in the late 1960s and has three focus areas: family life and interpersonal relationships; the physiological and personality changes during puberty; and advanced physiology and psychology of human sexual behavior. The program augments what the…

  8. Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Cortex Cerebri in Relation to Wanting Sex and Having It

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Neuroanatomical textbooks typically restrict the central nervous system control of sexual responsiveness to the hypothalamus, brainstem and spinal cord. However, for all its primitive functions human sex is surprisingly complex and versatile. This review aims to extend the neuroanatomy of sexual

  9. Activity of vasopressinergic neurones of the human supraoptic nucleus is age- and sex-dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishunina, T. A.; Salehi, A.; Hofman, M. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    In the human hypothalamus, arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is produced for a major part by the neurones of the supraoptic nucleus (SON). Since plasma AVP levels in men were reported to be higher than those of women and we did not find a sex difference in the neurone number, a higher vasopressinergic

  10. Using the Optical Fractionator to Estimate Total Cell Numbers in the Normal and Abnormal Developing Human Forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen B

    2017-01-01

    Human fetal brain development is a complex process which is vulnerable to disruption at many stages. Although histogenesis is well-documented, only a few studies have quantified cell numbers across normal human fetal brain growth. Due to the present lack of normative data it is difficult to gauge...... abnormal development. Furthermore, many studies of brain cell numbers have employed biased counting methods, whereas innovations in stereology during the past 20-30 years enable reliable and efficient estimates of cell numbers. However, estimates of cell volumes and densities in fetal brain samples...... are unreliable due to unpredictable shrinking artifacts, and the fragility of the fetal brain requires particular care in handling and processing. The optical fractionator design offers a direct and robust estimate of total cell numbers in the fetal brain with a minimum of handling of the tissue. Bearing...

  11. Virtual Human Technology: Capturing Sex, Race, and Age Influences in Individual Pain Decision Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Alqudah, Ashraf F.; Stutts, Lauren A.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Pain assessment is subject to bias due to characteristics of the individual in pain and of the observing person. Few research studies have examined pain assessment biases in an experimental setting. The present study employs innovative virtual human technology to achieve greater experimental control. A lens model design was used to capture decision-making policies at the idiographic and nomothetic level. Seventy-five undergraduates viewed virtual humans (VH) that varied in sex, race, age, and...

  12. Nicotinic acid receptor abnormalities in human skin cancer: implications for a role in epidermal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yira Bermudez

    Full Text Available Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells.Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional.The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis.

  13. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-06-11

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. Copyright 2015 Amon, Wurth, and McLemore. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  14. Investigating the sex-related geometric variation of the human cranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsatos, Andreas; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Valakos, Efstratios; Chovalopoulou, Maria-Eleni

    2018-01-29

    Accurate sexing methods are of great importance in forensic anthropology since sex assessment is among the principal tasks when examining human skeletal remains. The present study explores a novel approach in assessing the most accurate metric traits of the human cranium for sex estimation based on 80 ectocranial landmarks from 176 modern individuals of known age and sex from the Athens Collection. The purpose of the study is to identify those distance and angle measurements that can be most effectively used in sex assessment. Three-dimensional landmark coordinates were digitized with a Microscribe 3DX and analyzed in GNU Octave. An iterative linear discriminant analysis of all possible combinations of landmarks was performed for each unique set of the 3160 distances and 246,480 angles. Cross-validated correct classification as well as multivariate DFA on top performing variables reported 13 craniometric distances with over 85% classification accuracy, 7 angles over 78%, as well as certain multivariate combinations yielding over 95%. Linear regression of these variables with the centroid size was used to assess their relation to the size of the cranium. In contrast to the use of generalized procrustes analysis (GPA) and principal component analysis (PCA), which constitute the common analytical work flow for such data, our method, although computational intensive, produced easily applicable discriminant functions of high accuracy, while at the same time explored the maximum of cranial variability.

  15. Sex, skull length, breed, and age predict how dogs look at faces of humans and conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognár, Zsófia; Iotchev, Ivaylo B; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2018-04-17

    The gaze of other dogs and humans is informative for dogs, but it has not been explored which factors predict face-directed attention. We used image presentations of unfamiliar human and dog heads, facing the observer (portrait) or facing away (profile), and measured looking time responses. We expected dog portraits to be aversive, human portraits to attract interest, and tested dogs of different sex, skull length and breed function, which in previous work had predicted human-directed attention. Dog portraits attracted longer looking times than human profiles. Mesocephalic dogs looked at portraits longer than at profiles, independent of the species in the image. Overall, brachycephalic dogs and dogs of unspecified breed function (such as mixed breeds) displayed the longest looking times. Among the latter, females observed the images for longer than males, which is in line with human findings on sex differences in processing faces. In a subsequent experiment, we tested whether dog portraits functioned as threatening stimuli. We hypothesized that dogs will avoid food rewards or approach them more slowly in the presence of a dog portrait, but found no effect of image type. In general, older dogs took longer to approach food placed in front of the images and mesocephalic dogs were faster than dogs of other skull length types. The results suggest that short-headed dogs are more attentive to faces, while sex and breed function predict looking times through complex interactions.

  16. Sex differences in the neurokinin B system in the human infundibular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    2012-12-01

    The recent report that loss-of-function mutations in either the gene encoding neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor (NK3R) produce gonadotropin deficiencies in humans strongly points to NKB as a key regulator of GnRH release. We used NKB immunohistochemistry on postmortem human brain tissue to determine: 1) whether the human NKB system in the infundibular nucleus (INF) is sexually dimorphic; 2) at what stage in development the infundibular NKB system would diverge between men and women; 3) whether this putative structural difference is reversed in male-to-female (MtF) transsexual people; and 4) whether menopause is accompanied by changes in infundibular NKB immunoreactivity. NKB immunohistochemical staining was performed on postmortem hypothalamus material of both sexes from the infant/pubertal period into the elderly period and from MtF transsexuals. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the human NKB system exhibits a robust female-dominant sexual dimorphism in the INF. During the first years after birth, both sexes displayed a moderate and equivalent level of NKB immunoreactivity in the INF. The adult features emerged progressively around puberty until adulthood, where the female-dominant sex difference appeared and continued into old age. In MtF transsexuals, a female-typical NKB immunoreactivity was observed. Finally, in postmenopausal women, there was a significant increase in NKB immunoreactivity compared to premenopausal women. Our results indicate that certain sex differences do not emerge until adulthood when activated by sex steroid hormones and the likely involvement of the human infundibular NKB system in the negative and positive feedback of estrogen on GnRH secretion.

  17. Sex Differences in Human Fatigability: Mechanisms and Insight to Physiological Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in physiology and anatomy are responsible for profound differences in neuromuscular performance and fatigability between men and women. Women are usually less fatigable than men for similar intensity isometric fatiguing contractions. This sex difference in fatigability, however, is task specific because different neuromuscular sites will be stressed when the requirements of the task are altered, and the stress on these sites can differ for men and women. Task variables that can alter the sex difference in fatigue include the type, intensity and speed of contraction, the muscle group assessed, and the environmental conditions. Physiological mechanisms that are responsible for sex-based differences in fatigability may include activation of the motor neuron pool from cortical and subcortical regions, synaptic inputs to the motor neuron pool via activation of metabolically-sensitive small afferent fibres in the muscle, muscle perfusion, and skeletal muscle metabolism and fibre type properties. Non-physiological factors such as the sex bias of studying more males than females in human and animal experiments can also mask a true understanding of the magnitude and mechanisms of sex-based differences in physiology and fatigability. Despite recent developments, there is a tremendous lack of understanding of sex differences in neuromuscular function and fatigability, the prevailing mechanisms and the functional consequences. This review emphasises the need to understand sex-based differences in fatigability in order to shed light on the benefits and limitations that fatigability can exert for men and women during daily tasks, exercise performance, training and rehabilitation in both health and disease. PMID:24433272

  18. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  19. Human anogenital distance: an update on fetal smoke-exposure and integration of the perinatal literature on sex differences

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Paul A.; Filis, Panagiotis; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; le Bizec, Bruno; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Morvan, Marie-Line; Drake, Amanda J.; Soffientini, Ugo; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    AbstractSTUDY QUESTION: Do sex and maternal smoking effects on human fetal anogenital distance (AGD) persist in a larger study and how do these data integrate with the wider literature on perinatal human AGD, especially with respect to sex differences?SUMMARY ANSWER: Second trimester sex differences in AGD are broadly consistent with neonatal and infant measures of AGD and maternal cigarette smoking is associated with a temporary increase in male AGD in the absence of changes in circulating t...

  20. The science of sex and gender in human health: online courses to create a foundation for sex and gender accountability in biomedical research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank-Bazinet, Jennifer L; Sampson, Annie; Miller, Leah R; Fadiran, Emmanuel O; Kallgren, Deborah; Agarwal, Rajeev K; Barfield, Whitney; Brooks, Claudette E; Begg, Lisa; Mistretta, Amy C; Scott, Pamela E; Clayton, Janine Austin; Cornelison, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Sex and gender differences play a significant role in the course and outcome of conditions that affect specific organ systems in the human body. Research on differences in the effects of medical intervention has helped scientists develop a number of sex- and gender-specific guidelines on the treatment and management of these conditions. An online series of courses, "The Science of Sex and Gender in Human Health," developed by the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health, examines sex and gender differences and their implications. Thus far, three online courses have been generated. The first course offers an overview of the scientific and biological basis for sex- and gender-related differences. The second course is focused on disease-specific sex and gender differences in health and behavior and their implications. Finally, the third course covers the influence of sex and gender on disease manifestation, treatment, and outcome. Data were obtained using website analytics and post-course surveys. To date, over 1000 individuals have completed at least one course. Additionally, 600 users have received continuing education credit for completing a course in the series. Finally, the majority of respondents to the online course survey have indicated that the courses considerably enhanced their professional effectiveness. "The Science of Sex and Gender in Human Health" online courses are freely available sources of information that provide healthcare providers and researchers with the resources to successfully account for sex and gender in their medical practice and research programs.

  1. The neurobiology of abnormal manifestations of aggression--a review of hypothalamic mechanisms in cats, rodents, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    Aggression research was for long dominated by the assumption that aggression-related psychopathologies result from the excessive activation of aggression-promoting brain mechanisms. This assumption was recently challenged by findings with models of aggression that mimic etiological factors of aggression-related psychopathologies. Subjects submitted to such procedures show abnormal attack features (mismatch between provocation and response, disregard of species-specific rules, and insensitivity toward the social signals of opponents). We review here 12 such laboratory models and the available human findings on the neural background of abnormal aggression. We focus on the hypothalamus, a region tightly involved in the execution of attacks. Data show that the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling attacks (general activation levels, local serotonin, vasopressin, substance P, glutamate, GABA, and dopamine neurotransmission) undergo etiological factor-dependent changes. Findings suggest that the emotional component of attacks differentiates two basic types of hypothalamic mechanisms. Aggression associated with increased arousal (emotional/reactive aggression) is paralleled by increased mediobasal hypothalamic activation, increased hypothalamic vasopressinergic, but diminished hypothalamic serotonergic neurotransmission. In aggression models associated with low arousal (unemotional/proactive aggression), the lateral but not the mediobasal hypothalamus is over-activated. In addition, the anti-aggressive effect of serotonergic neurotransmission is lost and paradoxical changes were noticed in vasopressinergic neurotransmission. We conclude that there is no single 'neurobiological road' to abnormal aggression: the neural background shows qualitative, etiological factor-dependent differences. Findings obtained with different models should be viewed as alternative mechanisms rather than conflicting data. The relevance of these findings for understanding and treating of aggression

  2. Both dog and human faces are explored abnormally by young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Quentin; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Baduel, Sophie; Kruck, Jeanne; Arnaud, Mado; Rogé, Bernadette

    2014-10-22

    When looking at faces, typical individuals tend to have a right hemispheric bias manifested by a tendency to look first toward the left visual hemifield. Here, we tested for the presence of this bias in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) for both human and dog faces. We show that children with ASD do not show a left visual hemifield (right hemispheric) bias for human faces. In addition, we show that this effect extends to faces of dogs, suggesting that the absence of bias is not specific to human faces, but applies to all faces with the first-order configuration, pointing to an anomaly at an early stage of visual analysis of faces. The lack of right hemispheric dominance for face processing may reflect a more general disorder of cerebral specialization of social functions in ASD.

  3. [Human abnormalities--their importance in the world view during antiquity and the early Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, J N

    1992-01-01

    In consideration of the experience that also in our present day society the development of a handicapped baby is understood by some as the visible result of a morally guilty behaviour of the parents, the present study raises the question, whether the identification of physical appearance and moral attitude has been in a certain historical epoch the preferred approach in science for understanding the origin of human malformations. After the treatment of the teratological theories in greek medicine and aristotelian natural philosophy the question of the origin of human malformation is examined in Pliny's "Historia naturalis" and Augustine's "De civitate dei". A comparison between the theories presented shows that the moral interpretation of human malformation is an inevitable consequence of the augustinian theological thinking.

  4. Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davegårdh, Cajsa; Broholm, Christa; Perfilyev, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    subjects. Interestingly, numerous genes implicated in metabolic diseases and epigenetic regulation showed differential methylation and expression during differentiation only in obese subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies IL-32 as a novel myogenic regulator, provides a comprehensive map of the dynamic......BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity...... is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P reporting heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.

  6. Abnormal error processing in depressive states: a translational examination in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, C; Donahue, R J; Dillon, D G; Van't Veer, A; Webber, C; Lee, J; Barrick, E; Hsu, K J; Foti, D; Carroll, F I; Carlezon, W A; Björgvinsson, T; Pizzagalli, D A

    2015-05-12

    Depression has been associated with poor performance following errors, but the clinical implications, response to treatment and neurobiological mechanisms of this post-error behavioral adjustment abnormality remain unclear. To fill this gap in knowledge, we tested depressed patients in a partial hospital setting before and after treatment (cognitive behavior therapy combined with medication) using a flanker task. To evaluate the translational relevance of this metric in rodents, we performed a secondary analysis on existing data from rats tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task after treatment with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a stress peptide that produces depressive-like signs in rodent models relevant to depression. In addition, to examine the effect of treatment on post-error behavior in rodents, we examined a second cohort of rodents treated with JDTic, a kappa-opioid receptor antagonist that produces antidepressant-like effects in laboratory animals. In depressed patients, baseline post-error accuracy was lower than post-correct accuracy, and, as expected, post-error accuracy improved with treatment. Moreover, baseline post-error accuracy predicted attentional control and rumination (but not depressive symptoms) after treatment. In rats, CRF significantly degraded post-error accuracy, but not post-correct accuracy, and this effect was attenuated by JDTic. Our findings demonstrate deficits in post-error accuracy in depressed patients, as well as a rodent model relevant to depression. These deficits respond to intervention in both species. Although post-error behavior predicted treatment-related changes in attentional control and rumination, a relationship to depressive symptoms remains to be demonstrated.

  7. Hyperlipidemia and cutaneous abnormalities in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, M.C.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Gorp, P.J.J. van; Koopman, S.-J.; Ponec, M.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated with different levels of human apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) expression in liver and skin. At 2 mo of age, serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and FFA were strongly elevated in APOC1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. These elevated levels of serum

  8. Apoptotic ratios and mitotic abnormalities in 17-β-estradiol-transformed human breast epithelial MCF-10F cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LMS Cruz

    Full Text Available Treatment of human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F with 17-β-estradiol has been reported to result in E2-transformed cells which have given rise to highly invasive C5 cells that in turn generate tumors in SCID mice. From these tumors, various cell lines, among which C5-A6-T6 and C5-A8-T8, were obtained. Although different phases of the tumorigenesis process in this model have been studied in molecular biology and image analysis assays, no cytological data on apoptotic ratios and mitotic abnormalities have been established to accompany the various steps leading to 17-β-estradiol-treated MCF-10F cells to tumorigenesis. Here we detected that the apoptotic ratio decreases with the transformation and tumorigenesis progress, except for the tumor cell line C5-A8-T8, probably on account of its more intense proliferation rate and a more rapid culture medium consumption. Increased frequency of mitotic abnormalities contributed by triple- and tetrapolar metaphases, and by lagging chromosomes and chromosome bridges observed at the anaphase found by transformation and tumorigenesis progress. However, no difference was found under these terms when the C5-A6-T6 and C5-A8-T8 tumor cell lines were compared to each other. Present findings are in agreement with the nuclear instability and enrichment of dysregulated genes in the apoptotic process promoted by transformation and tumorigenesis in 17-β-estradiol-treated MCF-10F cells.

  9. Correlation of in vivo neuroimaging abnormalities with postmortem human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dendritic loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archibald, Sarah L.; Masliah, Eliezer; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

    2004-01-01

    previous studies have linked brain viral levels to these alterations, other neuropathological mechanisms might also contribute to them. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between findings on premortem magnetic resonance images and postmortem neuropathologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV...... immunoreactivity. CONCLUSIONS: White-matter and cortical damage resulting from HIV disease are closely related. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging may be a valuable adjunct in the assessment of patients at risk for developing HIV encephalitis...

  10. The morphology of human hyoid bone in relation to sex, age and body proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, P; Hejna, P; Zátopková, L; Šafr, M

    2013-06-01

    Morphological aspects of the human hyoid bone are, like many other skeletal elements in human body, greatly affected by individual's sex, age and body proportions. Still, the known sex-dependent bimodality of a number of body size characteristics overshadows the true within-group patterns. Given the ambiguity of the causal effects of age, sex and body size upon hyoid morphology the present study puts the relationship between shape of human hyoid bone and body proportions (height and weight) under scrutiny of a morphological study. Using 211 hyoid bones and landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics, it was shown that the size of hyoid bones correlated positively with measured body dimensions but showed no correlation if the individual's sex was controlled for. For shape variables, our results revealed that hyoid morphology is clearly related to body size as expressed in terms of the height and weight. Yet, the hyoid shape was shown to result primarily from the sex-related bimodal distribution of studied body size descriptors which, in the case of the height-dependent model, exhibited opposite trends for males and females. Apart from the global hyoid shape given by spatial arrangements of the greater horns, body size dependency was translated into size and position of the hyoid body. None of the body size characters had any impact on hyoid asymmetry. Ultimately, sexually dimorphic variation was revealed for age-dependent changes in both size and shape of hyoid bones as male hyoids tend to be more susceptible to modifications with age than female bones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytogenetic evaluation of human glial tumors: correlation of overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFB) with abnormalities of chromosome 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome banding analysis of human glial tumors were performed using G- and Q-banding techniques in an attempt to establish recurring sites of chromosome change. Results revealed a nonrandom karyotypic profile including aneuploidy and considerable variation in chromosome number (range 40 → 200). All tumors examined displayed numerical abnormalities, with the most common numeric change being a gain of chromosome 7. An attempt was then made to correlate the observed chromosome 7 changes with activation of the cellular proto-oncogene c-erb-B, whose produce is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Six human glial tumors were analyzed for 125 I-EGF binding, EGFR gene copy number, EGFR gene rearrangement, mRNA expression, and karyotypic profile. Saturation analysis at 4 0 C revealed significant numbers of EGFR's in all 6 tumors. Southern blotting analysis utilizing cDNA probes for the EGFR failed to demonstrate significant amplification or structural rearrangement of the EFGR gene. The results suggest that overexpression of the EGFR may be related to an alternative mechanism, other than gene amplification and elevated mRNA levels, such as the regulation of receptor biosynthesis and degradation. In summary, findings indicate that alterations of chromosome 7 are the most prevalent chromosomal change in human glial tumors, and that these alterations may lead to overexpression of the protooncogene c-erb-B

  12. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Geary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children's and adolescent's physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children's play and cognitive (e.g., language fluency traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments.

  13. Stigma, sexual health, and human rights among women who have sex with women in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia C; Logie, Carmen H; Adams, Darrin; Mothopeng, Tampose; Lebona, Judith; Letsie, Puleng; Baral, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, gender and sexual minorities have become increasingly visible across sub-Saharan Africa, marking both the progression and violation of their human rights. Using data from a study with sexual minorities in Lesotho, this analysis leveraged the social ecological model to examine relationships between stigma, human rights, and sexual health among women who have sex with women in Lesotho. A community-based participatory approach was used for the mixed-method, cross-sectional study. A total of 250 women who have sex with women completed a structured questionnaire, of which 21 participated in a total of three focus group discussions. Stigma was common within and outside the health sector. Stigma and human rights abuses were associated with increased risk for HIV and STIs. Interventions to address stigma at the structural, community, and interpersonal levels are essential to ensuring sexual health and rights for women who have sex with women in Lesotho. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of Sex Determination from Human Dental Pulp Tissue and its Reliability as a Tool in Forensic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Kaveri Surya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex determination is one of the primary steps in forensics. Barr body can be used as a histological method for identification of sex as it is found to be specific to female somatic cells and rare in male cells. To demarcate human dental pulp as an important identification tool of sex in forensic odontology (FO) and to evaluate the time period till which sex can be determined from pulp tissue using three stains H and E, Feulgen, and acridine - orange under fluorescence so as. Materials and Methods: 90 pulp samples (45 males and 45 females) were subjected to Barr body analysis for determination of sex using light and fluorescent microscopy. Results: Barr body was found to be positive for female samples and negative or rare in the male sample (<3%). Conclusion: Barr body from human dental pulp tissue can be used as a successful determinant of sex identification in FO. PMID:26668474

  15. Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Brondani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of 150 questionnaires was distributed at specific non-profit health organizations in Vancouver, Canada. Questions included perceived risks for oral sex in terms of HPV infection and oral cancer development, and the frequency with which respondents were asked about oral sexual practices by physicians and dentists. Data were analysed statistically by age group (19– 30, 31–50, 50\\, gender (male, female, and sexual orientation (queer, straight. 110 questionnaires were returned fully completed. For the transmission of HPV, 58% of the participants believed that oral sex is an activity of no or low risk, whereas 72% considered the same activity to be of no risk for the development of oral cancer. There was no statistical difference between gender and sexual orientation. Participants never discussed related health risks in regard to oral sex with their physicians or dentists. In conclusion, although recent attention has been given to the potential links between HPV infection and oral cancer, such links remain mostly unknown by the public. Physicians and dentists could discuss oral sex practices to raise awareness with their patients. This is a small sample size study and the results should be interpreted with caution.

  16. Cross-Classification of Human Urinary Lipidome by Sex, Age, and Body Mass Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Okemoto

    Full Text Available Technological advancements in past decades have led to the development of integrative analytical approaches to lipidomics, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS, and information about biogenic lipids is rapidly accumulating. Although several cohort-based studies have been conducted on the composition of urinary lipidome, the data on urinary lipids cross-classified by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI are insufficient to screen for various abnormalities. To promote the development of urinary lipid metabolome-based diagnostic assay, we analyzed 60 urine samples from healthy white adults (young (c.a., 30 years and old (c.a., 60 years men/women using LC/MS. Women had a higher urinary concentration of omega-3 12-lipoxygenase (LOX-generated oxylipins with anti-inflammatory activity compared to men. In addition, young women showed increased abundance of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and cytochrome P450 (P450-produced oxylipins with anti-hypertensive activity compared with young men, whereas elderly women exhibited higher concentration of 5-LOX-generated anti-inflammatory oxylipins than elderly men. There were no significant differences in urinary oxylipin levels between young and old subjects or between subjects with low and high BMI. Our findings suggest that sex, but neither ages nor BMI could be a confounding factor for measuring the composition of urinary lipid metabolites in the healthy population. The information showed contribute to the development of reliable biomarker findings from urine.

  17. Cross-Classification of Human Urinary Lipidome by Sex, Age, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okemoto, Kazuo; Maekawa, Keiko; Tajima, Yoko; Tohkin, Masahiro; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Technological advancements in past decades have led to the development of integrative analytical approaches to lipidomics, such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and information about biogenic lipids is rapidly accumulating. Although several cohort-based studies have been conducted on the composition of urinary lipidome, the data on urinary lipids cross-classified by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) are insufficient to screen for various abnormalities. To promote the development of urinary lipid metabolome-based diagnostic assay, we analyzed 60 urine samples from healthy white adults (young (c.a., 30 years) and old (c.a., 60 years) men/women) using LC/MS. Women had a higher urinary concentration of omega-3 12-lipoxygenase (LOX)-generated oxylipins with anti-inflammatory activity compared to men. In addition, young women showed increased abundance of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cytochrome P450 (P450)-produced oxylipins with anti-hypertensive activity compared with young men, whereas elderly women exhibited higher concentration of 5-LOX-generated anti-inflammatory oxylipins than elderly men. There were no significant differences in urinary oxylipin levels between young and old subjects or between subjects with low and high BMI. Our findings suggest that sex, but neither ages nor BMI could be a confounding factor for measuring the composition of urinary lipid metabolites in the healthy population. The information showed contribute to the development of reliable biomarker findings from urine.

  18. Volumetric Parcellation Methodology of the Human Hypothalamus in Neuroimaging: Normative Data and Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Swaab, Dick F.; van der Kouwe, Andre; Abbs, Brandon; Boriel, Denise; Handa, Robert; Tobet, Stuart; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence regarding the importance of the hypothalamus for understanding sex differences in relation to neurological, psychiatric, endocrine and sleep disorders. Although different in histology, physiology, connections and function, multiple hypothalamic nuclei subserve non-voluntary functions and are nodal points for the purpose of maintaining homeostasis of the organism. Thus, given the critical importance of hypothalamic nuclei and their key multiple roles in regulating basic functions, it is important to develop the ability to conduct in vivo human studies of anatomic structure, volume, connectivity, and function of hypothalamic regions represented at the level of its nuclei. The goals of the present study were to develop a novel method of semi-automated volumetric parcellation for the human hypothalamus that could be used to investigate clinical conditions using MRI and to demonstrate its applicability. The proposed new method subdivides the hypothalamus into five parcels based on visible anatomic landmarks associated with specific nuclear groupings and was confirmed using two ex vivo hypothalami that were imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) scanner and processed histologically. Imaging results were compared with histology from the same brain. Further, the method was applied to 44 healthy adults (26 men; 18 women, comparable on age, handedness, ethnicity, SES) to derive normative volumes and assess sex differences in hypothalamic regions using 1.5 Tesla MRI. Men compared to women had a significantly larger total hypothalamus, relative to cerebrum size, similar for both hemispheres, a difference that was primarily driven by the tuberal region, with the sex effect size being largest in the superior tuberal region and, to a lesser extent, inferior tuberal region. Given the critical role of hypothalamic nuclei in multiple chronic diseases and the importance of sex differences, we argue that the use of the novel methodology presented here will allow for

  19. The molecular and cellular basis of gonadal sex reversal in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Nick; Greenfield, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian gonad is adapted for the production of germ cells and is an endocrine gland that controls sexual maturation and fertility. Gonadal sex reversal, namely, the development of ovaries in an XY individual or testes in an XX, has fascinated biologists for decades. The phenomenon suggests the existence of genetic suppressors of the male and female developmental pathways and molecular genetic studies, particularly in the mouse, have revealed controlled antagonism at the core of mammalian sex determination. Both testis and ovary determination represent design solutions to a number of problems: how to generate cells with the right properties to populate the organ primordium; how to produce distinct organs from an initially bipotential primordium; how to pattern an organ when the expression of key cell fate determinants is initiated only in a discrete region of the primordium and extends to other regions asynchronously; how to coordinate the interaction between distinct cell types in time and space and stabilize the resulting morphology; and how to maintain the differentiated state of the organ throughout the adult period. Some of these, and related problems, are common to organogenesis in general; some are distinctive to gonad development. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the molecular and cellular events underlying testis and ovary development, with an emphasis on the phenomenon of gonadal sex reversal and its causes in mice and humans. Finally, we discuss sex-determining loci and disorders of sex development in humans and the future of research in this important area. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are

  1. Human striatal recordings reveal abnormal discharge of projection neurons in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Mewes, Klaus; Gross, Robert E; DeLong, Mahlon R; Obeso, José A; Papa, Stella M

    2016-08-23

    Circuitry models of Parkinson's disease (PD) are based on striatal dopamine loss and aberrant striatal inputs into the basal ganglia network. However, extrastriatal mechanisms have increasingly been the focus of attention, whereas the status of striatal discharges in the parkinsonian human brain remains conjectural. We now report the activity pattern of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) in patients with PD undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery, compared with patients with essential tremor (ET) and isolated dystonia (ID). The SPN activity in ET was very low (2.1 ± 0.1 Hz) and reminiscent of that found in normal animals. In contrast, SPNs in PD fired at much higher frequency (30.2 ± 1.2 Hz) and with abundant spike bursts. The difference between PD and ET was reproduced between 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated and normal nonhuman primates. The SPN activity was also increased in ID, but to a lower level compared with the hyperactivity observed in PD. These results provide direct evidence that the striatum contributes significantly altered signals to the network in patients with PD.

  2. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

    2002-11-01

    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  3. Regulation of meiotic entry and gonadal sex differentiation in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a unique type of cell division that is performed only by germ cells to form haploid gametes. The switch from mitosis to meiosis exhibits a distinct sex-specific difference in timing, with female germ cells entering meiosis during fetal development and male germ cells at puberty when...... in the context of fetal gonad development and germ cell differentiation, with emphasis on results obtained in humans. Furthermore, the consequences of dysregulated meiosis signaling in humans are briefly discussed in the context of selected pathologies, including testicular germ cell cancer and some forms...

  4. Cadmium-induced immune abnormality is a key pathogenic event in human and rat models of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yinping; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Yanjun; Yan, Yan; Wang, Fan; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Xu, Zhangye; Chen, Yongtao; Cheng, Xue; Li, Yong; Jiao, Jinyu; Ye, Duyun

    2016-11-01

    With increased industrial development, cadmium is an increasingly important environmental pollutant. Studies have identified various adverse effects of cadmium on human beings. However, the relationships between cadmium pollution and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia remain elusive. The objective of this study is to explore the effects of cadmium on immune system among preeclamptic patients and rats. The results showed that the cadmium levels in the peripheral blood of preeclamptic patients were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. Based on it, a novel rat model of preeclampsia was established by the intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) (0.125 mg of Cd/kg body weight) on gestational days 9-14. Key features of preeclampsia, including hypertension, proteinuria, placental abnormalities and small foetal size, appeared in pregnant rats after the administration of low-dose of CdCl2. Cadmium increased immunoglobulin production, mainly angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AA), by increasing the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) in B cells. AID is critical for the maturation of antibody and autoantibody responses. In addition, angiotensin II type 1-receptor-agonistic autoantibody, which emerged recently as a potential pathogenic contributor to PE, was responsible for the deposition of complement component 5 (C5) in kidneys of pregnant rats via angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation. C5a is a fragment of C5 that is released during C5 activation. Selectively interfering with C5a signalling by a complement C5a receptor-specific antagonist significantly attenuated hypertension and proteinuria in Cd-injected pregnant rats. Our results suggest that cadmium induces immune abnormalities that may be a key pathogenic contributor to preeclampsia and provide new insights into treatment strategies of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Abnormal phenotype of cultured fibroblasts in human skin with chronic radiotherapy damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delanian, S.; Martin, M.; Lefaix, J.-L.; Bravard, A.; Luccioni, C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The pathophysiological aspects of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) have not been well characterized. We therefore cultured human fibroblasts from samples of skin with RIF to investigate the long-term effects of therapeutic irradiation. Materials and methods: Biopsies of normal and RIF skin were obtained from patients previously irradiated for cancer, without recurrence. Cells were extracted from dermis samples by the outgrowth technique, seeded as monolayers and cultured at confluence. Enzyme activities and proteins were assayed, RNA was isolated and Northern blot analysis was performed on surviving cells between passages 2 and 5. Results: RIF cell cultures displayed heterogeneous fibroblasts populations. The initial outgrowth consisted of one-third small cells that floated rapidly, one-third spindle-shaped cells migrating far from the explant to form islets and one-third large pleiomorphic cells. In subsequent subcultures, surviving cells exhibited either myofibroblastic characteristics with a normal proliferative capacity or senescent morphology with a reduced proliferative capacity. These RIF cells had a brief finite lifespan, with dramatically reduced growth rate during their initial outgrowth and the following passages. Study of the antioxidant metabolism showed that Mn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly weaker in surviving RIF cells than healthy fibroblasts. These exhausted RIF cells exhibited no overexpression of transforming growth factor β or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase. Conclusion: Irradiation may lead to apparently contradictory effects such as fibrosis and necrosis in clinical practice. In cell culture, we observed two main cellular phenotypes which may be related to both processes, i.e. myofibroblast-like cells and fibrocyte-like cells. These two phenotypes may represent two steps in the differentiation induced as a long-term effect of therapeutic irradiation of the skin. Cell culture probably

  6. Correlation between abnormal cytological findings and human papillomavirus infection of the uterine cervix in Bulgarian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Miladinov Kovachev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the correlation between cases of human papillomavirus (HPV+/− infection of the uterine cervix revealed through HPV typing and cytological results from Papanicolaou (Pap-stained cervical smears. Cervical smears of 421 Bulgarian women attending routine gynaecological examinations during the three-year study period were stained by the Pap technique and classified by the Bethesda system. GenoFlow HPV Array Test Kit was used to analyse the HPV status in the collected cervical samples. The results showed that, of the 421 women, 177 (42% were HPV(+ and 244 (58% were HPV(−; 334 (79.3% Pap smears were with normal morphology and 87 (20.7% had high/low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL/HSIL changes. Of the 87 women with LSIL/HSIL changes, 54% (47/87 were HPV(− and 46% (40/87 were HPV(+. There was no statistically significant correlation between the HPV(+ status and the cytological LSIL/HSIL findings (P > 0.05. Koilocytes were found in 30.4% (128/421 of the samples. Of the 128 women with koilocytosis, 59.4% (76/128 were HPV(− and 40.6% (52/128 were HPV(+. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 between the presence of koilocytes in cervical smears and HPV infection. Our results suggest that HPV infection is frequent even in women with negative Pap-smear results, and polymerase chain reaction seems to be the only reliable test to diagnose this infection. However, the results from this study cannot be considered to fully support the replacement of cytology and colposcopy examination in cervical cancer screening with HPV genotyping tests only.

  7. Dressed for sex: red as a female sexual signal in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Elliot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning.

  8. Dressed for Sex: Red as a Female Sexual Signal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Pazda, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    Background In many non-human primate species, a display of red by a female serves as a sexual signal to attract male conspecifics. Red is associated with sex and romance in humans, and women convey their sexual interest to men through a variety of verbal, postural, and behavioral means. In the present research, we investigate whether female red ornamentation in non-human primates has a human analog, whereby women use a behavioral display of red to signal their sexual interest to men. Methodology/Principal Findings Three studies tested the hypothesis that women use red clothing to communicate sexual interest to men in profile pictures on dating websites. In Study 1, women who imagined being interested in casual sex were more likely to display red (but not other colors) on their anticipated web profile picture. In Study 2, women who indicated interest in casual sex were more likely to prominently display red (but not other colors) on their actual web profile picture. In Study 3, women on a website dedicated to facilitating casual sexual relationships were more likely to prominently exhibit red (but not other colors) than women on a website dedicated to facilitating marital relationships. Conclusions/Significance These results establish a provocative parallel between women and non-human female primates in red signal coloration in the mating game. This research shows, for the first time, a functional use of color in women's sexual self-presentation, and highlights the need to extend research on color beyond physics, physiology, and preference to psychological functioning. PMID:22514643

  9. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: Evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A.; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks’ GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks’ GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks’ GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetus that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences. PMID:19726143

  10. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  11. Pheromones in sex and reproduction: Do they have a role in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromones are found throughout the living world and are a primal form of communication. These chemical messengers are transported outside the body and have a direct developmental effect on hormone levels and/or behaviour. This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones in sex and reproduction. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and the Scopus engine. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations, were; olfaction; sex; pheromones; libido; behaviour; reproduction; humans; and smell. Although there are studies to support this phenomenon, they are weak because they were not controlled; others have proposed that human olfactory communication is able to perceive certain pheromones that may play a role in behavioural as well as reproductive biology. Unfolding the mysteries of smells and the way they are perceived requires more time and effort as humans are not systems that instinctively fall into a behaviour in response to an odour, they are thinking individuals that exercise judgment and subjected to different motivations.

  12. Sex differences in rhythmic preferences in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus: A comparative study with humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Hoeschele

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of parrot species have recently gained attention as members of a small group of non-human animals that are capable of coordinating their movements in time with a rhythmic pulse. This capacity is highly developed in humans, who display unparalleled sensitivity to musical beats and appear to prefer rhythmically organized sounds in their music. Do parrots also exhibit a preference for rhythmic over arrhythmic sounds? Here we presented humans and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus – a small parrot species that have been shown to be able to align movements with a beat – with rhythmic and arrhythmic sound patterns in an acoustic place preference paradigm. Both species were allowed to explore an environment for 5 minutes. We quantified how much time they spent in proximity to rhythmic vs. arrhythmic stimuli. The results show that humans spent more time with rhythmic stimuli, and also preferred rhythmic stimuli when directly asked in a post-test survey. Budgerigars did not show any such overall preferences. However, further examination of the budgerigar results showed an effect of sex, such that male budgerigars spent more time with arrthymic stimuli, and female budgerigars spent more time with rhythmic stimuli. Our results support the idea that rhythmic information is interesting to budgerigars. We suggest that future investigations into the temporal characteristics of naturalistic social behaviors in budgerigars, such as courtship vocalizations and head-bobbing displays, may help explain the sex difference we observed.

  13. Efficacy of Sex Determination from Human Dental Pulp Tissue and its Reliability as a Tool in Forensic Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Kaveri Surya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sex determination is one of the primary steps in forensics. Barr body can be used as a histological method for identification of sex as it is found to be specific to female somatic cells and rare in male cells. To demarcate human dental pulp as an important identification tool of sex in forensic odontology (FO) and to evaluate the time period till which sex can be determined from pulp tissue using three stains H and E, Feulgen, and acridine - orange under fluorescence so as. Mater...

  14. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,Psyndrome patients (Psyndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  15. ABNORMAL LEVELS OF MATERNAL SERUM HUMAN CHORIONIC-GONADOTROPIN AND ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN THE 2ND-TRIMESTER - RELATION TO FETAL WEIGHT AND PRETERM DELIVERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORSSINK, LP; KORNMAN, LH; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; DEWOLF, BTHM; MANTINGH, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this prospective descriptive cross-sectional study was to examine the clinical significance of abnormal maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) and alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) in the second trimester of pregnancy. The study group comprised 8892 women with a singleton pregnancy,

  16. Human behavior. Sex equality can explain the unique social structure of hunter-gatherer bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, M; Salali, G D; Chaudhary, N; Page, A; Smith, D; Thompson, J; Vinicius, L; Mace, R; Migliano, A B

    2015-05-15

    The social organization of mobile hunter-gatherers has several derived features, including low within-camp relatedness and fluid meta-groups. Although these features have been proposed to have provided the selective context for the evolution of human hypercooperation and cumulative culture, how such a distinctive social system may have emerged remains unclear. We present an agent-based model suggesting that, even if all individuals in a community seek to live with as many kin as possible, within-camp relatedness is reduced if men and women have equal influence in selecting camp members. Our model closely approximates observed patterns of co-residence among Agta and Mbendjele BaYaka hunter-gatherers. Our results suggest that pair-bonding and increased sex egalitarianism in human evolutionary history may have had a transformative effect on human social organization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in Amazonian women with normal and abnormal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lira, E; Jacinto, A H V L; Silva, L M; Napoleão, P F R; Barbosa-Filho, R A A; Cruz, G J S; Astolfi-Filho, S; Borborema-Santos, C M

    2017-04-28

    Sexually transmitted infections are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women worldwide, and have been implicated as cofactors in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and accessed the diversity of HPV in women with normal and abnormal cytology in Manaus, Brazil. We used polymerase chain reaction and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. The chi-square test was used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies of the categorical variables, and Fisher's test was used when P TV and CT DNA were 18.04 and 9.02% in the normal group, respectively. The percentages of HPV/TV and HPV/CT coinfection were 12.5% each in women with normal cytology. These findings improve our understanding of HPV, CT, and TV, and the distribution of HPV types, which may be relevant to vaccination strategies for protecting women from the north of Brazil from cervical cancers and precancerous lesions.

  18. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  19. Normal sex differences in prenatal growth and abnormal prenatal growth retardation associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development are absent in newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers Laura J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the most common presentation of a disorder of sex development (DSD in genetic females. A report of prenatal growth retardation in cases of 46,XY DSD, coupled with observations of below-optimal final height in both males and females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, prompted us to investigate prenatal growth in the latter group. Additionally, because girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are exposed to increased levels of androgens in the absence of a male sex-chromosome complement, the presence or absence of typical sex differences in growth of newborns would support or refute a hormonal explanation for these differences. Methods In total, 105 newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia were identified in our database. Gestational age (weeks, birth weight (kg, birth length (cm and parental heights (cm were obtained. Mid-parental height was considered in the analyses. Results Mean birth weight percentile for congenital adrenal hyperplasia was 49.26%, indicating no evidence of a difference in birth weight from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P > 0.05. The expected sex difference in favor of heavier males was not seen (P > 0.05. Of the 105 subjects, 44 (27%; 34 females, 10 males had birth length and gestational age recorded in their medical chart. Mean birth length for this subgroup was 50.90 cm (63rd percentile, which differed from the expected standard population median of 50th percentile (P = 0.0082. The expected sex difference in favor of longer males was also not seen (P > 0.05. Conclusion The prenatal growth retardation patterns reported in cases of 46,XY disorders of sex development do not generalize to people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Sex differences in body weight and length typically seen in young infants were not seen in the subjects who

  20. Sex determination in highly fragmented human DNA by high-resolution melting (HRM analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda A Álvarez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Sex identification in ancient human remains is a common problem especially if the skeletons are sub-adult, incomplete or damaged. In this paper we propose a new method to identify sex, based on real-time PCR amplification of small fragments (61 and 64 bp of the third exon within the amelogenin gene covering a 3-bp deletion on the AMELX-allele, followed by a High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM. HRM is based on the melting curves of amplified fragments. The amelogenin gene is located on both chromosomes X and Y, showing dimorphism in length. This molecular tool is rapid, sensitive and reduces the risk of contamination from exogenous genetic material when used for ancient DNA studies. The accuracy of the new method described here has been corroborated by using control samples of known sex and by contrasting our results with those obtained with other methods. Our method has proven to be useful even in heavily degraded samples, where other previously published methods failed. Stochastic problems such as the random allele drop-out phenomenon are expected to occur in a less severe form, due to the smaller fragment size to be amplified. Thus, their negative effect could be easier to overcome by a proper experimental design.

  1. Sex determination in highly fragmented human DNA by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Manzanilla, Linda R; Montiel, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Sex identification in ancient human remains is a common problem especially if the skeletons are sub-adult, incomplete or damaged. In this paper we propose a new method to identify sex, based on real-time PCR amplification of small fragments (61 and 64 bp) of the third exon within the amelogenin gene covering a 3-bp deletion on the AMELX-allele, followed by a High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM). HRM is based on the melting curves of amplified fragments. The amelogenin gene is located on both chromosomes X and Y, showing dimorphism in length. This molecular tool is rapid, sensitive and reduces the risk of contamination from exogenous genetic material when used for ancient DNA studies. The accuracy of the new method described here has been corroborated by using control samples of known sex and by contrasting our results with those obtained with other methods. Our method has proven to be useful even in heavily degraded samples, where other previously published methods failed. Stochastic problems such as the random allele drop-out phenomenon are expected to occur in a less severe form, due to the smaller fragment size to be amplified. Thus, their negative effect could be easier to overcome by a proper experimental design.

  2. Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

    2014-04-01

    Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gaining the upper hand: evidence of vertical asymmetry in sex-categorisation of human hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Genevieve L; Finkbeiner, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception is characterised by asymmetries arising from the brain's preferential response to particular stimulus types at different retinal locations. Where the lower visual field (LVF) holds an advantage over the upper visual field (UVF) for many tasks (e.g., hue discrimination, contrast sensitivity, motion processing), face-perception appears best supported at above-fixation locations (Quek & Finkbeiner, 2014a). This finding is consistent with Previc's (1990) suggestion that vision in the UVF has become specialised for object recognition processes often required in "extrapersonal" space. Outside of faces, however, there have been very few investigations of vertical asymmetry effects for higher-level objects. Our aim in the present study was, thus, to determine whether the UVF advantage reported for face-perception would extend to a nonface object - human hands. Participants classified the sex of hand images presented above or below central fixation by reaching out to touch a left or right response panel. On each trial, a briefly presented spatial cue captured the participant's spatial attention to either the location where the hand was about to appear (valid cue) or the opposite location (invalid cue). We observed that cue validity only modulated the efficiency of the sex-categorisation response for targets in the LVLVF and not the UVF, just as we have reported previously for face-sex categorisation (Quek & Finkbeiner, 2014a). Taken together, the data from these studies provide some empirical support for Previc's (1990) speculation that object recognition processes may enjoy an advantage in the upper-hemifield.

  4. Gender-specific gene expression in post-mortem human brain: localization to sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, Marquis P; Evans, Simon; Choudary, Prabhakara; Tomita, Hiroaki; Meador-Woodruff, Jim; Molnar, Margherita; Li, Jun; Lopez, Juan F; Myers, Rick; Cox, David; Watson, Stanley J; Akil, Huda; Jones, Edward G; Bunney, William E

    2004-02-01

    Gender differences in brain development and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression have been reported. Gender differences in human brain might be related to patterns of gene expression. Microarray technology is one useful method for investigation of gene expression in brain. We investigated gene expression, cell types, and regional expression patterns of differentially expressed sex chromosome genes in brain. We profiled gene expression in male and female dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and cerebellum using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray platform. Differentially expressed genes between males and females on the Y chromosome (DBY, SMCY, UTY, RPS4Y, and USP9Y) and X chromosome (XIST) were confirmed using real-time PCR measurements. In situ hybridization confirmed the differential expression of gender-specific genes and neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY in three brain regions examined. The XIST gene, which silences gene expression on regions of the X chromosome, is expressed in a subset of neurons. Since a subset of neurons express gender-specific genes, neural subpopulations may exhibit a subtle sexual dimorphism at the level of differences in gene regulation and function. The distinctive pattern of neuronal expression of XIST, RPS4Y, SMCY, and UTY and other sex chromosome genes in neuronal subpopulations may possibly contribute to gender differences in prevalence noted for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of the protein expression of these sex-chromosome-linked genes in brain tissue are required to address the functional consequences of the observed gene expression differences.

  5. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2013-09-17

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.

  6. The Case for Same-Sex Marriage Before the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Frances

    2017-09-26

    For proponents of same-sex marriage, this essay sets forward a critical analysis of relevant arguments before the European Court of Human Rights. The privacy aspect of Article 8 European Convention of Human Rights will never be a successful argument with reference to marriage, which involves a public status. The equality argument (Article 14) is useful in addressing this issue with its close connections with citizenship, symbolic value, and proven record internationally. Difficulties remain with the equality argument; its conditional status, the width of the margin of appreciation allocated, and the need for an equality comparator. The equality argument needs reinforcement by use alongside a developing family law argument under Article 8 and a dynamically interpreted Article 12 (right to marry) argument. Ultimately, the success of any argument depends on convincingly influencing the European Court to consider that sufficient consensus has developed among Member States of the Council of Europe.

  7. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-10-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  8. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection among women with different degrees of cervical cytological abnormalities in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Franchina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are etiological agents of cervical cancer. In the absence of Pap smear alterations, high-risk HPV DNA can be detected in cervical samples. The prevalence of papillomavirus infection and their genotype distribution varies greatly across populations. The aims of this study were: i to assess the prevalences of HPV genotypes in people living in Eastern Sicily (Italy and the frequency of HPV multiple infections; ii to evaluate the association between HPV genotypes and cervical lesions in order to improve the epidemiological knowledge useful for monitoring or treating infected women. Nested PCR and reverse dot/blot hybridization were used for the detection and typing of HPV DNA in 315 women who had had an abnormal PAP-smear. HPV DNA test was positive in 70.5% cases; the prevalence was 50% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 80.8% in low grade-, and 76.2% in high grade-squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL. The genotype distribution showed a predominance of HPV-16 (56.7% followed by HPV-18 (12.2%, HPV-31 (9.5% and HPV-6 (9.5%. Multiple infections were detected in 35.1% of the infected patients. High frequency of positive results for HPV was confirmed and, even in case of ASCUS, patients should be taken into account for genotyping. Our data indicate that multiple infections are consistent in women with low-grade lesions while they are less frequent in women with H-SIL. This could reinforce the theory of the multi-stage cancer model, by which one HPV type becomes predominant along with the progression of cervical lesion severity.

  9. Human papillomavirus infection and anxiety: analyses in women with low-grade cervical cytological abnormalities unaware of their infection status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Y Johnson

    Full Text Available Women testing positive for human papillomavirus (HPV infection experience increased levels of anxiety that have been attributed to fears of stigmatization and developing cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between HPV infection and anxiety in women who were unaware they had been tested specifically for HPV, to determine if any anxiety experienced by HPV-positive women could be due to causes other than learning of test results.This study was nested within a randomised controlled trial of management of women with abnormal cervical cytology conducted in the United Kingdom with recruitment between 1999 and 2002. At baseline, prior to having a sample taken for HPV testing, the results of which were not disclosed, women were assessed for anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and asked about fears of developing cervical cancer ("cancer worries"; this assessment was repeated at 12, 18, 24, and 30 months of follow-up. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used for the cross-sectional (baseline and longitudinal analyses, respectively.Among the 2842 participants, there was no association between HPV status and anxiety among white women. Among non-white women, however, anxiety was less common among HPV-positive than HPV-negative women (adjusted odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.77. Among non-smokers, cancer worry was more common in HPV-positive than HPV-negative women; the opposite association was observed among ex-smokers.Associations between HPV status and anxiety may be explained by factors other than learning of test results and may vary by ethnicity and lifestyle factors.

  10. Frequencies and distributions of sex chromosome abnormalities in females with the Turner phenotype: a long-term retrospective study in the southern region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrıverdi, Nilgün; Demirhan, Osman; Süleymanova, Dilara; Pazarbaşı, Ayfer

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: The genetic background of Turner syndrome (TS) is highly variable. The correlation between genotype and phenotype is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to describe the frequencies and distributions of Turner karyotypes and to discuss the phenotype/genotype relation in a very large group of individuals with TS. Materials and methods: The karyotype results of 248 female participants were evaluated retrospectively.Results: Of 248 females with the Turner phenotype, 14.5% had normal karyotypes and 85.5% had Turner karyotypes. About 72.2% of the abnormalities were numerical aberrations and 27.8% were structural aberrations. The most frequent karyotype was monosomy X, which was found in 135 females (63.7%), followed by 44 mosaics (21%), 40 isochromosomes of the long and short arms of chromosome X (19.1%), and 17 deletions of the short and long arms of chromosome X (8.0%). One case of Robertsonian translocation and one case of mosaic TS with marker chromosome were detected. Conclusion: This study shows the frequency and distribution of karyotypes in females with TS. There is great value to be gleaned from studies of females with TS in furthering our understanding of the atypical clinical features associated with TS. Studies involving genetic analyses will be necessary to examine gene expression profiles in girls with TS and identify potential candidate genes underlying the atypical clinical features associated with TS.

  11. Longitudinally mapping the influence of sex and androgen signaling on the dynamics of human cortical maturation in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznahan, Armin; Lee, Yohan; Stidd, Reva; Long, Robert; Greenstein, Dede; Clasen, Liv; Addington, Anjene; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.; Giedd, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Humans have systematic sex differences in brain-related behavior, cognition, and pattern of mental illness risk. Many of these differences emerge during adolescence, a developmental period of intense neurostructural and endocrine change. Here, by creating “movies” of sexually dimorphic brain development using longitudinal in vivo structural neuroimaging, we show regionally specific sex differences in development of the cerebral cortex during adolescence. Within cortical subsystems known to underpin domains of cognitive behavioral sex difference, structural change is faster in the sex that tends to perform less well within the domain in question. By stratifying participants through molecular analysis of the androgen receptor gene, we show that possession of an allele conferring more efficient functioning of this sex steroid receptor is associated with “masculinization” of adolescent cortical maturation. Our findings extend models first established in rodents, and suggest that in humans too, sex and sex steroids shape brain development in a spatiotemporally specific manner, within neural systems known to underpin sexually dimorphic behaviors. PMID:20841422

  12. Impact of age and sex on carotid and peripheral arterial wall thickness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Munckhof, I; Scholten, R; Cable, N T; Hopman, M T E; Green, D J; Thijssen, D H J

    2012-12-01

    Although previous studies have reported age-related wall thickening in carotid arteries, it is not clear whether this is a systemic phenomenon which is also apparent in peripheral conduit arteries or whether conduit wall thickness (WT) changes occur to a similar degree in men and women. To determine whether sex modifies the impact of ageing on WT or wall-to-lumen ratio (W:L) in atherosclerosis-prone (i.e. carotid artery, femoral, superficial femoral, popliteal artery) and atherosclerosis-resistant (i.e. brachial artery) conduit arteries. We included 30 young (23 ± 2 year; 15M : 15F) and 31 older (70 ± 5 year; 18M : 13F) healthy subjects. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure diameter, WT and wall-to-lumen ratio (W/L) in all arteries. Older subjects had increased WT and W/L in the carotid, femoral, superficial femoral, popliteal and brachial arteries (all P < 0.05). Compared with women, men demonstrated larger diameter and WT (both P < 0.01) across all arteries. Sex did not impact upon age-related changes in WT or W/L (P = 0.39 and 0.43 respectively). Our data suggest that age-related wall thickening, evident in the carotid artery, is also apparent in the arteries of the upper and lower limbs. The impact of age on wall thickening did not differ between men and women. These data support the presence of systemic increases in WT and W/L with age in apparently healthy humans, independent of sex. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  13. Sex-specific genetic diversity is shaped by cultural factors in Inner Asian human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Nina; Hegay, Tatyana; Mennecier, Philippe; Georges, Myriam; Laurent, Romain; Whitten, Mark; Endicott, Philipp; Aldashev, Almaz; Dorzhu, Choduraa; Nasyrova, Firuza; Chichlo, Boris; Ségurel, Laure; Heyer, Evelyne

    2017-04-01

    Sex-specific genetic structures have been previously documented worldwide in humans, even though causal factors have not always clearly been identified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ethnicity, geography and social organization on the sex-specific genetic structure in Inner Asia. Furthermore, we explored the process of ethnogenesis in multiple ethnic groups. We sampled DNA in Central and Northern Asia from 39 populations of Indo-Iranian and Turkic-Mongolic native speakers. We focused on genetic data of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA. First, we compared the frequencies of haplogroups to South European and East Asian populations. Then, we investigated the genetic differentiation for eight Y-STRs and the HVS1 region, and tested for the effect of geography and ethnicity on such patterns. Finally, we reconstructed the male demographic history, inferred split times and effective population sizes of different ethnic groups. Based on the haplogroup data, we observed that the Indo-Iranian- and Turkic-Mongolic-speaking populations have distinct genetic backgrounds. However, each population showed consistent mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups patterns. As expected in patrilocal populations, we found that the Y-STRs were more structured than the HVS1. While ethnicity strongly influenced the genetic diversity on the Y chromosome, geography better explained that of the mtDNA. Furthermore, when looking at various ethnic groups, we systematically found a genetic split time older than historical records, suggesting a cultural rather than biological process of ethnogenesis. This study highlights that, in Inner Asia, specific cultural behaviors, especially patrilineality and patrilocality, leave a detectable signature on the sex-specific genetic structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Behavioural and serological human immunodeficiency virus risk factors among female commercial sex workers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshige, K; Morio, S; Mizushima, S; Kitamura, K; Tajima, K; Suyama, A; Usuku, S; Tia, P; Hor, L B; Heng, S; Saphonn, V; Tochikubo, O; Soda, K

    2000-04-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Cambodia is mainly caused by sexual transmission and the high-risk group in this country are female commercial sex workers (CSW). There are two types of CSW, direct CSW (DCSW) and indirect CSW (IDCSW), who are different from each other in sexual activities. This study was conducted in order to describe the risk factors on HIV for each type of CSW, and to establish effective preventive strategies against the HIV epidemic among CSW. The participants, 143 DCSW and 94 IDCSW, were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine their demographic characteristics and behaviour. Blood samples were taken for serological tests on HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis and syphilis. The association between their behavioural pattern and their serological results was analysed. The questionnaire study showed that IDCSW had a riskier behavioural pattern than DCSW. The HIV seroprevalence rates of the DCSW and the IDCSW were 52.4% and 22.3%, respectively. Univariate logistic analyses showed a significant association between HIV antibody (HIV-Ab) and current age, age at commencement of commercial sex work, duration of commercial sex work, and the seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis-IgG antibody (CT-IgG-Ab) among the DCSW. The analyses also showed a significant relationship between HIV-Ab and CT-IgG-Ab among the IDCSW. Improving condom use rate is very important in order to prevent an HIV epidemic among the two types of CSW. This study also suggests it is important to prevent sexually transmitted disease (STD) such as Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The STD control programme could be efficient for HIV prevention, especially among DCSW.

  15. Sex differences in drug addiction: a review of animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Altea, Silvia; Fratta, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Addiction research has historically neglected research on women, and most studies have been conducted on men only, with the concluding results generalized to the female population. The role of sex differences in vulnerability to drug abuse, their repercussions on prevention and treatment strategies all require detailed studies, as does the progression from recreational drug use to dependence. This review synthesizes evidence of gender differences in drug addiction, with particular emphasis on women's health and implications. We first reviewed behavioral studies showing sex differences in the preference for and self-administration of licit (i.e., alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (i.e., cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and cannabis) substances as revealed by animal models of addiction. Clinical studies demonstrating differences between men and women in craving, drug use, abstinence and relapse will then be examined. For both animal and human studies, the effects of hormones and estrous/menstrual cycle will be reviewed. Finally, neurobiological factors underlying gender differences in vulnerability to drug addiction (i.e., brain morphology and neurotransmission) and need for gender-specific detoxification treatments will be discussed.

  16. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection: Differences in Prevalence Between Sexes and Concordance With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection, NHANES 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Kalyani; Suk, Ryan; Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Qiu, Peihua; Wilkin, Timothy; Nyitray, Alan G; Sikora, Andrew G; Deshmukh, Ashish A

    2017-11-21

    The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is disproportionately high among men, yet empirical evidence regarding the difference in prevalence of oral HPV infection between men and women is limited. Concordance of oral and genital HPV infection among men is unknown. To determine the prevalence of oral HPV infection, as well as the concordance of oral and genital HPV infection, among U.S. men and women. Nationally representative survey. Civilian noninstitutionalized population. Adults aged 18 to 69 years from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 2011 to 2014. Oral rinse, penile swab, and vaginal swab specimens were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. The overall prevalence of oral HPV infection was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.8% to 13.1%) in men and 3.2% (CI, 2.7% to 3.8%) in women (equating to 11 million men and 3.2 million women nationwide). High-risk oral HPV infection was more prevalent among men (7.3% [CI, 6.0% to 8.6%]) than women (1.4% [CI, 1.0% to 1.8%]). Oral HPV 16 was 6 times more common in men (1.8% [CI, 1.3% to 2.2%]) than women (0.3% [CI, 0.1% to 0.5%]) (1.7 million men vs. 0.27 million women). Among men and women who reported having same-sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 12.7% (CI, 7.0% to 18.4%) and 3.6% (CI, 1.4% to 5.9%), respectively. Among men who reported having 2 or more same-sex oral sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 22.2% (CI, 9.6% to 34.8%). Oral HPV prevalence among men with concurrent genital HPV infection was 4-fold greater (19.3%) than among those without it (4.4%). Men had 5.4% (CI, 5.1% to 5.8%) greater predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection than women. The predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection was greatest among black participants, those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily, current marijuana users, and those who reported 16 or more lifetime

  17. Global challenges in human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis coinfection among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Chelsea P; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-11-01

    Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM), and the rate of coinfection has been increasing over the last decade. HIV and syphilis coinfection is particularly challenging because the infections interact synergistically thereby increasing the risk of acquisition and transmission as well as accelerating disease progression. Areas covered: This paper reviews and summarizes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of HIV and syphilis coinfection among MSM. Expert commentary: Research does not support a different syphilis treatment for coinfected individuals; however, coinfection may warrant a recommendation for antiretroviral therapy. In order to reverse the epidemic of syphilis and HIV coinfection, there needs to be greater awareness, improved cultural sensitivity among health care providers, improved access to preventative services and increased screening for syphilis and HIV.

  18. Concordance Between Anal and Oral Human Papillomavirus Infections Among Young Men Who have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinau, Martin; Gorbach, Pamina; Gratzer, Beau; Braxton, Jim; Kerndt, Peter R; Crosby, Richard A; Unger, Elizabeth R; Markowitz, Lauri E; Meites, Elissa

    2017-06-15

    Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections was assessed among 1033 young men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 18-26 years. HPV (any type) was detected in 742 (71.8%) anal specimens and 101 (9.8%) oral specimens. Although HPV was detected in specimens from both anatomical sites in 83 (8.0%) participants, type-specific concordance for at least 1 HPV type was found in only 35 (3.4%) participants. HIV and smoking were associated with higher prevalence at both sites and frequency of concordant types. Coinfections of identical HPV types were rare, suggesting independent infection events and/or different modes of clearance. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Detection and Type-Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Vulva and Vaginal Abnormal Cytology Lesions and Cancer Tissues from Thai Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamkham, Jarunya; Boonmark, Krittika; Phansri, Thainsang

    2016-01-01

    Vulva and Vaginal cancers are rare among all gynecological cancers worldwide, including Thailand, and typically affect women in later life. Persistent high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is one of several important causes of cancer development. In this study, we focused on HPV investigation and specific type distribution from Thai women with abnormality lesions and cancers of the vulva and Vaginal. A total of ninety paraffin-embedded samples of vulva and Vaginal abnormalities and cancer cells with histologically confirmed were collected from Thai women, who were diagnosed in 2003-2012 at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay with GP5+/ bio 6+ consensus specific primers and digoxigenin-labeled specific oligoprobes, respectively. The human β-globin gene was used as an internal control. Overall results represented that HPV frequency was 16/34 (47.1%) and 8/20 (40.0%) samples of vulva with cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, while, 3/5 (60%) and 16/33 (51.61%) samples of Vaginal cancer and abnormal cytology lesions, respectively, were HPV DNA positive. Single HPV type and multiple HPV type infection could be observed in both type of cancers and abnormal lesion samples in the different histological categorizes. HPV16 was the most frequent type in all cancers and abnormal cytology lesions, whereas HPV 18 was less frequent and could be detected as co-infection with other high risk HPV types. In addition, low risk types such as HPV 6, 11 and 70 could be detected in Vulva cancer and abnormal cytology lesion samples, whereas, all Vaginal cancer samples exhibited only high risk HPV types; HPV 16 and 31. In conclusion, from our results in this study we suggest that women with persistent high risk HPV type infection are at risk of developing vulva and Vaginal cancers and HPV 16 was observed at the highest frequent both of these, similar to the cervical

  20. The human operational sex ratio: effects of marriage, concealed ovulation, and menopause on mate competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2012-12-01

    Among mammals, male-male competition for sexual access to females frequently involves fighting. Larger body size gives males an advantage in fighting, which explains why males tend to be larger than females in many species, including anthropoid primates. Mitani et al. derived a formula to measure the operational sex ratio (OSR) to reflect the degree of male-male competition using the number of reproductively available males to females who are cycling and capable of conceiving. The OSR should predict the degree of sexual dimorphism in body mass-at least if male-male competition involves much fighting or threatening. Here, we use hunter-gatherer demographic data and the Mitani et al. formula to calculate the human OSR. We show that humans have a much lower degree of body mass sexual dimorphism than is predicted by our OSR. We suggest this is because human competition rarely involves fighting. In human hunter-gatherer societies, differences in the ages of marriage have an impact on competition in that the age of males at first marriage is younger when there is a lower percentage of married men with two or more wives, and older when there is a higher percentage of married men with two or more wives. We discuss the implications of this for females, along with the effects of two key life history traits that influence the OSR, concealed ovulation and menopause. While menopause decreases the number of reproductively available females to males and thus increases male-male competition, concealed ovulation decreases male-male competition. Finally, we discuss the importance of mostly monogamous mate bonds in human evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A gene-by-sex interaction for nicotine reward: evidence from humanized mice and epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, R E; Zohsel, K; Hirth, N; Treutlein, J; Heilig, M; Laucht, M; Spanagel, R; Sommer, W H

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that vulnerability to nicotine addiction is moderated by variation at the μ-opioid receptor locus (OPRM1), but results from human studies vary and prospective studies based on genotype are lacking. We have developed a humanized mouse model of the most common functional OPRM1 polymorphism rs1799971_A>G (A118G). Here we use this model system together with a cohort of German youth to examine the role of the OPRM1 A118G variation on nicotine reward. Nicotine reinforcement was examined in the humanized mouse model using i.v. self-administration. Male (n=17) and female (n=26) mice homozygous either for the major human A allele (AA) or the minor G allele (GG) underwent eight daily 2 h sessions of nicotine self-administration. Furthermore, male (n=104) and female (n=118) subjects homozygous for the A allele or carrying the G allele from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk were evaluated for pleasurable and unpleasant experiences during their initial smoking experience. A significant sex-by-genotype effect was observed for nicotine self-administration. Male 118GG mice demonstrated higher nicotine intake than male 118AA mice, suggesting increased nicotine reinforcement. In contrast, there was no genotype effect in female mice. Human male G allele carriers reported increased pleasurable effects from their first smoking experience, as compared to male homozygous A, female G and female homozygous A allele carriers. The 118G allele appears to confer greater sensitivity to nicotine reinforcement in males, but not females. PMID:27459726

  2. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  3. Genetic considerations in human sex-mate selection: partners share human leukocyte antigen but not short-tandem-repeat identity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Moshe; Kristt, Don; Nardi, Yuval; Klein, Tirza

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies support a role for MHC on mating preference, yet it remains unsettled as to whether mating occurs preferentially between individuals sharing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) determinants or not. Investigating sex-mate preferences in the contemporary Israeli population is of further curiosity being a population with distinct genetic characteristics, where multifaceted cultural considerations influence mate selection. Pairs of male-female sex partners were evaluated in three groups. Two groups represented unmarried (n = 1002) or married (n = 308) couples and a control group of fictitious male-female couples. HLA and short-tandem-repeat (STR) genetic identification markers were assessed for the frequency of shared antigens and alleles. Human leukocyte antigen results showed that Class I and/ or Class II single antigen as well as double antigen sharing was more common in sex partners than in control group couples (P < 0.001). Married versus unmarried pairs were not distinguishable. In contrast, STR-DNA markers failed to differentiate between sex-mates and controls (P = 0.78). Sex partnerships shared HLA determinants more frequently than randomly constituted male-female pairs. The observed phenomenon does not reflect a syngenetic background between sex-mates as STR markers were not selectively shared. Thus, sex-mate selection in man may contravene the evolutionary pressure for genetic diversity in regard to HLA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations during the late first trimester are associated with fetal growth in a fetal sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarovic, Mirjana; Korevaar, Tim I M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Visser, Theo J; Peeters, Robin P; Steegers, Eric A P

    2017-02-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy-specific hormone that regulates placental development. hCG concentrations vary widely throughout gestation and differ based on fetal sex. Abnormal hCG concentrations are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We studied the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth and birth weight. In addition, we investigated effect modification by gestational age of hCG measurement and fetal sex. Total serum hCG (median 14.4 weeks, 95 % range 10.1-26.2), estimated fetal weight (measured by ultrasound during 18-25th weeks and >25th weeks) and birth weight were measured in 7987 mother-child pairs from the Generation R cohort and used to establish fetal growth. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a standardized birth weight lower than the 10th percentile of the study population. There was a non-linear association of hCG with birth weight (P = 0.009). However, only low hCG concentrations measured during the late first trimester (11th and 12th week) were associated with birth weight and SGA. Low hCG concentrations measured in the late first trimester were also associated with decreased fetal growth (P = 0.0002). This was the case for both male and female fetuses. In contrast, high hCG concentrations during the late first trimester were associated with increased fetal growth amongst female, but not male fetuses. Low hCG in the late first trimester is associated with lower birth weight due to a decrease in fetal growth. Fetal sex differences exist in the association of hCG concentrations with fetal growth.

  5. High risk human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 infection in the cervical lesions of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A cytohistomorphologic association in Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Urmila; Ahamad, M Shahab Uddin; Bhattacharjee, Pradip; Adhikary, Arun Kumar; Rahman, Zillur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the extent of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) type 16/18 infection in the cervical tissue of women with epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear and to establish an association between hrHPV type 16/18 infection and cytohistomorphology. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 1699 patients who went through Pap smear examination. Prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality was calculated. Forty eight of these women underwent routine histopathology and 47 were evaluated for human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 by polymerase chain reaction assay. Total 139 women revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Histopathology showed simple inflammation to malignancy. HPV type 16/18 infection was detected in 40.42% (19/47) of the patients. Individually type 16 and 18 were positive in 7 (14.9%) cases each and dual infection with type 16 and 18 were seen in 5 (10.6%) cases. While cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1) and cervical cancer screening strategies.

  6. Not all about sex: neural and biobehavioral functions of human dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Cela-Conde, Camilo José; Gomila, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    This paper provides an integrative review of neuroscientific and biobehavioral evidence about the effects of dance on the individual across cultural differences. Dance moves us, and many derive aesthetic pleasure from it. However, in addition-and beyond aesthetics-we propose that dance has noteworthy, deeper neurobiological effects. We first summarize evidence that illustrates the centrality of dance to human life indirectly from archaeology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, and cross-cultural psychology. Second, we review empirical evidence for six neural and biobehavioral functions of dance: (1) attentional focus/flow, (2) basic emotional experiences, (3) imagery, (4) communication, (5) self-intimation, and (6) social cohesion. We discuss the reviewed evidence in relation to current debates in the field of empirical enquiry into the functions of human dance, questioning the positions that dance is (1) just for pleasure, (2) all about sex, (3) just for mood management and well-being, and (4) for experts only. Being a young field, evidence is still piecemeal and inconclusive. This review aims to take a step toward a systematization of an emerging avenue of research: a neuro- and biobehavioral science of dance. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on growth axis in human adolescents of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J; Torres, J M; Rodriguez, R; Ruiz, E; Ortega, E

    2000-10-20

    We previously reported the deleterious effects of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) on pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-adrenal axes hormones in human adolescents. In the present paper we studied the effects of AAI on the growth axis hormones, and the possible contribution of the insulin-glucose axis to the alcohol-induced dysfunction of the growth axis in human adolescents. Blood samples were drawn from adolescents that arrived at the emergency department with evident behavioural symptoms of drunkenness (AAI) or with nil consumption of alcohol (controls [C]). AAI produced in the adolescents of both sexes in our series: a decrease in growth hormone (GH) levels, without significant alteration of either insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3); an increase in plasma glucose and a decrease in insulin in the female adolescents but not in the males. Males and females undergo a significant period of bone growth during adolescence. Growth axis hormones play an important role in the pubertal spurt. Thus, ethanol consumption during adolescence could have long-lasting deleterious effects on this aspect of development. In industrialised countries, around 35% of alcohol drinkers are under 16 years old, therefore the result of this study should be made known to adolescents and the appropriate authorities.

  8. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E Langergraber

    Full Text Available A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological reasons for these inconsistencies, and take them into account to provide an unbiased characterization of mtDNA and NRY variation in chimpanzees, one of the few mammalian taxa where males routinely remain in and females typically disperse from their natal groups. We show that patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation are more strongly contrasting in patrilocal chimpanzees compared with patrilocal human societies. The chimpanzee data we present here thus provide a valuable comparative benchmark of the patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation to be expected in a society with extremely female-biased dispersal.

  9. Virtual human technology: capturing sex, race, and age influences in individual pain decision policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Adam T; Alqudah, Ashraf F; Stutts, Lauren A; Robinson, Michael E

    2008-11-15

    Pain assessment is subject to bias due to characteristics of the individual in pain and of the observing person. Few research studies have examined pain assessment biases in an experimental setting. This study employs innovative virtual human technology to achieve greater experimental control. A lens model design was used to capture decision-making policies at the idiographic and nomothetic level. Seventy-five undergraduates viewed virtual humans (VH) that varied in sex, race, age, and pain expression. Participants provided computerized ratings with Visual Analogue Scales on the VH's pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, negative mood, coping, and need for medical treatment. Idiographic analyses revealed that individuals used pain expression most frequently as a significant cue. Nomothetic analyses showed that higher pain expression VH and female VH were viewed as having higher pain intensity, higher pain unpleasantness, greater negative mood, worse coping, and a greater need to seek medical treatment than lower pain expression VH and male VH, respectively. Older VH were viewed as having worse coping and a greater need to seek medical treatment than younger VH. This innovative paradigm involving VH technology and a lens model design was shown to be highly effective and could serve as a model for future studies investigating pain-related decision making in healthcare providers.

  10. Sex differences in social focus across the life cycle in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Ghosh, Asim; Monsivais, Daniel; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way life history influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age- and gender-related differences we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.

  11. Economic analysis of human papillomavirus triage, repeat cytology, and immediate colposcopy in management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Hjerpe, Anders; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of using human papillomavirus testing (HPV triage) in the management of women with minor cytological abnormalities in Sweden. An economic analysis based on a clinical trial, complemented with data from published meta-analyses on accuracy of HPV triage. The study takes perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. The Swedish population-based cervical cancer screening program. A decision analytic model was constructed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of HPV triage compared to repeat cytology and immediate colposcopy with biopsy, stratifying by index cytology (ASCUS = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, and LSIL = low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and age (23-60 years, cytological abnormalities. Today, immediate colposcopy with biopsy is a cost-effective alternative compared to HPV triage and repeat cytology.

  12. Abnormal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trends after transfer of multiple embryos resulting in viable singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Farland, Leslie V; Missmer, Stacey A; Racowsky, Catherine; Fox, Janis H

    2017-12-19

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether abnormal hCG trends occur at a higher incidence among women conceiving singleton pregnancies following transfer of multiple (two or more) embryos (MET), as compared to those having a single embryo transfer (SET). Retrospective cohort study was performed of women who conceived singleton pregnancies following fresh or frozen autologous IVF/ICSI cycles with day 3 or day 5 embryo transfers between 2007 and 2014 at a single academic medical center. Cycles resulting in one gestational sac on ultrasound followed by singleton live birth beyond 24 weeks of gestation were included. Logistic regression models adjusted a priori for patient age at oocyte retrieval and day of embryo transfer were used to estimate the Odds Ratio of having an abnormal hCG rise (defined as a rise or hCG rises between the first and second measurements, compared to 2.7% (n = 17) of patients undergoing SET (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.26-3.71). Among patients with initially abnormal hCG rises who had a third level checked (89%), three-quarters had normal hCG rises between the second and third measurements. Patients who deliver singletons following MET were more likely to have suboptimal initial hCG rises, potentially due to transient implantation of other non-viable embryo(s). While useful for counseling, these findings should not change standard management of abnormal hCG rises following IVF. The third hCG measurements may clarify pregnancy prognosis.

  13. Impact of age, sex and exercise on brachial and popliteal artery remodelling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel J; Swart, Anne; Exterkate, Anne; Naylor, Louise H; Black, Mark A; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2010-06-01

    To examine the impact of age, sex and exercise on wall thickness and remodelling in the popliteal and brachial arteries. We compared wall thickness, lumen diameter and wall:lumen ratios in the brachial and popliteal arteries of 15 young (Y, 25.4+/-0.8 yr; 7M 8W) and 16 older sedentary (OS, 58.8+/-1.1 yr; 8M 8W) subjects, with 12 of the OS group also studied following 12 and 24 weeks exercise training. Wall thickness and lumen diameter were higher in the popliteal than the brachial artery for both groups (P<0.05); wall:lumen ratio was similar between arteries. Comparison of the Y and OS groups revealed no impact on wall thickness, whereas diameter values were higher in OS subjects (P<0.05). Whilst there were no significant differences in wall thickness between men and women in the Y or OS groups, diameter was larger in men than in women for both arteries (P<0.05). After 24 weeks of training the wall thickness of both arteries decreased (P<0.01) and the wall:lumen ratio of the brachial (P<0.01) and the popliteal (P<0.05) decreased. The cross-sectional results suggest that ageing was associated with increased lumen diameter, although wall:lumen ratio remained unchanged. Wall:lumen ratio was higher in women than men, irrespective of subject age or the artery studied. This related primarily to differences in lumen diameter between the sexes, as wall thickness did not significantly differ between men and women. Our longitudinal data strongly suggest that exercise training is associated with beneficial effects on conduit artery wall thickness and wall:lumen ratio in both upper and lower limbs in humans. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mother-Son Communication About Sex and Routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Younger Men of Color Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouris, Alida; Hill, Brandon J; Fisher, Kimberly; Erickson, Greg; Schneider, John A

    2015-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to document the HIV testing behaviors and serostatus of younger men of color who have sex with men (YMSM) and to explore sociodemographic, behavioral, and maternal correlates of HIV testing in the past 6 months. A total of 135 YMSM aged 16-19 years completed a close-ended survey on HIV testing and risk behaviors, mother-son communication, and sociodemographic characteristics. Youth were offered point-of-care HIV testing, with results provided at survey end. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed the sociodemographic, behavioral, and maternal factors associated with routine HIV testing. A total of 90.3% of YMSM had previously tested for HIV, and 70.9% had tested in the past 6 months. In total, 11.7% of youth reported being HIV positive, and 3.3% reported unknown serostatus. When offered an HIV test, 97.8% accepted. Of these, 14.7% had a positive oral test result, and 31.58% of HIV-positive YMSM (n = 6) were seropositive unaware. Logistic regression results indicated that maternal communication about sex with males was positively associated with routine testing (odds ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval = 1.13-4.94). Conversely, communication about puberty and general human sexuality was negatively associated (odds ratio = .45; 95% confidence interval = .24-.86). Condomless anal intercourse and positive sexually transmitted infection history were negatively associated with routine testing; however, frequency of alcohol use was positively associated. Despite high rates of testing, we found high rates of HIV infection, with 31.58% of HIV-positive YMSM being seropositive unaware. Mother-son communication about sex needs to address same-sex behavior as this appears to be more important than other topics. YMSM with known risk factors for HIV are not testing at the recommended time intervals. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measuring the genetic influence on human life span: gene-environment interaction and sex-specific genetic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; De Benedictis, G; Yashin, Annatoli

    2001-01-01

    New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic and demographicinf...

  16. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  17. Legal Control on Social Control of Sex Offenders in the Community : A European Comparative and Human Rights Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.F. van der Wolf (Michiel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides first of all the introduction to this special issue on ‘Legal constraints on the indeterminate control of “dangerous” sex offenders in the community: A European comparative and human rights perspective’. The issue is the outcome of a study that aims at finding the way

  18. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Turki, Rola F; Abuzenadah, Adel M; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Beg, Mohd A

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15-31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55-95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates.

  19. Sex-Specific Biology of the Human Malaria Parasite Revealed from the Proteomes of Mature Male and Female Gametocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Zenglei; Shrestha, Sony; Li, Xiaolian; Li, Runze; Cui, Liwang

    2017-04-01

    The gametocytes of the malaria parasites are obligate for perpetuating the parasite's life cycle through mosquitoes, but the sex-specific biology of gametocytes is poorly understood. We generated a transgenic line in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , which allowed us to accurately separate male and female gametocytes by flow cytometry. In-depth analysis of the proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 1244 and 1387 proteins in mature male and female gametocytes, respectively. GFP-tagging of nine selected proteins confirmed their sex-partitions to be agreeable with the results from the proteomic analysis. The sex-specific proteomes showed significant differences that are consistent with the divergent functions of the two sexes. Although the male-specific proteome (119 proteins) is enriched in proteins associated with the flagella and genome replication, the female-specific proteome (262 proteins) is more abundant in proteins involved in metabolism, translation and organellar functions. Compared with the Plasmodium berghei sex-specific proteomes, this study revealed both extensive conservation and considerable divergence between these two species, which reflect the disparities between the two species in proteins involved in cytoskeleton, lipid metabolism and protein degradation. Comparison with three sex-specific proteomes allowed us to obtain high-confidence lists of 73 and 89 core male- and female-specific/biased proteins conserved in Plasmodium The identification of sex-specific/biased proteomes in Plasmodium lays a solid foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique sex-specific biology in this early-branching eukaryote. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO 2 > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure

  1. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  2. Abnormal sex chromosome constitution and longitudinal growth: serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone in 109 males with 47,XXY, 47,XYY, or sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY)-positive 46,XX karyotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Juul, A.

    2008-01-01

    and elevated LH levels after puberty, whereas the sex hormone secretion of the 47,XYY boys remained normal. CONCLUSION: We found accelerated growth in early childhood in boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, whereas 46,XX-males were shorter than controls. These abnormal growth patterns were not reflected...... for longitudinal growth in relation to reproductive hormones, IGF-I, and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3. SETTING: The study was conducted at an outpatient clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 86 47,XXY males, 14 46,XX-males, and nine 47,XYY. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standing...... and sitting height, serum levels of reproductive hormones, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were measured. RESULTS: In boys with 47,XXY and 47,XYY karyotypes, growth was accelerated already in childhood, compared with healthy boys. 46,XX-males were significantly shorter than healthy boys but matched the stature of healthy...

  3. Abnormal Expressions of DNA Glycosylase Genes NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 Are Associated with Somatic Mutation Loads in Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Kato, Hisami; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Igarashi, Hisaki; Goto, Masanori; Tao, Hong; Inoue, Yusuke; Nakamura, Satoki; Misawa, Kiyoshi; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of abnormalities in the DNA glycosylases NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 on human cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, we found that the median somatic total mutation loads and the median somatic single nucleotide mutation loads exhibited significant inverse correlations with the median NEIL1 and NEIL2 expression levels and a significant positive correlation with the median NEIL3 expression level using data for 13 cancer types from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A subset of the cancer types exhibited reduced NEIL1 and NEIL2 expressions and elevated NEIL3 expression, and such abnormal expressions of NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 were also significantly associated with the mutation loads in cancer. As a mechanism underlying the reduced expression of NEIL1 in cancer, the epigenetic silencing of NEIL1 through promoter hypermethylation was found. Finally, we investigated the reason why an elevated NEIL3 expression level was associated with an increased number of somatic mutations in cancer and found that NEIL3 expression was positively correlated with the expression of APOBEC3B, a potent inducer of mutations, in diverse cancers. These results suggested that the abnormal expressions of NEIL1, NEIL2, and NEIL3 are involved in cancer through their association with the somatic mutation load.

  4. The occurrence of apoptosis, abnormal mitoses, cells dying in mitosis and micronuclei in a human melanoma xenograft exposed to single dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkvoll, K.H.; Norske Radiumhospital, Oslo)

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms of cell loss, the cell proliferation and the immediate growth response were investigated in a human melanoma xenograft given single dose irradiation with 7.5 Gy and 15.0 Gy, respectively. The frequencies of apoptotic cells, mitoses, abnormal mitoses, cells dying in mitosis and micronuclei, were scored in histological sections. In the untreated xenograft, the occurrence of micronuclei and abnormal mitoses indicated the presence of reproductively dead cells. Cell loss manifested itself through the appearance of apoptosis, cells dying in mitosis and necrosis. After irradiation, the cell proliferation was temporarily inhibited due to a radiation induced division delay. When proliferation resumed, there was a dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of abnormal mitoses and micronuclei and thus in the fraction of reproductively dead cells. The incidence of cell loss through apoptosis and cells dying in mitosis also increased. This cell loss probably reduced transiently the fraction of reproductively dead cells, and accounted for the reduced amount of tumour cells the first days after 15.0 Gy irradiation. The incidence of apoptotic cell loss and micronuclei decreased, and the incidence of normal mitoses increased when tumour growth resumed. (orig.) [de

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Human papillomavirus in female sex workers in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ramírez, Azucena; López-Monteon, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Guapillo-Vargas, Mario R B

    2018-03-13

    Female sex workers (FSWs) have been considered a key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs); therefore, they are periodically screened as a requirement to obtain a work card. However, there is insufficient epidemiological data on STIs among FSWs in Mexico. The detection of Trichomonas vaginalis is limited to microscopic studies and the molecular screening of Human papillomavirus (HPV) is only done to women 35 years of age and older. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis and HPV infections in FSWs in the city of Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. Samples from 105 FSWs were obtained by cervical swab and analyzed. The identification of T. vaginalis and HPV was performed by molecular methods. HPV DNA was identified in 5.71% of the samples with the presence of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV58. A percentage of 25.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis for optical microscopy and 23.8% for PCR. The results of the study indicate the need to incorporate more sensitive methods for the timely diagnosis of STIs as well as comprehensive health promotion programs directed to the most vulnerable groups among FSWs. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  7. Increased acetylation of microtubules rescues human tau-induced microtubule defects and neuromuscular junction abnormalities in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Xi Mao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tau normally associates with and stabilizes microtubules (MTs, but is hyperphosphorylated and aggregated into neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases, which are collectively known as tauopathies. MTs are regulated by different forms of post-translational modification, including acetylation; acetylated MTs represent a more stable microtubule population. In our previous study, we showed that inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6, which deacetylates tubulin at lysine 40, rescues defects in MTs and in neuromuscular junction growth caused by tau overexpression. However, HDAC6 also acts on other proteins that are involved in distinct biological processes unrelated to tubulins. In order to examine directly the role of increased tubulin acetylation against tau toxicity, we generated a site-directed α-tubulinK40Q mutation by CRISPR/Cas9 technology to mimic the acetylated MTs and found that acetylation-mimicking α-tubulin rescued tau-induced MT defects and neuromuscular junction developmental abnormalities. We also showed that late administration of ACY-1215 and tubastatin A, two potent and selective inhibitors of HDAC6, rescued the tau-induced MT defects after the abnormalities had already become apparent. Overall, our results indicate that increasing MT acetylation by either genetic manipulations or drugs might be used as potential strategies for intervention in tauopathies.

  8. Chromosome Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for Teachers Genomic Careers National DNA Day Online Education Kit Online Genetics Education ... Subjects Research Informed Consent for Genomics Research Intellectual ...

  9. Sex chromosome-dependent differential viability of human spermatozoa during prolonged incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Saidur Rahman, Md; Park, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2017-06-01

    Are there significant differences in the ability of X chromosome-bearing (X) spermatozoa and Y chromosome-bearing (Y) spermatozoa to survive incubation under stressful conditions? Y spermatozoa are more vulnerable to stress than their X counterparts depending on culture period and temperature, and show higher expression of apoptotic proteins. The primary sex ratio is determined by there being an equal number of spermatozoa carrying X and Y chromosomes. This balance can be skewed by exposure to stressful environmental conditions such as changes in pH, pollutants or endocrine disruptors. However, less is known about the ability of sperm carrying either sex chromosome to withstand environmental stress. The difference in survival between X and Y spermatozoa was evaluated by measuring motility, viability and Y:X chromosome ratio during incubation for 5 days, at three temperatures (4, 22 and 37°C), and three pH conditions (6.5, 7.5 and 8.5). To identify the critical factors that determine the survival of X and Y bearing spermatozoa, we analysed the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl, Bax and Caspase-3), as well as the extent of DNA damage under a subset of conditions. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation from normozoospermic donors after 3 days of sexual abstinence. Four samples with >60% motility from different donors were mixed to obtain sufficient semen and eliminate sampling-related bias. Data are presented as mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Mean age of donors was 28.7 ± 3.2 years. In total, 58 489 spermatozoa were scored. The viability of Y spermatozoa was lower after exposure to different temperatures and culture periods than that of X spermatozoa (P spermatozoa was observed, despite the addition of tocopherol to the culture medium (P Spermatozoa were cultured in vitro during the treatment period. It is difficult to extrapolate the observed lifespan differences to spermatozoa survival in vivo. The experiments were replicated

  10. Effect of acute resistance exercise and sex on human patellar tendon structural and regulatory mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, B.E.; Carroll, C.C.; Jemiolo, B.

    2009-01-01

    -2, MMP-9, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 at rest and after RE. Patellar tendon biopsy samples were taken from six individuals (3 men and 3 women) before and 4 h after a bout of RE and from a another six individuals (3 men and 3 women) before and 24 h after RE. Resting mRNA expression was used for sex comparisons...... (6 men and 6 women). Collagen type I, collagen type III, and MMP-2 were downregulated (P 0.05) 24 h after RE. All other genes remained unchanged (P > 0.05) after RE. Women had higher resting mRNA expression (P ... = 0.08) toward lower resting expression of MMP-3 than men. All other genes were not influenced (P > 0.05) by sex. Acute RE appears to stimulate a change in collagen type I, collagen type III, and MMP-2 gene regulation in the human patellar tendon. Sex influences the structural and regulatory m...

  11. Distinctive roles of age, sex, and genetics in shaping transcriptional variation of human immune responses to microbial challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecka, Barbara; Duffy, Darragh; Urrutia, Alejandra; Quach, Hélène; Patin, Etienne; Posseme, Céline; Bergstedt, Jacob; Charbit, Bruno; Rouilly, Vincent; MacPherson, Cameron R; Hasan, Milena; Albaud, Benoit; Gentien, David; Fellay, Jacques; Albert, Matthew L; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2018-01-16

    The contribution of host genetic and nongenetic factors to immunological differences in humans remains largely undefined. Here, we generated bacterial-, fungal-, and viral-induced immune transcriptional profiles in an age- and sex-balanced cohort of 1,000 healthy individuals and searched for the determinants of immune response variation. We found that age and sex affected the transcriptional response of most immune-related genes, with age effects being more stimulus-specific relative to sex effects, which were largely shared across conditions. Although specific cell populations mediated the effects of age and sex on gene expression, including CD8 + T cells for age and CD4 + T cells and monocytes for sex, we detected a direct effect of these intrinsic factors for the majority of immune genes. The mapping of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) revealed that genetic factors had a stronger effect on immune gene regulation than age and sex, yet they affected a smaller number of genes. Importantly, we identified numerous genetic variants that manifested their regulatory effects exclusively on immune stimulation, including a Candida albicans -specific master regulator at the CR1 locus. These response eQTLs were enriched in disease-associated variants, particularly for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, indicating that differences in disease risk may result from regulatory variants exerting their effects only in the presence of immune stress. Together, this study quantifies the respective effects of age, sex, genetics, and cellular heterogeneity on the interindividual variability of immune responses and constitutes a valuable resource for further exploration in the context of different infection risks or disease outcomes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. Chromosomal abnormality rate in human pre-embryos derived from in vitro fertilization cycles cultured in the presence of Follicular-Fluid Meiosis Activating Sterol (FF-MAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Christina; Loft, Anne; Lundin, Kersti; Ziebe, Sören; Nilsson, Lars; Wikland, Matts; Gröndahl, Christian; Arce, J-C

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of Follicular-Fluid Meiosis Activating Sterol (FF-MAS) when added to the culture media on the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities and pre-embryo development in human pre-embryos. 243 women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment donated 353 oocytes in a multicentre, prospective, randomized, double blind, four-arm, controlled trial performed at Danish and Swedish public and private IVF centers. Metaphase II oocytes were randomly assigned to: FF-MAS 5 microM, FF-MAS 20 microM, ethanol 0.2% (vehicle control) or water for injection (inert control). The exposure regimen of FF-MAS to the human oocytes was 4 h prior to fertilization by ICSI and 20 h exposure post ICSI. The primary endpoint was the incidence of numerical chromosomal abnormalities. Secondary endpoints were cleavage rate and pre-embryo quality. On the pre-embryo level, no significant differences in chromosomal abnormality rate were observed among the four groups. However, the percentage of uniformly normal pre-embryos was significantly lower in the pooled FF-MAS group (5 microM: 12% and 20 microM: 17%) than in the pooled control group (inert control 32% and vehicle control 42%). A high level of mosaicism (41-60%) was found in all groups. At the blastomere level, the percentage of blastomeres categorized as normal was significantly lower in the FF-MAS 5 microM group (41%) and the FF-MAS 20 microM (29%) group versus the inert (52%) and the vehicle (61%) groups. Significantly reduced cleavage and good quality pre-embryo rates were found in both FF-MAS groups. FF-MAS increased the rate of aneuploidy and had detrimental effects on cleavage and pre-embryo development, when exposed both before and after fertilization.

  13. The application of human papilloma virus genotyping for the identification of neoplasm lesions in the cervix of women with abnormal cytology smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Barbara; Heimrath, Jerzy; Ciszek, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A connection between infections with a highly oncogenic type of human papilloma virus and the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and preinvasive cervical cancer has been proven both experimentally and clinically. The period after which persistent virus infection will lead to the development of precancerous and invasive lesions is dependent on, among others, the HPV genotype. The oncogenic types of human papilloma virus destabilize the genome of an infected cell and thus initiate the carcinogenesis process. The aim of this work was to analyze the frequency of occurrence of different oncogenic HPV genotypes among women with abnormal cytological smears and the correlation of this data with the degree of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia exacerbation. The sample consisted of 75 women of child-bearing age (16-43 years old) with an abnormal cytological smear and positive test identifying an infection with an oncogenic type of human papilloma virus. In every case histopathological verification, aimed at excluding pathologies in the endocervix, was conducted using a colposcopy with guided biopsy and cervix abrasion. The authors found that the frequency of occurrence of different HPV genotypes of the groups of cytological diagnoses ASC-US, LSIL and HSIL do not differ statistically (p = 0.57). However, what is noteworthy is the more common occurrence of HPV 16 in type LSIL lesions (45.45%) and HPV 18 of a more advanced type HSIL (37.50%) pathology. Through the verification of the cytology results with histopathological diagnosis of the above groups the authors obtained statistically significant differences (p human papilloma virus, the authors found that the most common were HPV 31, 45 and 33. In CIN 1 and CIN 2 their share was over 60%. In CIS/AIS type pathologies, no other types of human papilloma virus than HPV 16 and HPV 18 were shown. Positive results of DNA HR HPV testing of women with abnormal cytology results identified a risk group for the

  14. Sex determination of human crania using Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepali; Jasuja, O P; Nath, Surinder

    2013-05-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to establish standards for sex determination from the various direct and indirect measurements of the cranium. A total of 100 cranium (50 of either sex) were measured for nine direct measurements pertaining to Mastoid triangle and Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. These measurements were used further to calculate four indirect measurements pertaining to the calculation of Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle area and angles. Analysis of data reveals that the male crania exhibit greater values for all the measurements except the angle right Mastoidale-Opisthion-left Mastoidale. The sex difference has been observed to be statistically significant for all the measurements except for the angles of the Opisthion-Bimastoid triangle. Sectioning point was calculated for the diagnosis of sex based on the mean values of these measurements; the accuracy of sex determination varied from measurement to measurement. The highest value for determining sex was obtained for Asterion-Mastoidale length of right side i.e. 80%, followed by Bi-mastoid breadth i.e. 75%. This suggests that these measurements could be used with relatively high degree of accuracy in determining sex of the unknown crania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity according to sex in the argar culture. An approach based on the human remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Brobeil, Silvia A.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A collection of human remains, from the Argaric Culture sites, was studied to broaden knowledge about the physical activity carried out by those populations. Three types of activity markers were analyzed: osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal stress markers and traumatisms. The obtained results coincide with the environment and terrain in which the archaeological sites were found, demonstrating a remarkable difference between sexes. Although it is impossible to determine the profession of the studied individuals, it can be affirmed that the men would perform activities that required muscular strength, walking through rugged and steeped terrain in which they risked suffering further trauma. The women, however, carried out activities centred around the domestic environment.

    Se estudian restos humanos procedentes de yacimientos de la Cultura de El Argar con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento sobre la actividad física llevada a cabo por los individuos. Se analizan tres tipos de marcadores: la artrosis, los marcadores de estrés músculo-esquelético y los traumatismos. Los resultados obtenidos son coincidentes con el entorno y los terrenos en los que se ubicaron los asentamientos argáricos y señalan una clara diferencia entre sexos. Aunque es imposible determinar la “profesión” de los individuos, sí se puede afirmar que los varones realizarían actividades que requerían fuerza muscular, caminar por terrenos duros y escarpados y en las que había riesgo de sufrir traumatismos. Las mujeres, sin embargo, llevarían a cabo actividades centradas en el entorno doméstico.

  16. Effect of sex differences on human MEF2 regulation during endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; McGee, Sean L; Roepstorff, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Women exhibit an enhanced capability for lipid metabolism during endurance exercise compared with men. The underlying regulatory mechanisms behind this sex-related difference are not well understood but may comprise signaling through a myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulatory pathway. The prim......Women exhibit an enhanced capability for lipid metabolism during endurance exercise compared with men. The underlying regulatory mechanisms behind this sex-related difference are not well understood but may comprise signaling through a myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulatory pathway...... to endurance exercise. This signaling response was independent of sex....

  17. Hormonal and genetic influences underlying arousal as it drives sex and aggression in animal and human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Jessica A; Pfaff, Donald W

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen treatment induces transcription and increases excitability and reproductive behavior. Estrogens provide the structural basis for increased synaptic activity and greater behavior-facilitating output. Administration of progesterone amplifies the effect of estrogens on mating behavior. The role of GnRH is to synchronize reproductive behavior with the ovulatory surge of LH. A causal connection can be charted from one individual gene to human social behavior, but only via six causal links. Glia, meninges and neurons may participate, under the influence of sex hormones, in the direction of sex behavior. Neural and genetic mechanisms for motivation may lead to biological understanding of functions that apply to the most primitive aspects of human mental functioning. With respect to aggression, besides testosterone and its metabolites, serotonergic projections to the forebrain play an important role.

  18. Arrested human embryos are more likely to have abnormal chromosomes than developing embryos from women of advanced maternal age

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Tao; Liang, Li-Feng; Xian, Ye-Xing; Liu, Jian-Qiao; Wang, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneuploidy is one of the major factors that result in low efficiency in human infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF). The development of DNA microarray technology allows for aneuploidy screening by analyzing all 23 pairs of chromosomes in human embryos. All chromosome screening for aneuploidy is more accurate than partial chromosome screening, as errors can occur in any chromosome. Currently, chromosome screening for aneuploidy is performed in developing embryos, mai...

  19. Cultural and Socioeconomical Dimensions of Human Reproduction and Sex Education in the Biology Textbooks of Eight Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Selmaoui, Sabah; Agorram, Boujemaa; Khzami, Salaheddine; Razouki, Abdelaziz; Clément, Pierre; Caravita, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This study was carried out within the European research project "Biology, Health and Environmental Education for Better Citizenship". It is a comparative analysis of textbooks from eight Mediterranean countries which differ by their cultures, their socio‐economical levels, and their religions. This work is focused on the sensitive educational topic "Human Reproduction and Sex Education". And 43 biology textbooks are analyzed among eight countries: four are in Europe an...

  20. Nerve cell nuclear and nucleolar abnormalities in the human oedematous cerebral cortex. An electron microscopic study using cortical biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, O J; Arismendi, G J

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral cortical biopsies of 17 patients with clinical diagnosis of congenital hydrocephalus, complicated brain trauma, cerebellar syndrome and vascular anomaly were examined with the transmission electron microscope to study the nuclear and nucleolar abnormalities induced by moderate and severe brain oedema, and the associated anoxic-ischemic conditions of brain tissue. In infant patients with congenital hydrocephalus and Arnold-Chiari malformation two different structural patterns of immature chromatin organization were found: the clear type characterized by a clear granular and fibrillar structure of euchromatin, scarce heterochromatin masses and few perichromatin granules, and a dense granular and fibrillar euchromatin with abundant and scattered heterochromatin masses, and increased number of perichromatin granules. The lobulated nuclei exhibited an irregularly dilated and fragmented perinuclear cistern, and areas of apparently intact nuclear pore complexes alternating with regions of nuclear pore complex disassembly. In moderate traumatic brain injuries some nucleoli exhibit apparent intact nucleolar substructures, and in severe brain oedema some nucleoli appeared shrunken and irregularly outlined with one or two fibrillar centers, and others were disintegrated. The nuclear and nucleolar morphological alterations are discussed in relation with oxidative stress, peroxidative damage, hemoglobin-induced cytotoxicity, calcium overload, glutamate excitotoxicity, and caspase activation.

  1. A Human Neural Crest Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neuronal Model Recapitulates Biochemical Abnormalities in GBA1 Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yu Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerically the most important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD is the presence of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase GBA1 gene. In vitro and in vivo studies show that GBA1 mutations reduce glucocerebrosidase (GCase activity and are associated with increased α-synuclein levels, reflecting similar changes seen in idiopathic PD brain. We have developed a neural crest stem cell-derived dopaminergic neuronal model that recapitulates biochemical abnormalities in GBA1 mutation-associated PD. Cells showed reduced GCase protein and activity, impaired macroautophagy, and increased α-synuclein levels. Advantages of this approach include easy access to stem cells, no requirement to reprogram, and retention of the intact host genome. Treatment with a GCase chaperone increased GCase protein levels and activity, rescued the autophagic defects, and decreased α-synuclein levels. These results provide the basis for further investigation of GCase chaperones or similar drugs to slow the progression of PD.

  2. SPECT gallium-67 scanning in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Failure of scanning abnormalities to correlate with immunologic staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, G.T.; Timmons, J.H.; Johnson, J.E.; Blanton, H.M.; Hartshorne, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    The use of gallium scanning in the treatment of patients with AIDS has been well described. In this study, 27 HIV-infected patients (Walter Reed Staging Classification I-V) with normal chest roentgenograms were evaluated to determine the occurrence of thoracic gallium abnormalities in early HIV infection. SPECT was used for gallium scanning. Patients received gallium injection on day 1 and bronchoalveolar lavage on day 2, and scanning was performed on day 3. Twenty-eight scans in 27 patients were performed. Mean nodal SPECT activity was compared with corresponding values for lung parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage cell counts, and peripheral blood T4 lymphocyte counts. No relationship between nodal and parenchymal activity and cell counts was observed. Although visual scan interpretation was unaffected, gallium activity was significantly increased in the region of bronchoalveolar lavage compared with uptake in other lung regions. It is concluded that SPECT gallium scanning demonstrates significant gallium avidity in recently lavaged lung areas, although no impact on visual scan interpretation was seen. Further, no correlation was seen between the degree of nodal uptake and the immunologic status of these patients with early HIV infection

  3. Developing human rights-based strategies to improve health among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnès; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Mwananawe, Aimable; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Irwin, Alec; Karema, Corine

    2010-12-15

    How governments should address sex work is a topic of current debate in Rwanda and other countries. Some constituencies propose harsher punishment of sex workers as the cornerstone of an improved policy. We argue that an adequate policy response to sex work in the Rwandan context must prioritize public health and reflect current knowledge of the social determinants of health. This does not imply intensified repression, but a comprehensive agenda of medical and social support to improve sex workers' access to health care, reduce their social isolation, and expand their economic options. Evidence from social epidemiology converges with rights-based arguments in this approach. Recent field interviews with current and former sex workers strengthen the case, while highlighting the need for further social scientific and epidemiological analysis of sex work in Rwanda. Rwanda has implemented some measures that reflect a rights-based perspective in addressing sex work. For example, recent policies seek to expand access to education for girls and support sex workers in the transition to alternative livelihoods. These policies reinforce the model of solidarity-based public health action for which Rwanda has been recognized. Whether such measures can maintain traction in the face of economic austerity and ideological resistance remains to be seen. Copyright © 2010 Binagwaho, Agbonyitor, Mwananawe, Mugwaneza, Irwin, and Karema. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  4. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biliński Szczepan M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later.

  5. Cell sex affects extracellular matrix protein expression and proliferation of smooth muscle progenitor cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Wen, Yan; Green, Morgaine; Cabral, Elise K; Wani, Prachi; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Yi; Baer, Thomas M; Chen, Bertha

    2017-07-04

    Smooth muscle progenitor cells (pSMCs) differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for treating diseases or degenerative conditions involving smooth muscle pathologies. However, the therapeutic potential of pSMCs derived from men and women may be very different. Cell sex can exert a profound impact on the differentiation process of stem cells into somatic cells. In spite of advances in translation of stem cell technologies, the role of cell sex and the effect of sex hormones on the differentiation towards mesenchymal lineage pSMCs remain largely unexplored. Using a standard differentiation protocol, two human embryonic stem cell lines (one male line and one female line) and three induced pluripotent stem cell lines (one male line and two female lines) were differentiated into pSMCs. We examined differences in the differentiation of male and female hPSCs into pSMCs, and investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolisms and cell proliferation rates of the pSMCs. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student's t test or two-way ANOVA, p cell proliferation rates. E2 treatment induced the expression of myogenic gene markers and suppressed ECM degradation activities through reduction of MMP activity and increased expression of TIMP-1 in female pSMCs, but not in male pSMCs. hPSC-derived pSMCs from different sexes show differential expression of ECM proteins and proliferation rates. Estrogen appears to promote maturation and ECM protein expression in female pSMCs, but not in male pSMCs. These data suggest that intrinsic cell-sex differences may influence progenitor cell biology.

  6. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  7. Hybrid Capture 2 and cobas human papillomavirus assays perform similarly on SurePath samples from women with abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregaard, B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) at...

  8. Persistent abnormalities in lymphoid tissues of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schacker, Timothy W.; Nguyen, Phuong L.; Martinez, Esteban; Reilly, Cavan; Gatell, Jose M.; Horban, Andrzej; Bakowska, Elzbieta; Berzins, Baiba; van Leeuwen, Remko; Wolinsky, Steven; Haase, Ashley T.; Murphy, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with virus suppression and immune reconstitution. However, in some patients, this reconstitution is partial or incomplete because CD4(+) cell counts do not increase significantly. This may be

  9. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey...

  10. Early detection of abnormal prion protein in genetic human prion diseases now possible using real-time QUIC assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Sano

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The definitive diagnosis of genetic prion diseases (gPrD requires pathological confirmation. To date, diagnosis has relied upon the finding of the biomarkers 14-3-3 protein and total tau (t-tau protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, but many researchers have reported that these markers are not sufficiently elevated in gPrD, especially in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS. We recently developed a new in vitro amplification technology, designated "real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC", to detect the abnormal form of prion protein in CSF from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the presence of biomarkers and evaluate RT-QUIC assay in patients with gPrD, as the utility of RT-QUIC as a diagnostic tool in gPrD has yet to be determined. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 56 CSF samples were obtained from gPrD patients, including 20 cases of GSS with P102L mutation, 12 cases of fatal familial insomnia (FFI; D178N, and 24 cases of genetic CJD (gCJD, comprising 22 cases with E200K mutation and 2 with V203I mutation. We subjected all CSF samples to RT-QUIC assay, analyzed 14-3-3 protein by Western blotting, and measured t-tau protein using an ELISA kit. The detection sensitivities of RT-QUIC were as follows: GSS (78%, FFI (100%, gCJD E200K (87%, and gCJD V203I (100%. On the other hand the detection sensitivities of biomarkers were considerably lower: GSS (11%, FFI (0%, gCJD E200K (73%, and gCJD V203I (67%. Thus, RT-QUIC had a much higher detection sensitivity compared with testing for biomarkers, especially in patients with GSS and FFI. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: RT-QUIC assay is more sensitive than testing for biomarkers in gPrD patients. RT-QUIC method would thus be useful as a diagnostic tool when the patient or the patient's family does not agree to genetic testing, or to confirm the diagnosis in the presence of a positive result for genetic testing.

  11. Sex Differences in Energy Metabolism Need to Be Considered with Lifestyle Modifications in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty N. Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have a higher proportion of body fat compared to men. However, women consume fewer kilojoules per kilogram lean mass and burn fat more preferentially during exercise compared with men. During gestation, women store even greater amounts of fat that cannot be solely attributed to increased energy intake. These observations suggest that the relationship between kilojoules consumed and kilojoules utilised is different in men and women. The reason for these sex differences in energy metabolism is not known; however, it may relate to sex steroids, differences in insulin resistance, or metabolic effects of other hormones such as leptin. When considering lifestyle modifications, sex differences in energy metabolism should be considered. Moreover, elucidating the regulatory role of hormones in energy homeostasis is important for understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and perhaps in the future may lead to ways to reduce body fat with less energy restriction.

  12. A statistical human rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2014-07-18

    In this study, we developed a statistical rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index (BMI). Thorax CT scans were obtained from 89 subjects approximately evenly distributed among 8 age groups and both sexes. Threshold-based CT image segmentation was performed to extract the rib geometries, and a total of 464 landmarks on the left side of each subject׳s ribcage were collected to describe the size and shape of the rib cage as well as the cross-sectional geometry of each rib. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to predict rib cage geometry as a function of age, sex, stature, and BMI, all of which showed strong effects on rib cage geometry. Except for BMI, all parameters also showed significant effects on rib cross-sectional area using a linear mixed model. This statistical rib cage geometry model can serve as a geometric basis for developing a parametric human thorax finite element model for quantifying effects from different human attributes on thoracic injury risks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sex differences in the toxicokinetics of inhaled solvent vapors in humans 2. 2-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernstgaard, Lena; Sjoegren, Bengt; Warholm, Margareta; Johanson, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible sex differences in the inhalation toxicokinetics of 2-propanol vapor. Nine women and eight men were exposed on different occasions for 2 h during light physical exercise (50 W) to 2-propanol (350 mg/m 3 ) and to clean air (control exposure). The level corresponds to the Swedish occupational exposure limit. 2-Propanol and its metabolite acetone were monitored up to 24 h after exposure in exhaled air, blood, saliva, and urine by headspace gas chromatography. Body fat and lean body mass were estimated from sex-specific equations using bioelectrical impedance, body weight, height, and age. Genotypes were determined by PCR-based assays for alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). The CYP2E1 phenotype was assessed by the 2-h plasma 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone metabolic ratio in vivo. The toxicokinetic profile in blood was analyzed using a one-compartment population model. The following sex differences were significant at the p 0.05 level (Student's t test). The respiratory uptake was lower and the volume of distribution smaller in females. The women had a slightly shorter half-time of 2-propanol in blood and a higher apparent total clearance when corrected for body composition. However, women reached approximately four times higher 2-propanol levels in exhaled air at 10-min postexposure and onward. Acetone in blood was markedly higher in females than in males in the control experiment and slightly higher following exposure to 2-propanol. A marked sex difference was that of a 10-fold higher in vivo blood:breath ratio in men, suggesting sex differences in the lung metabolism of 2-propanol. The most marked sex difference was that of salivary acetone, for which an approximately 100-fold increase was seen in women, but no increase in men, after exposure to 2-propanol compared to clean air. The toxicokinetic analysis revealed no significant differences in toxicokinetics between subjects of different

  14. Subcommittee fails to recommend legal reforms needed to promote human rights of sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Leon; Betteridge, Glenn

    2007-05-01

    In December 2006, the House of Commons Subcommittee on Solicitation Laws released its longawaited report on the criminal laws related to prostitution in Canada, entitled The Challenge of Change: A Study of Canada's Criminal Prostitution Laws. The Subcommittee's report fails to call for amendments to the Criminal Code provisions which have been demonstrated to increase the health and safety threats faced by sex workers. The Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and two sex worker organizations, Stella and Maggie's, jointly published an analysis of the report.

  15. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  16. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking.

  17. Behavioral abnormalities in female mice following administration of aluminum adjuvants and the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Gardasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Rotem; Weiss, Ronen; Tomljenovic, Lucija; Arango, Maria-Teresa; Deri, Yael; Shaw, Christopher A; Chapman, Joab; Blank, Miri; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2017-02-01

    Vaccine adjuvants and vaccines may induce autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations in susceptible individuals. To date most human vaccine trials utilize aluminum (Al) adjuvants as placebos despite much evidence showing that Al in vaccine-relevant exposures can be toxic to humans and animals. We sought to evaluate the effects of Al adjuvant and the HPV vaccine Gardasil versus the true placebo on behavioral and inflammatory parameters in female mice. Six-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were injected with either, Gardasil, Gardasil + pertussis toxin (Pt), Al hydroxide, or, vehicle control in amounts equivalent to human exposure. At 7.5 months of age, Gardasil and Al-injected mice spent significantly more time floating in the forced swimming test (FST) in comparison with vehicle-injected mice (Al, p = 0.009; Gardasil, p = 0.025; Gardasil + Pt, p = 0.005). The increase in floating time was already highly significant at 4.5 months of age for the Gardasil and Gardasil + Pt group (p ≤ 0.0001). No significant differences were observed in the number of stairs climbed in the staircase test which measures locomotor activity. These results indicate that differences observed in the FST were unlikely due to locomotor dysfunction, but rather due to depression. Moreover, anti-HPV antibodies from the sera of Gardasil and Gardasil + Pt-injected mice showed cross-reactivity with the mouse brain protein extract. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed microglial activation in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of Gardasil-injected mice. It appears that Gardasil via its Al adjuvant and HPV antigens has the ability to trigger neuroinflammation and autoimmune reactions, further leading to behavioral changes.

  18. Lipid mobilization from human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue is independent of sex during steady-state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Jens; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate whether there are sex differences of significant biological importance in the human abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism when studied by Fick's Principle during rest and exercise in steady-state conditions. The net mobilization of fatty acids...... and glycerol from the abdominal, subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured by arterio-venous catheterizations and simultaneous measurements of adipose tissue blood flow with the local Xe-clearance technique in 16 healthy, young normal weight men and women during rest, during 1 h of exercise at moderate...... intensity, and for another 60 min during post-exercise recovery. The results show that there are not significant sex differences with respect to the steady-state fatty acid and glycerol mobilizations neither during resting condition nor during exercise....

  19. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  20. Sex differences in the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern and impact on gene expression, microRNA levels and insulin secretion in human pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elin; Volkov, Petr; Dayeh, Tasnim; Esguerra, Jonathan Lou S; Salö, Sofia; Eliasson, Lena; Rönn, Tina; Bacos, Karl; Ling, Charlotte

    2014-12-03

    Epigenetic factors regulate tissue-specific expression and X-chromosome inactivation. Previous studies have identified epigenetic differences between sexes in some human tissues. However, it is unclear whether epigenetic modifications contribute to sex-specific differences in insulin secretion and metabolism. Here, we investigate the impact of sex on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human pancreatic islets from 53 males and 34 females, and relate the methylome to changes in expression and insulin secretion. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is higher in female versus male islets. Genome-wide DNA methylation data in human islets clusters based on sex. While the chromosome-wide DNA methylation level on the X-chromosome is higher in female versus male islets, the autosomes do not display a global methylation difference between sexes. Methylation of 8,140 individual X-chromosome sites and 470 autosomal sites shows sex-specific differences in human islets. These include sites in/near AR, DUSP9, HNF4A, BCL11A and CDKN2B. 61 X-chromosome genes and 18 autosomal genes display sex-specific differences in both DNA methylation and expression. These include NKAP, SPESP1 and APLN, which exhibited lower expression in females. Functional analyses demonstrate that methylation of NKAP and SPESP1 promoters in vitro suppresses their transcriptional activity. Silencing of Nkap or Apln in clonal beta-cells results in increased insulin secretion. Differential methylation between sexes is associated with altered levels of microRNAs miR-660 and miR-532 and related target genes. Chromosome-wide and gene-specific sex differences in DNA methylation associate with altered expression and insulin secretion in human islets. Our data demonstrate that epigenetics contribute to sex-specific metabolic phenotypes.

  1. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Ryan; Grosso, Ashley; Scheibe, Andrew; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ketende, Sosthenes; Dausab, Friedel; Iipinge, Scholastica; Beyrer, Chris; Trapance, Gift; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM. PMID:26764467

  2. Abnormal expression and processing of the proprotein convertases PC1 and PC2 in human colorectal liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzimas, George N; Metrakos, Peter; Chevet, Eric; Jenna, Sarah; Nguyên, Duc Thang; Khatib, Abdel M; Marcus, Victoria; Zhang, Yi; Chrétien, Michel; Seidah, Nabil

    2005-01-01

    The family of proprotein convertases has been recently implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in animal models. However, these studies have not yet been completely corroborated in human tumors. Using RT PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry we assessed the presence and the processing patterns of the convertases PC1 and PC2 as well as the PC2 specific chaperone 7B2 in human liver metastases originating from colorectal cancer and compared them to unaffected and normal liver. Furthermore, we assessed the presence and processing profiles of PC1, PC2 and 7B2 in primary colon cancers. mRNA, protein expression, and protein cleavage profiles of proprotein convertases 1 and 2 are altered in liver colorectal metastasis, compared to unaffected and normal liver. Active PC1 protein is overexpressed in tumor, correlating with its mRNA profile. Moreover, the enhanced PC2 processing pattern in tumor correlates with the overexpression of its specific binding protein 7B2. These results were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. The specific and uniform convertase pattern observed in the metastases was present only in a fraction of primary colon cancers. The uniformly altered proprotein convertase profile in liver metastases is observed only in a fraction of primary colon cancers, suggesting possible selection processes involving PCs during metastasis as well as an active role of PCs in liver metastasis. In addition, the exclusive presence of 7B2 in metastatic tumors may represent a new target for early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment

  3. Sex genes for genomic analysis in human brain: internal controls for comparison of probe level data extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic studies of complex tissues pose unique analytical challenges for assessment of data quality, performance of statistical methods used for data extraction, and detection of differentially expressed genes. Ideally, to assess the accuracy of gene expression analysis methods, one needs a set of genes which are known to be differentially expressed in the samples and which can be used as a "gold standard". We introduce the idea of using sex-chromosome genes as an alternative to spiked-in control genes or simulations for assessment of microarray data and analysis methods. Results Expression of sex-chromosome genes were used as true internal biological controls to compare alternate probe-level data extraction algorithms (Microarray Suite 5.0 [MAS5.0], Model Based Expression Index [MBEI] and Robust Multi-array Average [RMA], to assess microarray data quality and to establish some statistical guidelines for analyzing large-scale gene expression. These approaches were implemented on a large new dataset of human brain samples. RMA-generated gene expression values were markedly less variable and more reliable than MAS5.0 and MBEI-derived values. A statistical technique controlling the false discovery rate was applied to adjust for multiple testing, as an alternative to the Bonferroni method, and showed no evidence of false negative results. Fourteen probesets, representing nine Y- and two X-chromosome linked genes, displayed significant sex differences in brain prefrontal cortex gene expression. Conclusion In this study, we have demonstrated the use of sex genes as true biological internal controls for genomic analysis of complex tissues, and suggested analytical guidelines for testing alternate oligonucleotide microarray data extraction protocols and for adjusting multiple statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes. Our results also provided evidence for sex differences in gene expression in the brain prefrontal cortex

  4. The human placenta expresses multiple glucocorticoid receptor isoforms that are altered by fetal sex, growth restriction and maternal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Z; Hodyl, N A; Hobbs, E; Tuck, A R; Butler, M S; Osei-Kumah, A; Clifton, V L

    2014-04-01

    We have previously identified sex-specific differences in the fetal-placental response to cortisol. Our recent studies suggest that this differential response to cortisol is driven by differences in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein function rather than through changes in gene transcription or protein expression. This study was designed to define whether the human placenta expresses different isoforms of the GR and whether expression was altered by fetal sex and maternal asthma. Asthma and non-asthma pregnant women were prospectively recruited at their first antenatal visit and placentae collected at delivery. Placental GR expression was examined in relation to maternal asthma, fetal sex and birthweight. Twelve specific bands for the GR were identified at molecular weights of 94, 91, 81, 74, 69, 68, 65, 60, 55, 50, 48 and 38 kDa. The 12 isoforms were localised to the placental trophoblast and expression varied in relation to cellular location in either the cytoplasm or nucleus, fetal sex, fetal size and the presence and absence of maternal asthma. This is the first study to identify the presence of several protein isoforms of the GR in the human placenta. The data suggest glucocorticoid resistance observed in male placentae may be mediated through increased GRβ, GR A and GR P localisation to the nucleus. While female placentae may be more sensitive to cortisol in the presence of maternal asthma through a decrease in GRβ and an enhancement GRα activity via an interaction with GRα D3 and GRα C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The variations of human sex ratio at birth during and after wars, and their potential explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H

    2009-03-07

    Data on wartime sex ratios (proportions male at birth) are reviewed. Two sorts of variation are empirically well supported viz. (a) rises during and just after both World Wars and (b) a fall in Iran during the Iran-Iraq War. Potential explanations are offered here for these rises and fall. The fall seems plausibly explained by psychological stress causing pregnant women disproportionately to abort male fetuses. The rises may be explained by either or both of two different forms of hypothesis viz. (i) Kanazawa's "returning soldier" hypothesis and (ii) variation in coital rates. The coital rate hypothesis potentially accounts, in slightly different ways, for the rises both during, and just after, some wars. The argument that coital rate affects sex ratio just after wars seems to be supported by evidence that in some combatant countries, dizygotic (DZ) twinning rates (which also reportedly vary with coital rate) peaked after the World Wars. The suggestion that war is associated with rises in sex ratio at birth was first made more than two centuries ago. However, I have been unable to locate direct supporting sex ratio data relating to any conflict before World War One. So it would be useful if historical demographers were to search for such data relating to these earlier wars.

  6. Sex differences in vascular endothelial function and health in humans: impacts of exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Hopkins, N.D.; Jones, H.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Yeap, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This brief review discusses potential sex differences in arterial function across the age span, with special emphasis on the effects of oestrogen and testosterone on the vascular endothelium. What advances does it highlight? We discuss the relationship

  7. Human Performance: Sex Differences and the Influence of the Menstrual Cycle (A Selected Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    Endocrinolo,, 1968, 28. 1269-1275. 9. JPinne, 0., Kontula, K., & Vihko, R. Review article: Mechanism of action of female sex steroids. Acta Obstetricia ...patterns of 8000 Finnish girls and their mothers. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecoloxica Scandinavica, 1971 .Supple- ment O, 1-36. 47I D. MENSTRUAL SYNCHRONY 1

  8. The cytokine profile of human NKT cells and PBMCs is dependent on donor sex and stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernin, Hannah; Fehling, Helena; Marggraff, Claudia; Tannich, Egbert; Lotter, Hannelore

    2016-08-01

    Sex-related variations in natural killer T (NKT) cells may influence immunoregulation and outcome of infectious and autoimmune diseases. We analyzed sex-specific differences in peripheral blood NKTs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from men and women and determined the frequencies of NKT cells and their subpopulations [CD4(+); CD8(+); double negative (DN)] and the levels of cytokine production following stimulation with the NKT cell ligands α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer) and Entamoeba histolytica lipopeptidephosphoglycan (Lotter et al. in PLoS Pathog 5(5):e1000434, 2009). Total and DN NKT cells were more abundant in women than in men. In women, αGalCer induced higher production of intracellular IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17 and TNF by CD4(+) and DN(+)NKT cells. Both ligands induced expression of multiple cytokines in PBMCs and influenced the ratio of NKT cell subpopulations during long-term culture. Although the sex-specific differences in frequencies of NKT cells and their subpopulations were marginal, the significant sex-specific differences in cytokine production might influence disease outcomes.

  9. Sex determination in mythology and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittwoch, Ursula

    2005-02-01

    The history of ideas on how the sexes became divided spans at least three thousand years. The biblical account of the origin of Eve, and the opinions of the philosophers of classical Greece, have unexpected bearings on present-day ideas. The scientific study of sex determination can be said to have begun in the 17th century with the discovery of spermatozoa, but the origin and function of the "spermatic animalcules" eluded investigators until 1841. The mammalian egg was discovered in 1827, and in the last quarter of the century fertilization was observed. The view current at that time, that sex determination was under environmental control, gave way to the idea of chromosomal determination in the first quarter of the 20th century. The study of human and other mammalian chromosomes during the third quarter of the century, and the discovery of sex-chromosome abnormalities, emphasized the importance of the Y chromosome for male sex determination. The last quarter of the century witnessed a hunt for the "testis-determining" gene, thought to be responsible for the differentiation of Sertoli cells, and culminating in the isolation of SRY (Sry in the mouse). However, an increasing number of additional genes and growth factors were found to be required for the establishment of male sex. During the same period evidence emerged that male development was accompanied by enhanced growth, both of gonads and whole embryos. An unexpected finding was the demonstration of temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. With the advent of the 21st century, it was shown that Sry induces cell proliferation in fetal mouse gonads, and it has been suggested that male sex differentiation in mammals requires a higher metabolic rate. These insights could lead to a better understanding and improved treatment of abnormalities of sexual development.

  10. Abnormal expression and processing of the proprotein convertases PC1 and PC2 in human colorectal liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Victoria

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of proprotein convertases has been recently implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in animal models. However, these studies have not yet been completely corroborated in human tumors. Methods Using RT PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry we assessed the presence and the processing patterns of the convertases PC1 and PC2 as well as the PC2 specific chaperone 7B2 in human liver metastases originating from colorectal cancer and compared them to unaffected and normal liver. Furthermore, we assessed the presence and processing profiles of PC1, PC2 and 7B2 in primary colon cancers. Results mRNA, protein expression, and protein cleavage profiles of proprotein convertases 1 and 2 are altered in liver colorectal metastasis, compared to unaffected and normal liver. Active PC1 protein is overexpressed in tumor, correlating with its mRNA profile. Moreover, the enhanced PC2 processing pattern in tumor correlates with the overexpression of its specific binding protein 7B2. These results were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. The specific and uniform convertase pattern observed in the metastases was present only in a fraction of primary colon cancers. Conclusion The uniformly altered proprotein convertase profile in liver metastases is observed only in a fraction of primary colon cancers, suggesting possible selection processes involving PCs during metastasis as well as an active role of PCs in liver metastasis. In addition, the exclusive presence of 7B2 in metastatic tumors may represent a new target for early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment.

  11. Human anogenital distance: an update on fetal smoke-exposure and integration of the perinatal literature on sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Filis, Panagiotis; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; le Bizec, Bruno; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Morvan, Marie-Line; Drake, Amanda J; Soffientini, Ugo; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    Do sex and maternal smoking effects on human fetal anogenital distance (AGD) persist in a larger study and how do these data integrate with the wider literature on perinatal human AGD, especially with respect to sex differences? Second trimester sex differences in AGD are broadly consistent with neonatal and infant measures of AGD and maternal cigarette smoking is associated with a temporary increase in male AGD in the absence of changes in circulating testosterone. AGD is a biomarker of fetal androgen exposure, a reduced AGD in males being associated with cryptorchidism, hypospadias and reduced penile length. Normative fetal AGD data remain partial and windows of sensitivity of human fetal AGD to disruption are not known. The effects of fetal sex and maternal cigarette smoking on the second trimester (11-21 weeks of gestation) human fetal AGD were studied, along with measurement of testosterone and testicular transcripts associated with apoptosis and proliferation. AGD, measured from the centre of the anus to the posterior/caudal root of penis/clitoris (AGD(app)) was determined in 56 female and 70 male morphologically normal fetuses. These data were integrated with current literature on perinatal AGD in humans. At 11-13 weeks of gestation male fetal AGD(app) was 61% (PTestosterone levels were not affected by smoking. To develop normative data, our findings have been integrated with available data from in vivo ultrasound scans and neonatal studies. Inter-study variations in male/female AGD differences lead to the conclusion that normalization and standardization approaches should be developed to enable confidence in comparing data from different perinatal AGD studies. Sex differences, and a smoking-dependent increase in male fetal AGD at 14-16 weeks, identified in a preliminary study, were confirmed with a larger number of fetuses. However, human fetal AGD should, be re-assessed once much larger numbers of fetuses have been studied and this should be integrated

  12. Human Sex Determination at the Edge of Ambiguity: INHERITED XY SEX REVERSAL DUE TO ENHANCED UBIQUITINATION AND PROTEASOMAL DEGRADATION OF A MASTER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Yang, Yanwu; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-10-14

    A general problem is posed by analysis of transcriptional thresholds governing cell fate decisions in metazoan development. A model is provided by testis determination in therian mammals. Its key step, Sertoli cell differentiation in the embryonic gonadal ridge, is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in human SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis leading to XY female development (Swyer syndrome). Here, we have characterized an inherited mutation compatible with either male or female somatic phenotypes as observed in an XY father and XY daughter, respectively. The mutation (a crevice-forming substitution at a conserved back surface of the SRY high mobility group box) markedly destabilizes the domain but preserves specific DNA affinity and induced DNA bend angle. On transient transfection of diverse human and rodent cell lines, the variant SRY exhibited accelerated proteasomal degradation (relative to wild type) associated with increased ubiquitination; in vitro susceptibility to ubiquitin-independent ("default") cleavage by the 20S core proteasome was unchanged. The variant's gene regulatory activity (as assessed in a cellular model of the rat embryonic XY gonadal ridge) was reduced by 2-fold relative to wild-type SRY at similar levels of mRNA expression. Chemical proteasome inhibition restored native-like SRY expression and transcriptional activity in association with restored occupancy of a sex-specific enhancer element in principal downstream gene Sox9, demonstrating that the variant SRY exhibits essentially native activity on a per molecule basis. Our findings define a novel mechanism of impaired organogenesis, accelerated ubiquitin-directed proteasomal degradation of a master transcription factor leading to a developmental decision poised at the edge of ambiguity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in v

  14. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  15. Effect of fetal sex on apoptosis-regulating proteins in trophoblasts of full-term human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Mert; Tuna, Burcin

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant women with female fetuses have higher maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels compared to those pregnant women with male fetuses. Apoptosis in the placenta has a role in hCG secretion. In the present study, we examined the effect of fetal gender on apoptosis-regulating proteins in the trophoblast cells of human term placenta. 34 uncomplicated, singleton, term pregnancies, 17 had male and 17 had female fetuses, were recruited in the study. Apoptosis-regulating proteins of the trophoblast cells were measured by using immunohistochemistry for Bcl-2 and Bax. Staining index values were compared between the female and male pregnancies. There were no sex differences in Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. There were no correlations between maternal serum and cord blood hCG levels, and staining index values of two proteins in trophoblast cells. The difference in maternal serum and cord blood hCG levels in correlation with fetal sex is not associated with apoptosis-regulating proteins in the trophoblast cells of human term placenta.

  16. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control) and from cirrhotic livers (LC) (Child A-LC and Child C-LC). Immunohistochemical (IHC), Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver. PMID:21059220

  17. Lymphatic marker podoplanin/D2-40 in human advanced cirrhotic liver- Re-evaluations of microlymphatic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From the morphological appearance, it was impossible to distinguish terminal portal venules from small lymphatic vessels in the portal tract even using histochemical microscopic techniques. Recently, D2-40 was found to be expressed at a high level in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs. This study was undertaken to elucidate hepatic lymphatic vessels during progression of cirrhosis by examining the expression of D2-40 in LECs. Methods Surgical wedge biopsy specimens were obtained from non-cirrhotic portions of human livers (normal control and from cirrhotic livers (LC (Child A-LC and Child C-LC. Immunohistochemical (IHC, Western blot, and immunoelectron microscopic studies were conducted using D2-40 as markers for lymphatic vessels, as well as CD34 for capillary blood vessels. Results Imunostaining of D2-40 produced a strong reaction in lymphatic vessels only, especially in Child C-LC. It was possible to distinguish the portal venules from the small lymphatic vessels using D-40. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed strong D2-40 expression along the luminal and abluminal portions of the cell membrane of LECs in Child C-LC tissue. Conclusion It is possible to distinguish portal venules from small lymphatic vessels using D2-40 as marker. D2-40- labeling in lymphatic capillary endothelial cells is related to the degree of fibrosis in cirrhotic liver.

  18. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  19. Abnormal intracellular localization of Bax with a normal membrane anchor domain in human lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah-eldin, A; Inoue, S; Tsuda, M; Matsuura, A

    2000-12-01

    Proapoptotic Bax is a member of the Bcl-2 family proteins, which have a key role in regulating programmed cell death. The intracellular localization and redistribution of Bax are important in promoting apoptosis. Bax contains a BH3 domain heterodimerizing with Bcl-2 and a hydrophobic transmembrane segment to be inserted in specified organelle membranes. In this study, Bcl-2 showed cytoplasmic localization in all of ten human lung cancer cell lines tested. Interestingly, Bax was localized in the nucleus in 7 cell lines, although Bax lacks nuclear import signals. This may allow cancer cells to escape from apoptosis. Why Bax is able to exist in the nucleus is still unclear. We hypothesized that mutation in the BH3 domain and / or transmembrane segment of Bax possibly causes intracellular Bax distribution. We analyzed the sequence of the bax gene in these cell lines and found only a silent point mutation at codon 184 (TCG-->TCA) in the transmembrane segment in all cell lines. This finding indicates that changes in cellular localization of Bax in lung cancer cell lines do not depend on bax mutation and that Bax is possibly translocated into the nucleus without any mutation. This is the first report showing that Bax with the normal amino acid sequence can be localized in the nucleus in established lung cancer cell lines without any treatment of the cells.

  20. Human Neuron-Committed Teratocarcinoma NT2 Cell Line Has Abnormal ND10 Structures and Is Poorly Infected by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Li; Everett, Roger D.

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early regulatory protein ICP0 stimulates the initiation of lytic infection and reactivation from quiescence in human fibroblast cells. These functions correlate with its ability to localize to and disrupt centromeres and specific subnuclear structures known as ND10, PML nuclear bodies, or promyelocytic oncogenic domains. Since the natural site of herpesvirus latency is in neurons, we investigated the status of ND10 and centromeres in uninfected and infected human cells with neuronal characteristics. We found that NT2 cells, a neuronally committed human teratocarcinoma cell line, have abnormal ND10 characterized by low expression of the major ND10 component PML and no detectable expression of another major ND10 antigen, Sp100. In addition, PML is less extensively modified by the ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1 in NT2 cells compared to fibroblasts. After treatment with retinoic acid, NT2 cells differentiate into neuron-like hNT cells which express very high levels of both PML and Sp100. Infection of both NT2 and hNT cells by HSV-1 was poor compared to human fibroblasts, and after low-multiplicity infection yields of virus were reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. ICP0-deficient mutants were also disabled in the neuron-related cell lines, and cells quiescently infected with an ICP0-null virus could be established. These results correlated with less-efficient disruption of ND10 and centromeres induced by ICP0 in NT2 and hNT cells. Furthermore, the ability of ICP0 to activate gene expression in transfection assays in NT2 cells was poor compared to Vero cells. These results suggest that a contributory factor in the reduced HSV-1 replication in the neuron-related cells is inefficient ICP0 function; it is possible that this is pertinent to the establishment of latent infection in neurons in vivo. PMID:11264371

  1. The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David L.; Currier, Russell W.; Walton, Shelley F.; Conrad, Melissa; Sullivan, Steven A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Read, Timothy D.; Severini, Alberto; Tyler, Shaun; Eberle, R.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Silvestri, Guido; Clarke, Ian N.; Lagergård, Teresa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Bergström, Tomas; Norberg, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Blomberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future? PMID:21824167

  2. Abnormal neutrophil-pulmonary interaction in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of pulmonary neutrophil kinetics in humans with in vivo 111indium neutrophil scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warshawski, F.J.; Sibbald, W.J.; Driedger, A.A.; Cheung, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of direct toxins, the majority of evidence from animal models suggests that neutrophils (PMN) are necessary for the full expression of the abnormal pulmonary permeability accompanying acute microvascular lung injury. We therefore studied the role of the PMN in the human correlate of this disease, the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), by assessing the pulmonary retention of infused autologous 111 Indium-labeled PMN (PMN-In). We evaluated 79 patients, prospectively categorized as: active ARDS (Aa; n = 30), active ARDS and concurrent corticosteroid therapy (As; n = 11), resolving ARDS (Ar; n = 13), sepsis without pulmonary edema (S; n = 7), and cardiac pulmonary edema (C; n = 18). This clinical separation was confirmed by retrospective analysis of associated measures of hemodynamic and respiratory dysfunction. We found that both analog scintigrams (positive/negative for diffuse pulmonary PMN-In sequestration) and computer-assisted quantitative analysis in 46 patients (T 1/2 of first hour demargination and percentage of peak activity/pixel/second remaining at 17 to 20 h) showed a significant rank order decrease in the pulmonary retention of labeled PMN-In through the Groups Aa----As----S----Ar----C. Our findings recognized aspects of in vivo PMN-In behavior that implied pathophysiologic differences between groups of critically ill patients in either the PMN themselves or in PMN-pulmonary endothelial interaction. This demonstrates the possibility of abnormal in vivo PMN-endothelial interaction in ARDS by virtue of the greater pulmonary localization of PMN in active ARDS versus resolving disease, septic non-ARDS states, and cardiac pulmonary edema

  3. Pretreatment with human serum butyrylcholinesterase alone prevents cardiac abnormalities, seizures, and death in Göttingen minipigs exposed to sarin vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ashima; Sun, Wei; Dabisch, Paul A; Hulet, Stanley W; Hastings, Nicholas B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2011-12-15

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger that is being developed as a prophylactic countermeasure against organophosphorus nerve agents. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Hu BChE against whole-body inhalation exposure to a lethal dose of sarin (GB) vapor. Male Göttingen minipigs were subjected to: air exposure, GB vapor exposure, or pretreatment with Hu BChE followed by GB vapor exposure. Hu BChE was administered by i.m. injection 24 h prior to exposure to 4.1 mg/m(3) of GB vapor for 60 min. Electrocardiograms (ECG), electroencephalograms (EEG), and pupil size were recorded throughout exposure. Blood drawn before and throughout exposure was analyzed for blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, acetylcholinesterase and BChE activities, and amount of GB present. Untreated animals exposed to GB vapor exhibited cardiac abnormalities and generalized seizures, ultimately succumbing to respiratory failure. Pretreatment with 3.0 or 6.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE delayed blood gas and acid-base disturbances and the onset of cardiac and neural toxic signs, but failed to increase survivability. Pretreatment with 7.5 mg/kg of Hu BChE, however, completely prevented toxic signs, with blood chemistry and ECG and EEG parameters indistinguishable from control during and after GB exposure. GB bound in plasma was 200-fold higher than plasma from pigs that did not receive Hu BChE, suggesting that Hu BChE scavenged GB in blood and prevented it from reaching other tissues. Thus, prophylaxis with Hu BChE alone not only increased survivability, but also prevented cardiac abnormalities and neural toxicity in minipigs exposed to a lethal dose of GB vapor. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Analyses of Protease Resistance and Aggregation State of Abnormal Prion Protein across the Spectrum of Human Prions*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverioni, Daniela; Notari, Silvio; Capellari, Sabina; Poggiolini, Ilaria; Giese, Armin; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Parchi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by tissue accumulation of a misfolded, β-sheet-enriched isoform (scrapie prion protein (PrPSc)) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). At variance with PrPC, PrPSc shows a partial resistance to protease digestion and forms highly aggregated and detergent-insoluble polymers, two properties that have been consistently used to distinguish the two proteins. In recent years, however, the idea that PrPSc itself comprises heterogeneous species has grown. Most importantly, a putative proteinase K (PK)-sensitive form of PrPSc (sPrPSc) is being increasingly investigated for its possible role in prion infectivity, neurotoxicity, and strain variability. The study of sPrPSc, however, remains technically challenging because of the need of separating it from PrPC without using proteases. In this study, we have systematically analyzed both PK resistance and the aggregation state of purified PrPSc across the whole spectrum of the currently characterized human prion strains. The results show that PrPSc isolates manifest significant strain-specific differences in their PK digestion profile that are only partially explained by differences in the size of aggregates, suggesting that other factors, likely acting on PrPSc aggregate stability, determine its resistance to proteolysis. Fully protease-sensitive low molecular weight aggregates were detected in all isolates but in a limited proportion of the overall PrPSc (i.e. PrPSc in the biogenesis of prion strains. Finally, we highlight the limitations of current operational definitions of sPrPSc and of the quantitative analytical measurements that are not based on the isolation of a fully PK-sensitive PrPSc form. PMID:23897825

  5. 18F FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on 18F FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. 18F FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8±13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of 18F FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. 18F FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7±7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4±11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p 18F FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular 18F FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  6. Sex- and age-dependent gene expression in human liver: An implication for drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Takata, Ryo; Kito, Go; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamataki, Tetsuya; Katagiri, Toyomasa

    2017-02-01

    Sex and age differences in hepatic expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes could cause variations in drug metabolism, but has not been fully elucidated, especially in Asian population. In this study, the global expression of human hepatic genes was analyzed by microarrays in 40 Japanese subjects (27 males and 13 females). Thirty-five sex-biased genes were identified (P age-biased genes in two age groups, age-biased genes were related to transcription regulation and cell death. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the female-biased expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes BChE, CYP4X1, and SULT1E1 (≥1.5-fold, P drug-metabolizing enzyme genes indicated that expression of CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 in females in the ≥70 age group was less than in the age group (≥1.5-fold, P drug metabolism, with respect to sex and age. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of tight junctions by sex hormones in normal human endometrial epithelial cells and uterus cancer cell line Sawano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Masayuki; Kojima, Takashi; Ogawa, Marie; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Takasawa, Akira; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-11-01

    The number of patients with uterine endometrial carcinoma, the cause of which involves sex hormones, has recently been growing rapidly because of increases in life expectancy and obesity. Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and -4 are receptors of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and increase during endometrial carcinogenesis. In the present study of normal human endometrial epithelial (HEE) cells and the uterus cancer cell line Sawano, we investigate changes in the expression of tight junction proteins including claudin-3 and -4, the fence and barrier functions of the tight junction and the cytotoxic effects of CPE by sex hormones. In primary cultured HEE cells, treatment with progesterone (P4) but not estradiol (E2), induced claudin-1, -3, -4 and -7 and occludin, together with the downregulation of the barrier function but not the fence function. In Sawano cells, claudin-3 and -4 were upregulated by E2 but not by P4, together with a disruption of both the barrier and fence function. In primary cultured HEE cells, claudin-3 and -4 were localized at the apicalmost regions (tight junction areas) and no cytotoxicity of CPE was observed. In Sawano cells, claudin-3 and -4 were found not only in the apicalmost regions but also at the basolateral membrane and the cytotoxicity of CPE was enhanced by E2. Thus, tight junctions are physiological regulated by sex hormones in normal HEE cells during the menstrual cycle suggesting that safer and more effective therapeutic methods targeting claudins in uterine cancer can be developed.

  8. Oxytocin and vasopressin effects on the neural response to social cooperation are modulated by sex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Hackett, Patrick D; DeMarco, Ashley C; Chen, Xu; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Ditzen, Beate; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Rilling, James K

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has examined the effects of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on human social behavior and brain function. However, most participants have been male, while previous research in our lab demonstrated sexually differentiated effects of OT and AVP on the neural response to reciprocated cooperation. Here we extend our previous work by significantly increasing the number of participants to enable the use of more stringent statistical thresholds that permit more precise localization of OT and AVP effects in the brain. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 153 men and 151 women were randomized to receive 24 IU intranasal OT, 20 IU intranasal AVP or placebo. Afterwards, they were imaged with fMRI while playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with same-sex partners. Sex differences were observed for effects of OT on the neural response to reciprocated cooperation, such that OT increased the caduate/putamen response among males, whereas it decreased this response among females. Thus, 24 IU OT may increase the reward or salience of positive social interactions among men, while decreasing their reward or salience among women. Similar sex differences were also observed for AVP effects within bilateral insula and right supramarginal gyrus when a more liberal statistical threshold was employed. While our findings support previous suggestions that exogenous nonapeptides may be effective treatments for disorders such as depression and autism spectrum disorder, they caution against uniformly extending such treatments to men and women alike.

  9. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela RI Meyrelles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample, re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples, and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples. An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30% or re-infection (20%. A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79. Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting.

  10. A RAB3GAP1 SINE Insertion in Alaskan Huskies with Polyneuropathy, Ocular Abnormalities, and Neuronal Vacuolation (POANV Resembling Human Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Wiedmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV. The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1, which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs.

  11. Metric Sex Determination of the Human Coxal Bone on a Virtual Sample using Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Frédéric; Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie; Dedouit, Fabrice; Sans, Nicolas; Rousseau, Hervé; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Decision trees provide an alternative to multivariate discriminant analysis, which is still the most commonly used in anthropometric studies. Our study analyzed the metric characterization of a recent virtual sample of 113 coxal bones using decision trees for sex determination. From 17 osteometric type I landmarks, a dataset was built with five classic distances traditionally reported in the literature and six new distances selected using the two-step ratio method. A ten-fold cross-validation was performed, and a decision tree was established on two subsamples (training and test sets). The decision tree established on the training set included three nodes and its application to the test set correctly classified 92% of individuals. This percentage was similar to the data of the literature. The usefulness of decision trees has been demonstrated in numerous fields. They have been already used in sex determination, body mass prediction, and ancestry estimation. This study shows another use of decision trees enabling simple and accurate sex determination. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Reported changes in sexual behaviour and human papillomavirus knowledge in Peruvian female sex workers following participation in a human papillomavirus vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Blas, M M; Heidari, O; Carcamo, C; Halsey, N A

    2013-07-01

    Limited data exist on the effect of clinical trial participation on sexual behavioural change. Two hundred female sex workers working in Lima, Peru received human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in either the standard (0, 2, 6 months) or modified (0, 3, 6 months) schedule. Participants received comprehensive screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), counselling on safe sex practices, education about HPV and the HPV vaccine, contraceptives (oral and condoms) and family planning at each visit. We assessed vaccine completion rates, change in sexual practices, and changes in HPV knowledge before and after participation in the vaccine trial. There were high rates of vaccine completion, 91% overall. The estimated number of reported new and total clients over a 30-day period decreased significantly (P related disease increased among all participants. In addition, all participants listed at least one preventive strategy during the month 7 follow-up survey.

  13. Human chorionic gonadotropin, fetal sex and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qizhen; Deng, Yuqing; Zhong, Shilin; Shi, Yu

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and fetal sex are two independent risk factors for hypertensive pregnancy in the early second-trimester of pregnancy. This was a retrospective nested case-control study based on a cohort of 2521 singleton pregnancies, among whom we recruited 98 hypertensive pregnancies (subdivided into severe preeclampsia, n=34; mild preeclampsia, n=29 and gestational hypertension, n=35) and 196 normotensive pregnancies. Maternal serum HCG levels were measured at 15-20 weeks of gestation and fetal sex was determined from the neonatal record. Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests were performed to assess differences of HCG levels and fetal sex between groups. Logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the effect of HCG and fetal sex on hypertensive pregnancy. There were 35 male and 63 female fetuses in the hypertensive group, and 102 male and 94 female fetuses in the normotensive group (p=0.008). HCG (MoM) levels were significantly higher in only severe preeclamptic pregnancies (n=34) (p=0.013). There were no significant differences of the HCG (MoM) levels between male and female fetuses in each sub-group. aOR for increased maternal HCG levels and female fetus were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.434-3.954) and 2.9 (95% CI: 1.227-6.661) respectively in severe preeclamptic pregnancies compared with normotensive pregnancies. There is a female preponderance in hypertensive pregnancies. Increased HCG levels and female fetus are two independent risk factors for severe preeclampsia in the early second-trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. {sup 18F} FDG Uptake of Human Testis on PET/CT: Correlation with Age, Sex Hormones, and Vasectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hwan; Eo, Jae Sun; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate glucose metabolism of normal human testis on {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT and to assess possible correlation among age, the serum levels of sex hormones, and vasectomy. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was performed in 66 normal healthy men (50.8{+-}13.6 years, range 22-81), and mean standard uptake values (SUV) of {sup 18F} FDG in testis and adductor muscle were measured. Testis muscle SUV ratios (T/M ratios) were calculated. Serum levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We searched for correlations between T/M ratios and age and the serum concentrations of sex hormones. {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT was also performed in 32 vasectomized men (55.7{+-}7.8 years, range 38-71) and 52 nonvasectomized men (55.4{+-}11.6 years, range 37-72). Mean SUVs of testis and adductor muscle were measured, and T/M ratios were calculated. A significant age related decline was found in T/M ratio (r=-0.509, p<0.0001). Serum levels of total testosterone and free testosterone were also found to be positively correlated with T/M ratio (r=-0.427, p=0.0003; r=0.435, p=0.0003, respectively). The mean SUV and T/M ratio of vasectomized men were significantly lower than those of nonvasectomized men (p<0.0378 and p=0.0001, respectively). Glucose metabolism in the testis in an adult population was found to be correlated with age, serum sex hormone level, and vasectomy history. These results indicate that testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake may have attributed to testicular function and testicular histology. Our findings may have important implications for the interpretation of testicular {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the normal adult population.

  15. Identification of episomal human papillomavirus and other DNA viruses in cytological anal samples of HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Paolini, Francesca; Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Latini, Alessandra; Giglio, Amalia; Venuti, Aldo; Giuliani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation). HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%), in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5%) mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples), MCPyV (5 samples) and TTV (4 samples) were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed.

  16. Identification of episomal human papillomavirus and other DNA viruses in cytological anal samples of HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Donà

    Full Text Available To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation. HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%, in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5% mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples, MCPyV (5 samples and TTV (4 samples were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed.

  17. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    and cytological abnormalities in WLWH compared with WGP in Denmark. Predictors of HPV and cytological abnormalities were estimated in WLWH. METHODS: WLWH consecutively enrolled in the Study on HIV, cervical Abnormalities and infections in women in Denmark (SHADE) in 2011 and were examined for cervical HPV...... and cytological abnormalities. WLWH were matched on age and prior cytological findings with WGP from an earlier study. HIV demographics were retrieved from the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study. Logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of hrHPV and cytological abnormalities. RESULTS: Of 334 included...... (adjusted OR 2.05 (95 % CI 1.03-4.10)) and CD4 Cytological abnormalities were prevalent in 10.4 % vs. 5.2 % (p = 0.0003) of WLWH and WGP. In WLWH with hrHPV, short duration of HAART predicted cervical dysplasia (adjusted OR per year 0.83 (95 % CI 0...

  18. Moving beyond sex: Assessing the impact of gender identity on human papillomavirus vaccine recommendations and uptake among a national sample of rural-residing LGBT young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Whitehead, Jennifer L; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-06-01

    While national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination estimates exist by sex, little is known about HPV vaccination rates by gender identity. We conducted a self-administered, anonymous online cross-sectional survey, with recruitment through Facebook ads, of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals in rural areas of the US. We compared HPV vaccine recommendation and uptake by self-reported sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Six hundred sixty respondents were age eligible for HPV vaccination: 84% reported gender identity aligned with their sex assigned at birth, while 10% reported gender identity the differed from their sex assigned at birth; an additional 6% reported non-binary gender identity. Only 14% of male sex assigned at birth and 44% of female sex assigned at birth received HPV vaccine, similar to estimates by current gender identity. Transgender respondents' HPV vaccination experience mirrored that of cisgender respondents with regard to sex assigned at birth. Providers may base HPV vaccine recommendations on individuals' sex assigned at birth, which may impact transgender individuals' vaccine coverage. Future HPV vaccine uptake studies should account for gender identity. With sex-specific catch-up HPV vaccination recommendations, the role of gender identity on provider recommendation and reimbursement needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex differences in the toxicokinetics of inhaled solvent vaporsin humans 1. m-Xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernstgaard, Lena; Sjoegren, Bengt; Warholm, Margareta; Johanson, Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible sex differences in the inhalation toxicokinetics of m-xylene vapor. Seventeen healthy volunteers (nine women and eight men) were exposed to m-xylene (200 mg/m 3 ) and to clean air (control exposure) on different occasions during 2 h of light physical exercise (50 W). The chosen level corresponds to the occupational exposure limit (8-h time weighted average) in Sweden. m-Xylene was monitored up to 24 h after exposure in exhaled air, blood, saliva, and urine by headspace gas chromatography. m-Methylhippuric acid (a metabolite of m-xylene) was analyzed in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Body fat and lean body mass (LBM) were estimated from sex-specific equations using bioelectrical impedance, body weight, height, and age. Genotypes and/or phenotypes of cytochromes P450 2E1 and 1A1, glutathione transferases M1 and P1, and epoxide hydrolase were determined. The toxicokinetic profile in blood was analyzed using a two-compartment population model. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of m-xylene in exhaled air postexposure was larger in women than in men. In addition, the excretion via exhaled air was significantly higher in women when correcting for body weight or LBM. In contrast, the men had a significantly higher volume of distribution, excretion of m-methylhippuric acid in urine, and AUC of m-xylene in urine. The toxicokinetic analyses revealed no differences between subjects of different metabolic genotypes or phenotypes. In conclusion, the study indicates small sex differences in the inhalation toxicokinetics of m-xylene, which can be explained by body build

  20. Sex Determination by Biometry of Anterior Features of Human Hip Bones in South Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, Sssn; Vasudha, T K; Aravindhan, K

    2017-06-01

    Sex determination is the first step in establishing the identity of skeletal remains. Many studies included biometry of posterior features of hip bone. Very few studies are reported involving the biometry of anterior features of the hip bone. Anterior features of hip bone are important especially, if there is damage to the posterior features of hip bone in cases involving deliberate disfigurement of the body to resist identification of the crime in medicolegal cases. The present study was done to evaluate the effectiveness of anterior border parameters of the hip bone for prediction of sex using discriminant function analysis in South Indian population. A total of 206 dry bones were used (121 male and 85 female) and parameters like the distance between pubic tubercle and anterior rim of acetabulum, vertical acetabular diameter, transverse acetabular diameter, and the distance between pubic tubercle to highest point on the iliopubic eminence were measured using Vernier calipers. Normally distributed variables were compared using Students t-test to analyse the significance. There was significant difference between the male and female hip bones of the observed variables with p-value less than 0.05. In parameters like the distance between pubic tubercle to anterior rim of acetabulum and distance between the highest points on iliopubic eminence to pubic tubercle; the values were more in female when compared to males. In parameters like vertical and transverse acetabular diameters; the values in males were more when compared to females. These parameters of hip bone can be utilised for sex determination in South Indian population.

  1. Sex differences in global mRNA content of human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Maher

    Full Text Available Women oxidize more fat as compared to men during endurance exercise and several groups have shown that the mRNA content of selected genes related to fat oxidation are higher in women (e.g. hormone sensitive lipase, beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, CD36. One of the possible mechanisms is that women tend to have a higher area percentage of type I skeletal muscle fibers as compared with men. Consequently, we hypothesized that sex would influence the basal mRNA and protein content for genes involved in metabolism and the determination of muscle fiber type. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were collected from healthy men and women. We examined mRNA content globally using Affymetrix GeneChips, and selected genes were examined and/or confirmed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, we examined protein content by Western blot analysis. Stringent gene array analysis revealed 66 differentially expressed genes representing metabolism, mitochondrial function, transport, protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, signal transduction pathways, transcription and translation. Stringent gene array analysis and RT-PCR confirmed that mRNA for; acyl-coenzyme A acyltransferase 2 (ACAA2, trifunctional protein beta (HADHB, catalase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 were higher in women. Targeted gene analysis revealed that myosin heavy chain I (MHCI, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARdelta were higher in women compared with men. Surprisingly, there were no significant sex based differences in protein content for HADHB, ACAA2, catalase, PPARdelta, and MHC1. In conclusion, the differences in the basal mRNA content in resting skeletal muscle suggest that men and women are transcriptionally "primed" for known physiological differences in metabolism however the mechanism behind sex differences in fiber type remains to be determined.

  2. Sex-related differences in gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Welle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is sexual dimorphism of skeletal muscle, the most obvious feature being the larger muscle mass of men. The molecular basis for this difference has not been clearly defined. To identify genes that might contribute to the relatively greater muscularity of men, we compared skeletal muscle gene expression profiles of 15 normal men and 15 normal women by using comprehensive oligonucleotide microarrays. Although there were sex-related differences in expression of several hundred genes, very few of the differentially expressed genes have functions that are obvious candidates for explaining the larger muscle mass of men. The men tended to have higher expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, ribosomal proteins, and a few translation initiation factors. The women had >2-fold greater expression than the men (P<0.0001 of two genes that encode proteins in growth factor pathways known to be important in regulating muscle mass: growth factor receptor-bound 10 (GRB10 and activin A receptor IIB (ACVR2B. GRB10 encodes a protein that inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 signaling. ACVR2B encodes a myostatin receptor. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed higher expression of GRB10 and ACVR2B genes in these women. In an independent microarray study of 10 men and 9 women with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, women had higher expression of GRB10 (2.7-fold, P<0.001 and ACVR2B (1.7-fold, P<0.03. If these sex-related differences in mRNA expression lead to reduced IGF-1 activity and increased myostatin activity, they could contribute to the sex difference in muscle size.

  3. HUMTRN and EFFECTS: Age and sex specific dosimetric and physiological human population dynamics models for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    A human simulation model called HUMTRN and a population risk assessment model called EFFECTS were developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a major component of the BIOTRAN environmental risk assessment model. HUMTRN simulates growth using dietary and physiological characteristics and kinetics of radionuclides to predict radiation doses to selected organs of both sexes in different age groups. The model called EFFECTS was interfaced with output from HUMTRN to predict cancer risks in a dynamic human population. EFFECTS is based on the National Research Council Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR)-III radiation cancer mortality estimates from the U.S. population mortality and natality estimates for both sexes between the ages of 1 and 70. These models track radiation intake from air, water, and food, calculate uptake in major growing organs, and estimate cancer mortality risks. This report documents the use of an IBM Personal Computer AT to run HUMTRN and EFFECTS. Air, water, and food contaminant concentrations are provided as input to HUMTRN, which then provides input for EFFECTS. The limitations of this approach are also discussed

  4. Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyrer, C

    2001-08-01

    The human rights abuses which occur during civil conflicts pose special threats to the health and lives of women. These can include rape, sexual violence, increased vulnerability to trafficking into prostitution, and exposure to HIV infection. The long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma is investigated as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry, and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women. The context of chronic human rights abuses in the Shan states is explored, as well as the effects of recent forced population transfers on the part of the Burmese Military Regime. Rights abuses specific to trafficked women may further increase their vulnerability to HIV and other STD. The need for a political resolution to the crisis in Burma is discussed, as are approaches aimed at preventing trafficking, empowering women already in the sex industry, and reducing the risks of HIV and other STD among these women and girls.

  5. The human sexual response cycle : Brain imaging evidence linking sex to other pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, J. R.; Kringelbach, M. L.

    Sexual behavior is critical to species survival, yet comparatively little is known about the neural mechanisms in the human brain. Here we systematically review the existing human brain imaging literature on sexual behavior and show that the functional neuroanatomy of sexual behavior is comparable

  6. Sex differences in the neurokinin B system in the human infundibular nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Swaab, Dick F.; Bakker, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The recent report that loss-of-function mutations in either the gene encoding neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor (NK3R) produce gonadotropin deficiencies in humans strongly points to NKB as a key regulator of GnRH release. We used NKB immunohistochemistry on postmortem human brain tissue to

  7. Using technology, choosing sex. The campaign against sex determination and the question of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Women's groups and people's science and health groups formed the Forum Against Sex Determination and Sex Pre-Selection in November 1985 in Bombay, India, to prevent sex determination and sex preselection tests. The Forum considered sex determination and sex preselection to be an abuse of science and technology against people, especially women. Between 1901 and 1991, the sex ratio fell from 972 females/1000 males to 929/1000. The Forum saw the issue of sex determination and sex preselection as a link to oppression of and discrimination against females in all sectors of society. It also believed this to be a human rights issue. The Forum lobbied for a law regulating diagnostic techniques without banning them, since determining chromosomal abnormalities is important. The State of Maharashtra passed such a law in June 1988. It had some provisions which were counter-productive, however. For example, women undergoing a sex determination test must pay a fine of Rs 5 if found guilty of planning to terminate a pregnancy of a female fetus. Yet, neither the husband nor parents-in-law are liable, even though they often pressure women to undergo sex determination tests. The Forum's efforts and enactment of the law in Maharashtra have prompted other state governments and the central government to propose similar legislation. These state governments include Goa, Gujarat, and Orissa. The central government has met with organizations and individuals lobbying against misuse of diagnostic tests to obtain their counsel. The Forum does not feel comfortable with state control, however, since it tends to consider government to be against the people. Yet, the Forum did want the state to protect women's interests. It has raised important questions about technology, particularly concerning criteria to determine desirable and appropriate technologies.

  8. What drives the number of high-risk human papillomavirus types in the anal canal in HIV-positive men who have sex with men?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Amo, Julia; González, Cristina; Geskus, Ronald B.; Torres, Montse; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, Jose R.; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; Ortiz, Marta; Peña, Alejandro; García, Federico; Torres, Montserrat; Ocampo, Antonio; Da Silva, Alfredo Rodríguez; Miralles, Celia; Mauricio Iribarren, Gustavo; Madrid, Nadia; Dronda, Fernando; Benito, Amparo; Sanz, Itziar; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen; Martín Alegre, Carmen; Carlos Carrió, Juan; Raposo, Montse; Trastoy, Mónica; Fontillón, Maria; Robledano, Catalina; Gutierrez, Félix; Padilla, Sergio; Andrada, Encarna; Cervero, Miguel; Ramón Blanco, José; Pérez, Laura; Portilla, Joaquín; Portilla, Irene; Angel Vonwichmann, Miguel; Antonio Iribarren, José; Camino, Xabier; Sendagorta, Elena; Herranz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Patricia; Luis Gómez, Juan; Rosado, Dacil; Alejos, Belén; Angeles Rodríguez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the effect of sexual behavior, age, and immunodeficiency on the number of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the anal canal among human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal samples were genotyped with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test,

  9. Abnormal expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pituitary adenomas: a prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, E H; Ayuk, J; Boelaert, K; Sheppard, M C; Hewison, M; Stewart, P M; Gittoes, N J L

    2003-03-20

    The physiological effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are, at least in part, mediated by inhibition of cell proliferation. Two isozymes of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) interconvert cortisol (F) and inactive cortisone (E), and are thus able to modulate GC action at an autocrine level. Previously, we have demonstrated absent expression of 11 beta-HSD2 in normal pituitaries; however, in a small number of pituitary tumors analysed, 11 beta-HSD2 was readily demonstrable. Here we have used real-time RT-PCR to quantify expression of mRNA for 11 beta-HSD1 and 2 in 105 human pituitary tumors and have performed enzyme expression and activity studies in primary pituitary cultures. Overall, pituitary tumors expressed lower levels of 11 beta-HSDl mRNA compared with normals (0.2-fold, Pprotein (mean+/-s.d.)) but no detectable 11 beta-HSDl activity. Proliferation assays showed that addition of glycyrrhetinic acid (an 11 beta-HSD2 inhibitor) resulted in a 30.3+/-7.7% inhibition of cell proliferation. In summary, we describe a switch in expression from 11 beta-HSDl to 11 beta-HSD2 in neoplastic pituitary tissue. We propose that abnormal expression of 11 beta-HSD2 acts as a proproliferative prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell growth, and may provide a novel target for future tumor therapy.

  10. Structural chromosome abnormalities, increased DNA strand breaks and DNA strand break repair deficiency in dermal fibroblasts from old female human donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfalah, Faiza; Seggewiß, Sabine; Walter, Regina; Tigges, Julia; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bürkle, Alexander; Ohse, Sebastian; Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Royer-Pokora, Brigitte; Boege, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Dermal fibroblasts provide a paradigmatic model of cellular adaptation to long-term exogenous stress and ageing processes driven thereby. Here we addressed whether fibroblast ageing analysed ex vivo entails genome instability. Dermal fibroblasts from human female donors aged 20–67 years were studied in primary culture at low population doubling. Under these conditions, the incidence of replicative senescence and rates of age-correlated telomere shortening were insignificant. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed age-related impairment of mitosis, telomere and chromosome maintenance and induction of genes associated with DNA repair and non-homologous end-joining, most notably XRCC4 and ligase 4. We observed an age-correlated drop in proliferative capacity and age-correlated increases in heterochromatin marks, structural chromosome abnormalities (deletions, translocations and chromatid breaks), DNA strand breaks and histone H2AX-phosphorylation. In a third of the cells from old and middle-aged donors repair of X-ray induced DNA strand breaks was impaired despite up-regulation of DNA repair genes. The distinct phenotype of genome instability, increased heterochromatinisation and (in 30% of the cases futile) up-regulation of DNA repair genes was stably maintained over several cell passages indicating that it represents a feature of geroconversion that is distinct from cellular senescence, as it does not encompass a block of proliferation. PMID:25678531

  11. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  12. Multiple human papillomavirus infection with or without type 16 and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among women with cervical cytological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Alberizzi, Paola; Cesari, Stefania; Patrizia, Morbini; Silini, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections on the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in subjects with cervical cytological abnormalities. A cross-sectional study of 3,842 women attending a colposcopy service was carried out. Genotyping of 18 high-risk, seven low-risk, and two undefined-risk HPVs was carried out by the INNO-LiPA genotyping system. The final colposcopic/pathological diagnoses were as follows: 1,933 (50.3 %) subjects were negative; 1,041 (27.1 %) CIN1; 280 (7.3 %) CIN2; 520 (13.5 %) CIN3; and 68 (1.8 %) invasive cervical cancer. The prevalence of HPV infection was 75.8 % (2,911/3,842), whereas multiple HPVs were detected in 34.5 % of HPV-positive subjects (2,255/3,842). The adjusted risks of CIN3+ in the group with multiple compared to the group with single infection were 2.31 (95 % CI = 1.54-3.47), among HPV16-positive women, and 3.25 (95 % CI = 2.29-4.61, p = 0.21 compared with HPV16-positive subjects), in HPV16-negative subjects. Out of a total of 1,285 subjects with mild lesions, followed up for a median of 16.1 months (interquartile range = 8.9-36.8), the rate of progression to CIN2-3 was 0.6 % (5/541) among subjects negative or with low-risk HPVs, 1.7 % (8/463) among those with single high-risk HPV, and 5 % (14/281, p < 0.001 compared with HPV-negative/low-risk HPV and p = 0.038 compared with single high-risk HPV) among those with multiple high-risk HPVs. Among women with cervical cytological abnormalities, infection by multiple high-risk HPVs increased the risk of CIN3+ in both HPV16-positive and HPV16-negative subjects. These findings suggest a potential synergistic interaction between high-risk HPVs, favoring the progression of CIN lesions.

  13. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Guzeloglu Kayisli

    Full Text Available Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs. Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2 or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO or E2+ progesterone (P4 were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR

  14. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeloglu Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Basar, Murat; Semerci, Nihan; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs) offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s) in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2) or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO) or E2+ progesterone (P4) were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q)-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA) treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs) treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR-mediated transcription

  15. Correction of human hemophilia A whole blood abnormalities with a novel bypass agent: zymogen-like FXa(I16L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, L A; Thalji, N K; Raffini, L J; Gimotty, P A; Camire, R M

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 30% of hemophilia A (HA) and 5% of hemophilia B patients develop inhibitors to protein replacement therapy, and this is the major cause of disease-related morbidity in the developed world. We previously developed zymogen-like factor Xa (FXa) molecules with impaired active site maturation, enabling a greater half-life than wild-type FXa while maintaining full procoagulant function in the prothrombinase complex. Here we evaluated the ability of zymogen-like FXa(I16L) to correct whole blood thromboelastometry abnormalities of severe HA subjects with and without inhibitors. Fourteen severe HA subjects without and five with inhibitors were enrolled at baseline ( C  5 half-lives from factor or bypass therapy. The subjects' whole blood was evaluated by thromboelastography (ROTEM(®) ) using INTEM analysis with two concentrations of FXa(I16L) or recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa). With 0.1 nm FXa(I16L) , clot time (CT, in minutes [min]) among HA subjects without and with inhibitors (mean = 2.87 min, 95% CI = 2.58-3.15 min, and mean = 2.9 min, 95% CI = 2.07-3.73 min, respectively) did not significantly differ from control CT (mean = 2.73 min, 95% CI = 2.62-2.85 min). Addition of 20 nm rFVIIa, simulating a 90-μg/kg dose, resulted in significantly prolonged CTs for HA subjects without and with inhibitors (mean = 5.43 min, 95% CI = 4.53-6.35 min, and mean = 4.25 min, 95% CI = 3.32-5.17 min, respectively) relative to controls. FXa(I16L) restored thromboelastometry CT to control values in severe HA subjects with and without inhibitors. The findings corroborate previous animal data and demonstrate the first evidence of zymogen-like FXa(I16L) correcting human HA subjects' whole-blood abnormalities and support the use of FXa(I16L) as a novel hemostatic agent. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  16. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  17. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  19. RevSex duplication-induced and sex-related differences in the SOX9 regulatory region chromatin landscape in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybæk, Helle; de Bruijn, Diederik; den Engelsman-van Dijk, Anke H A; Vanichkina, Darya; Nepal, Chirag; Brendehaug, Atle; Houge, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    It was recently shown that duplications of the RevSex element, located 0.5 Mb upstream of SOX9, cause XX-disorder of sex development (DSD), and that deletions cause XY-DSD. To explore how a 148 kb RevSex duplication could have turned on gonadal SOX9 expression in the absence of SRY in an XX-male, we examined the chromatin landscape in primary skin fibroblast cultures from the index, his RevSex duplication-carrier father and six controls. The ENCODE project supports the notion that chromatin state maps show overlap between different cell types, i.e., that our study of fibroblasts could be of biological relevance. We examined the SOX9 regulatory region by high-resolution ChIP-on-chip experiments (a kind of "chromatin-CGH") and DNA methylation investigations. The RevSex duplication was associated with chromatin changes predicting better accessibility of the SRY-responsive TESCO enhancer region 14-15 kb upstream of SOX9. Four kb downstream of the TESCO evolutionary conserved region, a peak of the enhancer/promoter-associated H3K4me3 mark was found together with a major dip of the repressive H3K9me3 chromatin mark. Similar differences were also found when three control males were compared with three control females. A marked male/female difference was a more open chromatin signature in males starting ~400 kb upstream of SOX9 and increasing toward the SOX9 promoter. In the RevSex duplication-carrier father, two positions of DNA hypomethylation were also found, one corresponding to the H3K4me3 peak mentioned above. Our results suggest that the RevSex duplication could operate by inducing long-range epigenetic changes. Furthermore, the differences in chromatin state maps between males and females suggest that the Y chromosome or X chromosome dosage may affect chromatin conformation, i.e., that sex-dependent gene regulation may take place by chromatin modification.

  20. Assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and risk practices among female commercial sex workers in Isla Margarita, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Beau; Pacheco, Maria E; Aponte, Carlos; Michini, Ana; Taibo, Maria E; Pinto, Belkis; Montano, Silvia M; Chauca, Gloria; Negrete, Monica; Russell, Kevin L; Sanchez, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    Sexual transmission represents the principal mode of transmission for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) worldwide. We examined the HIV-1 seroprevalence and risk factors for infection among 613 female commercial sex workers (FCSW) in Isla Margarita, Venezuela. Recruitment was conducted in street venues and working locations. None of the FCSW tested positive for HIV; this correlated with the low self-reported rates of sexually transmitted infections (6%), drug use (80% of time) with clients; however, such practices were found to be very uncommon in nonclient relations (<20% of the time). Understanding the sexual risk behaviors, beliefs, and drug use patterns of FCSW is important for future development of effective public prevention policies and educational campaigns aimed at decreasing the risk of infection with HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections among FCSW.

  1. Somatic chromosomal abnormalities in couples undergoing infertility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996; Johnson 1998). Consid- ering pooled data obtained from more than 9000 azoosper- mic and oligozoospermic men, a 5.8% incidence of chromo- somal abnormalities has been found. Of these, 4.2% affect the gonosomes and 1.5% the autosomes, respectively (John- son 1998). In detail, sex chromosome anomalies ...

  2. Skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally-charged images: sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael eBrown

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While it is known that anxiety or emotional arousal affects skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA, the galvanic skin response (GSR is the most widely used parameter to infer increases in SSNA during stress or emotional studies. We recently showed that SSNA provides a more sensitive measure of emotional state than effector-organ responses. The aim of the present study was to assess whether there are gender differences in the responses of SSNA and other physiological parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, skin blood flow and sweat release, while subjects viewed neutral or emotionally-charged images from the International Affective Picture System. Changes in SSNA were assessed using microneurography in twenty subjects (ten male and ten female. Blocks of positively-charged (erotica or negatively-charge images (mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, following a block of neutral images, with each block containing fifteen images and lasting two minutes. Images of both erotica and mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, with increases being greater for males viewing erotica and greater for females viewing mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction; however, these markers were not significantly different than those produced by viewing neutral images and were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA increases with both positively-charged and negatively-charged emotional images, yet sex differences are present.

  3. [Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: an endemic infection in men who have sex with men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domenech, Carmen M; Antequera Martín-Portugués, Isabel; Clavijo-Frutos, Encarnación; Márquez-Solero, Manuel; Santos-González, Jesús; Palacios-Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    to analyse epidemiological, clinical, and analytical features of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with syphilis in the Infectious Diseases Unit (Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain) during 2004-2013. An observational study was conducted on 196 syphilis episodes in 167 MSM infected with HIV (2004-2013). Epidemiological, clinical, and analytical data were collected. Annual syphilis incidence among HIV-MSM is calculated as the number of syphilis episodes among MSM in one year divided by the number of MSM followed up in that year. Incidence ranged from 1.2% (2007) to 7.8% (2012). There were asymptomatic episodes in 42.8% cases, and an HIV-syphilis coincident diagnosis in 28.5%. The annual incidence of syphilis has increased within HIV infected MSM. One third of the syphilis episodes were simultaneous to HIV diagnosis and near half of them were asymptomatic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex differences and the effect of instruction on reorientation abilities by humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Megan N; Kelly, Debbie M

    2017-12-27

    This study examined whether differences in the amount of information provided to men and women, in the form of verbal instruction, influenced their encoding during a reorientation task. When a navigator needs to orient, featural (e.g., colour or texture) and geometry (e.g., metric information) are used to determine which direction to begin traveling. The current study used a spatial reorientation task to examine how men and women use featural and geometric cues and whether the content of the task's instructions influenced how these cues were used. Participants were trained to find a target location in a rectangular room with distinctive objects situated at each corner. Once the participants were accurately locating the target, various tests manipulating the spatial information were conducted. We found both men and women encoded the featural cues, and even though the features provided reliable information, participants generally showed an encoding of geometry. However, when participants were not provided with any information about the spatial aspects of the task in the instructions, they failed to encode geometry. We also found that women used distant featural cues as landmarks when the featural cue closest to the target was removed, whereas men did not. Yet, when the two types of cues were placed in conflict, both sexes weighed featural cues more heavily than geometric cues. The content of the task instructions also influenced how cues were relied upon in this conflict situation. Our results have important implications for our understanding of how spatial cues are used for reorientation.

  5. Cervical human papillomavirus infection among female sex workers in southern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Brenda Y

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among women in southern Vietnam where its incidence is one of the highest observed worldwide. Results Cervical HPV DNA infection was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 282 female sex workers (FSW in Soc Trang province in southern Vietnam. HPV DNA was detected in 85% of FSW and prevalence did not vary by age. Thirty-five HPV genotypes were detected; HPV 52 was the most common type. Half of HPV-positive women were infected with oncogenic types and 37% were infected with multiple genotypes. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was lower among FSW with more formal education (adj. prevalence ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.93, those servicing 25 or more clients per month (adj. PR = 0.66 95% CI 0.48–0.92, and those engaging in withdrawal prior to ejaculation (adj. PR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.53–0.87. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was higher among FSW with regular male partners who had other female partners (adj. PR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.34–2.28 and FSW who were HIV+ (adj. PR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.08–1.88. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that although cervical HPV infection is extremely common among FSW in southern Vietnam, prevalence varies by education level, sexual activity, habits of regular partners, and HIV status.

  6. A human rights-focused HIV intervention for sex workers in Metro Manila, Philippines: evaluation of effects in a quantitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie; Wong, Betty; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Condino-Enrera, Gerlita; Hernandez, Laufred I; Simbulan, Nymia Pimentel; Raj, Anita

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated a brief human rights-focused HIV community mobilization intervention for sex workers in the Philippines, a country with one of the fastest rising number of HIV cases worldwide. Five single-session group interventions to reduce sexual risk and increase HIV testing among 86 sex workers in Manila were evaluated with pre-post-test data via Wilcoxon's signed-ranks and Mann-Whitney tests. The 4-h intervention, Kapihan (August-November, 2013), integrated human rights with HIV skill-building. Demographic data, violence/trafficking victimization, human rights knowledge, and intentions to HIV test and treat were collected. Participants were median aged 23; female (69 %); had children (55; 22 % had 3+ children); used drugs (past 3 months: 16 %); sexually/physically abused by clients (66 %); 20 % street sex workers ever took an HIV test. Pre-post-test scores significantly improved in knowledge of HIV (z = -8.895, p human rights (z = -4.391, p rights of research participants (z = -5.081, p human rights into HIV interventions may empower sex workers to address their health and human rights and test for HIV.

  7. Estrogen receptor-alpha distribution in the human hypothalamus in relation to sex and endocrine status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Balesar, Rawien; Espila, Ana M.; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    The present study reports the first systematic rostrocaudal distribution of estrogen receptor-a immunoreactivity (ERalpha-ir) in the human hypothalamus and its adjacent areas in young adults. Postmortem material taken from 10 subjects (five male and five female), between 20 and 39 years of age, was

  8. Human Xq28 Inversion Polymorphism: From Sex Linkage to Genomics--A Genetic Mother Lode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Cait S.; Kolber, Natalie; Salih Almohaidi, Asmaa M.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Saunders, Lori; Williams, Steven; Merritt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An inversion polymorphism of the filamin and emerin genes at the tip of the long arm of the human X-chromosome serves as the basis of an investigative laboratory in which students learn something new about their own genomes. Long, nearly identical inverted repeats flanking the filamin and emerin genes illustrate how repetitive elements can lead to…

  9. Adult Romantic Relationships as Contexts of Human Development: A Multimethod Comparison of Same-Sex Couples with Opposite-Sex Dating, Engaged, and Married Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Clausell, Eric; Holland, Ashley; Fortuna, Keren; Elieff, Chryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a multimethod, multi-informant comparison of community samples of committed gay male (n=30) and lesbian (n=30) couples with both committed (n=50 young engaged and n=40 older married) and noncommitted (n=109 exclusively dating) heterosexual pairs. Specifically, in this study the quality of same- and opposite-sex relationships…

  10. Karyotype and identification of sex in two endangered crane species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodpasture, C.; Seluja, G.; Gee, G.; Wood, Don A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory procedure for sex identification of monomorphic birds was developed using modern cytological methods of detecting chromosome abnormalities in human amniotic fluid samples. A pin feather is taken from a pre-fledging bird for tissue culture and karyotype analysis. Through this method, the sex was identified and the karyotype described of the whooping crane (Grus americana) and the Mississippi sandhill crane (G. canadensis pulla). Giemsa-stained karyotypes of these species showed an identical chromosome constitution with 2n = 78 + 2. However, differences in the amount of centromeric heterochromatin were observed in the Mississippi sandhill crane when compared to the whooping crane C-banded karyotype.

  11. Sex differences in conditioned stimulus discrimination during context-dependent fear learning and its retrieval in humans: the role of biological sex, contraceptives and menstrual cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Schümann, Dirk; Sommer, Tobias; Bayer, Janine; Brassen, Stefanie; Bunzeck, Nico; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2015-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in women than in men. Despite this sexual dimorphism, most experimental studies are conducted in male participants and studies focusing on sex differences are sparse. In addition, the role of hormonal contraceptives and menstrual cycle phase in fear conditioning and extinction processes remain largely unknown. We investigated sex differences in context-dependent fear acquisition and extinction (day 1) and their retrieval/expression (day 2). Skin conductance responses (SCRs), fear and unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were obtained. We included 377 individuals (261 women) in our study. Robust sex differences were observed in all dependent measures. Women generally displayed higher subjective ratings but smaller SCRs than men and showed reduced excitatory/inhibitory conditioned stimulus (CS+/CS-) discrimination in all dependent measures. Furthermore, women using hormonal contraceptives showed reduced SCR CS discrimination on day 2 than men and free-cycling women, while menstrual cycle phase had no effect. Possible limitations include the simultaneous testing of up to 4 participants in cubicles, which might have introduced a social component, and not assessing postexperimental contingency awareness. The response pattern in women shows striking similarity to previously reported sex differences in patients with anxiety. Our results suggest that pronounced deficits in associative discrimination learning and subjective expression of safety information (CS- responses) might underlie higher prevalence and higher symptom rates seen in women with anxiety disorders. The data call for consideration of biological sex and hormonal contraceptive use in future studies and may suggest that targeting inhibitory learning during therapy might aid precision medicine.

  12. The prognostic impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen abnormalities in salivary gland cancer. A clinicopathological study of 288 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maximilian; Agaimy, Abbas; Zenk, Johannes; Ettl, Tobias; Iro, Heinrich; Hartmann, Arndt; Seliger, Barbara; Schwarz, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    To study abnormalities of proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I in a series of 288 salivary gland carcinomas, and to correlate findings with patients' overall survival (OS). Protein expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, heavy chain (HC)-10, β2 -microglobulin, low molecular weight polypeptides (LMP) 2 and 7, transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) 1 and 2, calnexin, calreticulin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) p57 and tapasin was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and semiquantitatively analyzed. As compared with normal salivary gland tissue, HLA-A, LMP7, TAP2 and HLA class I were significantly down-regulated in salivary gland carcinomas, whereas β2 -microglobulin, calnexin, LMP2, and TAP1 were upregulated. Expression of calreticulin, ERp57 and tapasin was unaltered. In univariate Kaplan-Meier analyses, low expression of LMP7 (P = 0.005) and high expression of β2 -microglobulin (P = 0.028), HLA-A (P < 0.001), TAP1 (P = 0.01), and tapasin (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with shorter OS. In multivariate analysis incorporating tumour stage, nodal/distant metastasis, and grade, HLA-A (P = 0.014), LMP7 (P = 0.033), and tapasin (P = 0.024), as well as distant metastasis (P = 0.012) and high tumour grade (P < 0.001), remained statistically significant. The prognostic influence of up-regulated HLA-A and tapasin and down-regulated LMP7 may provide a rationale for targeting these specific components of the antigen processing and presentation pathway in salivary gland carcinomas. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-03-10

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a

  14. A Point Mutation in the RNA-Binding Domain of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Nucleoprotein Elicits Abnormally Enhanced Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yusuke; Ohta, Keisuke; Kolakofsky, Daniel; Nishio, Machiko

    2017-05-01

    The genome RNA of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) that acts as the template for the polymerase complex is entirely encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP). Recently, the crystal structure of NP of PIV5, a virus closely related to hPIV2, was resolved in association with RNA. Ten amino acids that contact the bound RNA were identified and are strictly conserved between PIV5 and hPIV2 NP. Mutation of hPIV2 NP Q202 (which contacts a base rather than the RNA backbone) to various amino acids resulted in an over 30-fold increase of polymerase activity as evidenced by a minireplicon assay, even though the RNA-binding affinity was unaltered. Using various modified minireplicons, we found that the enhanced reporter gene expression could be accounted for by increased minigenome replication, whereas mRNA synthesis itself was not affected by Q202 mutation. Moreover, the enhanced activities were still observed in minigenomes partially lacking the leader sequence and which were not of hexamer genome length. Unexpectedly, recombinant hPIV2 possessing the NP Q202A mutation could not be recovered from cDNA. IMPORTANCE We examined the importance of amino acids in the putative RNA-binding domain of hPIV2 NP for polymerase activity using minireplicons. Abnormally enhanced genome replication was observed upon substitution mutation of the NP Q202 position to various amino acids. Surprisingly, this mutation enabled polymerase to use minigenomes that were partially lacking the leader sequence and not of hexamer genome length. This mutation does not affect fundamental properties of NP, e.g., recognition of gene junctional and editing signals. However, the strongly enhanced polymerase activity may not be viable for the infectious life cycle. This report highlights the potential of the polymerase complex with point mutations in NP and helps our detailed understanding of the molecular basis of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Conflicting Rights: How the Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Infringes the Right to Health of Female Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Lisa; Dixon, Thomas; Phlong, Pisith; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Stein, Ellen; Page, Kimberly

    2015-06-11

    While repressive laws and policies in relation to sex work have the potential to undermine HIV prevention efforts, empirical research on their interface has been lacking. In 2008, Cambodia introduced antitrafficking legislation ostensibly designed to suppress human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Based on empirical research with female sex workers, this article examines the impact of the new law on vulnerability to HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Following the introduction of the law, sex workers reported being displaced to streets and guesthouses, impacting their ability to negotiate safe sex and increasing exposure to violence. Disruption of peer networks and associated mobility also reduced access to outreach, condoms, and health care. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research which associates the violation of sex workers' human rights with adverse public health outcomes. Despite the successes of the last decade, Cambodia's AIDS epidemic remains volatile and the current legal environment has the potential to undermine prevention efforts by promoting stigma and discrimination, impeding prevention uptake and coverage, and increasing infections. Legal and policy responses which seek to protect the rights of the sexually exploited should not infringe the right to health of sex workers. Copyright 2015 Maher et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  16. [Men who have sex with men and human immunodeficiency virus testing in dental practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo, Jesús Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Álvarez, Mario Moisés

    2017-06-21

    To explore the attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) towards the implementation of rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice, and to evaluate MSM's perceptions of stigma and discrimination related to sexual orientation by dental care professionals. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered, anonymous, structured analytical questionnaire answered by 185 MSM in Mexico. The survey included sociodemographic variables, MSM's perceptions towards public and private dental providers, and dental services, as well as their perception towards rapid HIV-1/2 testing in the dental practice. In addition, the perception of stigma and discrimination associated with their sexual orientation was explored by designing a psychometric Likert-type scale. The statistical analysis included factor analysis and non-hierarchical cluster analysis. 86.5% of the respondents expressed their willingness to take a rapid HIV-1/2 screening test during their dental visit. Nevertheless, 91.9% of them considered it important that dental professionals must be well-trained before administering any rapid HIV-1/2 tests. Factor analysis revealed two factors: experiences of sexual orientation stigma and discrimination in dental settings, and feelings of concern about the attitude of the dentist and dental staff towards their sexual orientation. Based on these factors and cluster analysis, three user profiles were identified: users who have not experienced stigma and discrimination (90.3%); users who have not experienced stigma and discrimination, but feel a slight concern (8.1%), and users who have experienced some form of discrimination and feel concern (1.6%). The dental practice may represent a potential location for rapid HIV-1/2 testing contributing to early HIV infection diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues

  18. Mutations in MAP3K1 cause 46,XY disorders of sex development and implicate a common signal transduction pathway in human testis determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Alexander; Loke, Johnny; Le Caignec, Cedric; White, Stefan; Chin, Lisa; Friedman, Andrew; Warr, Nicholas; Willan, John; Brauer, David; Farmer, Charles; Brooks, Eric; Oddoux, Carole; Riley, Bridget; Shajahan, Shahin; Camerino, Giovanna; Homfray, Tessa; Crosby, Andrew H; Couper, Jenny; David, Albert; Greenfield, Andy; Sinclair, Andrew; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-12-10

    Investigations of humans with disorders of sex development (DSDs) resulted in the discovery of many of the now-known mammalian sex-determining genes, including SRY, RSPO1, SOX9, NR5A1, WT1, NR0B1, and WNT4. Here, the locus for an autosomal sex-determining gene was mapped via linkage analysis in two families with 46,XY DSD to the long arm of chromosome 5 with a combined, multipoint parametric LOD score of 6.21. A splice-acceptor mutation (c.634-8T>A) in MAP3K1 segregated with the phenotype in the first family and disrupted RNA splicing. Mutations were demonstrated in the second family (p.Gly616Arg) and in two of 11 sporadic cases (p.Leu189Pro, p.Leu189Arg)-18% prevalence in this cohort of sporadic cases. In cultured primary lymphoblastoid cells from family 1 and the two sporadic cases, these mutations altered the phosphorylation of the downstream targets, p38 and ERK1/2, and enhanced binding of RHOA to the MAP3K1 complex. Map3k1 within the syntenic region was expressed in the embryonic mouse gonad prior to, and after, sex determination. Thus, mutations in MAP3K1 that result in 46,XY DSD with partial or complete gonadal dysgenesis implicate this pathway in normal human sex determination. Copyright © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The binding patterns of antisera to sex steroids and human gonadotropins on human and rhesus monkey spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, I S; Das, R P; Roy, S

    1983-01-01

    The presence of different hormones on the surface of ejaculated spermatozoa was determined by immunofluorescence studies of the binding patterns of specific antisera to these hormones. There were striking similarities in the binding pattern of antisera to steroid hormones found on human and monkey spermatozoa. Assuming the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of the hormone, concentrations of testosterone on the acrosomal and the postacrosomal regions were higher than levels of progesterone and estrogens. Spermatozoa with a "tapering head" had more hCG bound on the acrosomal and postacrosomal regions than spermatozoa with "normal head" (oval shaped). Correlating these findings to the functions of spermatozoa will require further studies.

  20. Temporal expression pattern of genes during the period of sex differentiation in human embryonic gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn S.; Ernst, Emil H.; Borup, Rehannah

    2017-01-01

    (IHC). SRY/SOX9 expression initiated in testis around day 40 pc, followed by initiation of AMH and steroidogenic genes required for androgen production at day 53 pc. In ovaries, gene expression of RSPO1, LIN28, FOXL2, WNT2B, and ETV5, were significantly higher than in testis, whereas GLI1...... was significantly higher in testis than ovaries. Gene expression was confirmed by IHC for GAGE, SOX9, AMH, CYP17A1, LIN28, WNT2B, ETV5 and GLI1. Gene expression was not associated with the maternal smoking habits. Collectively, a precise temporal determination of changes in expression of key genes involved in human...

  1. Validation and reliability of the sex estimation of the human os coxae using freely available DSP2 software for bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brůžek, Jaroslav; Santos, Frédéric; Dutailly, Bruno; Murail, Pascal; Cunha, Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    A new tool for skeletal sex estimation based on measurements of the human os coxae is presented using skeletons from a metapopulation of identified adult individuals from twelve independent population samples. For reliable sex estimation, a posterior probability greater than 0.95 was considered to be the classification threshold: below this value, estimates are considered indeterminate. By providing free software, we aim to develop an even more disseminated method for sex estimation. Ten metric variables collected from 2,040 ossa coxa of adult subjects of known sex were recorded between 1986 and 2002 (reference sample). To test both the validity and reliability, a target sample consisting of two series of adult ossa coxa of known sex (n = 623) was used. The DSP2 software (Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste v2) is based on Linear Discriminant Analysis, and the posterior probabilities are calculated using an R script. For the reference sample, any combination of four dimensions provides a correct sex estimate in at least 99% of cases. The percentage of individuals for whom sex can be estimated depends on the number of dimensions; for all ten variables it is higher than 90%. Those results are confirmed in the target sample. Our posterior probability threshold of 0.95 for sex estimate corresponds to the traditional sectioning point used in osteological studies. DSP2 software is replacing the former version that should not be used anymore. DSP2 is a robust and reliable technique for sexing adult os coxae, and is also user friendly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Test: Old Uncertainties, New Perspectives, and Value in 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Silvano; Russo, Gianni; Baroncelli, Giampiero I

    2018-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test represents a key step in assessing Leydig cell function in prepubertal males, but differences in terms of hCG doses, number of injections, and sequence of blood drawing are published in the literature, showing poor standardization. The few available data in healthy boys are summarized here. A recombinant hCG (rhCG) formulation might permit overcoming some controversies as well as avoid the potential biological risk related to the injection of extractive hormones. Studies in humans are scarce, but they indicate that 250 µg rhCG in a single dose may represent a useful scheme for the dynamic evaluation of Leydig cell function in children as well as in adults. The main indication for hCG testing in childhood is the investigation of 46,XY disorders of sex differentiation. The test must also be considered in order to investigate the presence of functional testicular tissue when gonadal peptide hormones cannot be measured. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  4. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  5. Determinants of human adipose tissue gene expression: impact of diet, sex, metabolic status, and cis genetic regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Viguerie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Weight control diets favorably affect parameters of the metabolic syndrome and delay the onset of diabetic complications. The adaptations occurring in adipose tissue (AT are likely to have a profound impact on the whole body response as AT is a key target of dietary intervention. Identification of environmental and individual factors controlling AT adaptation is therefore essential. Here, expression of 271 transcripts, selected for regulation according to obesity and weight changes, was determined in 515 individuals before, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss, and after 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diets. For 175 genes, opposite regulation was observed during calorie restriction and weight maintenance phases, independently of variations in body weight. Metabolism and immunity genes showed inverse profiles. During the dietary intervention, network-based analyses revealed strong interconnection between expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and components of the metabolic syndrome. Sex had a marked influence on AT expression of 88 transcripts, which persisted during the entire dietary intervention and after control for fat mass. In women, the influence of body mass index on expression of a subset of genes persisted during the dietary intervention. Twenty-two genes revealed a metabolic syndrome signature common to men and women. Genetic control of AT gene expression by cis signals was observed for 46 genes. Dietary intervention, sex, and cis genetic variants independently controlled AT gene expression. These analyses help understanding the relative importance of environmental and individual factors that control the expression of human AT genes and therefore may foster strategies aimed at improving AT function in metabolic diseases.

  6. Benefits and Potential Harms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Self-Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China: An Implementation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yilu; Tang, Weiming; Nowacki, Amy; Mollan, Katie; Reifeis, Sarah A; Hudgens, Michael G; Wong, Ngai-Sze; Li, Haochu; Tucker, Joseph D; Wei, Chongyi

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing (HIVST) holds great promise for reaching high-risk key populations who do not access facility-based services. We sought to characterize unsupervised HIVST implementation among men who have sex with men in China. We conducted a nationwide online survey in China. Eligible men were at least 16 years, had anal sex with a man, and had recent condomless sex. We assessed benefits (first-time testing, increased testing frequency, confirmatory testing) and potential harms (coercion, violence, suicidality) of HIVST. Among men who have sex with men who reported ever testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we identified correlates of HIVST as first-time HIV test being a self-test using multivariable logistic regression. Among 1610 men who met the eligibility criteria and started the survey, 1189 (74%) completed it. Three hundred forty-one (29%) of 1189 reported ever self-testing for HIV. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence was 7% (24/341) among self-testers and 5% (15/306) among non-self-testers. Two hundred (59%) of 341 men who self-tested reported HIVST as a first-time HIV test. Thirty-one (9%) men experienced coercion with HIVST. Thirty-one (78%) of 40 men with positive HIV self-tests sought confirmation. Multivariable analysis revealed that HIVST as first-time HIV test was associated with younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-0.99), not being "out" (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.60-3.28), not using the internet to meet sex partners (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.69), and group sex (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.02-2.9). Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing reached high-risk individuals that had never received facility-based testing. Further implementation research is needed to better understand HIVST outside of research programs.

  7. Identification, characterization and expression of novel Sex Hormone Binding Globulin alternative first exons in the human prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Torres Inés

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG gene, located at 17p13.1, comprises, at least, two different transcription units regulated by two different promoters. The first transcription unit begins with the exon 1 sequence and is responsible for the production of plasma SHBG by the hepatocytes, while the second begins with an alternative exon 1 sequence, which replaces the exon 1 present in liver transcripts. Alternative exon 1 transcription and translation has only been demonstrated in the testis of transgenic mice containing an 11-kb human SHBG transgene and in the human testis. Our goal has been to further characterize the 5' end of the SHBG gene and analyze the presence of the SHBG alternative transcripts in human prostate tissue and derived cell lines. Results Using a combination of in silico and in vitro studies, we have demonstrated that the SHBG gene, along with exon 1 and alternative exon 1 (renamed here exon 1A, contains four additional alternative first exons: the novel exons 1B, 1C, and 1E, and a previously identified exon 1N, which has been further characterized and renamed as exon 1D. We have shown that these four alternative first exons are all spliced to the same 3' splice site of SHBG exon 2, and that exon 1A and the novel exon 1B can be spliced to exon 1. We have also demonstrated the presence of SHBG transcripts beginning with exons 1B, 1C and 1D in prostate tissues and cell lines, as well as in several non-prostatic cell lines. Finally, the alignment of the SHBG mammalian sequences revealed that, while exons 1C, 1D and 1E are very well conserved phylogenetically through non-primate mammal species, exon 1B probably aroused in apes due to a single nucleotide change that generated a new 5' splice site in exon 1B. Conclusion The identification of multiple transcription start sites (TSS upstream of the annotated first exon of human SHBG, and the detection of the alternative transcripts in human prostate

  8. Sex differences in androgen receptors of the human mamillary bodies are related to endocrine status rather than to sexual orientation or transsexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijver, F. P.; Fernández-Guasti, A.; Fodor, M.; Kraan, E. M.; Swaab, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    In a previous study we found androgen receptor (AR) sex differences in several regions throughout the human hypothalamus. Generally, men had stronger nuclear AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) than women. The strongest nuclear labeling was found in the caudal hypothalamus in the mamillary body complex

  9. Gender difference in age-related number of corticotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the role of sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, A.-M.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the total number of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-stained neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases with age. To determine whether this age-related change depends on gender and whether circulating sex hormones play a role, we

  10. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  11. Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Series of Case Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Paxton, William A.; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Cornelissen, Marion; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) has recently emerged as sexual transmitted infection among (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV-positive but not HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM). We present 4 case reports showing that HIV-infection is not an absolute prerequisite for sexual HCV transmission in

  12. Abnormalities in Expression of Structural, Barrier, and Differentiation Related Proteins and Chondroitin Sulfate in the Urothelium of Cats with Feline Interstitial Cystitis Mimic Those Seen in Human Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul J.; VanGordon, Samuel B.; Seavey, Jonathan; Sofinowski, Troy M.; Ramadan, Mohammad; Abdullah, Shivon; Buffington, C. A. Tony; Hurst, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The urothelium of cats diagnosed with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) was analyzed to determine if abnormalities in protein expression patterns could be detected, and whether the pattern of expression was similar to that observed in human Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC) patients. The proteins that were analyzed are involved in cell adhesion, barrier function, comprise the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer, or are markers of differentiation. Methods Formalin-fixed biopsies from 8 cats with FIC and 7 healthy controls were labeled using immunohistochemistry and scored using a modified version of a system previously used for human samples. Cluster analysis was performed to investigate relationships between the markers and samples. Results The results showed that 89% of the FIC bladders displayed abnormal protein expression and chondroitin sulfate (CS) patterns, whereas only 27% of the normal tissues exhibited slight abnormalities. Abnormalities were found in most of the FIC samples, biglycan (87.5%), CS (100%), decorin (100%), E-cadherin (100%), keratin-20 (K20, 100%), uroplakin (50%), ZO-1 (87.5%). In the FIC bladders, about 75% of the CS, biglycan, and decorin samples displayed absence of luminal staining or no staining. Results from the cluster analysis revealed that the FIC and normal samples fell into two clearly separate groups, demonstrating that the urothelium of cats with FIC is altered from normal. Conclusions FIC produces similar changes in luminal GAG and several proteins as is seen in human patients, suggesting some commonality in mechanism and supporting the use of FIC as a model for human IC. PMID:25636658

  13. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  14. Oxytocin gene polymorphisms influence human dopaminergic function in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tiffany M; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Peciña, Marta; Mickey, Brian; Koeppe, Robert A; Stohler, Christian S; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2012-08-01

    Oxytocin, classically involved in social and reproductive activities, is increasingly recognized as an antinociceptive and anxiolytic agent, effects which may be mediated via oxytocin's interactions with the dopamine system. Thus, genetic variation within the oxytocin gene (OXT) is likely to explain variability in dopamine-related stress responses. As such, we examined how OXT variation is associated with stress-induced dopaminergic neurotransmission in a healthy human sample. Fifty-five young healthy volunteers were scanned using [¹¹C]raclopride positron emission tomography while they underwent a standardized physical and emotional stressor that consisted of moderate levels of experimental sustained deep muscle pain, and a baseline, control state. Four haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms located in regions near OXT were genotyped. Measures of pain, affect, anxiety, well-being and interpersonal attachment were also assessed. Female rs4813625 C allele carriers demonstrated greater stress-induced dopamine release, measured as reductions in receptor availability from baseline to the pain-stress condition relative to female GG homozygotes. No significant differences were detected among males. We also observed that female rs4813625 C allele carriers exhibited higher attachment anxiety, higher trait anxiety and lower emotional well-being scores. In addition, greater stress-induced dopamine release was associated with lower emotional well-being scores in female rs4813625 C allele carriers. Our results suggest that variability within the oxytocin gene appear to explain interindividual differences in dopaminergic responses to stress, which are shown to be associated with anxiety traits, including those linked to attachment style, as well as emotional well-being in women. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  16. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  17. Osho - Insights on sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment.

  18. Common genetic variation near MC4R has a sex-specific impact on human brain structure and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Annette; Kovacs, Peter; Kabisch, Stefan; Boettcher, Yvonne; Schloegl, Haiko; Tönjes, Anke; Stumvoll, Michael; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV) in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.

  19. Oral sex and human papilloma virus-related head and neck squamous cell cancer: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Malik, Akshat; Garg, Apurva; Mair, Manish; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-11-01

    Head neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all around the world. Just like tobacco and alcohol, Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is now recognized to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of HNSCCs. Unprotected sexual behaviours with the HPV carrier plays an important role in transmission of this virus. The global incidence of head and neck cancers is declining, but the incidence of HPV related head and neck cancers is rapidly increasing over the last few decades. However, most institutions do not mandate documentation of sexual history or counselling of patients regarding sexual practices like they do for tobacco and alcohol addictions in HNSCC patients. The aim of this review of literature is to analyse if there is a strong evidence to correlate oral sex with HPV related HNSCC and counsel the patient's regarding sexual behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Common genetic variation near MC4R has a sex-specific impact on human brain structure and eating behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Horstmann

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with genetic and environmental factors but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS identified obesity- and type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants located within or near genes that modulate brain activity and development. Among the top hits is rs17782313 near MC4R, encoding for the melanocortin-4-receptor, which is expressed in brain regions that regulate eating. Here, we hypothesized rs17782313-associated changes in human brain regions that regulate eating behavior. Therefore, we examined effects of common variants at rs17782313 near MC4R on brain structure and eating behavior. Only in female homozygous carriers of the risk allele we found significant increases of gray matter volume (GMV in the right amygdala, a region known to influence eating behavior, and the right hippocampus, a structure crucial for memory formation and learning. Further, we found bilateral increases in medial orbitofrontal cortex, a multimodal brain structure encoding the subjective value of reinforcers, and bilateral prefrontal cortex, a higher order regulation area. There was no association between rs17782313 and brain structure in men. Moreover, among female subjects only, we observed a significant increase of 'disinhibition', and, more specifically, on 'emotional eating' scores of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in carriers of the variant rs17782313's risk allele. These findings suggest that rs17782313's effect on eating behavior is mediated by central mechanisms and that these effects are sex-specific.

  1. Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 expression in human breast and prostate cancer cases, and its regulation by sex steroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Jorge Maia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1 is an interferon-induced protein characterised by its capacity to catalyse the synthesis of 2ʹ-5ʹ-linked oligomers of adenosine from adenosine triphosphate (2-5A. The 2-5A binds to a latent Ribonuclease L (RNase L, which subsequently dimerises into its active form and may play an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, our research group identified OAS1 as a differentially-expressed gene in breast and prostate cancer cell lines when compared to normal cells. This study evaluates: i the expression of OAS1 in human breast and prostate cancer specimens; and ii the effect of sex steroid hormones in regulating the expression of OAS1 in breast (MCF-7 and prostate (LNCaP cancer cell lines. The obtained results showed that OAS1 expression was down-regulated in human infiltrative ductal carcinoma of breast, adenocarcinoma of prostate, and benign prostate hyperplasia, both at mRNA and protein level. In addition, OAS1 expression was negatively correlated with the progression of breast and prostate cancer. With regards to the regulation of OAS1 gene, it was demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2 down-regulates OAS1 gene in MCF-7 cell lines, an effect that seems to be dependent on the activation of oestrogen receptor (ER. On the other hand, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT treatment showed no effect on the expression of OAS1 in LNCaP cell lines. The lower levels of OAS1 in breast and prostate cancer cases indicated that the OAS1/RNaseL apoptotic pathway may be compromised in breast and prostate tumours. Moreover, the present findings suggested that this effect may be enhanced by oestrogen in ER-positive breast cancers.

  2. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  3. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  4. Molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among transgender commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia; Dharmawan, Ruben; Marwoto

    2017-02-01

    Sexual contact and other risk behavior among transgender working as commercial sex workers are important factors for sexual and blood-borne virus (BBV) infections. However, there no data concerning the molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulated among transgender working as commercial sex workers. Blood samples obtained from transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta were examined for HIV antibodies, HBsAg and HCV antibodies, respectively, by immunological assays. All blood samples were also subjected for viral nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of HIV, HBV and HCV by nested RT-PCR. The PCR products were purified from agarose gels, and the nucleotide sequences were retrieved and molecular analyzed. HIV, HBV and HCV was detected in 26.9% (7/26), 19.2% (5/26) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. HIV CRF01_AE and B were found to be circulating in the community. HBV genotype B3 predominated, followed by C1. HCV genotype 1a predominated among HCV-infected transgender working as commercial sex workers, followed by 1c, 3a, and 4a. HIV, HBV, and HCV were found circulating in the transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia.

  5. Public opinion regarding decriminalisation of sex work in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 items), abnormal behaviours (4 items), positive outcomes (4 items), exploitation (2 items), access to the sex industry (2 items) were extracted. Concerns still exist regarding the decriminalisation of sex work in South Africa. Health issues ...

  6. New insights into the effects of age and sex on arterial baroreflex function at rest and during dynamic exercise in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James P.; Kim, Areum; Hartwich, Doreen; Fadel, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    The arterial baroreflex (ABR) performs an important role in regulating blood pressure (BP) both at rest and during exercise, by carefully orchestrating autonomic neural activity to the heart and blood vessels. Reduced ABR sensitivity (i.e., gain) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, cardiac electrical instability and orthostatic intolerance, while ‘normal’ ABR function during exercise is important for ensuring an appropriate cardiovascular response is elicited. Previous studies examining the influence of age and sex on resting ABR function in humans have primarily used pharmacological methods (e.g., modified Oxford technique) to change BP and alter baroreceptor input. With this approach only reflex control of heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity may be evaluated, and as such the influence of age and sex on ABR control of BP per se remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the majority of previous studies examining ABR function during exercise have principally assessed young men. Whether these findings can be extrapolated to young women or older men and women remains unclear. Recently the potential for age and sex to modulate the integrative neural control of the cardiovascular system is becoming appreciated. This review article will provide a detailed update of such recent advances into our understanding of the effects of age and sex on ABR control of BP both at rest and during dynamic exercise in humans. PMID:23151515

  7. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  8. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with sperm disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Pylyp

    2013-02-01

    of sex chromosome aneuploidy and 2 cases of terminal deletion of Y chromosome. Klinefelter syndrome was detected in 67% of patients with azoospermia. A significant increase in the frequency of numerical chromosomal abnormalities was observed in a group of patients with azoospermia (P < 0.001. No differences were detected in the frequency of structural abnormalities in subgroups of patients. An increase in the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities with the decrease of sperm count was observed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected with frequency 1.1% in a group of patients with normospermia, 1.9% in a group of patients with asthenozoospermia, 4.3% in patients with asthenoteratozoospermia, 6.5% in patients with oligoasthenozoospermia, 11.6% in patients with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and 35% in a group of patients with azoospermia. Significant increase of the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was detected in subgroups of patients with azoospermia (P < 0.001 and oligozoospermia (P = 0.001 as compared to patients with normozoospermia. These results are considered to be criteria for selection of patients in need of cytogenetic studies before in vitro fertilization cycles because of the highest risk of chromosomal abnormalities detection.

  11. Impact and Cost-effectiveness of Selective Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Allen; Ong, Koh J; Hobbelen, Peter; King, Eleanor; Mesher, David; Edmunds, W John; Sonnenberg, Pam; Gilson, Richard; Bains, Irenjeet; Choi, Yoon H; Tanton, Clare; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high lifetime risk of anogenital warts and cancers related to infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). They also benefit less from herd protection than heterosexual males in settings with female-only HPV vaccination. We evaluated the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of offering vaccination to MSM who visit genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics. We used a mathematical model of HPV 6/11/16/18 sexual transmission within an MSM population in England, parameterized with sexual behaviour, GUM attendance, HPV prevalence, HIV prevalence, warts, and cancer incidence data. Interventions considered were offering HPV vaccination to either HIV-positive MSM or MSM regardless of HIV status, for age bands 16-25, 16-30, 16-35, and 16-40 years. Substantial declines in anogenital warts and male HPV-related cancer incidence are projected to occur following an offer of vaccination to MSM. MSM not attending GUM clinics will partially benefit from herd protection. Offering vaccination to HIV-positive MSM up to age 40 is likely to be cost-effective if vaccine procurement and administration costs are below £96.50 a dose. At £48 a dose, offering vaccination to all MSM up to age 40 is likely to be cost-effective. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination of MSM via GUM clinics is likely to be an effective and cost-effective way of reducing the burden of HPV-related disease in MSM. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eleanor M; Oomeer, Soonita; Gilson, Richard; Copas, Andrew; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Edmunds, W John; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) differs from anogenital HPV infection. The impact of HPV vaccination has, to date, largely focussed on anogenital outcomes. Vaccination of MSM in the UK has been recommended and, if implemented, baseline estimates of oral HPV prevalence will be useful. We searched Medline, Embase and psycINFO databases for studies reporting prevalence, incidence, and clearance of oral HPV infection in MSM. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression on prevalence estimates and summarised within-study risk factors for oral HPV DNA detection and incidence/clearance rates. We also performed a meta-analysis of the effect of MSM on oral HPV prevalence compared to heterosexual men. 26 publications were identified. The pooled prevalence of oral HPV16 from twelve estimates was 3.0% (95%CI 0.5-5.5) in HIV-negative and 4.7% (95%CI 2.1-7.3) in HIV-positive MSM. Median age of study participants explained 38% of heterogeneity (p<0.01) in HPV prevalence estimates (pooled = 17% and 29% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive, respectively; 22 estimates). Nine studies compared MSM to heterosexual men and found no difference in oral HPV prevalence (pooled OR 1.07 (95%CI 0.65-1.74)). The clearance rate was higher than incidence within studies. Type-specific concordance between oral and anogenital sites was rare. There was substantial heterogeneity between estimates of oral HPV prevalence in MSM populations that was partly explained by HIV status and median age.

  13. Serotonin transporter, sex, and hypoxia: microarray analysis in the pulmonary arteries of mice identifies genes with relevance to human PAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kevin; Loughlin, Lynn; Maqbool, Zakia; Nilsen, Margaret; McClure, John; Dempsie, Yvonne; Baker, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is up to threefold more prevalent in women than men. Female mice overexpressing the serotonin transporter (SERT; SERT+ mice) exhibit PAH and exaggerated hypoxia-induced PAH, whereas male SERT+ mice remain unaffected. To further investigate these sex differences, microarray analysis was performed in the pulmonary arteries of normoxic and chronically hypoxic female and male SERT+ mice. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis was employed for validation of the microarray data. In relevant groups, immunoblotting was performed for genes of interest (CEBPβ, CYP1B1, and FOS). To translate clinical relevance to our findings, CEBPβ, CYP1B1, and FOS mRNA and protein expression was assessed in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) derived from idiopathic PAH (IPAH) patients and controls. In female SERT+ mice, multiple pathways with relevance to PAH were altered. This was also observed in chronically hypoxic female SERT+ mice. We selected 10 genes of interest for qRT-PCR analysis (FOS, CEBPβ, CYP1B1, MYL3, HAMP2, LTF, PLN, NPPA, UCP1, and C1S), and 100% concordance was reported. Protein expression of three selected genes, CEBPβ, CYP1B1, FOS, was also upregulated in female SERT+ mice. Serotonin and 17β-estradiol increased CEBPβ, CYP1B1, and FOS protein expression in PASMCs. In addition, CEBPβ, CYP1B1, and FOS mRNA and protein expression was also increased in PASMCs derived from IPAH patients. Here, we have identified a number of genes that may predispose female SERT+ mice to PAH, and these findings may also be relevant to human PAH. PMID:21303932

  14. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eleanor M.; Oomeer, Soonita; Gilson, Richard; Copas, Andrew; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Edmunds, W. John; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) differs from anogenital HPV infection. The impact of HPV vaccination has, to date, largely focussed on anogenital outcomes. Vaccination of MSM in the UK has been recommended and, if implemented, baseline estimates of oral HPV prevalence will be useful. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and psycINFO databases for studies reporting prevalence, incidence, and clearance of oral HPV infection in MSM. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression on prevalence estimates and summarised within-study risk factors for oral HPV DNA detection and incidence/clearance rates. We also performed a meta-analysis of the effect of MSM on oral HPV prevalence compared to heterosexual men. Results 26 publications were identified. The pooled prevalence of oral HPV16 from twelve estimates was 3.0% (95%CI 0.5–5.5) in HIV-negative and 4.7% (95%CI 2.1–7.3) in HIV-positive MSM. Median age of study participants explained 38% of heterogeneity (pHPV prevalence estimates (pooled = 17% and 29% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive, respectively; 22 estimates). Nine studies compared MSM to heterosexual men and found no difference in oral HPV prevalence (pooled OR 1.07 (95%CI 0.65–1.74)). The clearance rate was higher than incidence within studies. Type-specific concordance between oral and anogenital sites was rare. Conclusion There was substantial heterogeneity between estimates of oral HPV prevalence in MSM populations that was partly explained by HIV status and median age. PMID:27384050

  15. Awareness of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among Adolescent African American Males Who Have Sex with Males: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Martin, Nicolle; Orish, Verner N; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2015-09-01

    African American adolescent males who have sex with males (MSMs) have a high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that has been directly linked to lack of access to primary care providers and reluctance to disclose their sexuality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STD with more than 40 different serotypes and can lead to anal/genital warts as well as oral and genital cancers. The HPV vaccine if taken prior to an adolescent becoming sexually active serves a prophylactic function. The HPV vaccine is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for girls and boys; however, HPV vaccination rates among adolescents within different minority and underserved communities have been disappointing even though these groups are disproportionately infected with the HPV virus and certain male-specific cancers. Little is known about the uptake of the vaccine among African American MSMs and thus the aim of this study. This qualitative study is based on the health belief model and assessed participants' level of awareness of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-related illnesses among 24 African American male adolescents between 16 and 18 years old who self identify as MSMs. As part of a larger study, two focus groups were conducted for African American MSMs. Participants failed to understand their potential risk for HPV given the higher rates of STD infection experienced by MSMs. They expressed very little knowledge of the HPV vaccine and are also not aware of the complications of HPV virus infection. However, they were very eager to know more about the virus and the vaccine. This study demonstrates the need for the development of health communication intervention and more research targeting African American MSMs and also the need for policy change towards making the HPV vaccine routine for males especially adolescents at no cost.

  16. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  17. Developmental abnormalities of mid and hindbrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Pediatric Neurology Department, Cairo University, 2Clinical Genetics ... Research Centre,3Human Cytogenetics Department, Human Genetics and. Genome ..... cVH. 2/23 cri du chat. 1/23 del. 18q21.1- qter. 1/23. Breathing abnormalities. 3. 13. 3. -. 1. -. -. -. -. Feeding problems. 8. 34.8. -. 5. 2. -. -. 1. -. Autistic behavior. 3. 13.

  18. How Does Adult Attachment Affect Human Recognition of Love-related and Sex-related Stimuli: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jinqun; Yao, Fangshu; Huang, Jiani; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Ma, Ru; Zhang, Yuting; Lan, Jing; Liu, Lu; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship among three emotion-motivation systems (adult attachment, romantic love, and sex). We recorded event-related potentials in 37 healthy volunteers who had experienced romantic love while they viewed SEX, LOVE, FRIEND, SPORT, and NEUTRAL images. We also measured adult attachment styles, level of passionate love and sexual attitudes. As expected, results showed that, firstly, response to love-related image-stimuli and sex-related image-stimuli on the electrophysiological data significantly different on N1, N2, and positive slow wave (PSW) components. Secondly, the different adult attachment styles affected individuals’ recognition processing in response to love-related and sex-related images, especially, to sex-related images. Further analysis showed that voltages elicited by fearful attachment style individuals were significantly lower than voltages elicited by secure and dismissing attachment style individuals on sex-related images at frontal sites, on N1 and N2 components. Thirdly, from behavior data, we found that adult attachment styles were not significantly related to any dimension of sexual attitudes but were significantly related to passionate love scale (PLS) total points. Thus, the behavior results were not in line with the electrophysiological results. The present study proved that adult attachment styles might mediate individuals’ lust and attraction systems. PMID:27199830

  19. Association of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Javier R; Lucchetti, Aldo; Suarez, Luis; Laguna-Torres, Victor A; Guanira, Juan V; Pun, Monica; Montano, Silvia M; Celum, Connie L; Carr, Jean K; Sanchez, Jorge; Bautista, Christian T; Sanchez, Jose L

    2006-11-15

    We evaluated associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. A surveillance survey of 3280 MSM was conducted; sexual behavior was assessed with a structured computer-assisted self-interview, and serum antibody testing was performed for HIV, HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum. HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis seroprevalences of 13.9%, 46.3%, and 13.4% were detected, respectively. HSV-2 seroprevalence was twice as high in HIV-infected subjects (80.5%) than it was in HIV-uninfected subjects (40.8%) (P homosexual self-definition (AOR, 3.12), exchange of sex for money (AOR, 1.61), unprotected sex (no condom) (AOR, 2.81), history of sex work (AOR, 1.89), oral receptive sex (AOR, 1.43), and cocaine use before/during sex (AOR, 2.53) within the preceding 6 months, as well as such sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI syndromes as proctitis (AOR, 2.80), genital ulcer disease (GUD) (AOR, 2.06), prior syphilis (AOR, 2.64), genital warts (AOR, 1.70), and self-reported STIs within the preceding 6 months (AOR, 1.61), were also found to be significant predictors of HIV infection. We found a strong association between HSV-2 seropositivity and HIV infection. Intervention measures against GUD due to HSV-2 infection and syphilis, such as routine testing, early detection, HSV-2 suppressive treatment, and condom distribution, need to be enhanced as part of STI prevention strategies at a national level to effectively reduce HIV infection among MSM in Peru.

  20. Non-human primates avoid the detrimental effects of prenatal androgen exposure in mixed-sex litters: combined demographic, behavioral, and genetic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Snowdon, Charles T; McGrew, William C; Lawler, Richard R; Guevara, Elaine E; McIntosh, Annick; O'Connor, Timothy

    2016-12-01

    Producing single versus multiple births has important life history trade-offs, including the potential benefits and risks of sharing a common in utero environment. Sex hormones can diffuse through amniotic fluid and fetal membranes, and females with male littermates risk exposure to high levels of fetal testosterone, which are shown to have masculinizing effects and negative fitness consequences in many mammals. Whereas most primates give birth to single offspring, several New World monkey and strepsirrhine species regularly give birth to small litters. We examined whether neonatal testosterone exposure might be detrimental to females in mixed-sex litters by compiling data from long-term breeding records for seven primate species (Saguinus oedipus; Varecia variegata, Varecia rubra, Microcebus murinis, Mirza coquereli, Cheirogaleus medius, Galago moholi). Litter sex ratios did not differ from the expected 1:2:1 (MM:MF:FF for twins) and 1:2:2:1 (MMM:MMF:MFF:FFF for triplets). Measures of reproductive success, including female survivorship, offspring-survivorship, and inter-birth interval, did not differ between females born in mixed-sex versus all-female litters, indicating that litter-producing non-human primates, unlike humans and rodents, show no signs of detrimental effects from androgen exposure in mixed sex litters. Although we found no evidence for CYP19A1 gene duplications-a hypothesized mechanism for coping with androgen exposure-aromatase protein evolution shows patterns of convergence among litter-producing taxa. That some primates have effectively found a way to circumvent a major cost of multiple births has implications for understanding variation in litter size and life history strategies across mammals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Downstream targets of methyl CpG binding protein 2 and their abnormal expression in the frontal cortex of the human Rett syndrome brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minchenko Dimitri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rett Syndrome (RTT brain displays regional histopathology and volumetric reduction, with frontal cortex showing such abnormalities, whereas the occipital cortex is relatively less affected. Results Using microarrays and quantitative PCR, the mRNA expression profiles of these two neuroanatomical regions were compared in postmortem brain tissue from RTT patients and normal controls. A subset of genes was differentially expressed in the frontal cortex of RTT brains, some of which are known to be associated with neurological disorders (clusterin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 or are involved in synaptic vesicle cycling (dynamin 1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of MeCP2 in vitro, followed by further expression analysis demonstrated that the same direction of abnormal expression was recapitulated with MeCP2 knockdown, which for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was associated with a functional respiratory chain defect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis showed that MeCP2 associated with the promoter regions of some of these genes suggesting that loss of MeCP2 function may be responsible for their overexpression. Conclusions This study has shed more light on the subset of aberrantly expressed genes that result from MECP2 mutations. The mitochondrion has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of RTT, however it has not been at the forefront of RTT research interest since the discovery of MECP2 mutations. The functional consequence of the underexpression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 indicates that this is an area that should be revisited.

  2. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  3. Odontometric sex estimation in humans using measurements on permanent canines. A comparison of an early Neolithic and an early medieval assemblage from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Stefan; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst

    This study analyzed whether cervical canine dimensions measured at the enamel-cement junction can provide a basis for sex estimation in human skeletal remains and whether discriminant functions developed for one assemblage can be successfully applied also to others. Cervical canine dimensions were recorded for an Early Neolithic (Linear Pottery Culture) and an early medieval skeletal assemblage from Germany. Only individuals in whom sex estimation based on standard diagnostic criteria could be performed with a high degree of certainty were included. Sexual dimorphism in cervical canine dimensions was higher in the early medieval assemblage. Values in females of the Early Neolithic assemblage exceeded those of the early medieval assemblage, while there were no significant differences in males. Discriminant analysis led to a maximum correct classification of sex (cross validation results) of 94.0% in the early medieval and of 79.2% in the Early Neolithic assemblage. Applying the discriminant functions developed on one assemblage to the other led to poor classification results. Cervical canine dimensions are highly correlated with sexually dimorphic skeletal traits and may provide a good basis for sexing archaeological individuals. It is suggested that due to population differences in canine dimensions, either assemblage specific discriminant functions should be developed or the applicability of existing formulae obtained on other assemblages to the assemblage under study should be carefully checked.

  4. Genetically induced abnormal cranial development in human trisomy 18 with holoprosencephaly: comparisons with the normal tempo of osteogenic-neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shaina N; Ziermann, Janine M; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C

    2015-07-01

    Craniofacial malformations are common congenital defects caused by failed midline inductive signals. These midline defects are associated with exposure of the fetus to exogenous teratogens and with inborn genetic errors such as those found in Down, Patau, Edwards' and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromes. Yet, there are no studies that analyze contributions of synchronous neurocranial and neural development in these disorders. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of malformations of the basicranium of a holoprosencephalic (HPE) trisomy 18 (T18; Edwards' syndrome) fetus with synophthalmic cyclopia and alobar HPE. With a combination of traditional gross dissection and state-of-the-art computed tomography, we demonstrate the deleterious effects of T18 caused by a translocation at 18p11.31. Bony features included a single developmentally unseparated frontal bone, and complete dual absence of the anterior cranial fossa and ethmoid bone. From a superior view with the calvarium plates removed, there was direct visual access to the orbital foramen and hard palate. Both the eyes and the pituitary gland, normally protected by bony structures, were exposed in the cranial cavity and in direct contact with the brain. The middle cranial fossa was shifted anteriorly, and foramina were either missing or displaced to an abnormal location due to the absence or misplacement of its respective cranial nerve (CN). When CN development was conserved in its induction and placement, the respective foramen developed in its normal location albeit with abnormal gross anatomical features, as seen in the facial nerve (CNVII) and the internal acoustic meatus. More anteriorly localized CNs and their foramina were absent or heavily disrupted compared with posterior ones. The severe malformations exhibited in the cranial fossae, orbital region, pituitary gland and sella turcica highlight the crucial involvement of transcription factors such as TGIF, which is located on chromosome 18 and contributes

  5. Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men: prevalence and lack of anogenital concordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eleanor M; Gilson, Richard; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Panwar, Kavita; Young, Carmel; Jit, Mark; Edmunds, W John; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of oral detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health clinic in London and concordance with anogenital HPV infection. Such data are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of oral HPV and the potential use of vaccines to prevent oropharyngeal cancers. Methods Paired oral rinse samples and anogenital samples were available from 151 HIV-negative MSM within a larger cross-sectional survey. All samples were tested in parallel for 21 types of HPV DNA using an in-house assay. Results The median age of participants was 30 (IQR 25–35). The prevalence of any oral HPV and of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 13.7% (n=21; 95% CI 8.7 to 20.2) and 5.9% (n=9; 95% CI 2.7 to 10.9) compared with 64.9% (n=98; 95% CI 56.7 to 72.5) and 34.4% (n=52; 95% CI 26.9 to 42.6) in any anogenital sample, respectively. The prevalence of types prevented by the bivalent (HPV16/18), quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18) and nonavalent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccines was 1.3% (95% CI 0.2 to 4.7), 2.6% (95% CI 0.7 to 6.6) and 4.6% (95% CI 1.9 to 9.3), respectively. There was no concordance between HPV genotypes detected in oral and anogenital sites. Conclusions HR-HPV DNA, including HPV 16/18, was detected in oral specimens from HIV-negative MSM attending sexual health clinics, suggesting a potential role for vaccination, but is far less common than anogenital infection. How this relates to the risk and natural history of HPV-related head and neck cancers warrants further study. Lack of concordance with anogenital infection also suggests that oral HPV infection should be considered separately when estimating potential vaccine impact. PMID:25887283

  6. Frequent detection of human adenovirus from the lower gastrointestinal tract in men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel E Curlin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between baseline seropositivity to human adenovirus (HAdV type 5 and increased HIV acquisition in the Step HIV Vaccine Study has raised questions concerning frequency of acquired and/or persistent Adenovirus infections among adults at high risk of HIV-1 infection.To evaluate the frequency and pattern of HAdV shedding from the lower GI tract, we retrospectively tested rectal swabs for HAdVs in a cohort of 20 HSV-2 positive HIV-positive Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM undergoing rectal swabbing three times/week for 18 consecutive weeks, in a prospective study of HSV-2 suppression in HIV infection. Viral DNA was extracted and amplified using a sensitive multiplex PCR assay that detects all currently recognized HAdV types. Molecular typing of viruses was performed on selected samples by hexon gene sequencing. Baseline neutralizing antibody titers to HAdVs -5, -26, -35 and -48 were also assessed.15/20 individuals had HAdV detected during follow up. The median frequency of HAdV detection was 30% of samples (range 2.0% to 64.7%. HAdV shedding typically occurred on consecutive days in clustered episodes lasting a median of 4 days (range 1 to 9 days separated by periods without shedding, suggesting frequent new infections or reactivation of latent infections over time. 8 of the 15 shedders had more than one type detected in follow-up. 20 HAdV types from species B, C, and D were identified, including HAdV-5, -26 and -48, HAdV types under development as potential vaccine candidates. 14/20 subjects were seropositive for HAdV-5; 15/20 for HAdV-26; 3/20 for HAdV-35; and 2/20 for HAdV-48. HAdV shedding did not correlate with CD4 count, plasma HIV-1 viral load, or titers to HAdV-5 or HAdV-35. The sole individual with HAdV-5 shedding was HAdV-5 seropositive.HAdV shedding was highly prevalent and diverse, including types presently under consideration as HIV vaccine vectors. Subclinical HAdV infection of the GI tract is common among MSM in

  7. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  8. What drives the number of high-risk human papillomavirus types in the anal canal in HIV-positive men who have sex with men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Amo, Julia; González, Cristina; Geskus, Ronald B; Torres, Montse; Del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, Jose R; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; Ortiz, Marta

    2013-04-15

    We estimated the effect of sexual behavior, age, and immunodeficiency on the number of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the anal canal among human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal samples were genotyped with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, and risk factors were investigated with Poisson regression. Of 586 MSM, 69% were Spanish, and 25.6% were Latin American; the median age was 34.9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 30.1-40.8). The median number of recent sex partners was 6 (IQR, 2-24 sex partners), and the median CD4(+) T-cell count was 531.5 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 403-701 cells/mm(3)). The prevalence of any and multiple HR-HPV infections was 83.4% and 60.5%, respectively. The most common types were HPV-16 (42%), HPV-51 (24%), HPV-39 (23.7%), and HPV-59 (23.5%). Age had a statistically significant, nonlinear association with the number of types, with the highest number detected around 35 years of age (P linear association on the log scale (P = .033). The high prevalence of HR-HPV types is associated with recent sexual behavior and age.

  9. Testosterone or 17{beta}-estradiol exposure reveals sex-specific effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Firoozeh; Rune, Anna; Osler, Megan; Al-Khalili, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    Changes in sex hormone levels with aging or illness may lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, the ratio changes in men versus women may have distinct pathological responses. Since little is known about sex hormone action on muscle metabolism, we examined the role of testosterone or 17β-estradiol (E(2)) in metabolism and investigated whether either hormone may mediate a sex-specific effect. Myotubes from postmenopausal women and age-matched male donors were treated with 10 nM testosterone or E(2) for 4 days, and assays were performed to measure metabolic readouts, signal transduction, and mRNA expression. Testosterone and E(2) treatment enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen and AKT phosphorylation in myotubes from female donors, highlighting a sex-specific role of sex hormone in glucose metabolism. Testosterone treatment increased palmitate oxidation in myotubes from both female and male donors, while E(2) enhanced palmitate oxidation in myotubes from male donors only. Testosterone-mediated increase in palmitate oxidation was attenuated at the presence of androgen receptor antagonist, which may indicate a role of nuclear steroid receptor in muscle lipid oxidation. Testosterone treatment increased mRNA expression of the insulin receptor substrate 2 in myotubes from male and female donors, whereas it increased mRNA expression of glycogen synthase 1 only in myotubes from male donors. E(2) treatment increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 mRNA expression in myotubes from female donors. Thus, our data suggest that testosterone or E(2) modulates muscle glucose and lipid metabolism and may play a role in metabolism in a sex-dependent manner.

  10. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome vulnerability of men who have sex with men in a border area of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Haldar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studying level of living, awareness about sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and sex behavior of men who have sex with men (MSMs is prerequisite for control of increasing AIDS among them in India. Objective: To assess sociodemographics, awareness about STIs including AIDS, and find out the pattern of high risk sex behavior of MSM. Methodology: Cross-sectional survey was undertaken in May, 2012 among MSMs catered by T I program via Nongovernmental Organization "Madhya Banglar Sangram" in Murshidabad District. 62 MSMs were included from five cruising spots sampled randomly out of fourteen such. Information was collected via interview and focused group discussions (FGD using questionnaire and FGD guide. Blood samples were examined for VDRL reactivity. Results: Median age was 25 years and sexual debut at 13.67 ± 4.29 years. 87% respondents were residing in parental house, 20% was married, 40% had low education, 80.33% had additional jobs but 54% reported poor income. About 56% respondents knew "what is AIDS" and its spread via anal sex, mother to child transmission, needle sharing, sex worker, and blood transfusion reported by 52.46, 50.82, 47.54, 45.90, and 34.43%, respectively. More than 2/3rd, about 40 and 34.43% MSMs played "anal and oral receptive," "anal insertive" and "oral insertive" role. About 33% used condom regularly. Majority knew main symptoms of STIs. About 2/3rd reported discrimination by neighbors. Blood examination showed 6.45% VDRL reactivity. Conclusion: Reducing vulnerability of MSMs to HIV/AIDS requires holistic programs.

  12. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  14. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  15. Sex And People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth L.; And Others

    This textbook for the college student emphasizes human sexuality as a part of the whole human life experience and contains a balance of biological, psychological, and sociological material. In 16 chapters the following topics are covered: (1) sex and society; (2) historical and cultural perspectives; (3) glandular control of sexual physiology; (4)…

  16. Sex, Technology and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Verna; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of the course "Sex, Technology, and Morality" which focuses on the human reproductive process and examines the advances in reproductive technology. The course emphasizes the social, political, and ethical implications of actual and possible technologies associated with human reproduction. (ML)

  17. Knowledge and exercise of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights: a cross-sectional study of female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Deepika; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Prabhakar, Parimi; Adhikary, Rajatashurva

    2016-11-17

    HIV prevention interventions recognize the need to protect the rights of key populations and support them to claim their rights as a vulnerability reduction strategy. This study explores knowledge of human rights, and barriers and facilitators to claiming rights, among female sex workers (FSWs) and high-risk men who have sex with men (HR-MSM) who are beneficiaries of a community mobilization intervention in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data are drawn from a cross-sectional survey (2014) among 2400 FSWs and 1200 HR-MSM. Human rights awareness was assessed by asking respondents if they had heard of human rights (yes/no); those reporting awareness of rights were asked to spontaneously name specific rights from the following five pre-defined categories: right to health; dignity/equality; education; property; and freedom from discrimination. Respondents were classified into two groups: more knowledgeable (could identify two or more rights) and less knowledgeable (could identify one or no right). Univariate and bivariate analyses and chi-square tests were used. Data were analyzed using STATA 11.2. Overall 17% FSWs and 8% HR-MSM were not aware of their rights. Among those aware, 62% and 31% respectively were aware of just one or no right (less knowledgeable); only around half (54% vs 57%) were aware of health rights, and fewer (20% vs 16%) aware of their right to freedom from discrimination. Notably, 27% and 17% respectively had not exercised their rights. Barriers to claiming rights among FSWs and HR-MSM were neighbors (35% vs 37%), lack of knowledge (15% vs 14%), stigma (13% vs 22%) and spouse (19% FSWs). Community organizations (COs) were by far the leading facilitator in claiming rights (57% vs 72%). The study findings show that awareness of human rights is limited among FSWs and HR-MSM, and a large proportion have not claimed their rights, elevating their HIV vulnerability. For a sustained HIV response, community mobilization efforts must focus on building key populations

  18. Characteristics of human adipose derived stem cells in scleroderma in comparison to sex and age matched normal controls: implications for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michelle; Ryan, Caroline M; Pathan, Omar; Abraham, David; Denton, Christopher P; Butler, Peter E M

    2017-02-07

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are emerging as an alternative stem cell source for cell-based therapies. Recent data suggest that autologous ADSC-enriched micrografting improves the effects of facial involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We have extensively characterised ADSCs from SSc patients and compared their phenotype and function to healthy age- and sex-matched control ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated and characterised from a cohort of six SSc patients (ADSC-SSc) and were compared to six healthy age- and sex-matched controls (ADSC-N). Cell surface phenotype lineage commitment was explored by flow cytometric analysis of mesenchymal and hematopoietic markers and by the capacity to differentiate to chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Functional activities of ADSCs were assessed by biochemical and cellular assays for proliferation, metabolism, adhesion, morphology, migration, and invasion. Upon characterization of ADSC-SSc, we found that there was no alteration in the phenotype or surface antigen expression compared to healthy matched control ADSCs. We found that the differentiation capacity of ADSC-SSc was equivalent to that of ADSC-N, and that ADSC-SSc did not display any morphological or adhesive abnormalities. We found that the proliferation rate and metabolic activity of ADSC-SSc was reduced (p < 0.01). We found that the migration and invasion capacity of ADSC-SSc was reduced (p < 0.01) compared to healthy matched control ADSCs. This study provides important findings that can differentially characterise ADSCs from SSc patients. Results indicate that the surface phenotype and differentiation capacity of ADSCs from SSc patients are identical to healthy matched ADSCs. While the findings indicate that the proliferation and migration capacity of ADSC-SSc is reduced, ADSC-SSc are capable of ex-vivo culture and expansion. These findings encourage further investigation into the understanding by which ADSCs can impact upon tissue fibrosis.

  19. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  20. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province,...

  1. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  2. Sex-related Differences in Gastrin Release and Parietal Cell Sensitivity to Gastrin in Healthy Human Beings

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, M.; Richardson, C. T.; Walsh, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    We compared serum gastrin concentrations and gastric acid secretion basally and in response to a mixed meal in age-matched women and men. Women had significantly higher basal serum gastrin concentrations (P < 0.01) and two- to threefold higher food-stimulated serum gastrin concentrations (P < 0.001) than men. Basal and food-stimulated serum gastrin concentrations in women did not fluctuate significantly during the menstrual cycle. Sex-related differences in food-stimulated serum gastrin conce...

  3. Similar mechanisms of traumatic rectal injuries in patients who had anal sex with animals to those who were butt-fisted by human sexual partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendler, Damian Jacob

    2017-10-01

    Sexual pleasure comes in various forms of physical play, for many it involves stimulation of the vagina, while the anus for others; some enjoy both. A recent report by Cappelletti et al. 1 shows a meta-analysis of cases describing anal trauma due to sexual fisting in human partners. This clinical article reports four cases of males diagnosed with zoophilia, and who received anal sex from animals, resulting in injuries. Surgical and psychiatric evaluations are summarized. Unusual etiology of sexual activity with animals caused peri-anal trauma in men who engaged in anal sex with dogs and farm animals. Injuries to patients who receive anal sex from animals are mechanistically similar to fisting-induced rectal damage. Among zoophiles, the mode of harm occurs through blood-engorged, interlocked penis that causes tissue lacerations upon retraction from an anus. In people experimenting with fisting, repetitive stretching within anal canal and of external sphincter causes the internal injuries. The mode of physical stimulation explains the extent of injuries in fisters vs. zoophiles: in fisting, the pressure applied by hand is controllable proximally around and within anal sphincter, while penetration by the animal penis is unpredictable and occurs within the proximal anal canal. Forensically, the findings presented in this article describe a significant mechanism of injury in fisters versus passive zoophiles. These descriptions may aid in clinically differentiating pleasurable and pathological rectal stimulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Human T-lymphotropic virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men in Surakarta Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are retroviruses that probably among the most neglected blood-borne pathogens. The molecular epidemiology data of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia, to track the presentation of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia. All blood samples collected from men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 4.8% (6/126). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, two was HTLV-1 positive and four was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolate had close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolate with that of isolated in USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta indicated that these viruses were circulated in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities

  5. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  6. Sex-related differences in the muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor in the healthy human brain. A positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Ichimiya, Atsushi; Takita, Masashi; Ogomori, Koji; Masuda, Kouji; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Ichiya, Yuichi

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the sex-related differences in the decline of the cerebral muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor (mACh-R) due to aging by using 11 C-N-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate ( 11 C-NMPB) and positron emission tomography (PET). The subjects consisted of 37 (20 males and 17 females) healthy volunteers. The 11 C-NMPB uptake was evaluated by the ratio method (regional 11 C-NMPB uptake/Cerebellar 11 C-NMPB uptake; rNMPB ratio). The correlation between sex, aging, and the rNMPB ratio in normal aging was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The rNMPB ratio was higher in females than in males throughout the entire cerebral region (p<0.01-p<0.0001) and the rNMPB ratio might thus possibly decline with age more rapidly in females. Our study therefore revealed the existence of sex-related differences in the cerebral mACh-R. (author)

  7. Immunoglobulins from Animal Models of Motor Neuron Disease and from Human Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients Passively Transfer Physiological Abnormalities to the Neuromuscular Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Stanley H.; Engelhardt, Jozsef I.; Garcia, Jesus; Stefani, Enrico

    1991-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating human disease of upper and lower motoneurons of unknown etiology. In support of the potential role of autoimmunity in ALS, two immune-mediated animal models of motoneuron disease have been developed that resemble ALS with respect to the loss of motoneurons, the presence of IgG within motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction, and with respect to altered physiology of the motor nerve terminal. To provide direct evidence for the primary role of humoral immunity, passive transfer with immunoglobulins from the two animal models and human ALS was carried out. Mice injected with serum or immunoglobulins from the animal disease models and human ALS but not controls demonstrated IgG in motoneurons and at the neuromuscular junction. The mice also demonstrated an increase in miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency, with normal amplitude and time course and normal resting membrane potential, indicating an increased resting quantal release of acetylcholine from the nerve terminal. The ability to transfer motoneuron dysfunction with serum immunoglobulins provides evidence for autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of both the animal models and human ALS.

  8. Occult abnormal pregnancies after first post-embryo transfer serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Bat-Sheva L; Bartolucci, Alison; Sueldo, Carolina; Engmann, Lawrence; Benadiva, Claudio; Nulsen, John C

    2016-04-01

    To assess the occult pregnancy rate after "negative" first post-embryo transfer (ET) serum β-hCG results. Two-part retrospective cohort study and nested case series. University-based fertility center. A total of 1,571 negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results were included in the study; 1,326 results (primary cohort, June 2009-December 2013) were initially reported as <5 mIU/mL and 245 results (secondary cohort, January 2014-March 2015) were reported as discrete values from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL. None. Rates of occult pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and complications after negative first post-ET serum β-hCG results. A total of 88.8% (1,178/1,326) of the negative first post-ET results reported as <5 were actually <1.0 mIU/mL. Occult pregnancy was incidentally identified in 1.2% (12/1,041) of subjects with follow-up. Six had ectopic pregnancies, and seven experienced serious complications; 11 (91.7%) of the 12 occult pregnancies had a first post-ET serum β-hCG level of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL and 1 (8.3%) <1.0 mIU/mL. All pregnancies with serious complications had initial β-hCG levels of 1.0-5.0 mIU/mL. Of the 245 results reported as discreet values, occult pregnancies were diagnosed in 5.5% (9/163) of subjects with follow-up. One had an ectopic pregnancy, which was treated with methotrexate. There were no serious complications in the secondary cohort. The majority of negative first post-ET serum β-hCG levels are <1.0 mIU/mL. Results from 1.0 to 5.0 mIU/mL may fail to exclude abnormal pregnancy and are associated with poor outcomes compared with β-hCG levels <1.0 mIU/mL. Serial serum β-hCG may be warranted in this population. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  10. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  11. No evidence for uniparental disomy of the sex chromosomes in idiopathic male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschede, D; Dworniczak, B; Behre, H M; Nieschlag, E; Horst, J

    2000-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) is a rare genetic aberration characterized by the uni- rather than biparental inheritance of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Among the various adverse clinical effects that UPD can have in humans, abnormalities of the male reproductive system have been described in UPD of the chromosomes 7, 11, 14 and 15. Given the considerable rate of sex chromosomal aneuploidy in human gametes and zygotes, we postulated that paternal uniparental disomy of the sex chromosomes might be a cause of otherwise unexplained male infertility. With a set of highly polymorphic DNA markers the parental origin of the X chromosome in 41 men with severe idiopathic infertility was determined. In all patients the X chromosome was derived from the mother, indicating regular biparental inheritance of the sex chromosomes. We thus obtained no evidence that paternal uniparental disomy of the X and Y chromosomes is a mechanism underlying idiopathic male infertility.

  12. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  13. Monitoring for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Impact Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men-United States, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, Elissa; Gorbach, Pamina M; Gratzer, Beau; Panicker, Gitika; Steinau, Martin; Collins, Tom; Parrish, Adam; Randel, Cody; McGrath, Mark; Carrasco, Steven; Moore, Janell; Zaidi, Akbar; Braxton, Jim; Kerndt, Peter R; Unger, Elizabeth R; Crosby, Richard A; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2016-09-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; vaccination is recommended for US males, including MSM through age 26 years. We assessed evidence of HPV among vaccine-eligible MSM and transgender women to monitor vaccine impact. During 2012-2014, MSM aged 18-26 years at select clinics completed a computer-assisted self-interview regarding sexual behavior, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and vaccinations. Self-collected anal swab and oral rinse specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types) by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction; serum was tested for HPV antibodies (4 types) by a multiplexed virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin G direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Among 922 vaccine-eligible participants, the mean age was 23 years, and the mean number of lifetime sex partners was 37. Among 834 without HIV infection, any anal HPV was detected in 69.4% and any oral HPV in 8.4%, yet only 8.5% had evidence of exposure to all quadrivalent vaccine types. In multivariate analysis, HPV prevalence varied significantly (P sex partners, but not by race/ethnicity. Most young MSM lacked evidence of current or past infection with all vaccine-type HPV types, suggesting that they could benefit from vaccination. The impact of vaccination among MSM may be assessed by monitoring HPV prevalence, including in self-collected specimens. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: 'Western') diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the 'body mass index' ('mBMI': weight (mg)/length (cm)(2)) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Disproportionate participation by age/sex classes in aggressive interactions between long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and human tourists at Padangtegal monkey forest, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustín; Gamerl, Scott

    2005-06-01

    We observed 420 aggressive interactions between tourists and Macaca fascicularis at the Padangtegal Wanara Wana Temple forest site in Bali, Indonesia, during the months of June and July 2001. The data collected included patterns of aggression, presence or absence of food, and demographic information on resident macaques and human visitors. Analyses of the interactions suggest that macaques respond differentially to humans according to the age/sex classes involved. Additionally, adult and subadult male macaques participated in more aggressive behaviors than expected, while adult female macaques and immatures participated in such behaviors less than expected. These variations in interaction patterns between macaques and tourists may have substantial implications for management issues and the potential for pathogen transmission. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Expression of eight glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in the human preterm placenta vary with fetal sex and birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Z; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Fuller, P J; Cole, T; Lu, N; Clifton, V L

    2015-07-01

    Administration of betamethasone to women at risk of preterm delivery is known to be associated with reduced fetal growth via alterations in placental function and possibly direct effects on the fetus. The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to this response and recent evidence suggests there are numerous isoforms for GR in term placentae. In this study we have questioned whether GR isoform expression varies in preterm placentae in relation to betamethasone exposure, fetal sex and birthweight. Preterm (24-36 completed weeks of gestation, n = 55) and term placentae (>37 completed weeks of gestation, n = 56) were collected at delivery. Placental GR expression was examined using Western Blot and analysed in relation to gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, birthweight and betamethasone exposure. Data was analysed using non-parametric tests. Eight known isoforms of the GR were detected in the preterm placenta and include GRα (94 kDa), GRβ (91 kDa), GRα C (81 kDa) GR P (74 kDa) GR A (65 kDa), GRα D1-3 (50-55 kDa). Expression varied between preterm and term placentae with a greater expression of GRα C in preterm placentae relative to term placentae. The only sex differences in preterm placentae was that GRα D2 expression was higher in males than females. There were no alterations in preterm placental GR expression in association with betamethasone exposure. GRα C is the isoform involved in glucocorticoid induced apoptosis and suggests that its predominance in preterm placentae may contribute to the pathophysiology of preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  18. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  19. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  20. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  1. Nonpathologizing trauma interventions in abnormal psychology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Stephanie M; Luchner, Andrew F; Pickett, Rachel F

    2016-01-01

    Because abnormal psychology courses presuppose a focus on pathological human functioning, nonpathologizing interventions within these classes are particularly powerful and can reach survivors, bystanders, and perpetrators. Interventions are needed to improve the social response to trauma on college campuses. By applying psychodynamic and feminist multicultural theory, instructors can deliver nonpathologizing interventions about trauma and trauma response within these classes. We recommend class-based interventions with the following aims: (a) intentionally using nonpathologizing language, (b) normalizing trauma responses, (c) subjectively defining trauma, (d) challenging secondary victimization, and (e) questioning the delineation of abnormal and normal. The recommendations promote implications for instructor self-reflection, therapy interventions, and future research.

  2. BMI, RQ, diabetes, and sex affect the relationships between amino acids and clamp measures of insulin action in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E; Ingram, Katherine H; Guo, Fangjian; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B; Garvey, W Timothy

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have used indirect measures of insulin sensitivity to link circulating amino acids with insulin resistance and identify potential biomarkers of diabetes risk. Using direct measures (i.e., hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps), we examined the relationships between the metabolomic amino acid profile and insulin action (i.e., glucose disposal rate [GDR]). Relationships between GDR and serum amino acids were determined among insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) individuals. In all subjects, glycine (Gly) had the strongest correlation with GDR (positive association), followed by leucine/isoleucine (Leu/Ile) (negative association). These relationships were dramatically influenced by BMI, the resting respiratory quotient (RQ), T2DM, and sex. Gly had a strong positive correlation with GDR regardless of BMI, RQ, or sex but became nonsignificant in T2DM. In contrast, Leu/Ile was negatively associated with GDR in nonobese and T2DM subjects. Increased resting fat metabolism (i.e., low RQ) and obesity were observed to independently promote and negate the association between Leu/Ile and insulin resistance, respectively. Additionally, the relationship between Leu/Ile and GDR was magnified in T2DM males. Future studies are needed to determine whether Gly has a mechanistic role in glucose homeostasis and whether dietary Gly enrichment may be an effective intervention in diseases characterized by insulin resistance.

  3. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The Image of Women in Abnormal Psychology: Professionalism versus Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ben; Lightner, Jean

    1980-01-01

    A survey of sex stereotyping in photographs was made of major current-edition textbooks of abnormal psychology published in the United States. In photographs of contributors to the field women were significantly underrepresented, amounting to less that 5 percent of the contributors pictured. (Author)

  5. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  6. Sex Stereotyping and Sex Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Moira

    1977-01-01

    Although unable to find any evidence to indicate that secondary schools in Canada have or have not made any progress in reducing sex stereotyping or sex discrimination, the author states that the Canadian educational system is aware of its responsibility to uphold non-sexist standards for its young students. Discusses some research done on undoing…

  7. [Abnormal peripheral circulation in heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Solal, A; Laperche, T; Caviezel, B; Dahan, M; Gourgon, R

    1994-06-01

    Left ventricular failure leads to circulatory failure which causes clinical symptoms and in which regional blood flow changes play an important role. An abnormality of systemic vasodilatation on exercise or on pharmacological intervention has been shown. This affects both the resistance and conductive vessels and is mainly functional, related to neurohormonal stimulation with a predominance of vasoconstrictive factors amongst which increased adrenergic tone probably plays an essential part. A modification of the endothelium-dependent response has recently been confirmed. The presence of structural vascular abnormalities (increase in parietal sodium and water concentrations, "remodelling" remains debatable in the human. These abnormalities have a common factor in their chronicity and take time to regress with medical treatment or after cardiac transplantation. Physical training seems to induce more marked and, above all, more rapid effects.

  8. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of proximal histidyl residues in human normal and abnormal hemoglobins: a probe for the heme pocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.; Lin, A.K.L.; Ho, C.

    1982-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 250 MHz has been used to investigate the conformations of proximal histidyl residues of human normal adult hemoglobin, hemoglobin Kempsey [K145(HC2) Tyr #betta# Asp], and hemoglobin McKees Rocks [K145(HC2) Tyr #betta# Term] around neutral pH in H 2 O at 27 0 C, all in the deoxy form. Two resonances that occur between 58 and 76 ppm downfield from the water proton signal have been assigned to the hyperfine shifted proximal histidyl NH-exchangeable protons of the J and K-chains of deoxyhemoglobin. These two resonances are sensitive to the quaternary state of hemoglobin, amino acid substitutions in the J 1 K 2 -subunit interface and in the carboxy-terminal region of the K-chain, and the addition of organic phosphates. The experimental results show that there are differences in the heme pockets among these four hemoglobins studied. The structural and dynamic information derived from the hyperfine shifted proximal histidyl NH-exchangeable proton resonances complement that obtained from the ferrous hyperfine shifted and exchangeable proton resonances of deoxyhemoglobin over the spectral region from 5 to 20 ppm downfield from H 2 O. The relationship between these findings and Perutz's stereochemical mechanism for the cooperative oxygenation of hemoglobin is discussed

  9. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and malnutrition in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hematological abnormalities such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia occur in children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These abnormalities are due to myelosuppression caused by the HIV and contribute to the morbidity and mortality of HIV.infected children. Malnutrition is ...

  10. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  11. Unexpectedly high prevalence of Treponema pallidum infection in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with early syphilis who had engaged in unprotected sex practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-J; Chang, S-Y; Wu, B-R; Yang, S-P; Liu, W-C; Wu, P-Y; Zhang, J-Y; Luo, Y-Z; Hung, C-C; Chang, S-C

    2015-08-01

    Between 2010 and 2014, we obtained swab specimens to detect Treponema pallidum, with PCR assays, from the oral cavities of 240 patients with 267 episodes of syphilis who reported engaging in unprotected sex practices. The detected treponemal DNA was subjected to genotyping. All of the syphilis cases occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM), and 242 (90.6%) occurred in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The stages of syphilis included 38 cases (14.2%) of primary syphilis of the genital region, 76 (28.5%) of secondary syphilis, 21 (7.9%) of primary and secondary syphilis, 125 (46.8%) of early latent syphilis, and seven (2.6%) others. Concurrent oral ulcers were identified in 22 cases (8.2%). Treponemal DNA was identified from the swabs of 113 patients (42.2%), including 15 (68.2%) with oral ulcers. The most common genotype of T. pallidum was 14f/f. The presence of oral ulcers was associated with identification of T. pallidum in the swab specimens (15/22 (68.2%) vs. 98/245 (40.0%)) (p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, secondary syphilis (adjusted OR 6.79; 95% CI 1.97-23.28) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titres of ≥1: 32 (adjusted OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.02-4.89) were independently associated with the presence of treponemal DNA in patients without oral ulcers. We conclude that detection of treponemal DNA in the oral cavity with PCR assays is not uncommon in MSM, most of whom reported having unprotected oral sex. Although the presence of oral ulcers is significantly associated with detection of treponemal DNA, treponemal DNA is more likely to be identified in patients without oral ulcers who present with secondary syphilis and RPR titres of ≥1: 32. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex specific response of cultured human bone cells to ERα and ERβ specific agonists by modulation of cell proliferation and creatine kinase specific activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somjen, Dalia; Katzburg, Sara; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Hendel, David; Stern, Naftali

    2011-07-01

    We have previously reported that human cultured bone cells (hObs) respond to estradiol-17β (E2) by stimulating DNA synthesis, creatine kinase BB specific activity (CK) and other parameters sex-specifically. We now investigate the sex specificity of the response of these hObs to estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ specific agonists. Real time PCR revealed that all cells express mRNA for both ERs. ERα mRNA but not ERβ mRNA was stimulated by all estrogenic compounds in both pre- and post-menopausal hObs with no effect in male hObs. Cells treated with E2, 2,3-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; ERβ specific agonist) and 4,4',4″-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1,3,5-triyl] tris-phenol (PPT; ERα specific agonist) showed increased DNA synthesis and CK in all female but not male hObs. Raloxifene (Ral), a specific ERα antagonist, inhibited the stimulation of DNA synthesis and CK by E2 or PPT, but not by DPN. DPN and PPT like E2 modulated the expression of both 12 and 15 lipooxygenase (LO) mRNA in both female but not male hObs. 12 and 15 HETE production was modulated only by DPN and PPT in these cells. The LO inhibitor baicaleine inhibited only E2 and PPT but not DPN effects in both female hObs. In conclusion, we provide herein evidence for the separation of age- and sex-dependent mediation via both ERα and ERβ pathways in the effects of estrogens on hObs, with a yet unknown mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  14. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  15. Pericyte coverage of abnormal blood vessels in myelofibrotic bone marrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetterberg, Eva; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myelofibrotic bone marrow displays abnormal angiogenesis but the pathogenic mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Since pericyte abnormalities are described on solid tumor vessels we studied whether vessel morphology and pericyte coverage in bone marrow samples from...... megakaryocytopoesis, wide, pericyte-coated and morphologically aberrant vessels were detected. MVD was significantly greater in bone marrow and spleen samples from animals with myelofibrosis than in wild-type mice. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that angiogenesis is similarly abnormal in human and murine...... myelofibrosis with intense pericyte coating, presumably related to abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis....

  16. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); G. Romalo (G.); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); E. Mulder (Eppo); L. Pinsky (L.); H.U. Schweikert (H.); J. Trapman (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of

  17. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, A. O.; Kuiper, G. G.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; van Rooij, H. C.; Romalo, G.; Trifiro, M.; Mulder, E.; Pinsky, L.; Schweikert, H. U.; Trapman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of the genomic organization of the

  18. Sex, Deportation and Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plambech, Sine

    2017-01-01

    – facilitation, remittances, deportation, and rescue – and suggests that we have to examine multiple sites and relink these in order to more fully understand the complexity of sex work migration. Drawing upon literature within transnational feminist analysis, critical human trafficking studies, and migration...

  19. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V Vidija

    2016-09-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that CVT measurements might be useful for identification purposes. This study assesses the correlation between CVT and body weight, stature, age, sex, and ancestry by reviewing data of 1097 forensic autopsies performed at the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). In subadults (younger than 19 years of age at the time of death), all frontal, temporal, and occipital CVT measurements correlated moderately to strongly with indicators of growth (body weight, stature, and age). Neither sex nor ancestry correlated significantly with cranial thickness. In adults, body weight correlated with all CVT measurements. No meaningful correlation was found between CVT and stature or age. Females showed to have thicker frontal bones, and the occipital region was thicker in the Negroid subsample. All correlation in the adult group was weak, with the distribution of cranial thickness overlapping for a great deal between the groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that CVT generally cannot be used as an indicator for any part of the biological profile.

  20. Alpha, beta and gamma Human Papillomaviruses in the anal canal of HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Gheit, Tarik; Latini, Alessandra; Benevolo, Maria; Torres, Montserrat; Smelov, Vitaly; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Giglio, Amalia; Cristaudo, Antonio; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Tommasino, Massimo; Giuliani, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Anal infection by cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) has been rarely investigated. We aimed to assess the prevalence, genotype diversity, and determinants of mucosal (alpha) and cutaneous (beta and gamma) anal HPV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal samples were collected with a Dacron swab. Alpha HPVs were detected using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test, while beta and gamma HPVs using a PCR combined with Luminex technology. A total of 609 MSM (437 HIV-uninfected and 172 HIV-infected, most of which were undergoing cART) were enrolled. Alpha, beta, and gamma HPVs were detected in 78.0%, 27.6% and 29.3% of the participants. Only alpha HPV prevalence was significantly higher among HIV-infected compared to uninfected MSM (93.0% vs. 72.1%, p < 0.0001). Beta2 and gamma10 represented the most frequent cutaneous HPV species, with no significant differences between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. The most common alpha, beta, and gamma genotypes were HPV16, HPV111, HPV121, respectively. Alpha HPV infection was significantly associated with lifetime number of partners, receptive anal sex, and HIV status. Beta and/or gamma HPV infection showed no significant association with HIV status, socio-demographic or sexual behavioral factors. A wide spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV types is present in the anal canal. Only mucosal HPV prevalence increased significantly in cases of concomitant HIV infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Spermatogenesis Abnormalities following Hormonal Therapy in Transwomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirachai Jindarak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure spermatogenesis abnormalities in transwomen at the time of sex reassignment surgery (SRS and to analyze the association between hormonal therapy duration and infertility severity. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. University hospital. Patients. One-hundred seventy-three transwomen who underwent SRS from January 2000 to December 2015. Interventions. All orchidectomy specimens were retrospectively reviewed and classified. History of hormonal therapy duration was retrieved from medical records. Main Outcome Measures. Histological examinations of orchidectomy specimens were performed to assess spermatogenesis. Results. One-hundred seventy-three orchidectomy specimens were evaluated. Histological examinations showed maturation arrest in 36.4%, hypospermatogenesis in 26%, Sertoli cell-only syndrome in 20.2%, normal spermatogenesis in 11%, and seminiferous tubule hyalinization in 6.4% of the specimens. Spermatogenesis abnormality severity was not associated with the total therapy duration (P=0.81 or patient age at the time of surgery (P=0.88. Testicular volumes and sizes were associated with spermatogenesis abnormality severity (P=0.001 and P=0.026, right testicle and left testicle, resp.. Conclusion(s. Feminizing hormonal treatment leads to reductions in testicular germ cell levels. All transwomen should be warned about this consequence, and gamete preservation should be offered before starting hormonal treatment.

  2. Cytogenetic abnormalities in Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Wiem; Amouri, Ahlem; Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Turki, Zinet; Harzallah, Fatma; Bouayed-Abdelmoula, Nouha; Chemkhi, Imen; Zhioua, Fethi; Slama, Claude Ben

    2014-12-01

    To identify the distribution of chromosome abnormalities among Tunisian women with premature ovarian failure (POF) referred to the department of Cytogenetic at the Pasteur Institute of Tunis (Tunisia), standard cytogenetic analysis was carried out in a total of 100 women younger than 40 affected with premature ovarian failure. We identified 18 chromosomal abnormalities, including seven X-numerical anomalies in mosaic and non-mosaic state (45,X; 47,XXX), four sex reversal, three X-structural abnormalities (terminal deletion and isochromosomes), one autosomal translocation and one supernumerary marker. The overall prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 18% in our cohort. X chromosome aneuploidy was the most frequent aberration. This finding confirms the essential role of X chromosome in ovarian function and underlies the importance of cytogenetic investigations in the routine management of POF. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial distribution of human neocortical neurons and glial cells according to sex and age measured by the saucer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Anette Kirstine; Petersen, A O; Gardi, Jonathan Eyal

    2007-01-01

    A new stereological probe, the saucer, was used for estimating three-dimensional (3D) spatial distributions of particles around particles. The advantages of the saucer include that the measurements and the results are in 3D and the size and design of the probe enables the investigator to sample...... primary neurons in the human neocortex (divided into frontal-, temporal-, parietal- and occipital cortex) of young and old subjects free of neurological or psychological disease to test if age and gender has any influence on the cell distribution in human neocortex. Plots of the spatial distribution...... disorders was independent of age and gender....

  4. Sex Differences in Fetal Habituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepper, Peter G.; Dornan, James C.; Lynch, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    There is some evidence for sex differences in habituation in the human fetus, but it is unknown whether this is due to differences in central processing (habituation) or in more peripheral processes, sensory or motor, involved in the response. This study examined whether the sex of the fetus influenced auditory habituation at 33 weeks of…

  5. The Terrorist Attacks and the Human Live Birth Sex Ratio: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; O'Neill, Sinéad M; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Grech, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The live birth sex ratio is defined as male/total births (M/F). Terrorist attacks have been associated with a transient decline in M/F 3-5 months later with an excess of male losses in ongoing pregnancies. The early 21st century is replete with religious/politically instigated attacks. This study estimated the pooled effect size between exposure to attacks and M/F. Registration number CRD42016041220. PubMed and Scopus were searched for ecological studies that evaluated the relationship between terrorist attacks from 1/1/2000 to 16/6/2016 and M/F. An overall pooled odds ratio (OR) for the main outcome was generated using the generic inverse variance method. Five studies were included: 2011 Norway attacks; 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting; 2001 September 11 attacks; 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. OR at 0.97 95% CI (0.94-1.00) (I2 = 63%) showed a small statistically significant 3% decline in the odds (p = 0.03) of having a male live birth 3-5 months later. For lone wolf attacks there was a 10% reduction, OR 0.90 95% CI (0.86-0.95) (p = 0.0001). Terrorist (especially lone wolf) attacks were significantly associated with reduced odds of having a live male birth. Pregnancy loss remains an important Public Health challenge. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses considering other calamities are warranted.

  6. HUMTRN: documentation and verification for an ICRP-based age- and sex-specific human simulation model for radionuclide dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Wenzel, W.J.

    1984-06-01

    The dynamic human simulation model HUMTRN is designed specifically as a major module of BIOTRAN to integrate climatic, hydrologic, atmospheric, food crop, and herbivore simulation with human dietary and physiological characteristics, and metabolism and radionuclides to predict radiation doses to selected organs of both sexes in different age groups. The model is based on age- and weight-specific equations developed for predicting human radionuclide transport from metabolic and physical characteristics. These characteristics are modeled from studies documented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 23). HUMTRN allows cumulative doses from uranium or plutonium radionuclides to be predicted by modeling age-specific anatomical, physiological, and metabolic properties of individuals between 1 and 70 years of age and can track radiation exposure and radionuclide metabolism for any age group for specified daily or yearly time periods. The simulated daily dose integration of eight or more simultaneous air, water, and food intakes gives a new, comprehensive, dynamic picture of radionuclide intake, uptake, and hazard analysis for complex scenarios. A detailed example using site-specific data based on the Pantex studies is included for verification. 14 references, 24 figures, 10 tables

  7. Captured ‘Realities’ of Human Trafficking: Analysis of photographs illustrating stories on trafficking into the sex industry in Serbian media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Krsmanovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has looked at how the media frames human trafficking, but has seldom included analysis of visual representations. To bridge this gap, this paper scrutinises stereotypical representations of persons trafficked into the sex industry in photographs published in Serbian online media from 2011 to 2014. To uncover characteristics of dominant tropes in this sample, a method of semiotic analysis is applied. The analysis argues that images are dominated by portrayals of trafficked persons that fit into one of two frames: powerless victim or unworthy prostitute. Male figures are rarely presented in these photographs, but when present, they are shown to hurt or control the women depicted alongside them. Chains, padlocks, barcodes, whip marks, and other symbols associated with slavery are present to a lesser extent. However, they testify to the tendency to link human trafficking to slavery and to use the moral potential of the anti-slavery rhetoric. Photographs are too easily seen as authentic, factual transcripts of reality. This paper suggests that these images tell us more about societal fear of insecurity, ideas about gender, erotic obsessions and morality than about human trafficking itself. It also argues that the meaning of trafficking is shaped by the deeply embedded codes of patriarchy and hidden misogyny present in Serbian society.

  8. HIV epidemic and human rights among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV prevention, care, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston E; Garba, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has presented evidence that men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and are at increased risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, many countries in SSA have failed to address the needs of MSM in national HIV/AIDS programmes. Furthermore, many MSM face structural barriers to HIV prevention and care, the most significant of which include laws that criminalise male-to-male sexual contact and facilitate stigma and discrimination. This in turn increases the vulnerability of MSM to acquiring HIV and presents barriers to HIV prevention, care, and surveillance. This relationship illustrates the link between human rights, social justice, and health outcomes and presents considerable challenges to addressing the HIV epidemic among MSM in SSA. The response to the HIV epidemic in SSA requires a non-discriminatory human rights approach to all at-risk groups, including MSM. Existing international human rights treaties, to which many SSA countries are signatories, and a 'health in all policies' approach provides a strong basis to reduce structural barriers to HIV prevention, care, surveillance, and research, and to ensure that all populations in SSA, including MSM, have access to the full range of rights that help ensure equal opportunities for health and wellness.

  9. Human rights and universal access for men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs: a qualitative analysis of the 2010 UNGASS narrative country progress reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Asha; Ellard, Jeanne; Newman, Christy; Holt, Martin; de Wit, John

    2011-08-01

    All UN member states have endorsed a commitment to protect human rights in the global fight against HIV and to ensure universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. To assess progress towards fulfilling this commitment, countries submit reports to UNAIDS biennially, known as UNGASS reports. Our quantitative analyses show that core indicators relating to most-at-risk populations, particularly men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID) are limited or absent from many UNGASS reports, particularly those submitted by countries in developing regions. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of the narrative part of the 2010 UNGASS country progress reports, an important yet under-explored part of the reporting process, to consider how signatory countries in developing regions address the issue of MSM and PWID in a written form. Our analysis identified a repertoire of narrative approaches to MSM and PWID which revealed fault lines between countries' endorsement of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS and programmatic responses to MSM and PWID. Our findings raise questions about the relationship between "universal" human rights and "local" cultures, and about the UNGASS reporting process itself. Through critical engagement with these questions, our article aims to contribute to international dialogues on how to better recognise and respond to shortcomings in the global commitment to human rights and universal access for people vulnerable to HIV. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex differences in the neural and behavioral response to intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin during human social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Demarco, Ashley C; Hackett, Patrick D; Chen, Xu; Gautam, Pritam; Stair, Sabrina; Haroon, Ebrahim; Thompson, Richmond; Ditzen, Beate; Patel, Rajan; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Both oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are known to modulate social behavior, and dysfunction in both systems has been postulated as a potential cause of certain psychiatric disorders that involve social behavioral deficits. In particular, there is growing interest in intranasal OT as a potential treatment for certain psychiatric disorders, and preliminary pre-clinical and clinical studies suggest efficacy in alleviating some of the associated symptoms. However, the vast majority of research participants in these studies have been male, and there is evidence for sexually differentiated effects of nonapeptides in both humans and non-human animals. To date, no study has investigated the effect of intranasal OT on brain function in human males and females within the same paradigm. Previously, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind fMRI study, we reported effects of intranasal OT and AVP on behavior and brain activity of human males as they played an interactive social game known as the Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Here, we present findings from an identical study in human females, and compare these with our findings from males. Overall, we find that both behavioral and neural responses to intranasal OT and AVP are highly sexually differentiated. In women, AVP increased conciliatory behavior, and both OT and AVP caused women to treat computer partners more like humans. In men, AVP increased reciprocation of cooperation from both human and computer partners. However, no specific drug effects on behavior were shared between men and women. During cooperative interactions, both OT and AVP increased brain activity in men within areas rich in OT and AVP receptors and in areas playing a key role in reward, social bonding, arousal and memory (e.g., the striatum, basal forebrain, insula, amygdala and hippocampus), whereas OT and AVP either had no effect or in some cases actually decreased brain activity in these regions in women. OT treatment rendered neural responses

  11. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities, congenital abnormalities and transfusion syndrome in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Kiil, C; Larsen, L U

    2007-01-01

    observational study were women with twin pregnancies diagnosed before 14 + 6 gestational weeks. The monochorionic pregnancies were scanned every second week until 23 weeks in order to rule out early TTTS. All pregnancies had an anomaly scan in week 19 and fetal echocardiography in week 21 that was performed...... by specialists in fetal echocardiography. Zygosity was determined by DNA analysis in all twin pairs with the same sex. RESULTS: Among the 495 pregnancies the prenatal detection rate for severe structural abnormalities including chromosomal aneuploidies was 83% by the combination of a first-trimester nuchal...... translucency scan and the anomaly scan in week 19. The incidence of severe structural abnormalities was 2.6% and two-thirds of these anomalies were cardiac. There was no significant difference between the incidence in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, nor between twins conceived naturally or those conceived...

  12. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  13. Close pathological correlations between chronic kidney disease and reproductive organ-associated abnormalities in female cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sotozaki, Kozue; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus) is a useful experimental rodent for the study of human infectious diseases. We previously clarified that cotton rats, particularly females, developed chronic kidney disease characterized by cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis. The present study investigated female-associated factors for chronic kidney disease development in cotton rats. Notably, female cotton rats developed separation of the pelvic symphysis and hypertrophy in the vaginal parts of the cervix with age, which strongly associated with pyometra. The development of pyometra closely associated with the deterioration of renal dysfunction or immunological abnormalities was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine or spleen weight and serum albumin/globulin ratio, respectively. These parameters for renal dysfunction and immunological abnormalities were statistically correlated. These phenotypes found in the female reproductive organs were completely inhibited by ovariectomy. Further, the female cotton rats with pyometra tended to show more severe chronic kidney disease phenotypes and immunological abnormalities than those without pyometra; these changes were inhibited in ovariectomized cotton rats. With regard to renal histopathology, cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated by ovariectomy. Notably, the immunostaining intensity of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β were weak in the healthy kidneys, but both estrogen receptors were strongly induced in the renal tubules showing cystic changes. In conclusion, the close correlations among female reproductive organ-associated abnormalities, immunological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction characterize the chronic kidney disease features of female cotton rats. Thus, the cotton rat is a unique rodent model to elucidate the pathological crosstalk between chronic kidney disease and sex-related factors. Impact statement The increasing number of elderly individuals in the overall

  14. Skeleton-Based Abnormal Gait Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Nguyen Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human gait analysis plays an important role in musculoskeletal disorder diagnosis. Detecting anomalies in human walking, such as shuffling gait, stiff leg or unsteady gait, can be difficult if the prior knowledge of such a gait pattern is not available. We propose an approach for detecting abnormal human gait based on a normal gait model. Instead of employing the color image, silhouette, or spatio-temporal volume, our model is created based on human joint positions (skeleton in time series. We decompose each sequence of normal gait images into gait cycles. Each human instant posture is represented by a feature vector which describes relationships between pairs of bone joints located in the lower body. Such vectors are then converted into codewords using a clustering technique. The normal human gait model is created based on multiple sequences of codewords corresponding to different gait cycles. In the detection stage, a gait cycle with normality likelihood below a threshold, which is determined automatically in the training step, is assumed as an anomaly. The experimental results on both marker-based mocap data and Kinect skeleton show that our method is very promising in distinguishing normal and abnormal gaits with an overall accuracy of 90.12%.

  15. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  16. Recurrent chromosome 6 abnormalities in malignant mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotta, M; Roseo, F; Salvio, M; Castagneto, B; Carbone, M; Procopio, A; Giordano, A; Mutti, L

    1998-04-01

    The long latency period between asbestos exposure and the onset of malignant mesothelioma (MM) suggests that a multistep tumorigenesis process occurs whilst the capability of asbestos fibres to interfere directly with chromosomes focuses on the critical role of the chromosomal abnormalities in this neoplasm. The aim of our study was to identify any recurrent chromosomal changes in ten primary MM cell cultures derived from pleural effusions of patients with MM from the same geographic area and environmental and/or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in accordance with International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Our results confirmed a great number of cytogenetic abnormalities in MM cells. Recurrent loss of the long arms of chromosome 6 (6q-) was the most frequent abnormality detected (four epithelial and two mixed subtypes) while, on the whole, abnormalities of chromosome 6 were found in nine out of ten cases whereas chromosome 6 was normal only in the case with fibromatous subtype. Monosomy 13 and 17 was found in five cases, monosomy 14 in four cases and 22 in three cases. Since deletion of 6q- was detected even in relatively undisturbed karyotype, we hypothesize a multistep carcinogenic process in which deletion of 6q- is an early event in the development and progression of malignant mesothelioma.

  17. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  18. Learning Disabilities in Children with Sex Chromosome Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Bruce F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Results obtained from 44 children (ages 7 through 16) with sex chromosome abnormalities and from 17 chromosomally normal siblings demonstrated that children in the former group have an increased risk of encountering learning problems. (MP)

  19. Prevalence and determinants of oral infection by Human Papillomavirus in HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Francesca; Latini, Alessandra; Pichi, Barbara; Colafigli, Manuela; Benevolo, Maria; Sinopoli, Ilenia; Sperduti, Isabella; Laquintana, Valentina; Fabbri, Giulia; Frasca, Mirko; Cristaudo, Antonio; Giuliani, Massimo; Donà, Maria Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is rare in the general population but common in high-risk individuals. Recent data indicate that oral HPV is associated with the development of head and neck carcinomas. HPV16 infection, in particular, increases the risk of oropharyngeal cancer. We evaluated oral HPV prevalence and determinants of infection in cancer-free HIV-infected and uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited among attendees of an STI/HIV centre. Oral rinse and gargles were collected using a mouthwash and analyzed with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Socio-demographic and behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Overall, 170 MSM participated: 98 HIV-uninfected and 72 HIV-infected (91.7% under cART). Oral HPV was detected in 17.3% and 27.8% of the subjects, respectively (p = 0.13). Non-carcinogenic HPVs were significantly more common among HIV-infected MSM (18.1% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.01). Prevalence of the HPV types included in the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was similar (6.1% vs. 8.3% for the HIV-negative and positive MSM, respectively, p = 0.76). HPV16 was the most frequent type in HIV-negative (5.1%), and HIV-positive individuals, in the latter group together with HPV18, 72 and 84 (4.2% each). Older age at first sex (AOR: 4.02, 95% CI: 1.17-13.86 for those older than 18 years of age at first intercourse, p = 0.027) and a higher lifetime number of receptive oral sex partners (AOR: 9.14, 95% CI: 2.49-33.62 for those with >50 compared to ≤50 partners, poral HPV among HIV-infected MSM. Oral HPV infection among MSM attending an urban STI center is very frequent compared to the general population. Sexual behavior appears to be the major determinant of infection among the HIV-infected individuals.

  20. Galanin neurons in the intermediate nucleus (InM) of the human hypothalamus in relation to sex, age, and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Ligtenberg, Lisette; Kruijver, Frank P M; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-10-15

    The intermediate nucleus (InM) in the preoptic area of the human brain, also known as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus-1 (INAH-1) is explored here. We investigated its population of galanin-immunoreactive (Gal-Ir) neurons in relation to sex, age, and gender identity in the postmortem brain of 77 subjects. First we compared the InM volume and number of Gal-Ir neurons of 22 males and 22 females in the course of aging. In a second experiment, we compared for the first time the InM volume and the total and Gal-Ir neuron number in 43 subjects with different gender identities: 14 control males (M), 11 control females (F), 10 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual people, and 5 men who were castrated because of prostate cancer (CAS). In the first experiment we found a sex difference in the younger age group ( 45 years. In the second experiment the MtF transsexual group presented an intermediate value for the total InM neuron number and volume that did not seem different in males and females. Because the CAS group did not have total neuron numbers that were different from the intact males, the change in adult circulating testosterone levels does not seem to explain the intermediate values in the MtF group. Organizational and activational hormone effects on the InM are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Influence of indoor work environments on health, safety, and human rights among migrant sex workers at the Guatemala-Mexico Border: a call for occupational health and safety interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rocha Jiménez, Teresita; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Morales Miranda, Sonia; Silverman, Jay G

    2018-02-02

    Migrant women are over-represented in the sex industry, and migrant sex workers experience disproportionate health inequities, including those related to health access, HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and violence. Despite calls for occupational sex work interventions situated in labour rights frameworks, there remains a paucity of evidence pertaining to migrant sex workers' needs and realities, particularly within Mexico and Central America. This study investigated migrant sex workers' narratives regarding the ways in which structural features of work environments shape vulnerability and agency related to HIV/STI prevention and violence at the Guatemala-Mexico border. Drawing on theoretical perspectives on risk environments and structural determinants of HIV in sex work, we analyzed in-depth interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic fieldwork conducted with 39 migrant sex workers in indoor work environments between 2012 and 2015 in Tecún Umán, Guatemala. Participant narratives revealed the following intersecting themes to be most closely linked to safety and agency to engage in HIV/STI prevention: physical features of indoor work environments (e.g., physical layout of venue, proximity to peers and third parties); social norms and practices for alcohol use within the workplace; the existence and nature of management practices and policies on health and safety practices; and economic influences relating to control over earnings and clients. Across work environments, health and safety were greatly shaped by human rights concerns stemming from workplace interactions with police, immigration authorities, and health authorities. Physical isolation, establishment norms promoting alcohol use, restricted economic agency, and human rights violations related to sex work policies and immigration enforcement were found to exacerbate risks. However, some establishment policies and practices promoted 'enabling environments' for health and safety, supporting

  2. Earlier Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Routine Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Screening of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men Attending A Sexually Transmitted Infection Outpatient Clinic: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn; Heijman, Titia; de Vrieze, Nynke; Urbanus, Anouk; Speksnijder, Arjen; van Leeuwen, Petra; de Vries, Henry; Prins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, routine hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody testing was introduced for men who have sex with men (MSM) with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive or unknown status attending a Dutch sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinic. We evaluated whether this screening resulted in

  3. Incomplete knowledge--unclarified roles in sex education: results of a national survey about human papillomavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, E; Dergez, T; Bozsa, S; Gocze, K; Rebek-Nagy, G; Kricskovics, A; Kiss, I; Ember, I; Gocze, P

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections both in male and female adults in Hungary. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was completed by 785 college students and parents between January and May, 2009. The results were analysed by gender and age. Participants' knowledge about HPV and HPV-associated conditions was relatively incomplete. One-third of the respondents had never heard about HPV prior to the survey. Almost half of the respondents (42%) thought that the only sexual way of spreading HPV was vaginal intercourse, while the role of skin-to-skin contact was disregarded (6%). More than one-third of the participants (38%) believed that condoms give full protection from HPV infection. Encouragingly, the majority of respondents (64%) were open to further information about sexually transmitted diseases. The most trusted sources of information were health professionals. When talking about children, parents attributed the major role in delivering information about sexually transmitted diseases to schools. Primary prevention through carefully planned educational programmes may further raise the awareness about HPV-associated conditions, thus reducing the comparatively high mortality of cervical carcinoma in Hungary. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the human male face: functions of glucocorticoids in the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F R; Al Dujaili, E A S; Cornwell, R E; Smith, M J Law; Lawson, J F; Sharp, M; Perrett, D I

    2011-08-01

    The stress-linked version of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed to account for inconsistencies in relationships between testosterone and immune response. The model has received some support from studies demonstrating roles of stress hormones in relationships between testosterone, immune function and secondary sexual ornamentation. Such work, however, has relied on artificial elevation of testosterone so may not reflect relationships in natural populations. We created human male facial stimuli on the basis of naturally co-occurring levels of salivary testosterone and the stress hormone cortisol. In Study 1 we tested female preferences for male faces with cues to combinations of the hormones across the menstrual cycle, and in Study 2 we tested perceptions of health and dominance in a novel set of facial stimuli. Females preferred cues to low cortisol, a preference that was strongest during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The effects of cortisol on attractiveness and perceived health and dominance were contingent upon level of testosterone: the effects of the stress hormone were reduced when testosterone was high. We propose explanations for our results, including low cortisol as a cue to a heritable component of health, attractiveness as a predictor of low social-evaluative threat (and, therefore, low baseline cortisol) and testosterone as a proxy of male ability to cope efficiently with stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect on human sex ratio at birth by assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures--an assessment of babies born following single embryo transfers, Australia and New Zealand, 2002-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J H; Chapman, M G; Sullivan, E A

    2010-12-01

    To assess the effect on the human sex ratio at birth by assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures. Retrospective population-based study. Fertility clinics in Australia and New Zealand. The study included 13,368 babies by 13,165 women who had a single embryo transfer (SET) between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to model the effect on the sex ratio at birth of ART characteristics [in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm insemination (ICSI) SET, cleavage-stage or blastocyst SET, and fresh or thawed SET] and biological characteristics (woman's and partner's age and cause of infertility). Proportion of male births. The crude sex ratio at birth was 51.3%. Individual ART procedures had a significant effect on the sex ratio at birth. More males were born following IVF SET (53.0%) than ICSI SET (50.0%), and following blastocyst SET (54.1%) than cleavage-stage SET (49.9%). For a specific ART regimen, IVF blastocyst SET produced more males (56.1%) and ICSI cleavage-stage SET produced fewer males (48.7%). The change in the sex ratio at birth of SET babies is associated with the ART regimen. The mechanism of these effects remains unclear. Fertility clinics and patients should be aware of the bias in the sex ratio at birth when using ART procedures. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  6. Sex differences in androgen receptors of the human mamillary bodies are related to endocrine status rather than to sexual orientation or transsexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijver, F P; Fernández-Guasti, A; Fodor, M; Kraan, E M; Swaab, D F

    2001-02-01

    In a previous study we found androgen receptor (AR) sex differences in several regions throughout the human hypothalamus. Generally, men had stronger nuclear AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) than women. The strongest nuclear labeling was found in the caudal hypothalamus in the mamillary body complex (MBC), which is known to be involved in aspects of cognition and sexual behavior. The present study was carried out to investigate whether the sex difference in AR-ir of the MBC is related to sexual orientation or gender identity (i.e. the feeling of being male or female) or to circulating levels of androgens, as nuclear AR-ir is known to be up-regulated by androgens. Therefore, we studied the MBC in postmortem brain material from the following groups: young heterosexual men, young homosexual men, aged heterosexual castrated and noncastrated men, castrated and noncastrated transsexuals, young heterosexu