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Sample records for abnormal glucose tolerance

  1. Noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance

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    Edward L. Hull, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ENGINE study evaluated noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. The AGT detection performance of SFS was compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG and hemoglobin A1C (A1C. The study was a head-to-head comparison of SFS to FPG and A1C in an at-risk population of 507 subjects, with no prior diagnosis of diabetes, each of whom received a 75 g, two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Subjects were measured by SFS on multiple days in fasting and non-fasting states. SFS data were acquired and analyzed with the SCOUT DS® device (VeraLight, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. Sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR, ROC area, and equal error rate (EER for detection of AGT were computed. The reproducibility of SFS and FPG was assessed. The AGT sensitivity of SFS at the device's recommended screening threshold of 50 was 75.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 5.6 mmol/L or 6.1 mmol/L and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% or 6.0%. The SFS FPR was 42.1%, comparable to an A1C threshold of 5.7% (FPR = 43.5%. The EERs of SFS, FPG and A1C were similar, as were the partial ROC areas for FPRs of 20–50%. The reproducibility of SFS was 7.7% versus 8.1% for FPG. SFS had similar AGT detection performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable alternative to screening individuals for AGT.

  2. Analysis of oral glucose tolerance test in pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism

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    YANG Hui-xia; GAO Xue-lian; DONG Yue; SHI Chun-yan

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to the controversy of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the world and researches on GDM remain undeveloped in China. American Diabetes Association recently recommended the clinicians to diagnose GDM by OGTT results without the third-hour glucose value. This new criteria has not been used in China. Research on the value and sensitivity of the criteria in detecting GDM is rare. The aim of our study is to analyze the characteristics of OGTT in Chinese women with GDM or gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) and to evaluate the effect of omission of the third-hour plasma glucose (PG) level in OGTT on the sensitivity of diagnosing GDM and GIGT, and the relationship between PG values of 50 g GCT or OGTT and insulin therapy. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on medical records of 647 cases with GDM from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 2002, and 233 with GIGT. Among 647 cases of GDM, 535 cases were diagnosed by 75 g OGTT. All OGTT results including 535 cases of GDM and 233 patients with GIGT were evaluated. Results There were 112 cases of GDM diagnosed by elevated fasting PG (FPG) without OGTT performed. Of 535 cases of GDM diagnosed by OGTT, 49.2% (263/535) women had FPG value ≥5.8 mmol/L; 90.1% (482/535) women with 1-hour PG values ≥10.6 mmol/L; 64.7% (359/535) with 2-hour PG levels ≥9.2 mmol/L. There were only 114 cases (21.3%) with abnormal 3-hour PG levels among 535 women with OGTT. Among those with abnormal 3-hour PG level, 49.1% (56/114) had abnormal glucose values in the other three points of OGTT, and 34.2% (39/114) with two other abnormal values of OGTT. Our study showed that omission of the 3-hour PG of OGTT only missed 19 cases of GDM and they would be diagnosed as GIGT. Among the 233 women with GIGT, only 4 cases had abnormal 3-hour PG. So, omission of the third-hour glucose value of OGTT only resulted in failure to diagnose 3.6% (19/535) women with

  3. Value of fructosamine measurement in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kui; YANG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background The concentration of serum fructosamine is correlated with plasma glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of serum fructosamine can be diagnostic for abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnant women.Methods Serum samples were collected from 161 pregnant women between November 2004 and April 2005.The women were divided into three groups according to the gestational age (16-20 weeks group, 56 patients; 28-34 weeks group, 72; and 37-41 weeks group, 33). Each group was subdivided into normal and abnormal glucose tolerance subgroups. The levels of serum fructosamine were measured. Differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between the level of fructosamine and other variables including the results of glucose challenge test (GCT), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, and infant's birth weight were analyzed by Pearson correlation.Results The level of serum fructosamine decreased with gestational age [(223.25 ±48.90) μmol/L, (98.44±29.57)μmol/L, and (53.99±29.94) μmol/L, respectively. P<0.05]. It was higher in women with abnormal glucose tolerance than that in women with normal glucose tolerance, however, the difference reached statistical significance only in the 28-34 weeks group (P<0.05). In this group, the level of serum fructosamine correlated positively with the GCT result (r=0.28, P<0.05). No correlation was found between fructosamine level and OGTT result, HbA1c level, or neonatal weight.Conclusions Fructosamine can be used to monitor the glucose level of pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance, and to identify the patients at high risk of abnormal glucose tolerance, but can not be used to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early stage of pregnancy.

  4. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

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    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  5. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

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    Tricò, Domenico; Baldi, Simona; Frascerra, Silvia; Venturi, Elena; Marraccini, Paolo; Neglia, Danilo; Natali, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min), and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p equivalents, p metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217.

  6. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Domenico Tricò

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT, and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT, we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min, and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p<0.05, did not change in DCM-AGT, and slowly increased in DCM-NGT. DCM-AGT sustained the extra workload by increasing NEFA oxidation (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 2.9 ± 0.1 μmol/min/gO2 equivalents, p<0.05, while DCM-NGT showed a delayed increase in glucose uptake. Substrate oxidation rates paralleled the metabolites data. The presence of AGT in patients with DCM exacerbates both the shift from fat to carbohydrates in resting myocardial metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217.

  7. Clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity in Malaysian adult population.

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    Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Merican, I; Kew, S T; Maimunah, A H; Rozita, H H; Rugayah, B

    2000-06-01

    We determine the prevalence and determinants of clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and overweight in Malaysia. A national probability sample of 17,392 individuals aged 30 years or older had usable data. 61% of adults had at least one risk factor, 27% had 2 or more risk factors. The observed frequency of 4 factors cluster was 6 times greater than that expected by chance. Indian and Malay women were at particular high risk of risk factors clustering. Individuals with a risk factor had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of other risk factors. Ordinal regression analyses show that higher income, urban residence and physical inactivity were independently associated with risk factors clustering, lending support to the hypotheses that risk factors clustering is related to lifestyle changes brought about by modernisation and urbanisation. In conclusion, risk factor clustering is highly prevalent among Malaysian adults. Treatment and prevention programme must emphasise the multiple risk factor approach.

  8. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

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    Fleisch, Abby F.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied. Methods: We studied Boston, Massachusetts–area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to...

  9. The Impact of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance and Obesity on Fetal Growth

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    Erin Graves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Factors linked with insulin resistance were examined for their association with large-for-gestational-age (LGA infant birth weight and gestational diabetes. Study Design. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study of 2,305 subjects without overt diabetes, analyzed using multinomial logistic and linear regression. Results. High maternal BMI (OR=1.53 (1.11, 2.12, height (1.98 (1.62, 2.42, antidepressant use (1.71 (1.20, 2.44, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds (1.79 (1.25, 2.57, and high blood sugar (2.68, (1.53, 5.27 were all positively associated with LGA birth. Strikingly, the difference in risk from diagnosed and treated gestational diabetes compared to women with a single abnormal glucose tolerance test (but no diagnosis of gestational diabetes was significant (OR=0.65, p=0.12 versus OR=2.84, p<0.01. When weight/length ratio was used instead, different factors were found to be significant. BMI and pregnancy weight-gain were found to influence the development of gestational diabetes, through an additive interaction. Conclusions. High prepregnancy BM, height, antidepressant use, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds, and high blood sugar were associated with LGA birth, but not necessarily infant weight/length ratio. An additive interaction between BMI and pregnancy weight-gain influenced gestational diabetes development.

  10. Prevalence of glucose tolerance test abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Leila J. Gracelyn

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of IGT and Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM in women with PCOS was observed than expected. They have accelerated conversion from IGT to NIDDM. IGT is often asymptomatic and is a known risk factor for type 2 DM and cardiovascular disease. OGTT with 75 gms of glucose is the best screening method for glucose intolerance and a good measure to diagnose type 2 DM in PCOS women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1739-1745

  11. A novel imaging platform for non-invasive screening of abnormal glucose tolerance.

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    Jeong, Bosu; Jung, Chang Hee; Lee, Yong-Ho; Shin, Il-Hyung; Kim, Hansuk; Bae, Soo-Jin; Lee, Dae-Sic; Kang, Eun Seok; Kang, Uk; Kim, Jong Jin; Park, Joong-Yeol

    2016-06-01

    Optical measurement of skin auto-fluorescence (SAF), most likely emanating from accumulated advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), has been proposed for the noninvasive diagnosis of glucose intolerance in clinical settings. Here, we developed a novel imaging system with transmission geometry for SAF measurement and compared its diagnostic performance in a Korean population. PMID:27321320

  12. A randomised trial of salsalate for insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in persons with abnormal glucose tolerance

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    Goldfine, A. B.; Conlin, P. R.; Halperin, F.; Koska, J.; Permana, P.; Schwenke, D.; Shoelson, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Chronic sub-acute inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. High doses of salicylate reduce inflammation, glucose and triacylglycerols, and may improve insulin sensitivity, suggesting therapeutic potential in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. This trial aimed to evaluate the effect of salsalate vs placebo on insulin resistance and glycaemia in impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods We conducted a 12 week, two-centre, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of salsalate (up to 4 g/day) vs placebo on systemic glucose disposal. Secondary objectives included treatment effects on glycaemia, inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors. Seventy-eight participants with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance from two VA healthcare systems were enrolled. Randomisation assignment was provided by the coordinating center directly to site pharmacists, and participants and research staff were blinded to treatment assignment. Results Seventy-one individuals were randomised to placebo (n = 36) or salsalate (n = 35). Glucose disposal did not change in either group (salsalate 1% [95% CI −39%, 56%]; placebo 6% [95% CI −20%, 61%], p = 0.3 for placebo vs salsalate). Fasting glucose was reduced by 6% during the study by salsalate (p = 0.006) but did not change with placebo. Declines in glucose were accompanied by declines in fasting C-peptide with salsalate. Insulin clearance was reduced with salsalate. In the salsalate group, triacylglycerol levels were lower by 25% (p = 0.01) and adiponectin increased by 53% (p = 0.02) at the end of the study. Blood pressure, endothelial function and other inflammation markers did not differ between groups. Adipose tissue nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity declined in the salsalate group compared with placebo (−16% vs 42%, p = 0.005), but was not correlated with metabolic

  13. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

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    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  14. Community intervention in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance%糖耐量异常患者的社区干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高发海

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究社区干预对糖耐量异常患者的重要意义.方法:2012年5月-2013年5月收治糖耐量异常患者112例,所有患者都口服葡萄糖耐量测试,将其随机分成干预组和对照组,各56名.社区卫生服务人员对对照组的所有患者叮嘱其半年进行 1 次血糖、尿糖检测,并作好记录.而干预组则除了定期做检测外,还指导发放糖尿病知识手册,邀其参加相关知识讲座,给予定量的阿卡波糖片口服,而且对其每日三餐饮食进行规定和指导,并要求其每天早上0.5 h和晚上0.5 h的运动锻炼.经过1年以后,比较两组患者的糖尿病发病率、并发症发生率、空腹和餐后2 h的血糖水平.结果:干预组和对照组糖尿病发病例数分别是8例和21例,发病率分别是14.2%和37.5%;两组并发症发生例数分别是4例和14例,发病率分别是7.14%和25.0%;空腹和餐后2 h血糖水平,干预组明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:社区干预对于糖耐量异常患者意义重大,具有必要性和可行性.%Objective:To explore the significance of community intervention for patients with abnormality of sugar tolerance. Methods:112 patients with abnormal glucose tolerance were selected from May 2012 to May 2013.All patients were given oral glucose tolerance test.They were randomly divided into the intervention group and the control group with 56 cases in each.For all the patients in the control group,the community health service personnel told the blood glucose and urine glucose detection every half a year,and made record.In the intervention group,in addition to the regular inspection, patients were given diabetes knowledge handbook,patients were invited to participate in the relevant knowledge lectures,acarbose tablet oral was given quantitatively,and guided the three meals a day diet,patients were asked to exercise for half an hour in every morning and evening.1 year later,we compared the incidence of diabetes

  15. 妊娠期糖代谢异常对妊娠结局影响%Influence of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy on pregnanty outcome

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    王娇; 许榕仙; 张雪芹; 李健

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) on pregnant women and newborns. Methods Totally 250 pregnant women hospitalized for their deliveries and diagnosed with GDM( 105) or GIGT( 145) were recruited in the study. And 234 pregnant women witti normal blood glucose level were taken as control group at the same time. The pregnancy outcomes of the three groups were recorded and analyzed. Results There were significant differences among the three groups in the incidences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive (P - 0. 009) , caesarean birth (P = 0. 000), gestational hypertension (P = 0. 002), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (P = 0. 004), preterm delivery (P = 0.027 ) , small-for-date infant (P = 0. 011), neonatal hypoglycemia (P = 0. 007), neonatal pneumonia (P = 0. 001), and neonate hospitalization (P = 0. 000) among the three groups. Compared with those of the control group, there were significantly increased risks for HBV positive (P =0. 041) , caesarean birth ( P = 0. 000) .gestational hypertension ( P =0.001) , intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (P = 0.009),preterm delivery(/5=0. 012) ,small-for-date infant(P =0. 019) .neonatal hypoglycemia (P = 0, 03) .neonatal pneumonia( P = 0. 000) , and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (P = 0. 000) in the GDM group. The pregnant women in GIGT group showed higher risks of HBV positive ( P = 0. 041) , caesarean birth ( P = 0. 000) , gestational hypertension (P = 0. 021) , intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy ( P - 0. 021) , preterm delivery (P = 0. 048 ) , neonatal hypoglycemia( P = 0. 021), neonatal pneumonia ( P = 0. 004), and NICU admission (P = 0. 000). Conclusion GDM and GIGT could cause undesirable pregnancy outcomes. The perinatal screening for gestational abnormal glucose metabolism and standardized treatment for GDM and GIGT should be strengthened to improve pregnanty outcomes a-mong the wonen.%目的 研究妊娠期

  16. Okara ameliorates glucose tolerance in GK rats.

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    Hosokawa, Masaya; Katsukawa, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okuno, Sonomi; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Iritani, Nobuko

    2016-05-01

    Okara, a food by-product from the production of tofu and soy milk, is rich in three beneficial components: insoluble dietary fiber, β-conglycinin, and isoflavones. Although isoflavones and β-conglycinin have recently been shown to improve glucose tolerance, the effects of okara have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of okara on glucose tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a representative animal model of Japanese type 2 diabetes. Male GK rats were fed a 10% lard diet with or without 5% dry okara powder for 2 weeks and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Rats were then fed each diet for another week and sacrificed. The expression of genes that are the master regulators of glucose metabolism in adipose tissue was subsequently examined. No significant differences were observed in body weight gain or food intake between the two groups of GK rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, increases in plasma glucose levels were suppressed by the okara diet. The mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, adiponectin, and GLUT4, which up-regulate the effects of insulin, were increased in epididymal adipose tissue by the okara diet. These results suggest that okara provides a useful means for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:27257347

  17. Impaired glucose tolerance in acute pancreatitis

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    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory disease of the exocrine pancreas. In spite of the pivotal role of the endocrine pancreas in glucose metabolism, the impact of impaired glucose tolerance on AP has not been fully elucidated. A meta-analysis of seven observational studies showed that type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with an increased risk of AP. The increased risk of AP shown in the meta-analysis was independent of hyperlipidemia, alcohol use and gallstones. Anti-diab...

  18. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

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    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  19. 糖耐量异常对妊娠期糖尿病母儿并发症的影响%Investigation of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on Gestational Diabetes to Maternal and Neonatal Complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂秀娟

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the occurrence of maternal and neonatal complications caused by gestational diabetes and abnormal factors of glucose tolerance tests .Methods The singleton primiparas who were accepted system antenatal examination and delivered in my hospital from 1st Jan,2009 to 1st Jan,2011 were studied.They were divided into two groups,the OGTT 84 abnormal pregnant women was observation group,the OGTT normal pregnant ones was control group .The outcomes of pregnancy of the two groups were :maternal compli-cations(polyhydramnios,hypertensive disorders in pregnancy ,premature delivery,fetal distress,cesarean section rate,postpartum hemorrhage) and neonatal complications (macrosomia,deformity,RDS,intrauterine fetal death).Results The rate of the complications (such as postpartum hemorrhage,macrosomia polyhydramnios ,malformations,fetal death in utero) of the observation group was obviously increased with significant differences(P <0.05).Conclusion Pregnant women should do OGTT test for the early diagnosis ,to strengthen their pregnant and gestation -al nutrition and health,in order to reduce the hazards of gestational diabetes on maternal -fetal.%  目的探讨妊娠期糖尿病母婴并发症的发生与糖耐量试验异常的相关因素.方法2009年1月~2011年1月在我院行系统产前检查并住院分娩的单胎初产妇.口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)异常孕妇84例为观察组,OGTT 正常孕妇84例为对照组.观察妊娠结局:包括孕产妇并发症(羊水过多、妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、胎儿窘迫、剖宫产率、产后出血)及新生儿并发症(巨大儿、畸形、RDS、胎死宫内,窒息).结果观察组孕妇的并发症如产后出血、巨大儿羊水过多、畸形、胎死宫内的发生率明显升高(P <0.05).结论孕妇应行 OGTT 试验进行早期诊断,加强孕期、孕后营养及保健,可降低妊娠期糖尿病对母儿的危害.

  20. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Okan Bakiner; Emre Bozkirli; Hulya Serinsoz; Cagla Sariturk; Eda Ertorer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM) cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFG)and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality in previ...

  1. Resveratrol supplementation does not improve metabolic function in non-obese women with normal glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Jun; Conte, Caterina; Fontana, Luigi; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Imai, Shin-ichiro; Kenneth B Schechtman; Gu, Charles; Kunz, Iris; Fanelli, Filippo Rossi; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol has been reported to improve metabolic function in metabolically-abnormal rodents and humans, but has not been studied in non-obese people with normal glucose tolerance. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the metabolic effects of 12 weeks of resveratrol supplementation (75 mg/day) in non-obese, postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance. Although resveratrol supplementation increased plasma resveratrol concentration, it did not ch...

  2. Maternal Glucose Tolerance in Pregnancy Affects Fetal Insulin Sensitivity

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    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Delvin, Edgard; Fraser, William D.; Audibert, Francois; Deal, Cheri I.; Julien, Pierre; Girard, Isabelle; Shear, Roberta; Levy, Emile; Nuyt, Anne-Monique

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Offspring of mothers with impaired glucose tolerance are far more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that maternal glucose tolerance in pregnancy affects fetal insulin sensitivity or β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective singleton pregnancy cohort study, we analyzed glucose, insulin, and proinsulin concentrations in maternal blood at the 50-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24–28 weeks of gestation and in venous cord blood (n = ...

  3. 糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死患者血浆Hcy和血清hs-CRP水平的影响%The Influence of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on the Levels of Plasma Homocysteine and Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction(ACI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红东; 陆敏; 唐冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of abnormal glucose tolerance on the levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with acute cerebral infarction( AGI). Methods 756 patients with AGI were divided into normal glucose tolerance group (NGT, 33 leases) , abnormal glucose tolerance group(IGT,142cases) ,and diabetes mellitus group (DM,283 scase) ac-cording to the result of oral glucose tolerance test( OGTT). The serum levels of Hcy and hs-GRP were measured in 24 hours after ad-mission. Result The both levels of Hey and hs-GRP in IGT group(19.17 9.35juno]/L,20.46 10.56μmol/L) and DM group (8.0 2.9 mg/L,7.7 2.3 mg/L) were higher than the NGT group with no difference between each other. Conclusion The levels of Hey and hs-GRP in patients with AGI and abnormal glucose tolerance rise significantly,which indicate the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis in the stage of abnormal glucose tolerance. The results showed abnormal glucose tolerance is the risk factor of atherosclerosis as diabetes mellitus,and the OGTT test is valuable in screening risk factors of AGI and stroke prevention.%目的:观察糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死(acute cerebral infarction,ACI)患者的同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平的影响.方法:756例ACI患者按葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)结果分为糖耐量正常组(NGT,331例)、单纯性糖耐量异常组(IGT,142例)、2型糖尿病组(DM2,283例).在入院24h之内测定血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平并进行组间比较.结果:IGT组及DM2组的Hcy水平(19.17±9.35)μmol/L、(20.46±10.56)μmol/L以及hs-CRP水平(8.0±2.9)mg/L、(7.7±2.3)mg/L明显高于NGT组(16.17±7.35)μmol/L、(3.5±1.2)mg/L.IGT组及DM2组两组之间的Hcy、hs-CRP水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05、P>0.05).结论:单纯性糖耐量异常的ACI患者血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平明显升高,表明在糖耐量异常阶段,已经出现了慢性低水平炎症和动脉粥样硬化的发生.提

  4. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...... patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak...

  5. Glucose tolerance, insulin release, and insulin binding to monocytes in kidney transplant recipients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, W.A.; Wielechowski, K.S.; Mahajan, S.K.; Migdal, S.D.; McDonald, F.D.

    1982-03-01

    In order to evaluate glucose tolerance following renal transplantation, intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), with evaluation of hormonal responses to the intravenous glucose load and percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding to peripheral blood monocytes, were studied in eight clinically stable kidney transplant recipients. For comparison purposes, identical studies were done in eight control subjects and seven clinically stable hemodialysis patients. One transplant recipient was glucose intolerant, with fasting hyperglycemia, elevated HbA1C, and abnormal glucose decay constant. Impaired pancreatic insulin release appeared to be the major factor accounting for his glucose intolerance. The seven glucose-tolerant transplant recipients had significantly increased insulin release during IVGTT compared to control subjects, and significant correlations were found among insulin release, glucose decay constant, and fasting blood sugar in those patients. Insulin binding to monocytes was significantly greater in transplant recipients than control subjects due to an increase in insulin binding capacity per cell. A significant correlation was found between percent specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding and steroid dose, expressed as mg/kg body weight/day, in those patients. Thus, chronic steroid administration does not cause glucose intolerance in transplant recipients who manifest steroid-associated increases in pancreatic insulin release and cellular insulin binding capacity.

  6. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Material/Methods We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. Results During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. Conclusions Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  7. Specific insulin and proinsulin in normal glucose tolerant first-degree relatives of NIDDM patients

    OpenAIRE

    R. Coifman; I.S. Dalbosco; E. M. K. RUSSO; R.S. Moisés

    1999-01-01

    In order to identify early abnormalities in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) we determined insulin (using an assay that does not cross-react with proinsulin) and proinsulin concentrations. The proinsulin/insulin ratio was used as an indicator of abnormal ß-cell function. The ratio of the first 30-min increase in insulin to glucose concentrations following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; I30-0/G30-0) was taken as an indicator of insulin secretion. Insulin resistance (R) w...

  8. Oral glucose tolerance test in unstimulated saliva of healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Hossein Mirzaii-Dizgah; Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah; Mohammad-Reza Mirzaii-Dizgah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in unstimulated whole saliva as a diagnostic specimen in clinical practice for detection of diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and Methods: An interventional study was carried out in 30 apparently healthy individuals aged 24–59 years. Serum and saliva samples were obtained in fasting, 1 h and 2 h after glucose intake (75 g). Glucose concentration was determined by enzymatic colorimetric glucose oxidase-prost...

  9. Oxidative Injury and Neuropathy in Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James W.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Vincent, Andrea M.; Freimann, Catherine L.; Sullivan, Kelli A; Eva L Feldman

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with the development of neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to determine if neuropathy developed in the female Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of IGT and type 2 diabetes. The ZDF rat develops impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) when fed a control diet, and frank diabetes when fed a high fat diet. Following 10 weeks of hyperglycemia, sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) and compound motor acti...

  10. Determinación del valor umbral de tamizaje de la glicemia en ayunas, para identificar la intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos Determination of fasting plasma glucose cut-off valuefor the identification of abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Linn Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar el valor predictivo de la glucosa en ayunas, para identificar intolerancia a los carbohidratos en pacientes con síndrome de ovario poliquístico. Materiales y métodos: a 100 mujeres con diagnóstico de síndrome de ovario poliquístico, se les realizó una prueba de tolerancia a 75 g de glucosa. Resultados: la sensibilidad para una cifra umbral de 101 mg/dl, fue de un 41,7%, IC 95%: 23% - 63%, y la especificidad de un 92,1%, IC95 %:83% - 97%. Con un valor predictivo positivo del 62,5%, y negativo del 83,3%.El valor de corte óptimo fue de 93mg /dl, con una sensibilidad del 75%, IC 95%: 53%-89%, y una especificidad del 73,7%, IC 95%: 62%-83%. La cifra de corte umbral óptima de la glicemia en ayunas para el tamizaje de intolerancia en mujeres con SOPQ, fue de 93 mg/dl. Conclusiones: las recomendaciones actuales para diagnosticar intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, no son apropiadas.Objective: To determine the predictive value of fasting glucose to identify abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and methods: 100 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome underwent a tolerance test toa 75 gdose of glucose. Results: Sensitivity for a threshold value of 101 mg/dl was 41.7% (95% C.I.: 23% - 63% and specificity 92.1% (95% C.I.: 83% - 97%; with a positive predictive value of 62.5% and a negative predictive value of 83.3%. The optimum cut-off value was 93 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 75% (95% C.I.: 53% - 89% and a specificity of 73.7% (95% C.I.: 62% - 83%. The optimum fasting plasma glucose cut-off value for intolerance in women with PCOS was 93md/dL. Conclusions: The current recommendations for diagnosing abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome are not appropriate.

  11. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    significant association with type 2 diabetes with directions and relative risks consistent with previous reports. In individuals with abnormal glucose regulation, the diabetogenic risk A allele of rs734312 was associated in an allele-dependent manner with a decrease in insulinogenic index (p = 0...... rs734312 genotype level. The interaction term between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and abnormal glucose regulation on the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with the traits (p = 0.0017). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 2 diabetes-associated risk alleles of WFS1......AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, variants in WFS1 have been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine metabolic risk phenotypes of WFS1 variants in glucose-tolerant people and in individuals with abnormal glucose regulation. METHODS: The type 2 diabetes-associated WFS1 variant rs...

  12. Evolution of Glucose Tolerance After Treatment of Acromegaly: A Study in 57 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, C; Maiter, D; Alexopoulou, O

    2016-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the evolution of glucose metabolism in 57 patients after treatment of their acromegaly and to determine risk factors for the persistence of abnormal glucose tolerance. Therefore, we performed IGF-I measurements, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), and HOMA to evaluate insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) at diagnosis and at last visit (median follow-up 7 years). At diagnosis of acromegaly, 14 patients (25%) were diabetic and 15 (26%) had impaired glucose tolerance, whereas at the last visit, 32% were diabetic and 26% remained glucose intolerant. There was a decrease in fasting glucose (median - 7.0 mg/dl) in the 20 patients cured by surgery, whereas it increased in the 28 patients controlled under medical therapy (median + 2.0 mg/dl; pdiagnosis and last visit in patients under pegvisomant (mean - 19.2 mmol/mol) vs. a small increase in patient treated by somatostatin analogues (+ 3.4 mmol/mol; pdiagnosis and ongoing treatment with somatostatin analogues. In conclusion, we found that more than 50% of patients still have IGT or diabetes after treatment of acromegaly. Improvement of glucose metabolism is mainly observed in cured patients and in patients treated with pegvisomant. PMID:26849822

  13. Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela).

    OpenAIRE

    Leatherdale, B A; Panesar, R K; Singh, G; Atkins, T W; Bailey, C. J.; Bignell, A H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of karela (Momordica charantia), a fruit indigenous to South America and Asia, on glucose and insulin concentrations was studied in nine non-insulin-dependent diabetics and six non-diabetic laboratory rats. A water-soluble extract of the fruits significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations during a 50 g oral glucose tolerance test in the diabetics and after force-feeding in the rats. Fried karela fruits consumed as a daily supplement to the diet produced a small but significan...

  14. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  15. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Seo, G. T.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jeon, S. M. [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

  16. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    : 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  17. Fetal growth and impaired glucose tolerance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, K; Barker, D J; Hales, C N; Fall, C H; Osmond, C; Clark, P M

    1993-03-01

    A follow-up study was carried out to determine whether reduced fetal growth is associated with the development of impaired glucose tolerance in men and women aged 50 years. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out on 140 men and 126 women born in Preston (Lancashire, UK) between 1935 and 1943, whose size at birth had been measured in detail. Those subjects found to have impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus had lower birthweight, a smaller head circumference and were thinner at birth. They also had a higher ratio of placental weight to birthweight. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes fell from 27% in subjects who weighed 2.50 kg (5.5 pounds) or less at birth to 6% in those who weighed more than 3.41 kg (7.5 pounds) (p body mass index). Plasma glucose concentrations taken at 2-h in the glucose tolerance test fell progressively as birthweight increased (p < 0.004), as did 2-h plasma insulin concentrations (p < 0.001). The trends with birthweight were independent of duration of gestation and must therefore be related to reduced rates of fetal growth. These findings confirm the association between impaired glucose tolerance in adult life and low birthweight previously reported in Hertfordshire (UK), and demonstrate it in women as well as men. It is suggested that the association reflects the long-term effects of reduced growth of the endocrine pancreas and other tissues in utero. This may be a consequence of maternal undernutrition. PMID:8462770

  18. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also changes the glucose profile in response to a meal in glucose-tolerant individuals. We hypothesised that the driving force for the changed postprandial glucose profiles...

  19. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with clofibra

  20. Abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin as a predictive factor for glucose metabolism disorders in antipsychotic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Leping; JI Juying; DUAN Yiyang; SHI Hui; ZHANG Bin; SHAO Yaqin; SUN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the changes in glucose metabolism after antipsychotic(APS)therapy,to note the influencing factors,as well as to dicuss the relationship between the occurrence of glucose metabolism disorders of APS origin and abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)levels.One hundred and fifty-two patients with schizophrenia,whose fasting plasma glucose(FPG)and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG)in the oral glucose tolerance test(2HPG)were normal,were grouped according to the HbA1c levels,one normal and the other abnormal,and were randomly enrolled into risperidone,clozapine and chlorpromazine treatment for six weeks.The FPG and 2hPG were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study.In the group with abnormal HbA1c and clozapine therapy,2HPG was higher after the study[(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than that before the study[(7.2±1.4)mmol/L]and the difierence was statistically significant(P<0.01).FPG had no statistically significant difference before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).HbA1c levels and drugs contributing to 2HPG at the end of study had statistical cross-action(P<0.01).In the abnormal HbA1c group,2HPG after the study was higher in the clozapine treatment group [(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than in the risperidone treatment group [(7.4±1.7)mmol/L]and the chlorpromazine treatment group[(7.3±1.6)mmol/L].The differences were statistically significant(P<0.01).In the normal HbA1c group there was no statistically significant difierence before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).2HPG before[(7.1±1.6)mmol/L]and after the study[(8.1±1.9)mmol/L]was higher in the abnormal HbA1c group than in the normal HbA1c group[(6.2±1.4)mmol/L vs(6.5±1.4)mmol/L]with the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.01 vs P<0.001).As compared with normal HbA1c group,the relative risk (RR)of glucose metabolism disease occurrence was 4.7 in the abnormal HDA1C group wlth the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.001).Patients with abnormal HbA1c

  1. Effect of repaglinide on endothelial dysfunction during a glucose tolerance test in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wascher Thomas C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms linking post-challenge hyperglycemia to accelerated atherosclerosis, however remain to be elucidated. Methods A prospective, open, randomised, cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of 2 mg repaglinide on hyperglycemia and endothelial function during an oral glucose tolerance test (75 g glucose in 12 subjects with diagnosed IGT. Blood samples for determination of plasma glucose were drawn fasting, 1 and 2 hours after glucose ingestion. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of the brachial artery with high-resolution ultrasound. Results Administration of repaglinide resulted in a significant reduction of plasma glucose at 2 hours (172.8+/-48.4 vs. 138.3+/-41.2 mg/dl; p Conclusion In subjects with IGT, the endothelial dysfunction observed after a glucose challenge is related to the extent of hyperglycemia. Reduction of hyperglycemia by repaglinide reduces endothelial dysfunction in a glucose dependent manner.

  2. Demographic and metabolic characteristics of individuals with progressive glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Mendes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated changes in glucose tolerance of 17 progressors and 62 non-progressors for 9 years to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in anthropometric measurements and responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were analyzed. We identified 14 pairs of individuals, one from each group, who were initially normal glucose tolerant and were matched for gender, age, weight, and girth. We compared initial plasma glucose and insulin curves (from OGTT, insulin secretion (first and second phases and insulin sensitivity indices (from hyperglycemic clamp assay for both groups. In the normal glucose tolerant phase, progressors presented: 1 a higher OGTT blood glucose response with hyperglycemia in the second hour and a similar insulin response vs non-progressors; 2 a reduced first-phase insulin secretion (2.0 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ± 0.3 pmol/L; P < 0.02 with a similar insulin sensitivity index and a lower disposition index (3.9 ± 0.2 vs 4.1 ± 0.2 µmol·kg-1·min-1 ; P < 0.05 vs non-progressors. After 9 years, both groups presented similar increases in weight and fasting blood glucose levels and progressors had an increased glycemic response at 120 min (P < 0.05 and reduced early insulin response to OGTT (progressors, 1st: 2.10 ± 0.34 vs 2nd: 1.87 ± 0.25 pmol/mmol; non-progressors, 1st: 2.15 ± 0.28 vs 2nd: 2.03 ± 0.39 pmol/mmol; P < 0.05. Theses data suggest that β-cell dysfunction might be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Assessment of prenatal and perinatal characteristics of pregnants with gestationel diabetes mellitus who have postnatal glucose abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Bakiner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the difference in terms of prenatal and perinatal characteristics between gestational diabetic (GDM cases diagnosed with impaired fasting glucose (IFGand impaired glucose tolerance (IGT during early postpartum period. Material and Methods: Cases who had no history of any glucose metabolism disorder and diagnosed as GDM due to American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria were included. Subjects were inquired for pregestational characteristics(glucose abnormality in previous pregnancies, birth of macrosomic baby and history of diabetes in a first-degree relative, prenatal characteristics (age, body mass index BMI, features at diagnosis (BMI,weight-gain ,blood pressure and HbA1C, and perinatal characteristics (birth week and baby birth weight were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reperformed in the 6th postpartum week. Effects of pregestational, prenatal and perinatal features on postpartum glucose abnormalities were analysed. Results: Out of 80 cases who completed the study 58.7%(n=47 had normal glucose metabolism, 13.7%( n=11 had IFG and 27.5%(n=22 had IGT. No difference was found between pregestational, prenatal , perinatal characteristics, features at the time of diagnosis and postpartum OGTT results. Incidence of IFG in postpartum OGTT for those who had diabetes in a first degree relative was elevated when compared with other cases(p=0,042. The difference was preserved after adjustment for other characteristic features with multivariate analysis (p=0,037. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes in a first degree relative may be a risk factor for postnatal early IFG. In our study other pregestational, prenatal, perinatal factors and features at diagnosis didn’t affect early postpartum glucose metabolism. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 617-626

  4. Oral glucose tolerance test in unstimulated saliva of healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Mirzaii-Dizgah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in unstimulated whole saliva as a diagnostic specimen in clinical practice for detection of diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was carried out in 30 apparently healthy individuals aged 24–59 years. Serum and saliva samples were obtained in fasting, 1 h and 2 h after glucose intake (75 g. Glucose concentration was determined by enzymatic colorimetric glucose oxidase-prostatic acid phosphatase assay. Statistical analysis of the repeated ANOVA (followed Bonferroni post-hoc test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. Results: The mean serum glucose concentration was significantly higher 1 h after glucose intake (152.32 ± 31.06 than both fasting state (106.38 ± 41.08; P < 0.001 and 2 h after glucose intake (125.21 ± 51.71; P < 0.001. Saliva glucose was also significantly higher 1 h after glucose intake (5.46 ± 2.41 than both fasting state (2.84 ± 1.46; P < 0.001 and 2 h after glucose intake (4.01 ± 1.91; P < 0.001. There were significant positive correlation between saliva and serum glucose concentration in fasting state (r = 0.502; P = 0.044, 1 h (r = 0.756; P = 0.0001, and 2 h (r = 0.543; P = 0.023 after oral glucose intake. Conclusion: It seems that unstimulated saliva can be used as an alternative to serum for diagnosis of DM in OGTT.

  5. [Amylase in the mixed saliva of diabetics and nondiabetics on an empty stomach and during the glucose tolerance test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z; Gol'denberg, A; Lukach, I; Korets, R; Shval'b, O; Platilova, G; Bandura, A

    1989-01-01

    The catalytic activity of alpha-amylase is significantly elevated in salivary pool from 146 diabetics (2176 +/- 149.3 mu catal.l-1) vs. the salivary pool from 78 nondiabetics (1159 +/- 97.3 mu catal X l-1), the difference in the concentrations of the saliva condensation index (the chloride concentration) in the diabetics and nondiabetics being negligible. Glucose tolerance test has been carried out in 54 subjects. Glucose intake has increased the alpha-amylase catalytic activity and augmented glycosialia in 14 diabetics, in 13 subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance, and in 16 nondiabetics; a negligible rise of glycosialia and a reduction of alpha-amylase catalytic activity have been observed in 11 subjects with a flat glycemia curve. Basing on these data, the authors claim that oral glucose activates amylase and glucose secretion by the salivary glands. PMID:2481117

  6. Pregnant outcomes and neonatal anthropometry in women with abnormal glucose challenge test and normal oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy%单纯葡萄糖筛查试验异常对妊娠结局和新生儿体质指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海天; 王子莲; 胡明晶; 李铭岚; 祝文晶; 刘斌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT) on pregnancy outcomes and neonatal anthropometric data in women with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).Methods Totally 214 women who delivered in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 2006 to December 2007 were enrolled.50 g GCT was performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation and 75 g OGTT would be followed if GCT≥7.8 mmol/L.Those patients,whose OGTT results below the following criteria (5.3 mmoL/L,10.0 mmol/L,8.6 mmol/L,7.8 mmol/L),were classified as normal OGTT.Altogether,116 of the 214 women with abnormal GCT and normal OGTT were collected as the study group and the rest 98 women with normal GCT as the control group.The pregnant outcomes of the two groups were analyzed.The neonatal anthropometry,including birth weight,body length,head circumference and shoulder circumference,were recorded.Other neonatal anthropometric data,such as upper arm circumference,tricep skinfold thickness and hypodermic fat thickness of abdomen were measured by a tape measure within 24 hours after birth.Results (1) Pregnant outcomes:No significant difference was found in the rate of assisted vaginal delivery,polyhydramnios,premature rupture of membranes and fetal distress between the study and control group[10.3% (12/116) vs 4% (4/98),5.2% (6/116) vs 10% (10/98),13.8% (16/116) vs 17% (17/98),20.7% (24/116) vs 13% (13/98),P >0.05,respectively],but the rate of cesarean section,spontaneous vaginal delivery and large for gestational age babies in the study group were different from those of the control[72.4% (84/116) vs 51% (51/98),17.2%(20/116) vs 45% (44/98),25.9% (30/116) vs 6% (6/98),P <0.05,respectively].(2)Neonatal anthropometry:The birth weight of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group[(3.4 ±0.4) kg vs (3.3±0.4) kg,P <0.05],but no significant difference was shown in any other neonatal anthropometric results between the study and

  7. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from the metagenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku eUchiyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases (BGLs hydrolyze cellooligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (~mM concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (approximately 10,000 colonies and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7 was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0–6.5 and retained full or 1.5–2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1–0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 µM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose and high Vmax (91 µmol min-1 mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 µmol min-1 mg-1 with cellobiose among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  8. Specific insulin and proinsulin in normal glucose tolerant first-degree relatives of NIDDM patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coifman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify early abnormalities in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM we determined insulin (using an assay that does not cross-react with proinsulin and proinsulin concentrations. The proinsulin/insulin ratio was used as an indicator of abnormal ß-cell function. The ratio of the first 30-min increase in insulin to glucose concentrations following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; I30-0/G30-0 was taken as an indicator of insulin secretion. Insulin resistance (R was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA method. True insulin and proinsulin were measured during a 75-g OGTT in 35 individuals: 20 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and without diabetes among their first-degree relatives (FDR served as controls, and 15 with NGT who were FDR of patients with NIDDM. The FDR group presented higher insulin (414 pmol/l vs 195 pmol/l; P = 0.04 and proinsulin levels (19.6 pmol/l vs 12.3 pmol/l; P = 0.03 post-glucose load than the control group. When these groups were stratified according to BMI, the obese FDR (N = 8 showed higher fasting and post-glucose insulin levels than the obese NGT (N = 9 (fasting: 64.8 pmol/l vs 7.8 pmol/l; P = 0.04, and 60 min post-glucose: 480.6 pmol/l vs 192 pmol/l; P = 0.01. Also, values for HOMA (R were higher in the obese FDR compared to obese NGT (2.53 vs 0.30; P = 0.075. These results show that FDR of NIDDM patients have true hyperinsulinemia (which is not a consequence of cross-reactivity with proinsulin and hyperproinsulinemia and no dysfunction of a qualitative nature in ß-cells.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  10. Unpredictable feeding impairs glucose tolerance in growing lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Jaquiery

    Full Text Available Irregular eating is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disease in adults but may affect young, growing children differently. We investigated the metabolic effects of unpredictable feeding in female juvenile lambs randomly assigned to receive, for six weeks, maintenance feed given twice daily in equal portions (Control Group, C; n = 24 or the same weekly feed amount in aliquots of variable size at unpredictable times (Unpredictable Group, U; n = 21. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT, and measurement of diurnal plasma cortisol concentrations were performed pre and post the dietary intervention. Groups were compared using t test and RM ANOVA. Weight gain was similar in both groups (C 18 ± 2%; U 16 ± 2% of initial body weight. Glucose area under the curve (AUC was unchanged in C (AUC pre 818 ± 34, post 801 ± 33 mmol.min.l(-1, but increased by 20% in U (pre 830 ± 25, post 1010 ± 19 mmol.min.l(-1; p<0.0001, with an inadequate insulin response to glucose load (log(AUC insulin first 40 minutes post intervention C 1.49 ± 0.04 vs U 1.36 ± 0.04 ng.min.ml(-1; p = 0.03. Insulin tolerance and diurnal variation of plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Unpredictable feeding impairs insulin response to glucose in growing lambs despite high quality food and normal weight gain. Irregular eating warrants investigation as a potentially remediable risk factor for disordered glucose metabolism.

  11. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  12. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  13. Diagnosis of prediabetes in cats: glucose concentration cut points for impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Vankan, D; Anderson, S T; Marshall, R; Morton, J M

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is typically diagnosed in cats once clinical signs are evident. Diagnostic criteria for prediabetes in cats have not been defined. The objective of the study was to establish methodology and cut points for fasting and 2-h blood glucose concentrations in healthy client-owned senior cats (≥8 yr) using ear/paw samples and a portable glucose meter calibrated for feline blood. Of the 78 cats, 27 were ideal (body condition score [BCS] 4 or 5 of 9), 31 overweight (BCS 6 or 7), and 20 obese (BCS 8 or 9); 19 were Burmese and 59 non-Burmese. After an 18-24-h fast and an ear/paw blood glucose measurement using a portable glucose meter, glucose (0.5 g/kg bodyweight) was administered intravenous and blood glucose measured at 2 min and 2 h. Cut points for fasting and 2-h glucose concentrations were defined as the upper limits of 95% reference intervals using cats with BCS 4 or 5. The upper cut point for fasting glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. Of the overweight and obese cats, 1 (BCS 7) was above this cut point indicating evidence of impaired fasting glucose. The cut point for 2-h glucose was 9.8 mmol/L. A total of 7 cats (4 with BCS 8 or 9 including 1 Burmese; 3 with BCS 6 or 7, non-Burmese) were above this cut point and thus had evidence of impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the methodology and cutpoints for diagnosis of prediabetes are defined for use in healthy cats 8 yr and older with a range of BCSs. PMID:27565231

  14. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared. PMID:27572923

  15. Resolving the sources of plasma glucose excursions following a glucose tolerance test in the rat with deuterated water and [U-13C]glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, T.C.; Barosa, C.; Nunes, P.M.; Cerdán, S.; Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Jones, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Sources of plasma glucose excursions (PGE) following a glucose tolerance test enriched with [U-(13)C]glucose and deuterated water were directly resolved by (13)C and (2)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy analysis of plasma glucose and water enrichments in rat. Plasma water (2)H-enrichment att

  16. Frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of impaired oral glucose tolerance test in high risk pregnancies for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). A total of 50 high risk pregnancies for gestational diabetes mellitus were selected through outpatient department of obstetrics. Data was collected according to certain obstetric and non-obstetric risk factors for GDM as inclusion criteria through a designed proforma i.e. family history of diabetes, macrosomia (i.e, wt > 3.5 kg), abortions, grand multiparity, a sudden increase in weight (>1 kg/wk) during pregnancy, age > 35 years, early neonatal deaths/sudden IUDS, polyhydramnios, urogenital infections (vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and UTI), previous history of GDM, congenital abnormalities (with or without polyhydramnios) and multiple pregnancy. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and analyzed according to American Diabetic Association criteria, 2004. The most frequent risk factors were family history of diabetes mellitus in 1st degree relative and large for dates babies in 18 patients. Similarly, high risk factors such as history of abortions and grand multiparity were present in 16 and 14 pregnant women respectively. Least common factors, which contributed for GDM, were polyhydramnios in 4 cases and perinatal mortality (due to congenital anomalies of foetus, intrauterine deaths or neonatal deaths) seen only in 5 cases. Overall impaired oral glucose tolerance test was found in 24%. Most patients had one (17%) or two risk factors commonly (23%). Only 2% had shown five or more risk factors. Oral glucose tolerance test is a useful diagnostic tool to detect GDM in high risk pregnancies, depending upon the high frequency of number of risk factors in each individual. (author)

  17. High and Low Glycemic Index Mixed Meals and Blood Glucose in Youth with Type 2 Diabetes or Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Gellar, Lauren; Nansel, Tonja R.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-over pilot study tested blood glucose response to low and high glycemic index meals in 12 obese youth with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Participants demonstrated significantly lower mean daytime blood glucose and a trend toward lower variability, suggesting a clinically relevant impact of reducing glycemic index.

  18. Improved tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect): size and mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonuccelli, Sandra; Muscelli, Elza; Gastaldelli, Amalia;

    2009-01-01

    Improved glucose tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect) is an important determinant of day-to-day glycemic exposure. Its mechanisms have not been clearly established. We recruited 17 healthy volunteers to receive two sequential oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), at time...

  19. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  20. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  1. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  2. Endothelial dysfunction in normal and abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Ricardo J; Vilariño, Jorge O; Machado, Rogelio A; Paragano, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    independent risk factors for coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Hyperglycemia causes glycosylation of proteins and phospholipids, thus increasing intracellular oxidative stress. Nonenzymatic reactive products, glucose-derived Schiff base, and Amadori products form chemically reversible early glycosylation products which subsequently rearrange to form more stable products, some of them long-lived proteins (collagen) which continue undergoing complex series of chemical rearrangements to form advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs). Once formed, AGEs are stable and virtually irreversible. AGEs generate ROS with consequent increased vessel oxidative damage and atherogenesis. The impressive correlation between coronary artery disease and alterations in glucose metabolism has raised the hypothesis that atherosclerosis and diabetes may share common antecedents. Large-vessel atherosclerosis can precede the development of diabetes, suggesting that rather than atherosclerosis being a complication of diabetes, both conditions may share genetic and environmental antecedents, a 'common soil'. PMID:18230954

  3. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults. PMID:24138995

  4. Engineering a novel glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase as supplementation to enhance the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at high glucose concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Li-chuang; Wang, Zhi-jun; Ren, Guang-Hui; Kong, Wei; Li, Liang; XIE, Wei; Liu, Yu-huan

    2015-01-01

    Background Most β-glucosidases reported are sensitive to the end product (glucose), making it the rate limiting component of cellulase for efficient degradation of cellulose through enzymatic route. Thus, there are ongoing interests in searching for glucose-tolerant β-glucosidases, which are still active at high glucose concentration. Although many β-glucosidases with different glucose-tolerance levels have been isolated and characterized in the past decades, the effects of glucose-tolerance ...

  5. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  6. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  7. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente;

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test.......This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test....

  8. Study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) : design and screening results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, M; Corpeleijn, E; Feskens, EJM; Kruijshoop, M; Saris, WHM; de Bruin, TWA; Blaak, EE

    2003-01-01

    The study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) is a 3 years randomised clinical trial designed to evaluate the effect of a combined diet and physical activity intervention program on glucose tolerance in a Dutch population at increased risk for developing type 2

  9. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fonville (Susanne); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.F. Lingsma (Hester)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiag

  10. Hypothalamic POMC Deficiency Improves Glucose Tolerance Despite Insulin Resistance by Increasing Glycosuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Kavaljit H; Adams, Jessica M; Fagel, Brian; Lam, Daniel D; Qi, Nathan; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J

    2016-03-01

    Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is essential for the physiological regulation of energy balance; however, its role in glucose homeostasis remains less clear. We show that hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc)POMC-deficient mice, which develop severe obesity and insulin resistance, unexpectedly exhibit improved glucose tolerance and remain protected from hyperglycemia. To explain these paradoxical phenotypes, we hypothesized that an insulin-independent pathway is responsible for the enhanced glucose tolerance. Indeed, the mutant mice demonstrated increased glucose effectiveness and exaggerated glycosuria relative to wild-type littermate controls at comparable blood glucose concentrations. Central administration of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan II in mutant mice reversed alterations in glucose tolerance and glycosuria, whereas, conversely, administration of the antagonist Agouti-related peptide (Agrp) to wild-type mice enhanced glucose tolerance. The glycosuria of ArcPOMC-deficient mice was due to decreased levels of renal GLUT 2 (rGLUT2) but not sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and was associated with reduced renal catecholamine content. Epinephrine treatment abolished the genotype differences in glucose tolerance and rGLUT2 levels, suggesting that reduced renal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is the underlying mechanism for the observed glycosuria and improved glucose tolerance in ArcPOMC-deficient mice. Therefore, the ArcPOMC-SNS-rGLUT2 axis is potentially an insulin-independent therapeutic target to control diabetes. PMID:26467632

  11. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  12. Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study

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    Abdelnoor Michael

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-month follow-up on clinical outcome in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI without known diabetes. Methods Patients (n = 224, age 58 years with a primary percutanous coronary intervention (PCI treated STEMI were followed for clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial re-infarction, recurrent ischemia causing hospital admission, and stroke. The patients were classified by a standardised 75 g OGTT at two time points, first, at a median time of 16.5 hours after hospital admission, then at three-month follow-up. Based on the OGTT results, the patients were categorised according to the WHO criteria and the term abnormal glucose regulation was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes. Results The number of patients diagnosed with abnormal glucose regulation in-hospital and at three-month was 105 (47% and 50 (25%, respectively. During the follow up time of (median 33 (27, 39 months, 58 (25.9% patients experienced a new clinical event. There were six deaths, 15 non-fatal re-infarction, 33 recurrent ischemia, and four strokes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival free of composite end-points showed similar results in patients with abnormal and normal glucose regulation, both when classified in-hospital (p = 0.4 and re-classified three months later (p = 0.3. Conclusions Patients with a primary PCI treated STEMI, without previously known diabetes, appear to have an excellent

  13. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E;

    2009-01-01

    to be particularly attributable to an increased incidence of post-infarction congestive heart failure. A relationship between glucose metabolism and LV function could potentially explain this excess mortality. METHODS: In patients without known diabetes, glucose metabolism was determined using an oral glucose...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend) ... atrial volume index (p = 0.10). During a median follow-up of 21 months, 32 patients died, and 39 patients met the secondary end point of death or hospitalization for heart failure. After adjustment for differences in LV function, as well as other relevant characteristics, newly detected, as well as known...

  14. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  15. The effect of fat removal on glucose tolerance is depot specific in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haifei; Strader, April D; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2007-10-01

    Energy is stored predominately as lipid in white adipose tissue (WAT) in distinct anatomical locations, with each site exerting different effects on key biological processes, including glucose homeostasis. To determine the relative contributions of subcutaneous and visceral WAT on glucose homeostasis, comparable amounts of adipose tissue from abdominal subcutaneous inguinal WAT (IWAT), intra-abdominal retroperitoneal WAT (RWAT), male gonadal epididymal WAT (EWAT), or female gonadal parametrial WAT (PWAT) were removed. Gonadal fat removal in both male and female chow-fed lean mice resulted in lowered glucose levels across glucose tolerance tests. Female lean C57BL/6J mice as well as male and female lean FVBN mice significantly improved glucose tolerance, indicated by decreased areas under glucose clearance curves. For the C57BL/6J mice maintained on a high-fat butter-based diet, glucose homeostasis was improved only in female mice with PWAT removal. Removal of IWAT or RWAT did not affect glucose tolerance in either dietary condition. We conclude that WAT contribution to glucose homeostasis is depot specific, with male gonadal EWAT contributing to glucose homeostasis in the lean state, whereas female gonadal PWAT contributes to glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese mice. These data illustrate both critical differences among various WAT depots and how they influence glucose homeostasis and highlight important differences between males and females in glucose regulation. PMID:17652151

  16. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Glucose Control in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2...

  17. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...... men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  18. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...... men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  19. Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T;

    2008-01-01

    ) were measured during the OGTT in 278 individuals. RESULTS: Normal glucose tolerance was found in 634 participants, while 110 had isolated IFG, 86 had isolated IGT and 44 had both IFG and IGT, i.e. about 28% had a form of reduced glucose tolerance. Participants with isolated IFG had lower glucose...

  20. Exogenous glucose administration impairs glucose tolerance and pancreatic insulin secretion during acute sepsis in non-diabetic mice.

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    Yoshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The development of hyperglycemia and the use of early parenteral feeding are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. We therefore examined the impact of exogenous glucose administration on the integrated metabolic function of endotoxemic mice using our recently developed frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT. We next extended our findings using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP sepsis model administered early parenteral glucose support. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, 8-12 weeks, were instrumented with chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters. Endotoxemia was initiated with intra-arterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg in the presence of saline or glucose infusion (100 µL/hr, and an FSIVGTT was performed after five hours. In a second experiment, catheterized mice underwent CLP and the impact of early parenteral glucose administration on glucose homeostasis and mortality was assessed over 24 hrs. MEASUREMENTS: AND MAIN RESULTS: Administration of LPS alone did not impair metabolic function, whereas glucose administration alone induced an insulin sensitive state. In contrast, LPS and glucose combined caused marked glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and significantly impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. Similarly, CLP mice receiving parenteral glucose developed fulminant hyperglycemia within 18 hrs (all > 600 mg/dl associated with increased systemic cytokine release and 40% mortality, whereas CLP alone (85 ± 2 mg/dL or sham mice receiving parenteral glucose (113 ± 3 mg/dL all survived and were not hyperglycemic. Despite profound hyperglycemia, plasma insulin in the CLP glucose-infused mice (3.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml was not higher than sham glucose infused mice (2.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of parenteral glucose support and the systemic inflammatory response in the acute phase of sepsis induces profound insulin resistance and impairs compensatory pancreatic insulin

  1. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    URITA, Yoshihisa; Ishihara, Susumu; Akimoto, Tatsuo; Kato, Hiroto; HARA, Noriko; Honda, Yoshiko; Nagai, Yoko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Shimada, Nagato; Sugimoto, Motonobu; Miki, Kazumasa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.

  2. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian;

    2015-01-01

    disposition index, a measure of compensatory pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity, in subjects representing the entire range of the glucose tolerance continuum. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of subjects (N = 313) with heterogeneous age, sex, BMI, and glycemic control...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  3. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S;

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects......). Plasma levels of GLP-1 and GIP increased after oral glucose. Total secretion of these incretin hormones during the 3-hour test did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the 30-minute increase in GLP-1 concentrations was lower in IGT than in NGT (P =.036). We conclude that also in non-obese subjects...

  4. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL.) LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-01-01

    Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW) and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/...

  5. Reduced glucose tolerance is associated with poor memory performance and hippocampal atrophy among normal elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Convit, Antonio; Wolf, Oliver T.; Tarshish, Chaim; de Leon, Mony J.

    2003-01-01

    Poor glucose tolerance and memory deficits, short of dementia, often accompanies aging. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether, among nondiabetic, nondemented middle-aged and elderly individuals, poorer glucose tolerance is associated with reductions in memory performance and smaller hippocampal volumes. We studied 30 subjects who were evaluated consecutively in an outpatient research setting. The composition of the participant group was 57% female and 68.6 ± 7.5 years of age; the...

  6. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    -examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  7. Hemoglobin A1c Versus Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Postpartum Diabetes Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Picón, María José; Murri, Mora; Muñoz, Araceli; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the usefulness of measuring hemoglobin A1c (A1C), alone or combined with the fasting glucose test, compared with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the reassessment of the carbohydrate metabolism status in postpartum women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the status of carbohydrate metabolism by performing the OGTT and fasting glucose and A1C tests in 231 postpartum women with prior GDM 1 year after ...

  8. A Novel EPO Receptor Agonist Improves Glucose Tolerance via Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Scully

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated with recombinant human Epo demonstrate an improvement in insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether CNTO 530, a novel Epo receptor agonist, could affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A single administration of CNTO 530 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the area under the curve in a glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice after 14, 21, and 28 days. HOMA analysis suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and this effect was confirmed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Uptake of 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose indicated that animals dosed with CNTO 530 transported more glucose into skeletal muscle and heart relative to control animals. In conclusion, CNTO530 has a profound effect on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rodents likely because of improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. This effect was observed with epoetin-α and darbepoetin-α, suggesting this is a class effect, but the effect with these compounds relative to CNTO530 was decreased in duration and magnitude.

  9. Predictors of cardiovascular events in a contemporary population with impaired glucose tolerance : an observational analysis of the Nateglinide and Valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research (NAVIGATOR) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preiss, David; Thomas, Laine E.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Haffner, Steven M.; Holman, Rury R.; Standl, Eberhard; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mazzone, Theodore; Rutten, Guy E.; Tognoni, Gianni; Martinez, Felipe A.; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Califf, Robert M.; McMurray, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Risk factors for cardiovascular events are well established in general populations and those with diabetes but have been sparsely studied in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We sought to identify predictors of (1) a composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myoca

  10. Morphological and glucose metabolism abnormalities in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome: group comparisons and individual analyses.

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    Anne-Lise Pitel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS. Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker.

  11. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk. PMID:25565096

  12. Utility of hemoglobin A1c to screen for impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy K. Ginting

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood for having impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c has emerged as a recommended diagnostic tool for identifying diabetes and persons at risk for the disease. This recommendation was based on data in adults, showing the relationship between HbA1C and the future development of diabetes. However, studies in the pediatric population have been limited and no standard values of HbA1c levels in children have been established. Objective To evaluate HbA1c as a test for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents and to identify the optimal HbA1c threshold level (cut off point. Methods We studied 65 obese and 4 overweight children (BMI ≥ +2 SD for age and gender aged 10-15 years in Palembang. All subjects underwent HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance tests. Results Nineteen out of 69 subjects (28% had impaired glucose tolerance. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut off point of HbA1c related to impaired glucose tolerance as diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test was found to be 5.25%, with 63% sensitivity and 64% specificity, 40% positive predictive value, and 82% negative predictive value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.687 (95%CI 0.541–0.833; P < 0.001. Conclusion A HbA1c cut off value of 5.25% may be used as a screening tool to identify children and adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:223-6.].

  13. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    .002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal...

  14. Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabczewska Zofia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although European guidelines advise oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI before or shortly after hospital discharge, data supporting this recommendation are inconclusive. We aimed to analyze whether disturbances in glucose metabolism diagnosed before hospital discharge in AMI patients represents a latent pre-existing condition or rather temporary finding. Additionally, we planned to investigate the value of pre-selected glycemic control parameters as predictors of long-term glucometabolic state. Methods We assessed admission glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, mean blood glucose concentration on days 1 and 2 in 200 patients with a first AMI but without overt disturbances of glucose metabolism. We also performed OGTT at discharge and 3 months after discharge. Results The prevalence of disturbances in glucose metabolism (as assessed by OGTT at 3 months was significantly lower than at discharge (29% vs. 48%, p = 0.0001. Disturbances in glucose metabolism were not confirmed in 63% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and in 36% of patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed during the acute phase of AMI. Age >77 years, glucose ≥12.06 mmol/l at 120 minutes during OGTT before discharge and mean blood glucose level on day 2 >7.5 mmol/l were identified as independent predictors of disturbances in glucose metabolism at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Disturbances in glucose metabolism observed in patients with a first AMI are predominantly transient. Elderly age, high plasma glucose concentration at 120 minutes during OGTT at discharge and elevated mean blood glucose level on day 2 were associated with sustained disturbances in glucose metabolism.

  15. Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, M; Kistorp, C N; Schou, M;

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the associations between glucose metabolism, left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve, and exercise capacity in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: From an outpatient HF clinic, 161 patients with systolic HF were included (mean age 70 ± 10...... years, 69% male, 59% had ischaemic heart disease, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 37 ± 9%). Thirty-four (21%) patients had known diabetes mellitus (DM). Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) classified patients without a prior DM diagnosis as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance...... (467 m) (P <0.001). Differences in clinical variables, resting echocardiographic parameters or contractile reserve, did not explain the exercise intolerance related to diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes, known or newly detected by OGTT, is independently associated with reduced LV contractile reserve and...

  16. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

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    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  17. The influence on cognition of the interaction between the macro-nutrient content of breakfast and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabb, Samantha; Benton, David

    2006-01-30

    Previously it has been found that both missing breakfast and having poorer glucose tolerance were associated with better memory. The present study therefore examined the impact of eight breakfasts, in a factorial design, that contained either high or low levels of carbohydrate, fat or protein. The meals were designed to vary the rate of release of glucose into the blood stream. Memory, reaction times and vigilance were assessed 30, 75 and 120 min following breakfast. Using fasting blood glucose levels as a measure of glucose tolerance, better memory was found to be associated with better glucose tolerance and the consumption of meals that more slowly release glucose into the blood. The effects of the meals on reaction times and vigilance were opposite to those with memory in that higher levels of blood glucose tended to be associated with better performance. It was concluded that individual differences in glucose tolerance interact with the glycaemic load of a meal to influence cognitive functioning. PMID:16225896

  18. Short-term reproducibility of impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes The ADDITION study, DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S S; Glümer, C; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated variations in glucose measurements and the reproducibility of glucose tolerance classification in a high-risk screening setting in general practice. Screening for diabetes was performed in persons aged 40-69 years. Based on capillary fasting (FBG) and 2-h blood glucose (2hBG) individ......We evaluated variations in glucose measurements and the reproducibility of glucose tolerance classification in a high-risk screening setting in general practice. Screening for diabetes was performed in persons aged 40-69 years. Based on capillary fasting (FBG) and 2-h blood glucose (2h......BG) individuals with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes had a second test done after 14 days. Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) were estimated in each glucose tolerance class using the approximation CV(2)(x)=var(ln(x)). Bland-Altman plots with limits...

  19. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.;

    2013-01-01

    .RESULTSMore rapid glucose absorption (P 0.036) and reduced late glucose absorption (P 0.039) were observed in the i-IFG group relative to NGT and i-IGT groups. Women with i-IGT had a lower early glucose absorption than did men with i-IGT (P = 0.041); however, this difference did not persist when differences in body...

  20. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  1. Contraction-mediated glucose uptake is increased in men with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Skovbro, Mette; Flint, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    Exercise superimposed on insulin stimulation is shown to increase muscle glucose metabolism and these two stimuli have synergistic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate glucose infusion rates (GIR) in groups with a wide variation in terms of insulin sensitivity during insulin...

  2. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. METHODS: Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. RESULTS: Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  3. Metabolic profiling of the response to an oral glucose tolerance test detects subtle metabolic changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Wopereis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight is increasing globally and has become a serious health problem. Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Novel tools to understand these processes are needed. Metabolic profiling is one such tool that can provide novel insights into the impact of treatments on metabolism. METHODOLOGY: To study the metabolic changes induced by a mild anti-inflammatory drug intervention, plasma metabolic profiling was applied in overweight human volunteers with elevated levels of the inflammatory plasma marker C-reactive protein. Liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometric methods were used to detect high and low abundant plasma metabolites both in fasted conditions and during an oral glucose tolerance test. This is based on the concept that the resilience of the system can be assessed after perturbing a homeostatic situation. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic changes were subtle and were only detected using metabolic profiling in combination with an oral glucose tolerance test. The repeated measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test increased statistical power, but the metabolic perturbation also revealed metabolites that respond differentially to the oral glucose tolerance test. Specifically, multiple metabolic intermediates of the glutathione synthesis pathway showed time-dependent suppression in response to the glucose challenge test. The fact that this is an insulin sensitive pathway suggests that inflammatory modulation may alter insulin signaling in overweight men.

  4. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures in....... Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates....

  5. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with decompensated cirrhosis being evaluated for liver transplantation: the utility of oral glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Costa Bragança

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and protein calorie malnutrition are important issues in cirrhotic patients because they can increase the progression of liver disease and worsen its prognosis. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in cirrhotic patients being evaluated for liver transplantation and their impacts on a 3-month follow-up, and to compare fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutively included adult patients. Diabetes mellitus was established through fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosing diabetes mellitus in this population. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indexes were calculated, and nutritional assessment was performed by subjective global assessment, anthropometry and handgrip strength through dynamometry. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found in 40 patients (64.5%, 9 (22.5% of them by fasting glycemia and 31 (77.5% of them by oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin resistance was found in 40 (69% of the patients. There was no relationship between diabetes mellitus and the etiology of cirrhosis. Protein calorie malnutrition was diagnosed in a range from 3.22% to 45.2% by anthropometry, 58.1% by subjective global assessment and 88.7% by handgrip strength. Diabetes mellitus identified by oral glucose tolerance test was related significantly to a higher prevalence of infectious complications and deaths in a 3-month period (P = 0.017. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and protein calorie malnutrition is high in cirrhotic patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation. There were more infectious complications and/or deaths in a 3-month follow-up period in patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. Oral glucose tolerance test seems to be

  6. Persistent abnormal coronary flow reserve in association with abnormal glucose metabolism affects prognosis in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B;

    2011-01-01

    motion score index (WMI), ejection fraction (EF) and S' compared with patients with abnormal CFR. At follow-up patients with persistently normal CFR had higher WMI, EF, S' and lower end-systolic diameter compared with patients with abnormal microcirculation. Performing univariate logistical regression...

  7. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help...... to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. METHODS: In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted...... volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were...

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Forms of Self-Management Group Education in Japanese People with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Saeko; Kozai, Hana; Naruse, Yuko; WATANABE, Kanji; Fukui, Michiaki; Hasegawa, Goji; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of education on diabetes prevention in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. A total of 100 subjects of impaired glucose tolerance with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels ≥5.5 to

  9. Cocoa, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling: cardiometabolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mai, Francesca; Martella, Letizia; De Feo, Martina; Soddu, Daniele; Fellini, Emanuela; Veneri, Mariangela; Stamerra, Cosimo A; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-11-18

    Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states. Glucose and insulin actions in the skeletal muscle are improved by insulin-dependent production of nitric oxide, favoring capillary recruitment, vasodilatation, and increased blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction, with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance has been described, at least in part, to negatively affect endothelial function. Consistent with this, conditions of insulin resistance are usually linked to endothelial dysfunction, and the exposure of the endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and cocoa flavonoids may positively affect the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction with possible benefits in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  10. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Abel (Rajaratnam); H.A. Valkenburg (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India was assessed and its associations with body mass index and a family history of diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from inhabitants of two

  11. Skin Autofluorescence Based Decision Tree in Detection of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Andries J.; Smit, Jitske M.; Botterblom, Gijs J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Diabetes (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compare

  12. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    Background: In several recent studies, it has been shown that markers of milk-fat intake, are strongly correlated to a low fasting-insulin level, indicating a positive correlation between milk-fat intake and improved glucose-tolerance [1, 2]. This is in contradiction to the general findings...

  13. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P;

    2013-01-01

    -induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...... and insulin and substantially improved glucose clearance. To directly assess the contribution of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-signaling to these improvements, l-arginine was given to Glp1r knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. In this experiment oral l-arginine significantly augmented insulin secretion...

  14. Metabolic inflexibility is a common feature of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Færch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan

    2011-12-01

    Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation. Impaired metabolic flexibility is related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, but whether metabolic flexibility is impaired in individuals with the pre-diabetic states isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) is unknown. Using the gold standard euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique combined with indirect calorimetry, we measured peripheral insulin sensitivity, lipid and glucose oxidation, and thus metabolic flexibility in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 20), i-IFG (n = 18) and i-IGT (n = 28). During insulin stimulation, individuals with i-IGT displayed reduced insulin sensitivity including reduced glucose oxidation. Interestingly, those with i-IFG exhibited reduced glucose oxidation and a slightly elevated lipid oxidation rate during insulin infusion despite having normal total peripheral glucose disposal. Thus, metabolic flexibility was significantly reduced in individuals with both i-IFG and i-IGT even after adjustment for BMI and insulin sensitivity. The data indicate that metabolic inflexibility may precede the development of overt peripheral insulin resistance in pre-diabetic individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm this notion. PMID:21207234

  15. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Roshanravan; Mohammad Alizadeh; Mehdi Hedayati; Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi; Naimeh Mesri Alamdari; Farideh Anari; Ali Tarighat-Esfanjani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus are complications of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns are typically at increased risk for complications. This study sought to determine effect of zinc supplementation on serum glucose levels, insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: In this clinical trial 44 pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance, from December 2012 –April 2013 were randomly divided ...

  16. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  17. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  18. Microbially produced glucagon-like peptide 1 improves glucose tolerance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Tulika; Wegmann, Udo; Bobhate, Anup;

    2016-01-01

    of the gluconeogenic genes G6pc and Pepck. RESULTS: Insulin release from primary islets of WT but not GLP1R-KO mice was higher following incubation with culture supernatant from LL-GLP1 compared with LL-UK200. In mice on chow, supplementation with LL-GLP1 versus LL-UK200 promoted increased vena porta levels of GLP-1...... (GLP1R-KO) mice with culture supernatant of these strains. In addition, we administered these strains to mice on chow or HFD. At the end of the study period, we measured plasma GLP-1 levels, performed intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests, and determined hepatic expression...... in both WT and GLP1R-KO mice; however, LL-GLP1 promoted improved glucose tolerance in WT but not in GLP1R-KO mice, indicating a requirement for the GLP-1 receptor. In mice on HFD and thus with impaired glucose tolerance, supplementation with LL-GLP1 versus LL-UK200 promoted a pronounced improvement...

  19. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C;

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to study the potential mechanisms responsible for the improvement in glucose control in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Thirteen obese subjects with T2D and twelve matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were examined during a liquid...

  20. Sourdough-leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Mario; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Sanna, Manuela; Cherchi, Sara; Dettori, Mariella; Manca, Elena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Sourdough bread has been reported to improve glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. In this study postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were evaluated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had a meal containing sourdough bread leavened with lactobacilli, in comparison to a reference meal containing bread leavened with baker yeast. Sixteen IGT subjects (age range 52-75, average BMI 29.9 +/- 4.2 kg/ m2) were randomly given a meal containing sourdough bread (A) and a meal containing the reference bread (B) in two separate occasions at the beginning of the study and after 7 days. Sourdough bread was leavened for 8 h using a starter containing autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several bacilli able to produce a significant amount of D-and L-lactic acid, whereas the reference bread was leavened for 2 h with commercial baker yeast containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at time 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In IGT subjects sourdough bread induced a significantly lower plasma glucose response at 30 minutes (p = 0.048) and a smaller incremental area under curve (AUC) delta 0-30 and delta 0-60 min (p = 0.020 and 0.018 respectively) in comparison to the bread leavened with baker yeast. Plasma insulin response to this type of bread showed lower values at 30 min (p = 0.045) and a smaller AUC delta 0-30 min (p = 0.018). This study shows that in subjects with IGT glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after the consumption of sourdough bread are lower than after the bread leavened with baker yeast. This effect is likely due to the lactic acid produced during dough leavening as well as the reduced availability of simple carbohydrates. Thus, sour-dough bread may potentially be of benefit in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  1. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  2. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from a Kusaya gravy metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Taku; Yaoi, Katusro; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    β-glucosidases (BGLs) hydrolyze cello-oligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (∼mM) concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (∼10,000 colonies) and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue) colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v) glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa) and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7) was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0-6.5 and retained full or 1.5-2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1-0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 μM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose) and high V max (91 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) with cellobiose) among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose) inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose. PMID:26136726

  3. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  4. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  5. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Freire Rezende

    1997-01-01

    individuals (Group 2. Every patient in each group underwent anamnesis and standardized autonomic tests which consisted of hear frequency test, Valsalva maneuver, postural test and sinus arrythmia. Routine hematologic exams as well as GTT were also made. RESULTS: Patients in group 1 had more systemic arterial hypertension, centripetal obesity, fasting and post-feeding hyperglicemia and dyslipidemia when compared with group 2. When we analysed the autonomic tests, the sinus arrythmia test was abnormal in 54.5% of the patients in group 1 and in 32.5% in group 2 (p=0.0039 and the Valsalva maneuver was abnormal in 34.1% of group 1 and in 7% of group 2 (p=0.004. The postural test was not different in both groups (p=0.334. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the involvement of the autonomic nervous system was more frequent in patients with IGT when compared to controls. These findings can explair the increased lethality due to vasculopathies observed in this group of patients and also alert physicians to care for patients with impaired glucose tolerance test.

  6. The effect of the interaction between glucose tolerance and breakfasts varying in carbohydrate and fibre on mood and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabb, Samantha L; Benton, David

    2006-01-01

    As a glucose containing drink has been reported to improve memory, and missing breakfast has been reported to adversely influence memory late in the morning, meals designed to differ in their ability to release glucose into the blood stream were contrasted. Using a factorial design, breakfasts containing 15, 30 or 50 g of carbohydrate and 1.5, 6 or 13 g of fibre were compared. The glucose tolerance of participants proved to be an important factor. Those with better tolerance reported better mood. Those eating breakfasts containing greater amounts of carbohydrate reported feeling tired rather than energetic. The amount of carbohydrate did not negatively affect memory in those with better glucose tolerance, however, the consumption of more carbohydrate resulted in more forgetting in those with poorer glucose tolerance. The effect with reactions times differed from memory in that a greater intake of carbohydrate resulted in faster responses later in the morning. PMID:17176639

  7. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  8. Follow-up of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Basic Health Survey 2007 in Jakarta in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Mihardja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu (TGT atau Pre Diabetes merupakan keadaan yang belum termasuk kategori diabetes tetapi glukosa darah lebih tinggi dari normal. TGT merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM, penyakit jantung koroner, stroke. Metode: Dilakukan penelitian follow up responden TGT Riskesdas 2007 pada tahun 2009 untuk mengetahui status hiperglikemianya apakah telah menjadi DM, tetap TGT atau Normal. Hasil:Didapatkan setelah 2 tahun 7,2% telah menjadi DM, 47,8% tetap TGT, 4,3% berubah menjadi gangguan glukosa puasa dan 40,7% menjadi normal toleransi glukosa. Kebiasaan perilaku, keadaan biologis seperti indeks massa tubuh, obesitas sentral, dislipidemia tidak berbeda signifikan antara tahun 2009 dibandingkan 2007. Dari analisis didapatkan pada kelompok TGT yang menjadi DM lingkar pinggang meningkat tapi tidak signifikan dan Homa IR (resistensi insulin lebih tinggi (p < 0,05 dibandingkan kelompok lainnya. Saran:Disarankan agar pembuat program melakukan intervensi pada kelompok TGT agar tidak menjadi DM dan mencegah timbulnya komplikasi penyakit degeneratif.Kata kunci: Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu, obesitas sentral, DKI JakartaABSTRACTBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or pre diabetes is not categorized as diabetes yet but blood glucose level is more than normal. IGT is the risk factor for diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and stroke. Methods: In 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in DKI Jakarta to follow up 78 subjects identified as IGT in Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007. It aimed to assess the hyperglycemia status of the IGT subjects, whether developing into diabetes mellitus or becoming normal glucose tolerance or just remained IGT. Results: We found over two years for IGT subjects, 7.2% progressed to diabetes mellitus, 47.8% remained impaired glucose tolerance, 4.3% changed to impaired fasting glucose and 40.7% reverted to normal glucose tolerance. Life style and biological factors

  9. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon Handisurya

    Full Text Available Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients.In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR.After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82-441.92 vs. 468.80 (414.27-488.57 mL/min/m2, p = 0.005, which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017 and adaptation index (p = 0.017 as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721, insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032-0.106 vs. 0.083 (0.054-0.144 nmol/mmol, p = 0.093 and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646 remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285 or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463 were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression.HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV-induced insulin resistance, HCV-positive renal transplant

  10. Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    van Eyk, Gregory Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Fat and Sugar Induce Obesity and Impair Glucose Tolerance in Prepubertal Pigs Abstract A pig model of childhood obesity was used to study the effects of dietary energy on body adiposity, and blood parameters associated with impaired glucose clearance. Prepubertal female pigs weaned at 21 d of age were fed control (CON), refined sugar (SUG), fat (FAT), and sugar-fat (SUGFAT) diets in a completely randomized arrangement for 16 wk. Calories from fat were 8.9% for CON, 5.6% for SU...

  11. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy:glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Algenes Aranha; Usman H Malabu; Venkat Vangaveti; Elham Saleh Reda; Yong Mong Tan; Kunwarjit Singh Sangla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects.Methods:who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia’s Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women Results: Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups.Conclusions:No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  12. Clinical observation of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular department of Internal Medicine%心血管内科住院患者糖代谢异常的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore cardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients with abnormal glucose metabolism,understanding of abnormal glucose metabolism oncardiovascular effects of patient health,and better treatment of patients with cardiovasculardisease.MethodsIn our hospital in 2013 June~2014 year in March treated 200 cases ofcardiovascular department of internal medicine hospitalized patients as the research object,including 50 cases with clinical diagnosed with diabetes,the remaining 150 patients,were used toobserve the cardiovascular department of internal medicine sugar glucose metabolism of patients hospitalized for observation and analysis of tolerance test and fasting blood glucose detection two experimental methods.ResultsThe two test results show,in 200 patients with fasting blood glucose detection,diagnosis of abnormal glucose metabolism in 50 patients,and oral glucose tolerance test on the remaining 150 patients,diagnosed with abnormal glucose metabolism in 100 cases(67%) of the number of sampling experiment,by comparing with the glucose tolerance,test of cardiovascular patients blood glucose were detected,the rate of missed diagnosis of patients with greatly reduced.ConclusionThe oral glucose tolerance test glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease than that of fasting blood glucose test to conifrm the diagnosis of glucose metabolism in patients with cardiovascular disease rate is high,is worth in clinicaldetection of glucose metabolism of the patients,and vigorously promote the use of.%目的:探究心血管内科住院患者的糖代谢异常,了解糖代谢异常对心血管患者身体健康的影响,从而更好的治疗患者的心血管疾病。方法选取我院2013年6月~2014年3月收治的200例心血管内科住院的患者为研究对象,其中50例经过临床各项检查确诊为糖尿病,对剩余150例患者,分别采用葡萄糖耐量试验和空腹血糖检测实验方法对患者的

  13. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gokulakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome (MS was diagnosed based on modified ATPIII guidelines. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test or one-way ANOVA (with Tukey′s HSD was used to compare groups for continuous variables. Results : Body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HOMA IR, serum cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with increasing tertiles of body fat (P<0.001. There was a linear increase in the percentage of body fat with increase in number of components of MS (no metabolic abnormality: 25±11, one metabolic abnormality: 28±10, two metabolic abnormalities: 33±8, and three and more metabolic abnormalities: 35±7 (P<0.001. Regression models showed significant association of body fat with MS after adjusting for age, gender, insulin resistance, and glycated hemoglobin (Odds ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.04 - 1.08, P<0.001. In linear regression analysis, body fat showed a significant association with insulin resistance after adjusting for age, gender, and glycated hemoglobin (β=0.030, P<0.001. Conclusions : A significant association exists between body fat, MS, and cardiometabolic risk factors even among subjects with NGT.

  14. Circulating ZBED3 level is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the plasma zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3(ZBED3)levels in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance,and to explore the relationship between ZBED3 and insulin resistance.Methods There were 109 patients with newly diagnosed type 2diabetes mellitus(T2DM),89 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT),113 sex-,age-,and body mass index(BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)included in this study.Plasma ZBED3 level

  15. Abnormal release of incretins and cortisol after oral glucose in subjects with insulin-resistant myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Asa; Olsson, Tommy; Cederquist, Kristina;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), as well as glucagon and cortisol, are known to influence islet function, the role of these hormones in conditions of insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes is unknown...... response. Furthermore, cortisol and ACTH levels increased paradoxically in patients after glucose; this was more pronounced in patients with long CTG repeat expansions. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the GLP-1 and ACTH/cortisol responses to oral glucose are abnormal in insulin-resistant DM1 patients...

  16. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine h.; Faerch, Kirstine; Philipsen, Annelotte;

    2015-01-01

    ) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound....... The associations of VAT and SATwith blood pressure and lipids were examined by linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex,smoking, alcohol, physical activity, glucose tolerance status (GTS), medication use, and body massindex. Effect modification by GTS and sex was examined, and stratified analyses performed......Context: Regional fat distribution rather than overall obesity has been recognized as important tounderstanding the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Objective:We examined the associations of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominalsubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT...

  17. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test. STUDY DESIGN: A historical cohort study of 2459 pregnant women systematically examined for gestational diabetes...... was performed. Information of oral glucose tolerance test results and clinical outcome were collected from medical records. RESULTS: The risk of hypertensive complications, cesarean section, induction of labor and macrosomia was significantly increased in both overweight women (body mass index [BMI] 25.......0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese women (BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m(2)) compared with women who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The frequencies of shoulder dystocia, preterm delivery, and infant morbidity other than macrosomia were not significantly associated with maternal BMI. CONCLUSION: Prepregnancy...

  18. Dosakaya Juice Assuages Development of Sucrose Induced Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Imbalance in Antioxidant Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Dommati Anand; Pisupati S.R Sweeya; Shukla, Srishti; Anusha, Sanga Venkata; Akshara, Dasari; Madhusudana, Kuncha; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to explore the effect of Dosakaya (DK) (Cucumis melo var. chito) juice on sucrose induced dysglycemia and disturbances in antioxidant defense in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were preconditioned with DK juice before administration of sucrose beverage continuously for 1-month. Blood glucose tolerance test and glutathione (GSH) homeostasis pathways in kidney were analyzed in different group of animals at the end of the study. Results: DK juice diffused (P < 0.00...

  19. Intake of Lactobacillus reuteri Improves Incretin and Insulin Secretion in Glucose-Tolerant Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Marie-Christine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina;

    2015-01-01

    of glucagon-like peptides (GLP)-1 and -2. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial was performed in 21 glucose-tolerant humans (11 lean: age 49 ± 7 years, BMI 23.6 ± 1.7 kg/m(2); 10 obese: age 51 ± 7 years, BMI 35.5 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)). Participants ingested 10(10) b.i.d. L...

  20. An Informatics Model for Clinical Research – Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, Circe W.; Caudle, Jane M.; Ziemer, David C.; Phillips, Lawrence S.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for large scale, multi-site research studies is the time-sensitive tracking of numerous subjects, samples and results through multiple encounters and processes, by many team members in several different locations. This may be compounded by collaborations with other studies to share samples, data collection and subjects. The Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance (SIGT) study has met this challenge by developing a secure, informatics system with web and client server interf...

  1. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Hespel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-calo...

  2. Effect of Parenteral Antioxidant Supplementation During the Dry Period on Postpartum Glucose Tolerance in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Abuelo, A.; Alves‐Nores, V.; Hernandez, J.; Muiño, R.; J.L. BENEDITO; C. CASTILLO

    2016-01-01

    Background Exacerbated postparturient insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with several pathologic conditions in dairy cattle. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in IR in humans, and an association, but not direct relationship, between OS and IR recently has been reported in transition dairy cattle. Hypothesis Supplementation with antioxidants shortly before calving improves glucose tolerance after parturition in dairy cattle. Animals Ten late‐pregnant Holstein cows entering ...

  3. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice.

  4. The opposing effects of the flavonoids isoquercitrin and sissotrin, isolated from Pterospartum tridentatum, on oral glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Alexandra; Martins, Sofia; Branco, Pedro; Dias, Teresa; Borges, Carlos; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Costa, Maria do Céu; Teixeira, Adriano; Mota-Filipe, Hélder

    2008-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Pterospartum tridentatum on the blood glucose levels of normal Wistar rats was investigated in a situation of oral glucose challenge. The extract at 300 mg/kg showed an antihyperglycaemic effect in the first 30 min after glucose challenge but then the blood glucose levels rose above those of the control group, indicating the presence of compounds with different effects on glucose tolerance. Nine compounds of isoflavone and flavonol skeletons were identified in the extract by HPLC-ESI-MS(n), four of them being identified for the first time in this species. The isoflavone sissotrin and the flavonol derivative, isoquercitrin, were selected for the oral glucose tolerance test. Isoquercitrin (100 mg/kg) showed time-dependent antihyperglycaemic activity by delaying the post-oral glucose load glycaemic peak at 30 min, as did the sodium-dependent glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin (100 mg/kg). In contrast, sissotrin (100 mg/kg) showed an opposite effect, impairing glucose tolerance. In conclusion, these preliminary results indicate that the effect of the extract on blood glucose may be either antihyperglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. Additionally, as far as is known, these are the first in vivo results on the acute antihyperglycaemic potential of isoquercitrin.

  5. PPARα Agonist Fenofibrate Reduced the Secreting Load of β-Cells in Hypertriglyceridemia Patients with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Liu; Rui Lu; Ying Wang; Yanjin Hu; Yumei Jia; Ning Yang; Jing Fu; Guang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor associated with insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. This study investigated the effects of hypertriglyceridemia and fenofibrate treatment on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. A total of 1974 subjects with normal glucose tolerance were divided into the normal TG group (NTG group, n = 1302) and hypertriglyceridemia group (HTG group, n = 672). Next, 92 patients selected randomly from 672 pati...

  6. Effects of exercise intervention on vascular endothelium functions of patients with impaired glucose tolerance during prediabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yiping; Li, Jianwei; ZHANG, ZHENGHONG; TANG, YEDONG; CHEN, ZUOSONG; Wang, Zhengchao

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is an early pathophysiological change in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during prediabetes mellitus. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise intervention contributes to the reversal of vascular endothelium-dependent dysfunction in middle-aged patients with IGT. Following exercise intervention, significant changes in endothelin (ET)-1, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), ΔDia-P, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)2h, fasting insuli...

  7. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Gijs H; Moors, Chantalle C M; Jocken, Johan W E; van der Zijl, Nynke J; Jans, Anneke; Konings, Ellen; Diamant, Michaela; Blaak, Ellen E

    2016-03-01

    Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males)) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males)) by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [²H₂]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG) and free fatty acids (FFA), whereas [U-(13)C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018) and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064) in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043), higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025), higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004), lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017) and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073) and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059) versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects. PMID:26985905

  8. Altered Skeletal Muscle Fatty Acid Handling in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance as Compared to Impaired Fasting Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs H. Goossens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altered skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA metabolism contributes to insulin resistance. Here, we compared skeletal muscle FA handling between subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; n = 12 (7 males and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 14 (7 males by measuring arterio-venous concentration differences across forearm muscle. [2H2]-palmitate was infused intravenously, labeling circulating endogenous triacylglycerol (TAG and free fatty acids (FFA, whereas [U-13C]-palmitate was incorporated in a high-fat mixed-meal, labeling chylomicron-TAG. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken to determine muscle TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG, FFA, and phospholipid content, their fractional synthetic rate (FSR and degree of saturation, and gene expression. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Net skeletal muscle glucose uptake was lower (p = 0.018 and peripheral insulin sensitivity tended to be reduced (p = 0.064 in IGT as compared to IFG subjects. Furthermore, IGT showed higher skeletal muscle extraction of VLDL-TAG (p = 0.043, higher muscle TAG content (p = 0.025, higher saturation of FFA (p = 0.004, lower saturation of TAG (p = 0.017 and a tendency towards a lower TAG FSR (p = 0.073 and a lower saturation of DAG (p = 0.059 versus IFG individuals. Muscle oxidative gene expression was lower in IGT subjects. In conclusion, increased liver-derived TAG extraction and reduced lipid turnover of saturated FA, rather than DAG content, in skeletal muscle accompany the more pronounced insulin resistance in IGT versus IFG subjects.

  9. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: People with epilepsy commonly report having problems with their memory. Many indicate that memory difficulties significantly hinder their functioning at work, in school, and at home. Besides, some studies have reported that memory performance as a prognostic factor is of most value in patients with risk of refractory epilepsy and when used in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the cerebral cortical areas involving memory impairment in epilepsy is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to access changes of cerebral glucose metabolism of epilepsy patients using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Method: Nine temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. Each patient was confirmed with lesions in right mesial temporal lobe by MRI, PET and EEG. Serial cognition function tests were performed. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) was measured by PET at 45 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Parametric images were generated by grand mean scaling each scan to 50. The images were then transformed into standard stereotactic space. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was applied to find the correlations between verbal memory, figure memory, perception intelligent quotation (PIQ) and rCMRglc in epilepsy patients. The changes of rCMRglc were significant if corrected p value was less than 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship between figure memory score and verbal memory score. FDG-PET scan showed changes of rCMRglc positive related with verbal memory score in precentral gyms of right frontal lobe (Brodmann area 4, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size 240) and cingulated gyms of right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 32, corrected p=0.002, voxel size 143). No negative relationship was demonstrable between verbal memory and rCMRglc in this study. Besides, significanfiy positive correlation between figure memory was shown in cuneus of right occipital lobe (Brodmann area 18, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size

  10. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  11. EVALUATION OF HONEY INCORPORATED FOOD PREPARATION ON THE BASIS OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND THEIR ADVOCACY IN IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seema

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural sweetener and it is a nature’s gift to mankind. Honey is important edible substance, which contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins and sugars as major constituents. Honey is frequently used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as variety of the Ayurvedic preparations are taken along with or in combination with honey. The present study was conducted to determine the glycemic index of food products made with different natural sweeteners including honey. Normal healthy subjects (n = 10 and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 10 were included in the study and administered with equicarbohydrate quantity of glucose and a food preparation ‘sweet roll’ containing different sweeteners at fasted state on various days. Monitoring of blood glucose in normal healthy subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes indicated a significant difference in incremental area under the curve (IAUC of glucose and food preparations made with different sweeteners. The mean incremental area under the curve of food preparations was significantly lower (p = < 0.01 than that of glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance as well as normal healthy subjects. At the same time honey incorporated sweet rolls were found to have lower glycemic index when compared to rolls prepared with cane sugar and jaggery. This indicated honey incorporated foods may be occasionally consumed by subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  12. Therapeutic effects of adropin on glucose tolerance and substrate utilization in diet-induced obese mice with insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Gao

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Adropin treatment of DIO mice enhances glucose tolerance, ameliorates insulin resistance and promotes preferential use of carbohydrate over fat in fuel selection. Skeletal muscle is a key organ in mediating adropin's whole-body effects, sensitizing insulin signaling pathways and altering fuel selection preference to favor glucose while suppressing fat oxidation.

  13. Effects of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP on glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria S; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Nielsen, Signe;

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is important for postprandial glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), whereas the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains to be resolved. We aimed to explore the relative importance of endogenously...

  14. A miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell with a high tolerance against ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Zhang, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Graduate School of CAS, Beijing (China); Su, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Ohsaka, T. [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Mao, L.

    2009-02-15

    This study demonstrates a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell (BFC) with a high tolerance against physiological level of ascorbic acid (AA) by immobilising ascorbate oxidase (AAox) on both the bioanode and the biocathode. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-modified carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are employed as the substrate electrode for the bioanode and biocathode. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) are used as the biocatalysts for the electro-oxidation of glucose and for the electro-reduction of oxygen, respectively. SWNTs are used as the support for the both, stably confining the electrocatalyst (i.e. polymerised methylene blue, polyMB) for the oxidation of NADH co-factor for GDH and efficiently facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e. BOD) for O{sub 2} reduction. The prepared micro-sized GDH-based bioanode and BOD-based biocathode employed for the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose and reduction of oxygen, respectively, are further over-coated with AAox to give a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with a high tolerance against AA. The maximum power density and the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC are 52 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.60 V, respectively. These values remain unchanged with the presence of AA in solution. In the human serum containing 10 mM NAD{sup +} and under ambient air, the maximum power density and the OCV of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode are 35 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.39 V, respectively. These values are remarkably larger than those of the glucose/O{sub 2} BFC without AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode. This study could offer a new route to the development of enzymatic BFCs with promising application in real biological systems. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Biochemical studies on gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in Sudanese pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect the effect of some maternal risk factors such as age, parity, previous heavy babies and family history of diabetes, in glucose tolerance impairment and to stand on the state of insulin resistance which occurs in pregnancy and the possible role of cortisol, human placental lactogen and prolactin in augmentation of this state of insulin resistance as well as to show the effect of glucose tolerance deterioration on lipid metabolism, a study was carried out on Sudanese pregnant women. The study included thirty gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women, thirty impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and thirty women with normal glucose tolerance as a control group. The GDM, IGT and the control group were screened from about 2000 Sudanese pregnant women in the different gestational weeks. The GDM and IGT women were all discovered in the third trimester of pregnancy, they found to be significantly older than the control group. The IGT group was found to have a first degree family history of diabetes incidence significantly more than that of the control group while the GDM group has significantly much higher results when compared with the normal control group. The incidence of previous heavy babies was significantly higher in the IGT group when compared with the control while that of GDM was significantly much higher. The GDM group was found to have significantly higher mean levels of fasting blood plasma glucose sugar than that of the IGT and the control groups. It was found that the serum cholestrol mean level and the serum triglycerides mean level of the IGT and that of the GDM were significantly higher than that of the control group. Also, there were no significant differences among serum fasting insulin mean levels of the three studied groups. Results of serum anti-insulin antibodies of the three studied groups were significantly different. Results of serum cortisol of the control group in the first, second and third trimesters revealed that cortisol

  16. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates...... degrees C of the 'average' D. octaedra. Such conditions are very likely to occur in the northern distribution ranges of this stress-tolerant earthworm....

  17. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance...... test (OGTT) during 1997-2002 (baseline) and during 2003-2004 (re-evaluation). The observation period was (median; range) 4 (2-7) years. During re-evaluation, body mass index (BMI) was 24.9 (22.4-29.0) kg/m(2) and total Ferriman-Gallwey score was 10 (7-15) (median; 25-75% quartile). The women had...... unchanged BMI compared to baseline but increased fasting and 2 hour glucose levels. Impaired OGTT outcome during follow-up was seen in 14/66 (21.2%) women, 5/66 (7.6%) developed diabetes. Women who took oral contraceptives had a significantly decreased area under the curve (AUC) for insulin during follow...

  18. Overexpression of a proton-coupled vacuolar glucose exporter impairs freezing tolerance and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemens, Patrick A W; Patzke, Kathrin; Trentmann, Oliver; Poschet, Gernot; Büttner, Michael; Schulz, Alexander; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis vacuoles harbor, besides sugar transporter of the TMT-type, an early response to dehydration like 6 (ERDL6) protein involved in glucose export into the cytosol. However, the mode of transport of ERDL6 and the plant's feedback to overexpression of its activity on essential properties such as, for example, seed germination or freezing tolerance, remain unexplored. Using patch-clamp studies on vacuoles expressing AtERDL6 we demonstrated directly that this carrier operates as a proton-driven glucose exporter. Overexpression of BvIMP, the closest sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) homolog to AtERDL6, in Arabidopsis leads surprisingly to impaired seed germination under both conditions, sugar application and low environmental temperatures, but not under standard conditions. Upon cold treatment, BvIMP overexpressor plants accumulated lower quantities of monosaccharides than the wild-type, a response in line with the reduced frost tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the fact that cold temperatures inhibits BvIMP transcription in sugar beet leaves. With these findings we show that the tight control of vacuolar sugar import and export is a key requisite for cold tolerance and seed germination of plants.

  19. Overexpression of a proton-coupled vacuolar glucose exporter impairs freezing tolerance and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemens, Patrick A W; Patzke, Kathrin; Trentmann, Oliver; Poschet, Gernot; Büttner, Michael; Schulz, Alexander; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis vacuoles harbor, besides sugar transporter of the TMT-type, an early response to dehydration like 6 (ERDL6) protein involved in glucose export into the cytosol. However, the mode of transport of ERDL6 and the plant's feedback to overexpression of its activity on essential properties such as, for example, seed germination or freezing tolerance, remain unexplored. Using patch-clamp studies on vacuoles expressing AtERDL6 we demonstrated directly that this carrier operates as a proton-driven glucose exporter. Overexpression of BvIMP, the closest sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) homolog to AtERDL6, in Arabidopsis leads surprisingly to impaired seed germination under both conditions, sugar application and low environmental temperatures, but not under standard conditions. Upon cold treatment, BvIMP overexpressor plants accumulated lower quantities of monosaccharides than the wild-type, a response in line with the reduced frost tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the fact that cold temperatures inhibits BvIMP transcription in sugar beet leaves. With these findings we show that the tight control of vacuolar sugar import and export is a key requisite for cold tolerance and seed germination of plants. PMID:24329902

  20. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  1. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  2. Neuregulin improves response to glucose tolerance test in control and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Niisuke, Katrin; Veiga, Catarina; Adrover, Anna; Manzano, Anna; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Camps, Marta; Bartrons, Ramon; Zorzano, Antonio; Gumà, Anna

    2016-03-15

    Neuregulin (NRG) is an EGF-related growth factor that binds to the tyrosine kinase receptors ErbB3 and ErbB4, thus inducing tissue development and muscle glucose utilization during contraction. Here, we analyzed whether NRG has systemic effects regulating glycemia in control and type 2 diabetic rats. To this end, recombinant NRG (rNRG) was injected into Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and their respective lean littermates 15 min before a glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. rNRG enhanced glucose tolerance without promoting the activation of the insulin receptor (IR) or insulin receptor substrates (IRS) in muscle and liver. However, in control rats, rNRG induced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in liver but not in muscle. In liver, rNRG increased ErbB3 tyrosine phosphorylation and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), thus indicating that rNRG activates the ErbB3/PI3K/PKB signaling pathway. rNRG increased glycogen content in liver but not in muscle. rNRG also increased the content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), an activator of hepatic glycolysis, and lactate in liver but not in muscle. Increases in lactate were abrogated by wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, in incubated hepatocytes. The liver of ZDF rats showed a reduced content of ErbB3 receptors, entailing a minor stimulation of the rNRG-induced PKB/GSK-3 cascade and resulting in unaltered hepatic glycogen content. Nonetheless, rNRG increased hepatic Fru-2,6-P2 and augmented lactate both in liver and in plasma of diabetic rats. As a whole, rNRG improved response to the GTT in both control and diabetic rats by enhancing hepatic glucose utilization. PMID:26714846

  3. [Optimization of diet therapy in patients with gallstones complicated with obesity and impaired glucose tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, S K

    2003-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of a diet with lower glycaemic index on clinico-metabolic parameters in obese patients with gallstones and impaired glucose tolerance. The results investigations indicated that the lowering of glycaemic index and the caloric reduction of diet have a beneficial effects on dynamic of parameters of functional status of liver and gallbladder. It was noted the increase of medical effect of diet in correction of obesity and impaired parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in this patients in process of dietotherapy. PMID:14619611

  4. Juçara pulp supplementation improves glucose tolerance in mice

    OpenAIRE

    L.M. Oyama; Silva, F. P.; Carnier, J.; de Miranda, D. A.; Santamarina, A. B.; E.B. Ribeiro; Oller do Nascimento, C. M.; de Rosso, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet is considered a major factor to promote obesity and the consumption of food with antioxidant properties, like Juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart), could be a tool to prevent the deleterious effect of high white adipose deposition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of administration of juçara pulp in mice fed a high-fat, high-calorie diet on glucose tolerance and adipose tissue inflammatory status. Methods Mice wer...

  5. Skin autofluorescence based decision tree in detection of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries J Smit

    Full Text Available AIM: Diabetes (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT detection are conventionally based on glycemic criteria. Skin autofluorescence (SAF is a noninvasive proxy of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE which are considered to be a carrier of glycometabolic memory. We compared SAF and a SAF-based decision tree (SAF-DM with fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1c, and additionally with the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC questionnaire±FPG for detection of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT- or HbA1c-defined IGT and diabetes in intermediate risk persons. METHODS: Participants had ≥1 metabolic syndrome criteria. They underwent an OGTT, HbA1c, SAF and FINDRISC, in adition to SAF-DM which includes SAF, age, BMI, and conditional questions on DM family history, antihypertensives, renal or cardiovascular disease events (CVE. RESULTS: 218 persons, age 56 yr, 128M/90F, 97 with previous CVE, participated. With OGTT 28 had DM, 46 IGT, 41 impaired fasting glucose, 103 normal glucose tolerance. SAF alone revealed 23 false positives (FP, 34 false negatives (FN (sensitivity (S 68%; specificity (SP 86%. With SAF-DM, FP were reduced to 18, FN to 16 (5 with DM (S 82%; SP 89%. HbA1c scored 48 FP, 18 FN (S 80%; SP 75%. Using HbA1c-defined DM-IGT/suspicion ≥6%/42 mmol/mol, SAF-DM scored 33 FP, 24 FN (4 DM (S76%; SP72%, FPG 29 FP, 41 FN (S71%; SP80%. FINDRISC≥10 points as detection of HbA1c-based diabetes/suspicion scored 79 FP, 23 FN (S 69%; SP 45%. CONCLUSION: SAF-DM is superior to FPG and non-inferior to HbA1c to detect diabetes/IGT in intermediate-risk persons. SAF-DM's value for diabetes/IGT screening is further supported by its established performance in predicting diabetic complications.

  6. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg{sup 65}{yields}His) not associated with impaired glucose tolerance: The contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roder, M.E.; Vissing, H. [Health Care Discovery, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nauck, M.A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia is a genetic abnormality characterized by an increased proportion of proinsulin immunoreactivity in the circulation due to mutations affecting the posttranslational processing of proinsulin. In affected Japanese families, this has been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. A three-generation Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinemia was identified through unexplained hyperinsulinemia in a normal volunteer participating in a metabolic study. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fasting plasma revealed a major peak eluting close to the position of proinsulin. Direct sequencing of the proinsulin gene exon 3 showed a heterozygous point mutation (CGT{yields}CAT) resulting in the substitution of Arg{yields}His in position 65 (corresponding to the AC cleavage site) in the index case, his mother, and his maternal grandmother. All affected subjects had normal oral glucose tolerance. In the basal state and after oral glucose administration, their proinsulin responses were slightly reduced. However, when calculating insulin bioactivity by assuming 9% activity for mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin, responses in affected subjects were comparable to those in normal subjects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to heterozygous mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin. This was not associated with impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that this mutation in the heterozygous state per se does not affect glucose tolerance and that the biological activity of mutant proinsulin contributes to glucose homeostasis in this family. The association of the same mutation with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in previous studies may be the result of selection bias or associated conditions (e.g. the genetic background of the kindreds examined). 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. ATLANTIC DIP: the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [95% CI 1.24-1.98]) and obese (OB) (2.65 [2.03-3.46]) women. Hypertensive disorders increased in OW (2.30 [1.55-3.40]) and OB (3.29 [2.14-5.05]) women. Reported miscarriages increased in OB (1.4 [1.11-1.77]) women. Mean birth weight was 3.46 kg in normal BMI (NBMI), 3.54 kg in OW, and 3.62 kg in OB (P < 0.01) mothers. Macrosomia occurred in 15.5, 21.4, and 27.8% of babies of NBMI, OW, and OB mothers, respectively (P < 0.01). Shoulder dystocia occur in 4% (>4 kg) compared with 0.2% (<4 kg) babies (P < 0.01). Congenital malformation risk increased for OB (2.47 [1.09-5.60]) women. CONCLUSIONS OW and OB glucose-tolerant women have greater adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Isordia-Salas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n=473, pre-DM n=250, and T2DM n=216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P=0.01 and hs-CRP (P=0.05. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r=0.53, P<0.0001. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2=0.31, P<0.0001, and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2=0.33, P<0.0001. Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels.

  9. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isordia-Salas, Irma; Galván-Plata, María Eugenia; Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Aguilar-Sosa, Eberth; Anaya-Gómez, Francisco; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santiago-Germán, David

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n = 473, pre-DM n = 250, and T2DM n = 216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P = 0.01) and hs-CRP (P = 0.05). Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.53, P<0.0001). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2 = 0.31, P<0.0001), and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2 = 0.33, P<0.0001). Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels. PMID:24772446

  10. Impact of incretin hormones on beta-cell function in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Natali, Andrea;

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C-peptide deconvolu......The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C......-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide responses, total insulin secretion, and enhancement of beta-cell glucose sensitivity (OGTT/IV ratio = 1.73 +/- 0.24, P = NS vs. NGT). However, the time courses of incretin-mediated insulin secretion and potentiation were altered......, with a predominance of glucose-induced vs. incretin-mediated stimulation. We conclude that, under physiological circumstances, incretin-mediated stimulation of insulin secretion results from an enhancement of all dynamic aspects of beta-cell function, particularly beta-cell glucose sensitivity. In IGT, beta...

  11. Glucose tolerance, blood lipid, insulin and glucagon concentration after single or continuous administration of aspartame in diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, G; Kawakami, F; Tako, H; Kashihara, T; Shibamoto, S; Yamazaki, T; Yamamoto, K; Saeki, M

    1986-04-01

    A nutritive sweetener, aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methylester) was administered orally to normal controls and diabetic patients in order to evaluate effects on blood glucose, lipids and pancreatic hormone secretion. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed in the same subjects as a control study of aspartame administration. In 7 normal controls and 22 untreated diabetics, a single dose of 500 mg aspartame, equivalent to 100 g glucose in sweetness, induced no increase in blood glucose concentration. Rather, a small but significant decrease in blood glucose was noticed 2 or 3 h after administration. The decrease in blood glucose was found to be smallest in the control and became greater as the diabetes increased in severity. No significant change in blood insulin or glucagon concentration during a 3-h period was observed in either the controls or the diabetics. The second study was designed to determine the effects of 2 weeks' continuous administration of 125 mg aspartame, equal in sweetness to the mean daily consumption of sugar (20-30 g) in Japan, to 9 hospitalized diabetics with steady-state glycemic control. The glucose tolerance showed no significant change after 2 weeks' administration. Fasting, 1 h and 2 h postprandial blood glucose, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol were also unaffected. From these and other published results, aspartame would seem to be a useful alternative nutrient sweetener for patients with diabetes mellitus. PMID:3522147

  12. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa Urita; Motonobu Sugimoto; Kazumasa Miki; Susumu Ishihara; Tatsuo Akimoto; Hiroto Kato; Noriko Hara; Yoshiko Honda; Yoko Nagai; Kazushige Nakanishi; Nagato Shimada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.METHODS: A standard 75-g OGTT was performed in 82 diabetic patients. The patients received 75 g of anhydrous glucose in 225 mL of water after an overnight fasting and breath samples were collected at baseline and up to 120 min afler ingestion. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations were measured. Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured before ingestion and at 30, 60, g0, 120 min post-ingestion.RESULTS: When carbohydrate malabsorption was defined as subjects with an increase of at least 10 ppm (parts per million) in hydrogen or methane excretion within a 2-h period, 28 (34%) had carbohydrate malabsorption. According to the result of increased breath test, 21 (75%) patients were classified as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and 7 (25%) as glucose malabsorption. Patients with carbohydrate malabsorption were older and had poor glycemic control as compared with those without carbohydrate malabsorption. The HOMA value, the sum of serum insulin during the test and the Ainsulin/Aglucose ratio were greater in patients with carbohydrate malabsorption.CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance may be overestimated by using these markers if the patient has carbohydrate malabsorption, or that carbohydrate malabsorption may be present prior to the development of insulin resistance.Hence carbohydrate malabsorption should be taken into account for estimating insulin resistance and β-cell function.

  13. Gum Guar fiber associated with fructose reduces serum triacylglycerol but did not improve the glucose tolerance in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyama Caio SM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increased intake of dietary fructose can be associated with alterations on energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism, such as insulin resistance and dislipidemia. On the other hand, the ingestion of soluble fiber gum guar could improve benefic mechanism on glucose tolerance and lipids profile. Objective The aim of the present study were to investigate the effects of the supplemental feeding partially hydrolyzed gum guar on glucose and lipid homeostasis, in rats fed with fructose solution. Methods The study was performed on thirty day-old male Wistar rats randomly assigned into four groups: control(C or treated with fructose (F-20%, fiber (FB-5%, or fructose plus fiber (F-20% + FB-5% = FF solution for 30 days on glucose tolerance (OGTT, triacylglycerol concentration in the liver by chloroform/methanol method, glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol serum concentration by assayed by enzymatic colorimetric method, insulin receptor (IR concentration in the liver by Western Blotting. Results The total body weight gain was not different between groups; in regards of total caloric intake, in the F group was significantly higher and in the FB group was lower than other groups. The triacylglycerol concentration in the liver of FF group was significantly higher than F group, the triacylglycerol concentration in the serum was higher the F group compared with other groups. The OGTT reveal impaired on glucose tolerance in the F, FB, FF compared with C. The IR concentration in the liver was lower in the F, FB, FF compared with C, no significant difference was observed between groups for IR concentration in the gastrocnemius muscle. No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass fat content and serum total cholesterol. Conclusion Fructose induced important alterations on glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism, despite of fiber showed reversion of part this alterations. The association fructose plus

  14. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  15. Therapeutic effects of berberine in impaired glucose tolerance rats and its influence on insulin secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-hua LENG; Fu-er LU; Li-jun XU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-diabetic effects of berberine and its influence on insulin secretion. METHODS: Impaired glucose tolerance rats induced by iv injection of streptozotocin 30 mg/kg were treated with berberine 187.5 and 562.5 mg/kg while fed with high fat laboratory chow. After rats were treated for 4 weeks, oral glucose tolerance was determined, and for 8 weeks, the fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid series were determined. In insulin secretion experiments, berberine 93.75, 187.5, and 562.5 mg/kg was administered orally to BALB/c mice at a bolus. The murine serum was collected 2 h after the berberine administration for insulin determination. Insulin released from HIT-T 15 cells and pancreatic islets incubated with berberine 1-100 μmol/L for 12 h was determined. RESULTS:The levels of fasting blood glucose (7.4± 1.5 or 7.3± 1.3 vs 9.3± 1.3 mmol/L), triglycerides (0.61±0.22 or 0.63±0.17 vs 1.8±0.7 mmol/L), total cholesterol (1.8±0.3 or 1.9±0.3 vs 2.2±0.2 mmol/L), free fatty acid (456±93 or 460±72 vs 550± 113 μmol/L) and apolipoprotein B (0.37±0.02 or 0.42±0.05 vs 0.46±0.04 g/L) were reduced greatly in berberine-treated groups at doses of 187.5 and 562.5 mg.kg-1.d-l, respectively as compared with those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (1.5±0.3 or 1.4±0.3 vs 1.1±0.1 g/L), apolipoprotein A1 (0.80±0.08 or 0.87±0.08 vs 0.71±0.06 g/L) were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and oral glucose tolerance was improved. In vitro experiment showed that berberine 1-10 μmol/L facilitated insulin secretion of HIT-T15 cells and murine pancreatic islets in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile murine serum insulin level (27.5±2.7 or 29±4 or 29±4 vs 24.3±2.8 plU/L) was undoubtedly promoted and blood glucose (4.52±0.31 or 4.45±0.29 or 4.30±0.19 vs 4.87±0.21 mmol/L) was reduced after berberine administration at doses of 93.75, 187.5,and 562.5 mg/kg, respectively in the BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION

  16. How Fast Is Recovery of Impaired Glucose Tolerance after 21-Day Bed Rest (NUC Study in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Heer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We hypothesized that 4 days of normal daily activity after 21 days of experimental bed rest (BR will not reverse BR induced impaired glucose tolerance. Design. Glucose tolerance of seven male, healthy, untrained test subjects (age: 27.6 (3.3 years (mean (SD; body mass: 78.6 (6.4 kg; height: 1.81 (0.04 m; VO2 max: 39.5 (5.4 ml/kg body mass/min was studied. They stayed twice in the metabolic ward (crossover design, 21 days in bed and 7 days before and after BR each. Oral glucose tolerance tests were applied before, on day 21 of BR, and 5 and 14 days after BR. Results. On day 21 of BR, AUC120 min of glucose concentration was increased by 28.8 (5.2% and AUC120 min of insulin by 35.9 (10.2% (glucose: P<0.001; insulin: P=0.02. Fourteen days after BR, AUC120 min of serum insulin concentrations returned to pre-bed-rest concentrations (P=0.352 and AUC120 min of glucose was still higher (P=0.038. Insulin resistance did not change, but sensitivity index was reduced during BR (P=0.005. Conclusion. Four days of light physical workload does not compensate inactivity induced impaired glucose tolerance. An individually tailored and intensified training regime is mandatory in patients being in bed rest to get back to normal glucose metabolism in a reasonable time frame.

  17. A single dose of sodium nitrate does not improve oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Naomi M; Hansen, Dominique; Kouw, Imre W K; van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Blackwell, Jamie R; Jones, Andrew M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation has been proposed as an emerging treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that ingestion of a single bolus of dietary NO3(-) ingestion improves oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin, 7.3% ± 0.2%) participated in a randomized crossover experiment. The subjects ingested a glucose beverage 2.5 hours after consumption of either sodium NO3(-) (0.15 mmol NaNO3(-) · kg(-1)) or a placebo solution. Venous blood samples were collected before ingestion of the glucose beverage and every 30 minutes thereafter during a 2-hour period to assess postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. The results show that plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels were increased after NaNO3(-) as opposed to placebo ingestion (treatment-effect, P = .001). Despite the elevated plasma NO3(-) and nitrite levels, ingestion of NaNO3(-) did not attenuate the postprandial rise in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations (time × treatment interaction, P = .41 for glucose, P = .93 for insulin). Despite the lack of effect on oral glucose tolerance, basal plasma glucose concentrations measured 2.5 hours after NaNO3(-) ingestion were lower when compared with the placebo treatment (7.5 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, respectively; P = .04). We conclude that ingestion of a single dose of dietary NO3(-) does not improve subsequent oral glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26092495

  18. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  19. STUDY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS: FFA, LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN SUBJECTS WITH VARYING GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张翼飞; 宁光; 陈名道; 唐金凤

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the fasting serum levels of obesity related factors: FFA, leptin and adiponectin in subjects with varying glucose tolerance and their relationship with BMI, insulin sensitivity index and islet beta-cell function. Methods Serum levels of FFA, leptin and adiponectin in 24 normal, 32 simple obese, 34IGT and 36 T2DM subjects were measured by ACS-ACOD assay or RIA. Results The serum levels of leptin and FFA in three groups: simple obese, IGT and DM were much higher than those in normal control (P<0. 001 ). In contrast, serum level of adiponectin of simple obese, IGT and DM groups were significant lower than that of normal control, among them DM subjects had the lowest level ( P<0. 001 ). Correlation analysis showed that FFA was positively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, fasting insulin level and negatively correlated to SI; adiponectin was negatively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, PBG, but positively correlated to SI and AIRg; and leptin was positively correlated to BMI, fasting insulin and AIRg when negatively correlated to FBG and SI. None of them was correlated to age.Conclusion Subjects with insulin resistance have high serum FFA and leptin levels but low serum adiponectin level.With the glucose tolerance deterioration, serum FFA level increases much higher while the adiponectin deceases much lower. Unlike insulin, none of these obesity related factors can be used as the simple indicating or determining factor of SI, though each of them, to different extent, takes part in the development of insulin resistance.

  20. Changes of ghrelin following oral glucose tolerance test in obese children with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Min Wang; You-Jun Jiang; Li Liang; Li-Zhong Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterize changes in ghrelin levels in response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to correlate changes in ghrelin levels with changes in insulin and glucose following OGTT in Chinese obese children of Tanner I and Ⅱ stage with insulin resistance.METHODS: 22 obese children with insulin resistance state were divided into four groups according to their Tanner stage and gender: boys of Tanner I (BT-Ⅰ), boys of Tanner Ⅱ (BT- Ⅱ), girls of Tanner Ⅰ (GT-Ⅰ), girls of Tanner Ⅱ (GT-Ⅱ). Ghrelin, insulin and glucose were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min following OGTT. The control children with normal BMI were divided into control boys of Tanner I (CBT-Ⅰ, n = 6), control boys of Tanner Ⅱ (CBT- Ⅱ, n = 5), control girls of Tanner I (CGT-1, n = 6), control girls of Tanner II (CGT- Ⅱ, n = 5). Fasting serum ghrelin levels were analyzed.RESULTS: Ghrelin levels were lower in obese groups. Ghrelin levels of control group decreased in Tanner Ⅱ stage (CGT-Ⅰ vs CGT-Ⅱ t = -4.703, P = 0.001; CBT-Ⅰ vs CBT-n t = -4.794, P = 0.001). Basal ghrelin levels in BT- Ⅱ decreased more significantly than that in BT-Ⅰ group (t = 2.547, P = 0.029). Ghrelin levels expressed a downward trend after OGTT among obese children. The decrease in ghrelin levels at 60 min with respect to basal values was 56.9% in BT-Ⅰ. Ghrelin concentrations at 0 min correlated directly with glucose level at 0 min in BT-Ⅰ (r = 0.898, P = 0.015). There wasn't a significant correlation of ghrelin changes with glucose changes and insulin changes during OGTT in obese children with insulin resistance.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in obese children with insulin resistance, ghrelin levels decreased with advancing pubertal stage. Ghrelin secretion suppression following OGTT was influenced by gender and pubertal stage. Baseline ghrelin levels and ghrelin suppression after OGTT did not significantly correlate with the degree of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity.

  1. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Neuropathy in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Omar; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Alam, Uazman; Jones, Wendy; Jeziorska, Maria; Marshall, Andrew; Ponirakis, Georgios; Fadavi, Hassan; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Tavakoli, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) represents one of the earliest stages of glucose dysregulation and is associated with macrovascular disease, retinopathy, and microalbuminuria, but whether IGT causes neuropathy is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-seven subjects with IGT and 20 age-matched control subjects underwent a comprehensive evaluation of neuropathy by assessing symptoms, neurological deficits, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, heart rate variability deep breathing (HRVdb), skin biopsy, and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). RESULTS Subjects with IGT had a significantly increased neuropathy symptom profile (P < 0.001), McGill pain index (P < 0.001), neuropathy disability score (P = 0.001), vibration perception threshold (P = 0.002), warm threshold (P = 0.006), and cool threshold (P = 0.03), with a reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber density (P = 0.03), corneal nerve fiber density (P < 0.001), corneal nerve branch density (P = 0.002), and corneal nerve fiber length (P = 0.05). No significant difference was found in sensory and motor nerve amplitude and conduction velocity or HRVdb. CONCLUSIONS Subjects with IGT have evidence of neuropathy, particularly small-fiber damage, which can be detected using skin biopsy and CCM. PMID:24969581

  2. Identification of differential responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years an individual's ability to respond to an acute dietary challenge has emerged as a measure of their biological flexibility. Analysis of such responses has been proposed to be an indicator of health status. However, for this to be fully realised further work on differential responses to nutritional challenge is needed. This study examined whether metabolic phenotyping could identify differential responders to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and examined the phenotypic basis of the response. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 214 individuals were recruited and underwent challenge tests in the form of an OGTT and an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT. Detailed biochemical parameters, body composition and fitness tests were recorded. Mixed model clustering was employed to define 4 metabotypes consisting of 4 different responses to an OGTT. Cluster 1 was of particular interest, with this metabotype having the highest BMI, triacylglycerol, hsCRP, c-peptide, insulin and HOMA- IR score and lowest VO2max. Cluster 1 had a reduced beta cell function and a differential response to insulin and c-peptide during an OGTT. Additionally, cluster 1 displayed a differential response to the OLTT. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated that there were four distinct metabolic responses to the OGTT. Classification of subjects based on their response curves revealed an "at risk" metabolic phenotype.

  3. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  4. Lack of associations between serum leptin, a polymorphism in the gene for the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor and glucose tolerance in the Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Koper, JW; Stolk, RP; Englaro, P; Uitterlinden, AG; Huang, Q; van Leeuwen, JPTM; Blum, WF; Attanasio, AMF; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND The associations between leptin levels and the prevalence of a polymorphism in the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor were studied in a cross-sectional analysis of 600 participants in a population-based study, which were stratified for glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS

  5. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS...

  6. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennild, Ditte Egegaard; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos;

    2016-01-01

    was conducted from February 2011 until March 2012 at the Bandim Health Project, a health and demographic surveillance system site in the capital Bissau. Twins (n = 209) and singletons (n = 182) were recruited from a previously established cohort. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed, along...

  7. EFFECT OF CHRONIC ACE INHIBITION ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN HYPERTENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卫东; G.Seghieri; C.Boni,G,Sanna; R.Anichinl; G.Bartolomei; E.Ferrannini

    1994-01-01

    We studied 14 moderately overweight Type 2 diabetic patients with essential hypertension in stable metabolic control after a run-in period,and again after 3 months of antihypertensive treatment with the angiotensin-convert-ing enzyme(ACE)inhibitor captopril.Glucose tolerance was tested with a 75g oral glucose load (OGTT) and in-sulin sensitivity was measured by the insulin suppression test (IST)while dietary and drug treatment of the hyper-glycemia was maintained constant.In the whole group,mean blood pressure (MBP) fell progressively over 3 months from a baseline value of 123±3mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133kpa)to a final value of 115±2mmHg(P<0.005).After treatment,fasting plasma glucose,insulin,free fatty acid (FFA),potassium,and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations were unchanged from baseling.There were no significant differences in glucose toler-ance and insulin sensitivity between pre-and post-trearment values.Neither endogenous (oral glucose)nor exoge-nous(IST)insulin caused any change in plasma potassium concentration. This resistance to the hypokalemic action of insulin was not affected by captopril.

  8. 老年糖耐量减低患者记忆功能评价%Evaluation on the Memory Function of Elderly with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠; 李伟; 张海峰; 王璐; 林璨; 王兆鹏; 尹成淑; 张立娜; 朱玉清

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The memory function of the elderly patients with impaired glucose tolerance were evaluated , in order to provide clinical basis for early detection of memory dysfunction and timely intervention . Method :The health conditions of some elderly people were tested , 84 patients with IGT were selected after glucose tolerance test , 80 patients were chosen in the control group , the memory functions of the two groups were compared .Result:The memories reservation application of elderly patients with IGT , picture recogni-tion, delayed story recall and total scores differences were statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion:Screening the early memory function of elderly patient with abnormal glucose tolerance and timely interven-tion are of great importance in improving the quality of life .%目的:对老年糖耐量减低( impaired glucose tolerance , IGT)患者进行记忆功能进行评价,为早期发现糖耐量减低患者记忆功能减退并及时采取干预措施提供临床依据。方法:选取健康体检老年人群,行糖耐量试验后筛选出IGT患者84例,健康对照组80例,比较组间记忆功能的差异。结果:伴IGT的老年患者的回忆预约申请、图片再认、故事延迟回忆及总分与对照组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论:对伴有糖耐量异常的老年人进行早期记忆功能筛查,及早发现记忆功能障碍并及时进行干预,对改善其生活质量有重要意义。

  9. Effects of bittergourd (Momordica Charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l l diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Parmar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia or bittergourd commonly known as karella, (family: Cucurbitaceae, has been proved for hypoglycaemic effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocininduced type-II diabetic rat. Two days old neonatal pups (7–10 g were used & they were made diabetic by intraperitoneally (i.p. injection of 90 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer solution. Different groups of animals were treated by 25% and 50% bitter gourd fruit juice (BFJ for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks treatment biochemical parameters from blood serum were analyzed. The significant differences of glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, in 50%BFJ treated group compare to diabetic group were found. So, from present study it is concluded that Bitter gourd fruit juice has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rat.

  10. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  11. Dietary antioxidants: Do they have a role to play in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon, Antoine; Hokayem, Marie; Bisbal, Catherine; Lambert, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Overfeeding, an increased intake of saturated fatty acids, and sugary foods are key dietary changes that have occurred in recent decades in addition to the emergence of the obesity epidemic. In addition to an increase in energy storage as fat, these dietary changes are accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial macronutrient oxidation, leading to an excessive free radical production and, hence, oxidative stress. The latter has long been considered a central mechanism linking nutrient overload, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. However, food, through fruit and vegetable consumption, also can be a great source of antioxidants that protect the body against oxidative damage and insulin resistance and thus help cope with the metabolic backlash of the energy-dense Westernized diet. Experimental data are in favor of the beneficial role conveyed by antioxidants in glucose metabolism, but clinical data in humans remain controversial. This review therefore aimed to sort out any underlying discrepancies and provide an overall clear view of the role of antioxidants in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism.

  12. Analysis of fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance in 1 157 subjects%1157例体检者空腹血糖及糖耐量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the fasting blood glucose(FBG) and glucose tolerance in 1 157 subjects accepting health examination to understand level and metabolism of blood glucose of local residents. Methods Adopting the method of population proportional sampling(PPS) , 1 157 subjects of all residents accepting health examination were randomly selected and divided into three groups according to economic conditions for the detection of FBG, among which 926 cases were detected for glucose tolerance by determination of blood glucose level 2 hours after oral intaking of 75 g glucose. Results 198 cases with high level of blood glucose and 117 cases with impaired glucose tolerance, accounting for 12. 63% , were demonstrated, and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4. 86%. Conclusion The situation and prevalence of diabetes mellitus was serious in this region. Prevention of diabetes mellitus should be carried out from unban with better economic condition to other regions until the whole region.%目的 对1 157例体检者空腹血糖及糖耐量分析,掌握该区居民的血糖及其代谢情况.方法 采用人口成比例抽样(PPS)的方法,按经济条件分成3个层次,随机抽取1 157例研究对象采用葡萄糖氧化酶法测定空腹血糖,其中926例口服75 g无水葡萄糖2 h后测量血糖.结果 共计检出高血糖患者198例,检出糖耐量受损者117例,占12.63%,糖尿病患病率则为4.86%.结论 该区糖尿病患者及潜在者形势严峻,该区当前糖尿病防治应以经济较好的市区为重点向开发区辐射直至全区.

  13. Acute hyperglycemia alters von Willebrand factor but not the fibrinolytic system in elderly subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Ludovico; Coppola, Antonino; Grassia, Antonio; Mastrolorenzo, Luigia; Lettieri, Biagio; De Lucia, Domenico; De Nanzio, Annarita; Gombos, Giorgio

    2004-10-01

    To assess whether acute hyperglycemia affects fibrinolytic balance in elderly subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 40 non-obese elderly subjects (20 NGT, age 68 +/- 8 years; and 20 IGT, age 69 +/- 11 years) were studied. On two experimental days, randomly allocated and spaced 1 week apart, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were measured in each subject at baseline (0) and 30, 60, 90, 120 min after the ingestion of 75 g glucose or a similarly sweet dose of aspartame (250 mg) (control test). In both NGT and IGT elderly subjects, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and fibrinogen plasma levels did not significantly change after both oral aspartame and glucose load. In IGT subjects, vWF plasmatic levels decreased after glucose (not aspartame) oral load, reaching the minimum level at 90 min after load (82.7 +/- 7.8 versus 93.7 +/- 10.2, P <0.01). These results demonstrate that acute hyperglycemia does not modify plasma fibrinolysis in elderly subjects. The decrease of plasma concentration of vWF in IGT elderly subjects requires cautious interpretation and further extensive investigations. PMID:15613917

  14. 妊娠期糖尿病高危因素与产后早发糖代谢异常的关系%Relationship between Risk Factors of GDM and Postpartum Early Abnormal Glucose Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫小庆; 王子莲; 曹筱佩; 肖海鹏; 李延兵

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between traditional risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregnancy outcome as well as postpartum early abnormal glucose regulation. [Methods] Risk factors or 50 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were used to scan GDM in 3017 pregnant women, the 75 g OGTT were performed to confirm the diagnosis of GDM in those with positive results. GDM women were divided into two groups; women with risk factors (n = 143) and without risk factors (re = 175). All GDM women were recruited to take 75 g OGTT at 6-8 weeks and 6-12 months after delivery. [Results] Total 318 GDM were confirmed in those 3017 pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM in women with risk factors were higher than those without risk factors (41.81% vs 6.54%, P<0.01). Additionally, compare to those without risk factors, women with risk factors has higher pregnant complications, higher premature birth rate, and birth-weight. Also a higher incidence of early postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance was observed in those with GDM risk factors. Logistic regression analysis indicated that family history of diabetes and positive uric glucose were relative to the early postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance. [Conclusions] The GDM risk factors are not only the predictor of GDM, but also are relative to postpartum early abnormal glucose regulation. Among these risk factors, family history of diabetes and positive uric glucose are of greater contribution.%[目的]探讨妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)传统高危因素与妊娠结局及产后早发糖代谢异常的关系.[方法]3 017名孕妇以高危因素或50 g葡萄糖筛查试验进行GDM筛查,阳性者行75 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)确诊GDM,GDM孕妇分为高危因素组(G1组,n=143)与非高危因素组(G2组,n=175),并于产后6~8周及产后6~ 12月复查OGTT.[结果]3 017名孕妇中318例确诊GDM,存在高因危素的孕妇GDM患病率明显高于无高危因素的孕妇(41.81% VS 6.54

  15. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on incretin effect, glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Østoft, Signe Harring; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), is thought to intensify the physiological effects of the incretin hormones. We investigated the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), the incretin...... effect, glucose tolerance, gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) and gastric emptying in healthy subjects. Design Randomised, controlled, open-label. Methods Ten healthy subjects (6 women) (age: 40±5 years (mean±SEM); BMI: 24±3 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose: 5.1±0.2 mmol/l; HbA1c: 34±1 mmol......±26 mmol/l×min, p=0.7) or peak plasma glucose during OGTT (8.5±0.4 vs 8.1±0.3 mmol/l, p=0.3) was observed. Neither incretin effect (40±9 (without DPP-4 inhibitor) vs 40±7% (with DPP-4 inhibitor), p=1.0), glucagon responses (1,395±165 vs 1,223±195 pmol/l×min, p=0.41), GIGD (52±4 vs 56±5%, p=0.40) nor...

  16. Enhanced glucose tolerance in pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER knockout C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari L. Moak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER; also known as FAM3B is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. PANDER has been hypothesized to regulate fasting and fed glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling, and to serve a potential role in the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Despite having potentially pivotal pleiotropic roles in glycemic regulation and T2D, there has been limited generation of stable animal models for the investigation of PANDER function, and there are no models on well-established genetic murine backgrounds for T2D. Our aim was to generate an enhanced murine model to further elucidate the biological function of PANDER. Therefore, a pure-bred PANDER knockout C57BL/6 (PANKO-C57 model was created and phenotypically characterized with respect to glycemic regulation and hepatic insulin signaling. The PANKO-C57 model exhibited an enhanced metabolic phenotype, particularly with regard to enhanced glucose tolerance. Male PANKO-C57 mice displayed decreased fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, whereas leptin levels were increased as compared with matched C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Despite similar peripheral insulin sensitivity between both groups, hepatic insulin signaling was significantly increased during fasting conditions, as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of hepatic PKB/Akt and AMPK, along with mature SREBP-1 expression. Insulin stimulation of PANKO-C57 mice resulted in increased hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In summary, the PANKO-C57 mouse represents a suitable model for the investigation of PANDER in multiple metabolic states and provides an additional tool to elucidate the biological function and potential role in T2D.

  17. Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolation of glucose tolerance factor from yeast biomass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vlatka Gulan Zetic; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas; Slobodan Grba; Lavoslav Lutilsky; Damir Kozlek

    2001-06-01

    Fermentations with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in semiaerobic and in static conditions with the addition of chromic chloride into the used molasses medium were analysed. It was proved that the addition of optimal amounts of CrCl3 into the basal medium enhanced the kinetics of alcohol fermentations. The addition of 200 mg/l CrCl3 into the medium stimulated both the yeast growth and the ethanol production in all experimental conditions. On the other hand, the results showed that Cr3+ ions were incorporated into yeast cells during fermentation. Under these conditions the accumulation of Cr3+ ions was performed by yeast cells during the exponential growth phase, and with enriched amounts of 30–45 g/gd.m. of cells. Yeast biomass enriched with chromium ions was extracted with 0.1 mol/l NH4OH assuming that the extracts had the glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Then the extracts were passed through a gel-filtration column in order to isolate and purify the GTF. The presence of GTF in the purified fractions was determined by measuring the absorbance at 260 nm. It is evident from the obtained results that the added purified fractions enhanced the rates of CO2 production as well as the glucose utilization during alcoholic fermentation. As expected, the enhancement of both rates depended on the amounts of extracts added to the fermentation substrate. Thus, it is evident that purified extracts contained the GTF compound, and that Cr3+ ions were bonded to the protein molecule.

  18. Enhanced glucose tolerance in pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER) knockout C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moak, Shari L; Dougan, Grace C; MarElia, Catherine B; Danse, Whitney A; Fernandez, Amanda M; Kuehl, Melanie N; Athanason, Mark G; Burkhardt, Brant R

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic-derived factor (PANDER; also known as FAM3B) is a uniquely structured protein strongly expressed within and secreted from the endocrine pancreas. PANDER has been hypothesized to regulate fasting and fed glucose homeostasis, hepatic lipogenesis and insulin signaling, and to serve a potential role in the onset or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite having potentially pivotal pleiotropic roles in glycemic regulation and T2D, there has been limited generation of stable animal models for the investigation of PANDER function, and there are no models on well-established genetic murine backgrounds for T2D. Our aim was to generate an enhanced murine model to further elucidate the biological function of PANDER. Therefore, a pure-bred PANDER knockout C57BL/6 (PANKO-C57) model was created and phenotypically characterized with respect to glycemic regulation and hepatic insulin signaling. The PANKO-C57 model exhibited an enhanced metabolic phenotype, particularly with regard to enhanced glucose tolerance. Male PANKO-C57 mice displayed decreased fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, whereas leptin levels were increased as compared with matched C57BL/6J wild-type mice. Despite similar peripheral insulin sensitivity between both groups, hepatic insulin signaling was significantly increased during fasting conditions, as demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of hepatic PKB/Akt and AMPK, along with mature SREBP-1 expression. Insulin stimulation of PANKO-C57 mice resulted in increased hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content as compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In summary, the PANKO-C57 mouse represents a suitable model for the investigation of PANDER in multiple metabolic states and provides an additional tool to elucidate the biological function and potential role in T2D. PMID:25217499

  19. Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-09-01

    Vanillin is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and, as one of the major biomass conversion inhibitors, inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. Vanillin was recently shown to induce the mitochondrial fragmentation and formation of mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural, another major biomass conversion inhibitor, also induces oxidative stress and is reduced in an NAD(P)H-dependent manner to its less toxic alcohol derivative. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), through which most NADPH is generated, plays a role in tolerance to furfural. Although vanillin also induces oxidative stress and is reduced to vanillyl alcohol in a NADPH-dependent manner, the relationship between vanillin and PPP has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting NADPH-producing step in PPP, for yeast tolerance to vanillin. The growth of the null mutant of G6PDH gene (zwf1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, and vanillin was efficiently reduced in the culture of wild-type cells but not in the culture of zwf1Δ cells. Furthermore, zwf1Δ cells easily induced the activation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, mitochondrial fragmentation, and P-body formation with the vanillin treatment, which indicated that zwf1Δ cells were more susceptible to vanillin than wild type cells. These findings suggest the importance of G6PDH and PPP in the response of yeast to vanillin.

  20. Abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity associated with illness course, symptoms and fasting blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suijing Cui; Jinhua Qiu; Weiliang Luo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity during onset of diabetes mellitus is not related to age and sex, but to symptoms, illness course and level of fasting blood glucose.OBJECTIVE: To measure correlation of abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with various illness courses, symptoms and levels of fasting blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Central People's Hospital of Huizhou.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from Central People's Hospital of Huizhou from September 2001 to October 2005. There were 75 males and 53 females aged 32-83 years and the illness course ranged from 1 month to 20 years.METHODS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received neuro-electrophysiological study and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to measure peripheral nerve conduction velocity and fasting blood glucose so as to investigate the correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms,illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms, illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.RESULTS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were involved in the final analysis. ① Among 128patients, 114 patients had abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 110 patients had clinical symptoms, including 102 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 18 patients did not have clinical symptoms, including 12 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity.There were significant differences between them (x2=8.275, P=0.04). ② Among 128 patients, illness course of 75 patients was equal to or less than 5 years, including 27 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity

  1. Peptide hormones in saliva. I. Insulin in saliva during the oral glucose tolerance test in female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, L; Aman, E; Muşeţeanu, P; Dinulescu, E; Giurcăneanu, M

    1985-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) of insulin was performed in the serum and saliva of 27 female patients during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The patients were divided into two groups: 19 non-diabetic patients and 8 patients diagnosed as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) disease. In one patient in each group, the OGTT was performed twice at intervals of 3-5 days. The results show that immunoreactive insulin (IRI) is present in saliva and its concentration increases during the glucose stimulation test from 6.48 +/- 1.13 microU/ml (means +/- SEM) in basal conditions at peak values of 45.46 +/- 10.14 microU/ml at 2 hrs after glucose intake. In patients with IGT salivary IRI increases from 5.18 +/- 1.39 microU/ml in basal conditions to peak values of 83.34 +/- 25.85 microU/ml at 3 hrs after glucose administration. Great response variations were observed either inter-individual or intraindividual in both groups of patients. Some patients had unusual high salivary IRI concentration especially in those with gastrointestinal troubles. Further, some hypotheses and experimental models, are advanced, considered useful for the explanation of the physiologic significance of the salivary IRI or of the IRI-like material. PMID:3901231

  2. L-asparaginase-induced abnormality in plasma glucose level in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia admitted to a tertiary care hospital of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumee Panigrahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate any abnormal change in plasma glucose levels in patients treated with L-asparaginase (L-Asp-based chemotherapy regimen in patients of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, hospital-based study was conducted in patients of ALL, admitted to the Clinical Haematology Department of a tertiary care hospital of Odisha from August 2014 to July 2015. Indoor records of 146 patients on multi-centered protocol-841 were evaluated for any alteration in plasma glucose level, time of onset of hypo/hyperglycemia, and persistence of plasma glucose alteration. Results: Twenty-one percent of patients showed abnormal plasma glucose level. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group. Most of these patients developed hypoglycemia and were of lower age group, whereas a majority of higher age group patients developed hyperglycemia. In majority of the cases, abnormal glucose developed after three doses of L-Asp. Hypoglycemia subsided whereas hyperglycemia persisted till the end of our observation period. Conclusions: L-Asp produces more incidences of hypoglycemia than hyperglycemia in a good number of ALL patients towards which clinicians should be more vigilant. However, hyperglycemia persists for a longer duration than hypoglycemia.

  3. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Hwa Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF diet (63.1%. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1 normal group (normal; (2 HF group; (3 chitosan + HF group (HF + C. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 105 Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8% significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, Interleukin (IL-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4 protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment

  4. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 10⁵ Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C) ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment of

  5. Clinical Observation on Senile Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance Treated by Point Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yuquan; Fei Mingfeng; He Yongsheng; Zhang Cunhai; Zheng Wei; Wu Yajun; Li Weihong

    2006-01-01

    In order to observe and evaluate the therapeutic effects of point application on senile impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 64 senile IGT patients were randomly divided into two groups with 32 cases in each group.The control group was treated with interference therapy of controlling diet, while the observation group was given point application at Yishu (胰俞 1.5 cun lateral to the Du Channel, at the level of the lower border of the spinous process of the eighth thoracic vertebra), Pishu (BL 20), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36) and other points in addition to interference therapy of controlling diet. After 2 courses of treatment, the postprandial blood sugar was detected. As a result, the postprandial blood sugar obviously reduced in both groups (P<0.05, P<0.01) with a lower level in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05), indicating that point application in combination with interference therapy of controlling diet has a reliable therapeutic effect on senile IGT patients.

  6. Muscle-specific deletion of carnitine acetyltransferase compromises glucose tolerance and metabolic flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoio, Deborah M; Noland, Robert C; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Seiler, Sarah E; Davies, Michael N; DeBalsi, Karen L; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Stevens, Robert D; Kheterpal, Indu; Zhang, Jingying; Covington, Jeffrey D; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Ravussin, Eric; Kraus, William; Koves, Timothy R; Mynatt, Randall L

    2012-05-01

    The concept of "metabolic inflexibility" was first introduced to describe the failure of insulin-resistant human subjects to appropriately adjust mitochondrial fuel selection in response to nutritional cues. This phenomenon has since gained increasing recognition as a core component of the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Here, we identify an essential role for the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), in regulating substrate switching and glucose tolerance. By converting acetyl-CoA to its membrane permeant acetylcarnitine ester, CrAT regulates mitochondrial and intracellular carbon trafficking. Studies in muscle-specific Crat knockout mice, primary human skeletal myocytes, and human subjects undergoing L-carnitine supplementation support a model wherein CrAT combats nutrient stress, promotes metabolic flexibility, and enhances insulin action by permitting mitochondrial efflux of excess acetyl moieties that otherwise inhibit key regulatory enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase. These findings offer therapeutically relevant insights into the molecular basis of metabolic inflexibility. PMID:22560225

  7. Deletion of insulin-degrading enzyme elicits antipodal, age-dependent effects on glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer O Abdul-Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is widely recognized as the principal protease responsible for the clearance and inactivation of insulin, but its role in glycemic control in vivo is poorly understood. We present here the first longitudinal characterization, to our knowledge, of glucose regulation in mice with pancellular deletion of the IDE gene (IDE-KO mice. METHODOLOGY: IDE-KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates were characterized at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in terms of body weight, basal glucose and insulin levels, and insulin and glucose tolerance. Consistent with a functional role for IDE in insulin clearance, fasting serum insulin levels in IDE-KO mice were found to be ∼3-fold higher than those in wild-type (WT controls at all ages examined. In agreement with previous observations, 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited a severe diabetic phenotype characterized by increased body weight and pronounced glucose and insulin intolerance. In marked contrast, 2-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited multiple signs of improved glycemic control, including lower fasting glucose levels, lower body mass, and modestly enhanced insulin and glucose tolerance relative to WT controls. Biochemically, the emergence of the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice correlated with age-dependent reductions in insulin receptor (IR levels in muscle, adipose, and liver tissue. Primary adipocytes harvested from 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice also showed functional impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice is not a primary consequence of IDE deficiency, but is instead an emergent compensatory response to chronic hyperinsulinemia resulting from complete deletion of IDE in all tissues throughout life. Significantly, our findings provide new evidence to support the idea that partial and/or transient inhibition of IDE may constitute a valid approach to the treatment of diabetes.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE PREVALENCE RATE AND RISK FACTOR OF ABNORMAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN CADRE MEMBERS%副厅级以上干部人群糖代谢异常患病情况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英; 曾莉; 吴琴琴; 张帆; 秦恳; 邹天富; 黄燕; 王佑娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To realize the prevalence rate and analyse the risk factor of abnormal glucose metabolism in cadre members in Sichuan province to provide scientific evidence to set up the preventive strategies.[Methods]Information were collected in the cadre menbers checked in our hospital and medical examination including height, weight, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and biochemical test, etc.Abnormal glucose metabolism was based on the diagnosis criteria in 1999.The relationships between risk factors and IGR were analyzed by unconditional multivariate logistic regression.[Results](1) The detection rate of total abnormal glucose metabolism was 33.2%, with 7.3% of DM.The detection rate of IGR was 25.8%.The detection rate of I-IFG, I-IGT, IFG/IGT was 1.9%, 20.3%, 3.6%, respectively, (2) Compared with the NGT group, the IGR group had higher body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), triglyceride (TG) , systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum creatinine (Cr) , lower high density lipoprotein with statistical significance (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05).(3) Age, BMI, WHR, TG were risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism (P< 0.01 or P< 0.05).[Conclusion]The abnormality rare of glucose metabolism in cadre menbers in Sichuan province is high.Age, BMI, WHR, TG are main risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism.%[目的]了解四川省干部人群糖代谢异常的患病情况并分析其危险因素,为制定适宜的干预措施提供依据.[方法]选用2009年在某院健康体检的干部人群,分别进行身高体重血压测定、糖耐量试验(OGTT)及生化指标检查等.糖代谢异常的诊断依据WHO1999年糖尿病的诊断标准.运用多因素非条件Logistic回归分析,探讨影响糖代谢异常发生的危险因素.[结果](1)糖代谢异常总检出率为33.2%,其中DM的检出率7.3%,糖调节受损(IGR,糖尿病前期)总的检出率为25.8%,IGR各亚组的检出率分别为:I-IFG1.9%、I-IGT20.3%及IFG/IGT3

  9. Effect of inoculating C57BL/6NTac mice with different gut microbiotas on gut colonization and glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Viscardi, Monika; Rune, Ida;

    females) were given oral ampicillin for three weeks to eliminate their GM. At the age of eight weeks, the mice were then split in four groups receiving an oral suspension of GM from a BALB/c mouse, a DBA mouse, a B6-Lepob mouse or PBS as control. GM composition was analyzed prior to antibiotic treatment...... (the original GM of the mice), after three weeks of ampicillin treatment (to ensure the GM was eliminated) and five weeks after inoculation. A test for glucose tolerance and HbA1c% was performed prior to inoculation and after five weeks of inoculation to investigate if changing the GM influenced...... glucose tolerance. The results are still preliminary but demonstrate no significant difference in GM composition five weeks after inoculation, at which time the mice did not cluster according to type of GM received. These results indicate that it was not possible to completely change the GM of eight week...

  10. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...... as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  11. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose meta...

  12. Association of Serum Ferritin Level with Risk of Incident Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Southwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangli; Zhao, Zhuoxian; Tian, Li; Zheng, Tianpeng; Gao, Yun; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fangfang; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in Southwestern Chinese population. The 383 subjects who are aged ≥20 years and free of AGM at baseline between in 2007 and in 2008 were included in Southwestern China, and their baseline serum ferritin levels were measured. Among these subjects, 140 subjects were developed into AGM during the follow-up (2008-2012). In logistic regression models, the relative risk in the top versus that in the lowest quartile of serum ferritin levels was 2.86 (p = 0.013) in females and 3.50 (p = 0.029) in males after adjusting the age, gender, family history of diabetes, current smoking, and alcohol; however, serum ferritin levels were not significantly associated with incident of AGM after controlling for metabolic factors (waist circumference, systolic pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), and homeostasis model assessment formula insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with AGM but not an independent risk factor. PMID:26073512

  13. Impact of 24 Weeks of Resistance and Endurance Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wens, Inez; Hansen, Dominique; Verboven, Kenneth; Deckx, Nathalie; KOSTEN, Lauren; STEVENS, An; Cools, Nathalie; OP 'T EIJNDE, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the authors reported an elevated prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), compared with matched healthy controls, indicating metabolic defects that may increase comorbidity. MS also leads to a more inactive lifestyle, increasing the likelihood to develop fat accumulation, muscle wasting/weakness, and exercise intolerance. In other populations, these health complications can partly be reversed by physical exercise. Object...

  14. Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors Associated With Weight Gain and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Among Pregnant Latinas123

    OpenAIRE

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy has been proposed as a critical period for the development of subsequent maternal overweight and/or obesity. Excessive gestational weight gain is, in turn, associated with maternal complications such as cesarean delivery, hypertension, preeclampsia, impaired glucose tolerance, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Although there is substantial evidence that targeting at-risk groups for type 2 diabetes prevention is effective if lifestyle changes are made, relatively little attention ha...

  15. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Several articles have investigated stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in PK/PD models, but few have quantitatively investigated the benefits to predictive performance of models based on real data. Estimation of first phase insulin secretion which reflects beta-cell function using models of ...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  16. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamarian Abdolreza; Abdollahi Mohammad; Su Xiaogang; Amiri Azita; Ahadi Ali; Nowrouzi Azin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i...

  17. Effects of bittergourd (Momordica Charantia) fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l l diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal Parmar; Subhashchandra Patel; Japan Patel; Brijesh Patel; Patel, Mandev B

    2011-01-01

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) or bittergourd commonly known as karella, (family: Cucurbitaceae), has been proved for hypoglycaemic effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia) fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocininduced type-II diabetic rat. Two days old neonatal pups (7–10 g) were used & they were made diabetic by intraperitoneally (i.p.) injection of 90 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer solution. Diff...

  18. Relationship of body fat with insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors among normal glucose-tolerant subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gokulakrishnan, K.; Deepa, M; F Monickaraj; Mohan, V

    2011-01-01

    Background : The amount of body fat, rather than the amount of excess weight, determines the health risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Aims : To look at the association of body fat percentage with cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Settings and Design : Cross-section study from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Materials and Methods : Body fat was measured by Beurer body fat analyzer. Metabolic syndrome ...

  19. Six weeks' sebacic acid supplementation improves fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and glucose tolerance in db/db mice

    OpenAIRE

    Membrez, M; Chou, C. J.; Raymond, F.; Mansourian, R; Moser, M; Monnard, I; Ammon-Zufferey, C; Mace, K; Mingrone, G; Binnert, C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact of chronic ingestion of sebacic acid (SA), a 10-carbon medium-chain dicarboxylic acid, on glycaemic control in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Three groups of 15 db/db mice were fed for 6 weeks either a chow diet (Ctrl) or a chow diet supplemented with 1.5 or 15% (SA1.5% and SA15%, respectively) energy from SA. Fasting glycaemia was measured once a week and HbA1c before and after supplementation. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was perform...

  20. Expression and characterization of a novel highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from a soil metagenome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lu; Liqin Du; Yutuo Wei; Yuanyuan Hu; Ribo Huang

    2013-01-01

    A β-glucosidase gene unbgl1A was isolated by the functionbased screening of a metagenomic library and the enzyme protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,purified,and biochemically characterized.The enzyme Unbgl1A had a Km value of 2.09 ± 0.31 mM,and a Vmax value of 183.90 ± 9.61 μmol min-1 mg-1 under the optimal reaction conditions,which were pH 6.0 at 50℃.Unbgl1A can be activated by a variety of monosaccharides,disaccharides,and NaCl,and exhibits a high level of stability at high concentration of NaCl.Two prominent features for this enzyme are:(i) high glucose tolerance.It can be tolerant to glucose as high as 2000 mM,with Ki =1500 mM; (ii) high NaCl tolerance.Its activity is not affected by 600 mM NaCl.The enzyme showed transglucosylation activities resulting in the formation of cellotriose from cellobiose.These properties of Unbgl1A should have important practical implication in its potential applications for better industrial production of glucose or bioethanol started from lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Cinnamon can improve fasting glucose in humans yet data on insulin sensitivity are limited and controversial. Eight male volunteers (aged 25 +/- 1 years, body mass 76.5 +/- 3.0 kg, BMI 24.0 +/- 0.7 kg m(-2); mean +/- SEM) underwent two 14-day interventions involving cinnamon or placebo...... supplementation (3 g day(-1)). Placebo supplementation was continued for 5 days following this 14 day period. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed on days 0, 1, 14, 16, 18, and 20. Cinnamon ingestion reduced the glucose response to OGTT on day 1 (-13.1 +/- 6.3% vs. day 0; P <0.05) and day 14 (-5...

  2. Investigation of Yuanjiang Urban and Rural Multi-ethnic Population Prevalence of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%云南元江县城乡少数民族糖代谢异常患病率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锦慧; 赵秋冬; 熊鹏芬; 何冬梅; 姚丽仙; 张晖敏; 缪应雷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of minority people with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods Cluster random sampling was used to select samples. 3 communities and 3 villages in Yuanjiang County were investigated. The questionnaire survey,physical examination,blood glucose and blood lipid was conducted among the participants. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism. Results The prevalence of diabetes mellitus( DM )and impaired glucose tolerance( IGT )was high in Yuanjiang. The incidence of IGT was different in urban and village among ethnics. The incidence of IGT increased with ages in urban areas. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of IGT among different age groups in villages. There were differences of diabetes, IGT incidences in people with different education degrees,ethnics,income,family history of diabetes,BMI, smoking and drinking habits. Many factors such as age were related with abnormal glucose metabolism. Conclusion The incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism is high in the Minority people and Han Family. The incidence of DM and IGT in the countryside and the incidence of IGT in the city of Yi Family are higher than that in Han Family. It is necessary to take measures to reduce the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism to improve the health level of local urban and rural residents.%目的 探讨元江县城、乡多民族居民糖代谢异常的患病情况及其危险因素.方法 从元江县少数民族较为集中的县城抽取3个社区,农村随机抽取3个自然村,对所抽地区内15岁以上常驻人口进行问卷调查、体检和血糖、血脂检测,采用多因素Logistic 回归法分析糖代谢异常的影响因素.结果 元江县城、乡镇人群中DM、IGT患病率较高;城市、农村居民IGT的患病率各民族之间存在差异;城市IGT患病率随着年龄的增长有上升趋势;农村不同年龄组之间IGT患

  3. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin prevents abnormality of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in salt-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshige, Yui; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effects of the selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary sodium excretion and circadian blood pressure in salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fifteen-week-old obese OLETF rats were treated with 1% NaCl (in drinking water), and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, n=10) or empagliflozin (10 mg kg(-1)per day, p.o., n=11) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry system. Glucose metabolism and urinary sodium excretion were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and high salt challenge test, respectively. Vehicle-treated OLETF rats developed non-dipper type blood pressure elevation with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, empagliflozin-treated OLETF rats showed an approximately 1000-fold increase in urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Furthermore, empagliflozin prevented the development of blood pressure elevation with normalization of its circadian rhythm to a dipper profile, which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion. These data suggest that empagliflozin elicits beneficial effects on both glucose homeostasis and hypertension in salt-replete obese states. PMID:26818652

  4. Burden and Socio-Behavioral Correlates of Uncontrolled Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in an Urban Population of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Pandey, Naren; Thomson, Peter L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Mitra, Ramendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. Methods From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7.24%) were interviewed, examined [blood pressure (BP), anthropometry], tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Those having pre-diagnosed diabetes or FPG ≥126 or HbA1c≥6.5 were defined as diabetic. Among non-diabetics, subjects with FPG (mg/dl) = 100–125 or HbA1C(%) = 5.7–6.4 were defined as pre-diabetic. Pre-diagnosed cases with current FPG ≥126 were defined as uncontrolled AGM. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted using SAS-9.3.2. Results Among participants, 28.62% [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) = 23.19–34.06)] were overweight [body mass index(BMI) = (25–29.99)kg/meter2], 7.81% (4.58–11.03) were obese(BMI≥30kg/meter2), 20.82% (15.93–25.70) were current smokers, 12.64% (8.64–16.64) were current alcohol-drinkers and 46.32% of responders (39.16–53.47) had family history of diabetes. 17.84% (13.24–22.45) had stage-I [140≤average systolic BP (AvSBP in mm of mercury)business-owners [OR = 25.53(24.91–16.18)], retired [OR = 46.53(45.38–47.72)], ex-smokers [OR = 4.75(1.09–20.78)], ex-drinkers [OR = 22.43(4.62–108.81)] and hypertensives [ORStage II = 13.17(1.29–134.03)] were more likely to have uncontrolled AGM. Conclusions Burden of uncontrolled AGM was high among participants. Efforts to curb the diabetes epidemic in urban India should include interventions targeting appropriate diabetic control among relatively older persons, unemployed, business-owners, retired, ex-smokers, ex

  5. Altered or Impaired Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in WNIN/GR-Ob Rat: An Obese Rat Model with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bandaru, Prathibha; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Nappanveettil, Giridharan

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is shown to increase the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and individuals seem to exhibit poor antibody response to vaccination due to several inherent immune defects. With the increasing prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) seen in obese individuals, the present study was aimed to investigate the basal immune response and immune response upon Hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) in an obese rat model WNIN/GR-Ob with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Decreased proporti...

  6. Long-term inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves glucose tolerance and preserves islet function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, M Kvist; Holst, Jens Juul; Ahrén, B

    2002-01-01

    by DPPIV inhibition, and in mice fed a high-fat diet, islet size was reduced after treatment with NVP DPP728 from 16.7+/-2.6 x 10(3) microm(2) in controls to 7.6+/-1.0 x 10(3) microm(2) (P=0.0019). CONCLUSION: Long-term DPPIV inhibition improves glucose tolerance in both normal and glucose-intolerant mice...... DPPIV activity to 0.01+/-0.03 mU/ml vs 3.26+/-0.19 mU/ml in controls (Pafter gastric glucose gavage, as judged by the area under the curve for plasma glucose levels over the 120 min study period, was increased after 8 weeks by NVP DPP728 in mice fed normal diet (P=0.......029) and in mice fed a high-fat diet (P=0.036). This was accompanied by increased plasma levels of insulin and intact GLP-1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets isolated from NVP DPP728-treated animals after 8 weeks of treatment was increased as compared with islets from control animals at 5.6, 8...

  7. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I;

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  8. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Foley, James E; Rendell, Marc;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of vildagliptin on incretin hormone levels, islet function, and postprandial glucose control in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study compa...

  9. The influence of diet with reduction in calorie intake on metabolic syndrome parameters in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Snežana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Current therapy of metabolic syndrome includes the assessment of cardiovascular risk together with control of high blood pressure, hyperlipidaemia and prevention of type 2 diabetes with adequate diet and increase in physical activity. Aim of the study. To investigate the influence of medical nutritive therapy in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and potential consecutive lowering of cardio-metabolic risk. Material and methods. The 55 obese (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 subjects were divided into two groups, the study group A (n=35, and the control group B (n=20. Group A was on diet for a period of 12 weeks (1200-1500kcal/day diet with 55-65% carbohydrates, 15-18% proteins and 22-23% predominantly unsaturated fats, and 20-40g fibers/day.. Before and after 12 weeks the following parameters were determined: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, Index HOMA-IR, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Results. After 12 weeks on low calorie diet in Group A there was a decrease in the waist circumference (p=0.001; systolyc blood pressure (p=0.001; diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.01; fasting blood glucose (p=0.001; Index HOMA IR (p<0.001; triglycerides (p<0.001 and increase in HDL cholesterol (p<0.05. Conclusion. These results suggest that implementation of low callorie-high fibers diet with balanced nutritive elements have a positive effect on visceral obesity, fasting glucose, lipid profile, and hypertension in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance and lead to consecutive lowering of cardiometabolic risk.

  10. Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 improves glucose tolerance and reduces body weight gain in rats by stimulating energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirouchi, Bungo; Nagao, Koji; Umegatani, Minami; Shiraishi, Aya; Morita, Yukiko; Kai, Shunichi; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Kadooka, Yukio; Sato, Masao

    2016-08-01

    Probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduces postprandial TAG absorption and exerts anti-obesity effects in rats and humans; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we addressed the mechanistic insights of the anti-obesity activity of LG2055 by feeding Sprague-Dawley rats diets containing skimmed milk fermented or not by LG2055 for 4 weeks and by analysing energy expenditure, glucose tolerance, the levels of SCFA in the caecum and serum inflammatory markers. Rats fed the LG2055-containing diet demonstrated significantly higher carbohydrate oxidation in the dark cycle (active phase for rats) compared with the control group, which resulted in a significant increase in energy expenditure. LG2055 significantly reduced cumulative blood glucose levels (AUC) compared with the control diet after 3 weeks and increased the molar ratio of butyrate:total SCFA in the caecum after 4 weeks. Furthermore, the LG2055-supplemented diet significantly reduced the levels of serum amyloid P component - an indicator of the inflammatory process. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, the intake of probiotic LG2055 enhanced energy expenditure via carbohydrate oxidation, improved glucose tolerance and attenuated inflammation, suggesting multiple additive and/or synergistic actions underlying the anti-obesity effects exerted by LG2055. PMID:27267802

  11. Effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Roshanravan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes mellitus are complications of pregnancy. Both mothers and newborns are typically at increased risk for complications. This study sought to determine effect of zinc supplementation on serum glucose levels, insulin resistance, energy and macronutrients intakes in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance.In this clinical trial 44 pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance, from December 2012 -April 2013 were randomly divided into zinc (n=22 and placebo (n=22 groups and recived 30mg/day zinc gluconate and (n=22, and placebo for eight consecutive weeks respectively. Dietary food intake was estimated from 3-days diet records. Serum levels of zinc, fasting blood sugar, and insulin were measured by conventional methods. Also homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was calculated.Serumlevels of fasting blood sugar, insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance slightly decreased in zinc group, but these changes were not statistically significant. Serum zinc levels (P =0.012, energy (P=0.037, protein (P=0.019 and fat (P=0.017 intakes increased statistically significant in the zinc group after intervention but not in the placebo group.Oral supplementation with zinc could be effective in increasing serum zinc levels and energy intake with no effects on fasting blood sugar, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin levels.

  12. Th1/Th17 Plasticity Is a Marker of Advanced β Cell Autoimmunity and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert-Hartwall, Linnea; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri M.; Nieminen, Janne K.; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Härkönen, Taina; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Knip, Mikael; Knip, Mikael; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Ormisson, Anne; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svetlana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Ilonen, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Hanna; Hyöty, Heikki; Kondrashova, Anita; Oikarinen, Sami; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjalt; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of IL-17 immunity and detrimental effects of IL-17 on human islets have been implicated in human type 1 diabetes. In animal models, the plasticity of Th1/Th17 cells contributes to the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that the upregulation of the IL-17 pathway and Th1/Th17 plasticity in peripheral blood are markers of advanced β cell autoimmunity and impaired β cell function in human type 1 diabetes. Activated Th17 immunity was observed in the late stage of preclinical diabetes in children with β cell autoimmunity and impaired glucose tolerance, but not in children with early β cell autoimmunity. We found an increased ratio of IFN-γ/IL-17 expression in Th17 cells in children with advanced β cell autoimmunity, which correlated with HbA1c and plasma glucose concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test, and thus impaired β cell function. Low expression of Helios was seen in Th17 cells, suggesting that Th1/Th17 cells are not converted thymus-derived regulatory T cells. Our results suggest that the development of Th1/Th17 plasticity may serve as a biomarker of disease progression from β cell autoantibody positivity to type 1 diabetes. These data in human type 1 diabetes emphasize the role of Th1/Th17 plasticity as a potential contributor to tissue destruction in autoimmune conditions. PMID:25480564

  13. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results.

  14. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  15. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  16. Amantadine reduces glucagon and enhances insulin secretion throughout the oral glucose tolerance test: central plus peripheral nervous system mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Lechin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuad Lechin1, Bertha van der Dijs1, Betty Pardey-Maldonado1, Jairo E Rivera1, Marcel E Lechin2, Scarlet Baez11Department of Physiological Sciences, Sections of Neuroendocrinology, Neuropharmacology, and Neurochemistry, Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A & M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, TX, USAObjective: The purpose of the trial was to examine the effects of amantadine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA antagonist, on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT plus insulin, glucagon and neurotransmitters circulating levels. Previous findings showed that hyperinsulinism and type 2 diabetes are positively associated with neural sympathetic and adrenal sympathetic activities, respectively. These peripheral sympathetic branches depend on the pontine (A5-noradrenergic and the rostral ventrolateral (C1-adrenergic medullary nuclei. They are excited by glutamate axons which act at NMDA postsynaptic receptors.Research design and methods: One OGTT plus placebo and one OGTT plus oral amantadine test were carried out two weeks apart in 15 caucasic normal voluntary humans. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, plasma-free serotonin, platelet serotonin, glucose, glucagon, and insulin were measured throughout the 180-minute testing period.Results: Maximal reductions of plasma glucose and glucagon plus exacerbated insulin rises were significantly greater throughout the oral glucose plus amantadine test than those registered throughout the oral glucose plus placebo challenge. The above findings were paralleled by greater than normal noradrenaline/adrenaline plasma ratio increases. In addition, maximal reductions of the platelet serotonin and plasma serotonin circulating values contrasted with the normal rises of these parameters, always registered during the glucose load plus placebo challenge.Conclusion: This study supports the theory that

  17. Synergistic effect of calcium and zinc on glucose/xylose utilization and butanol tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youduo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Lijie; Yuan, Wenjie; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol outperforms bioethanol as an advanced biofuel, but is not economically competitive in terms of its titer, yield and productivity associated with feedstocks and energy cost. In this work, the synergistic effect of calcium and zinc was investigated in the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum using glucose, xylose and glucose/xylose mixtures as carbon source(s). Significant improvements associated with enhanced glucose/xylose utilization, cell growth, acids re-assimilation and butanol biosynthesis were achieved. Especially, the maximum butanol and ABE production of 16.1 and 25.9 g L(-1) were achieved from 69.3 g L(-1) glucose with butanol/ABE productivities of 0.40 and 0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) compared to those of 11.7 and 19.4 g/L with 0.18 and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1) obtained in the control respectively without any supplement. More importantly, zinc was significantly involved in the butanol tolerance based on the improved xylose utilization under various butanol-shock conditions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g L(-1) butanol). Under the same conditions, calcium and zinc co-supplementation led to the best xylose utilization and butanol production. These results suggested that calcium and zinc could play synergistic roles improving ABE fermentation by C. acetobutylicum. PMID:26850441

  18. Impaired glucose tolerance and coronary heart disease%葡萄糖耐量受损与冠心病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国祥

    2013-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is closely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), and significantly affects the incidence and outcome of CHD. This paper reviewed the definition and status of postprandial blood glucose, its monitoring and indications. This paper also discussed detection rates of IGT and relevant factors, the harm of IGT on cardiovascular system, and the intervention measures and effects.%葡萄糖耐量受损(IGT)与冠心病关系密切,显著地影响冠心病的发病和转归。本文介绍餐后血糖定义及状态、监测及适应证、IGT的检出率与相关因素、对心血管系统的危害、干预措施和效果。

  19. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Damkier, Per;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Our objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John's wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. METHODS: We performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1 g...... of metformin twice daily for 1 week with and without 21 days of preceding and concomitant treatment with St John's wort. The pharmacokinetics of metformin was determined, and a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test was performed. RESULTS: St John's wort decreased the renal clearance of metformin but did not affect...... any other metformin pharmacokinetic parameter. The addition of St John's wort decreased the area under the glucose concentration-time curve [702 (95% confidence interval, 643-761) vs. 629 min*mmol/L (95% confidence interval, 568-690), P = 0.003], and this effect was caused by a statistically...

  20. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  1. Reduced Progression to Type 2 Diabetes From Impaired Glucose Tolerance After a 2-Day In-Hospital Diabetes Educational Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Inazu, Tetsuya; Arao, Tadashi; Kawahara, Chie; Tabata, Takahiro; MORIYAMA, Hiroyuki; Okada, Yosuke; Morita, Emiko; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—We assessed the effects of a 2-day in-hospital diabetes educational program in preventing or delaying progression of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes, including analysis of changes in serum lipids, body weight, and blood pressure after the program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 426 subjects (51 ± 9 years, BMI 24.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2) with newly diagnosed IGT were randomly assigned to three groups, 143 as the short-term hospitalization with diabetes education and...

  2. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    termination, expressions of mRNA coding for tumor necrosis factor, serum amyloid A, and lactase were upregulated, while the expression of tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 15 was downregulated in the ileum of Ampicillin-treated mice. Higher dendritic cell percentages were found systemically in...... high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well as...... development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  3. Fufang Cangzhu Tang for Treatment of Senile Obesity or Overweight Complicated with Impaired Glucose Tolerance--A Clinical Observation in 32 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of Fufang Cangzhu Tang (复方苍术汤 Composite Atractylodes Decoction) on senile obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods: 32 cases of senile obesity or overweight with IGT were treated with Composite Atractylodes Decoction, with another 30 cases treated with dimethyldiguanide as the controls. Changes of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist hip circumference ratio (WHR), glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid before and after treatment were compared. Results: After treatment, the body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the Composite Atractylodes Decoction treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with no significant difference as compared with the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Composite Atractylodes Decoction can obviously decrease the body weight,waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the senile patients with obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance.

  4. Effect of glucose on Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation, and assessment of the biofilm's sanitation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoui, Daisuke; Hirokawa, Eri; Takahashi, Hajime; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important cause of human foodborne infections and its ability to form biofilms is a serious concern to the food industry. To reveal the effect of glucose conditions on biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes, 20 strains were investigated under three glucose conditions (0.1, 1.0, and 2.0% w v(-1)) by quantifying the number of cells in the biofilm and observing the biofilm structure after incubation for 24, 72, and 168 h. In addition, the biofilms were examined for their sensitivity to sodium hypochlorite. It was found that high concentrations of glucose reduced the number of viable cells in the biofilms and increased extracellular polymeric substance production. Moreover, biofilms formed at a glucose concentration of 1.0 or 2.0% were more resistant to sodium hypochlorite than those formed at a glucose concentration of 0.1%. This knowledge can be used to help design the most appropriate sanitation strategy. PMID:27353113

  5. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels. PMID:26069091

  6. Serum glycated albumin is inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that body mass index (BMI inversely influenced serum glycated albumin (GA, which may cause an underestimation of GA-monitored short-term hyperglycemic control. OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate the association between anthropometric variables (BMI and waist circumference (W and accurate adiposity variables (percentage of body fat (%fat, fat mass, free fat mass (FFM, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and visceral fat area (VFA with serum GA. DESIGN: A total of 2563 subjects (1037 men, 593 premenopausal women, and 933 postmenopausal women with normal glucose tolerance underwent bioelectrical impedance body fat content measurement and magnetic resonance imaging. Serum GA and absolute value of GA (aGA were measured by enzymatic assay. RESULTS: Compared to the BMI <25.0 kg/m(2 group, the BMI ≥25.0 kg/m(2 group had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and body fat parameters including W, %fat, fat mass, FFM, SFA, and VFA, but significantly lower aGA, and GA in all the three sex- and menopause-stratified groups (all P<0.05. GA decreased with the increment of fat mass for all three groups (all P for trend <0.001. In the same BMI category, men and postmenopausal women with elevated %fat (men, ≥25%; women, ≥35% still had significantly lower GA than those with normal %fat (men, <25%; women, <35% (all P<0.05. Multiple stepwise regression showed that %fat, fat mass, and VFA were independently associated with GA. CONCLUSIONS: Serum GA was inversely influenced by fat mass and visceral adipose tissue in Chinese with normal glucose tolerance.

  7. PICK1 and ICA69 control insulin granule trafficking and their deficiencies lead to impaired glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Cao

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin, which is secreted by pancreatic beta cells, is recognized as the critical regulator of blood glucose, but the molecular machinery responsible for insulin trafficking remains poorly defined. In particular, the roles of cytosolic factors that govern the formation and maturation of insulin granules are unclear. Here we report that PICK1 and ICA69, two cytosolic lipid-binding proteins, formed heteromeric BAR-domain complexes that associated with insulin granules at different stages of their maturation. PICK1-ICA69 heteromeric complexes associated with immature secretory granules near the trans-Golgi network (TGN. A brief treatment of Brefeldin A, which blocks vesicle budding from the Golgi, increased the amount of PICK1 and ICA69 at TGN. On the other hand, mature secretory granules were associated with PICK1 only, not ICA69. PICK1 deficiency in mice caused the complete loss of ICA69 and led to increased food and water intake but lower body weight. Glucose tolerance tests demonstrated that these mutant mice had high blood glucose, a consequence of insufficient insulin. Importantly, while the total insulin level was reduced in PICK1-deficient beta cells, proinsulin was increased. Lastly, ICA69 knockout mice also displayed similar phenotype as the mice deficient in PICK1. Together, our results indicate that PICK1 and ICA69 are key regulators of the formation and maturation of insulin granules.

  8. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  9. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Manell

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW. Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research.

  10. Establishment of a Refined Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Pigs, and Assessment of Insulin, Glucagon and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manell, Elin; Hedenqvist, Patricia; Svensson, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing worldwide and reliable animal models are important for progression of the research field. The pig is a commonly used large animal model in diabetes research and the present study aimed to refine a model for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in young growing pigs, as well as describing intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in the same age group. The refined porcine OGTT will reflect that used in children and adolescents. Eighteen pigs were obtained one week after weaning and trained for two weeks to bottle-feed glucose solution, mimicking the human OGTT. The pigs subsequently underwent OGTT (1.75 g/kg BW) and IVGTT (0.5 g/kg BW). Blood samples were collected from indwelling vein catheters for measurements of glucose and the diabetes related hormones insulin, glucagon and active glucagon-like peptide-1. The study confirmed that pigs can be trained to bottle-feed glucose dissolved in water and thereby undergo an OGTT more similar to the human standard OGTT than previously described methods in pigs. With the refined method for OGTT, oral intake only consists of glucose and water, which is an advantage over previously described methods in pigs where glucose is given together with feed which will affect glucose absorption. Patterns of hormonal secretion in response to oral and intravenous glucose were similar to those in humans; however, the pigs were more glucose tolerant with lower insulin levels than humans. In translational medicine, this refined OGTT and IVGTT methods provide important tools in diabetes research when pigs are used as models for children and adolescents in diabetes research. PMID:26859145

  11. Sensory nerve desensitization by resiniferatoxin improves glucose tolerance and increases insulin secretion in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and is associated with reduced plasma activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte X; Hansen, Anker J; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2005-01-01

    Sensory nerve desensitization by capsaicin has been shown to improve the diabetic condition in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. However, administration of capsaicin to adult rats is associated with an increased mortality. Therefore, in this experiment, we examined the influence of resiniferatoxin......, a tolerable analogue of capsaicin suitable for in vivo use, on the diabetic condition of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. A single subcutaneous injection of resiniferatoxin (0.01 mg/kg) to these rats was tolerable, with no mortality. When administered to early diabetic rats at 15 weeks of age, the further...... deterioration of glucose homeostasis was prevented by resiniferatoxin. Further, when administered to overtly diabetic rats at 19 weeks of age, resiniferatoxin markedly improved glucose tolerance at two weeks after administration and this was accompanied by an increased insulin response to oral glucose as well...

  12. Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance entails acceptance of the very things one disagrees with, disapproves of or dislikes. Tolerance can be seen as ‘a flawed virtue’ (Schuyt, 2001), because it concerns acceptance of the differences between others and ourselves we would rather fight, ignore or overcome. Although tolerance carr

  13. Impact of Glucocorticoid Excess on Glucose Tolerance: Clinical and Preclinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasieka, Aoibhe M; Rafacho, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that exert important physiological actions on metabolism. Given that GCs also exert potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, synthetic GCs such as prednisolone and dexamethasone were developed for the treatment of autoimmune- and inflammatory-related diseases. The synthetic GCs are undoubtedly efficient in terms of their therapeutic effects, but are accompanied by significant adverse effects on metabolism, specifically glucose metabolism. Glucose intolerance and reductions in insulin sensitivity are among the major concerns related to GC metabolic side effects, which may ultimately progress to type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have aimed to understand the repercussions of GCs on glucose metabolism and the possible mechanisms of GC action. This review intends to summarize the main alterations that occur in liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets in the context of GC-induced glucose intolerance. For this, both experimental (animals) and clinical studies were selected and, whenever possible, the main cellular mechanisms involved in such GC-side effects were discussed. PMID:27527232

  14. Need for testing glucose tolerance in the early weeks of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshiah Veeraswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This observational study aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of glucose intolerance in the early weeks of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: New World Health Organization 2013 guidelines recommends “A Single Step Procedure”(SSP as an option for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Pregnant women attending 131 prenatal clinics across India for the first time underwent SSP consisting of administration of 75 goral glucose irrespective of the last meal timing and to diagnose GDM with 2 h plasma glucose (PG value≥7.8 mmol/L (7.8 mmol/L. Results: In a cohort of n = 11,785, the number of pregnant women who underwent the test in first, second, and third trimesters were 4300, 4632, and 2853, respectively. Documented blood glucose values were available for 9282 pregnant women and in them, diagnosis of GDM was made in 740 (8%. Among them, 233 (31.5%, 320 (43.2%, and 187 (25.3% were in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Positive family history of diabetes (43% and history of fetal loss in previous pregnancy (27% was more common in women diagnosed with GDM in the first trimester compared to GDM diagnosed in the second or third trimester. Conclusion: Manifestation of GDM in the early weeks of gestation is quite common.

  15. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study...

  16. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before......, in the Matsudas index, in body weight, or in body composition. CONCLUSION: A diet high in monounsaturated fat has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a period of weight...

  17. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...

  18. Overexpression and characterization of a glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from T. aotearoense with high specific activity for cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhe; Du, Chenyu; Wang, Jufang; Li, Shuang

    2015-11-01

    Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense P8G3#4 produced β-glucosidase (BGL) intracellularly when grown in liquid culture on cellobiose. The gene bgl, encoding β-glucosidase, was cloned and sequenced. Analysis revealed that the bgl contained an open reading frame of 1314 bp encoding a protein of 446 amino acid residues, and the product belonged to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 with the canonical glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) (β/α)8 TIM barrel fold. Expression of pET-bgl together with a chaperone gene cloned in vector pGro7 in Escherichia coli dramatically enhanced the crude enzyme activity to a specific activity of 256.3 U/mg wet cells, which resulted in a 9.2-fold increase of that obtained from the expression without any chaperones. The purified BGL exhibited relatively high thermostability and pH stability with its highest activity at 60 °C and pH 6.0. In addition, the activities of BGL were remarkably stimulated by the addition of 5 mM Na(+) or K(+). The enzyme showed strong ability to hydrolyze cellobiose with a K m and V max of 25.45 mM and 740.5 U/mg, respectively. The BGL was activated by glucose at concentration varying from 50 to 250 mM and tolerant to glucose inhibition with a K i of 800 mM glucose. The supplement of the purified BGL to the sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis mixture containing a commercial cellulase resulted in about 20 % enhancement of the released reducing sugars. These properties of the purified BGL should have important practical implication in its potential applications for better industrial production of glucose or bioethanol started from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:25957152

  19. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance. PMID:20660065

  20. The insulinotropic effect of GIP is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis and secondary diabetes mellitus as compared to patients with chronic pancreatitis and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Højberg, Patricia V;

    2007-01-01

    patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 5.5 (4.5-6.0) mM (mean (range); HbA(1c): 5.8 (5.4-6.3) %) and 8 patients with CP and secondary diabetes not requiring insulin (FPG: 7.1 (6.0-8.8) mM; HbA(1c): 7.0 (5.8-10.0) %) during three 15-m...

  1. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance.

  2. The Effects of Dietary Iron and Capsaicin on Hemoglobin, Blood Glucose, Insulin Tolerance, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides, in Healthy and Diabetic Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez-Ibarra, Adriana; Huerta, Miguel; Villalpando-Hernández, Salvador; Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Díaz-Reval, María I.; Cruzblanca, Humberto; Mancilla, Evelyn; Trujillo, Xóchitl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to assess the effects of dietary iron, and the compound capsaicin, on hemoglobin as well as metabolic indicators including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Materials and Methods Our animal model was the Wistar rat, fed a chow diet, with or without experimentally induced diabetes. Diabetic males were fed control, low, or high-iron diets, the latter, with or without capsaicin. Healthy rats were fed identical diets, but without the ...

  3. Circadian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system in insulin resistant subjects with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Pietro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are considered responsible for autonomic dysfunction. The relation between the autonomic activity, impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance is, however, unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the circadian autonomic activity expressed as heart rate variability (HRV measured by 24-hours ECG recording in insulin resistant subjects (IR with characteristics as follow: IR subjects with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, IR subjects with impaired fasting glucose, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Eighty Caucasian insulin resistant subjects (IR and twenty five control subjects were recruited for the study. IR subjects were divided into four groups according to the outcoming results of oral glucose tests (OGTTs: IR subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR, IR subjects with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Autonomic nervous activity was studied by 24-hours ECG recording. Heart rate variability analysis was performed in time and frequency domains: SDNN, RMS-SD, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were calculated. Results The total SDNN showed statistically significant reduction in all four groups with insulin resistant subjects (IR when compared to the control group (p Conclusion The results of our study suggest that insulin resistance might cause global autonomic dysfunction which increases along with worsening glucose metabolic impairment. The analysis of sympathetic and parasympathetic components and the sympathovagal balance demonstrated an association between insulin resistance and sympathetic over-activity, especially during night. The results indicated that the sympathetic over-activity is directly correlated to the grade of insulin resistance

  4. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora. HYPOTHESIS: The risk of diabetes in transitional populations of the African diaspora is directly related to the rate of anthropornetric change and physical activity. AIMS: - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to physical activity in two populations of the African Diaspora with widely different levels of obesity; - To determine whether risk of incident diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is related to rate of rise in body weight and change in body composition

  5. Association of the ACTN3 R557X polymorphism with glucose tolerance and gene expression of sarcomeric proteins in human skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E.; Benziane, Boubacar; Chibalin, Alexander V; Juleen R. Zierath

    2015-01-01

    A common polymorphism (R577X) in the α-actinin (ACTN) 3 gene, which leads to complete deficiency of a functional protein in skeletal muscle, could directly influence metabolism in the context of health and disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that states of glucose tolerance are associated with the ACTN3 R577X genotype. We analyzed the prevalence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and measured muscle-specific α-actin...

  6. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose to tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a gradient of diabetes prevalence among populations of the African Diaspora, with a rate of about 1% in West Africa, 12% in Jamaica and 16% in the United States. A population-based survey was conducted in an urban community in Jamaica to document the risk factors for the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to frank diabetes. In a sample of 614 adults, 239 men and 375 women, oral glucose tolerance tests and examinations were conducted at Baseline and after 4-years of Follow-Up. There were significant increases in virtually all weight and adiposity variables for both men and women. Energy expenditure was also measured in a subset of participants at Follow-Up and was related significantly to glucose tolerance status. Among men, baseline age, weight, fat mass, body fat, waist circumference, and change in waist circumference were predictive of worsening glucose tolerance status. Among women, only age and change in waist circumference was a significant predictor. No physical activity parameter was predictive of change in tolerance status. These results provide support for the need to decrease adiposity as an important mechanism to control the rise in diabetes prevalence. (author)

  8. Effects of colupulone, a component of hops and brewers yeast, and chromium on glucose tolerance and hepatic cytochrome P450 in nondiabetic and spontaneously diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannering, G J; Shoeman, J A; Shoeman, D W

    1994-05-16

    Brewers yeast contains factors that increase and decrease glucose tolerance. Hop components (lupulones) that adhere to yeast during the brewing process elicit a variety of biological effects including the induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A. Colupulone was tested for its effects on glucose tolerance and cytochrome P450. Serum glucose levels 30 min after the injection of glucose were lowered by colupulone in nondiabetic Swiss-Webster mice, elevated in diabetic C57B1/KSJ-db/db mice, and unaffected in nondiabetic C57B1/KSJ+m/+m mice. Colupulone lowered hemoglobin glycation slightly in +m/+m mice but not in db/db mice. The cytochrome P450 system was highly induced by colupulone in both db/db and +m/+m mice. Chromium, which acts in concert with the factor in yeast that enhances glucose tolerance, had little or no effect on the plasma glucose level or the cytochrome P450 system in either +m/+m or db/db mice.

  9. The contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral fat to risk factors in Japanese patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, M; Kai, Y; Zou, B; Hatayama, T; Suwa, M; Sasaki, H; Kumagai, S

    2004-05-01

    It is still unclear as to how cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral fat accumulation contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether cardiorespiratory fitness contributes to such risk factors independently of visceral fat accumulation. Two hundred Japanese patients (137 men and 63 women, aged 22 to 81 years) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) without any intervention and pharmacological therapy participated in a cross-sectional study. The levels of fasting insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and resting blood pressure were assessed. Maximal oxygen uptake (V.o(2max)), an index of cardiorespiratory fitness, was predicted by a graded exercise test using a cycle ergometer. Visceral fat area (VFA) was measured by computed tomography scan. The criteria for abnormalities of the risk factors were determined according to the standard values for Japanese. All subjects were divided equally into the following 3 groups according to their fitness level: low-fit (V.o(2max) fit (32 fit (V.o(2max) > or = 36 in men, V.o(2max) > or = 30 in women). The association between fitness level and the prevalence of abnormal values for these parameters was analyzed by a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age and VFA. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the prevalence of hyperinsulinemia were significantly lower in the mid-fit (OR = 0.35, 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.78) and in the high-fit groups (OR = 0.40, 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.98) compared with the low-fit group. In addition, ORs for the prevalence of low HDL-C in the mid-fit and high-fit groups were significantly lower (OR = 0.35, 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.86; and OR = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.60, respectively) than in the low-fit group. These results suggested that cardiorespiratory fitness might be one of the predictors

  10. Chromium Supplementation Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdourahman, Aicha; Edwards, John G

    2008-01-01

    Chromium supplementation (Cr) may be useful in the management of diabetes and appears to improve some aspects of glucose handling. However, several studies have used either high doses of Cr supplementation or have placed control animals on a Cr-deficient diet. We therefore wanted to test whether Cr dosages in the ranges that more closely approximate recommended levels of supplementation in humans are efficacious in glycemic control under normal dietary conditions. Euglycemic Wistar or diabeti...

  11. Effect of fructose or sucrose feeding with different levels on oral glucose tolerance test in normal and type 2 diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Sanghee; Kim, You Jin; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether acute fructose or sucrose administration at different levels (0.05 g/kg, 0.1 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg body weight) might affect oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. In OGTT, there were no significant differences in glucose responses between acute fructose- and sucrose-administered groups. However, in normal rats, the AUCs of the blood glucose response for the fructose-administered groups tended to be lower than those of th...

  12. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 3260 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...

  13. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  14. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.MethodsLate stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.ResultsDuring 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05. Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated earlystage diabetic rats.ConclusionsChicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and longterm (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  15. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamarian Abdolreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and long-term (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  16. The Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Thalassemia Major in Iran: A systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is one of the most common endocrine complications in major thalassemia patients. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major has been differently in different studies in Iran, about which no total estimate can be proposed. Hence, this meta analysis study aimed to investigate IGT prevalence in major thalassemia patients in Iran. Methods: This study was a systematic review based on electronic databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley as well as Google Scholar search engine without any time limitations up to 2015. All the potentially relevant papers were reviewed independently by two investigators using the standard key words. Then, all the reviewed studies that had inclusion criterion were evaluated. In order to statistically analyze the study data, random effect model was used via Stata software (Ver.11.1. Results: 1346 subjects were examined in 13 studies. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major was estimated 9.6 %( CI: 95%, 6.6-12.5 in Iran. The IGT prevalence in male and female major thalassemia patients were 6.5 %( CI: 95%, 1.6-11.3 and 10.2 %( CI: 95% , 6.1-14.3, respectively. Conclusion: IGT Prevalence was demonstrated to be really high in patients with thalassemia major. As a result, implementing screening programs seems to be necessary in regard with early diagnosis of endocrine disorders especially IGT in these patients. Furthermore, it is recommended that annual glucose tolerance test be taken within such patients.

  17. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech.......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  18. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  19. A Novel Animal Model of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Induced by the Interaction of Vitamin E Deficiency and 60Co Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, known as the prediabetes stage, is usually induced by habits of life or environmental factors. Established IGT animal models are mostly conducted with chemical compounds such as streptozocin or genetic modification. However, the occasion of exposure to these factors in daily life is seldom. The objective of this study was to establish a new animal model of IGT induced by VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation. SD rats were treated individually or in combination of these two factors. In the combination group, the calculated insulin sensitivity index decreased; then HOMA-β value increased. Oxidative damage and IGT were observed. Insulin secretion level in perfusate from pancreas response to glucose was characterized by a rapid but reduced first phase and an obviously defective second phase upon pancreas perfusion. Histopathological images demonstrated the pathological changes. Western blotting analysis showed that the insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. The interaction of VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation could break the equilibrium of oxidation and antioxidation and result in IGT. More importantly, a new IGT model was successfully established which may be conducive to further research into development of drugs against human IGT.

  20. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  1. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  2. Endothelin-1 as a predictor of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes--A longitudinal study in the Vara-Skövde Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, Josefin; Daka, Bledar; Hellgren, Margareta I; Larsson, Charlotte A; Petzold, Max; Lindblad, Ulf; Jansson, Per-Anders

    2016-03-01

    We addressed whether endothelin-1, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, predicts impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a population study in south-western Sweden. Follow-up after 9.7 years showed an association between circulating endothelin-1 levels at baseline and development of IGT/T2DM in women but not in men.

  3. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  4. Selective FFA2 Agonism Appears to Act via Intestinal PYY to Reduce Transit and Food Intake but Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance in Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Stafford, Stuart; Coope, Gareth; Heffron, Helen; Real, Katia; Newman, Robert; Davenport, Richard; Barnes, Matt; Grosse, Johannes; Cox, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells that release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) when activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Functionally GLP-1 and PYY inhibit gut transit, increase glucose tolerance, and suppress appetite; thus, FFA2 has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, FFA2-selective agonists have not been characterized in vivo. Compound 1 (Cpd 1), a potent FFA2 agonist, was tested for its activity on the following: GLP-1 release, modulation of intestinal mucosal ion transport and transit in wild-type (WT) and FFA2(-/-) tissue, and food intake and glucose tolerance in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Cpd 1 stimulated GLP-1 secretion in vivo, but this effect was only detected with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, while mucosal responses were PYY, not GLP-1, mediated. Gut transit was faster in FFA2(-/-) mice, while Cpd 1 slowed WT transit and reduced food intake and body weight in DIO mice. Cpd 1 decreased glucose tolerance and suppressed plasma insulin in lean and DIO mice, despite FFA2(-/-) mice displaying impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that FFA2 inhibits intestinal functions and suppresses food intake via PYY pathways, with limited GLP-1 contribution. Thus, FFA2 may be an effective therapeutic target for obesity but not for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26239054

  5. A common polymorphism in the promoter of the IGF-I gene associates with increased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose-tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Lajer, Maria;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if absence of a common allele in a microsatellite polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) promoter was associated with type 2 diabetes and alterations in quantitative traits in glucose-tolerant subjects....

  6. Impaired fasting glycaemia vs impaired glucose tolerance: similar impairment of pancreatic alpha and beta cell function but differential roles of incretin hormones and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The impact of strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG) vs isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) may differ depending on the underlying pathophysiology. We examined insulin secretion during OGTTs and IVGTTs, hepatic and peri...

  7. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 Caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women with hirs......OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women...

  8. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  9. Association testing of novel type 2 diabetes risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, TSPAN8, THADA, ADAMTS9, and NOTCH2 loci with insulin release, insulin sensitivity, and obesity in a population-based sample of 4,516 glucose-tolerant middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andersen, Gitte; Krarup, Nikolaj Thure;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact on diabetes-related intermediary traits of common novel type 2 diabetes-associated variants in the JAZF1 (rs864745), CDC123/CAMK1D (rs12779790), TSPAN8 (rs7961581), THADA (rs7578597), ADAMTS9 (rs4607103), and NOTCH2 (rs10923931) loci, which were recently...... identified by meta-analysis of genome-wide association data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped the six variants in 4,516 middle-aged glucose-tolerant individuals of the population-based Inter99 cohort who were all characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Homozygous carriers......: If replicated, our data suggest that type 2 diabetes at-risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, and TSPAN8 loci associate with various OGTT-based surrogate measures of insulin release, emphasizing the contribution of abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes....

  10. Effects of abnormal results of simple glucose screening test on pregnancy%单纯葡萄糖筛查试验异常对妊娠的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘嫦勋; 蔡鹏宇; 吴淑芳; 黎美金; 吴怡萍; 钟金华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of abnormal results of simple glucose screening test on pregnancy. Methods: The data of 2 473 pregnant women who gave birth to their babies in the hospital from January 2007 to June 2010 were analyzed retrospectively, 628 pregnant women with abnormal results of simple glucose screening test and normal results of oral glucose tolerance test ( OGTT) were selected as abnormal group, 1 845 pregnant women with normal results of simple glucose screening test were selected as control group. The gestation-al weeks at delivery, amniotic fluid index detected by ultrasonography before rupture of fetal membrane, birth weight, body height, and head circumference of neonates in the two groups were recorded; the incidences of polyhydramnios, premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, birth weight, body height, and head circumference of neonates in the two groups were compared. Results: The incidence of fetal growth restriction, birth weight, and head circumference of neonates in abnormal group were 2. 5% , (50. 8 ± 1. 4) cm, and (34. 2 ± 1. 5) cm, respectively; the incidence of fetal growth restriction, birth weight, and head circumference of neonates in normal group were 2, 9% , (50. 7 ± 1. 5) cm, and (34. 1 ± 1. 4) cm, respectively, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The incidences of polyhydramnios, premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, and birth weight in abnormal group were 3.3%, 5.3%, 11.5% , and (3. 5 ±0.5) kg; the incidences of polyhydramnios , premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, and birth weight in normal group were 0. 6% , 2. 5% , 4. 7% , and (3. 2 ±0. 6) kg, there was statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The incidences of polyhydramnios, premature delivery, macrosomia, fetal growth restriction, and birth weight of neonates in the patients with abnormal results of simple glucose screening test were

  11. The relationship between dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a study on elderly patients%60岁及以上患者血脂异常与糖耐量减低的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    主理群; 崔会娣; 李詝

    2009-01-01

    The study is to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety elderly nondiabetic patients (60 -84 years old) were under long-term follow-up in outpatient department. Blood lipid measurement and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTr) were performed,the two-hour glucose levels (2 hPBG) between normal and abnormal blood lipid groups were compared. We found that patients with hypertriglyceridemia had a significantly higher 2 hPBG than patients with normal blood triglyceride(P<0. 01 ). But there were no differences in 2 hPBG levels between other dyslipidemias and normal lipid patients. OGTT screening in elderly patients with hypertriglyceridemia can be helpful in early detection and prevention of diabetes.%对90例60岁及以上非糖尿病患者行血脂检测及口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)检测,比较分析各血脂指标正常与异常者间葡萄糖负荷后2 h的血糖(2 hPBG)水平差异.高甘油三酯(TG)血症患者2 hPBG为(8.9±2.3)mmol/L,TG正常者为(7.2 ±1.6)mmol/L,两者比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);而其余血脂指标正常与异常者之间差异无统计学意义.对高TG老年患者进行OGTT筛查有助于及早发现单纯糖耐量减低和对糖尿病的早期预防.

  12. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Zohre; Yang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Han; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn; Chan, Catherine B

    2015-04-01

    Pulses, including dried peas, are nutrient- and fibre-rich foods that improve glucose control in diabetic subjects compared with other fibre sources. We hypothesized feeding cooked pea seed coats to insulin-resistant rats would improve glucose tolerance by modifying gut responses to glucose and reducing stress on pancreatic islets. Glucose intolerance induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet (HFD; 10% cellulose as fibre) was followed by 3 weeks of HFD with fibre (10%) provided by cellulose, raw-pea seed coat (RP), or cooked-pea seed coat (CP). A fourth group consumed low-fat diet with 10% cellulose. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (oGTT, ipGTT) were done. CP rats had 30% and 50% lower glucose and insulin responses in oGTT, respectively, compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05) but ipGTT was not different. Plasma islet and incretin hormone concentrations were measured. α- and β-cell areas in the pancreas and density of K- and L-cells in jejunum and ileum were quantified. Jejunal expression of hexose transporters was measured. CP feeding increased fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses (P < 0.05), but K- and L-cells densities were comparable to HFD, as was abundance of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA. No significant difference in β-cell area between diet groups was observed. α-cell area was significantly smaller in CP compared with RP rats (P < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that CP feeding can reverse adverse effects of HFD on glucose homeostasis and is associated with enhanced incretin secretion and reduced α-cell abundance.

  13. Cigarette smoking increases levels of retinol-binding protein-4 in healthy men with normal glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shan; WANG Yong-hui; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance.We investigated the serum levels of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance.Methods A total of 136 healthy male subjects (92 smokers and 44 non-smokers) with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study.Adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4,visfatin,leptin,resistin,adiponectin were measured for the comparison between the two groups.Serum lipid profile,glucose,true insulin and proinsulin levels were measured as well in both groups.Food intake spectrum was also investigated.Results Both groups had similar profile of food consumption; visfatin,leptin,resistin and adiponectin,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,as well as blood pressure and body mass index,were similar in both groups.Triglycerides,retinol-binding protein-4 and homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance were higher in smoker group ((2.58±2.53) vs.(1.60±0.94)mmol/L,(26.05±8.50) vs.(21.83±8.40) μg/ml,and 2.25±2.08 vs.1.58±1.15,respectively).Conclusion Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity,which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4.

  14. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  15. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : 1 To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2 To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3 To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with District Katihar Bihar during January 2013 - June 2013. Population approximately 5000 i s an urban field practice area of Katihar Medical College Katihar , during the six months study period. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS was estimated to identify the diabetes and the Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT. Information from the study population was collected through pre tested questionnaire using several anthropometric measurements. RESULT : All of the 910 subjects examined far fasting blood glucose after overnight fast. FBS was detected by using standardized Glucometer (Accu - Check 32 cases were detected as Diabetic or having Impaired Glucose Tolerance (ITG prevalence of diabetes and IGT was higher among urban and is increasing with increase in age. Several long and short team steps should be taken for promotion of healthy life style modifications to present diabetes and emergence of its complications.

  16. 冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆Ghrelin水平及临床意义%Plasma ghrelin level in patients with coronary heart disease with abnormal glucose metabolism and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞军刚; 徐新; 唐良秋; 张社兵; 江志平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆胃饥饿素(Ghrelin)水平及其相关临床意义.方法:将纳入研究对象依据相关检验及检查结果分为正常对照组、冠心病组(冠心病糖代谢正常组和冠心病糖代谢异常组)、单纯糖代谢异常组.收集所有入选对象人院第2天清晨空腹血样,采用ELISA方法同批检测血浆Ghrelin水平.结果:①冠心病组及单纯糖代谢异常组血浆Ghrelin水平均显著低于正常对照组.②冠心病糖代谢异常组血浆Ghrelin水平显著低于冠心病糖代谢正常组及单纯糖代谢异常组.③析因分析结果显示:冠心病与糖代谢异常在对血浆Ghrelin水平影响方面不存在交互作用.然而,糖代谢异常比冠心病对血浆Ghrelin水平的影响更明显.结论:冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆Ghrelin水平显著下降,且糖代谢异常对Ghrelin的影响更明显.%AIM: To study plasma ghrelin level distribution in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) with abnormal glucose metabolism and to discuss its clinical significance. METHODS; According to laboratory examination results, subjects were divided into control group, coronary heart disease with normal glucose metabolism group, coronary heart disease with abnormal glucose metabolism group and abnormal glucose metabolism group. Fasting blood samples were collected the morning after admission with EDTA-2K anticoagulation tubes. Blood samples were then transferred to centrifuge tubes containing aprotinin and were centrifuged to extract plasma for cryopreservation. All blood plasma ghrelin levels were tested with ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with those in control group, ghrelin levels were significantly reduced in the group with CHD with normal glucose metabolism, group of CHD with abnormal glucose metabolism and group with abnormal glucose metabolism. Compared with those in the group of CHD with normal glucose metabolism, levels of ghrelin were significantly reduced in patients with

  17. Investigation and analysis of risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnant women%妊娠期糖代谢异常相关因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红媛; 刘春燕

    2014-01-01

    [ study group , including 75 cases with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 33 with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT)] and 91 normal pregnant women ( control group ) recruited from April to September of 2011 in Zhuhai Maternity and Child Health Hospital .Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy .Results The mean age , body mass index ( BMI ) before pregnancy , maternal weight gains during pregnancy , gravidity and parity were significantly different between study group and control group ( t value was -6.567, -4.818, -1.929, -3.231 and-3.270, respectively, all P<0.05).The proportion of study group with lower education than senior high school was significantly higher than that of control group (χ2 =5.642,P<0.05).Univariate analysis showed that many factors were related with abnormal glucose metabolism, including gravidity, parity, education background, age≥30 years, BMI≥24kg/m2 before pregnancy, diabetes family history, bad pregnancy or reproduction history , hypertriglyceridemia , recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis ( VVC) history, craving for sweets , large amount of fruits and exercise during pregnancy .Multivariate logistic regression showed that seven factors came into main effect model , including craving for sweets during pregnancy , craving for fruits during pregnancy , diabetes family history , BMI≥24kg/m2 before pregnancy, VCC, age≥30 years and exercise during pregnancy .All were risk factors except exercise.Conclusion Poor eating habits, family history of diabetes , over weight before gestation , maternal age≥30 and recurrent VCC are high risk factors for gestational abnormal glucose metabolism .Exercise during pregnancy is protective factor .More guidance should be provided for the pregnant women with the above high risk factors during antenatal care visits .

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulation in Anoxia Tolerance of the Freshwater Crayfish Orconectes virilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, the enzyme which catalyzes the rate determining step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, controls the production of nucleotide precursor molecules (R5P and powerful reducing molecules (NADPH that support multiple biosynthetic functions, including antioxidant defense. G6PDH from hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis showed distinct kinetic changes in response to 20 h anoxic exposure. Km values for both substrates decreased significantly in anoxic crayfish; Km NADP+ dropped from 0.015±0.008 mM to 0.012±0.008 mM, and Km G6P decreased from 0.13±0.02 mM to 0.08±0.007 mM. Two lines of evidence indicate that the mechanism involved is reversible phosphorylation. In vitro incubations that stimulated protein kinase or protein phosphatase action mimicked the effects on anoxia on Km values, whereas DEAE-Sephadex chromatography showed the presence of two enzyme forms (low- and high-phosphate whose proportions changed during anoxia. Incubation studies implicated protein kinase A and G in mediating the anoxia-responsive changes in G6PDH kinetic properties. In addition, the amount of G6PDH protein (measured by immunoblotting increased by ∼60% in anoxic hepatopancreas. Anoxia-induced phosphorylation of G6PDH could contribute to modifying carbon flow through the PPP under anoxic conditions, potentially maintaining NADPH supply for antioxidant defense during prolonged anoxia-induced hypometabolism.

  19. Analysis of glucose tolerance screening and its influence factors of 2 306 pregnant women%2306例孕妇糖耐量筛查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马轶

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解妊娠期糖代谢异常的发生率,探讨其相关因素,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法:对2 306例孕妇进行50 g葡萄糖筛查试验(GCT),50 g GCT结果≥7.8 mmol/L再行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)明确诊断,将临床资料进行统计分析.结果:妊娠期50 g GCT阳性率20.77%.其中葡萄耐量降低发生率4.16%,妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)检出率3.64%.高龄、孕前肥胖及糖尿病家族史为妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关因素.结论:GDM母儿并发症多,50 g GCT对GDM的及时发现和管理具有重要的意义.妊娠期糖耐量异常的发生率与孕妇的年龄、孕前体重指数及糖尿病家族史相关.做好孕前保健工作,按时对孕妇进行50 g GCT检测,特别是对GDM高危孕妇的筛查与管理有非常重要的临床意义.%Objective; To understand the incidence of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism, discuss its related factors, and provide scientific basis to intervention measures. Methods; 2 306 pregnant women were detecting by Sog glucose screening test ( GOT) , the pregnant women whose GCT result ≥7. 8 mmol/L were diagnosed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), then the clinical data were statistically analyzed . Results; The positive rate of 50g glucose screening test was 20. 77% , the incidence of lower glucose tolerance was 4. 16% , the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was 3. 64%. The senility, obesity before gestation and family diabetes history ware related factors of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism. Conclusion; The complications are a lot for the maternal and fetal with GDM. Sog GCT has a vital significance to GDMs timely discovery and management The incidence of abnormal gestation glucose tolerance is related to age, body mass index before gestation and family diabetes history of pregnant women. Its very important for screening and management of pregnant women with GDM to care before gestation, do GCT detection timely.

  20. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wara, Allison; Hunsucker, Sara; Bove, Krystal; Backus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6) were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg) or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg) in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03) food intake (- 22%) but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03) by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  1. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wara

    Full Text Available Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6 were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03 food intake (- 22% but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03 by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  2. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  3. A high-fat diet reverses improvement in glucose tolerance induced by duodenal-jejunal bypass in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shao-zhuang; SUN Dong; ZHANG Guang-yong; WANG Lei; LIU Teng; SUN Yu; LI Ming-xia; HU San-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery offers successful resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).However,recurrence of T2DM has been observed in a number of patients with initial resolution after bariatric surgery.This study aimed to induce reversal of the improvement of diabetes in T2DM rats after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB),and identify the effects of weight changes and gut hormones that might be involved.Methods DJB surgery was performed in two T2DM rat models (n=20 for each group):non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats,and moderately-obese T2DM rats induced by a combination of a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (HS rats).The controls were sham-operated and non-treated rats.All rats were then randomly divided into HFD- and low-fat diet (LFD)-fed groups.Glucose tolerance,insulin tolerance,glucose-stimulated insulin,glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) secretion,food intake and body weight were measured and compared with controls.Results DJB surgery resulted in a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in both GK and HS rats fed with either HFD or LFD.In contrast to LFD-fed rats,improved glucose tolerance was impaired in GK and HS rats fed with an HFD,accompanied by re-impairment of insulin tolerance and failure in enhancement of insulin secretion.There was no significant difference in food intake and body weight between DJB-operated and control rats,and between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and PYY levels were significantly increased after DJB surgery; however,they were not significantly different between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Conclusion An HFD reverses the improvement in glucose tolerance induced by DJB surgery in T2DM rats,primarily ascribing to the re-impairment of insulin sensitivity,but does not change body weight,GLP-1 and PYY levels.

  4. The cancer drug Dasatinib increases PGC-1α in adipose tissue but has adverse effects on glucose tolerance in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Long, Jonathan; Lokurkar, Isha A;

    2016-01-01

    white adipose tissue from lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Importantly, gene expression translated into increased PGC-1α protein content analyzed in melanoma cells and isolated mitochondria from adipocytes. However, dasatinib treatment had adverse effect on glucose tolerance in DIO and Ob/Ob mice....... This correlated with increased hepatic PGC-1α expression and the gluconeogenesis genes PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase. In conclusion, we show that dasatinib is a potent inducer of PGC-1α mRNA and protein in adipose tissue. However, despite beneficial effects of increased PGC-1α content in adipose tissue...

  5. Acute disruption of glucagon secretion or action does not improve glucose tolerance in an insulin-deficient mouse model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Vivi R.; Jensen, Signe Marie; Pedersen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    receptor antagonism, in order to evaluate the effect of these on glucose tolerance. Methods: Severe diabetes was induced in transgenic and wild-type mice by streptozotocin. Glucose metab. was investigated using OGTT in transgenic mice with the human diphtheria toxin receptor expressed in proglucagon...... producing cells allowing for diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced alpha cell ablation and in mice treated with either a specific high affinity glucagon antibody or a specific glucagon receptor antagonist. Results: Near-total alpha cell elimination was induced in transgenic mice upon DT administration and resulted...

  6. 妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关危险因素分析%Risk Factors of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Gestation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代明甫; 李倩; 钟思燕; 杨霜雪; 邬小臣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in gestation period, and provide the theory basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM ) . Method:A case-control study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with clinically confirmed gestational abnormal glucose metabolism as study group, and 100 pregnant women of same gestational weeks with normal glucose metabolism as control group from Jun.2011 to May 2014.The general information, gestational mate-rials and behaviors of the two groups were investigated and the risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in gestation period were analyzed.Result:Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes family history ( OR =2.398, 95%CI 1.042~5.012) , age was more than 28 years ( OR=1.413, 95%CI 1.322~4. 352) , BMI>24 ( OR=6.543, 95%CI 0.782~2.320) , abortion history ( OR=0.212, 95%CI 0.025~2. 256) , smoking history ( OR=0.246, 95%CI 0.045~3.452) were the risk factor of GDM morbidity.Con-clusion:Pregnant women with diabetes family history,>28 years, BMI>24,history of abortion and smoking should undergo gestational diabetes screening during early trimester of pregency.%目的:探讨妇女妊娠期糖代谢异常分布情况及发病的相关危险因素,为预防和控制妊娠期糖尿病提供理论依据。方法:以我院2011年6月至2014年5月保健门诊确诊的妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇100例为病例组,以糖代谢正常及孕周相同的孕产妇100例为对照组。调查两组孕产妇一般情况,分析妊娠期糖代谢异常相关因素。结果:Logistic回归分析发现糖尿病遗传史( OR=2.398,95%, CI:1.042~5.012)、年龄>28岁( OR=1.413,95%,CI:1.322~4.352)、体质指数>24( OR=6.543,95%, CI:0.782~2.320)、流产史( OR=0.212,95%,CI:0.025~2.256)、吸烟史( OR=0.246,95%,CI:0.045~3.452)是妊娠

  7. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P body mass index (BMI) (median 30.3 kg/m). However, women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P ART duration. In the obese HIV-infected subjects and HIV-negative controls, the relationship of sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status.HIV-infected women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects, suggesting the observed sex-differences may not be specific to HIV infection. PMID:27175676

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K. H. Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider’s perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos K H; Jiao, Fang-Fang; Siu, Shing-Chung; Fung, Colman S C; Fong, Daniel Y T; Wong, Ka-Wai; Yu, Esther Y T; Lo, Yvonne Y C; Lam, Cindy L K

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS) intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider's perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880. PMID:26798647

  10. Effect of Acarbose on Long-Term Prognosis in Acute Coronary Syndromes Patients with Newly Diagnosed Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of acarbose therapy on the long-term prognosis of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS complicating newly diagnosed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Methodology. 135 patients hospitalized for ACS who had been newly diagnosed with IGT were randomly assigned to acarbose group (150 mg/day, n=67 or control group (no acarbose, n=68. All cases in each group were given the same elementary treatment. Mean follow-up was 2.3 years. The incidence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE and carotid intima-middle thickness (CIMT were statistically analyzed. Results. During the mean follow-up of 2.3 years, the risk of recurrent MACE in acarbose group was decreased significantly compared with that in control group (26.67% versus 46.88%, P<0.05; at the same time, thickening of the CIMT was significantly slower than the control group ((1.28 ± 0.42 mm versus (1.51 ± 0.64 mm, P<0.05. Conclusions. Acarbose can effectively reduce the risk of MACE in ACS patients with newly diagnosed IGT, simultaneously retarding the progression of carotid intima-media thickness.

  11. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced beta-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)-treated minipig, using the DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg). VP did not significantly affect...

  12. Dietary Patterns Predict Changes in Two-Hour Post-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Plasma Glucose Concentrations in Middle-Aged Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Toft, U.; Tetens, Inge;

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether the adherence to major dietary patterns at baseline of 5824 nondiabetic Danes (30-60 y) enrolled in the nonpharmacological Inter99 intervention predicted changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and postchallenge 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG) concentrations during a 5 y period and...

  13. 成都地区中老年高血压人群糖代谢异常流行状况及其影响因素%An epidemiological study of abnormal glucose metabolism and its risk factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易延静; 刘燕; 李秀钧; 赵思勤; 冉迅; 黄晓波; 刘雅; 张廷杰; 欧阳凌云; 曾伟; 徐俊波; 杨雷

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the epidemiological status of abnormal glucose metabolism and its influential factors among middle and aged population with hypertension in Chengdu area. Methods In 2008, after adopting the methods of stratified cluster sampling, the authors investigated 4685 subjects of the middle and aged population between the age of 40-79 in Chengdu urban and rural area by checking blood pressure and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTY). Patients with previously known diabetes mellitus (DM) were only asked to perform fasting glucose and to carry out a questionnaire. Comparison of the prevalence rates of abnormal glucose metabolism in hypertensive and non-hypertensive subjects was carried out. The prevalence rates of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (I-IGT) and isolated postprandial hyperglycemia (IPH) among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were acquired and the influential factors of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged subjects with hypertension were analyzed. Results The prevalence rate of abnormal glucose metabolism in the hypertensive subjects was obviously higher than that in the non-hypertensive subjects; without using OGTT, 72.9% of the pre-diubetic and 54. 4% of the new diagnosed DM patients would remain undiagnosed if fasting plasma glucose detection was used alone. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives ,overweight or obesity were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged male subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Exercise training and high education level were the protective factors. Age, diabetic history of first degree relatives,abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the risk factors for the development of abnormal glucose metabolism among middle and aged female subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area. Conclusions More than 50% of middle and aged subjects with hypertension in Chengdu area has accompanying abnormal glucose metabolism. OGTT easily

  14. 脑梗死与糖代谢异常相关性研究%The Correlation Study of Cerebral Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德成; 袁建喜

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同损害程度脑梗死患者的血糖水平,分析其糖代谢异常情况,探讨脑梗死与糖代谢异常的关系,为脑梗死的预防、诊断、治疗提供依据。方法:选取2010年1月-2013年8月入住本院脑病科的108例急性脑梗死患者,根据梗死范围将其分为轻度组41例、中度组40例、重度组27例,通过检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c),观察患者的糖代谢情况。结果:糖调节受损、糖尿病与正常血糖患者比较,中度及重度组脑梗死比率明显升高;糖尿病患者脑梗死中度组、重度组比率较糖调节受损患者明显升高;脑梗死中度组、重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平均明显高于脑梗死轻度组,重度组的HbA1c、FPG、2 h PG水平明显高于中度组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:糖代谢异常与脑梗死的发生及损害程度明显相关,良好的血糖控制有利于降低脑梗死的发生率,监测血糖并控制正常范围内可改善预后。%Objective:To observe blood glucose levels of cerebral infarction patients with different damage degrees, and to analyze the situation of abnormal glucose metabolism of patients with cerebral infarction,and to explore the relationship between cerebral infarction and glucose metabolism in order to provide the reference for prevention,diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarction.Method:108 cases of acute cerebral infarction were selected from January 2010 to August 2013 admitted to our hospital department of encephalopathy,according to the scope of infarction cerebral infarction the damage degrees, they were divided into the mild degree for 41 cases,the moderate degree for 40 cases and the severe degree for 27 cases,and the situation of glucose metabolism in patients were observed by detecting fasting plasma glucose(FPG),blood sugar 2 hours after meal(PG)and glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c

  15. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    H.-J. Kim; K.-H. Yoon; M.-J. Kang; H.-W. Yim; K.-S. Lee; Vuksan, V.; M.-K. Sung

    2012-01-01

    We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood bi...

  16. Effects of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on fetal body mass and incidence of neonatal complications%妊娠期糖代谢异常对胎儿体质量及新生儿并发症发生率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李女好; 林碧绿; 曾胤; 庄泽吟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy on the incidence of fetal body mass and neonatal complications.Methods Oral 50g glucose challenge test (GCT)was done in 2502 cases of pregnant women,156 cases of abnormal 75g oral glucose tolerance retest (OGTT),diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 86 cases,gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) in 70 cases,and 300 cases of the control group,then we compared the incidence of fetal students body mass,neonatal complications.Results Fetal body mass of GIGT and GDM groups was large for gestational age and fetal macrosomia,significantly higher than that of the control group,the appropriate for gestational age at birth rate was significantly lower than that of the control group,there was statistical significant difference (P < 0.01); small for gestational age infants birth rate was also higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05); GIGT and GDM groups of pregnant women neonatal hypoglycemia,hyperbilirubinemia and in birth injury incidence was significantly higher than that in the control group,there was significant difference (P < 0.01); concurrent premature,asphyxia morbidity were igher than those of the control group,there was statistical significant difference (P < 0.05).Conclusion In clinical practice it is very necessary to detect glucose metabolism with anomaly detection and diagnosis system for all pregnant women,normal glucose metabolism treatment should be standardized and monitored; neonates delivered by all pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism should be given timely monitoring of blood glucose,complications and timely intervention.%目的 探讨妊娠期糖耐量异常对胎儿体质量及新生儿并发症发生率的影响.方法 对2502例孕妇进行口服50 g葡萄糖筛查试验(GCT),对156例异常者再行75 g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),确诊妊娠期糖尿病(GDM) 86例,妊娠糖耐量受损(GIGT) 70例,与对照组300

  17. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangileva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p glucose loading were blunted. In persons with optimal BP transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p glucose level 60 min after glucose intake were higher in patients from the main group (p optimal and high normal BP have different variants of vegetative nervous system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP. PMID:26320287

  18. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler;

    2003-01-01

    for the Leu162Val variant had, on average, a 20% decrease in fasting serum triglyceride levels (P=0.014). This finding was replicated in middle-aged subjects (P=0.023). The Leu162Val polymorphism was not related to alterations in insulin sensitivity, insulin release or level of glycaemia. In conclusion......, the Leu162Val polymorphism of PPARalpha is associated with a decreased level of fasting serum triglyceride in glucose tolerant white subjects....

  19. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS 30 YEARS ABOVE IN AN URBAN FIELD PRACTICE AREA OF KATIHAR MEDICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES : 1) To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus Type - 2 in an urban population of age 30 year and above 2) To determine the prevalence of impaired an urban population of age 30 years and above 3) To study the association of various risk factors with diabe tes mellitus Type - 2 and Implored Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY : A community based cross section study will be carried out in population 30 years above at Sharifganj with Dist...

  20. Impaired oral glucose tolerance and influencing factors in patients with impaired fasting glucose%空腹血糖受损患者糖耐量异常及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左惠芬; 刘冬青; 商晓丽; 张燕; 许丽丽; 林运

    2014-01-01

    Objective To get to know the status of impaired oral glucose tolerance (IGT) and influencing factors in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Methods IFG patients (n=337, FPG being 5.6 mmol/L-6.1 mmol/L) were chosen and their data of age, sex, diabetes family history, height, weight, waistline, blood pressure and blood fat were collected. The level of blood glucose was detected after patients taken 75 g glucose for 2 h, and the status of IGT and influencing factors were analyzed. Results Among 337 IFG patients 46.6%of them (157/337) had IGT. The proportion of overweight and obesity was 75.0%in abnormal group and 63.1%in normal group (P<0.05). The level of triglyceride (TG) was higher and level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was lower in abnormal group compared with normal group (P<0.05). The multi-factor Logistic regression analysis showed that age, body mass index (BMI) and TG level were influencing factors of IGT, and relative risk was, respectively, 1.06 (95%CI:1.03-1.08), 1.11 (95%CI:1.05-119) and 1.58 (95%CI:1.23-2.09). The further analysis on influencing factors in IFG patients with normal weight showed that, besides of age, TG level was a influencing factor of IGT and relative risk was 2.10 (95%CI:1.29-3.43). Conclusion There are about half of IFG patients with IGT, and BMI and TG level are influencing factors of IGT.%目的:了解空腹血糖受损(IFG)患者糖耐量异常(IGT)情况及其影响因素。方法纳入空腹血糖为5.6~6.1 mmol/L的IFG患者337例,检测患者口服75克葡萄糖后2小时血糖等资料,分析患者IGT情况及其影响因素。结果纳入的337例IFG患者中46.6%(157/337)伴有IGT。口服葡萄糖耐量异常和正常组超重和肥胖率分别为75.0%和63.1%(P<0.05);口服葡萄糖耐量异常组甘油三酯水平显著高于正常组,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平低于正常组,均有统计学差异(P<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析结

  1. The Use of Complex Assessment of Morphofunctional State of Pancreatic Microvasculature to Study the Adaptation of the Body to Motor Activity in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L.G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider the possibility of using the assessment data of microvasculature to study morphofunctional state of terminal vessels of exocrine and endocrine parts of pancreas in dogs with impaired glucose tolerance after physical exertion. Materials and methods. 30 mature male dogs with impaired glucose tolerance were studied: the 1st group — with no physical exertion, the 2nd — with short-term physical exertion and the 3rd — with extreme physical exertion. Morphological changes of the microvasculature components of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine parts were studied after the single motor load actions on the organism using histological, histochemical, electron-microscopical and morphometric methods. Results. Complex assessment enabled to reveal various adaptive changes of pancreatic microvasculature in animals with impaired glucose tolerance when exposed to optimal and maximum physical exertion. The exposure to short-term load results in developing compensatory adaptive transformations in the terminal part of vasculature of the both parts of the pancreas. Extreme loads along with reactive changes caused by single physical exercise lead to destructive alterations of microvasculature elements of primarily exocrine part. The information can be taken into consideration when studying impairment mechanisms in physical exertion environment and when developing regimens of motor activity in prediabetic persons.

  2. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei;

    2011-01-01

    GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study...... was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  3. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  4. No impact of vitamin D on the CYP3A biomarker 4β-hydroxycholesterol in patients with abnormal glucose regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buster Mannheimer

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on hepatic Cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP 3A4 in patients with abnormal glucose regulation using the endogenous marker 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio.The present study took advantage of a trial primarily aiming to investigate the effect of vitamin D3 on beta cell function and insulin sensitivity in patients with abnormal glucose regulation. 44 subjects were randomized to receive vitamin D3, 30000 IU given orally once weekly or placebo for 8 weeks. The two sample t-test was used to test the means of the intra-individual differences of 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio between the two groups.Mean (SD 4β-OHC in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 26 (11 ng/ml and 26 (12. Mean (SD 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the whole group of patients before and after the intervention was 0.12 (0.046 and 0.13 (0.047. In the Vitamin D group mean (SD serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 increased from 46 (16 to 85nM (13 during the corresponding time period. To investigate the impact of vitamin D3 on hepatic CYP3A4 we calculated the mean intra-individual differences in 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio (delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio before versus after the intervention in the two treatment groups. The difference (95% CI between delta 4β-OHC:cholesterol ratio in the control group and intervention group was -0.0010 (-0.0093, 0.0072, a difference being not statistically significant (p = 0.80.We provide further evidence that vitamin D3 may not substantially affect hepatic CYP3A4. This does not exclude the possibility of an impact of intestinal first-pass metabolism of orally administered drugs which should be investigated.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01497132.

  5. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  6. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavazos, Alexis Elias; Cereda, Emanuele; Ermetici, Federica; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Briganti, Silvia; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Morricone, Lelio

    2015-01-01

    “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP) is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23%) adult (age: 18–70 years) overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2) having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM) and composite (IGT + T2-DM) abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P = 0.006 and P = 0.007, resp.). LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose. PMID:25792981

  7. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Elias Malavazos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23% adult (age: 18–70 years overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2 having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM. According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM and composite (IGT + T2-DM abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P=0.006 and P=0.007, resp.. LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose.

  8. Body size perceptions among Pakistani women in Norway participating in a controlled trial to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Aysha; Bjørge, Benedikte; Hjellset, Victoria T; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-06-01

    South Asians are prone to diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases, which can be prevented by a diet leading to weight reduction. Body size perceptions may influence compliance to dietary advice. The objective was to study body size perceptions among Pakistani immigrant women in Norway, enrolled in a controlled trial to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance by focussing on diet and physical activity. Participants (n=198) were 25-62 years of age, 79.8% had BMI > 25 and mean BMI was 29.6. Data were collected by questionnaire interviews with Punjabi/Urdu speaking interviewers, and body weight and height were measured. This article is based on baseline data. Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale was used. The scale consists of nine figures, representing women with different body shapes, from very thin (1-2) to very obese (6-9). The women were asked which body size they thought would connote health and wealth. A significantly smaller body size was related to health (mean 2.9) than to wealth (mean 3.3), prated own body size (mean 5.7), prated own body size and perceived body size preference among Pakistanis in Norway. BMI was positively associated, and level of education negatively associated, with the discrepancy score. The women related body size numbers to BMI similarly to what has been described for US women. In conclusion, body size preferences among Pakistani women in this study were within the range of normal weight. However, there was a large discrepancy between own self-rated body size and the perceived ideal for Pakistanis in Norway. PMID:20379892

  9. A prospective study on outcomes of glucose and lipid metabolism 1 year postpartum in patients with prior gestational abnormal glucose metabolism%妊娠期糖代谢异常患者产后1年糖脂代谢转归的前瞻性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红花; 孙伟杰; 朱赛楠; 张扬子; 惠岩; 杨慧霞; 郭晓蕙

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨北京地区孕期糖代谢异常患者产后1年糖、脂代谢的转归.方法 2007年2月至12月于本院分娩,并分别于产后6~12周及产后1年于本院复诊的患者73例,年龄(32.0±3.6)岁.妊娠糖尿病46例(63%),妊娠期糖耐量受损(GIGT)27例(37%).所有患者均就诊于妊娠糖尿病产后随访门诊,分别于产后6~12周及产后1年进行随访.了解体重变化,测量腰围、臀围,行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)及血月脂检测.结果 与产后6~12周相比,产后1年体重、腰围、臀围及腰臀比均出现有下降.产后1年与产后6~12周比较,空腹血糖(5.19±0.06)对(4.84±0.57) mmol/L(P<0.01),6~12周无空腹血糖受损(IFG),1年后出现4例IFG;餐后血糖(6.84±1.93)对(7.33±1.50) mmol/L(P=0.017),糖耐量受损(IGT)发生率28.8%对38.4% (P=0.167),其中6例6~12周餐后血糖正常者1年后出现IGT.与6 ~12周相比,产后1 年高甘油三酯血症更多(19.2%对13.7%),高胆固醇血症减少(19.7%对30.0%,P<0.01),低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)血症显著增加(21.9%对4.1%,P<0.01),高低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)血症减少(21.9%对49.3%,P<0.01). 无沦是产后6~12周或产后1年,妊娠期糖耐量受损及妊娠糖尿病两组间体重、体重指数、腰围、臀围及腰臀比均未见明显差异.结论 妊娠糖尿病是育龄女性糖尿病患病率增加的重要原因.在体重、腰臀比等指标显著改善的情况下,妊娠糖尿病患者产后1年仍存在普遍的糖、脂代谢异常.%Objective To elaborate the glucose and lipid metabolism 1 year postpartum on the foundation of postpartum 6-12 weeks in patients with prior gestational abnormal glucose metabolism in Beijing area.Methods Seventy-three patients who delivered during February to December,2007,aged (32.0 ± 3.6) years,were enrolled.46 cases (63%) were diagnosed as cases of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) while 27 (37%) as gestational

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation of different oils during the first or second half of pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Litten, J C; Dodds, P F; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-07-01

    Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.

  11. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio, E-mail: fujitani@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  12. A clinical analysis of abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman%妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米阳; 闫坤; 黄谱; 苟文丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationship between abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman. Methods 1 636 pregnant women who received antenatal examination in Shannxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in a period from January to June, 2008 were screened at their 24~28 weeks of gestation with 50g glucose challenge test (GCT). Those pregnant women with abnormal GCT results further received oral 75g glucose tolerance test (OGTT). According to OGTT results, the pregnant women were divided into 2 groups: GDM group (n=69) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance group (GIGT group, n=124). 300 pregnant women with normal glucose metabolism were as controls. All of them were followed up untill delivery and the perinatal outcomes in the 3groups were compared. Results The incidence of GDM was 4.21% and that of GIGT was 7.58%. The incidences of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membrane and premature delivery in GDM group were higher than those in the control group (χ2=4.660,11.530,5.193,4.661 respectively,all P<0.05).In GIGT group ,the incidences of polyhydramnios and premature rupture of membrane were significantly higher than those in the control group(χ2=12.450,6.325,respectively,both P<0.05). Conclusion The pregnant women with GDM or GIGT have significantly high incidences of obstetric complications and rate of cesarean section. So, screening of GDM should be strengthened and early diagnosis, early treatment, gestational supervision and guidance should be carried out in order to reduce incidence rates of maternal and infantile complications.%目的 探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的关系.方法 选取2008年1~6月在陕西省妇幼保健院进行产前检查的1 636名孕妇,于24~28周进行50g葡萄糖筛查试验,异常者行75g糖耐量试验,按糖代谢异常情况分为妊娠期糖尿病组(69例)和妊娠期糖耐量受损组(124例);

  13. Abnormal fault-recovery characteristics of the fault-tolerant multiprocessor uncovered using a new fault-injection methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1991-03-01

    An investigation was made in AIRLAB of the fault handling performance of the Fault Tolerant MultiProcessor (FTMP). Fault handling errors detected during fault injection experiments were characterized. In these fault injection experiments, the FTMP disabled a working unit instead of the faulted unit once in every 500 faults, on the average. System design weaknesses allow active faults to exercise a part of the fault management software that handles Byzantine or lying faults. Byzantine faults behave such that the faulted unit points to a working unit as the source of errors. The design's problems involve: (1) the design and interface between the simplex error detection hardware and the error processing software, (2) the functional capabilities of the FTMP system bus, and (3) the communication requirements of a multiprocessor architecture. These weak areas in the FTMP's design increase the probability that, for any hardware fault, a good line replacement unit (LRU) is mistakenly disabled by the fault management software.

  14. Improved metabolic response after 16 weeks of calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin in impaired glucose tolerance subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzed the metabolic effects of dietary advice to follow calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet with metformin in overweight / obese impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Methods: Sixteen subjects with body mass index between 27-38 kg/m² were followed monthly for 16 weeks and treated with metformin (1 g/day and dietary prescription for low-glycaemic index diet with energy reduction of 25-30% their total energy expenditure. Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition, and food intake parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences from baseline, with a statistical significance criterion of p < 0.05. Results: There were significant reductions in anthropometric and body composition parameters, decrease in HOMA2-%β and triglycerides concentrations, and increase in Cederholm index. These results show enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity and preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Conclusion: Calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin was benefit to metabolic and anthropometric parameters in overweight/obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  15. Reduced plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in elderly men are associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C;

    2009-01-01

    stimulated GLP-1 levels and: (1) cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, urinary albumin, waist circumference and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp); and (2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During the follow......-up period (maximum 13.8 years), of 294 participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 69 experienced a CHD event (13.8 years), as did 42 of 141 with IGT and 32 of 74 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DeltaGLP-1 did not predict CHD (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.52-2.28). The prevalence of IGT was associated with Delta...... = 0.10, p = 0.16) groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Impaired GLP-1 secretion is associated with IGT, but not with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This finding in the latter group might be confounded by oral glucose-lowering treatment. GLP-1 does not predict CHD. Although DeltaGLP-1 was associated...

  16. The clinical value of Mood glucose and insulin detection in early period of pregnancy on predicting abnormal glucose metabolism%妊娠初期检测血糖和胰岛素预测糖代谢异常的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in early period of pregnancy and abnormal glucose metabolism during gestation period.Methods Two hundred and seventy-seven women with single pregnancy and non-propregnant diabetes mellitus were selected.FPG,fasting insulin,insulin resistance index were detected in early period of pregnancy ( <19 weeks).One hundred g oral glucose tolerant test (OGTT) was taken during 24-36 weeks.According to OGTT,patients were divided into gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (24 cases),gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) group(23 cases),OGTT 1 h higher blood glucose (HG-1) group (26 cases) and normal group (204 cases).Results FPG,fasting insulin and insulin resistance index of GDM group and HG-1 group were obviously higher than those of normal group [( 4.58 ± 0.36 ),( 4.58 ± 0.38) mmol/L vs.( 4.20 ±0.33) mmol/L,(9.4 ± 1.1),(9.3 ±2.1) U/L vs.(7.0 ± 2.1) U/L,2.0 ± 0.4,2.0 ± 0.3 vs.1.3 ± 0.4,P< 0.05].FPG of GIGT group [(4.45 ±0.36) mmol/L] was higher than that of normal group (P <0.05).After controlled age,body mass index,family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and sport exercises,the relative risk degree of blood glucose metabolism had correlation with FPG,fasting insulin and insulin resistance index in early period of pregnancy (P < 0.05).Conclusion FPG,fasting insulin and insulin resistance index in early period of pregnancy can predict abnormal glucose metabolism.%目的 探讨妊娠初期空腹血糖(FPG)与妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关性.方法 单胎非孕前糖尿病孕妇277例,在妊娠初期(<19周)检测FPG、空腹血胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数.在妊娠24 ~ 36周行100 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),按OGTT结果进行分组,妊娠期糖耐量受损(GIGT)组24例,妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组23例,OGTT1 h高血糖(HG-1)组26例,正常组204例.结果 GDM组和HG-1组FPG、空腹血胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数均明显高于正常组[(4.58±0

  17. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E;

    2011-01-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area.......The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....

  18. Bivariate genetic modelling of the response to an oral glucose tolerance challenge : A gene x environment interaction approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G. F.; Riese, H.; Spector, T. D.; Mangino, M.; O'Dell, S. D.; Stolk, R. P.; Snieder, H.

    2009-01-01

    Twin and family studies have shown the importance of genetic factors influencing fasting and 2 h glucose and insulin levels. However, the genetics of the physiological response to a glucose load has not been thoroughly investigated. We studied 580 monozygotic and 1,937 dizygotic British female twins

  19. Graves病患者糖耐量、糖化血红蛋白及胰岛素变化的研究%Study on changes of glucose tolerance,glycohemoglobin and insulin in Graves disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢英才; 武革; 苏建民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance on the changes of glycometablism, glycohemoglobin(GHb) and insulin in Graves disease patients. Methods: The 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), insulin release tests, GHb and the concentration of serum thyroxin were detected in 86 Graves disease patients, and these indexes were compared with those of the normal group and type 2 diabetes group. Results: The abnormality rate of glycometabolism was 55.8% in Graves disease patients, and of GHb was 54.6%, 34.9% of the patients showed impaired glucose tolerance( IGT), 20.9% of the patients presented glucose tolerance compatible with diabetes(GTCD)who were found to be with obviously high postprandial insulin. After 6 months to 1 years antithyroid treatment, in IGT group, 93.3% of patients showed normal blood glucose, and 83.3% showed normal GHb, in GTCD group only 28%of patients presented normal blood glucose and 16.7% presented normal postprandial insulin. Conclusions: It is suggested that a routine detection of OGTT, GHb and regularly following up these indexes are necessary for Graves disease patients, while the postprandial insulin and glutamate decarboxylase antibody ( GAD - Ab) are also necessary detection for part of Graves disease patients.%目的探讨Graves病患者糖代谢状况及糖化血红蛋白、胰岛素变化的临床意义.方法对86例Graves病患者作口服葡萄糖耐量试验(0GTr)、胰岛素释放试验、糖化血红蛋白(GHb)及甲状腺激素水平测定,并与正常人组及2型糖尿病组进行比较.结果Graves病患者合并糖代谢异常者占55.8%(30/86+18/86),GHb异常率占54.6%,其中糖耐量低减者占34.9%,呈糖尿病样者占20.9%,糖尿病样者餐后胰岛素明显升高.经抗甲亢6个月~1年,甲状腺激素恢复正常后,糖耐量低减组93.3%的患者血糖恢复正常,83.3%患者的GHb恢复正常;糖尿病样组28%的患者血糖恢复正常,餐后胰岛素仅16.7%恢复正常.结论Graves

  20. Maternal dietary protein supplement confers long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of obesity resistance and glucose tolerance to the offspring in Brandt's voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mei-Fang; Shen, Wei; Fu, Rong-Shu; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Maternal under- or over-nutrition not only alters neonatal body mass but also increases the risk of metabolic disorders in adulthood. Little is known about how maternal dietary protein affects offspring fitness in wild rodents. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that maternal dietary protein supplement has a long-term beneficial effect on offspring fitness in Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii), a herbivorous rodent model. The vole dams were fed either a control (18% protein) or high-protein (36% protein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, all offspring received a control diet till 14 weeks old. Energetic parameters, serum leptin concentration and glucose tolerance were measured. The adult offspring were fed high-fat diet for 8 weeks, and body weight and food intake were measured. No difference was observed in litter size, litter mass or pup mass before weaning. Maternal protein supplement increased body mass and the mass of reproductive organ but decreased digestibility and fat deposition and alleviated HFD-induced obesity especially in the males. Glucose tolerance was elevated in the offspring from maternal protein supplement, especially in the females. The accelerated growth may be associated with high serum leptin concentration at weaning, a state of leptin resistance, and the low digestibility may predispose obesity resistance especially in male offspring from maternal high-protein diet. These data demonstrate that maternal protein supplement confers the long-term sex-specific beneficial consequences of accelerated growth and improved obesity resistance and glucose tolerance of their offspring. PMID:25499237

  1. Use of intensified comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation to improve risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance--the randomized DANish StUdy of impaired glucose metabolism in the settings of cardiac rehabilitation (DANSUK) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Frederiksen, Marianne;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The DANish StUdy of impaired glucose metabolism in the settings of cardiac rehabilitation (DANSUK) examined the effect of an intensified multifactorial intervention on risk factor profile in 104 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) attendin...

  2. Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance Are Associated With Increased Adipose 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Expression and Elevated Hepatic 5α-Reductase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Finney, Joanne; Gay, Christopher; Hughes, Beverly A.; Hughes, Susan V.; Stewart, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The precise molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes are largely unknown. Altered endogenous glucocorticoid metabolism, including 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which generates active cortisol from cortisone, and 5α-reductase (5αR), which inactivates cortisol, has been implicated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 101 obese patients (mean age 48 ± 7 years, BMI 34.4 ± 4....

  3. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study...

  4. Enhanced Glucose Tolerance and Pancreatic Beta Cell Function by Low Dose Aspirin in Hyperglycemic Insulin-Resistant Type 2 Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Amiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder, characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic islet beta-cell failure. The most common complications associated with type 2 diabetes are hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, increased inflammatory and reduced insulin response. Aspirin (ASA and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been associated with the prevention of diabetes, obesity and related cardiovascular disorders. Aspirin has been used in many clinical and experimental trials for the prevention of diabetes and associated complications. Methods: In this study, five month old Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats, which showed signs of mild hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose 80-95 mg/dl vs 55-60 mg/dl Wistar control rats were used. Two subgroups of GK and Wistar control rats were injected intraperitoneally with 100 mg aspirin/kg body weight/ day for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and blood and tissues were collected after performing glucose tolerance (2 h post 2g IP glucose ingestion tests in experimental and control groups. Results: Aspirin caused a moderate decrease in hyperglycemia. However, we observed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance after ASA treatment in GK rats compared to the nondiabetic Wistar rats. Also, the ASA treated GK rats exhibited a significant decrease in insulinemia. ASA treatment also caused a marked reduction in the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin, PGE2, which was significantly higher in GK rats. On the other hand, no significant organ toxicity was observed after ASA treatment at this dose and time period. However, the total cholesterol and lipoprotein levels were significantly increased in GK rats, which decreased after ASA treatment. Immunofluorescence staining for insulin/glucagon secreting pancreatic cells showed improved beta-cell structural and functional integrity in ASA-treated rats which was also confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis

  5. 糖化血红蛋白与血糖、血脂及心电图异常的相关性分析%Correlation analysis of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose, blood lipid and electrocardiographic abnormality, in order to reveal the influence of blood glucose on atherosclerosis.Methods According to the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria for diabetes and the results of physical examination of 408 subjects, the subjects were divided into normal blood glucose group and abnormal glucose metabolism group. According to the level of HbA1c, the abnormal glucose metabolism group was divided into three groups as group A, group B, and group C, they were HbA1c0.05). The difference of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between group A and group B was statistically significant (P0.05). The differences between group B and group C were statistically significant (P0.05),高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)在A组与B 组间差异具有统计学意义(P0.05),在B 组与 C组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。分析组和对照组比较, HbA1c 、FBG、PBG、HDL-C、CHOL、TG以及心电图异常发生率各项差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论血糖升高可导致血脂异常,从而导致动脉粥样硬化,血糖升高可产生“代谢记忆效应”,应该重视血糖监测以便尽早发现糖代谢异常而进行尽早干预,以减少糖尿病和动脉粥样硬化的发生。

  6. Evaluation of fasting state-/oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin release for the detection of genetically impaired β-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke A Herzberg-Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05. The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30 as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, corrected insulin response (CIR, AUC(C-Peptide(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120, two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0-30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI(2 and IGI(1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05. AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120 was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With AUC(Insulin(0

  7. The solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of cinnamic acid from glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, K.; Luijk, N. van; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that efficiently produced thefine chemical cinnamic acid from glucose or glycerol via the central metabolite phenylalanine. The gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was introduced. Phenylalanine availabilit

  8. Association between maternal diet factors and hemoglobin levels, glucose tolerance, blood pressure and gestational age in a Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Roxana; Guilloty, Natacha; Anzalota, Liza; Rosario, Zaira; Cordero, José F; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns of pregnant women in northern Puerto Rico and explore associations between diet factors with pregnancy related measurements. This analysis is based on the Puerto Rico Testsite for Exploring Contamination Threats (PROTECT), a prospective cohort that is studying environmental risk factors for preterm births in PR. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) around 20-28 weeks of gestation. The following pregnancy related measures were collected from the medical records: hemoglobin, blood glucose, blood pressure and gestational age. Potential associations between diet factors and pregnancy measures were assessed using chi square analysis with SPSS. A total of 180 participants completed the FFQ; low hemoglobin levels was found in 19.2%, high blood glucose levels was found in 21.1% by fasting blood glucose test and 24.6%by 1-hour 50 g oral glucose screening test, high blood pressure was found in 2.9% (systolic) and 6.5% (diastolic), and pre-term birth was found in 10.4% of the participants. High consumption of rice, desserts and sweets was associated with higher levels of fasting blood glucose levels (p desserts, can lead to high levels of blood glucose and can be a potential predictor of other pregnancy complications during pregnancy in these study participants, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:26817380

  9. Glycated albumin in screening the abnormal glucose metabolism in postpartum women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus%糖化白蛋白筛查妊娠期糖尿病患者产后糖代谢异常的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳; 马宇航; 陈苏; 陈希; 任茜; 黄倩芳; 王煜非; 王育璠; 彭永德

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨糖化白蛋白(GA)筛查妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)患者产后发生糖代谢异常和糖尿病的最佳切点. 方法 2012年4月至2014年10月依据2010年国际妊娠合并糖尿病研究组织所提出的诊断标准,选取我院241例诊断为GDM的患者为研究对象,于产后6~8周复诊,予75 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),根据结果分为正常糖耐量组(NGT组)、糖调节受损组(IGR组)和糖尿病组(DM组).通过绘制受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线,寻找GA诊断GDM产后糖代谢异常(IGR+DM)和DM的最佳切点.三组间计量资料比较采用方差分析或Kruskal Wallis (K-W)方法,计数资料比较采用卡方检验. 结果 (1)241例患者中NGT组128例(53.1%),IGR组66例(27.4%),DM组为47例(19.5%).(2)GDM患者产后GA与产前体重、目前体重呈负相关(r=-0.226、-0.198,均P12.7%,尤其>13.03%的GDM患者,应进一步行OGTT明确其糖代谢情况.%Objective To investigate the optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin for abnormal glucose metabolism and diabetes postpartum with previous gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was underwent at 6-8 weeks after delivery in 241 GDM patients from Apr 2012 to Oct 2014. Diagnosis of GDM was based on International Association of Diabetic Pregnancy Study Group criteria. The clinical and biochemical characteristics were compared among normal glucose tolerance(NGT group), impaired glucose regulation(IGR group) and diabetes mellitus(DM group). Comparisons between three groups were performed using analysis of variance test (ANOVA) or Kruskal Wallis test. Chi square test was used in comparisons between proportions. The optimal cut-off point of glycated albumin(GA) for abnormal glucose metabolism(IGR+DM) and diabetes were obtained by drawing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results (1)We found that the rates of NGT (n=128), IGR (n=66) and DM (n=47) were 53.1%, 27.4%and 19.5%, respectively.(2)GA was negatively

  10. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was ...

  11. Evaluation of glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Lü; Xiaoyan Guo; Zuansun Cao; Wenjun Mao

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles (MOF) and explore the relationship between glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and body weight. Methods:We evaluated 46 women with MFO and 30 nor mal women as controls. All the subjects were given 75g of glucose orally in order to perform the oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) and insulin releasing test(IRT), and they were also evaluated for insulin resistance using the insulin resistance index with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Results:The occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance in women with MOF was 10.87%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.33% ,P < 0.05). The rate of insulin resistance was 30.43% in the study group as compared to 10.00% in the control group. The results showed that there was significant difference between the two groups(P < 0.05). The levels of FSH,LH,PRL,E2,T and P between the two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05). BMI in women with impaired glucose tolerance was correlated positively to insulin resistance (r =0.567, P < 0.05). Conclusion :Abnormal glucose metabolism was observed in women with unitary multiple ovarian follicles,and this could be attributed to obesity and insulin resistance. Women with MOF and associated obesity should be subjected to OGTT so that their glucose levels can be monitored as a preventive measure.

  12. Age-related differences in glucose abnormalities in women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian Franco; D'Alfonso, Maria Grazia; Chiostri, Marco; Attanà, Paola; Valente, Serafina

    2015-05-01

    No datum is so far available on the relation between age and the acute glucose response to stress in women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We evaluated the age-related differences in the acute glucose response in 373 STEMI women submitted to PCI. The oldest women, when compared to the other age subgroups, showed the higher admission and peak glycemia (P acute glucose response to myocardial injury since older women showed the higher admission glucose values and the poorer in-hospital glucose control, in the lack of differences of insulin-resistance incidence. Glucose values were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, but were not related to long-term survival.

  13. Limitations in the use of indices using glucose and insulin levels to predict insulin sensitivity: impact of race and gender and superiority of the indices derived from oral glucose tolerance test in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisprasert, Veeradej; Ingram, Katherine H; Lopez-Davila, Maria F; Munoz, A Julian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the utility of commonly used insulin sensitivity indices in nondiabetic European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two-hundred forty nondiabetic participants were studied. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was the gold standard approach to assess glucose disposal rates (GDR) normalized by lean body mass. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated from fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FIL). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to determine Matsuda index, the simple index assessing insulin sensitivity (SI(is)OGTT), Avignon index, and Stomvoll index. Relationships among these indices with GDR were analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS GDR values were similar in EA and AA subgroups; even so, AA exhibited higher FIL and were insulin-resistant compared with EA, as assessed by HOMA-IR, QUICKI, Matsuda index, SI(is)OGTT, Avignon index, and Stumvoll index. In the overall study population, GDR was significantly correlated with all studied insulin sensitivity indices (/r/ = 0.381-0.513); however, these indices were not superior to FIL in predicting GDR. Race and gender affected the strength of this relationship. In AA males, FIL and HOMA-IR were not correlated with GDR. In contrast, Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT were significantly correlated with GDR in AA males, and Matsuda index was superior to HOMA-IR and QUICKI in AAs overall. CONCLUSIONS Insulin sensitivity indices based on glucose and insulin levels should be used cautiously as measures of peripheral insulin sensitivity when comparing mixed gender and mixed race populations. Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT are reliable in studies that include AA males.

  14. High Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Elderly Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance%老年糖耐量减低患者发生冠心病的高危因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗劲涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the high risk factors for coronary heart disease in elderly patients with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods Body mass index(BMI),fasting blood glucose (FPG),2-hour postprandial blood glucose(2-hPG),glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c),serum to-tal cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),triglyceride(TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),serum C-reactive protein(CRP),insulin resistance index(HO-MA-IR)and distribution of coronary artery calcification score(CACS)>400 and ankle brachial index(ABI)were compared between 60 patients with impaired glucose tolerance(group A)and 60 healthy subjects with normal glucose tolerance(group B).Results Compared with group B,the BMI,2 hPG,CRP,HOMA-IR,TC,TG and LDL-C significantly increased and HbA1c significantly decreased in group A(P 400 was 35.0%(21/60)in group A, and 6.7%(4/60)in group B.The prevalence of ABI<0.9 was 40.0%(24/60)in group A,and 8.3%(5/60)in group B.The differences were significant between the two groups(P < 0.05). Conclusion The obesity,hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance are the high risk factors for coro-nary heart disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.The strengthening of intervention for abnormal glucose tolerance is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of coro-nary heart disease.%目的:探讨老年糖耐量减低患者发生冠心病的高危因素。方法收集糖耐量减低患者60例(A 组),另选取健康人群60例归类为糖耐量正常组(B 组)60例。比较2组 BMI、空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h 血糖(2 hPG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血清总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、血清 C-反应蛋白(CRP)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)水平,以及冠状动脉钙化积分(CACS)>400、踝臂指数(ABI)<0.9的分布。结果A 组 BMI、2 h

  15. Association of pregnancy management with fetal weight, amniotic fluid volume, and placental function in gestational impaired glucose tolerance%妊娠期糖耐量异常的孕期管理与胎儿体重、羊水及胎盘功能的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰珍; 吴爱华

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠期糖耐量异常孕期管理对胎儿生长发育的影响,以便获得恰当、有效的处理方法 和监护措施.方法 对我院2006年1月-2008年1月常规产检,并在本院分娩的、材料完整的妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇80例,进行OGTY检查,并对胎儿体重、羊水情况及胎盘成熟度进行追踪.结果 GDM组孕妇空腹血糖异常者占20%,GIGT组中3小时血糖异常占44%;血糖管理组胎儿体重及羊水指数较未管理组明显下降;管理组低体重儿较未管理组明显增多,未管理组巨大儿明显增多;巨大儿组羊水过多明显增多,低体重儿组羊水过少及胎盘Ⅲ级者明显增多.结论 OGTT中3小时血糖检查在GIGT诊断中具有重要意义,血糖管理在减少巨大儿、羊水过多发生的同时增加了低体重儿的发生率,且进行血糖管理时要考虑胎盘的功能,减少低体重儿的发生.%Objective To obtain proper,effective therapies and monitoring approach by exploring the effect of pregnancy management on fetal growth and development in women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance.Methods Oral glucose tolerance test was performed on eighty women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance who had had regular prenatal vists during January 2006 to January 2008.Fetal weight,amniotic fluid indices,and placental maturation were determined.Results Abnormal levels of fasting plasma glucose developed in 20% of the women in GDM group and abnormal 3—hour glucose levels occurred in 44% of the women in GIGT group.Fetal weight and amniotic fluid indices were markedly lower in the group with management of glucose than in the group without management.The incidence of polyhydramnios and fetal macrosomia increased signifiantly in the group without managemnet.Conclusions 3—our OGTT plays an important role in the incidence of polyhydramnios and fetal macrosomia diagnosis of gestational impaired glucose tolerance.Management of glucose reduces but increase

  16. The Effect of Metformin and Metformin-Testosterone Combination on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Men with Late-onset Hypogonadism and Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, R; Gilowski, W; Okopien, B

    2015-11-01

    No previous study has investigated the effect of metformin, administered alone or together with testosterone, on cardiometabolic risk factors in men with hypogonadism. The study included 30 men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had been complying with lifestyle intervention. After 12 weeks of metformin treatment (1.7 g daily), the participants were allocated to one of 2 groups treated for the following 12 weeks with oral testosterone undecanoate (120 mg daily, n=15) or not receiving androgen therapy (n=15). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, as well as plasma levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), homocysteine and fibrinogen were determined before and after 12 and 24 weeks of therapy with the final dose of metformin. Patients with LOH and IGT had higher levels of hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen than subjects with only LOH (n=12) or only IGT (n=15). Metformin administered alone improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose and triglycerides. Testosterone-metformin combination therapy decreased also total and LDL cholesterol, uric acid, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen, as well as increased plasma testosterone. The effect of this combination therapy on testosterone, insulin sensitivity, hsCRP, homocysteine and fibrinogen was stronger than that of metformin alone. The obtained results indicate that IGT men with LOH receiving metformin may gain extra benefits if they are concomitantly treated with oral testosterone. PMID:26600057

  17. Analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and clinical characters of coronary angiography in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism%冠心病合并糖代谢异常冠脉病变特点及其危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费利霞; 陈洁; 田刚

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨糖代谢异常冠状动脉病变特点和冠心病的危险因素.方法:74例拟诊冠心病患者行冠脉造影(CAG),57例空腹血糖正常者行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)检查.根据CAG结果分冠心病组(CAD)、非冠心病组(非CAD),分析危险因素的差异;冠心病组分为糖尿病组(DM)、糖调节受损组(IGR)、正常血糖组(NGT),观察冠状动脉病变的特点.结果:糖代谢异常在冠心病与非冠心病差异有统计学意义(χ2值为6.14,P<0.05).冠心病IGR组和DM组多支病变患病率,分别75%和50%,NGT组单支病变患病率55.6%,重度病变患病率DM组80%,NGT组77.8%.男性、DM、IGR、吸烟、危险因素累计数在CAD组与非CAD组差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:冠心病合并糖代谢异常患病率高,48.6%通过OGTT诊断,OGTT应列为心血管病的常规检查;冠心病合并糖尿病和糖调节受损病变以多支病变为主,病变重而弥漫,正常血糖以单支病变多见,病变重而局限.%Objective: To analysis the risk factors of coronary heart disease and the clinical characters of coronary angiography in the patients who suffered with abnormal glucose metabolism. .Methods: 74 cases of patients who were preliminary diagnosed to coronary heart disease accepted coronary angiography (CAG),57 of them with normal fast blood glucose accepted the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All the patients were divided into the CAD group and without CAD group according to the results of CAG. The CAD divided into three groups (DM, IGR and NGT) was compared with the difference of the clinical characters of coronary lesions. Results: The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was 64% in patient with CAD.The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in CAD was significantly higher than that of without CAD(was 6. 14,P<0. 05)). The coronary multivessel changes were more frequent in the IGR group and in the DM group than the NGT group (75%, 50% vs. 16.7%). The cor onary single

  18. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, J; Andersen, G; Urhammer, S A;

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) dia......We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non...

  19. Effect of caffeine on glucose tolerance of healthy adults%咖啡因对健康成人糖耐量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳; 陈充抒; 梁莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察口服400 mg咖啡因对正常成人糖耐量的影响.方法:采用单盲、安慰剂对照的随机临床研究.46位年龄在25~40岁的健康成人在4周观察期内需戒饮茶,咖啡,可口可乐或巧克力,并写下知情同意书.观察期结束后,随机分为两组分别服用1周咖啡因或安慰剂,进行葡萄糖耐量测试.结果:在前2h,两组受试者血糖值正常且相似,但到第3,4h,口服咖啡因组受试者与空白对照组比较,糖耐量曲线明显左移,血浆胰岛素水平略有增加.结论:健康成人口服咖啡因有降低血糖的作用,且伴有胰岛素水平轻微升高的依赖作用.%Objective; To investigate the effect of 400 mg oral caffeine on glucose tolerance. Methods; In a single-blind random clinical study, 46 healthy adults aged 25 ~40 years were treated with oral caffeine or placebo after getting their informed consents. They were abstained from coffee, tea, chocolate and cola for 4 weeks before testing. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed one week after taking caffeine or placebo. Results; The blood glucose curve was normal in all subjects, and was similar in the two groups until the second hour. In subjects taking caffeine, a shift in the curve towards the left was detected at the 3rd and 4th hours in comparison to those taking the placebo. Blood insulin levels were increased at 3rd and 4th hours after taking caffeine. Conclusion; Caffeine can reduce blood glucose levels in an insulin-dependent manner.

  20. Removal of Intra-abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Improves Glucose Tolerance in Rats: Role of Hepatic Triglyceride Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michelle T.; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-vis...

  1. Therapeutic effects of adropin on glucose tolerance and substrate utilization in diet-induced obese mice with insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Su Gao; McMillan, Ryan P.; Qingzhang Zhu; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Butler, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The peptide hormone adropin regulates fuel selection preferences in skeletal muscle under fed and fasted conditions. Here, we investigated whether adropin treatment can ameliorate the dysregulation of fuel substrate metabolism, and improve aspects of glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obesity (DIO) with insulin resistance. Methods: DIO C57BL/6 mice maintained on a 60% kcal fat diet received five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the bioactive peptide adropin34-76 (450 nmol/k...

  2. Steroid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are both associated with a progressive decline of incretin effect in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D H; Aaboe, K; Henriksen, J E;

    2012-01-01

    .v. glucose test and a mixed meal to evaluate the incretin effect before and after treatment with dexamethasone to increase insulin resistance. Beta cell glucose sensitivity, beta cell index and fasting proinsulin were measured as indices of beta cell function. RESULTS: After dexamethasone, ten individuals...... had increased insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance (NGT), while 11 individuals with an equal increase in insulin resistance developed IGT. In the NGT and IGT groups, the incretin effects were 71¿±¿3.2% and 67¿±¿4.6% (p¿=¿0.4) before treatment, but decreased significantly in both groups...

  3. The changes in levels of C-P and insulin in glucose tolerance test in rats with experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in levels of C-P and insulin were investigated in the GT test in rats with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In order to establish a model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), the authors injected rats with small dose streptozocoi (i.v.). Two weeks after the injection, the rats developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Then, they were fed with high energy diet for eight weeks to form NIDDM. The results showed that the highest peak time of C-P and insulin in NIDDM was remarkably later than that in normal subjects, the highest peak time was in two hours (P < 0.05). The data suggest that level of C-P could accurately respond to level of insulin, and this experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model is ideal

  4. Feed withdrawal abate regimens lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome symptoms, such as glucose tolerance, are associated with the diameter of retroperitoneal adipocytes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mao L; Sharma, Ranjana; Mir, Priya S; Okine, Erasmus; Dodson, Michael V

    2010-02-01

    Adipocyte numbers were increased by feed withdrawal (FW) regimens in cattle; thus, the effect of FW regimens was studied in male Wistar and fa/fa obese rats, as models for humans, in 2 completely randomized design experiments to abate lipodystrophy and progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms. The hypothesis was that application of FW regimens could alter adipose tissue cellularity, adipocyte size, and affect area under the curve (AUC) during glucose tolerance tests. Objectives were to determine associations among retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue adipocyte number, diameter, and AUC, as affected by fortnightly or a single (at age 50 days) 24-hour FW regimen. Adipocyte marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression was elevated (P = .054) in the retroperitoneal tissue of fa/fa obese rats in the fortnightly FW treatment because of a 13% increase in tissue cell density (cells per gram; P = .13). Average cell diameter in retroperitoneal adipose and AUC were negatively corelated. Regression analyses after including the square of average cell diameter indicated that average retroperitoneal adipocyte diameter (between 65 and 135 mum) and the AUC were related in a quadratic manner (R(2) = 0.14; n = 49; P = .03) for Wistar rats. Cell number of the inguinal and retroperitoneal adipocytes tended to be positively corelated (r = 0.24; P = .09 and r = 0.26; P = .07, n = 49, respectively) to the AUC and are indexes of adiposity. Results suggest that maintenance of retroperitoneal adipocytes at appropriate diameters may control progression of metabolic syndrome symptoms such as glucose tolerance. PMID:20226998

  5. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of obesity on glucose intolerance is a mixture of impact of body composition on glucose-insulin relationships as well as the modulation of this metabolism by physical activity. In this project, we seek to measure the energy expenditure on activity, the rate of weight gain and changes in body composition in a free-living population, and to relate these variables to changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We have enrolled a cohort of 280 adults in Idikan, a poor urban community in lbadan, Nigeria, selected by simple random sampling from a population database. In this communication, we report characteristics of the study cohort, findings on evaluation of a physical activity questionnaire and changes in body size, body composition and measures of insulin resistance over a one-year period. Mean age of the men is 49.7 (SD 12.7) years and of the women 44.7 (SD 10.7) years. Mean fasting blood glucose was 4.57 (SD 4.75) mmol/L among men and 3.54 (SD 1.02) mmol/L among women. The modified HIP physical activity (PA) questionnaire was evaluated in a subset of participants for whom scale reliability coefficients of 0.57 and 0.33 were obtained for the occupational and leisure scales of HIP respectively. Two-week test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.53. On validation against doubly-labelled water measurements, the HIP occupational score showed a positive correlation (r=0.37, p=0.01) with activity energy expenditure per kg body weight (AEE per kg) and a similar correlation of 0. 37 with physical activity level (PAL). Thus, the HIP occupational scale showed adequate consistency, good test-retest reliability and good correlations with measures of physical activity by doubly-labelled water. Over a one-year follow-up period, the participants showed increases in weight, BMI, waist circumferences, fat mass, fasting insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio. However, HOMA-IR did not significantly change. Overweight increased from 21.3% to 23.9% while

  6. Prehepatic secretion and disposal of insulin in obese adolescents as estimated by three-hour, eight-sample oral glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Josef A; Domzig, Christian; Wabitsch, Martin; Denzer, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The body compensates for early-stage insulin resistance by increasing insulin secretion. A reliable and easy-to-use mathematical assessment of insulin secretion and disposal could be a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Because the pathophysiology of insulin resistance is incompletely understood, assessing insulin metabolism with minimal assumptions regarding its metabolic regulation is a major challenge. To assess insulin secretion and indexes of insulin disposal, our marginalized and regularized absorption approach (MRA) was applied to a sparse sampling oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) protocol measuring the insulin and C-peptide concentrations. Identifiability and potential bias of metabolic parameters were estimated from published data with dense sampling. The MRA was applied to OGTT data from 135 obese adolescents to demonstrate its clinical applicability. Individual prehepatic basal and dynamic insulin secretion and clearance levels were determined with a precision and accuracy greater than 10% of the nominal value. The intersubject variability in these parameters was approximately four times higher than the intrasubject variability, and there was a strong negative correlation between prehepatic secretion and plasma clearance of insulin. MRA-based analysis provides reliable estimates of insulin secretion and clearance, thereby enabling detailed glucose homeostasis characterization based on restricted datasets that are obtainable during routine patient care. PMID:27143555

  7. Male mice retain a metabolic memory of improved glucose tolerance induced during adult onset, short-term dietary restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Kerry M; Miwa, Satomi; Walker, Cornelia; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. These factors show rapid and robust improvements when rodents were crossed over from an ad libitum (AL) diet to DR in mid life. We aimed to determine whether the beneficial effects induced by short-term exposure to DR can be retained as a ‘metabolic memory’ when AL feeding is resumed (AL-DR-AL) and vice versa: whether the effects of long-term DR can be reversed...

  8. Profile of liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and newly detected untreated type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The perception of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD as an uncommon and benign condition is rapidly changing. Approximately, 70% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have a fatty liver, which may follow an aggressive course with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Aims: To assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, new onset treatment naive T2DM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without NAFLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinic-based study. Subjects and Methods: 152 IGT and 158 recently detected T2DM subjects aged between 30 and 69 years, along with 160 age and gender matched controls with NGT. An ultrasonography scan of the upper abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine presence of fatty liver. Anthropometry, lipid profile, liver enzymes were also analyzed in all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test (for categorical variables, Pearson/Spearmen correlation test to find significant difference, association and correlation between two or more groups respectively. Results: NAFLD was significantly associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT but not ALP levels in IGT and T2DM patients. ALT, GGT significant correlated with waist circumference, body mass index, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment- insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride. 57% of NAFLD patients had normal ALT between 25 and 40 U/L, 53% of NAFLD subjects had normal GGT between 15 and 30 U/L. ALT 40 U/L and GGT > 30 U/L had highest positive predictivity for presence of NAFLD in our study sample. Conclusions: Mild elevations of liver enzymes in the upper normal range are associated with features of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD even in IGT and recently detected T2DM patients. Novel cut-offs for liver enzymes are warranted in order to prevent unnecessary

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORAL OLANZAPINE AND ORAL HALOPERIDOL ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N S Sangeetha Lakshmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by persistent defects in the perception, thinking or the expression of reality. The term “schizophrenia” translates roughly as “shattered mind,” and comes from the Greek (schizo, “to split” or “to divide” and (phrēn, “mind”. Material and Methods: The study was designed to be a prospective control study. Schizophrenic patients taking Olanzapine and Haloperidol were selected and follow up at three weeks and six weeks was done. Results: In this prospective control study, Olanzapine and Haloperidol were associated with an increase in Blood Glucose Levels. The mean changes in Glucose remained within clinically normal range in this six week study. Conclusion: Antipsychotic treatmemt leads to the development of Diabetes mellitus in a significant 10.1% of patients within 6 weeks. Given the serious implications for morbidity and mortality attributable to diabetes mellitus, clinicians need to be aware of these risk factors when treating patients with chronic schizophrenia

  10. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  11. Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Fasting and Postprandial Levels of the Inflammatory Markers YKL-40 and MCP-1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Tolerant Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Stine Brinkløv; Rathcke, Camilla Noelle; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun;

    2013-01-01

    , following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods. Ten obese patients with T2D and 10 subjects with NGT were examined in the fasting state and after a standard meal prior to and after (1 week, 3 months, and 1 year) RYGB. Results...

  12. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on fasting and postprandial inflammation-related parameters in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Jorgensen, Nils Bruun; Just, Rasmus;

    2015-01-01

    explored the hypothesis that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects. Methods: Thirteen obese subjects with T2D...

  13. Evaluación crítica del test de tolerancia oral a la glucosa para el diagnóstico de resistencia insulínica en pacientes con síndrome de ovario poliquístico Critical evaluation of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia E. Calvar

    2007-02-01

    women with PCO, and the ability of fasting tests to detect postprandial hyperglycemia. One hundred fourteen women with PCO and 29 normal women were evaluated by a 2 hours OGTT. Fasting plasma insulin (INS and glucose were measured during the test. GLU:INS ratio (r (fasting glucose/fasting insulin, HOMA (homeostatic model assessment, QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (fasting tests, as well as the AUCI (area under the curve of INS and ISI composite (ISI (insulin sensitivity index (OGTT tests, were determined. A significant correlation between fasting tests and OGTT tests was found. Normal fasting tests with abnormal OGTT tests were found in 9 patients. No patient with fasting insulin levels less than 9.9 UI/ml were IR, and all women with fasting insulin levels over 18.4 UI/ml were classified as having IR. We found glucose levels 120 min post glucose load (G 120 ³ 140 mg/dl in 14 patients (12.2%. Fasting glucose and insulin levels and the fasting tests, were poor predictors of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes (DBT 2. Thus, fasting tests are useful in the diagnostic of IR in PCO patients. OGTT is necessary when the fasting insulin levels range between 9.9 and 18.4 UI/ml. Women with PCO should undergo periodic screening for abnormal glucose tolerance.

  14. Clinical study of glucose tolerance with Cushing's syndrome%库欣综合征患者糖代谢临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 秦贵军; 丁晨召; 赵天雪; 乐昊

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析库欣综合征( Cushing's syndrome,CS)患者的临床资料,了解CS与糖代谢的关系。方法回顾性分析CS患者的临床资料,分析口服葡萄糖耐量实验( OGTT )及胰岛素水平、身高体重指数(BMI)、(08∶00、16∶00、00∶00)血皮质醇、24小时尿游离皮质醇(24 h UFC)、糖尿病家族史等临床指标。结果 CS合并糖尿病( CS/DM)患者病程长于糖耐量异常( CS/IGT)及糖耐量正常( CS/NGT)组。CS/NGT的患者66.67%存在胰岛素抵抗。 Logistic回归分析,结果显示年龄、病程、00∶00皮质醇为CS患者发生糖尿病的危险因素。 CS/DM组有糖尿病家族史比例较高,3组间BMI、24 h UFC差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论年龄、病程、00∶00血皮质醇为CS患者发生糖尿病的危险因素,需早期行OGTT、胰岛素测定及早诊断和干预治疗。%Objective To analyze the clinical data of patients with Cushing's syndrome(CS)and to un-derstand the relationship between glucose metabolism and CS .Methods Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the level of insulin, body mass index(BMI), 24-hour urinary free cortisol(24h UFC), family history of diabetes in patients with CS were retrospectively analyzed .Results The course of disease in patients of CS complicated with diabetes mellitus ( CS/DM) group was longer than CS complicated with impaired glucose tolerance ( CS/IGT) and CS complicated with normal glucose tolerance (CS/NGT)group.66.67%of patients with CS/NGT have insu-lin resistance .Logistic regression analysis indicated that age , course of disease , midnight plasma cortisol were risk factors of CS induced diabetes mellitus .CS/DM group had higher proportion of family history of diabetes . 24h UFC and BMI had no significant differences among the three groups (P>0.05).Conclusions Age, course of disease , midnight plasma cortisol are risk factors of CS induced diabetes mellitus .OGTT and

  15. 育龄妇女妊娠期糖代谢异常及维生素D相关知识调查%Survey on abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy women of childbearing age and vitamin D-related knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立颖; 刘韬; 李娜; 吴梅; 贾晓; 张巍

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京地区正常育龄妇女对于妊娠糖代谢异常及维生素D相关知识的了解情况.方法 采用问卷方式对2010年12月北京城区育龄妇女170例进行调查.结果 调查对象中妊娠糖代谢异常知晓率达90.6%,妊娠糖代谢异常对母婴的危害认知程度分别为91.2%及89.4%;糖代谢异常常见的危险因素如饮食、高龄、肥胖的认知程度也较高,认知度均大于50.0%.维生素D在妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)中的作用认知程度知晓率为29.4%;怎样预防GDM的认知程度最低,知晓率只有9.4%;不同文化程度对于维生素D在GDM中的作用认知程度没有差异;育龄妇女对于维生素D在骨钙化方面的认知度较高,达到72.4%;富含维生素D的食物认知度达到52.3%;户外活动与维生素D的关系认知度最低,只有37.0%;目前坚持食用强化维生素D食物者只有18.2%,坚持服用维生素D制剂者只有5.3%,坚持户外运动者只有21.8%.结论 北京城区育龄妇女对于妊娠糖代谢异常关注度很高,对于常见高危因素也有认知,但对维生素D在预防妊娠糖代谢异常中的作用认知程度低,对补充维生素D不够关注.应重视预防妊娠糖代谢异常相关知识的宣传与普及,提高育龄妇女围妊娠期保健意识.%Objective To understand the knowledge of abnormal glucose metabolism and vitamin D-related in pregnant women of childbearing age in Beijing area. Method To investigate 170 women of childbearing age in Beijing urban area in December 2010 by means of questionnaire method. Results The awareness of abnormal glucose metabolism for pregnancy was up to 90.6% , gestational abnormal glucose metabolism on maternal and infant risk cognition was respectively 91.2% and 89.4% ; for abnormal glucose metabolism common risk factors such as diet, age, the higher the degree of obesity, the awareness were all greater than SO. 0%. The role of vitamin D in gestational diabetes

  16. A importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos The importance of oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosis of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Pontes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral (TTGO no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose (IG e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM-2 em mulheres com SOP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram incluídas 247 pacientes portadoras de SOP, selecionadas de forma aleatória. O diagnóstico de IG foi obtido por meio do TTGO de duas horas com 75 gramas de glicose de acordo com os critérios do World Health Organization (WHO (IG: glicemia plasmática aos 120 minutos >140 mg/dL e 200 mg/dL quanto pela glicemia de jejum segundo os critérios da American Diabetes Association (glicemia de jejum alterada: glicemia plasmática >100 e 126 mg/dL. Para comparar o TTGO com a glicemia de jejum foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para medidas repetidas. Para a análise das características clínicas e bioquímicas das pacientes com e sem IG e/ou DM-2 foi utilizada a ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey. O valor pPURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance (GI and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 in women with PCOS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 247 patients with PCOS selected at random. The diagnosis of GI was obtained from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO (GI: 120 minutes for plasma glucose >140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL and fasting glucose using the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose >100 and 126 mg/dL. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was applied to compare the oral glucose tolerance test with fasting plasma glucose. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used for the analysis of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with and without GI and/or DM-2. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: PCOS patients had a mean age of 24.8±6.3, and body

  17. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness...... in the development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance...... test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs...

  18. Mutations in Mll2, an H3K4 methyltransferase, result in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Goldsworthy

    Full Text Available We employed a random mutagenesis approach to identify novel monogenic determinants of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that haplo-insufficiency of the histone methyltransferase myeloid-lineage leukemia (Mll2/Wbp7 gene causes type 2 diabetes in the mouse. We have shown that mice heterozygous for two separate mutations in the SET domain of Mll2 or heterozygous Mll2 knockout mice were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and developed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Consistent with previous Mll2 knockout studies, mice homozygous for either ENU mutation (or compound heterozygotes died during embryonic development at 9.5-14.5 days post coitum. Heterozygous deletion of Mll2 induced in the adult mouse results in a normal phenotype suggesting that changes in chromatin methylation during development result in the adult phenotype. Mll2 has been shown to regulate a small subset of genes, a number of which Neurod1, Enpp1, Slc27a2, and Plcxd1 are downregulated in adult mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that histone H3K4 methyltransferase Mll2 is a component of the genetic regulation necessary for glucose homeostasis, resulting in a specific disease pattern linking chromatin modification with causes and progression of type 2 diabetes, providing a basis for its further understanding at the molecular level.

  19. 妊娠糖耐量受损的早期干预效果评价%Effectiveness evaluation of early intervention of gestational impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱洁; 王维; 李建梅; 徐英; 麦光兴; 李艳英

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness evaluation of early intervention of pregnant women with gestational diabetes me litus ( GDM) at early stage and the health status of fetuses. Methods: Among 2 379 pregnant women receiving GDM screening, 88 pregrtai women were found with impaired fasting glucose, 364 pregnant women were found with gestational impaired glucose tolerance ( GIGT) ; ati tal of 400 pregnant women participated in the study after informed consent, then they were randomly divided into intervention group and coi trol group, 200 pregnant women in each group. The pregnant women in intervention group received early intervention. GIGT, related bioma kers, and complications in the two groups were compared. Results: The incidences of GDM, GIGT, persistent impaired fasting glucose postpartum oral glucose tolerance test ( OGTT) in intervention group after intervention were significantly lower than those in control group the incidence of non - inflammatory reaction in intervention group was significantly higher than that in control group; the incidences of poh hydramnios and macrosomia in intervention group were significantly lower than those in control group, the fetal growth and development indt in intervention group was significantly higher than that in control group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; Early intervention of GDM contributes I reducing the incidence of GDM and complications, and promoting maternal and fetal health.%目的:探讨妊娠糖尿病前期早期干预及胎儿健康状况的效果评价.方法:筛查的2 379例孕妇中,空腹血糖受损88例,糖耐量受损364例,知情同意后共400例参与项目研究,并随机分为干预组及对照组各200例.对干预组实施早期干预模式,比较两组的糖耐量受损、相关生化指标及妊娠高危及并发症情况.结果:干预组干预后GDM、GIGT持续、持续空腹血糖受损、产后0GTT的发生率均低于对照组,非炎症反应(C反应蛋白)的发生率高于对照组,羊

  20. A novel cobiotic containing a prebiotic and an antioxidant augments the glucose control and gastrointestinal tolerability of metformin: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, F; Wang, S; Heiman, M

    2014-03-01

    The gut microbiome plays an important role in regulation of metabolic processes, including digestion, absorption, and synthesis of bioactive molecules that signal physiological host mechanisms. Changes in the human gut microbiome are associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Water-soluble dietary fibres like inulin and beta-glucan are fermented in the colon, and beta-glucan increases viscosity. Blueberries improve insulin sensitivity through an antioxidant effect. A cobiotic, consisting of purified inulin, sugar-free blueberry pomace extract, and an oat preparation of purified beta-glucan was developed for twice a day (bid) consumption as a smoothie drink to repair the gastrointestinal dysbiosis in type 2 diabetes. A 30-year-old man presented with new onset type 2 diabetes and a fasting glucose (FBS) of 375 mg/dl. Metformin 500 mg bid was initiated and increased to 1 g bid after 1 week. During the first 9 days of metformin treatment, he developed diarrhoea, but his FBS only dropped to 325 mg/dl. The cobiotic bid was added on the 9th day of metformin treatment, and after 2 days, his FBS dropped to 175 mg/dl. After 8 weeks on metformin and the cobiotic, his blood sugar was 100 mg/dl and he lost 5.5 kg. His stools became soft and formed on the cobiotic, reverted to diarrhoea when off of it for 2 days, and returned to normal on resuming the cobiotic formulation. Metformin is a safe, effective and inexpensive generic medication favouring weight loss, recommended as initial treatment of type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association. However, a 20% incidence of diarrhoea limits its tolerability. A safe food supplement that can increase the efficacy of metformin and its tolerability, as occurred in this case report, would have significant positive public health consequences. A controlled clinical trial of the cobiotic with metformin is planned. PMID:23685372

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient epithelial cells are less tolerant to infection by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Hsieh

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and provides reducing energy to all cells by maintaining redox balance. The most common clinical manifestations in patients with G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. The effects of microbial infection in patients with G6PD deficiency primarily relate to the hemolytic anemia caused by Plasmodium or viral infections and the subsequent medication that is required. We are interested in studying the impact of bacterial infection in G6PD-deficient cells. G6PD knock down A549 lung carcinoma cells, together with the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, were employed in our cell infection model. Here, we demonstrate that a lower cell viability was observed among G6PD-deficient cells when compared to scramble controls upon bacterial infection using the MTT assay. A significant increase in the intracellular ROS was detected among S. aureus-infected G6PD-deficient cells by observing dichlorofluorescein (DCF intensity within cells under a fluorescence microscope and quantifying this signal using flow cytometry. The impairment of ROS removal is predicted to enhance apoptotic activity in G6PD-deficient cells, and this enhanced apoptosis was observed by annexin V/PI staining under a confocal fluorescence microscope and quantified by flow cytometry. A higher expression level of the intrinsic apoptotic initiator caspase-9, as well as the downstream effector caspase-3, was detected by Western blotting analysis of G6PD-deficient cells following bacterial infection. In conclusion, we propose that bacterial infection, perhaps the secreted S. aureus α-hemolysin in this case, promotes the accumulation of intracellular ROS in G6PD-deficient cells. This would trigger a stronger apoptotic activity through the intrinsic pathway thereby reducing cell viability when compared to wild type cells.

  2. Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood%出生体重与成年期肥胖指标联合效应对糖代谢异常的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席波; 程红; 陈芳芳; 赵小元; 米杰

    2016-01-01

    +成年期腹型肥胖组OR(95%CI)值为3.18(2.33~4.32),低出生体重+成年期腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值为4.78(2.01~11.38),高出生体重+腹型肥胖组的OR(95%CI)值4.35(1.38~13.65);低出生体重和高出生体重与成年期腰围均存在正交互作用,交互作用归因比分别为38.5%和28.3%。结论低出生体重和高出生体重可能分别与成年期肥胖存在正交互作用,共同增强了对成年期糖代谢异常的影响。%Objective To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Methods Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. Results There were 972 subjects (males:50.7%, mean age:(46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data

  3. CLINICAL STUDY OF GESTATIONAL IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN 140 CASES%妊娠糖耐量受损140例临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英玲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect on the outcome of pregnancy women and fatus in gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT). [Methods] Pregnancy women 2515 cases oral 50g glucose senitiv lest (GST) , glucose challenge test is abnomai, fasting again 75g oraglucose toerance test (OGTT) dignoses gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gesta-tional impaired glucose.and be compaired on the outcome pregnancy and fetus in GIGT group. in GDM group and normal group. [Results] Complication during the pregnancy and delivery, the dysklocia rate and the incidence in perint newbom.in the normal group, GIGT group, GDM group of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, premature delivery, polyhydramnios, neonatal asphyxia, neonatal hypoglycemia, cesarean section, fetal macrosomia difference was statistically significant (P 0.05) ; hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy、neonatal asphyxia, neonatal glucopenia, cesarean section, fatal raacrosomia of GDM and GIGT group were higher significantly than normal group (P 0.05 > 0.017) ; GIGT group with GDM between neonatal asphyxia complications significantly higher than GIGT group (P 0.05 > 0.017). [Conclusion] To trent-ment of GIGT in time. Prognosis of pregnant women and fetus Inprove in gestational glucose metabolic disorder%[目的]探讨妊娠糖耐量受损(GIGT)对母儿结局的影响.[方法]对2 515例孕妇进行口服50g葡萄糖筛查试验,对异常者,再空腹口服75 9葡萄糖进行糖耐量试验(OGTT)以确诊妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)及妊娠糖耐量受损.并分正常组、GIGT组及GDM组进行比较母儿结局.[结果]孕期及分娩过程中的合并症,难产率及围产儿患病率中,在正常组、GIGT组、GDM组的妊娠期高血压疾病、早产、胎膜早破、羊水过多、新生儿窒息、新生儿低血糖、剖宫产、巨大儿差异有统计学意义(P< 0.01).而胎膜早破的并发症差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在GDM组与GIGT组中,妊娠期高血压疾病、新

  4. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P=0.037. The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 (P=0.014 and ICAM-1 (P=0.048 were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P=0.003. These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

  5. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene PsG6PDH from Freezing-tolerant Populus suaveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yuan-zhen; Lin Shan-zhi; Zhang Wei; Zhang Qian; Zhang Zhi-yi; Guo Huan

    2005-01-01

    A 1207 hp cDNA fragment (PsG6PDH) was amplified by PT-PCR from cold-induced total Pna of the freexing-tolerant P. Suaveolens, using primers based on the highly comserved region of published plant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH)genes. The sepuence analysis showed that PsG6PDH coding region had 1 101 bp and encoded 367 predicted aminoacid residues. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence of psG6PDH showed 83%,82%,79%,79% and 78% identity, and the derived amino acid sequence shared 44.2%,44.7%,42.0%,40.5% and 43.9% identity with those of the Solanum tuberosum, Nicotiana tabacum, Triticum aestivum, Oryxa sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The results show that PsG6PDH is a new member of G6PDH gene family and belongs to cytosolic G6PDH gene. This is the first report on clonign of the G6PDH gene from woody plants.

  6. MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

    2013-05-01

    Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process.

  7. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  8. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin-metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  9. Glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-Thalassemia major: Relationship to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress in children with β-thalassemia may contribute to shortened life span of erythrocytes and endocrinal abnormalities. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate glucose homeostasis in Egyptian children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major and its relation to oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Sixty children and adolescents with β-thalassemia major were studied in comparison to 30 healthy age and sex-matched subjects. Detailed medical history, thorough clinical examination, and laboratory assessment of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, serum ferritin, alanine transferase (ALT, fasting insulin levels, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA as oxidant marker and serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC were performed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of abnormal OGTT. Results: The prevalence of diabetes was 5% (3 of 60 and impaired glucose tolerance test (IGT was 8% (5 of 60. Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin level, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and MDA levels were significantly elevated while TAC level was significantly decreased in thalassemic patients compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001 for each. The difference was more evident in patients with abnormal OGTT than those with normal oral glucose tolerance (P < 0.001 for each. We also observed that thalassemic patients not receiving or on irregular chelation therapy had significantly higher fasting, 2-h post-load plasma glucose, serum ferritin, ALT, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, oxidative stress markers OSI and MDA levels and significantly lower TAC compared with either those on regular chelation or controls. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with age, serum ferritin, ALT, MDA, and negatively correlated with TAC. Conclusions: The development of abnormal glucose tolerance in Egyptian children and adolescents with β--thalassemia is associated with

  10. Analysis of Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Combined With Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ping GAO; Li-wen LIE; Ying-ling ZHOU; Hao-jian DONG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the morbidity of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) combined with impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data about patients with CAD in 1997, 2002 and 2007, sepa-rately. A total of 2951 patients were enrolled, among whom had coexistence of 457 abnormal glycometabolism, inclu-ding impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results The prevalence of ab-normal glycometabolism in patients with CAD was increasing year by year. The morbidity raised from 3.8% and 16. 5% to 10. 8% in these three years. Contusion It is more and more common to detect CAD with impaired glucose metabolism, and it should be emphasized in the secondary prevention of CAD.

  11. The effect of DPP-4 inhibition with sitagliptin on incretin secretion and on fasting and postprandial glucose turnover in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Gerlies; Man, Chiara Dalla; Micheletto, Francesco;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Low Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations have been observed in impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It is uncertain if these abnormalities contribute directly to the pathogenesis of IFG and impaired glucose tolerance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors raise incretin...... period, the mixed meal was repeated. Results: As expected, subjects with IFG who received placebo did not experience any change in glucose concentrations. Despite raising intact GLP-1 concentrations, treatment with sitagliptin did not alter either fasting or postprandial glucose, insulin or C....... Conclusions: DPP-4 inhibition did not alter fasting or postprandial glucose turnover in people with IFG. Low incretin concentrations are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of IFG....

  12. Effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance related to beta-3 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism Trp64Arg(C/T): Results from the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Naoki; Sato, Juichi; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tsujii, Satoru; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawazu, Shoji; Sato, Yuzo; Usui, Takeshi; Kamae, Isao; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sato, Shigeaki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2016-05-01

    The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), primarily expressed in adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. The present study hypothesized that ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) polymorphisms modulate the effects of lifestyle intervention on weight and metabolic parameters in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Data were analyzed from 112 patients with impaired glucose tolerance in the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention trial, randomized to either an intensive lifestyle intervention group or usual care group. Changes in weight and metabolic parameters were measured after the 6-month intervention. The ADRB3 polymorphisms were determined using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Non-carriers showed a greater weight reduction compared with the carriers in both the lifestyle intervention group and usual care group, and a greater increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the carriers only in the lifestyle intervention group. ADRB3 polymorphisms could influence the effects of lifestyle interventions on weight and lipid parameters in impaired glucose tolerance patients. PMID:27330719

  13. Effect of nursing intervention on the pregnant outcomes of pregnant women with abnormality in glucose challenge test%护理干预对单纯糖筛查异常孕妇妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惠玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of nursing intervention on the pregnant outcomes of pregnant women with abnormality in glucose challenge test. Methods: 158 pregnant women with abnormality in glucose challenge test were randomly divided into an intervention group ( n = 80 ) and a control group ( n = 78 ). The pregnant women were given routine antenatal screening in the control group and extra nursing intervention was given to the pregnant women in the intervention group based on routine antenatal examination. The outcomes of pregnancy were observed and compared between the two groups. Results:There were statistically significant differences in the comparison of the incidence of cesarean section,fetal distress,polyhydramnios,premature rupture of membranes and other complications and the incidence of macrosomia between the two groups ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion: The nursing intervention on pregnant women with abnonnalit)' in glucose challenge test can achieve good outcomes of pregnanc).%目的:探讨护理干预对单纯糖筛查异常孕妇妊娠结局的影响.方法:将158例单纯糖筛查异常孕妇随机分为干预组80例和对照组78例.对照组孕妇采用常规产前检查,干预组孕妇在此基础上进行护理干预.观察比较两组孕妇的妊娠结局.结果:干预组剖宫产、胎内窘迫、羊水过多、胎膜早破等并发症发生率及巨大儿发生率与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),妊娠期高血压疾病、新生儿窒息及早产儿发生率与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:对单纯糖筛查异常的孕妇进行护理干预可取得良好的妊娠结局,值得临床推广.

  14. Influência do tratamento com metformina sobre a tolerância à glicose induzida por corticosteróides em ratos Wistar = Influence of metformin treatment on glucose tolerance induced by corticosteroid administration in rats Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio César Gonçalves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticóides induzem um estado de intolerância à glicose, resistência à insulina e hiperglicemia. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a participação de corticosteróides endógenos sobre a hiperglicemia aguda em modelo experimental de intolerância à glicose induzida por dexametasona (0,1 mg kg-1, s.c., 4 dias. O modelo experimental foicaracterizado pela determinação da concentração de glicose sanguínea, volume urinário de 24 horas, consumo de ração e água. Os ratos foram tratados com clorpropamida (100 mg kg-1, metformina (300 mg kg-1 ou pioglitazona (10 mg kg-1 durante 4 dias e o efeito do tratamento foi avaliado pelo teste de tolerância à glicose endovenoso (GTT. Aadrenalectomia corrigiu o quadro de intolerância à glicose destes animais, demonstrando que a dexametasona promove hiperglicemia por meio de um provável efeito sinérgico sobre os corticosteróides endógenos. O tratamento com metformina reduziu a alteração glicêmica.Nossos resultados sugerem um efeito benéfico na utilização da metformina como profilático no uso de corticóides em pacientes hiperglicêmicos.This work evaluated the effect of the corticosteroid administration on glucose intolerance state induced by dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg-1, s.c., 4 days. The experimental model was characterized through bloodand urine glucose levels determination, 24 hour urinary volume, food and water intake. The rats were treated with chlorpropamide (100 mg kg-1, metformin (300 mg kg-1 or pioglitazone (10 mg kg-1 during 4 days. The effect of adrenalectomy or the drugs treatment effectiveness on hyperglycemia state were evaluated during intravenousGTT. Metformin treatment restored the altered hyperglycemia observed in this experimental model. Results suggest that dexamethasone promotes a hyperglycemia state through a synergic effect on endogenous corticosteroids, and that metformin treatment restores these altered responses. Indeed, the dexamethasone induced

  15. 妊娠合并糖代谢异常孕妇胎盘内葡萄糖转运蛋白表达的变化%Expression of placental glucose transporters in pregnant women with abnormal glycometabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓鹏; 杨慧霞

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of glucose transporters(GLUTs)in placentas of pregnant women with abnormal glyeometabolism,and to explore its effect on glucose transport between mother and fetus and its relation with the birth weight.Methods Placentas of 41 pregnant women with abnormal glycometabolism(7 cases of DM,10 GDM A1,10 GIGT and 14 GDMA2)and 15 normal pregnant women as control were selected.The expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3was detected by immunohistochemistry.The birth weight was measured at delivery.Results GLUT1 was expressed in the syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts,whereas GLUT3 in some endothelial cells.The expressions of GLUT1 and GLUT3 were significantly different among the five groups(P<0.01).Positive correlation was shown between the GLUT1 expression and the birth weight(rs=0.532,P<0.01),but not in GLUT3 expression.Conclusions The expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in placentas of pregnancy with abnormal glycometabolism is enhanced,and GLUT1 may play a predominant role in the fetal glucose uptake.%目的 研究妊娠合并糖代谢异常孕妇胎盘内葡萄糖转运蛋白(glucose transporter,GLUTs)的表达变化,探讨其对母儿间葡萄糖转运功能的影响及其与新生儿体重的关系. 方法 于北京大学第一医院收集孕前糖尿病孕妇的胎盘组织标本7例、妊娠期糖尿病A110例、妊娠期糖尿病A214例,妊娠期糖耐量受损10例及正常孕妇胎盘组织标本15例,用免疫组织化学方法测定GLUT1和GLUT3的表达,并记录新生儿出生体重. 结果 免疫组化显示GLUT1主要表达于胎盘的细胞滋养细胞和合体滋养细胞,各组间GLUT1的表达强度差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01);GLUT3在部分胎盘绒毛问质的血管内皮细胞中表达.各组间的表达差异也具有统计学意义(P<0.01).GLUT1的表达强度与新生儿出生体重存在等级相关性(rs=0.532,P<0.01),GLUT3表达强度则与新生儿出生体重无相关性(rs=0.178,P>0.01).

  16. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  17. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  18. ASSOCIATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS WITH ELEVATED HEPATIC ENZYME AND LIVER FAT IN JAPANESE PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nagano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far determined whether a favorable level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CF contributes to a reduced risk of elevated hepatic enzymes and a high degree of liver fat in patients having various metabolic risks. This study investigated the association between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and high liver fat, while considering such factors as abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia and the other metabolic risks. The study enrolled newly diagnosed Japanese patients (n = 84; 52 males and 32 females; aged 25-69 years with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2DM who did not receive any intervention or pharmacological therapy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the distribution of the VO2max for each sex. The odds ratios (ORs for the prevalence of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT and high degree of liver fat adjusted for age, sex, disease type, daily ethanol intake, and current smoking were significantly lower in the moderate- and high CF groups in comparison to the low CF group. In addition, a significant OR for AST was maintained in the moderate and high CF group after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. The significant ORs for the prevalence of elevated ALT and a high degree of liver fat were attenuated after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. No significant OR for the prevalence of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT was recognized in all logistic models. These results indicated that CF was negatively and independently associated with the prevalence of elevated AST even in Japanese diabetic patients having various metabolic risks. It was concluded that the AST level might be useful as a simple marker reflecting physical inactivity in such subjects

  19. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz SS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stanley S Schwartz,1,2 Arie Katz3 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Main Line Health System, Ardmore, PA, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Abstract: In type 2 diabetes (T2D, early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. Keywords: combination therapy, dapagliflozin, metformin

  20. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia.

  1. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line;

    2011-01-01

    participants. RESULTS: Lens fluorescence, a quantitative index of life-long cumulative glycemia, was increased by 7.5% (CI(95) 0.37-15.1%) in subjects with impaired fasting glucose, by 13.0% (CI(95) 5.5-21%) in subjects with combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT), and by 11......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970...... blood pressure. The prevalences of associated risk factors for diabetes were elevated in all categories of abnormal glucose regulation compared to normoglycemic subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Life-long cumulative glycemia, microangiopathy, and associated risk factors for diabetes were significantly elevated...

  2. Low non-oxidative glucose metabolism and violent offending: an 8-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkunen, Matti; Rissanen, Aila; Franssila-Kallunki, Anja; Tiihonen, Jari

    2009-06-30

    Violent offenders have abnormalities in their glucose metabolism as indicated by decreased glucose uptake in their prefrontal cortex and a low blood glucose nadir in the glucose tolerance test. We tested the hypothesis that low non-oxidative glucose metabolism (NOG) predicts forthcoming violent offending among antisocial males. Glucose metabolism was measured using the insulin clamp method among 49 impulsive, violent, antisocial offenders during a forensic psychiatric examination. Those offenders who committed at least one new violent crime during the 8-year follow-up had a mean NOG of 1.4 standard deviations lower than non-recidivistic offenders. In logistic regression analysis, NOG alone explained 27% of the variation in the recidivistic offending. Low non-oxidative metabolism may be a crucial component in the pathophysiology of habitually violent behavior among subjects with antisocial personality disorder. This might suggest that substances increasing glycogen formation and decreasing the risk of hypoglycemia might be potential treatments for impulsive violent behavior. PMID:19446886

  3. Epidemiologic study on abnormal glucose metabolism and related diseases with middle-aged people in Shanghai suburban community%上海浦东城郊结合地区中年人群糖代谢异常及相关疾病的基线调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏齐; 张向红; 申斌; 侯进

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查上海市浦东新区城郊结合地区45~64岁中年人群糖尿病(DM)、糖调节受损(IGR)、原发性高血压(EH)及代谢综合征(MS)的患病状况。方法采用多阶段分层随机抽样的方法对1148例中年人群进行横断面调查,内容包括问卷调查、测量血压、身高、体重,检测空腹血糖(FPG)、甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、并进行75 g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)。结果上海城郊结合社区中年人群中DM、IGR、原发性EH、血脂异常、超重/肥胖(OW/OB)及MS患病率分别为12.8%、20.7%、51.9%、42.3%、52%及29.4%。患病率均随年龄增长而升高,各层间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论上海浦东新区城郊结合地区中年人群糖代谢异常及相关疾病患病率较高,应当针对中年人群加强社区综合干预。%Objective To investigate the prevalence of diabetes (DM), impaired glucose regulation(IGR), es-sential hypertension (EH) and metabolic syndrome (MS) among Chinese population aged 45-64 years in Shanghai sub-urban community. Methods A cross-sectional survey with multiple-stage and random sampling was performed ques-tionnaire. Blood pressure, height, weight, fasting blood glucose (FPG), triglycerides(TG), total cholesterol(TC) and 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were conducted among 1148 middle-aged people. Results The prevalence of diabetes, impaired glucose regulation, essential hypertension, dyslipidemia, overweight/obesity and metabolic syn-drome were 12.8%, 20.7%, 51.9%, 42.3%, 52%and 29.4%respectively. The prevalence increased with age and the dif-ference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion In Shanghai suburban community, the prevalence of abnor-mal glucose metabolism and related diseases of Chinese population aged 45~64 years was high . We should strengthen integrated community intervention for the middle-aged population.

  4. Clinical study of Telmisartan in treatment of elderly hypertension with impaired glucose tolerance%进口替米沙坦治疗老年高血压伴葡萄糖耐量异常的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文淑; 周庆蓉; 彭良君; 张雪萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察进口替米沙坦对老年高血压伴葡萄糖糖耐量异常患者血糖及血压的影响.方法收集我院2008年9月至2010年9月60~80岁高血压伴糖耐量异常患者160例,随机数字表法分为两组.试验组采用替米沙进口坦80 mg口服,对照组采用进口雷米普利5mg口服,均1次/日,疗程6个月.观察两组降压效果、对糖代谢的影响、肝肾功能及血脂谱的变化、咳嗽及血管神经水肿等不良反应的发生率.结果 试验组患者血糖、血脂、胰岛素抵抗较对照组有明显改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 进口替米沙坦除具有降压作用外,还能改善糖脂代谢,预防糖尿病的发生,患者咳嗽发生率低,耐受性好.%Objective To observe the effect of Telmisartan on blood glucose and blood pressure of elderly patients with hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance. Methods A total of 160 60 to 80-year-old patients with hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance from September 2008 to September 2010 were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated with oral administration of Telmisartan 80 mg, q. D. The control group was treated with oral administration of Ramipril 5 mg q. D. The courses of treatment were both 6 months. We observed the incidence of adverse reactions such as antihypertensive effect, effect on glucose metabolism, changes in liver and kidney function, lipid profile changes, cough and angioneurotic edema etc.. Results In Telmisartan group, the patients' glucose, blood lipids and insulin resistance significantly improved compared with that in control group. (P < 0.05). Conclusion Besides antihypertensive effect, Telmisartan can improve glucose and lipid metabolism and prevent diabetes, with low incidence of cough and good tolerance by patients.

  5. 妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局%Gestational impaired glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶芸; 张新清; 李江; 彭春燕; 胡云英

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) on pregnancy outcome. Methods; After prenatal examination in the hospital from January 2008 to May 2009, 103 cases were diagnosed as GDM definitely, and 90 cases were diagnosed as GIGT definitely, 100 healthy pregnant women who gave birth to their babies during the same period were selected as control group; the pregnancy outcomes in the three groups were compared. Results; The cesarean section rates and incidences of macrosomia in GDM 1 group (treatment group) and GIGT group were statistically significantly higher than those in control group ( P 0. 05 ) ; the incidences of maternal and infantile complications in GDM 2 group (non ?treatment group) were statistically significantly higher than those in the other groups (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; GDM and GIGT are important factors inducing short ?term and long ?term severe maternal and infantile complications, clinicians should pay more attention to screening, diagnosis, and treatment of GIGT, blood glucose of pregnant women should be controlled within normal range as possible.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病及糖耐量受损对妊娠结局的影响.方法:2008年1月~2009年5月在该院进行产前检查,确诊妊娠期糖尿病(GDM) 103例,妊娠期糖耐量受损(GIGT) 90例,选择同期分娩100例健康孕妇为对照组,比较三组的妊娠结局.结果:GDM1组(治疗组)及GIGT组仅剖宫产率、巨大儿发生率明显高于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),妊娠期高血压疾病、胎膜早破、羊水过多、胎儿窘迫、早产、新生儿低血糖与正常组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);GDM2组(未治疗组)母儿并发症的发生率明显高于其他各组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:GDM与GIGT是导致母婴近期远期严重并发症的重要因素,临床医师应重视孕期糖代谢异常的筛查、诊断和治疗,尽可能使孕妇血糖控制在正常范围.

  6. 糖脂代谢异常对肝硬化患者疾病进展的影响%Impact of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism on the progression of disease in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑光力; 岑柏春

    2015-01-01

    ,triglycerides (TG) in patients with different Child-Pugh score had no statistically significant difference,P =0.558,0.169.The level of serum albumin (ALB) of patients with DM in cirrhosis was significantly lower than those without DM,P =0.009.The patients with DM in liver cirrhosis had higher incidence of complications such as ascites,gastro esophageal variceal bleeding(GEVB) or hepatic encephalopathy than those without DM,P =0.000.Conclusion The patients with cirrhosis had higher incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism,and DM lead to progression of liver disease in turn.

  7. Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Johan G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  8. Exaggerated release and preserved insulinotropic action of glucagon-like peptide-1 underlie insulin hypersecretion in glucose-tolerant individuals after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun;

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glycaemic control in part by increasing postprandial insulin secretion through exaggerated glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 release. However, it is unknown whether islet cell responsiveness to i.v. glucose, non-glucose (arginine) and incretin hormones...

  9. Postprandial diabetic glucose tolerance is normalized by gastric bypass feeding as opposed to gastric feeding and is associated with exaggerated GLP-1 secretion: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Dorte L; Madsbad, Sten;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine after gastric bypass the effect of peroral versus gastroduodenal feeding on glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A type 2 diabetic patient was examined on 2 consecutive days 5 weeks after gastric bypass. A standard liquid meal was given on the first day...... into the bypassed gastric remnant and on the second day perorally. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, incretin hormones, peptide YY, and free fatty acids were measured. RESULTS: Peroral feeding reduced 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (7.8 vs. 11.1 mmol/l) and incremental area under the glucose curve (i......AUC) (0.33 vs. 0.49 mmol . l(-1) . min(-1)) compared with gastroduodenal feeding. beta-Cell function (iAUC(Cpeptide/Glu)) was more than twofold improved during peroral feeding, and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 response increased nearly fivefold. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in postprandial glucose...

  10. Study on the correlation of severity of acute pancreatitis with abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis%急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗欣

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性胰腺炎严重程度与糖代谢异常的相关性及其预后.方法 选择2004年12月至2012年12月广西柳钢集团公司医院消化科收治入院的急性胰腺炎患者158例,按疾病严重程度分为轻症急性胰腺炎(MAP)组68例和重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)组90例;检测两组患者糖代谢指标空腹静脉血糖(FPG)、负荷2h静脉血糖(PPG)及评定两组患者急性生理及慢性健康评分Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ),对两组的糖代谢指标和APACHE Ⅱ评分进行相关性分析,并观察两组患者的预后.结果 SAP组患者FPG、PPG、胰岛素水平(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(IRI)明显高于MAP组,胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)低于MAP(P<0.01);急性胰腺炎(AP)患者的APACHE Ⅱ评分与FPG、PPG、FINS、IRI呈正相关(P <0.05,P<0.01),与ISI呈负相关(P<0.05);SAP组的假性囊肿、感染、脓肿、坏死、急性肺损伤或急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)、死亡发生率明显高于MAP组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 AP的严重程度与糖代谢异常存在密切的关系,两者相互影响,因此,在治疗AP时,应积极控制胰腺炎症,防止和减少胰腺坏死,将血糖降至正常范围,以降低并发症和死亡的发生率.%Objective To investigate correlation between severity of acute pancreatitis and abnormal glucose metabolism and its prognosis.Methods A total of 158 cases of patient admitted with acute pancreatitis in the Department of Digestion of our hospital from December 2004 and December 2012 were selected,and were divided into two groups:mild acute pancreatitis (MAP; n =68) and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP; n =90) according to disease severity.The patient's sugar metabolism such as fasting plasma glucose (FPG),postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHEII) scores of two groups were detected.Correlation analysis was carried out between glucose metabolism index and APACHEII score.The prognosis of two groups was observed

  11. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Jurysta

    2009-01-01

    saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  12. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Fujibayashi

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis (HS or visceral fat accumulation (VFA have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA.The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+ or absence (- of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups.Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-/VFA(-, HS(-/VFA(+, HS(+/VFA(-, and HS(+/VFA(+, respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05. On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01.It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies

  13. The Relationship between Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Cognitive Function in Elderly%糖耐量减低与老年人认知功能缺陷的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史美君; 侯言彬; 余健; 何芸; 汤红梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between impaired glucose tolerance and cognitive function in elderly people.Methods A hospital - based 1: 1 matched case - control study was conducted, and 80 sets of cases and controls of elderly people from Kangning Hospital were assessed by means of the mini - mental state examination(MMSE). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess of the relationship between impaired glucose tolerance and cognitive function. Results Patients with impaired cognitive function had higher prevalence rate of stroke ( P = 0. 043 ) and hypertension ( P = 0. 001 ). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that impaired glucose tolerance ( P = 0. 042 ), stroke ( P = 0. 006 ) and hypertension ( P = 0. 000 ) may be associated with impaired cognitive function.Conclusion Impaired glucose tolerance is an independent risk factor of impaired cognitive function.%目的 探讨老年人群中糖耐量减低与认知功能缺陷的关系.方法 采用1∶ 1配对病例对照研究,以简易智能状态量表检测纳入人群的认知功能,运用Logistic回归分析调查糖耐量减低与老年人认知功能缺陷的关系.结果 80对患者中,认知功能缺陷组脑卒中(P=0.043)及高血压(P=0.001)的发生率明显偏高,差异有统计学意义;Logistic回归分析显示糖耐量减低(P=0.042)、中风(P=0.006)及高血压(P=0.000)等与认知功能缺陷相关,可能是其独立的危险因素.结论 糖耐量减低可能是老年人认知功能缺陷的危险因素,对糖耐量减低的预防和早期诊断,有可能改善老年人认知功能缺陷.

  14. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic abnormalities in patients with bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Karolina; Reif, Andreas; Haack, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    -diabetic abnormalities, however, is not clear. METHODS: 85 euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorders from two university hospitals in Germany underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, laboratory screening and clinical measurements. Socio-demographic data, medication, severity of illness, global functioning and life...... metabolism and this was associated with impaired global functioning and lower quality of life. Early detection and intervention strategies fitting the needs of patient with bipolar disorder are needed to improve both physical and mental health.......BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the glucose metabolism cause nervous and organic damage and are a cardiovascular risk factor. They could be a main cause for the increased morbidity and mortality rates found in patients with bipolar disorders. The exact prevalence of diabetes and pre...

  15. Metabolomic analysis reveals amino-acid responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in women with prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bentley-Lewis, MD, MBA, MMSc

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Greater change in metabolite levels after a glucose challenge was significantly associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding and higher BMI. Further exploration of these preliminary observations and closer examination of the specific pathways implicated are warranted.

  16. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce...

  17. Dopaminergic drugs in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Brie, Belen; Nogueira, Juan Patricio; Garcia Tornadu, Isabel; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2016-07-01

    The importance of dopamine in central nervous system function is well known, but its effects on glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β cell function are beginning to be unraveled. Mutant mice lacking dopamine type 2 receptors (D2R) are glucose intolerant and have abnormal insulin secretion. In humans, administration of neuroleptic drugs, which block dopamine receptors, may cause hyperinsulinemia, increased weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, treatment with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA in patients with Parkinson's disease reduces insulin secretion upon oral glucose tolerance test, and bromocriptine improves glycemic control and glucose tolerance in obese type 2 diabetic patients as well as in non diabetic obese animals and humans. The actions of dopamine on glucose homeostasis and food intake impact both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Different central actions of the dopamine system may mediate its metabolic effects such as: (i) regulation of hypothalamic noradrenaline output, (ii) participation in appetite control, and (iii) maintenance of the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. On the other hand, dopamine inhibits prolactin, which has metabolic functions; and, at the pancreatic beta cell dopamine D2 receptors inhibit insulin secretion. We review the evidence obtained in animal models and clinical studies that posited dopamine receptors as key elements in glucose homeostasis and ultimately led to the FDA approval of bromocriptine in adults with type 2 diabetes to improve glycemic control. Furthermore, we discuss the metabolic consequences of treatment with neuroleptics which target the D2R, that should be monitored in psychiatric patients to prevent the development in diabetes, weight gain, and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:26748034

  18. 正常血压人群中糖耐量水平与A型性格的关系%Association between Glucose Tolerance Status and Type A Personality in Normotensive Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉娜; 商丽华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential association between glucose tolerance status and type A personality in normotensive population. Methods The interview on type A personality and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were preformed among 85 normotensive subjects, aged 35-76 years. Results The prevalence (50%) of type A personality in subjects with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) was the highest among three groups compared with 36.7% in the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) group and 22.2% in the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group. However, it was not statistically significant. After adjusted for age, gender and SBP in an multiple linear regression model, the adjusted coefficient was 1.4 and it indicated that subjects with type A personality had their 2-h plasma glucose 1.4 mmol/L increased, which significantly higher than those with type B(P=0.025). Conclusion Results indicated that the people with type A personality will be more likely to have a higher post-load plasma glucose and much more insulin resistance compared to people with type B.%目的 研究糖耐量水平与A型性格之间的潜在联系.方法 在85例年龄35~76岁正常血压的受试者中实施A型性格的问卷调查及75g口服葡萄糖耐量试验( OGTT).根据血糖检测结果将受试者分为新诊断糖尿病组、糖耐量受损组及正常糖耐量组.A型性格测试采用1985年由“全国心身医学协作研究组”开发的A型行为问卷(TABQ).结果 新诊断糖尿病组、糖耐量受损组、正常糖耐量组A型性格的构成比分别为50%、36.7%和22.2%,新诊断糖尿病组A型性格的构成比在三组中最高.应用多元线性回归,对年龄、性别及收缩压等潜在混杂因素进行调整后,校正系数1.4,表明具有A型性格的受试者2h餐后血糖较非A型性格受试者显著高1.4mmol/L(P=0.025).结论 A型性格人群有可能具有较高的餐后血糖水平以及较差的糖耐量状况.

  19. Fingertip Blood Capillary Whole Blood Glucose and Venous Plasma Glucose test Results Contrast Analysis%指尖毛细血管全血糖与静脉血浆血糖检测结果对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢美荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the blood glucose and blood glucose in the blood glucose and blood glucose of the finger tip blood glucose and to explore the accuracy of blood glucose detection in the blood glucose of finger tip capillary. Meth-ods From January 2014 to October 2015, 200 cases of blood glucose detection in the center of the disease control depart-ment of our CDC were studied. According to their blood glucose levels, the patients were divided into low blood sugar group, normal group, abnormal glucose tolerance group and diabetic group. Blood glucose was detected by using the automatic bio-chemical analyzer to measure blood glucose of blood and blood glucose in the blood and blood of the finger tip, which were collected from 200 cases of the patients. Results There were no significant differences in blood glucose levels between the blood glucose test results of the blood glucose test of the blood glucose and the blood glucose in the blood glucose of the patients with low blood glucose, glucose tolerance and glucose tolerance test in the patients with low blood glucose and glu-cose tolerance. Conclusion The method of blood glucose detection in blood glucose of finger tip has a high accuracy, and it is close to that of venous blood glucose detection. It can effectively reflect the blood glucose level of the subjects, and can be used as an effective method for the monitoring and management of the community and family.%目的:对比分析指尖毛细血管全血血糖与静脉血浆血糖的检测结果,以探讨指尖毛细血管全血糖检测血糖的准确性。方法于2014年1月-2015年10月,选取在该疾控中心体检科进行血糖检测的200例受检者进行研究,按照其血糖情况进行分组,分为低血糖组、血糖正常组、糖耐量异常组、糖尿病组。分别于空腹状态时和餐后2 h,采集这200例受检者的指尖毛细血管全血和外周静脉血液,使用全自动生化分析仪进行血糖测定,对比指尖毛细血

  20. Comparison of blood glucose concentrations after administration of a glucose solution via the jugular vein and portal vein in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Heusmann, B; Camenzind, D; Haessig, M

    2007-10-01

    The goals of the present study were to determine whether the infusion of a glucose solution into the portal vein is tolerated in cows and whether the glucose concentration differs after administration of glucose into the jugular vein and portal vein. Fifteen healthy Swiss Braunvieh cows were used. An indwelling catheter was placed in both jugular veins and a balloon-tipped indwelling catheter with a diameter of 2 mm was placed in the portal vein under the guidance of ultrasonography. Three cows received 500 ml of 20% glucose solution over 60 min via the left jugular vein. Three other cows received the same solution over 60 min via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 24 h after the infusion of glucose for the determination of the concentrations of glucose and bilirubin and the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Infusion via the portal vein did not result in abnormalities in the general condition of the cows or increases in the concentration of bilirubin or the activities of liver enzymes. The blood glucose concentration increased to the same extent after both intraportal and intrajugular infusion. Over a 12-h period, three cows received 10 l of 20% glucose solution via the left jugular vein and three others received the same solution over a 12-h period via the portal vein. Blood samples were collected from the right jugular vein before and for 30 h after the start of infusion. Infusion via the portal vein did not affect the general condition of the cows or the activities of the liver enzymes. There was no significant difference in the blood glucose concentration between the two groups throughout the study.

  1. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    the transition from the prediabetic states to overt type 2 diabetes is characterised by a non-reversible vicious cycle that includes severe deleterious effects on glucose metabolism, there are good reasons to use the well-established aetiological and pathophysiological differences in i-IFG, i-IGT and IFG...

  2. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld;

    2008-01-01

    , in the Matsudas index, in body weight, or in body composition. CONCLUSION: A diet high in monounsaturated fat has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a period of weight...

  3. Development of a Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rat Model for Studies on the Effects of Cinnamon on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A streptozotocin (STZ) dose response protocol using graded doses of STZ was utilized to develop a diabetic rat model. In addition to the presence of severe basal hyperglycemia, insulin responses to oral glucose showed no change from basal in rats given more than 45 mg of STZ/kg body wt. Oral gluc...

  4. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  5. Optimization of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of p-coumarate from glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, K.; Westerhof, R.G.M.; Ballerstedt, H.; Bont, J.A.M.de; Wery, J.

    2007-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that is able to convert glucose to p-coumarate via the central metabolite l-tyrosine. Efficient production was hampered by product degradation, limited cellular L-tyrosine availability, and formation of the by-product cinnamate via L-phenylalanine. The

  6. No Islet Cell Hyperfunction, but Altered Gut-Islet Regulation and Postprandial Hypoglycemia in Glucose-Tolerant Patients 3 Years After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Eiken, Aleksander; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N;

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemia characterizes Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sometimes leads to reactive hypoglycemia. We prospectively evaluated changes in beta cell function in seven RYGB-operated patients with a median follow-up of 2.9 years with hyperglycemic clamps and oral glucose...

  7. Determinants of progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screened population: 3 year follow-up in the ADDITION study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S S; Glümer, C; Sandbaek, A;

    2007-01-01

    data in 1,002 collected at the 3-year visits. Regression models using interval censoring were used. RESULTS: Progression rates from IFG and IGT to diabetes over 3.5 years were 11.8 and 17.0 per 100 person-years, respectively and were particularly high in the first year. Baseline determinants...... to 69 years included a risk questionnaire, random blood glucose, HbA(1c), fasting blood glucose and an OGTT. The 1,821 individuals with IGT or isolated IFG (WHO 1999) were re-invited after 1 and 3 years. Follow-up data on glucose measurements were available in 1,510 individuals and additional clinical...... with development of diabetes in IFG individuals [per 1 kg/year, RR 0.81 (0.66-0.98) and per 1 mmol l(-1) year(-1), RR 0.08 (0.01-0.51), respectively], whereas in IGT participants only weight reduction was inversely associated [per 1 kg/year, RR 0.80 (0.67-0.96)]. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Higher levels...

  8. Assessment of quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance%糖尿病和糖耐量低减患者生命质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文绢; 王克安; 施侣元

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To understand the quality of life ( QOL) in patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, and investigate factors affecting their QOL.Methods Using the SF-36 instrument to assess QOL among 108 patients with diabetes mellitus, 109 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and 116 normal glucose tolerance subjects.Results In subjects with diabetes mellitus, the proportion of general perceived health assessed to be excellent or good was 12.04%; as compared with the same-age people, the proportion assessed to be good or fairly good was 62.04%.In subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, the two proportions was 13.76% and 69.72% respectively.The total score attained excellent or good level was 72.23% and 83.49% respectively in patients with diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance.The mean score of multi-item dimensions assessment (ranged from 58.33 to 87.38) decreased in diabetes mellitus; the lowest score being emotional role functioning and the highest mean score being physical functioning.Compared with normal glucose tolerance subjects, the mean score of physical functioning, physical role functioning, general health perception, vitality and the total score in diabetes mellitus was significantly decreased;and compared with in impaired glucose tolerance patients, the mean score of vitality, mental health and the total score was significantly decreased in diabetes mellitus.The resulst of correlation analysis demonstrated that age, occupationl, duration of disease, number of symptoms and complications, level of fasting blood glucose and 2-hour past oral blood glucose affected the QOL of diabetes mellitus patients.Conclusions The results suggested that to enhance the QOL in patients with diabetes mellitus, control of plasma glucose, pay attention to psychological treatment and measures related to diabetes mellitus with different characteristics must be early adopted.%目的了解糖尿病和

  9. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  10. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  11. Chronic exposure to low doses of lipopolysaccharide and high-fat feeding increases body mass without affecting glucose tolerance in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudele, Anete; Fischer, Christina W; Elfving, Betina;

    2015-01-01

    -related inflammation in females. Therefore, we addressed how experimentally induced chronic inflammation affects body mass, energy intake, and glucose metabolism in female rats. Adult female Sprague Dawley rats were instrumented with slow release pellets that delivered a constant daily dose of 53 or 207 μg of...... lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per rat for 60 days. Control rats were instrumented with vehicle pellets. Due to inflammatory nature of high-fat diet (HFD) half of the rats received HFD (60% of calories from lard), while the other half remained on control diet to detect possible interactions between two modes of induced...... inflammation. Our results showed that chronic LPS administration increased female rat body mass and calorie intake in a dose-dependent manner, and that HFD further exacerbated these effects. Despite these effects, no effects of LPS and HFD were evident on female rat glucose metabolism. Only LPS elevated...

  12. Impact of two common polymorphisms in the PPARgamma gene on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Andersen, Gitte; Fenger, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    an association between the Ala allele and reduced risk of diabetes and insulin resistance in twins. However, the differences in metabolic profiles among MZ and DZ twins were not explained by differences in frequencies of the genetic variants and may be due to intrauterine environmental factors operating in twins...... independent of genotype. Accordingly, our study simultaneously supports a role for both the intrauterine environment (thrifty phenotype) and for genetics (thrifty genotype) in the etiology of insulin resistance and perhaps glucose intolerance in twins....... polymorphisms (Pro12Ala and exon 6 C-->T) in PPARgamma among elderly twins (207 monozygotic [MZ] and 342 dizygotic [DZ]) and evaluated whether they could explain previously reported differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles among MZ and DZ twins. We demonstrated a significant impact of the Pro12Ala...

  13. Impact of two common polymorphisms in the PPARgamma gene on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Andersen, Gitte; Fenger, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    an association between the Ala allele and reduced risk of diabetes and insulin resistance in twins. However, the differences in metabolic profiles among MZ and DZ twins were not explained by differences in frequencies of the genetic variants and may be due to intrauterine environmental factors operating in twins...... independent of genotype. Accordingly, our study simultaneously supports a role for both the intrauterine environment (thrifty phenotype) and for genetics (thrifty genotype) in the etiology of insulin resistance and perhaps glucose intolerance in twins....... polymorphisms (Pro12Ala and exon 6 C-->T) in PPARgamma among elderly twins (207 monozygotic [MZ] and 342 dizygotic [DZ]) and evaluated whether they could explain previously reported differences in plasma glucose and insulin profiles among MZ and DZ twins. We demonstrated a significant impact of the Pro12Ala...

  14. 不同糖耐量人群中胰岛素原、真胰岛素与胰岛β细胞功能的相关性研究%Correlation between proinsulin, true insulin and islet cell function in people with different glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆雷群; 马晓英; 陈玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the changes and significance of serum true insulin (TI),proinsulin (PI) and immune reactive insulin (IRI) in patients with different glucose tolerance.Methods The levels of serum TI,PI,IRI were tested by radioimmunoassay in 180 cases with different glucose tolerance,which were divided into normal control (NGT) group,abnormal glucose tolerance (IGT) group,diabetes mellitus (DM) group,with 60 cases in every group.The HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were calculated and analyzed with Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA).Results The fasting PI level and PI/IRI in DM group were higher than those in NGT and IGT group,and the TI/IRI were lower than that in NGT and IGT group.PI/IRI and TI/IRI showed statistically significant difference between the three groups (P<0.01).The HOMA-βIRI calculated by IRI in DM group was lower than that in IGT and NGT group (P<0.05).The calculation of the TI HOMA-βTI value in DM and IGT group was lower than that in NGT group (P<0.05).Insulin resistance index whether by IRI or by TI calculation HOMA-IR all showed that DM>IGT> NGT (P<0.05).Conclusion Determination of PI and TI,instead of IRI level,may reflect the true level and function of islet cells in patients with T2DM.%目的 探讨不同糖耐量人群中真胰岛素(TI)、胰岛素原(PI)与胰岛β细胞功能变化的临床意义.方法 检测正常对照组(NGT)、糖耐量减退(IGT)组,糖尿病(DM)组各60例的空腹及2h血糖、免疫反应性胰岛素(IRI)、胰岛素原(PI)及真胰岛素(TI),采用稳态模型(HOMA Model)评估法计算胰岛β细胞功能指数(HOMA-β)和胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).结果 DM组的空腹PI水平、PI/IRI高于NGT组及IGT组,同时其TI/IRI低于NGT组及IGT组,且PI/IRI及TI/IRI在各组间差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).β细胞功能指数由IRI计算HOMA-βIRI,在DM组低于IGT组和NGT组(P<0.05);由TI计算的HOMA-βTI值,DM组和IGT组低于NGT组(P<0.05).胰岛素抵抗指数无论是用IRI还是用TI

  15. Saturated- and n-6 Polyunsaturated-Fat Diets Each Induce Ceramide Accumulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Reversal and Improvement of Glucose Tolerance by Lipid Metabolism Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Frangioudakis, G.; J. Garrard; Raddatz, K.; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T. W.; Schmitz-Peiffer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a funct...

  16. 富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂对糖耐量异常患者糖脂代谢的影响%Effect of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文俊; 项松英; 沈飞霞; 王毅; 陈雄; 谷雪梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)肠内营养(EN)制剂对糖耐量异常(IGT)患者糖脂代谢的影响。方法:62例IGT患者随机分为试验餐组(n=32)和普通餐组(n=30)。试验餐组服用富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂(雅培益力佳SR)替代早餐,普通餐组服用等热量的纯牛奶+淡馒头,所有患者分别于干预前和干预4周后检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、餐后2 h胰岛素(PINS)以及血脂系列,就各项指标进行组内前后比较和组间比较。结果:试验餐组干预4周后体质量以及PPG、PINS、血清甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-c)均低于干预前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);干预后,试验餐组PPG、PINS、TG、TC和LDL-c均低于普通餐组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论:富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂有利于降低单纯IGT患者PPG和PINS水平,并改善脂质代谢。%Objective: To investigate the effects of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods:Sixty-two patients with impaired glucose tolerance from out-patient clinic were randomized to experimental meal group (Abbott Glucerna SR,n=32) and common breakfast group (isocaloric normal oral diet,n=30), the fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour postprandial insulin, serum lipid pro-ifle were examined before and after 4-week intervention, and the parameters were compared within groups and between groups.Results: The 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, postprandial serum insulin, serum triglycer-ide, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol signiifcantly decreased in experimental meal group (P<0.05 orP<0.01), when compared with that of

  17. Hepatic glucose sensing is required to preserve β cell glucose competence.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyer, Pascal; Vallois, David; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Schutz, Frédéric; Metref, Salima; Tarussio, David; Maechler, Pierre; Staels, Bart; Lanz, Bernard; Grueter, Rolf; Decaris, Julie; Turner, Scott; Da Costa, Anabela; Preitner, Frédéric; Minehira, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditu...

  18. Metabolic glucose status and pituitary pathology portend therapeutic outcomes in acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cheng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is frequently associated with impaired glucose tolerance and/or diabetes. To evaluate the relationship between glucose metabolism and acromegaly disease, we evaluated 269 consecutive patients from two referral centres. METHODS: Clinical presentation, pituitary tumor size and invasiveness, and pituitary pathology were captured in a dedicated database. RESULTS: 131 women and 138 men with a mean age of 53.8 years were included. Of these, 201 (74.7% presented with a macroadenoma and 18 (6.7% with a microadenoma. Radiographic invasion was present in 91 cases (33.8%. Mean tumor diameter was 1.86 cm (0.2-4.6. Pituitary histopathologic findings revealed pure GH-producing somatotroph adenomas (SA in 147 patients, prolactin-production by mixed lactotroph (LA and SA or mammosomatotroph adenoma (MSA in 46 [22.4%], acidophil stem cell adenoma in 6 [2.9%], and other diagnoses in 6 [2.9%]. Medical treatment included octreotide in 96 [36.9%] and in combination with pegvisomant or dopamine agonists in 63 [24.2%]. Nearly 80% of patients achieved IGF-1 normalization. Importantly, patients with pure somatotroph adenomas were significantly more likely to present with abnormal glucose metabolism [48.7%] than those with mixed adenomas [9.7%] [p<0.001] independent of GH/IGF-1 levels or tumor invasiveness. Abnormal glucose metabolism and pituitary pathology also remained linked following IGF-1 normalization. Moreover patients with pure SA and abnormal glucose metabolism were significantly (p<0.001 less likely to achieve disease remission despite the same therapeutic strategies. Conversely, patients with mixed adenomas were more likely (OR: 2.766 (95% CI: 1.490-5.136 to achieve disease remission. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with pure somatotroph adenomas are more likely than those with mixed adenomas to exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism.

  19. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  20. Glucose metabolism in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者葡萄糖代谢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 汪鲁华; 古丽扎尔·买买提明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe glucose metabolism changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods A total of 162 patients were diagnosed with polysomnography, and 50 healthy vonlunteers were as controls. Oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and C-reactive protein were measured to observe the impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Results The incidences of diabetes mellitus, abnormal glucose tolerance and C-reactive protein were higher in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome than those in controls. Conclusion Glucose metabolism is abnormal in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and is properly related to inflammation.%目的:观察阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征(obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,OSAS)患者葡萄糖代谢情况.方法:用多导睡眠图检查确诊的重度OSAS患者162例(OSAS组),行口服糖耐量试验检查、空腹胰岛素及C反应蛋白测定,观察空腹血糖受损及糖耐量异常.并选择同期健康体检者50例作为对照组.结果:OSAS组糖尿病、糖耐量异常发病率及C反应蛋白水平明显高于对照组.结论:OSAS患者存在明显的糖代谢紊乱,可能与炎症有关.

  1. 胃旁路手术对糖耐量正常犬血糖、糖依赖性胰岛素释放肽和胰高血糖素样肽-1的影响%The effects of gastric bypass procedures on blood glucose, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 of normal glucose tolerance dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘立镇; 白日星; 宋茂民; 李有国; Lisa Zhou; 钟志强; 许俊; 袁辉生; 崔真

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对糖耐量正常犬行胃旁路手术,观察术后糖耐量、糖依赖性胰岛素释放肽(gastric inhibitory polypeptide,GIP)和胰高血糖素样肽-1(glucagon-like peptide-1,GLP-1)的变化,探讨胃旁路手术治疗2型糖尿病的机制.方法 选取6只糖耐量正常犬行胃旁路手术,于术前、术后1、2、4周行口服与静脉糖耐量实验,观察各时点血糖、胰岛素、GIP、GLP-1变化,以及术前、术后4周胰腺组织形态改变.结果 与术前比较,术后第2周空腹血糖[(3.58 ±O.33) mmol/L]明显降低(t=3.571,P<0.05);术后第1周空腹及口服葡萄糖后30 min时GLP-1升高[分别为(0.90±0.21)、(0.91±0.19) pmol/L,t=-3.660、-2.971,P<0.05],第2周时开始下降;术后第4周各指标基本恢复至术前水平.术后第4周时与术前比较,胰岛组织形态、胰岛数量(分别为6.8±0.8、7.1±0.8)及胰岛细胞数量(分别为16.7±2.5、16.3±3.1)均无明显变化(P>0.05).结论 胃旁路手术对糖耐量正常犬的血糖、胰岛素及部分糖尿病相关胃肠激素仅有短暂的影响.%Objective To observe postoperative glucose tolerance,gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP),and glucogan-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in normal glucose level dogs after undergoing gastric bypass procedures,and to explore the mechanism of gastric bypass procedures to treat type 2 diabetes.Methods The 6 dogs with normal glucose tolerance had undergone gastric bypass procedures,and measure preoperative and postoperative oral and intravenous glucose tolerance (at time points 1,2,and 4 weeks) through changes in blood glucose,insulin,gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP),glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1),and measure preoperative and postoperative week 4 pancreatic tissue morphology.Results Second weeks after operation,the fasting blood sugar was (3.58 ± 0.33) mmol/L,and significantly lower than preoperative (t =3.571,P <0.05).The GLP-1 level before oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 30 minutes after

  2. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  3. 初诊糖尿病与糖尿病前期诊断的探讨%Study on diagnosis of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联耀; 李江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of newly diagnosed diabetes type 2 and IGTIFG with disorders of glucose metabolism related risk symptoms. Methods 242 outpatients were divided into NGR?FG,IGT and T2DM by OGTT. The age, MBI, triglyceriDe (TG), HBAlc and its distribution in different concentration HBAlc were observed. Results 24 cases were IFG (9. 92%), 79 cases IGT(32. 64%) and 63 cases T2DM( 26.03%). Conclusion Strengthen the screening patients with disorders of glucose metabolism related risk symptoms by OGTT can effectively increase T2 DM and IGTIFG diagnoses rate.%目的 了解具有糖代谢异常危险症状患者初诊Ⅱ型糖尿病(T2DM)、糖尿病前期(IFG、IGT)的临床特征.方法 242例患者根据空腹血糖与口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)服糖2小时后血糖分为4组:正常血糖(NGR)、空腹血糖受损(IFG)、糖耐量受损(IGT)、T2DM,对各组平均年龄、体重指数(BMI)、糖化血红蛋白(HBA1c)、甘油三酯(TG)进行分析,并对各组在不同HBA1c浓度中分布情况进行分析.结果 检出IFG 24例,IGT 79例,T2DM 63例,NGR 76 例,阳性率68.59%.结论 加强对伴有糖代谢异常危险症状患者的筛查,行OGTT,可有效提高初诊T2DM、糖尿病前期诊断率.

  4. 儿童及青少年肥胖症糖脂代谢异常早期诊断和干预的研究%Research into abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in early diagnosis and intervention in obese children and adolescents.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆亚平; 韩萍; 辛颖; 赵方; 马洪刚; 刘立旻; 李娜; 王岩; 李玢; 关丽君; 李书琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between obesity and glucose and lipid metabolism , and the damage of the related target organs such as liver and heart in order to take early intervention. Methods Totally 516 children with simple obesity made up obesity group, 100 normal-weight children as a control group. Detect the fasting plasma glucose (FPC) , triglyceride (TC) , total cholesterol (TC) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , fasting insulin (FINS) and other projects; calculate the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and insulin value of f$-cell function (HOMA-p ) ; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test were done in obese children; perform liver and heart ultrasonogra-phy in all children. Results Obese children's systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher than the control group (P< 0.05) .hypertension was detected in 12.0% (62/516)of obese children; the FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B of obese children were higher than the control group (P < 0.05) ; the TC, TC, LDL-C were higher than the control group, while HDL-C lower than the control group, the differences being significant (P < 0.05) ; the incidence of fatty liver of the light moderate and severe groups were significantly different (P < 0.001). With the increase of the obesity degree, fatty liver was significantly increased ( X2 = 12.97, P < 0.001). External fat thickness of the pericardium increasedin 268 cases of obese group, external fat thickness of the pericardium being 3.372 ± 0.098 (mm) ;compared with the control group the difference was significant (P < 0.001). Early joint intervention was done in 97 MS pa-tients, including dieting and increasing physical activity, combined with oral metformin drugs,and the FINS and HDL-C improvement was of significant difference (P < 0.001) .Conclusion The risk of hypertension in obese children is higher than non-obese children.Abnormal glucose metabolism is more comman in obese children than in non-obese children; children with mild

  5. Relative contributions of energy expenditure on physical activity, body composition and weight gain to the evolution of impaired glucose tolerance to Frank diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modem technological societies the requirement for physical work is diminished and access to food is unrestricted. Under these circumstances a large proportion of the population will gain weight and develop obesity and diabetes. At the individual level, genetic and behavioural factors must combine to lead to an imbalance between energy intake and its expenditure. Weight gain, especially rapid weight gain in a population appears to increase the risk of diabetes sharply. Thus understanding the route to weight gain and obesity, and the modulatory effects of physical activity on development of glucose intolerance is critical to credible intervention strategies to reverse or prevent diabetes in populations especially those in transitional societies. In this proposal we will examine the quantitative importance of non-resting energy expenditure (EE) in populations with rising levels of obesity and high prevalence of diabetes. (author)

  6. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  8. 妊娠期糖耐量受损与Ghrelin基因多态性的关联性研究%Association of human Ghrelin gene polymorphism with gestational impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗迪; 孙浩; 钱源; 姚宇峰; 史磊; 史荔; 黄小琴; 马润玫; 褚嘉祐

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the polymorphism of the Ghrelin gene is associated with gestational impaired glucose tolerance and its distribution in Chinese Han population. Methods We assessed common genetic variation of the Ghrelin ten single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)in 94 patients with gestational impaired glucose tolerance and 102 control by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method.. In addition, haplotype assays were conducted. Results The genotype distributions of these ten common polymorphisms in gestational impaired glucose tolerance patients were not significantly different from those of normal controls in statistics(x2=2.790,0.224,0.072,2.887,0.004,1.073,0.653,0.671;x2 =2.553,0.391,0. 108,4. 812,0. 005,3. 278,1. 308,3. 364, P > 0. 05), but three haplotypes(SNP-1500G - SNP-1062G -SNP-994C - SNP-604G;SNP + 408C - SNP + 2488G - SNP + 3056C;SNP + 408A - SNP + 2488G - SNP +3056C)of the Ghrelin gene were found to be significantly associated with it in statistics(x2 =4.336,4.308,5.327, P <0. 05). Conclusion The above mentioned ten common polymorphisms in the Ghrelin gene were not found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to gestational impaired glucose tolerance. However,one(SNP + 408C - SNP + 2488G - SNP + 3056C)of the Ghrelin haplotypes showed a protective role in gestational impaired glucose tolerance, and two(SNP-1500G- SNP-1062G - SNp-994C - SNP-604G ;SNP + 408A -SNP + 2488G - SNP + 3056C)showed higher susceptibility.%目的 研究Ghrelin基因的多态性在汉族妇女中的分布情况,并且探讨Ghrelin基因多态性与妊娠期糖耐量受损的相关性.方法 利用限制性片段长度多态性的方法检测Ghrelin基因常见的10个多态性位点在94例妊娠期糖耐量受损者及102例正常健康人中的分布情况,并构建单倍型.结果 这10个常见多态位点在妊娠期糖耐量受损组与正常对照组中的分布差异无统计学意义(两组间等位基因频率x2=2.790、0.224

  9. 不同糖耐量良性前列腺增生患者的相关危险因素研究%Associated risk factors in different state of glucose tolerance of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆鹏; 刘敏; 王淼; 黄占强; 周健; 王义围

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in patients with differ-ent glucose tolerance. Methods Ninety-nine patients with BPH, aged≥50 years old, were divided into impaired glu-cose regulation group (n=53, IGR group) and diabetes mellitus group (n=46, DM group) according to 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Twenty subjects of normal glucose tolerance without BPH were selected as control group. The baseline data, biochemical indexes, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), prostate volume (PV) were ana-lyzed. Results The body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2 hPG), HbA1c, fast-ing insulin (FINS), 2 h insulin (2 h Ins), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in DM group than IGR group and control group (α'<0.017). In IGR group, the 2 hPG, 2 h INS were significantly higher than those in control group (α'<0.017). The TG were higher in DM group than IGR group (P<0.05). From control group to IGR group, DM group, IPSS and PV showed a trend of increasing gradually, and PV, IPSS were higher in DM group and IGR group than control group (α'<0.017). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that PV was positively correlat-ed with age (r=0.897, P<0.05), BMI (r=1.488, P<0.05), and IPSS was positively correlated with age (r=0.427, P<0.05). Conclusion Blood glucose and lipid metabolic disorder is common in patients with BPH. Age and BMI were identified as significant risk factors for BPH.%目的:探讨不同糖耐量的良性前列腺增生(BPH)患者的危险因素。方法2013年12月至2015年6月选取99例年龄≥50岁的BPH患者,根据口服75 g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTI)结果分为糖调节受损(IGR)组(n=53)和糖尿病(DM)组(n=46),并选取20例糖耐量正常且无BPH患者为正常对照组。比较各组人群基线资料、生化指标、国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS)、前列腺体积(PV)。结果 DM组的体重指数(BMI)

  10. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Richa); M.F. Hivert; C. Langenberg (Claudia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Pankow (James); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); J. Dupuis (Josée); A.U. Jackson (Anne); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Li (Man); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); A.K. Manning (Alisa); J. Anluan (Jian); H.M. Stringham (Heather); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Johnson (Toby); N. Grarup (Niels); T.W. Boesgaard (Trine); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); P. Shrader (Peter); J.R. O´Connell; E. Ingelsson (Erik); D.J. Couper (David); K. Rice (Kenneth); K. Song (Kijoung); C.H. Andreasen (Camilla); C. Dina (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); O.L. Bacquer (Olivier); F. Pattou (François); J. Taneera (Jalal); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); D. Rybin (Denis); K.G. Ardlie (Kristin); M.J. Sampson (Michael); L. Qi (Lu); M.V. Hoek; M.N. Weedon (Michael); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); H. Grallert (Harald); B. Balkau (Beverley); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.J. Bielinski (Suzette); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); K. Borch-Johnsen; Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); E. Brunner (Eric); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); C. Chen (Chao); P.S. Chines (Peter); F.S. Collins (Francis); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); G. Crawford (Gabe); J. Delplanque (Jerome); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); J.M. Egan (Josephine); M.R. Erdos (Michael); M. Firmann (Mathieu); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C.S. Fox (Caroline); M. Goodarzi (Mark); J. Graessler (Jürgen); A. Hingorani (Aroon); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Kovacs (Peter); K. Krohn (Knut); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Lauritzen (Torsten); C. Lévy-Marchal (Claire); V. Mayor (Vladimir); J.B. McAteer (Jarred); D. Meyre (David); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); M.A. Morken (Mario); N. Narisu (Narisu); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); R. Pakyz (Ruth); L. Pascoe (Laura); F. Payne (Felicity); D. Pearson (Daniel); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); A. Sandbaek (Annelli); A.A. Sayer; L.J. Scott (Laura); S.J. Sharp (Stephen); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); T. Sparsø (Thomas); A.J. Swift (Amy); H. Syddall (Holly); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tönjes (Anke); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); G. Waeber (Gérard); A. Walley (Andrew); D. Waterworth (Dawn); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); J.H. Zhao; G. Consortium (Giant); T. Illig (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); J.F. Wilson (James); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); F.B. Hu (Frank); A.D. Morris (Andrew); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); P. Nilsson (Peter); A.C. Syvänen; A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); M. Walker (Mark); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); P. Schwarz (Peter); G.H. Williams (Gordon); D.M. Nathan (David); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); M. Laakso (Markku); C. Cooper (Charles); M. Marmot (Michael); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); V. Mooser (Vincent); M. Stumvoll (Michael); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); D. Altshuler (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); E. Boerwinkle (Eric); T. Hansen (Torben); O. Pedersen (Oluf); J.C. Florez (Jose); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); R. Sladek (Rob); P. Froguel (Philippe); J.B. Meigs (James); L. Groop (Leif); N.J. Wareham (Nick); R.M. Watanabe (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,95

  11. Healthy diet and lifestyle clustering and glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, I J

    2002-11-01

    Glucose intolerance represents a spectrum of abnormalities, including impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is a major public health challenge worldwide, with rapidly increasing prevalence rates in both developed and developing countries. This global epidemic of diabetes is largely driven by the globalisation of Western culture and lifestyles. Specifically, there is now evidence from large-scale observational studies, and from intervention studies, of powerful synergistic interactions between diet, obesity, exercise, smoking and alcohol in the development of glucose intolerance. It is estimated that >90% of cases of type 2 diabetes in the population could be prevented with the adoption of a prudent diet (high in cereal fibre and polyunsaturated fatty acids and low in trans-fatty acids and glycaemic load), avoidance of overweight and obesity (BMI<25 kg/m2), engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity for at least 0.5 h/d, non-smoking and moderate alcohol consumption. These findings are biologically plausible and have major public health implications. They form the basis for a clear, simple and coherent message for health promotion and public policy. However, to make progress on these issues health will need to be placed at the centre of public policy and relevant vested interests tackled, notably in the food, entertainment, tobacco and automobile industries. PMID:12691184

  12. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake,palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gitte HANSEN; Jacob JELSING; Niels VRANG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity.Methods:The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar.To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DlO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome,the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats.Liraglutide(200 μg/kg,sc) was administered bi-daily,and sibutramine (5 mg/kg,po) was administered once daily for 23 d.Results:Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake,body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance.Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubradiet,the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet,indicating a shift in food preference.Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index,primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.Conclusion:This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action.Moreover,the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference.

  13. 糖耐量减低人群工作记忆的脑功能磁共振成像研究%A study on working memory of patients with impaired glucose tolerance by functional magnetic resonance imaging technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小娟; 庄晓明; 何悦明; 盛树力

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨糖耐量减低的认知功能以及在特定任务刺激下不同脑区的活动情况。方法对13例糖耐量减低(impaired glucose tolerance,IGT)患者和19名糖耐量正常(normal glucose tolerance,NGT)受试者进行认知、记忆评估及词语(文字、数字)工作记忆及客体(面孔)工作记忆任务下的功能性磁共振检查,分析脑激活图。结果①I GT患者的认知与N GT组相比,差异无统计学意义(t=0.459,P=0.635)。②与NGT组相比,IGT组在文字工作记忆中右侧颞叶、颞上回(brodmann area 22,BA22区)等脑区激活减弱(t=55.81,P=0.009);数字工作记忆中,右侧豆状核、壳核等脑区激活减弱(t=216.84,P=0.009);客体工作记忆中:右侧尾状核体激活减弱(t=5.09,P=0.008)。结论 IGT患者词语及客体工作记忆经典激活脑区可能存在损害。%Objective To investigate the working memory in the patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Methods Verbal and objective working memory tasks were performed in 1 3 patients with IGT and 1 9 persons with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)while performing fMRI.The cognitive function,memory function and the activation map were analyzed.Results ① There was no significant difference in cognition function between the NGT and IGT group (t=0.459,P=0.635).②Compared with NGT group,there was less activation of right temporal and superior temporal gyrus (BA22)area in IGT group during word working memory;less activation of right putamen,lenticular body in IGT group during number working memory;less activation of right caudate body in IGT group during object working memory (P<0.01 ).Conclusion IGT group may have lesions in the classic activation areas during verbal working memory and object memory.

  14. 高脂高糖饮食对家兔糖耐量影响实验研究%High fat-sucrose diet effect on glucose tolerance of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光伟; 林燕; 朱宁红; 白艳萍; 杨佩刚; 刘恩岐

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To induce metabolic syndrome in Japanese white rabbit by high fat/high sucrose diet (HFSD) .Methods:Twenty male Japanese white rabbits were divided into 2 groups by randomized block de-sign :normal diet group (n=10) and HFSD group (n=10 ,with 10 % lard ,30 % white cane sugar and 60 % nor-mal fodder) ,and observed for 36 weeks .The blood samples of the rabbits were tested for the levels of plasma glu-cose and triglyceride after overnight fasting every two weeks .At the end of 36th week ,after intravenous glucose tol-erance test (IVGTT) ,all the rabbits were killed to observe vital organs and weight all adipose tissues .Results:The difference between the 2 groups was not significant in plasma glucose ,triglyceride and insulin except in IVGTT . HFSD group were higher in body weight [(3 .90 ± 0 .09) kg vs (3 .18 ± 0 .27) kg] and adipose tissue [total adipose tissue:(493 .40 ± 55 .25) g vs (331 .45 ± 38 .28) g ;visceral adipose tissue :(354 .90 ± 48 .18) g vs (214 .35 ± 23 .74) g] as compared with control group ,and the difference was significant .Conclusion:HFSD can induce impaired glu-cose tolerance and trend of central obesity in Japanese white rabbits .%目的:探讨高脂高糖饮食对日本大耳白兔糖代谢和脂代谢的影响,建立日本大耳白兔代谢综合征模型。方法:将20只雄性日本大耳白兔随机分为两组(每组10只),对照组饲喂基础饲料,实验组饲喂高糖高脂饲料(配方:10%猪油+30%蔗糖+60%基础饲料),观察36周,期间每2周抽血1次,检测血糖和甘油三酯的水平。于第36周结束时,对动物进行葡萄糖耐量试验,而后麻醉处死动物,观察动物重要脏器和全身脂肪重量变化。结果:实验组家兔在36周时,体重[(3.90±0.09)kg vs (3.18±0.27)kg]、脂肪重量[总脂肪:(493.40±55.25)g vs (331.45±38.28)g]和内脏脂肪[(354.90±48.18)g vs (214.35±23.74)g]均

  15. Diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose são subdiagnosticados nas unidades de terapia intensiva Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are underdiagnosed in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Teixeira Ladeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de diabetes mellitus e a intolerância à glicose em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes clínicos, em pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas e de urgência, e excluídos aqueles com história de diabetes mellitus. Para o diagnóstico de alterações prévias da glicemia, utilizou-se a dosagem da hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c na admissão do paciente, sendo classificado em normal (6,4%. Durante os 3 primeiros dias da internação, foram avaliados o controle glicêmico e as complicações clínicas. A evolução para óbito foi acompanhada por 28 dias. Para as análises estatísticas, utilizaram-se testes do qui-quadrado, ANOVA, teste t de Student, Kruskall-Wallis ou Mann Whitney. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 30 pacientes, 53% do gênero feminino, idade de 53,4±19,7 anos e APACHE II de 13,6±6,6. A maioria dos pacientes foi admitida por sepse grave ou choque séptico, seguido por pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas, oncológicas, politraumatismo e cirurgia de urgência. Ao classificar esses pacientes segundo a HbA1c, apesar da ausência prévia de história de diabetes mellitus, apenas 13,3% tinham HbA1c normal, 23,3% tinham níveis compatíveis com o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus e 63,3% eram compatíveis com intolerância à glicose. Houve associação significativa entre o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus ou intolerância a glicose e o uso de droga vasoativa (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Foi encontrada alta prevalência de diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose, sem diagnóstico prévio, em pacientes internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva geral.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in intensive care unit inpatients. METHODS: The study included patients in post-surgical care for elective and emergency surgery and excluded those patients with known diabetes mellitus. To diagnose prior serum glucose

  16. Expression of visfatin mRNA in adipose tissues of subjects with different glucose tolerance%内脂素基因在不同糖耐量个体脂肪组织的表达差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秀云; 郑冬梅; 庄霞; 张海清; 孔磊; 管庆波; 赵家军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of visfatin mRNA expression in abdominal subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance(the IGT group) and to explore the relationship between visfafin mRNA expression and indexes of correlation metabolism. Methods The subjects were Chinese Han population, including 23 controls with no family history of diabetes(the control group), 18 patients with impaired glucose tolerance(the IGT group) and 22 with type 2 diabetes(T2DM group). The blood pressure, FBG, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, HbA1c, and Fins were determined, and (T2DM BMI, WHR, and HOMA-IR were calculated. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine visfatin mRNA expres-sion in adipose tissues. Results Visfatin mRNA expression of omental adipose tissues in the T2DM group was higher than that in the IGT and control groups(P0.05). There was no statistical difference in visfatin mRNA expression of subcutaneous adipose tissues among the three groups (P>0.05).Visfafin expression of omental adipose tissues in the fat/overweight group was higher than that in the control group (P0.05).对照组、IGT组及T2DM组皮下脂肪组织的内脂素基因表达量无统计学差异(P>0.05).肥胖/超重组网膜脂肪组织的内脂素基因表达量高于体质量正常组(P0.05),而皮下脂肪组织内脂素基因表达则与,TC相关(P<0.05).结论内脂素在汉族人群T2DM、肥胖者中表达增加,且主要在内脏脂肪组织中表达,在维持葡萄糖稳态平衡中发挥作用.

  17. 南阳市宛城区居民DM、IGT患病率与相关因素分析%ANALYSIS ON DIABETES MELLITUS AND PREVALENCE RATE OF IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND THE RELATED FACTORS IN WANCHENG DISTRICT OF NANYANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志浩; 陈庚军

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and cluster sampling method were used in 645 residents aged from 15 to 74 years old in Wancheng district in Nanyang to investigate the status of diabetes mcllitus( DM ) and impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) and the correlated factors in Nanyang in 2012. The rude detection rates were 12.56% for DM and 10.39% for IGT. The analyses show that age,smoking, body mass index, physical exercise and blood pressure are the risk factors for development of DM ( P 〈 0.05 ) ; age, smoking, body mass index and blood pressure are the risk factors for development of IGT (P 〈 0.05 ). New detection rate of DM is 51.85, medication rate is 66.67% , blood sugar control rate is 29.73%. The prevalence rates of DM and IGT are considerably high and the medication rate is relatively low in the current state. Some DM patients arc missed for there is no oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in routine physical examination. Measures should be taken to prevent and reduce sugar metabolism disorders popular.%采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,横断面调查宛城区15~74岁常住居民645人。了解南阳市宛城区糖尿病(DM)和糖耐量减低(IGT)的患病现状与相关因素。DM和IGT的总患病率分别为12.56%和10.39%。分析表明DM的危险因素有年龄、吸烟、体质指数、体育锻炼和血压;IGT的危险因素有年龄、吸烟、体质指数和血压。DM的新检出率51.85%,服药率66.67%,血糖控制率19.23%。该地区的DM及IGT患病率均较高,药物控制率低,常规体检无口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)项目导致部分DM患者漏检。应采取积极措施,预防和降低该地区的糖代谢异常流行。

  18. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  19. Glucose metabolism in non-diabetic and insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with end-stage renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, O

    1991-02-01

    Chronic uremia is frequently associated with an impaired carbohydrate tolerance. During the past decade considerable progress have been made in characterizing and quantifying this biochemical abnormality in end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Primarily, this has been possible by means of the glucose clamp technique which basically makes it possible to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Combined with the use of tracer dilution technique, hepatic vein catheterization technique, infusion of somatostatin, forearm or leg techniques and indirect calorimetry, insight into several other major parameters of glucose kinetics has been achieved; i.e. insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU), glucose-induced glucose uptake (GIGU), hepatic glucose production (HGP) splanchnic glucose uptake and oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal. Of course, these extra facets make the clamp procedure less feasible to accomplish for technical reasons and demand an extensive knowledge of the limitations of these methods. One major factor behind the reduced glucose tolerance in uremia is an impaired sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance) in peripheral tissues, mainly in skeletal muscle. In non-dialysed uremic patients the insulin dose-response curve is characterized by a decreased maximal response and by a rightward shift. In general, the insulin resistance is pronounced, but a few weeks on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are enough to improve insulin action significantly. Occasionally, IMGU has been found normal in patients on long-term HD. In contrast to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, basal glucose turnover is normal in patients with ESRF. The ability of glucose to enhance its own uptake is difficult to measure in human studies, because even small amounts of insulin is able to modulate GIGU profoundly. At basal insulinemia, however, GIGU is markedly impaired in uremia. Recently, it has been suggested

  20. Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Fasting and Postprandial Levels of the Inflammatory Markers YKL-40 and MCP-1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Tolerant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Brinkløv Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory markers YKL-40 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 are elevated in morbidly obese patients and decline after weight loss. The objective of our study was to investigate the possible changes of YKL-40 and MCP-1, in both the fasting and the postprandial states, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D and normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Methods. Ten obese patients with T2D and 10 subjects with NGT were examined in the fasting state and after a standard meal prior to and after (1 week, 3 months, and 1 year RYGB. Results. Fasting state MCP-1 levels decreased after RYGB in both groups (P values < 0.0001 whereas fasting YKL-40 levels were unchanged (P values ≥ 0.120. Postprandial MCP-1 levels showed a tendency towards a decrease on most study days; however, the changes were only significant at 1 week (P=0.001 and 1 yr (P<0.0001 in the T2D group and at 3 mo after RYGB in the NGT group (P=0.009. YKL-40 levels showed a slight, postprandial suppression on all study days in the T2D group (all P values ≤ 0.021. Conclusions. Fasting MCP-1 levels, but not YKL-40 levels, decrease after RYGB in subjects with T2D and NGT. Postprandial changes of inflammatory markers are discrete and inconsistent.

  1. Glucometabolic state in hypertensive and normotensive patients: identifying candidates for oral glucose tolerance tests%无糖代谢异常史高血压患者及正常血压患者糖代谢状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新梅; 胡允兆; 温主治; 王景峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 对比分析原发性高血压(EHT)患者和正常血压患者的未诊断的糖代谢异常状况并探讨哪些EHT患者是口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)的合适检测对象.方法 这一横断面研究连续纳入895例EHT住院患者和486例正常血压住院患者.数据收集包括血压、血糖、血脂、冠脉造影、心脏彩超参数以及身体测量等.结果 EHT患者的糖代谢异常发生率在基线水平(P<0.001)和OGTT检测后(P<0.001)均显著高于正常血压患者.整体上,76.4%糖耐量异常患者和78.2%新诊断的糖尿病患者在没有执行OGTT情况下会被漏诊.新诊断的糖代谢异常和冠脉狭窄的存在和严重性以及左心室结构和功能的异常显著相关.空腹血糖大于等于5.6 mmol/L、高血压病程超过10年、冠心病、高敏C反应蛋白大于3 mg/L及高载脂蛋白B与载脂蛋白A-1比值是预测糖代谢异常存在的经济有效的指标.结论 EHT患者普遍存在糖代谢异常,且显著高于正常血压患者.利用OGTT检测那些存在糖代谢异常预示指标的EHT患者的血糖状况是经济可行的.%Objective To characterize unknown glucometabolic state in patients with essential hypertension (EHT) and normotensive patients and determine which EHT patients are candidates for oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Methods This cross-sectional study consecutively recruited 895 EHT patients and 486 normotensive patients. The data including blood glucose, blood pressure, blood lipids, angiography profiles, and left ventricular parameters were collected. Results OGTTs performed in all patients revealed that the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) was significantly higher in EHT patients than in normotensive patients at both baseline (P3 mg/L, or high levels of apoB/apoA-1 ratio were at high risk of AGM. Conclusions AGM is more common in patients with EHT than in normotensive patients, and OGTTs is a cost-effective strategy to detect AGM in EHT

  2. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of interleukin 1 beta induce glucose intolerance in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L; Reimers, J; Mandrup-Poulsen, T;

    1991-01-01

    . An ip glucose tolerance test (0.2 g D-glucose/100 g) was performed 2 h after injection of rIL-1 beta. A single injection of rIL-1 beta caused a mild depression in blood glucose and an improved glucose tolerance. Multiple injections of rIL-1 beta induced a diminished weight gain, a 24-28% reduction...... in food intake, a lasting mild depression of blood glucose (7 days) and a transiently impaired glucose tolerance on day 5. We conclude that systemic IL-1 should be considered an important regulator of glucose homeostasis in vivo....

  3. Value of blood glycosylated hemoglobin detection in screening patients with impaired glucose tolerance%糖化血红蛋白在糖耐量受损筛查中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍绍国; 黄钰君; 陈波; 李志海; 鲍蓓; 段传伟; 杨烈; 李婉媚; 孙燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of blood glycosylated hemoglobin detection in identifying patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) from those undergoing health examination.Methods 489 residents in Guangzhou region undergoing health examination suffered an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)as well as blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) detection.Based on the results of OGTT as diagnostic standards,receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed to obtain the Area under the ROC curve (AUC),the optimal thresholds,the thresholds of having about 95% sensibility and the thresholds of having about 95% specificity when using HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone as a diagnostic test,respectively.Some indexes,such as youden index (YI),sensitivity (Sn),specificity (Sp),positive predictive value (+PV),negative predictive value (-PV),positive likelihood ratio (+LR) and negative likelihood ratio (-LR),were computed when IGT was diagnosed with HbA1c alone,FPG alone and combination tests that one of the three thresholds metioned above from HbA1c was matched with that from FPG each other,respectively.Results The AUC for HbA1c and FPG to diagnose IGT was 0.605 and 0.679,respectively.At the optimal threshold of 6.05% for HbAlc and 5.465 mmol/L for FPG,YI was 0.186 and 0.265,Sn was 40.3% and 56.9%,Sp was 78.3% and 69.6%,+PV was 43.6% and 43.9%,-PV was 75.8% and 79.5%,+LR was 1.853 and 1.871,-LR was 0.763 and 0.619,for HbA1c and FPG,respectively.Of the combination tests the best one had a YI of 0.282,a Sn of 61.8%,a Sp of 66.4%,a +PV of 43.4%,a-PV of 80.6,a +LR of 1.838 and a-LR of 0.575.Conclusion Neither HbA1c alone nor HbAIc combined with FPG is available in screening patients with impaired glucose tolerance among subjects undergoing health examination.%目的 探讨糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)在健康体检人群中对糖耐量异常(IGT)的筛查价值.方法 对参加健康体检的489名广州户籍汉族人进行口服

  4. Effect of Metformin Intervention on Blood Sugar of Patients with Breast Cancer Chemotherapy with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the effect of metformin intervention on blood sugar of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 60 cases of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with ab-normal glucose metabolism in our hospital from February 2012 to August 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group received AC-T chemotherapy plan, and were treated with diet control and exercise, the observation group were given additional metformin on the basis of the control group, the blood sugar con-trol conditions of the two groups were observed. Results The case number of patients with normal blood sugar at the end of chemotherapy and in 3 months after chemotherapy in the observation group was obviously more than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Metformin for controlling the blood sugar levels of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism has an obvious effect and has a potential anti-tumor effect, which is further research.%目的 研究二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响.方法 整群选择2012年2月—2014年8月来该院行乳腺癌化疗,伴糖代谢紊乱的60例患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组. 对照组给予AC-T化疗方案,同时给予患者饮食控制和运动治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用二甲双胍,观察两组血糖控制情况. 结果 观察组化疗结束时和化疗结束后3个月正常血糖患者例数显著多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 二甲双胍对于控制乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢紊乱患者血糖水平效果显著,且具有潜在抗肿瘤作用,值得进一步研究.

  5. Effect of Metformin Intervention on Blood Sugar of Patients with Breast Cancer Chemotherapy with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟媛媛

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响.方法 整群选择2012年2月—2014年8月来该院行乳腺癌化疗,伴糖代谢紊乱的60例患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组. 对照组给予AC-T化疗方案,同时给予患者饮食控制和运动治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用二甲双胍,观察两组血糖控制情况. 结果 观察组化疗结束时和化疗结束后3个月正常血糖患者例数显著多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 二甲双胍对于控制乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢紊乱患者血糖水平效果显著,且具有潜在抗肿瘤作用,值得进一步研究.%Objective To research the effect of metformin intervention on blood sugar of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 60 cases of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with ab-normal glucose metabolism in our hospital from February 2012 to August 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group received AC-T chemotherapy plan, and were treated with diet control and exercise, the observation group were given additional metformin on the basis of the control group, the blood sugar con-trol conditions of the two groups were observed. Results The case number of patients with normal blood sugar at the end of chemotherapy and in 3 months after chemotherapy in the observation group was obviously more than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Metformin for controlling the blood sugar levels of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism has an obvious effect and has a potential anti-tumor effect, which is further research.

  6. Changes of Nerve Conduction Velocity and Sympathetic Skin Reflex in Patients with Impaired Glu-cose Tolerance%糖耐量减低患者神经传导速度及交感皮肤反应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美娇; 程敏; 毛春燕; 赵静; 陈颖丽; 唐春花; 张秀英; 郭淮莲; 纪立农

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察糖耐量减低(IGT)患者神经传导速度(NCV)和交感皮肤反应(SSR)的变化。方法:对25例IGT患者(IGT组)、32例2型糖尿病(DM)患者(DM组)及18名对照者(对照组)进行一侧肢体NCV检测和四肢SSR检测。结果:与对照组相比,IGT组(除腓神经外)各根神经NCV均有不同程度减慢,但差异均无统计学意义;DM组(除胫神经外)各根神经NCV与对照组相比差异均减慢(P<0.05)。IGT组双下肢SSR起始潜伏期与对照组相比延长(P<0.05);与对照组相比,DM组四肢SSR起始潜伏期显著延长、波幅显著降低(P<0.01)。对照组、IGT组和DM组NCV异常率分别为5.56%、28.00%、65.63%,SSR异常率分别为33.33%、72.00%、93.75%,3组间NCV和SSR异常率均有显著差异(P<0.01)。在IGT和DM组中,SSR异常率均高于NCV异常率,且无症状者亦有一定的NCV和SSR异常率。结论:IGT患者存在临床或亚临床周围神经损害,以小纤维受累为主,大纤维受累较少且局限于感觉纤维;SSR对糖代谢紊乱相关的周围神经损害的早期诊断敏感性优于NCV,但其特异性较差。%Objective:To observe the changes of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and sympathetic skin reflex (SSR) in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods:NCV of bilateral side of the body and SSR of 4 limbs test were performed in 25 IGT patients(IGT group), 32 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients (DM group) and 18 controls(control group). Results:Compared with the control group, the NCV in the IGT group (except the peroneal nerve ) was slow but without statistical significance, while the NCV in the DM group of every nerves (except the tibial nerves) was significantly slow (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the onset latencies of the lower limbs were prolonged significantly in the IGT group (P<0.01). In the DM group, the on-set latencies of the 4 limbs were also prolonged

  7. 糖耐量减低患者饮食治疗认知行为干预效果分析%Analysis of the cognitive behavioral intervention result with the diet therapy for the patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨饮食治疗认知行为干预对糖耐量减低(IGT)患者的效果.方法:将92例 IGT 患者随机分为干预组(46例)与对照组(46例).对干预组进行为期12个月的饮食治疗认知行为干预,对照组患者进行常规门诊治疗.比较干预前、后两组患者饮食治疗知识知晓率、糖尿病年转化率和血糖指标的差异.结果:干预12个月后干预组患者的饮食治疗知识知晓率高于对照组,糖尿病年转化率、血糖值明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01).结论:饮食治疗认知行为干预对降低患者糖尿病的发生有一定效果.%  Objective: To explore the result of the diet therapy cognitive behavioral intervention for the patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Method:92 cases of IGT were divided into the intervention group (46 cases ) and the control group(46 cases ) at random. The intervention group received the dietary treatment of the cognitive behavioral intervention for 12 months and the control group was treated with the general out-patient service. The difference of the diet therapy knowledge awareness and diabetes annual conversion rate and the glycemic index was compared before and after the two groups’ intervention. Result: After 12 months the diet therapy knowledge awareness of the intervention group was higher than that of the control group. The diabetes annual conversion rate and blood glucose levels were obviously lower than those of the control group, whose difference had statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusion: The diet therapy cognitive behavioral intervention has certain effect to reduce the occurrence of the diabetes.

  8. Enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response to oral glucose in glucose-intolerant HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which are major regulators of glucose tolerance through the stimulation of insulin secretion, contribute to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among HIV-...

  9. 糖耐量正常人群HbA1c分布特点及相关因素分析%Analysis of glycated hemoglobin values in 9 711 normal glucose tolerance population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽红; 王闻博; 郭来敬; 王健松; 东黎光

    2016-01-01

    Objective Toanalyze the result of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement and related factors in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) population.MethodsA 75 g glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered in all participants from diabetes (DM) screening population of Shougang four community. HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) after OGTT and blood biochemical test were conducted. Anthropometric measurements were performed to all the subjects. A total of 9 711 individuals with normal FPG and 2 h PG were included for data analysis. All the subjects were divided into three groups by levels of HbA1c, and the clinical characteristics of the three groups were compared. Logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation of HbA1c to related factors.ResultsHbA1c was normally distributed in NGT populations. The range of HbA1c was 4.9%-6.5%, (5.69±0.44)%. There was difference in HbA1c between men and women (P<0.05). Especially, there was significant difference (P<0.01) in the older group (60 to 79 years old). HbA1c increased with age. There was significant differences among the young group (16 to 44 years old), middle-aged group (45-59 years), the elderly groups (60 to 79 years) and very elderly group (≥80 years) in HbA1c, FPG and 2 h PG (P<0.01), whereas there was no significant difference between the elderly groups and the very elderly group. There were statistically significant between HbA1c≤5.6% group and HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% group, HbA1c≥6.5% group in body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, FPG and 2 h PG (P<0.01 orP<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% group and≥the 6.5% group. Logistic regression analysis showed that HbA1c was positively correlated with gender, age, BMI, WHR, SBP, TC, FPG, and was negatively correlated with DBP, HDL-C.ConclusionHbA1c is positively

  10. 新疆汉族和维吾尔族糖调节受损人群胰岛素分泌及其功能的比较研究%Secretion and action of insulin among Han and Uygur subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance,from Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 马艳荣; 李素丽; 玛依努; 吴岚; 赵力敏; 宋向欣; 葛家璞; 徐焱成

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较新疆地区汉族和维吾尔(维)族人群空腹血糖受损(IFG)、糖耐量减低(IGT)及混合性糖调节受损(CGI,IFG/IGT)阶段胰岛素分泌及其功能.方法 2007-2008年在新疆部分地区采用多中心横断面调查(中国第三次糖尿病流行病学调查),共计2203名研究对象(汉族111 8人,维族1085人)行口服75 g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),用胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)评估胰岛素抵抗,胰岛β细胞功能指数(HOMA-β评估基础胰岛素分泌,OGTT中空腹和30 min胰岛素、血糖差值的比值(ΔI30/ΔG30)评价胰岛素早相分泌,ΔI30/ΔG30/HOMA-IR评估葡萄糖处置指数(DI).结果 腰围、体重指数、血脂水平、0及120 min胰岛素值在汉维两民族不同糖代谢组的差异有统计学意义.在糖调节正常(NGT)、IFG、CGI组,维族人群的腰围要显著高于汉族(P<0.01).在NGT、IFG、IGT组,汉族人群的120 min血清胰岛素水平则显著高于维族(P<0.01).汉族人群的HOMA-IR、HOMA-β在不同糖代谢组均显著高于维族(P<0 01).ΔI30/ΔG30、DI在两民族不同糖代谢组间的差异无统计学意义.结论 汉族人群较维族在糖调节受损阶段有显著的胰岛素抵抗,同时存在胰岛β细胞代偿性分泌以维持血糖水平.%Objective To compare insulin secretion and action with impaired fasting glucosc (IFG),impaircd glucose tolerance (IGT) and combined glucose intolerance (CGI,IFG and IGT) between Han and Uygur populations living in Xinjiang.Methods A multicenter cross-section survey (The Third Diabetes Epidemiological Survey in China) was conductcd in Xinjiang from 2007 to 2008 including 2203 subjects (Han 1118,Uygur 1085) underwent an oral glucosc test (OGTT).Homeostasis model assessment on insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β cell function (HOMA-β)were calculated.The ratio of incrcmcntal insulin(Δ130 ) and glucose (ΔG30)response was used to evaluate the early insulin secretion.ΔI30/ΔG30/HOMA-IR was used to evaluate the

  11. Impact of team intervention for pregnant women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance on their pregnancy outcomes%团队干预对妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇秀明; 崔焱; 夏珊敏; 曹清; 徐莉莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨团队干预对妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇的血糖、体重指数、妊娠结局的影响.方法 将60例GIGT孕妇随机分为对照组和观察组各30例.对照组孕妇行常规产前检查、孕妇学校学习、产科营养门诊就诊;观察组在此基础上实施团队干预,由产科医师、内分泌科医师、营养师、护士组成的团队,根据每位孕妇的年龄、体重指数、孕周、血糖水平、胎儿宫内生长情况制定个性化的食谱、运动方案,利用各种渠道提供一对一咨询服务和个性化指导.结果 观察组分娩结束当天的餐后2 h血糖、体质量显著低于对照组,分娩孕周显著长于对照组,新生儿出生体质量显著重于对照组新生儿(P<0.05,P<0.01).观察组无一例妊娠糖尿病发生,胎膜早破仅2例;对照组发生妊娠糖尿病2例、妊娠高血压4例、早产7例、胎膜早破9例、娩出巨大儿3例.结论 团队干预可有效地控制妊娠期糖耐量异常孕妇的血糖、体质量,减少妊娠并发症发生.%Objective To explore the effect of team intervention for pregnant women with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) on their blood sugar, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy outcomes. Methods A total of 60 GIGT pregnant women were randomized into a control group (n = 30) and an observation group (n = 30). The control were subjected to conventional antenatal examination, and they were asked to take a childbirth education program, and pay visits to obstetric nutrition clinic. The observation group additionally received team intervention; a team, which included an obstetrician, an endocrinologist, a nutritionist, and several nurses, was formed; the team worked together to offer individualized diet recipes and exercises plans for each pregnant woman based on their ages, BMI, gestation weeks, blood glucose, and fetal growth; the team also utilized all available routes to provide the women with one-to-one counseling service, and

  12. Fructose, but not glucose, impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-sensitive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Miguel; Sangüesa, Gemma; Dávalos, Alberto; Latasa, María-Jesús; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Sánchez, Rosa María; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta

    2016-05-19

    Human studies support the relationship between high intake of fructose-sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes, but there is a debate on whether this effect is fructose-specific or it is merely associated to an excessive caloric intake. Here we investigate the effects of 2 months' supplementation to female rats of equicaloric 10% w/v fructose or glucose solutions on insulin sensitivity in target tissues. Fructose supplementation caused hepatic deposition of triglycerides and changed the fatty acid profile of this fraction, with an increase in monounsaturated and a decrease in polyunsaturated species, but did not cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Fructose but not glucose-supplemented rats displayed an abnormal glucose tolerance test, and did not show increased phosphorylation of V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) in white adipose tissue and liver after insulin administration. In skeletal muscle, phosphorylation of Akt and of Akt substrate of 160 kDA (AS160) was not impaired but the expression of the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the plasma membrane was reduced only in fructose-fed rats. In conclusion, fructose but not glucose supplementation causes fatty liver without inflammation and oxidative stress and impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-responsive tissues independently from the increase in energy intake.

  13. Fructose, but not glucose, impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-sensitive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Miguel; Sangüesa, Gemma; Dávalos, Alberto; Latasa, María-Jesús; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Sánchez, Rosa María; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Human studies support the relationship between high intake of fructose-sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes, but there is a debate on whether this effect is fructose-specific or it is merely associated to an excessive caloric intake. Here we investigate the effects of 2 months' supplementation to female rats of equicaloric 10% w/v fructose or glucose solutions on insulin sensitivity in target tissues. Fructose supplementation caused hepatic deposition of triglycerides and changed the fatty acid profile of this fraction, with an increase in monounsaturated and a decrease in polyunsaturated species, but did not cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Fructose but not glucose-supplemented rats displayed an abnormal glucose tolerance test, and did not show increased phosphorylation of V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) in white adipose tissue and liver after insulin administration. In skeletal muscle, phosphorylation of Akt and of Akt substrate of 160 kDA (AS160) was not impaired but the expression of the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the plasma membrane was reduced only in fructose-fed rats. In conclusion, fructose but not glucose supplementation causes fatty liver without inflammation and oxidative stress and impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-responsive tissues independently from the increase in energy intake. PMID:27194405

  14. Programming of glucose-insulin homoeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Tygesen, M. P.; Husted, Sanne Vinter;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Exposure to adverse intra-uterine conditions can predispose for metabolic disorders later in life. By using a sheep model, we studied (i) how programming of glucose-insulin homoeostasis during late gestation is manifested later in life depending on the early post-natal dietary exposure and (ii......-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) diet until around puberty. Offspring remaining thereafter (exclusively females) were fed a moderate diet until young adulthood. RESULTS: LOW lambs had increased insulin secretory responses during intravenous glucose tolerance tests indicative of reduced insulin sensitivity. HCHF lambs were...... hypertriglyceridaemic, 75% had mild pancreatic collagen infiltration, and their acute insulin secretory response and insulin clearance during intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance tests, respectively, were reduced. However, NORM-HCHF in contrast to LOW-HCHF lambs had normal glucose tolerance, indicating that later...

  15. Parameters of glucose metabolism and the aging brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van den Berg, Annette; Altmann-Schneider, Irmhild;

    2015-01-01

    Given the concurrent, escalating epidemic of diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, two age-related disorders, we aimed to understand the relation between parameters of glucose metabolism and indices of pathology in the aging brain. From the Leiden Longevity Study, 132 participants (mean...... different parameters of glucose metabolism (impairment of which is characteristic of diabetes mellitus) and brain aging....... age 66 years) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance (fasted and area under the curve (AUC) glucose), insulin sensitivity (fasted and AUC insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS)) and insulin secretion (insulinogenic index). 3-T brain...

  16. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rebecca; Adler, Hugh; Jackson, Valerie; Lawless, Mairead; Byrne, Maria; Eogan, Maeve; Lambert, John S

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic complications, including diabetes mellitus, have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women. We conducted a retrospective review of all HIV-infected women attending a combined infectious disease and antenatal clinic between 2007 and 2013 who underwent a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 weeks. We grouped the patients based on whether their OGTT result was normal or abnormal, and compared the groups using standard parametric tests (t-test and Fisher's exact test). Of 263 women with HIV who attended the clinic, 142 (53.9%) attended for OGTT and were eligible for inclusion. The mean age was 31 years (SD 5.37), all women were of European or African origin and 33.7% had a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) About 93.7% were on PI-based regimens. At delivery, the mean CD4 count was 526 cells/µL, and 13% of patients had a detectable viraemia. The prevalence of IGT was 2.8%, while the prevalence of GDM was 2.1%. Also, 71.4% (n = 5) of women with abnormal glucose metabolism were taking PIs versus 94.8% (n = 128) of normoglycaemic women (p = 0.06). We did not confirm an increased rate of GDM in HIV-infected women in our patient population and found no association between PI use and GDM. PMID:25999164

  17. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3-3H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6-3H]glucose rather than [3-3H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle