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Sample records for abnormal glucose tolerance

  1. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Ma, G.; Zhai, F.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Yang, X.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Inf

  2. Noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance

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    Edward L. Hull, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ENGINE study evaluated noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. The AGT detection performance of SFS was compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG and hemoglobin A1C (A1C. The study was a head-to-head comparison of SFS to FPG and A1C in an at-risk population of 507 subjects, with no prior diagnosis of diabetes, each of whom received a 75 g, two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Subjects were measured by SFS on multiple days in fasting and non-fasting states. SFS data were acquired and analyzed with the SCOUT DS® device (VeraLight, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. Sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR, ROC area, and equal error rate (EER for detection of AGT were computed. The reproducibility of SFS and FPG was assessed. The AGT sensitivity of SFS at the device's recommended screening threshold of 50 was 75.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 5.6 mmol/L or 6.1 mmol/L and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% or 6.0%. The SFS FPR was 42.1%, comparable to an A1C threshold of 5.7% (FPR = 43.5%. The EERs of SFS, FPG and A1C were similar, as were the partial ROC areas for FPRs of 20–50%. The reproducibility of SFS was 7.7% versus 8.1% for FPG. SFS had similar AGT detection performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable alternative to screening individuals for AGT.

  3. Value of fructosamine measurement in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kui; YANG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background The concentration of serum fructosamine is correlated with plasma glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of serum fructosamine can be diagnostic for abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnant women.Methods Serum samples were collected from 161 pregnant women between November 2004 and April 2005.The women were divided into three groups according to the gestational age (16-20 weeks group, 56 patients; 28-34 weeks group, 72; and 37-41 weeks group, 33). Each group was subdivided into normal and abnormal glucose tolerance subgroups. The levels of serum fructosamine were measured. Differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between the level of fructosamine and other variables including the results of glucose challenge test (GCT), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, and infant's birth weight were analyzed by Pearson correlation.Results The level of serum fructosamine decreased with gestational age [(223.25 ±48.90) μmol/L, (98.44±29.57)μmol/L, and (53.99±29.94) μmol/L, respectively. P<0.05]. It was higher in women with abnormal glucose tolerance than that in women with normal glucose tolerance, however, the difference reached statistical significance only in the 28-34 weeks group (P<0.05). In this group, the level of serum fructosamine correlated positively with the GCT result (r=0.28, P<0.05). No correlation was found between fructosamine level and OGTT result, HbA1c level, or neonatal weight.Conclusions Fructosamine can be used to monitor the glucose level of pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance, and to identify the patients at high risk of abnormal glucose tolerance, but can not be used to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early stage of pregnancy.

  4. Physical activity before and during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance among Hispanic women.

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    Chasan-Taber, L; Silveira, M; Lynch, K E; Pekow, P; Braun, B; Manson, J E; Solomon, C G; Markenson, G

    2014-02-01

    Women diagnosed with abnormal glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for subsequent type 2 diabetes, with higher risks in Hispanic women. Studies suggest that physical activity may be associated with a reduced risk of these disorders; however, studies in Hispanic women are sparse. We prospectively evaluated this association among 1241 Hispanic participants in Proyecto Buena Salud. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess pre, early, and mid pregnancy physical activity. Medical records were abstracted for pregnancy outcomes. A total of 175 women (14.1%) were diagnosed with abnormal glucose tolerance and 57 women (4.6%) were diagnosed with gestational diabetes. Increasing age and body mass index were strongly and positively associated with risk of gestational diabetes. We did not observe statistically significant associations between total physical activity or meeting exercise guidelines and risk. However, after adjusting for age, BMI, gestational weight gain, and other important risk factors, women in the top quartile of moderate-intensity activity in early pregnancy had a decreased risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (odds ratio=0.48, 95% Confidence Interval 0.27-0.88, Ptrend=0.03) as compared to those in the lowest quartile. Similarly, women with the highest levels of occupational activity in early pregnancy had a decreased risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (odds ratio=0.48, 95% Confidence Interval 0.28-0.85, Ptrend=0.02) as compared to women who were unemployed. In this Hispanic population, total physical activity and meeting exercise guidelines were not associated with risk. However, high levels of moderate-intensity and occupational activity were associated with risk reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

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    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  6. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

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    Tricò, Domenico; Baldi, Simona; Frascerra, Silvia; Venturi, Elena; Marraccini, Paolo; Neglia, Danilo; Natali, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min), and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p equivalents, p metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217.

  7. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Domenico Tricò

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT, and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT, we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min, and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p<0.05, did not change in DCM-AGT, and slowly increased in DCM-NGT. DCM-AGT sustained the extra workload by increasing NEFA oxidation (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 2.9 ± 0.1 μmol/min/gO2 equivalents, p<0.05, while DCM-NGT showed a delayed increase in glucose uptake. Substrate oxidation rates paralleled the metabolites data. The presence of AGT in patients with DCM exacerbates both the shift from fat to carbohydrates in resting myocardial metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217.

  8. Prenatal depressive symptoms and abnormalities of glucose tolerance during pregnancy among Hispanic women.

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    Ertel, Karen A; Silveira, Marushka; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E; Solomon, Caren G; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to prospectively examine the association between maternal depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in mid-pregnancy. We evaluated this association among 934 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) women in Western Massachusetts. Depressive symptoms were assessed in early pregnancy using the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Scores ≥13 indicated at least probable minor depression and scores ≥15 indicated probable major depression. AGT and IGT were diagnosed using American Diabetes Association criteria. In early pregnancy, 247 (26.5 %) participants experienced at least minor depression and 163 (17.4 %) experienced major depression. A total of 123 (13.2 %) were classified with AGT and 56 (6.0 %) were classified with IGT. In fully-adjusted models, the odds ratio for AGT associated with minor depression was 1.20 (95 % CI 0.77-1.89) and for major depression was 1.34 (95 % CI 0.81-2.23). The odds ratio for IGT associated with minor depression was 1.22 (95 % CI 0.62-2.40) and for major depression was 1.53 (95 % CI 0.73-3.22). We did not observe an association with continuous screening glucose measures. Findings in this prospective cohort of Hispanic women did not indicate a statistically significant association between minor or major depression in early pregnancy and AGT or screening glucose values in mid-pregnancy. Due to the small number of cases of IGT, our ability to evaluate the association between depression and IGT risk was constrained.

  9. The oral glucose tolerance test is frequently abnormal in patients with uncontrolled epilepsy.

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    Vianna, J B M; Atallah, A N; Prado, G F; Valente, O; Duarte-Barros, M L; Vianna, E C S; Mello, L E A M

    2006-08-01

    The clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet as therapy for patients with difficult-to-treat epilepsy prompted us to investigate the glucose metabolism of these patients under an oral overload of glucose, that is, in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Thirty patients (12 males, 18 females; age range: 17-59, mean: 35.1) with difficult-to-treat epilepsy, 23 patients with controlled epilepsy (11 males, 12 females; age range: 14-66, mean: 36.9), and 39 control subjects (18 males, 21 females; age range: 16-58, mean: 33.3) were evaluated with the OGTT. For patients with epilepsy, we also measured C-peptide and glycosylated hemoglobin in the fasting state. Glucose levels lower than 70 mg/dL at any point of the curve were considered to be abnormal. All subjects in the control group and the group with controlled epilepsy had a normal OGTT. In contrast, all 30 patients with difficult-to-treat epilepsy had at least one point on the OGTT curve below the normal range (Poral glucose load (Pepilepsy as compared with the group with controlled epilepsy. Fasting glycohemoglobin and insulin levels did not differ between the two patient groups. We suggest that undiagnosed metabolic disturbances in patients with difficult-to-treat epilepsy may somehow contribute to their refractoriness to conventional pharmacological therapy. We propose the hypothesis that calorie-restricted diets aimed at correcting OGTT curves may prove beneficial in treating patients with difficult-to-treat epilepsy. Our hypothesis generates a clear endpoint for the diet, and its demonstration would provide new standards for diet-based antiepileptic regimens. Accordingly, our results may help in understanding the positive consequences of ketogenic or calorie-restricted diets in persons with seizures.

  10. Clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity in Malaysian adult population.

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    Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Merican, I; Kew, S T; Maimunah, A H; Rozita, H H; Rugayah, B

    2000-06-01

    We determine the prevalence and determinants of clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and overweight in Malaysia. A national probability sample of 17,392 individuals aged 30 years or older had usable data. 61% of adults had at least one risk factor, 27% had 2 or more risk factors. The observed frequency of 4 factors cluster was 6 times greater than that expected by chance. Indian and Malay women were at particular high risk of risk factors clustering. Individuals with a risk factor had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of other risk factors. Ordinal regression analyses show that higher income, urban residence and physical inactivity were independently associated with risk factors clustering, lending support to the hypotheses that risk factors clustering is related to lifestyle changes brought about by modernisation and urbanisation. In conclusion, risk factor clustering is highly prevalent among Malaysian adults. Treatment and prevention programme must emphasise the multiple risk factor approach.

  11. Early Pregnancy Cravings, Dietary Intake, and Development of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance.

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    Farland, Leslie V; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between pregnancy cravings, maternal diet, and development of abnormal glucose tolerance. We examined relationships of pregnancy cravings with dietary intake and risk of developing isolated hyperglycemia (IH), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or gestational diabetes (GDM) later in pregnancy. Among 2,022 mothers in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort recruited from medical practices in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002, we assessed type of pregnancy craving based on self-report at mean gestation of 10.9 weeks. The outcomes were cross-sectional dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire and incident IH, IGT, or GDM determined by glucose tolerance screening at 26 to 28 weeks. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional relationships between pregnancy cravings and dietary intake and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the prospective relationships among pregnancy cravings and development of IH, IGT, or GDM. During the first trimester, 443 (22%) women craved sweets, 225 (11%) craved salty foods, 261 (13%) craved savory foods, and 100 (4.9%) craved starchy foods. Sweet cravings were associated with increased intake of sucrose (1.9 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 3.7), total fat (1.5 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 2.9), and saturated fat (0.8 g/day; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.4); salty cravings were associated with increased fiber (0.7 servings/day; 95% CI -0.1 to 1.6); savory cravings were associated with increased n-3 fatty acids (0.10 g/day; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17); and starchy cravings were associated with increased carbohydrates (8.0 g/day; 95% CI 0.3 to 15.7) and decreased total fat (-2.6 g/day; 95% CI -5.2 to -0.1). Salty cravings were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97). New cravings in the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with dietary intake. Craving salty foods may predict reduced risk of developing GDM, whereas craving sweet food does not appear to alter one

  12. The Impact of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance and Obesity on Fetal Growth

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    Erin Graves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Factors linked with insulin resistance were examined for their association with large-for-gestational-age (LGA infant birth weight and gestational diabetes. Study Design. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study of 2,305 subjects without overt diabetes, analyzed using multinomial logistic and linear regression. Results. High maternal BMI (OR=1.53 (1.11, 2.12, height (1.98 (1.62, 2.42, antidepressant use (1.71 (1.20, 2.44, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds (1.79 (1.25, 2.57, and high blood sugar (2.68, (1.53, 5.27 were all positively associated with LGA birth. Strikingly, the difference in risk from diagnosed and treated gestational diabetes compared to women with a single abnormal glucose tolerance test (but no diagnosis of gestational diabetes was significant (OR=0.65, p=0.12 versus OR=2.84, p<0.01. When weight/length ratio was used instead, different factors were found to be significant. BMI and pregnancy weight-gain were found to influence the development of gestational diabetes, through an additive interaction. Conclusions. High prepregnancy BM, height, antidepressant use, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds, and high blood sugar were associated with LGA birth, but not necessarily infant weight/length ratio. An additive interaction between BMI and pregnancy weight-gain influenced gestational diabetes development.

  13. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

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    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  14. High prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance and metabolic disturbances in first degree relatives of NIDDM patients. A study in Catalonia, a mediterranean community.

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    Costa, A; Rios, M; Casamitjana, R; Gomis, R; Conget, I

    1998-09-01

    Our study aimed to analyse clinical and metabolic characteristics of first degree relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Catalonia. Two hundred and five subjects (39.8 +/- 14.2 year-old, 61% women) were included in the study. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed, obtaining basal plasma glucose and insulin, in order to calculate, %B (HOMA beta cell function) and %S (HOMA insulin sensitivity). A 30.7% of subjects showed an abnormal glucose tolerance, either as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (20.5%) or as NIDDM (10.2%). Glycaemia after the OGTT (120 min) was independently determined by fasting glycaemia and age (R2 = 0.50; P history of NIDDM (log %S, 3.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4; P = 0.000; log-insulin 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6 mU/l; P history of NIDDM. Interestingly, the rates, of abnormal glucose tolerance in the 55-64 and > 64 year groups in the general population were similar to those seen in relatives two decades younger. Our study not only confirms a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and NIDDM) in subjects with a family history of NIDDM, but also that these abnormalities can be detected at a very early age. Globally, this piece of information corroborates that special attention and precocious detection programs should be addressed to relatives of NIDDM patients.

  15. Prevalence of glucose tolerance test abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Leila J. Gracelyn

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of IGT and Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM in women with PCOS was observed than expected. They have accelerated conversion from IGT to NIDDM. IGT is often asymptomatic and is a known risk factor for type 2 DM and cardiovascular disease. OGTT with 75 gms of glucose is the best screening method for glucose intolerance and a good measure to diagnose type 2 DM in PCOS women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1739-1745

  16. Effects of Intensive Statin Therapy on Left Ventricular Function in Patients with Myocardial Infarction and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auscher, Søren; Løgstrup, Brian Bridal; Møller, Jacob Eifer

    2017-01-01

    statin therapy. Patients were assessed with an oral glucose tolerance test and their left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with speckle-tracking echocardiography measuring regional longitudinal systolic strain (RLSS) in the infarct area. RESULTS: Overall RLSS in the infarct area improved by a mean...

  17. A survey of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome referred to gynaecology clinics of Shiraz university of medical sciences

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    marziye Akbarzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian (pco syndrome is one of the most prevalent( 4-8% endocrine glands disorders among premenopause women. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenemia may has characteristics such as choronic anovulation, infertility, abnormal menstruation and android obesity. This diseas has genetic aspect and in different studies similar abnormalities have been seen in their first degree relatives. Materials and Methods: This research is a case-control study carried out on 107 individuals as case group and 107 individuals as control group selected by simple random sampling in 2009. After recognition patients with PCO syndrome , their first degree relatives (Father,mother,sister and brother have been interviewed. BMI and WHR indices of the both blood samples were taken to study their serum glucose tolerance. Results: Case group, from view point of obesity (BMI≥30 and centeral obesity , ITG level and diabetes regarding WHO standards was higher than similar individuals in control group,but this difference was not statistically significant . The mean of fasting blood sugar in fathers , mothers , brothers and sisters of cas group was significantly higher (p=0.001. Regarding Chi-square test there was no significant relation between obesity diabetes in the both groups. , (BMI≥30kg/m2, centeral obesity and lack of impaired glucose tolerance and type2 diabetes in the both groups. Conclusion: The first degree relatives of the women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are exposed to abnormal glucose tolerance and android obesity.

  18. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

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    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  19. ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST REVISITED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinant for the usefulness or otherwise of oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis ... personnel, poverty and poor economic management, 8'9 that are known to .... Symptoms of diabetes plus casual plasma glucose ... WHO 2-hr plasma glucose criteria of 1l.1mmol/L .... Diagnostic criteria and performance revisited.

  20. Valine Pyrrolidide Preserves Intact Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide and Improves Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Minipigs With Reduced β-Cell Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla; Wilken, Michael; Deacon, Carolyn F; Svendsen, Ove; Gotfredsen, Carsten F.; Carr, Richard David

    2003-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are important in blood glucose regulation.However, both incretin hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). The concept of DPPIV inhibition as a treatment for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced β-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)–treated min...

  1. Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial - study protocol.

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    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Marcus, Bess H; Rosal, Milagros C; Tucker, Katherine L; Hartman, Sheri J; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Solomon, Caren G; Manson, Joann E; Markenson, Glenn

    2014-03-10

    Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have not been tested in high-risk postpartum women. The overall goal of this randomised controlled trial is to test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically modified, individually-tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among postpartum Hispanic women with a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Hispanic pregnant women who screen positive for GDM will be recruited and randomly assigned to a Lifestyle Intervention (n = 150) or a Health & Wellness (control) Intervention (n = 150). Multimodal contacts (i.e., in-person, telephone, and mailed materials) will be used to deliver the intervention from late pregnancy (29 weeks gestation) to 12 months postpartum. Targets of the intervention are to achieve Institute of Medicine Guidelines for postpartum weight loss; American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologist guidelines for physical activity; and American Diabetes Association guidelines for diet. The intervention draws from Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model and addresses the specific cultural and environmental challenges faced by low-income Hispanic women. Assessments will be conducted at enrollment, and at 6-weeks, 6-months, and 12-months postpartum by trained bicultural and bilingual personnel blinded to the intervention arm. Efficacy will be assessed via postpartum weight loss and biomarkers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Changes in physical activity and diet will be

  2. Estudio Parto: postpartum diabetes prevention program for hispanic women with abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial – study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. with rates consistently higher among Hispanics as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), 50% will go on to develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years of the index pregnancy. Although randomised controlled trials among adults with impaired glucose tolerance have shown that diet and physical activity reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, such programs have not been tested in high-risk postpartum women. The overall goal of this randomised controlled trial is to test the efficacy of a culturally and linguistically modified, individually-tailored lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among postpartum Hispanic women with a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Methods/Design Hispanic pregnant women who screen positive for GDM will be recruited and randomly assigned to a Lifestyle Intervention (n = 150) or a Health & Wellness (control) Intervention (n = 150). Multimodal contacts (i.e., in-person, telephone, and mailed materials) will be used to deliver the intervention from late pregnancy (29 weeks gestation) to 12 months postpartum. Targets of the intervention are to achieve Institute of Medicine Guidelines for postpartum weight loss; American Congress of Obstetrician and Gynecologist guidelines for physical activity; and American Diabetes Association guidelines for diet. The intervention draws from Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model and addresses the specific cultural and environmental challenges faced by low-income Hispanic women. Assessments will be conducted at enrollment, and at 6-weeks, 6-months, and 12-months postpartum by trained bicultural and bilingual personnel blinded to the intervention arm. Efficacy will be assessed via postpartum weight loss and biomarkers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Changes in

  3. Fursemida Influence on glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Héctor; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Garmendia, Fausto; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Dávila, Enrique; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of Fursemida on glucose tolerance in 82 patients : 14 mormales , 15 cirrhotic , 15 diabetics, 7 patients with cardioesclerosis , 8 with hypertension , 8 nephropathy without failure and 15 with failure, for which administered daily 80 me . diuretic for one week. In 8 patients (4 diabetic , cirrhotic March 1 with hypertension ) occurred a pathological increase in basal glycemia. Except with nephropathy , elevated in all groups glycemia curves was observed , which...

  4. 妊娠期糖代谢异常对妊娠结局影响%Influence of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy on pregnanty outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇; 许榕仙; 张雪芹; 李健

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) on pregnant women and newborns. Methods Totally 250 pregnant women hospitalized for their deliveries and diagnosed with GDM( 105) or GIGT( 145) were recruited in the study. And 234 pregnant women witti normal blood glucose level were taken as control group at the same time. The pregnancy outcomes of the three groups were recorded and analyzed. Results There were significant differences among the three groups in the incidences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive (P - 0. 009) , caesarean birth (P = 0. 000), gestational hypertension (P = 0. 002), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (P = 0. 004), preterm delivery (P = 0.027 ) , small-for-date infant (P = 0. 011), neonatal hypoglycemia (P = 0. 007), neonatal pneumonia (P = 0. 001), and neonate hospitalization (P = 0. 000) among the three groups. Compared with those of the control group, there were significantly increased risks for HBV positive (P =0. 041) , caesarean birth ( P = 0. 000) .gestational hypertension ( P =0.001) , intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (P = 0.009),preterm delivery(/5=0. 012) ,small-for-date infant(P =0. 019) .neonatal hypoglycemia (P = 0, 03) .neonatal pneumonia( P = 0. 000) , and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (P = 0. 000) in the GDM group. The pregnant women in GIGT group showed higher risks of HBV positive ( P = 0. 041) , caesarean birth ( P = 0. 000) , gestational hypertension (P = 0. 021) , intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy ( P - 0. 021) , preterm delivery (P = 0. 048 ) , neonatal hypoglycemia( P = 0. 021), neonatal pneumonia ( P = 0. 004), and NICU admission (P = 0. 000). Conclusion GDM and GIGT could cause undesirable pregnancy outcomes. The perinatal screening for gestational abnormal glucose metabolism and standardized treatment for GDM and GIGT should be strengthened to improve pregnanty outcomes a-mong the wonen.%目的 研究妊娠期

  5. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and -cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs...... size were taken into account (P > 0.28). Faster glucose absorption was related to higher fasting (P = 0.001) and lower 2-h (P = 0.001) glucose levels and to greater height and fat-free mass (P

  6. Evaluation of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamis, Sotirios; Vavatsi, Norma; Pavlou, Evangelos; Kotsis, Vasileios; Spilioti, Martha; Kavga, Maria; Varlamis, George; Sotiriadou, Foteini; Agakidou, Eleni; Voutoufianakis, Spyridon; Evangeliou, Athanasios E

    2013-11-01

    Glucose metabolism of children with drug-resistant epilepsy, controlled by antiepileptic drugs epilepsy, and first-time nonfebrile seizures was studied through the performance of an oral glucose tolerance test and through insulin, C-peptide, and glycosylated hemoglobin measurements. In the refractory epilepsy group, there were more abnormal oral glucose tolerance test results (62.07%) in comparison to the controlled epilepsy group (25%) and the group of first-time seizures (21.21%). There was a significant difference between the group of refractory epilepsy and every other group concerning the abnormality of the oral glucose tolerance test (P epilepsies from the drug-controlled ones and the first-induced seizures relating to their metabolic profile, regardless of the type of seizures.

  7. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V

    2012-09-01

    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of 2.6 and QUICKI values <0.35 denoting insulin resistance. Beta cell mass percent (B %) = 200 ± 94.8% and insulin sensitivity values (IS)=50.4 ± 45.5% denoted insulin resistance with hyper-insulinaemia and preserved beta cell mass. In obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  8. Importance of oral glucose tolerance test in patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Badanjak, Anica

    2005-06-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old patient with schizophrenia who developed worsening of glucose metabolism during treatment with two different atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine. Diabetes mellitus was recognized during clozapine treatment. During quetiapine treatment, while patient was taking diabetic diet, fasting and 1-hour glucose levels and body mass index, decreased, but 2-hour glucose levels increased. This suggests that, in some patients, monitoring of only fasting glucose level and body mass index may be insufficient for detecting the glucose metabolism abnormalities. In those patients oral glucose tolerance test may be recommended. Recommendations about when and how often clinicians should administer the test do not exist in current guidelines. Further studies are needed for the elucidation of this question.

  9. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome amongst the Taiwanese population- not correlated with insulin receptor substrate-1 Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shu-Fen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS. We intended to assess the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT and insulin resistance in Taiwanese PCOS women. We also tried to assess whether the particular identity of Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of the IRS-1 gene mutation can be used as an appropriate diagnostic indicator for PCOS. Methods We designed a prospective clinical study. Forty-seven Taiwanese Hoklo and Hakka women, diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study as were forty-five healthy Hoklo and Hakka women as the control group. Insulin resistance was evaluated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMAIR. The genomic DNA of the subjects was amplified by PCR and digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism (RFLP with Bst N1 used for codon 972 and Dra III for codon 513. Results AGT was found in 46.8% of these PCOS patients and was significantly related to high insulin resistance rather than the low insulin resistance. Those patients with either insulin resistance or AGT comprised the majority of PCOS affected patients (AGT + fasting insulin ≥17: 83%, AGT + glucose/insulin ratio ≥6.5: 85.1%, AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 2: 87.2%, and AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 3.8: 72.3%. None of the tested samples revealed any polymorphism due to the absence of any Dra III recognition site or any Bst N1 recognition site in the amplified PCR fragment digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism. Conclusion There is significantly high prevalence of AGT and insulin resistance in PCOS women, but Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of IRS-1 are rare and are not associated with the elevated

  10. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  11. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  12. Effect of physical restraint on glucose tolerance in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Naoya; Kanazawa, Kanpei; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi; Horikawa, Tadahiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki

    2013-06-01

    Physiologic stress has been demonstrated to impair glucose tolerance. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using six cynomolgus monkeys. Chair-restrained subjects elicited higher elevations of plasma glucose and cortisol compared with squeezing device-restrained subjects. The responses to a glucose challenge are altered by different restraint procedures.

  13. The effect of PCSK1 variants on waist, waist-hip ratio and glucose metabolism is modified by sex and glucose tolerance status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette P; Vestmar, Marie A; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of the G-allele of rs6232 and the C-allele of rs6235 within PCSK1 on measures of body fat and glucose homeostasis in Danish individuals and to assess interactions of genotypes with age, sex and glucose tolerance status. Data were included in meta-analy...... composition which may be modified by sex, whereas the effect of rs6235 C-allele on fasting and stimulated circulating plasma glucose and hormone levels may be influenced by glucose tolerance status.......-allele was associated nominally with a 0.6% (0.1–1%, p = 0.01) reduction in fasting glucose, it interacted with glucose tolerance status for traits related to glucose metabolism and analysis among individuals having abnormal glucose tolerance revealed a 5% (20.7–9%, p = 0.02) elevated level of acute insulin response...

  14. 糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死患者血浆Hcy和血清hs-CRP水平的影响%The Influence of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on the Levels of Plasma Homocysteine and Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction(ACI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红东; 陆敏; 唐冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of abnormal glucose tolerance on the levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with acute cerebral infarction( AGI). Methods 756 patients with AGI were divided into normal glucose tolerance group (NGT, 33 leases) , abnormal glucose tolerance group(IGT,142cases) ,and diabetes mellitus group (DM,283 scase) ac-cording to the result of oral glucose tolerance test( OGTT). The serum levels of Hcy and hs-GRP were measured in 24 hours after ad-mission. Result The both levels of Hey and hs-GRP in IGT group(19.17 9.35juno]/L,20.46 10.56μmol/L) and DM group (8.0 2.9 mg/L,7.7 2.3 mg/L) were higher than the NGT group with no difference between each other. Conclusion The levels of Hey and hs-GRP in patients with AGI and abnormal glucose tolerance rise significantly,which indicate the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis in the stage of abnormal glucose tolerance. The results showed abnormal glucose tolerance is the risk factor of atherosclerosis as diabetes mellitus,and the OGTT test is valuable in screening risk factors of AGI and stroke prevention.%目的:观察糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死(acute cerebral infarction,ACI)患者的同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平的影响.方法:756例ACI患者按葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)结果分为糖耐量正常组(NGT,331例)、单纯性糖耐量异常组(IGT,142例)、2型糖尿病组(DM2,283例).在入院24h之内测定血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平并进行组间比较.结果:IGT组及DM2组的Hcy水平(19.17±9.35)μmol/L、(20.46±10.56)μmol/L以及hs-CRP水平(8.0±2.9)mg/L、(7.7±2.3)mg/L明显高于NGT组(16.17±7.35)μmol/L、(3.5±1.2)mg/L.IGT组及DM2组两组之间的Hcy、hs-CRP水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05、P>0.05).结论:单纯性糖耐量异常的ACI患者血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平明显升高,表明在糖耐量异常阶段,已经出现了慢性低水平炎症和动脉粥样硬化的发生.提

  15. Rosiglitazone improves glucose metabolism in obese adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, Anna M G; Pierpont, Bridget M; Taksali, Sara E; Allen, Karin; Shaw, Melissa M; Savoye, Mary; Caprio, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a prediabetic state fueling the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adolescents with marked obesity. Given the importance of insulin resistance, the poor β-cell compensation and the altered fat partitioning as underlying defects associated with this condition, it is crucial to determine the extent to which these underlying abnormalities can be reversed in obese adolescents. We tested, in a pilot study, whether rosiglitazone (ROSI) restores normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in obese adolescents with IGT by improving insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. In a small randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLA)-controlled study, lasting 4 months, 21 obese adolescents with IGT received either ROSI (8 mg daily) (n = 12, 5M/7F, BMI z-score 2.44 ± 0.11) or PLA (n = 9, 4M/5F, BMI z-score 2.41 ± 0.09). Before and after treatment, all subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, magnetic resonance imaging, and (1)H NMR assessment. After ROSI treatment, 58% of the subjects converted to NGT compared to 44% in the PLA group (P = 0.528). Restoration of NGT was associated with a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (P DI) (P < 0.04), whereas in the PLA group, these changes were not significant. The short-term use of ROSI appears to be safe in obese adolescents with IGT. ROSI restores NGT by increasing peripheral insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, two principal pathophysiological abnormalities of IGT.

  16. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to examine heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test with multiple measurements and to compare cardiometabolic risk profiles between identified glucose response curve groups. We analyzed data from 1,267 individuals without diabetes from five studies...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...... patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak...

  17. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

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    Jitender Mokta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS, whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG, A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5% or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%. A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38% had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38% had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT and 60 (24% had diabetes; 48 (19.2% were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8% had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT

  18. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokta, Jitender; Kumar, Subash; Ganju, Neeraj; Mokta, Kiran; Panda, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Swatantra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women) with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]), and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5%) or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%). A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38%) had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38%) had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT) and 60 (24%) had diabetes; 48 (19.2%) were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8%) had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT) is

  19. Glucose abnormalities in the siblings of people with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Eduard; Justicia, Azucena; Garcia-Rizo, Clemente; Esmatjes, Enric; Conget, Ignacio; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some studies suggest that schizophrenia may be associated with an increased risk of diabetes, independently of antipsychotic medications and other confounding factors. Previous studies have also suggested that there is an increased prevalence of diabetes in the relatives of schizophrenia probands. Method: First-degree siblings of schizophrenia probands (N = 6) and control subjects (N = 12) were administered a glucose tolerance test. Subjects were matched for gender, age, body mass index, neighborhood of residence, socio-economic status and smoking habits. Results: The siblings of schizophrenia probands had a significantly increased two-hour mean glucose concentration compared to the control subjects (respective means [SD] were 100.5 mg/dL [27.7] vs. 78.0 [12.3]; p<0.03). Baseline glucose concentrations did not differ. Conclusions: Although confirmation with larger samples is needed, these results and other studies suggest that diabetes may share familial risk factors with schizophrenia. PMID:18514487

  20. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Q

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qingyan Bo,1 Roberto Orsenigo,2 Junyi Wang,1 Louis Griffel,3 Clifford Brass3 1Beijing Novartis Pharma Co. Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries. This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025 as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%, and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08. Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had

  1. [Fatty acid patterns and glucose tolerance in Huntington's chorea (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, R; Hausmann, L; Kaffarnik, H; Zehner, J; Oepen, H

    1976-07-02

    Fatty acid patterns of plasma lipids and glucose-tolerance in Huntington's chorea. 25 patients with Huntington's chorea of various manifestation (9 predisposed symptomefree, 5 with light and 11 with severe manifestation) had studies of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These studies measured glucose-tolerance tests, insulin-, HGH-secretion, serum lipids and plasma fatty acid conposition of the cholesterylesters, triglycerides and phospholipids. The reactive insulin- but not HGH-levels were significantly raised, 32 % of the patients with Huntington's chorea had abnormal glucose-tolerance tests, compared with 3.2 % in a control group. Duration of symptoms correlated with higher cholesterol levels. Minor deviations were found in the fatty acid patterns in various lipid clases.

  2. Oxidative Injury and Neuropathy in Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James W.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Vincent, Andrea M.; Freimann, Catherine L.; Sullivan, Kelli A.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with the development of neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to determine if neuropathy developed in the female Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of IGT and type 2 diabetes. The ZDF rat develops impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) when fed a control diet, and frank diabetes when fed a high fat diet. Following 10 weeks of hyperglycemia, sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) and compound motor acti...

  3. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E

    2009-01-01

    tolerance test before discharge. LV function was assessed using echocardiographic measurements (LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, restrictive diastolic filling pattern, early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio [E/e'], and left...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend)

  4. Determinación del valor umbral de tamizaje de la glicemia en ayunas, para identificar la intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos Determination of fasting plasma glucose cut-off valuefor the identification of abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Linn Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar el valor predictivo de la glucosa en ayunas, para identificar intolerancia a los carbohidratos en pacientes con síndrome de ovario poliquístico. Materiales y métodos: a 100 mujeres con diagnóstico de síndrome de ovario poliquístico, se les realizó una prueba de tolerancia a 75 g de glucosa. Resultados: la sensibilidad para una cifra umbral de 101 mg/dl, fue de un 41,7%, IC 95%: 23% - 63%, y la especificidad de un 92,1%, IC95 %:83% - 97%. Con un valor predictivo positivo del 62,5%, y negativo del 83,3%.El valor de corte óptimo fue de 93mg /dl, con una sensibilidad del 75%, IC 95%: 53%-89%, y una especificidad del 73,7%, IC 95%: 62%-83%. La cifra de corte umbral óptima de la glicemia en ayunas para el tamizaje de intolerancia en mujeres con SOPQ, fue de 93 mg/dl. Conclusiones: las recomendaciones actuales para diagnosticar intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, no son apropiadas.Objective: To determine the predictive value of fasting glucose to identify abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and methods: 100 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome underwent a tolerance test toa 75 gdose of glucose. Results: Sensitivity for a threshold value of 101 mg/dl was 41.7% (95% C.I.: 23% - 63% and specificity 92.1% (95% C.I.: 83% - 97%; with a positive predictive value of 62.5% and a negative predictive value of 83.3%. The optimum cut-off value was 93 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 75% (95% C.I.: 53% - 89% and a specificity of 73.7% (95% C.I.: 62% - 83%. The optimum fasting plasma glucose cut-off value for intolerance in women with PCOS was 93md/dL. Conclusions: The current recommendations for diagnosing abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome are not appropriate.

  5. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  6. Predominance of small dense low-density lipoproteins and abnormal glucose regulation in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yoshihisa; Koba, Shinji; Tsunoda, Fumiyoshi; Yokota, Yuuya; Ezumi, Hitoshi; Kondo, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katagiri, Takashi

    2006-04-01

    Although small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) has an established association with diabetic dyslipidemia, previous studies have failed to show an association between sd-LDL and diabetes among coronary heart disease patients. This study investigated the prevalence of sd-LDL and abnormal glucose regulation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). LDL size at the onset of ACS was measured by nondenatured gradient gel electrophoresis in 314 of 429 consecutive patients. Sd-LDL was prevalent in 54% of the patients, irrespective of the presence of previously known diabetes (50% vs 60% in nondiabetes and diabetes, respectively). Diabetes was present in 122 (28%) of the patients, and 110 patients without diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and newly detected diabetes were found in as many as 44% and 22% of the patients tested, even though their hemoglobinA1c levels were in the normal range (5.3+/-0.5%). The prevalence of sd-LDL was significantly higher in patients with glucose intolerance than in those with normal glucose tolerance (61% vs 42%). IGT and diabetes were far more common than normal glucose regulation in ACS patients, and the abnormal glycometabolism was closely associated with highly atherogenic sd-LDL.

  7. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-03-05

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc.

  8. The "muffin test"--an alternative to the oral glucose tolerance test for detecting impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Michael L; Jain, Akas; Maslow, Bat-Sheva; Pal, Lubna; Stein, Daniel T; Santoro, Nanette; Freeman, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the "muffin test" (MT) with that of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This is a cross-sectional study in a single academic institution. The participants were 73 women aged 42 to 58 years, less than 36 months after menopause, recruited for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study Trial. After a 10-hour fasting blood draw, the participants were provided a muffin and a beverage. Two-hour glucose levels were assessed. A subset underwent metabolic testing consisting of an OGTT (n = 12) and a mixed-meal tolerance test (n = 10). The main outcome measures were the prevalence of IGT and 2-hour glucose measurements after each testing method. Two-hour glucose levels were linearly related to fasting values by multivariable linear regression. This association was exaggerated in overweight (body mass index, 25 kg/m2) women (coefficient, 1.43; P 0.05); 2-hour glucose levels after OGTT were slightly lower than after the mixed-meal tolerance test (P < 0.05). The prevalence of IGT was 11% (8 of 73). Fasting plasma glucose alone would have missed 63% of cases (five of eight cases). The MT demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing IGT compared with the gold standard OGTT. This small pilot study should be confirmed in a larger prospective group of participants.

  9. Lifestyle intervention according to general recommendations improves glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Marco; Blaak, Ellen E; Corpeleijn, Eefje; Saris, Wim H; de Bruin, Tjerk W; Feskens, Edith J

    2003-12-01

    Changing dietary and physical activity habits has the potential to postpone or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. However, it needs to be assessed whether moderate interventions, in agreement with current guidelines for the general population, are effective. We evaluated the impact of a 2-year combined diet and physical activity intervention program on glucose tolerance in Dutch subjects at increased risk for developing diabetes. Subjects with glucose intolerance were randomly assigned to either the lifestyle intervention group (INT) or control group (CON). The INT received regular dietary advice and was stimulated to increase their physical activity. The CON received a brief leaflet about healthy diet and increased physical activity. Primary outcome measure was the change in glucose tolerance. In total, 88 subjects completed 2 years of intervention (40 subjects in the INT, 48 subjects in the CON, mean BMI 29.4 kg/m2). Subjects in the INT reduced their body weight, waist circumference, and (saturated) fat intake and improved their aerobic capacity. Two-hour plasma glucose concentration declined from 8.7 to 8.0 mM in the INT and rose from 8.6 to 9.4 mM in the CON (p general recommendations improves glucose tolerance, even in a less obese and more physical active population. Furthermore, our results underscore the importance of combining diet and physical activity to improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.

  10. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pre-diabetes." It means you are at increased risk of developing diabetes over time. A glucose level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher is used to diagnose diabetes. Serious stress to the body, such as from trauma, ... You may have some of the symptoms listed ...

  11. Postprandial glucose response to selected tropical fruits in normal glucose-tolerant Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, A; Eregie, A; Adediran, O; Ohwovoriole, A; Ebengho, S

    2011-01-01

    The glycemic response to commonly eaten fruits in Nigeria has not been reported. Therefore, this study assessed the plasma glucose response to selected fruits in Nigeria. Ten normal glucose-tolerant subjects randomly consumed 50 g carbohydrate portions of three fruits: banana (Musa paradisiaca), pineapple (Ananus comosus), and pawpaw (Carica papaya), and a 50-g glucose load at 1-week intervals. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and half-hourly over a 2-h period post-ingestion of the fruits or glucose. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose concentrations. Plasma glucose responses were assessed by the peak plasma glucose concentration, maximum increase in plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level, and incremental area under the glucose curve and glycemic index (GI). The results showed that the blood glucose response to these three fruits was similar in terms of their incremental areas under the glucose curve, maximum increase in plasma glucose, and glycemic indices (GIs). The 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level of banana was significantly higher than that of pineapple, P fruits may be used as fruit exchanges with pineapple having the most favorable glycemic response.

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Seo, G. T.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jeon, S. M. [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

  13. Estrogens, lactation and oral glucose tolerance test in the early puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, D; Eschwege, E

    1976-01-01

    An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on 98 women free from any known risk factor of diabetes on the fifth day of the puerperium. Results show that OGTT is greatly influenced by the conditions of lactation. A high proportion of abnormal curves (50%) is found among the group of women receiving estrogens as lactation suppressors at the time of the test. However, in breast feeding women or in non breast feeding women not given estrogen, the proportion of abnormal curves is less than 10%. It is concluded that the unexplained previously reported lack of specificity of the OGTT in the early puerperium could be related to hormonal treatment for lactation suppression.

  14. Activin A Levels Are Associated With Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Geir Ø.; Ueland, Thor; Knudsen, Eva C.; Scholz, Hanne; Yndestad, Arne; Sahraoui, Afaf; Smith, Camilla; Lekva, Tove; Otterdal, Kari; Halvorsen, Bente; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Aukrust, Pål

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE On the basis of the role of activin A in inflammation, atherogenesis, and glucose homeostasis, we investigated whether activin A could be related to glucometabolic abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Activin A measurement and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in patients (n = 115) with acute MI, without previously known diabetes, and repeated after 3 months. Release of activin A and potential anti-inflammatory effects of activin A were measured in human endothelial cells. Activin A effects on insulin secretion and inflammation were tested in human pancreatic islet cells. RESULTS 1) In patients with acute MI, serum levels of activin A were significantly higher in those with abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) compared with those with normal glucose regulation. Activin A levels were associated with the presence of AGR 3 months later (adjusted odds ratio 5.1 [95% CI 1.73–15.17], P = 0.003). 2) In endothelial cells, glucose enhanced the release of activin A, whereas activin A attenuated the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and enhanced the mRNA levels of the antioxidant metallothionein. 3) In islet cells, activin A attenuated the suppressive effect of inflammatory cytokines on insulin release, counteracted the ability of these inflammatory cytokines to induce mRNA expression of IL-8, and induced the expression of transforming growth factor-β. CONCLUSIONS We found a significant association between activin A and newly detected AGR in patients with acute MI. Our in vitro findings suggest that this association represents a counteracting mechanism to protect against inflammation, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. PMID:21464440

  15. 糖筛查试验异常而糖耐量试验正常孕妇的妊娠结局分析%Analysis on pregnancy outcomes of abnormal glucose screening test and normal glucose tolerance test in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT ) and normal oral glu‐cose tolerance test (OGTT ) on the maternal and neonatal perinatal period in pregnant women ,and to observe and an‐alyze their outcomes to provide the objective basis for pregnancy health care .Methods 220 pregnant women with ab‐normal GCT and normal OGTT in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as the observation group .Contemporaneous 240 normal pregnant women were selected as the control group .The pregnancy outcomes and neonatal status and Apgar scores were observed in the two groups .Results The vaginal delivery rate of the ob‐servation group was 61 .82% (136/220) ,which was lower than that of the control group ,the cesarean section rate of the observation group was 36 .36% (80/220) ,which was higher than that of the control group (P< 0 .05) .The post‐partum hemorrhage ,polyhydramnios ,puerperal infection and premature rupture of membranes in the observation group accounted for 9 .55% (21/220) ,which was higher than that of the control group (P< 0 .05) .The macrosomia , premature delivery and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia of the observation group were 15 .45% (34/220) ,5 .00% (11/220) and 5 .45% (12/220) respectively ,which were higher than those of the control group (P < 0 .05) ;the average neonatal body weight mass of the observation group was (3 186 .35 ± 31 .20)g ,which was higher than that of the con‐trol group ,the neonatal Apgar score of the observation group of was (9 .21 ± 0 .13) ,which was lower than that of the control group (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion The abnormal GCT and normal OGTT in pregnant women can significantly affect the perinatal health ,has lower natural labor rate and higher complications ,moreover the number of premature newborns and macrosomia is significantly increased ,easier to develop the complications of hyperbilirubinemia ,etc ., which affect the health and life safety of regnant women and perinatal period

  16. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    .002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal......INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat...

  17. Demographic and metabolic characteristics of individuals with progressive glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Mendes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated changes in glucose tolerance of 17 progressors and 62 non-progressors for 9 years to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in anthropometric measurements and responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were analyzed. We identified 14 pairs of individuals, one from each group, who were initially normal glucose tolerant and were matched for gender, age, weight, and girth. We compared initial plasma glucose and insulin curves (from OGTT, insulin secretion (first and second phases and insulin sensitivity indices (from hyperglycemic clamp assay for both groups. In the normal glucose tolerant phase, progressors presented: 1 a higher OGTT blood glucose response with hyperglycemia in the second hour and a similar insulin response vs non-progressors; 2 a reduced first-phase insulin secretion (2.0 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ± 0.3 pmol/L; P < 0.02 with a similar insulin sensitivity index and a lower disposition index (3.9 ± 0.2 vs 4.1 ± 0.2 µmol·kg-1·min-1 ; P < 0.05 vs non-progressors. After 9 years, both groups presented similar increases in weight and fasting blood glucose levels and progressors had an increased glycemic response at 120 min (P < 0.05 and reduced early insulin response to OGTT (progressors, 1st: 2.10 ± 0.34 vs 2nd: 1.87 ± 0.25 pmol/mmol; non-progressors, 1st: 2.15 ± 0.28 vs 2nd: 2.03 ± 0.39 pmol/mmol; P < 0.05. Theses data suggest that β-cell dysfunction might be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin as a predictive factor for glucose metabolism disorders in antipsychotic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Leping; JI Juying; DUAN Yiyang; SHI Hui; ZHANG Bin; SHAO Yaqin; SUN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the changes in glucose metabolism after antipsychotic(APS)therapy,to note the influencing factors,as well as to dicuss the relationship between the occurrence of glucose metabolism disorders of APS origin and abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)levels.One hundred and fifty-two patients with schizophrenia,whose fasting plasma glucose(FPG)and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG)in the oral glucose tolerance test(2HPG)were normal,were grouped according to the HbA1c levels,one normal and the other abnormal,and were randomly enrolled into risperidone,clozapine and chlorpromazine treatment for six weeks.The FPG and 2hPG were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study.In the group with abnormal HbA1c and clozapine therapy,2HPG was higher after the study[(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than that before the study[(7.2±1.4)mmol/L]and the difierence was statistically significant(P<0.01).FPG had no statistically significant difference before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).HbA1c levels and drugs contributing to 2HPG at the end of study had statistical cross-action(P<0.01).In the abnormal HbA1c group,2HPG after the study was higher in the clozapine treatment group [(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than in the risperidone treatment group [(7.4±1.7)mmol/L]and the chlorpromazine treatment group[(7.3±1.6)mmol/L].The differences were statistically significant(P<0.01).In the normal HbA1c group there was no statistically significant difierence before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).2HPG before[(7.1±1.6)mmol/L]and after the study[(8.1±1.9)mmol/L]was higher in the abnormal HbA1c group than in the normal HbA1c group[(6.2±1.4)mmol/L vs(6.5±1.4)mmol/L]with the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.01 vs P<0.001).As compared with normal HbA1c group,the relative risk (RR)of glucose metabolism disease occurrence was 4.7 in the abnormal HDA1C group wlth the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.001).Patients with abnormal HbA1c

  19. Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Unjin; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagreeable' to 'strongly agreeable.' Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (β = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.

  20. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  1. Pregnant outcomes and neonatal anthropometry in women with abnormal glucose challenge test and normal oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy%单纯葡萄糖筛查试验异常对妊娠结局和新生儿体质指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海天; 王子莲; 胡明晶; 李铭岚; 祝文晶; 刘斌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT) on pregnancy outcomes and neonatal anthropometric data in women with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).Methods Totally 214 women who delivered in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 2006 to December 2007 were enrolled.50 g GCT was performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation and 75 g OGTT would be followed if GCT≥7.8 mmol/L.Those patients,whose OGTT results below the following criteria (5.3 mmoL/L,10.0 mmol/L,8.6 mmol/L,7.8 mmol/L),were classified as normal OGTT.Altogether,116 of the 214 women with abnormal GCT and normal OGTT were collected as the study group and the rest 98 women with normal GCT as the control group.The pregnant outcomes of the two groups were analyzed.The neonatal anthropometry,including birth weight,body length,head circumference and shoulder circumference,were recorded.Other neonatal anthropometric data,such as upper arm circumference,tricep skinfold thickness and hypodermic fat thickness of abdomen were measured by a tape measure within 24 hours after birth.Results (1) Pregnant outcomes:No significant difference was found in the rate of assisted vaginal delivery,polyhydramnios,premature rupture of membranes and fetal distress between the study and control group[10.3% (12/116) vs 4% (4/98),5.2% (6/116) vs 10% (10/98),13.8% (16/116) vs 17% (17/98),20.7% (24/116) vs 13% (13/98),P >0.05,respectively],but the rate of cesarean section,spontaneous vaginal delivery and large for gestational age babies in the study group were different from those of the control[72.4% (84/116) vs 51% (51/98),17.2%(20/116) vs 45% (44/98),25.9% (30/116) vs 6% (6/98),P <0.05,respectively].(2)Neonatal anthropometry:The birth weight of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group[(3.4 ±0.4) kg vs (3.3±0.4) kg,P <0.05],but no significant difference was shown in any other neonatal anthropometric results between the study and

  2. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from the metagenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku eUchiyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases (BGLs hydrolyze cellooligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (~mM concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (approximately 10,000 colonies and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7 was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0–6.5 and retained full or 1.5–2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1–0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 µM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose and high Vmax (91 µmol min-1 mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 µmol min-1 mg-1 with cellobiose among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  3. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  4. On the status and comparison of glucose intolerance in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy through an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-jie Lu

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study is to estimate the status and comparison of glucose intolerance in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, as well as to learn the effect of chemotherapy on the glucose metabolism of breast cancer patients. METHODS: All the 79 breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis, with the mean age of 53.2 years, and 96 breast cancer patients before the 5th or 6th cycle of chemotherapy, with the mean age of 51.5 years, participated in the study from December 2012 to October 2013. After an overnight fast, participants underwent OGTT test, and fasting and 2-hour glucose levels were measured to identify undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes (i.e., impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance in them. Previously diagnosed diabetes among the female breast cancer patients was determined on the self-report and the medical record. RESULTS: The overall incidences of total normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, diabetes in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were 24.1% and 38.5% (p0.05, respectively, and the differences of normal glucose tolerance and prediabetes instead of diabetes between the two groups were statistically significant. About 84% of the total diabetes and prediabetes in the female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and 79.7% of those during chemotherapy need to be diagnosed with OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer patients have high incidences of diabetes and prediabetes. After chemotherapy even with steroids, some breast cancer patients with abnormal glucose metabolism may even become normal. Isolated hyperglycemia 2 hours after glucose loading is common, and OGTT should be made for breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy.

  5. Unpredictable feeding impairs glucose tolerance in growing lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Jaquiery

    Full Text Available Irregular eating is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disease in adults but may affect young, growing children differently. We investigated the metabolic effects of unpredictable feeding in female juvenile lambs randomly assigned to receive, for six weeks, maintenance feed given twice daily in equal portions (Control Group, C; n = 24 or the same weekly feed amount in aliquots of variable size at unpredictable times (Unpredictable Group, U; n = 21. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT, and measurement of diurnal plasma cortisol concentrations were performed pre and post the dietary intervention. Groups were compared using t test and RM ANOVA. Weight gain was similar in both groups (C 18 ± 2%; U 16 ± 2% of initial body weight. Glucose area under the curve (AUC was unchanged in C (AUC pre 818 ± 34, post 801 ± 33 mmol.min.l(-1, but increased by 20% in U (pre 830 ± 25, post 1010 ± 19 mmol.min.l(-1; p<0.0001, with an inadequate insulin response to glucose load (log(AUC insulin first 40 minutes post intervention C 1.49 ± 0.04 vs U 1.36 ± 0.04 ng.min.ml(-1; p = 0.03. Insulin tolerance and diurnal variation of plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Unpredictable feeding impairs insulin response to glucose in growing lambs despite high quality food and normal weight gain. Irregular eating warrants investigation as a potentially remediable risk factor for disordered glucose metabolism.

  6. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    interaction of WFS1 rs734312 on insulin release and insulin resistance we introduced Hotelling's T (2) test. Assuming bivariate normal distribution, we constructed standard error ellipses of the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR when stratified according to glucose tolerance status around the means of each WFS1...... rs734312 genotype level. The interaction term between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and abnormal glucose regulation on the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with the traits (p = 0.0017). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 2 diabetes-associated risk alleles of WFS1...... are associated with estimates of a decreased pancreatic beta cell function among middle-aged individuals with abnormal glucose regulation....

  7. An elevated 1-h post- load glucose level during the oral glucose tolerance test detects prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysschaert, Martin; Bergman, Michael; Yanogo, Donald; Jagannathan, Ram; Buysschaert, Benoit; Preumont, Vanessa

    The objective of the study was to compare the diagnosis of dysglycemic states by conventional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) criteria (fasting and 2-h plasma glucose) with the 1-h post-load plasma glucose level. 34 individuals (mean age: 55±13years; BMI: 27.7±6.3kg/m(2)) at risk for prediabetes were administered a 75g OGTT. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or prediabetes were identified according to fasting and/or 2-h plasma glucose (PG) concentrations. Subsequently, subjects were divided in 2 groups: group 1 (n=21) with a 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl. HOMA was performed to assess β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. NGT or prediabetes based on conventional criteria correlated with the 1-h PGh PG≥155mg/dl was associated with higher HbA1c levels (6.1±0.5 vs. 5.5±0.3%, ph PGh post-load plasma glucose value ≥155mg/dl is strongly associated with conventional criteria for (pre)diabetes and alterations of β-cell function. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  9. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  10. Single Fasting Plasma Glucose Versus 75-g Oral Glucose-Tolerance Test in Prediction of Adverse Perinatal Outcomes: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Songying; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Lifang; He, Jianrong; Li, Weidong; Chen, Niannian; Wen, Xingxuan; Xiao, Wanqing; Yuan, Mingyang; Qiu, Lan; Cheng, Kar Keung; Xia, Huimin; Mol, Ben Willem J; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-02-01

    There remains uncertainty regarding whether a single fasting glucose measurement is sufficient to predict risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. We included 12,594 pregnant women who underwent a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 22-28weeks' gestation in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China. Outcomes were large for gestational age (LGA) baby, cesarean section, and spontaneous preterm birth. We calculated the area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUCs) to assess the capacity of OGTT glucose values to predict adverse outcomes, and compared the AUCs of different components of OGTT. 1325 women had a LGA baby (10.5%). Glucose measurements were linearly associated with LGA, with strongest associations for fasting glucose (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.45). Weaker associations were observed for cesarean section and spontaneous preterm birth. Fasting glucose have a comparable discriminative power for prediction of LGA to the combination of fasting, 1h, and 2h glucose values during OGTT (AUCs, 0.611 vs. 0.614, P=0.166). The LGA risk was consistently increased in women with abnormal fasting glucose (≥5.1mmol/l), irrespective of 1h or 2h glucose levels. A single fasting glucose measurement performs comparably to 75-g OGTT in predicting risk of having a LGA baby. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Elizabeth L M; Zimmet, Paul Z; Welborn, Timothy A; Jolley, Damien; Magliano, Dianna J; Dunstan, David W; Cameron, Adrian J; Dwyer, Terry; Taylor, Hugh R; Tonkin, Andrew M; Wong, Tien Y; McNeil, John; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2007-07-10

    Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. The relationship between milder elevations of blood glucose and mortality is less clear. This study investigated whether impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, as well as diabetes mellitus, increase the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. In 1999 to 2000, glucose tolerance status was determined in 10,428 participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). After a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 298 deaths occurred (88 CVD deaths). Compared with those with normal glucose tolerance, the adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for known diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were 2.3 (1.6 to 3.2) and 1.3 (0.9 to 2.0), respectively. The risk of death was also increased in those with impaired fasting glucose (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4) and impaired glucose tolerance (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0). Sixty-five percent of all those who died of CVD had known diabetes mellitus, newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance at baseline. Known diabetes mellitus (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.7) and impaired fasting glucose (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) were independent predictors for CVD mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and other traditional CVD risk factors, but impaired glucose tolerance was not (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.2). This study emphasizes the strong association between abnormal glucose metabolism and mortality, and it suggests that this condition contributes to a large number of CVD deaths in the general population. CVD prevention may be warranted in people with all categories of abnormal glucose metabolism.

  12. Mathematical modelling of the intravenous glucose tolerance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaetano, A; Arino, O

    2000-02-01

    Several attempts at building a satisfactory model of the glucose-insulin system are recorded in the literature. The minimal model, which is the model currently mostly used in physiological research on the metabolism of glucose, was proposed in the early eighties for the interpretation of the glucose and insulin plasma concentrations following the intravenous glucose tolerance test. It is composed of two parts: the first consists of two differential equations and describes the glucose plasma concentration time-course treating insulin plasma concentration as a known forcing function; the second consists of a single equation and describes the time course of plasma insulin concentration treating glucose plasma concentration as a known forcing function. The two parts are to be separately estimated on the available data. In order to study glucose-insulin homeostasis as a single dynamical system, a unified model would be desirable. To this end, the simple coupling of the original two parts of the minimal model is not appropriate, since it can be shown that, for commonly observed combinations of parameter values, the coupled model would not admit an equilibrium and the concentration of active insulin in the "distant" compartment would be predicted to increase without bounds. For comparison, a simple delay-differential model is introduced, is demonstrated to be globally asymptotically stable around a unique equilibrium point corresponding to the pre-bolus conditions, and is shown to have positive and bounded solutions for all times. The results of fitting the delay-differential model to experimental data from ten healthy volunteers are also shown. It is concluded that a global unified model is both theoretically desirable and practically usable, and that any such model ought to undergo formal analysis to establish its appropriateness and to exclude conflicts with accepted physiological notions.

  13. [Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodríguez-López, Leticia; Lozano-Nuevo, José Juan; Vargas-Ayala, German; Beltrán-Soto, José Martín; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tienden a coexistir en el mismo paciente. La hiperglucemia postprandial de dos horas es un predictor de enfermedad cardiovascular. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la prevalencia de tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en sujetos hipertensos con glucosa de ayuno normal. Métodos: se incluyeron 65 pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos y con glucosa plasmática de ayuno glucosa. Resultados: encontramos tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en 32 pacientes (49.2 %), 29 en rango de intolerancia a la glucosa y tres casos en rango de diabetes mellitus. No hallamos relación entre glucosa postprandial con cifras de presión arterial ni con la edad, pero sí una correlación significativa entre intolerancia a la glucosa e índice de masa corporal > 32.6 (R = 0.59, p glucosa alterada, particularmente aquellos con índice de masa corporal aumentado, y que la glucosa de ayuno no es suficiente como prueba de monitoreo para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en ese tipo de pacientes.

  14. Effect of impaired glucose tolerance on cardiac dysfunction in a rat model of prediabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jia-liang; FENG Zhi-kuan; LIU Xiao-ying; LIN Qiu-xiong; FU Yong-heng; SHAN Zhi-xin; ZHU Jie-ning; LIN Shu-guang; YU Xi-yong

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on cardiac function during the chronic prediabetes state is complicated and plays an important role in clinical outcome. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. This study was designed to observe cardiac dysfunction in prediabetic rats with IGT and to determine whether glucose metabolic abnormalities, inflammation and apoptosis are linked to it.Methods The IGT rat models were induced by streptozocin, and the heart functions were assessed by echocardiography.Myocardial glucose metabolism was analyzed by glycogen periodic acid-Schiff staining, and the pro-apoptotic effect of IGT was evaluated by TUNEL staining. Additionally, caspase-3 activation, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) were detected by Western blotting in cardiac tissue lysates.Results Area-under-the-curve of blood glucose in rats injected with streptozotocin was higher than that in controls,increased by 16.28%, 38.60% and 38.61% at 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively (F=15.370, P=0.003). Abnormal cardiac functions and apoptotic cardiomyocytes were observed in the IGT rats, the ejection fraction (EF) being (68.59±6.62)% in IGT rats vs. (81.07±4.59)% in controls (t=4.020, P=0.002). There was more glucose which was converted to glycogen in the myocardial tissues of IGT rats, especially in cardiac perivascular tissues. Compared to controls, the cleaved caspase-3, MIF and GRK2 were expressed at higher levels in the myocardial tissues of IGT rats.Conclusions IGT in the prediabetes period resulted in cardiac dysfunction linked to abnormal glycogen storage and apoptosis. Additionally, MIF and GRK2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction in prediabetes and their regulation may contribute to the design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for those who have potential risks for diabetic cardiovascular complications.

  15. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  16. Predictors of stroke in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: results from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preiss, D.; Giles, T.D.; Thomas, L.E.; Sun, J.L.; Haffner, S.M.; Holman, R.R.; Standl, E.; Mazzone, T.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Tognoni, G.; Chiang, F.T.; McMurray, J.J.; Califf, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Risk factors for stroke are well-established in general populations but sparsely studied in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods—We identified predictors of stroke among participants with impaired glucose tolerance in the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired G

  17. Glucose and insulin tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, P; Genazzani, A R; Felber, J P; Facchini, V; Onano, A M; Romagnino, S; Facchinetti, F; Piras, G L

    1975-03-01

    On the basis of the behaviour during menstrual cycle of the pituitary hormones plasma levels, the Authors have studied during the different periods of the cycle (follicular, ovulatory and luteal) the effects of OGTT and ITT's on the plasma levels of Glucose, insulin, HGH and Cortisol. Significantly lower levels of IRI, HGH and Cortisol were found in follicular phase compared to ovulatory period and luteal phase except for Cortisol in luteal phase. A slightly higher glucose tolerance was found in follicular phase as well as a reduced hypoglicemia under insulin load. Reduced HGH response to ITT was found in follicular phase as well as a reduced Cortisol response compared to the results observed in ovulatory and luteal phase. These data sustain the concept that hormonal variations occurring in an ovulatory cycle are also capable of modifying the woman's body response to various stimuli such as OGTT and ITT.

  18. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A

    1978-02-01

    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  19. Unsuspected glucose abnormalities in patients with coronary artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-25

    hour post ... Patients with a high index of suspicion of CAD ... (iii) one or more parents with DM; (iv) body mass index ... WHO classification of a fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/l ..... Don't miss this opportunity: Diagnosing diabetes.

  20. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  1. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.

  2. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  3. Effects of celiac superior mesenteric ganglionectomy on glucose homeostasis and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance testing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Atsushi; Shikuma, Junpei; Ogihara, Norikazu; Eiki, Jun-ichi; Kanazawa, Masao; Notoya, Yōko; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Odawara, Masato

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in the body. In the prandial state, some of the glucose which is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver. In contrast, the liver produces glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis while fasting. Thus, the liver contributes to maintaining blood glucose level within normoglycemic range. Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are regulated by various mechanisms including hormones, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and the hepatic glucose content. In this study, we examined a rat model in which the celiac superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG) was resected. We attempted to elucidate how the celiac sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating glucose homeostasis by assessing the effects of CSMG resection on glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, and by examining hepatic glycogen content and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity. On the oral glucose tolerance test, CSMG-resected rats demonstrated improved glucose tolerance and significantly increased GP activity compared with sham-operated rats, whereas there were no significant differences in insulin, glucagon or catecholamine levels between the 2 groups. These results suggest that the celiac sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating the rate of glycogen consumption through GP activity. In conclusion, the examined rat model showed that the celiac sympathetic nervous system regulates hepatic glucose metabolism in conjunction with vagal nerve innervations and is a critical component in the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis.

  4. Short-term reproducibility of impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes The ADDITION study, DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S S; Glümer, C; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    BG) individuals with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes had a second test done after 14 days. Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) were estimated in each glucose tolerance class using the approximation CV(2)(x)=var(ln(x)). Bland-Altman plots with limits...... of agreement were made. In the total population, the CV(intra) was 7.9% and 13.8% for FBG and 2hBG, respectively. Limits of agreement ranged from -1.15 to 1.67mmol/l for FBG and from - 2.62 to 3.27mmol/l for 2hBG. One individual with IFG and 22.5% with IGT had diabetes at the second test, 76.1% with diabetes...... persistently classified with abnormal glucose regulation; diabetes was confirmed in 76% of the cases. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-12...

  5. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Weon Wook; Suh, Kuen Tak; Kim, Jeung Il; Ku, Ja Gyung; Lee, Hong Seok; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ki; Lee, Jung Sub

    2008-01-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with ...

  6. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects.

  7. The hypertriglyceridemia is associated with isolated impaired glucose tolerance in subjects without insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if hypertriglyceridemia is associated with isolated impaired glucose tolerance in subjects without insulin resistance. A total of 365 apparently healthy individuals aged 20-65 years were enrolled in a population-based cross-sectional study. Subjects were allocated into the groups with and without hypertriglyceridemia. Age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference were matched criteria. Individuals with impaired fasting glucose, impaired fasting glucose+impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index ≥ 2.5, and/or chronic illnesses such as renal disease or malignancy were excluded. Hypertriglyceridemia was defined by triglycerides levels ≥ 150 mg/dL. Impaired glucose tolerance was defined by plasma glucose concentration 2-h post-load glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL hypertriglyceridemia (independent variable) and impaired glucose tolerance (dependent variable). A total of 132 and 233 subjects were allocated into the groups with and without hypertriglyceridemia, respectively. The frequency of impaired glucose tolerance was 13.6% and 5.6% in the individuals with and without hypertriglyceridemia, p = 0.01. The logistic regression analysis adjusted by gender, blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed that hypertriglyceridemia is significantly associated with impaired glucose tolerance (OR 2.34; 95% CI: 1.02-5.32, p = 0.04). Results of this study indicate that hypertriglyceridemia is independently associated with isolated impaired glucose tolerance in subjects without insulin resistance.

  8. Persistent abnormal coronary flow reserve in association with abnormal glucose metabolism affects prognosis in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in coronary flow reserve (CFR) over time after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to left ventricular (LV) function and glucometabolic state and prognostic implication of abnormal CFR. Methods: 154 patients with first time AMI had a comprehensive...... baseline CFR (P = 0.004), S' (P = 0.045) and abnormal glucose metabolism (P = 0.001) were predictors of a decreased CFR at 3 months of follow-up. In multivariate analyses abnormal glucose metabolism (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.9-14.4; P = 0.001) remained a predictor of decreased CFR at follow-up, furthermore...... baseline CFR (OR: 0.5; 95%CI: 0.25-0.94; P = 0.032) and S' (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.94; P = 0.021) was predictors of decreased CFR. Finally, CFR was associated with a lower risk of cardiac events in patients with normal glucose metabolism (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.22-1.9; P = 0.42) than in patients...

  9. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults.

  10. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  11. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne J; Bensoussan, Alan; Chang, Dennis; Kiat, Hosen; Klupp, Nerida L; Liu, Jian Ping; Li, Xun

    2009-10-07

    Around 308 million people worldwide are estimated to have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 25% to 75% of these will develop diabetes within a decade of initial diagnosis. At diagnosis, half will have tissue-related damage and all have an increased risk for coronary heart disease. The objective of this review was to assess the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicines for the treatment of people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, a range of Chinese language databases, SIGLE and databases of ongoing trials. Randomised clinical trials comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions in people with IGT or IFG were considered. Two authors independently extracted data. Trials were assessed for risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, outcome assessors and intervention providers, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. This review examined 16 trials lasting four weeks to two years involving 1391 participants receiving 15 different Chinese herbal medicines in eight different comparisons. No trial reported on mortality, morbidity or costs. No serious adverse events like severe hypoglycaemia were observed. Meta-analysis of eight trials showed that those receiving Chinese herbal medicines combined with lifestyle modification were more than twice as likely to have their fasting plasma glucose levels return to normal levels (i.e. fasting plasma glucose lifestyle modification alone (RR 2.07; 95% confidence intervall (CI) 1.52 to 2.82). Those receiving Chinese herbs were less likely to progress to diabetes over the duration of the trial (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.58). However, all trials had a considerable risk of bias and none of the specific herbal medicines comparison data was

  12. Effects of chronic caffeine administration on blood glucose levels and on glucose tolerance in healthy and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Z; Trujillo, X; Huerta, M; Trujillo-Hernández, B; Ríos-Silva, M; Onetti, C; Ortiz-Mesina, M; Sánchez-Pastor, E

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the effect of chronic caffeine use on risk reduction and prognosis of diabetes mellitus. In this 60-day study, five groups of 11 healthy male Wistar rats were selected to receive one of four doses (37.5, 56.2, 75.0 or 93.0 mg/kg per day) of caffeine orally or no caffeine (control). The effect of caffeine on glycaemia and glucose tolerance was evaluated. After 15 days, each group was treated with 60 mg/kg of streptozotocine to induce diabetes mellitus, and glycaemia and glucose tolerance were assessed for a further 45 days. In nondiabetic rats, caffeine had no effect on blood glucose. Compared with controls, the fasting blood glucose levels declined significantly in two caffeine-treated groups (93.0 mg/kg per day and 56.2 mg/kg per day) during the first 15 days following diabetes induction. Glucose tolerance was significantly improved 120 min after glucose loading in all caffeine-treated groups. The mean ± SE half-maximal effective concentration of caffeine was 35.79 ± 2.44 mg/dl. Blood glucose levels decreased, and glucose tolerance improved, in diabetic rats administered increasing doses of caffeine.

  13. Cacao liquor procyanidin extract improves glucose tolerance by enhancing GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Yoko; Okabe, Masaaki; Natsume, Midori; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are associated with the increased risk of the metabolic syndrome and other severe health problems. The insulin-sensitive GLUT4 regulates glucose homoeostasis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether cacao liquor procyanidin (CLPr) extract, which contains epicatechin, catechin and other procyanidins, improves glucose tolerance by promoting GLUT4 translocation and enhances glucose uptake in muscle cells. Our results demo...

  14. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test.......This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test....

  15. Study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) : design and screening results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, M; Corpeleijn, E; Feskens, EJM; Kruijshoop, M; Saris, WHM; de Bruin, TWA; Blaak, EE

    2003-01-01

    The study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) is a 3 years randomised clinical trial designed to evaluate the effect of a combined diet and physical activity intervention program on glucose tolerance in a Dutch population at increased risk for developing type 2

  16. Study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) : design and screening results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, M; Corpeleijn, E; Feskens, EJM; Kruijshoop, M; Saris, WHM; de Bruin, TWA; Blaak, EE

    2003-01-01

    The study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) is a 3 years randomised clinical trial designed to evaluate the effect of a combined diet and physical activity intervention program on glucose tolerance in a Dutch population at increased risk for developing type 2

  17. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fonville (Susanne); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.F. Lingsma (Hester)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiag

  18. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  19. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  20. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  1. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance t...

  2. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  3. Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Resistance in Isolated Impaired Fasting Glucose and Isolated Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Aoyama-Sasabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the characteristics of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG, we analyzed the factors responsible for elevation of 2-hour postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels. Methods. We investigated the relationship between 2 h PG and FPG levels who underwent 75 g OGTT in 5620 Japanese subjects at initial examination for medical check-up. We compared clinical characteristics between isolated IGT and isolated IFG and analyzed the relationships of 2 h PG and FPG with clinical characteristics, the indices of insulin secretory capacity, and insulin sensitivity. Results. In a comparison between isolated IGT and isolated IFG, insulinogenic index was lower in isolated IGT than that of isolated IFG (0.43 ± 0.34 versus 0.50 ± 0.47, resp.; p<0.01. ISI composite was lower in isolated IFG than that of isolated IGT (6.87 ± 3.38 versus 7.98 ± 4.03, resp.; p<0.0001. In isolated IGT group, insulinogenic index showed a significant correlation with 2 h PG (r=-0.245, p<0.0001 and had the strongest correlation with 2 h PG (β=-0.290. In isolated IFG group, ISI composite showed a significant correlation with FPG (r=-0.162, p<0.0001 and had the strongest correlation with FPG (β=-0.214. Conclusions. We have elucidated that decreased early-phase insulin secretion is the most important factor responsible for elevation of 2 h PG levels in isolated IGT subjects, and decreased insulin sensitivity is the most important factor responsible for elevation of FPG levels in isolated IFG subjects.

  4. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  5. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. METHODS: We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate...... of lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. RESULTS: After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels...... program: Food, Fitness & Pharma for Health and Disease (see www.foodfitnesspharma.ku.dk ). Funding was received from the Novo Nordisk foundation and the Strategic Research Counsel for the Capital Area and Danish Research Agency. The primary investigator received a PhD scholarship from the University...

  6. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test among Adolescents with Impaired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    two hour post glucose load blood glucose value of> ... blood glucose value was higher in subjects with impaired glucose ... in 200mls of water and given to the subjects to drink over ten to ... normal weight. None of the ... showed a low concordance between IFG and ... different stages of carbohydrate metabolism. There is ...

  7. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gao

    Full Text Available Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and normal glucose tolerance (NGT and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses.A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50 patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51 and NGT (n = 50 according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA.Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly.Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  8. Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, M; Kistorp, C N; Schou, M;

    2013-01-01

    years, 69% male, 59% had ischaemic heart disease, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 37 ± 9%). Thirty-four (21%) patients had known diabetes mellitus (DM). Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) classified patients without a prior DM diagnosis as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance......AIMS: To investigate the associations between glucose metabolism, left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve, and exercise capacity in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: From an outpatient HF clinic, 161 patients with systolic HF were included (mean age 70 ± 10...... detected by OGTT, is independently associated with reduced LV contractile reserve and exercise...

  9. Subscapular skinfold thickness distinguishes between transient and persistent impaired glucose tolerance: Study on Lifestyle-Intervention and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Maastricht (SLIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, M; Feskens, E J M; Kruijshoop, M; de Bruin, T W A; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2003-07-01

    To assess whether adding anthropometric measurements to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can help to distinguish between transient and persistent impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). From the SLIM project (Study on Lifestyle-Intervention and IGT Maastricht), a study designed to evaluate whether diet and physical activity intervention can improve glucose tolerance in subjects at risk for diabetes, 108 subjects with IGT underwent a repeated OGTT 2-4 months after the initial OGTT. Following the second test, subjects were classified as transient IGT, or persistent IGT. Anthropometric measurements, including body mass index, waist and hip circumference, sagittal and transverse abdominal diameters and skinfold thickness measurements, were done during the second OGTT. Persistent IGT was diagnosed in 47 subjects (44%), transient IGT in 40 (37%), impaired fasting glucose in eight subjects (7%), and diabetes in 13 cases (12%). Two-hour blood glucose levels at the initial OGTT and subscapular skinfold thickness were significantly higher in subjects with persistent IGT (2-h blood glucose 9.8+/-0.1 mmol/l vs. 10.2+/-0.1 mmol/l for transient IGT and persistent IGT, respectively; subscapular skinfold thickness 25.4+/-1.4 mm vs. 29.8+/-1.2 mm for transient IGT and persistent IGT, respectively). After adjustment for age, sex and family history of diabetes mellitus, logistic regression indicated that 2-h blood glucose level during the initial OGTT represented the strongest predictor of persistent IGT (Pskinfold thickness (Pskinfold thickness remained significantly associated with persistent IGT (odds ratio 1.84; Pskinfold thickness was the best predictor of persistent IGT, suggesting that adding simple anthropometric measures to oral glucose tolerance testing may improve the distinction between persistent and transient glucose intolerance.

  10. Natural history of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the progression from normal glucose tolerance to impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, Kristine; Vaag, Allan; Holst, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in the development of isolated impaired fasting glycemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), and combined IFG/IGT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline and 5-year...... of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS), early-phase insulin release (EPIR), and insulin secretion relative to insulin action (disposition index) were estimated. RESULTS: Five years before the pre-diabetes diagnoses (i-IFG, i-IGT, and IFG/IGT), ISI, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and disposition index were lower than...... follow-up data from the Inter99 study were used. Individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline and i-IFG, i-IGT, combined IFG/IGT, or NGT at the 5-year follow-up were examined with an oral glucose tolerance test (n = 3,145). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI), homeostasis model assessment...

  11. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose......, and decreased late postprandial secretion of ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Dietary thylakoids may be a novel agent in reducing the glycaemic responses to high carbohydrate and high glycaemic index foods. Thylakoids may in the future be promising for treatment and prevention of diabetes, overweight and obesity....... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study...

  12. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions: A: baseline; B: after 21 days of treatment with St. John's wort; and C: at least 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was ingested. Plasma glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and used for estimation of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) as well as indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We found that treatment with St. John's wort increased total and incremental glucose AUC and 2-hr plasma glucose levels. Surprisingly, this effect was sustained and even further increased 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was taken. No effect on indices of insulin sensitivity was seen, but indices of insulin secretion were reduced even after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study indicates that long-term treatment with St. John's wort may impair glucose tolerance by reducing insulin secretion in young, healthy men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  13. Exogenous glucose administration impairs glucose tolerance and pancreatic insulin secretion during acute sepsis in non-diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The development of hyperglycemia and the use of early parenteral feeding are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. We therefore examined the impact of exogenous glucose administration on the integrated metabolic function of endotoxemic mice using our recently developed frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT. We next extended our findings using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP sepsis model administered early parenteral glucose support. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, 8-12 weeks, were instrumented with chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters. Endotoxemia was initiated with intra-arterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg in the presence of saline or glucose infusion (100 µL/hr, and an FSIVGTT was performed after five hours. In a second experiment, catheterized mice underwent CLP and the impact of early parenteral glucose administration on glucose homeostasis and mortality was assessed over 24 hrs. MEASUREMENTS: AND MAIN RESULTS: Administration of LPS alone did not impair metabolic function, whereas glucose administration alone induced an insulin sensitive state. In contrast, LPS and glucose combined caused marked glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and significantly impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. Similarly, CLP mice receiving parenteral glucose developed fulminant hyperglycemia within 18 hrs (all > 600 mg/dl associated with increased systemic cytokine release and 40% mortality, whereas CLP alone (85 ± 2 mg/dL or sham mice receiving parenteral glucose (113 ± 3 mg/dL all survived and were not hyperglycemic. Despite profound hyperglycemia, plasma insulin in the CLP glucose-infused mice (3.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml was not higher than sham glucose infused mice (2.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of parenteral glucose support and the systemic inflammatory response in the acute phase of sepsis induces profound insulin resistance and impairs compensatory pancreatic insulin

  14. Predictive factors of non-deterioration of glucose tolerance following a 2-year behavioral intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida-Pititto Bianca

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To identify predictive factors associated with non-deterioration of glucose metabolism following a 2-year behavioral intervention in Japanese-Brazilians. Methods 295 adults (59.7% women without diabetes completed 2-year intervention program. Characteristics of those who maintained/improved glucose tolerance status (non-progressors were compared with those who worsened (progressors after the intervention. In logistic regression analysis, the condition of non-progressor was used as dependent variable. Results Baseline characteristics of non-progressors (71.7% and progressors were similar, except for the former being younger and having higher frequency of disturbed glucose tolerance and lower C-reactive protein (CRP. In logistic regression, non-deterioration of glucose metabolism was associated with disturbed glucose tolerance - impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance - (p Conclusion The whole sample presented a homogeneous behavior during the intervention. Lower CRP levels and diagnosis of glucose intolerance at baseline were predictors of non-deterioration of the glucose metabolism after a relatively simple intervention, independent of body adiposity.

  15. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S;

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects......). Plasma levels of GLP-1 and GIP increased after oral glucose. Total secretion of these incretin hormones during the 3-hour test did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the 30-minute increase in GLP-1 concentrations was lower in IGT than in NGT (P =.036). We conclude that also in non-obese subjects...

  16. A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Romaiyan, A; King, A J; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines, especially plant-derived extracts, have been used to treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for many centuries, and offer the potential of cheap and readily available alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals in developing countries. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have anti-diabetic activities and have been used as a folk medicine in India for centuries. We have investigated the effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract termed OSA® on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice, and on insulin secretion and synthesis by isolated mouse islets. Single administration of OSA® (500 mg/kg) to ob/ob mice 30 min before an intraperitoneal glucose load improved their abnormal glucose tolerance. In vitro studies indicated that OSA® (0.25 mg/ml) initiated rapid and reversible increases in insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets at substimulatory (2 mM) and stimulatory (20 mM) glucose concentrations. In addition, prolonged treatment (24-48 h) of mouse islets with OSA® elevated the expression of preproinsulin mRNA and maintained the total insulin content of mouse islets in the presence of stimulated insulin secretion. These effects of OSA® are consistent with its potential use as a therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with obesity-related T2DM.

  17. High-normal fasting glucose levels are associated with increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandone, A; Amato, A; Luongo, C; Santoro, N; Perrone, L; del Giudice, E Miraglia

    2008-12-01

    The natural history of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and Type 2 diabetes among obese children is not clear. Although the cut-off for impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has recently been changed from 110 (6.1 mmol/l) to 100 mg/dl (5.6 mmol/l), it does not seem a reliable way to find all subjects with impaired glucose homeostasis. The aim of our study was to determine whether high-normal fasting glucose level could predict the occurrence of IGT and metabolic syndrome. Three hundred and twenty-three Italian obese children and adolescents were included in the study (176 females, mean age 11+/-2.9 yr; mean body mass index z-score: 3+/-0.6). Waist circumference, serum glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol HDL, blood pressure were evaluated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. The prevalence of IFG and IGT were respectively 1.5% (5 subjects) and 5% (18 patients); no diabetic patients were found. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 20% of patients. Fasting glycemia values youths. Interestingly high-normal fasting plasma glucose levels constitute an independent risk factor for IGT among obese children and adolescents; therefore, this very easy-to-use parameter may help to identify obese patients at increased risk of diabetes or at least could suggest in which subjects to perform an OGTT.

  18. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  19. Short-term glucose metabolism and gut hormone modulations after Billroth II gastrojejunostomy in nonobese gastric cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-juan; Xiao, Zhu; Yu, Hong-ling; Zhang, Xiang-xun; Cheng, Zhong; Tian, Hao-ming

    2013-08-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is effective in controlling blood glucose in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The alterations of gut hormones involving in glucose metabolism may play an important role. Our aim was to explore the short-term effects of Billroth II gastrojejunostomy (a similar type of RYGB) on glucose metabolism and gut hormone modulations in nonobese patients with different levels of blood glucose tolerance. Twenty one nonobese gastric cancer patients with different levels of blood glucose tolerance were submitted to Billroth II gastrojejunostomy. Among them, seven had T2DM, seven with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and the other seven had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Body weight, glucose parameters, responses of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) to 75 g glucose were measured at baseline and 3 months after surgery. Similar weight losses were observed in all groups. Blood glucose was reduced in T2DM and IGT patients. Fasting and 30-min plasma glucose were increased significantly in NGT. GLP-1 showed insignificant alterations in all groups. PYY was evaluated in T2DM and IGT but remained unchanged in the NGT group. Decreased fasting and AUC GIP were observed in patients with T2DM; however, fasting and 30-min GIP were increased in NGT patients. Billroth II gastrojejunostomy is effective in reducing blood glucose in nonobese patients with T2DM and IGT but could deteriorate early blood glucose in nonobese NGT in a 3-month time period. Variations of glucose and gut hormone changes in the three groups suggest a role of proximal intestine in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute fructose administration decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose tolerance test in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Cherrington, A D; Mann, S L; Davis, S N

    2000-12-01

    In animal models, a small (catalytic) dose of fructose administered with glucose decreases the glycemic response to the glucose load. Therefore, we examined the effect of fructose on glucose tolerance in 11 healthy human volunteers (5 men and 6 women). Each subject underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on 2 separate occasions, at least 1 week apart. Each OGTT consisted of 75 g glucose with or without 7.5 g fructose (OGTT+F or OGTT-F), in random order. Arterialized blood samples were obtained from a heated dorsal hand vein twice before ingestion of the carbohydrate and every 15 min for 2 h afterward. The area under the curve (AUC) of the change in plasma glucose was 19% less in OGTT+F vs. OGTT-F (P: Glucose tolerance was improved by fructose in 9 subjects and worsened in 2. All 6 subjects with the largest glucose AUC during OGTT-F had a decreased response during OGTT+F (31 +/- 5% decrease). The insulin AUC did not differ between the 2 studies. Of the 9 subjects with improved glucose tolerance during the OGTT+F, 5 had smaller insulin AUC during the OGTT+F than the OGTT-F. Plasma glucagon concentrations declined similarly during OGTT-F and OGTT+F. The blood lactate response was about 50% greater during the OGTT+F (P: fructose improves the glycemic response to an oral glucose load in normal adults without significantly enhancing the insulin or triglyceride response. Fructose appears most effective in those normal individuals who have the poorest glucose tolerance.

  1. Diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia in an elderly population - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, PTVM; Hofman, A; Grobbee, DE

    1997-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in the elderly, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as part of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study in subjects aged 55 years and over, The study population consisted of 2,668 men and 3,950 women, Diabetes mellitus was defined as the

  2. Visceral, subcutaneous abdominal adiposity and liver fat content distribution in normal glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, A L; Nazare, J A; Smith, J; Aschner, P; Barter, P; Van Gaal, L; Eng Tan, C; Wittchen, H U; Matsuzawa, Y; Kadowaki, T; Ross, R; Brulle-Wohlhueter, C; Alméras, N; Haffner, S M; Balkau, B; Després, J P

    2015-03-01

    To examine the specific distribution of liver fat content, visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in normal glucose tolerance (NGT/NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (iIFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT) and combined conditions (IFG+IGT), as well as with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (nT2D). Multicenter, international observational study: cross-sectional analysis. Two thousand five hundred and fifteen patients (50.0% women, 54.5% non-Caucasian) without previously known diabetes were recruited from 29 countries. Abdominal fat distribution was measured by computed tomography (CT). Liver fat was estimated using the CT-liver mean attenuation. Compared with NGT/NGT patients, increased visceral adiposity was found in iIFG, iIGT, IFG+IGT and nT2D; estimated liver fat progressively increased across these conditions. A one-s.d. increase in visceral adiposity was associated with an increased risk of having iIFG (men: odds ratio (OR) 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.74), women: OR 1.62 (1.29-2.04)), iIGT (men: OR 1.59 (1.15-2.01), women: OR 1.30 (0.96-1.76)), IFG+IGT (men: OR 1.64 (1.27-2.13), women: OR 1.83 (1.36-2.48)) and nT2D (men: OR 1.80 (1.35-2.42), women: OR 1.73 (1.25-2.41)). A one-s.d. increase in estimated liver fat was associated with iIGT (men: OR 1.46 (1.12-1.90), women: OR 1.81 (1.41-2.35)), IFG+IGT (men: OR 1.42 (1.14-1.77), women: OR 1.74 (1.35-2.26)) and nT2D (men: OR 1.77 (1.40-2.27), women: OR 2.38 (1.81-3.18)). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue showed an inverse relationship with nT2D in women (OR 0.63 (0.45-0.88)). Liver fat was associated with iIGT but not with iIFG, whereas visceral adiposity was associated with both. Liver fat and visceral adiposity were associated with nT2D, whereas subcutaneous adiposity showed an inverse relationship with nT2D in women.

  3. A Novel EPO Receptor Agonist Improves Glucose Tolerance via Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Scully

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated with recombinant human Epo demonstrate an improvement in insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether CNTO 530, a novel Epo receptor agonist, could affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A single administration of CNTO 530 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the area under the curve in a glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice after 14, 21, and 28 days. HOMA analysis suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and this effect was confirmed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Uptake of 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose indicated that animals dosed with CNTO 530 transported more glucose into skeletal muscle and heart relative to control animals. In conclusion, CNTO530 has a profound effect on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rodents likely because of improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. This effect was observed with epoetin-α and darbepoetin-α, suggesting this is a class effect, but the effect with these compounds relative to CNTO530 was decreased in duration and magnitude.

  4. Hemoglobin A1c Versus Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Postpartum Diabetes Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Picón, María José; Murri, Mora; Muñoz, Araceli; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Francisco J Tinahones

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the usefulness of measuring hemoglobin A1c (A1C), alone or combined with the fasting glucose test, compared with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the reassessment of the carbohydrate metabolism status in postpartum women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the status of carbohydrate metabolism by performing the OGTT and fasting glucose and A1C tests in 231 postpartum women with prior GDM 1 year after ...

  5. Predictors of cardiovascular events in a contemporary population with impaired glucose tolerance : an observational analysis of the Nateglinide and Valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research (NAVIGATOR) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preiss, David; Thomas, Laine E.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Haffner, Steven M.; Holman, Rury R.; Standl, Eberhard; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mazzone, Theodore; Rutten, Guy E.; Tognoni, Gianni; Martinez, Felipe A.; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Califf, Robert M.; McMurray, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Risk factors for cardiovascular events are well established in general populations and those with diabetes but have been sparsely studied in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We sought to identify predictors of (1) a composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myoca

  6. Lack of agreement between the revised criteria of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Morán-Villota, Segundo; Barradas-González, Rosalinda; Herrera-Márquez, Rocio; Cruz López, Miguel; Kumate, Jesus; Wacher, Niels H

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the agreement between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in children with excess body weight using the original and the revised definitions of IFG. Obese and overweight children aged 4-17 years were included (n = 533). Anthropometric parameters and biochemical tests (fasting and 2-h glucose tests after an oral glucose load [1.75 g/kg]) were performed. Case subjects with a fasting plasma glucose >/=126 mg/dl were excluded. The diagnostic parameters of the original and the revised definitions of IFG for detecting IGT were estimated. The analysis of agreement between these categories was made using the kappa test. The prevalence of IFG increased from 6.2 to 13.3% using the new criteria. The prevalence of IFG became closer to the prevalence of IGT (14.8%). The revised criteria increased the sensitivity from 26.6 to 36.7%. However, the new IFG definition was not useful for identifying IGT cases. Of the 71 case subjects with IFG, only 29 (40.8%) had IGT. In addition, 50 case subjects with IGT (9.4%) and 13 with diabetes (2.4%) had a fasting glycemia <100 mg/dl. A poor agreement was found between the 2003 IFG definition and abnormal 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose (kappa = 0.359). The proportion of false-positive cases increased (36.3-59.1%) under the new definition. The new definition modestly increases the sensitivity of IFG for detecting IGT in children with excess body weight. Despite this, more than one-half of these cases are not detected. In addition, the false-positive rate was increased by 61%.

  7. Effect of Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on Glucose Tolerance in Generalized Lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauger, Belinda J.; Gorden, Phillip; Park, Jean; Cochran, Elaine; Stratton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipodystrophy is a rare condition causing severe insulin resistance and frank diabetes. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a commonly used contraceptive, may worsen glucose tolerance in diabetics and those with lipodystrophy. CASE A young woman with generalized lipodystrophy, who previously required greater than 1,000 units of insulin daily, had a normal hemoglobin A1c on leptin and metformin only. After an injection of DMPA, she developed severe hyperglycemia. Her levels returned to near normal only with extremely high doses of insulin (up to 1,700 units/d) and increased doses of leptin and metformin. CONCLUSION Progestin-only contraceptives may detrimentally affect glucose tolerance, particularly in patients with lipodystrophy, a cause of severe insulin resistance and leptin deficiency. One DMPA injection appeared to profoundly alter glucose metabolism in this patient with frank diabetes resulting from lipodystrophy. The effect of progestin-only contraceptives on glucose tolerance should be monitored closely in any diabetic patient. PMID:18669758

  8. Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabczewska Zofia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although European guidelines advise oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI before or shortly after hospital discharge, data supporting this recommendation are inconclusive. We aimed to analyze whether disturbances in glucose metabolism diagnosed before hospital discharge in AMI patients represents a latent pre-existing condition or rather temporary finding. Additionally, we planned to investigate the value of pre-selected glycemic control parameters as predictors of long-term glucometabolic state. Methods We assessed admission glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, mean blood glucose concentration on days 1 and 2 in 200 patients with a first AMI but without overt disturbances of glucose metabolism. We also performed OGTT at discharge and 3 months after discharge. Results The prevalence of disturbances in glucose metabolism (as assessed by OGTT at 3 months was significantly lower than at discharge (29% vs. 48%, p = 0.0001. Disturbances in glucose metabolism were not confirmed in 63% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and in 36% of patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed during the acute phase of AMI. Age >77 years, glucose ≥12.06 mmol/l at 120 minutes during OGTT before discharge and mean blood glucose level on day 2 >7.5 mmol/l were identified as independent predictors of disturbances in glucose metabolism at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Disturbances in glucose metabolism observed in patients with a first AMI are predominantly transient. Elderly age, high plasma glucose concentration at 120 minutes during OGTT at discharge and elevated mean blood glucose level on day 2 were associated with sustained disturbances in glucose metabolism.

  9. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  10. Morphological and glucose metabolism abnormalities in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome: group comparisons and individual analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Pitel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS. Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker.

  11. [The effects of indigestible dextrin on sugar tolerance: III. Improvement in sugar tolerance by indigestible dextrin on the impaired glucose tolerance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, S

    1993-06-20

    Recently developed, Indigestible Dextrin (PF-C) is a low viscosity, water-soluble dietary fiber obtained by heating and enzyme-treatment of potato starch. It has an average molecular weight of 1600. Results from methylation analysis via gas chromatography show the indigestible portion to be a dextrin composed of alpha-1.4, alpha-1.6, beta-1.2, beta-1.3, and beta-1.6 glucosidic bonds and 1.6-anhydro-beta-D-glucose (levoglucosan) as part of the reducing terminal. Physiological attributes such as an improvement in sucrose tolerance and a reduction in blood lipid levels have since been demonstrated. In this study to establish a dose response for PF-C on blood glucose and insulin levels following a sucrose load, administration studies were conducted on normal rats and rats with impaired glucose tolerance. The results are summarized as follows: 1) To estimate an effective dose of PF-C on the reduction in blood glucose and insulin levels following an oral sucrose load, an oral sucrose (1.5g/kg body weight) tolerance test was conducted on rats. The increase in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following a sucrose+PF-C (0.075, 0.15, 0.60, and 1.5g/kg body weight) load was significantly lower compared to the sucrose load. The results show that the most effective dose of PF-C was found to be 0.15g/kg body weight. 2) Another sucrose tolerance test was conducted on three different rat model groups with drug or diet induced impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance was achieved by injecting one group with streptozotocin at 1.5 days (60mg/kg body weight); a second group was injected at seven weeks (30mg/kg body weight), and a third group was fed on a high (65%) sucrose diet. For this sucrose tolerance test, the adult (7-week) streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and the high-sucrose diet rats on concurrent administrations of PF-C (0.15g/kg body weight) showed decreases in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following a sucrose (1.5g/kg body weight) load. For

  12. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  13. Predictors of incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Kirsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Baller, Birgit;

    2008-01-01

    endogenous factors are associated with the concentrations of GLP-1? In particular, do elevated fasting glucose or glucagon levels diminish GLP-1 responses? RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with mild type 2 diabetes, 17 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 matched control subjects...... three groups in both experiments. GIP responses were 186 +/- 17% higher after mixed meal ingestion than after the oral glucose load (P fasting glucagon and integrated FFA levels...... and subsequent GLP-1 concentrations. In contrast, fasting FFA and integrated glucagon levels after glucose or meal ingestion and female sex were positively related to GLP-1 concentrations. Incretin levels were unrelated to measures of glucose control or insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Deteriorations in glucose...

  14. Altered walking strategy and increased unsteadiness in participants with impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes relates to small-fibre neuropathy but not vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almurdhi, M M; Brown, S J; Bowling, F L; Boulton, A J M; Jeziorska, M; Malik, R A; Reeves, N D

    2017-06-01

    To investigate alterations in walking strategy and dynamic sway (unsteadiness) in people with impaired glucose tolerance and people with Type 2 diabetes in relation to severity of neuropathy and vitamin D levels. A total of 20 people with Type 2 diabetes, 20 people with impaired glucose tolerance and 20 people without either Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (control group) underwent gait analysis using a motion analysis system and force platforms, and detailed assessment of neuropathy and serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D levels. Ankle strength (P = 0.01) and power (P = 0.003) during walking and walking speed (P = 0.008) were preserved in participants with impaired glucose tolerance but significantly lower in participants with Type 2 diabetes compared with control participants; however, step width (P = 0.005) and dynamic medio-lateral sway (P = 0.007) were significantly higher and posterior maximal movement (P = 0.000) was lower in participants with impaired glucose tolerance, but preserved in those with Type 2 diabetes compared with the control group. Dynamic medio-lateral sway correlated with corneal nerve fibre length (P = 0.001) and corneal nerve branch density (P = 0.001), but not with vibration perception threshold (P = 0.19). Serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D levels did not differ significantly among the groups (P = 0.10) and did not correlate with any walking variables or measures of dynamic sway. Early abnormalities in walking strategy and dynamic sway were evident in participants with impaired glucose tolerance, whilst there was a reduction in ankle strength, power and walking speed in participants with Type 2 diabetes. Unsteadiness correlated with small-, but not large-fibre neuropathy and there was no relationship between vitamin D levels and walking variables. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  15. Glucose tolerance in the toad Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1981, 16: 156-162. Sommige aspekte van glukose·homeostase is by Buto gut- ... The toads were pithed through the brain and spinal cord. The heart was then ..... The effect of pan- creatic hormones on blood glucose in Ambystoma annulatum.

  16. Serum ferritin is associated with carotid atherosclerotic plaques but not intima-media Thickness in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F L; Gao, Y; Tian, L; Yan, F F; Chen, T; Zhong, L; Tian, H M

    2015-10-23

    We investigated the association between serum ferritin and carotid artery lesions in populations with abnormal glucose metabolism. We included 70 participants with abnormal glucose metabolism and 170 participants with normal glucose metabolism and measured their baseline serum ferritin levels. During follow-up carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque were evaluated. Serum ferritin levels were higher in the participants with abnormal glucose metabolism (pferritin was excluded from the final equation in the logistic regression. Furthermore, age, waist circumference, ferritin, 2h-PG, and total cholesterol were significantly different between the subgroups with and without carotid plaque. When the above data were included in a logistic regression model, the p values obtained for age, ferritin, and 2h-PG were 0.004, 0.032, and 0.011, respectively. In the Chinese population, serum ferritin levels are significantly increased in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism. The carotid intima-media thickness showed no independent relationship with serum ferritin in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism. However, high serum ferritin is an important risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glucose tolerance of pregnant sows is related to postnatal pig mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, B; Soede, N M; Vesseur, P C; Helmond, F A; Spoorenberg, J H; Frankena, K

    1996-04-01

    An experiment was conducted on three farms to study the relationship between the results of an oral glucose tolerance test on d 104 +/- 4 of pregnancy and subsequent reproductive performance of 104 multiparous sows. After an overnight period without feed, sows were fed (3 g/kg BW.75) glucose, and blood samples were taken for analyses of glucose at -10, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 70, 80, 90, 105, and 120 min after administration of glucose. Glucose concentrations before glucose administration ranged from 2.0 to 3.6 mmol/L. Sows with lesser pretest glucose concentrations had longer (P < .01) durations of pregnancy (corrected for number of live pigs born) and heavier (P < .05) pigs at birth (corrected for farm and number of live pigs born). Peak glucose concentrations and areas under the curves (i.e., first 70 min and entire 120 min) ranged from .1 to 4.4 mmol/L, -40 to 211 (mmol/L).min, and -95 to 247 (mmol/L).min, respectively. Sows with greater (P < .01) peak concentration of glucose and greater area under the curve (first 70 min [P < .01] and entire 120 min [P < .01]) had increased pig mortality during the first 7 d after farrowing (corrected for live weight of the sows). In 83 sows, a sample of morning urine (before feeding) was collected and tested for glucose and ketone bodies. Neither glucose nor the ketone body acetoacetic acid was detected in the urine. The results indicate that sows that are less glucose-tolerant have greater pig mortality.

  18. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    -induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...... possibility that l-arginine-based nutritional and/or pharmaceutical therapies may benefit glucose tolerance by improving the postprandial GLP-1 response in obese individuals....

  19. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  20. Physical activity of relatively high intensity in mid-pregnancy predicts lower glucose tolerance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medek, Helga; Halldorsson, Thorhallur; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity (PA) is recommended as part of therapy for patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Whether such recommendations are also justified for pregnant women is less well established. We investigated the association between PA and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. A non-selective sample of 217 pregnant women was recruited at a routine 20 week ultrasound examination. Participants answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) about frequency, intensity and duration of daily physical activity in the past 7 days and underwent oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) between 24 and 28 weeks. A subset of 72 overweight/obese pregnant women wore a pedometer for 1 week with assessment of IPAQ score and pedometric correlations to this. Of the sample, 177 attended for OGTT; 51% were overweight or obese. The mean (SD) fasting glucose was 4.5 (0.4) mmol/L, and 12% had gestational diabetes mellitus. Only one-third engaged in vigorous PA. After adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, age and parity, those engaging in vigorous PA had significantly lower fasting glucose levels (by 0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.03-0.27) compared with those not vigorously active. This decrease was similar in both normal and overweight/obese women. There were fewer cases of gestational diabetes (p = 0.03) among the vigorously active women (3/56; 5%) than among those who were not active (19/121; 16%). No association with glucose tolerance was observed for physical activity of moderate intensity. Only vigorous physical activity appears beneficial with respect to maternal glucose tolerance, both among normal, overweight and obese women. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantayotai, Valla; Numsangkul, Sakawduan; Sripho, Wilarwan; Tatsato, Nutchanat; Burapasiriwat, Tuanjai; Pipatsart, Rachada; Sansom, Premsuree; Luckanajantachote, Pranee; Chawarokorn, Pongpat; Thanonghan, Anek; Lakhamkaew, Watchira; Mungkung, Aungsumalin; Boonkean, Rungnapa; Chantapoon, Chanidsa; Kungsri, Mayuree; Luanseng, Kasetsak; Chaiyajit, Kornsinun

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8%) individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.). The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed. PMID:26347060

  2. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8% individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.. The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed.

  3. Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after...

  4. Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Grabczewska Zofia; Bronisz Marek; Kubica Aldona; Sukiennik Adam; Swiatkiewicz Iwona; Gierach Joanna; Fabiszak Tomasz; Magielski Przemyslaw; Kozinski Marek; Bronisz Agata; Sinkiewicz Anna; Junik Roman; Kubica Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although European guidelines advise oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before or shortly after hospital discharge, data supporting this recommendation are inconclusive. We aimed to analyze whether disturbances in glucose metabolism diagnosed before hospital discharge in AMI patients represents a latent pre-existing condition or rather temporary finding. Additionally, we planned to investigate the value of pre-selected glyc...

  5. Obesity is the predominant predictor of impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic disturbance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, So-Jung; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey; Hsu, Ming-I

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the contribution to glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome of obesity combined with the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective study. University teaching hospital from 31 August 2010 to 31 August 2011. Two hundred and twenty women with PCOS and seventy normal control women. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of women with PCOS and control women were evaluated. Main outcome measures. The impact of obesity, hyperandrogenism, oligo-anovulation and polycystic ovary morphology on impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic disturbances. Obese women with PCOS had significantly higher insulin resistance than obese normal control women. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity was the only factor that predicted impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome. Use of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for the body mass index to predict impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome was more accurate than AUROCs for serum total testosterone level and the average menstrual interval. Body weight status was the major factor determining the risk of impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. Obesity should be treated as the major factor determining long-term health consequences associated with PCOS. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Separate impact of obesity and glucose tolerance on the incretin effect in normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Casolaro, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantitate the separate impact of obesity and hyperglycemia on the incretin effect (i.e., the gain in beta-cell function after oral glucose versus intravenous glucose). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Isoglycemic oral (75 g) and intravenous glucose administration was performed in 51...... subjects (24 with normal glucose tolerance [NGT], 17 with impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], and 10 with type 2 diabetes) with a wide range of BMI (20-61 kg/m(2)). C-peptide deconvolution was used to reconstruct insulin secretion rates, and beta-cell glucose sensitivity (slope of the insulin secretion...

  7. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with decompensated cirrhosis being evaluated for liver transplantation: the utility of oral glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Costa Bragança

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and protein calorie malnutrition are important issues in cirrhotic patients because they can increase the progression of liver disease and worsen its prognosis. OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in cirrhotic patients being evaluated for liver transplantation and their impacts on a 3-month follow-up, and to compare fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutively included adult patients. Diabetes mellitus was established through fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosing diabetes mellitus in this population. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indexes were calculated, and nutritional assessment was performed by subjective global assessment, anthropometry and handgrip strength through dynamometry. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was found in 40 patients (64.5%, 9 (22.5% of them by fasting glycemia and 31 (77.5% of them by oral glucose tolerance test. Insulin resistance was found in 40 (69% of the patients. There was no relationship between diabetes mellitus and the etiology of cirrhosis. Protein calorie malnutrition was diagnosed in a range from 3.22% to 45.2% by anthropometry, 58.1% by subjective global assessment and 88.7% by handgrip strength. Diabetes mellitus identified by oral glucose tolerance test was related significantly to a higher prevalence of infectious complications and deaths in a 3-month period (P = 0.017. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and protein calorie malnutrition is high in cirrhotic patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation. There were more infectious complications and/or deaths in a 3-month follow-up period in patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. Oral glucose tolerance test seems to be

  8. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

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    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/kg BW 30 minutes later. Blood glucose levels were assessed using glucometer kit, from zero to 3 hours, at ½ hourly interval. These results analysed by one way ANOVA showed there were significant difference (p<0.05 between Ethanol extract of avocado leaves treated with mice (0.490, 0.980 g/kg BW and control groups. Furthermore, when Tukey’s test was performed, avocado treated mice (1.960g/kg BW reduce glucose level to 64.27%. The effectiveness of this treatment was not significantly different to those treated with glipizide (68.50%.

  9. Insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction are independent predictors of worsening of glucose tolerance during each stage of type 2 diabetes development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, C; Tataranni, P A; Bogardus, C; Pratley, R E

    2001-01-01

    Although prospective studies indicate that insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction predict type 2 diabetes, they provide limited information on the relative contributions of both abnormalities to worsening glucose tolerance at different developmental stages of the disease. We therefore assessed the predictive effect of insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction separately for the progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and from IGT to diabetes. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (M) (hyperinsulinemic clamp), acute insulin secretory response (AIR) (25-g intravenous glucose tolerance test), and body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured in 254 Pima Indians with NGT and in 145 Pima Indians with IGT, who were then followed for 0.5-13 years. After follow-ups of 4.4 +/- 3.1 and 5.5 +/- 3.4 years, 79 (31%) of the subjects with initial NGT had developed IGT, and 64 (44%) of the subjects with initial IGT had developed diabetes. In proportional-hazards analyses with adjustment for age, sex, and percent body fat, low M and low AIR were independent predictors of both the progression from NGT to IGT (relative hazards [95% CI] for 10th vs. 90th percentile: M 2.4 [1.2-4.7], P < 0.02; AIR 2.1 [1.1-4.1], P < 0.04) and from IGT to diabetes (M 2.5 [1.3-5.0], P < 0.01; AIR 1.8 [0.99-3.3], P = 0.055). During each stage of the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and insulin secretory dysfunction are independent predictors of worsening glucose tolerance and are, therefore, both targets for the primary prevention of the disease.

  10. A1C is associated with intima-media thickness in individuals with normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Thomas; Mai, Knut; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    One-hour glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was recently proposed as a valuable marker to identify individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and increased intima-media thickness (IMT). However, central markers of glycemic control were not considered. The aim of this study was to identify which marker of glycemic control is most informative with respect to the variation of IMT in individuals with NGT. Cardiovascular risk factors, glucose metabolism (OGTT), and IMT were determined in 1,219 nondiabetic individuals (851 women, 368 men; 558 with NGT). One-hour glucose and A1C levels were significantly correlated to carotid IMT in individuals with NGT, whereas fasting and 2-h glucose levels were not informative. Only A1C was associated with IMT independent of other confounders, whereas 1-h glucose was not informative. Comparable results were found in the total cohort, including individuals with IFG and IGT. A1C was the most informative glycemic marker with respect to IMT in individuals with NGT.

  11. Plasma myeloperoxidase is inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in elderly subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Leonard P; Teerlink, Tom; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Heine, Robert J; Scheffer, Peter G

    2010-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a biomarker related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide scavenging, has been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Because elevated hydrogen peroxide concentrations in diabetic vessels may enhance MPO activity, we hypothesized that a stronger association of MPO with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) may be found in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were measured in EDTA plasma samples from participants of a population-based cohort study, including 230 subjects with normal glucose metabolism and 386 with abnormal glucose metabolism. Vascular function was expressed as FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. In subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, MPO was negatively associated with FMD (-20.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -41.7 to -0.2] -μm change in FMD per SD increment of MPO). This association remained significant after adjustment for nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (-31.1 [95% CI, -50.0 to -12.3]) and was not attenuated after further adjustment for established risk factors. In subjects with normal glucose metabolism, MPO was not significantly associated with FMD (2.0 [95% CI, -16.0 to 20.0]). In conclusion, in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, plasma levels of MPO are inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation, possibly reflecting enhancement of MPO activity by vascular oxidative stress.

  12. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help...... to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. METHODS: In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted...... volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were...

  13. Cocoa, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling: cardiometabolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mai, Francesca; Martella, Letizia; De Feo, Martina; Soddu, Daniele; Fellini, Emanuela; Veneri, Mariangela; Stamerra, Cosimo A; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-11-18

    Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states. Glucose and insulin actions in the skeletal muscle are improved by insulin-dependent production of nitric oxide, favoring capillary recruitment, vasodilatation, and increased blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction, with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance has been described, at least in part, to negatively affect endothelial function. Consistent with this, conditions of insulin resistance are usually linked to endothelial dysfunction, and the exposure of the endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and cocoa flavonoids may positively affect the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction with possible benefits in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  14. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. METHODS: Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. RESULTS: Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  15. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); M.L. Bots (Michiel); R. Abel (Rajaratnam); H.A. Valkenburg (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in a rural population in South India was assessed and its associations with body mass index and a family history of diabetes mellitus. Data were obtained from inhabitants of two

  16. Impaired glucose tolerance in midlife and longitudinal changes in brain function during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; Beason-Held, Lori L; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael; Metter, Jeffrey; Egan, Josephine; Ferrucci, Luigi; O'Brien, Richard; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-10-01

    We investigated whether individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in midlife subsequently show regionally specific longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) relative to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Sixty-four cognitively normal participants in the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent serial (15)O-water positron emission tomography scans (age at first scan, 69.6 ± 7.5 years) and oral glucose tolerance tests 12 years earlier (age at first oral glucose tolerance test, 57.2 ± 11.1 years). Using voxel-based analysis, we compared changes in rCBF over an 8-year period between 15 participants with IGT in midlife and 49 with NGT. Significant differences were observed in longitudinal change in rCBF between the IGT and NGT groups. The predominant pattern was greater rCBF decline in the IGT group in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Some brain regions in the frontal and temporal cortices also showed greater longitudinal increments in rCBF in the IGT group. Our findings suggest that IGT in midlife is associated with subsequent longitudinal changes in brain function during aging even in cognitively normal older individuals.

  17. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    -fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...... (TAG), serum free fatty acid and leptin between the groups. However, the butter-fed rats had a lower content of TAG in the white gastrocnemius muscle (7.7  1.5 vs. 23.1  6.2 mg/g tissue, p=0.01), and a much higher n-3 PUFA content (total n-3 PUFAs 1,43  0.06 vs 0.73  0.02g/mg tissue, p

  18. Intima-Media Thickness of Carotid Artery is Associated with Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in Elderly Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na Zhang; Can Cui; Ying Fan; Man-li Chang; Wei Wu; Wei-gang Yu; Ning Tan; Feng-chen Liu; Jin-chao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Previous studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes and even those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)have marked higher risk of atherosclerosis than nondiabetic subjects. The relationship between carotid atherosclerosis intima-media thickness (IMT) with glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity was studied in the elderly Chinese subjects.

  19. Microbially produced glucagon-like peptide 1 improves glucose tolerance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Tulika; Wegmann, Udo; Bobhate, Anup

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an attractive anti-diabetic therapy. Here, we generated a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain genetically modified to produce GLP-1 and investigated its ability to improve glucose tolerance in mice on chow or high-fat diet...... (HFD). METHODS: We transformed L. lactis FI5876 with either empty vector (pUK200) or murine GLP-1 expression vector to generate LL-UK200 and LL-GLP1, respectively, and determined their potential to induce insulin secretion by incubating primary islets from wild-type (WT) and GLP-1 receptor knockout...... (GLP1R-KO) mice with culture supernatant of these strains. In addition, we administered these strains to mice on chow or HFD. At the end of the study period, we measured plasma GLP-1 levels, performed intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests, and determined hepatic expression...

  20. Angelica dahurica Extracts Improve Glucose Tolerance through the Activation of GPR119.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Park

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor (GPR 119 is expressed in pancreatic β-cells and intestinal L cells, and is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 release, respectively. Therefore, the development of GPR119 agonists is a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. We screened 1500 natural plant extracts for GPR119 agonistic actions and investigated the most promising extract, that from Angelica dahurica (AD, for hypoglycemic actions in vitro and in vivo. Human GPR119 activation was measured in GeneBLAzer T-Rex GPR119-CRE-bla CHO-K1 cells; intracellular cAMP levels and insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 cells; and GLP-1 release was measured in GLUTag cells. Glucose tolerance tests and serum plasma insulin levels were measured in normal C57BL6 mice and diabetic db/db mice. AD extract-treated cells showed significant increases in GPR119 activation, intracellular cAMP levels, GLP-1 levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with controls. In normal mice, a single treatment with AD extract improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin secretion. Treatment with multiple doses of AD extract or n-hexane fraction improved glucose tolerance in diabetic db/db mice. Imperatorin, phellopterin and isoimperatorin were identified in the active fraction of AD extract. Among these, phellopterin activated GPR119 and increased active GLP-1 and insulin secretion in vitro and enhanced glucose tolerance in normal and db/db mice. We suggest that phellopterin might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease: Relation to Autophagy/Mitophagy and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kalpita; Munshi, Soumyabrata; Frank, David E.; Gibson, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Diminished glucose metabolism accompanies many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. An understanding of the relation of these metabolic changes to the disease will enable development of novel therapeutic strategies. Following a metabolic challenge, cells generally conserve energy to preserve viability. This requires activation of many cellular repair/regenerative processes such as mitophagy/autophagy and fusion/fission. These responses may diminish cell function in the long term. Prolonged fission induces mitophagy/autophagy which promotes repair but if prolonged progresses to mitochondrial degradation. Abnormal glucose metabolism alters protein signaling including the release of proteins from the mitochondria or migration of proteins from the cytosol to the mitochondria or nucleus. This overview provides an insight into the different mechanisms of autophagy/mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in response to the diminished metabolism that occurs with diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The review discusses multiple aspects of mitochondrial responses including different signaling proteins and pathways of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Improving cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial dynamics will alter protein signaling and improve cellular/mitochondrial repair and regeneration. An understanding of these changes will suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26077923

  2. Chromium status and glucose tolerance in Saudi men with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Bahjri, Suhad M; Ahmed, Waqar H; Al-Ama, Nabeel; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2009-12-01

    Chromium deficiency is associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and dyslipidemia. Hence, the objective of the current study was to investigate chromium status among Saudi men with and without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its relationship to glucose tolerance, lipid profile and other established CVD risk factors. We measured serum and urine chromium concentrations, fasted lipid profile, plasma glucose, and serum lipid peroxide in 130 Saudi men with an established history of myocardial infarction and 130 age-matched controls without established CVD. Patients with established CVD had higher serum triglycerides (p < 0.05) and plasma glucose (p < 0.0001) and lower serum and urinary chromium concentrations (p < 0.0001) than controls. Serum chromium was inversely correlated with plasma glucose among cases and controls (r = -0.189, p < 0.05 and r = -0.354, p < 0.00001, respectively). Plasma glucose (OR 1.127, CI 1.0-1.269, p < 0.05), serum chromium (OR 0.99, CI 0.985-0.995, p < 0.0001), and urinary chromium (OR 0.988, CI 0.981-0.995, p < 0.001) were independently associated with the presence of established coronary disease applying this model. While chromium metabolism appears to be altered in individuals with CVD, it is unclear whether chromium supplementation would be effective in CVD prevention among patients with IGT. This would need to be tested in long-term outcome trials.

  3. Glucose Tolerance and Left Ventricular Pressure-Volume Relationships in Frequently Used Mouse Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Oosterlinck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated glucose tolerance and left ventricular contractile performance in 4 frequently used mouse strains (Swiss, C57BL/6J, DBA2, and BalbC at 24 weeks. Glucose tolerance was tested by measuring blood glucose levels in time after intraperitoneal glucose injection (2 mg/g body weight. Left ventricular contractility was assessed by pressure-conductance analysis. Peak glucose levels and glucose area under the curve were higher (all <.05 in C57BL/6J (418±65 mg/dL and 813±100 mg·h/dL versus Swiss (237±66 mg/dL and 470±126 mg·h/dL, DBA2 (113±20 mg/dL and 304±49 mg·h/dL, <.01, and BalbC mice (174±55 mg/dL and 416±70 mg·h/dL. Cardiac output was higher (all <.05 in Swiss (14038±4530 μL/min versus C57BL/6J (10405±2683 μL/min, DBA2 (10438±3251 μL/min, and BalbC mice (8466±3013 μL/min. Load-independent left ventricular contractility assessed as recruitable stroke work (PRSW was comparable in all strains. In conclusion, glucose tolerance and load-dependent left ventricular performance parameters were different between 4 mice background strains, but PRSW was comparable.

  4. Glucose tolerance and weight loss in obese women with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with glucose intolerance and the beneficial effect of lifestyle intervention have been poorly investigated in women particularly before menopausal status. The study explored 1 whether OSA is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis in obese non diabetic premenopausal and menopausal women and 2 the effects of a 3- month lifestyle intervention on glucose homeostasis in OSA women. DESIGN AND METHODS: We consecutively recruited 98 obese women (39 premenopausal from those referred for a weight loss intervention. Ambulatory nocturnal polysomnography, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity and β cell function were assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS: 41% of premenopausal and 64% of menopausal women had OSA which was associated with worse glucose homeostasis before menopausal status. Mean and minimal nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2 was associated with neck/height ratio (NHR, independently of total and central obesity. Mean and minimal nocturnal SaO2 and NHR were correlated with insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose. In multivariate analyses, nocturnal mean SaO2 was negatively and independently correlated with fasting glucose (p<0.0001 and NHR with insulin sensitivity (p<0.0001. In OSA women, the intervention induced a 5% weight reduction and a significant increase in minimal nocturnal SaO2, insulin sensitivity and β cell function. Changes in fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity were associated with those in minimal nocturnal SaO2 (p<0.05 and not with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: In obese women, glucose homeostasis worsens due to nocturnal hypoxia and increased neck circumference through mechanisms partially independent of obesity. OSA is more clearly associated with glucose intolerance in premenopausal than in menopausal women. In OSA women, the improvement of nocturnal hypoxia induced by lifestyle modifications is associated with that of

  5. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in regulation of insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in conscious mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, Sven; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.; Ahrén, Bo

    1994-01-01

    The impact of sensory nerves in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose tolerance was investigated in conscious mice treated neonatally with either capsaicin (Cap) or vehicle (Veh). At 10-12 wk after Cap, both the early (1 min) insulin secretory response to intravenous glucose (2.8 mmol/kg)

  6. Preliminary validation of an exercise program suitable for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism: inhibitory effects of Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise on plasma glucose elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sachina; Kagawa, Kyoko; Hori, Naohi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There is insufficient evidence related to exercise programs that are safe and efficacious for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise is an exercise program with validated safety and efficacy in improving physical function in the elderly. In this study, we investigated this program’s inhibitory effects on plasma glucose elevation when it was adapted to a pregnancy model. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve 18- to 19-year-old females without a history of pregnancy were randomly assorted into two groups: an intervention group, for which six subjects were outfitted with mock-pregnancy suits and asked to perform Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise, and a control group who did not perform exercise. The intervention group had a mean Borg Scale score of 11.1 ± 0.9 during the exercise. [Results] No significant intragroup differences were observed in fasting, baseline, or post-intervention/observation plasma glucose levels. On the other hand, the intergroup change in plasma glucose levels after intervention/observation was significant when comparing the intervention and control groups: −1.66 ± 7.0 and 9.42 ± 6.57 mg/dl, respectively. [Conclusion] Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise appears to effectively inhibit plasma glucose elevation at intensity and movement levels that can be safely applied to pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:28174463

  7. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

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    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  8. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  9. Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Jaquet, Muriel; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Cani, Patrice D; Burcelin, Rémy G; Corthesy, Irène; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2008-07-01

    Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice. Concomitant reduction of plasma lipopolysaccharides and increase of adiponectin further supported the antidiabetic effects of the antibiotic treatment in ob/ob mice. In summary, modulation of gut microbiota ameliorated glucose tolerance of mice by altering the expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in inflammation and metabolism, and by changing the hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic status of the host.

  10. All-cause cancer mortality over 15 years in multi-ethnic Mauritius: the impact of diabetes and intermediate forms of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica L; Soderberg, Stefan; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Pauvaday, Vassen; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Alberti, K George M M; J Magliano, Dianna

    2012-11-15

    There are accumulating data describing the association between diabetes and cancer mortality from Westernised populations. There are no data describing the relationship between diabetes and cancer mortality in African or South Asian populations from developing countries. We explored the relationship of abnormal glucose tolerance and diabetes on cancer mortality risk in a large, multi-ethnic cohort from the developing nation of Mauritius. Population-based surveys were undertaken in 1987, 1992 and 1998. The 9559 participants comprised 66% of South Asian (Indian), 27% of African (Creole), and 7% of Chinese descent. Cox's proportional hazards model with time varying covariates was used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk of cancer mortality, after adjustment for confounding factors. In men, but not women, cancer mortality risk increased with rising 2h-PG levels with HR for the top versus bottom quintile of 2.77 (95%CI: 1.28 to 5.98). South Asian men with known diabetes had a significantly greater risk of cancer mortality than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) HR: 2.74 (95%CI: 1.00-7.56). Overall, impaired glucose tolerance was associated with an elevated risk of cancer mortality compared to NGT (HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.98-2.19), though this was not significant. We have shown that the association between abnormal glucose tolerance and cancer extends to those of African and South Asian descent. These results highlight the importance of understanding this relationship in a global context to direct future health policy given the rapid increase in type 2 diabetes, especially in developing nations.

  11. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  12. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  13. Sourdough-leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Mario; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Sanna, Manuela; Cherchi, Sara; Dettori, Mariella; Manca, Elena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Sourdough bread has been reported to improve glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. In this study postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were evaluated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had a meal containing sourdough bread leavened with lactobacilli, in comparison to a reference meal containing bread leavened with baker yeast. Sixteen IGT subjects (age range 52-75, average BMI 29.9 +/- 4.2 kg/ m2) were randomly given a meal containing sourdough bread (A) and a meal containing the reference bread (B) in two separate occasions at the beginning of the study and after 7 days. Sourdough bread was leavened for 8 h using a starter containing autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several bacilli able to produce a significant amount of D-and L-lactic acid, whereas the reference bread was leavened for 2 h with commercial baker yeast containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at time 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In IGT subjects sourdough bread induced a significantly lower plasma glucose response at 30 minutes (p = 0.048) and a smaller incremental area under curve (AUC) delta 0-30 and delta 0-60 min (p = 0.020 and 0.018 respectively) in comparison to the bread leavened with baker yeast. Plasma insulin response to this type of bread showed lower values at 30 min (p = 0.045) and a smaller AUC delta 0-30 min (p = 0.018). This study shows that in subjects with IGT glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after the consumption of sourdough bread are lower than after the bread leavened with baker yeast. This effect is likely due to the lactic acid produced during dough leavening as well as the reduced availability of simple carbohydrates. Thus, sour-dough bread may potentially be of benefit in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  14. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  15. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-08-28

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after a 6-week HIIT intervention. Various statistical methods were used to classify plasma metabolic signatures associated with post-prandial glucose and/or training status when using a repeated measures/cross-over study design. Branched-chain/aromatic amino acids and other intermediates of urea cycle and carnitine metabolism decreased over time in plasma after oral glucose loading. Adaptive exercise-induced changes to plasma thiol redox and orthinine status were measured for trained subjects while at rest in a fasting state. A multi-linear regression model was developed to predict changes in glucose tolerance based on a panel of plasma metabolites measured for naïve subjects in their untrained state. Since treatment outcomes to physical activity are variable between-subjects, prognostic markers offer a novel approach to screen for potential negative responders while designing lifestyle modifications that maximize the salutary benefits of exercise for diabetes prevention on an individual level.

  16. Follow-up of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Basic Health Survey 2007 in Jakarta in 2009

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    Laurentia Mihardja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu (TGT atau Pre Diabetes merupakan keadaan yang belum termasuk kategori diabetes tetapi glukosa darah lebih tinggi dari normal. TGT merupakan faktor risiko terjadinya diabetes mellitus (DM, penyakit jantung koroner, stroke. Metode: Dilakukan penelitian follow up responden TGT Riskesdas 2007 pada tahun 2009 untuk mengetahui status hiperglikemianya apakah telah menjadi DM, tetap TGT atau Normal. Hasil:Didapatkan setelah 2 tahun 7,2% telah menjadi DM, 47,8% tetap TGT, 4,3% berubah menjadi gangguan glukosa puasa dan 40,7% menjadi normal toleransi glukosa. Kebiasaan perilaku, keadaan biologis seperti indeks massa tubuh, obesitas sentral, dislipidemia tidak berbeda signifikan antara tahun 2009 dibandingkan 2007. Dari analisis didapatkan pada kelompok TGT yang menjadi DM lingkar pinggang meningkat tapi tidak signifikan dan Homa IR (resistensi insulin lebih tinggi (p < 0,05 dibandingkan kelompok lainnya. Saran:Disarankan agar pembuat program melakukan intervensi pada kelompok TGT agar tidak menjadi DM dan mencegah timbulnya komplikasi penyakit degeneratif.Kata kunci: Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu, obesitas sentral, DKI JakartaABSTRACTBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or pre diabetes is not categorized as diabetes yet but blood glucose level is more than normal. IGT is the risk factor for diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and stroke. Methods: In 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted in DKI Jakarta to follow up 78 subjects identified as IGT in Basic Health Survey (Riskesdas 2007. It aimed to assess the hyperglycemia status of the IGT subjects, whether developing into diabetes mellitus or becoming normal glucose tolerance or just remained IGT. Results: We found over two years for IGT subjects, 7.2% progressed to diabetes mellitus, 47.8% remained impaired glucose tolerance, 4.3% changed to impaired fasting glucose and 40.7% reverted to normal glucose tolerance. Life style and biological factors

  17. Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic...

  18. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Freire Rezende

    1997-01-01

    individuals (Group 2. Every patient in each group underwent anamnesis and standardized autonomic tests which consisted of hear frequency test, Valsalva maneuver, postural test and sinus arrythmia. Routine hematologic exams as well as GTT were also made. RESULTS: Patients in group 1 had more systemic arterial hypertension, centripetal obesity, fasting and post-feeding hyperglicemia and dyslipidemia when compared with group 2. When we analysed the autonomic tests, the sinus arrythmia test was abnormal in 54.5% of the patients in group 1 and in 32.5% in group 2 (p=0.0039 and the Valsalva maneuver was abnormal in 34.1% of group 1 and in 7% of group 2 (p=0.004. The postural test was not different in both groups (p=0.334. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the involvement of the autonomic nervous system was more frequent in patients with IGT when compared to controls. These findings can explair the increased lethality due to vasculopathies observed in this group of patients and also alert physicians to care for patients with impaired glucose tolerance test.

  19. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon Handisurya

    Full Text Available Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients.In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR.After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82-441.92 vs. 468.80 (414.27-488.57 mL/min/m2, p = 0.005, which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017 and adaptation index (p = 0.017 as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721, insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032-0.106 vs. 0.083 (0.054-0.144 nmol/mmol, p = 0.093 and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646 remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285 or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463 were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression.HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV-induced insulin resistance, HCV-positive renal transplant

  20. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, F; Mahbuba, S; Begum, T; Azad, K; Nahar, N

    2012-10-01

    The study was undertaken to see the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with obesity, attending the Paediatric Endocrine OPD, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross sectional study from January 2006 to December 2008 was conducted among obese children and adolescents (6-18 years). Children with any other endocrine disorder, dysmorphism/syndrome were excluded. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex using CDC growth chart. Children underwent two hours oral glucose tolerance test with 1.75 gm/kg or 75 gm of glucose, anthropometric and blood pressure measurement. Fasting serum insulin and lipid profile were measured. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <7 mmol/L and 2 hours post glucose load ≥ 7.8 mmol/L to <11.1 mmol/L. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was defined as FPG ≥ 7 mmol/L or 2 hours post glucose load ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Homeostasis model assessment was used to estimate insulin resistance. A total of 161 children presented with obesity. Male to female ratio was 1.3:1. Mean age was 10.3 ± 2 .5 years. Mean BMI was 27.86 ± 4.1 kg/m². IGT was found in 16.9% of children and adolescents. In children aged 6-10 years IGT was detected in 16.1% and in adolescents aged 11-18 years IGT was detected in 20%. Diabetes mellitus was detected in 2.1% of subjects, all were adolescents. Serum fasting insulin and hip circumference were significantly higher among children and adolescents with IGT compared to that of normal glucose tolerance. The high rate of IGT among obese children and adolescents is of concern. Factors contributing towards obesity needs to be identified and strategies should be planned for prevention and management of this health problem.

  1. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handisurya, Ammon; Kerscher, Corinna; Tura, Andrea; Herkner, Harald; Payer, Berit Anna; Mandorfer, Mattias; Werzowa, Johannes; Winnicki, Wolfgang; Reiberger, Thomas; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Pacini, Giovanni; Säemann, Marcus; Schmidt, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients. In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR). After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82-441.92) vs. 468.80 (414.27-488.57) mL/min/m2, p = 0.005), which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017) and adaptation index (p = 0.017) as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721), insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032-0.106) vs. 0.083 (0.054-0.144) nmol/mmol, p = 0.093) and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646) remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285) or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463) were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression. HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV-induced insulin resistance, HCV-positive renal transplant

  2. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  3. Diabetes, Abnormal Glucose, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension, and Risk of Inflammatory and Other Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Catherine; Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Moore, Steven C; Engels, Eric A

    2017-06-01

    Background: Obesity has been associated with substantially higher risk of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) than other breast cancer. Here, we assess whether comorbidities of obesity, namely diabetes, abnormal glucose, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, are differentially related to risk of IBC and other breast cancers by tumor stage at diagnosis (localized/regional/distant/unstaged).Methods: We used linked SEER-Medicare data, with female breast cancer cases ages 66+ years identified by SEER registries (years 1992-2011). We divided first breast cancers into IBC (N = 2,306), locally advanced non-IBC (LABC; N = 10,347), and other (N = 197,276). We selected female controls (N = 200,000) from a stratified 5% random sample of Medicare recipients alive and breast cancer free. We assessed exposures until 12 months before diagnosis/selection using Medicare claims data. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 99.9% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional logistic regression.Results: Diabetes was associated with increased risk of distant IBC (98.5% of IBC cases; OR 1.44; 99.9% CI 1.21-1.71), distant (OR 1.24; 99.9% CI, 1.09-1.40) and regional (OR 1.29 (99.9% CI, 1.14-1.45) LABC, and distant (OR 1.23; 99.9% CI, 1.10-1.39) and unstaged (OR 1.32; 99.9% CI, 1.18-1.47) other breast cancers. Dyslipidemia was associated with reduced risk of IBC (OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94) and other breast cancers except localized disease. Results were similar by tumor estrogen receptor status. Abnormal glucose levels and hypertension had little association with risk of any tumor type.Conclusions: Associations with diabetes and dyslipidemia were similar for distant stage IBC and other advanced tumors.Impact: If confirmed, such findings could suggest avenues for prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 862-8. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Oleuropein improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in rats with simultaneous renovascular hypertension and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Azadeh; Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Khosravi, Mohammad Bagher

    2017-10-01

    Oleuropein mediates most of the beneficial effects of olive products. This study examined the role of oxidative stress in the effects of oleuropein on lipid profile and blood glucose in rats with simultaneous renovascular hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Eight groups (n = 7-9 each) of male Sprague-Dawley rats including a control, a type 2 diabetic, a renovascular hypertensive, a sham, a simultaneously hypertensive diabetic receiving vehicle, and 3 simultaneously hypertensive-diabetic receiving 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day oleuropein were used. Four weeks after treatment, blood glucose, lipid profile, and biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured, and glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed. Simultaneously hypertensive diabetic rats had significantly higher blood pressure, blood glucose, and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride and malondialdehyde. They also had lower serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, and impaired glucose tolerance. Oleuropein significantly reduced blood pressure, blood glucose, and serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride and malondoaldehyde. It also increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, and improved glucose tolerance. The findings show that the model is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, and adverse lipid profile. They also show that oleuropein, partly by an antioxidant mechanism, improves glucose tolerance and changed lipid profile favorably.

  5. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test. STUDY DESIGN: A historical cohort study of 2459 pregnant women systematically examined for gestational diabetes...... overweight and obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women........0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese women (BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m(2)) compared with women who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The frequencies of shoulder dystocia, preterm delivery, and infant morbidity other than macrosomia were not significantly associated with maternal BMI. CONCLUSION: Prepregnancy...

  6. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    . The associations of VAT and SATwith blood pressure and lipids were examined by linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex,smoking, alcohol, physical activity, glucose tolerance status (GTS), medication use, and body massindex. Effect modification by GTS and sex was examined, and stratified analyses performed......Context: Regional fat distribution rather than overall obesity has been recognized as important tounderstanding the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Objective:We examined the associations of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominalsubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound...

  7. Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in a representative rural population from Deleni, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Dana Stefana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in a cross-section of the adult rural population of the village Deleni in northeast Romania. We observed a IGT in 25.9% and diabetes in 14.55% of the general population, and only 60% of randomly selected subjects with a normal glucose tolerance. With regards to gender, we observed slightly higher values in female patients (28.3% with IGT, 17.3% with diabetes, as compared to 10.47% with diabetes and 20.95% with IGT in males. Our report reveals a high prevalence of diabetes and IGT among the rural population of Deleni, Romania. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an increased awareness of diabetes and for an energetic intervention against diabetes and similar lifestyle-related diseases in the rural areas of Romania.

  8. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4 °C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1 °C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2 days at -1 °C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing......Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures....... Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates....

  9. Circulating ZBED3 level is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the plasma zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3(ZBED3)levels in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance,and to explore the relationship between ZBED3 and insulin resistance.Methods There were 109 patients with newly diagnosed type 2diabetes mellitus(T2DM),89 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT),113 sex-,age-,and body mass index(BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)included in this study.Plasma ZBED3 level

  10. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy:glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Algenes Aranha; Usman H Malabu; Venkat Vangaveti; Elham Saleh Reda; Yong Mong Tan; Kunwarjit Singh Sangla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects.Methods:who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia’s Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women Results: Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups.Conclusions:No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  11. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy: glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Algenes; Malabu, Usman H; Vangaveti, Venkat; Reda, Elham Saleh; Tan, Yong Mong; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh

    2014-06-01

    To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia's Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups. No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  12. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs,; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Hespel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-calo...

  13. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...

  14. Impact of incretin hormones on beta-cell function in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Natali, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C-peptide deconvolu......The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C...

  15. Periodic 48 h feed withdrawal improves glucose tolerance in growing pigs by enhancing adipogenesis and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Priya S; He, Mao L; Travis, Gregory; Entz, Toby; McAllister, Tim; Marchand, Sigrid; Schaefer, Al; Meadus, Jon; Lepage, Pierre; Okine, Erasmus; Dodson, Michael V

    2012-02-09

    Adipocyte numbers and peroxisome proliferators activated receptorγ (PPARγ) expression of retroperitoneal tissue increased while area under the curve (AUC) during the glucose tolerance test (GTT) was reduced in rats subjected to certain feed withdrawal (FW) regimens. Thus, using pigs as the experimental model, the hypothesis that FW regimens influence glucose tolerance by influencing fat cell function was evaluated with the objective of determining the effect of a single (FWx1; at age of 19 wk for 48 h) or periodic, multiple (FWx4; 24 h FW at 7 and 11 wk of age and 48 h FW at 15 and 19 wk of age) FW on AUC of glucose and insulin during the GTT relative to pigs that did not experience FW (Control). Growth, body composition, adipocyte numbers, PPARγ expression, lipogenic potential as glucose uptake into fat of adipocytes of varying diameter in omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat as affected by FW regimens were determined in pigs initiated into the study at 5 wk of age and fed the same diet, ad libitum. Blood glucose concentrations for prior to and 120 min post glucose meal tended to be lower (p = 0.105 and 0.097, respectively) in pigs in FW treatments. In OM fat; cell numbers, glucose Universal14C [U14C] incorporation into fat and rate of incorporation per 104 cells was greatest for cells with diameters of 90-119 μm. Pigs undergoing FWx4 tended to have greater (p = 0.0685; by 191%) number of adipocytes, increased (p = 0.0234) glucose U14C incorporation into adipocytes and greater (p = 0.0872) rate of glucose uptake into cells of 119-150 μm diameter than of cells from control or FWx1 pigs. Subcutaneous adipocyte numbers in 22-60 and 61-90 μm diameter ranges from pigs in FWx1 tended to be greater (p = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively) than for those in FWx4 treatment, yet PPARγ expression and total cell number were not affected by treatment. Results suggest that FW regimens influence fat cell function or lipogenesis rather than number, affecting glucose metabolism

  16. Periodic 48 h feed withdrawal improves glucose tolerance in growing pigs by enhancing adipogenesis and lipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Priya S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte numbers and peroxisome proliferators activated receptorγ (PPARγ expression of retroperitoneal tissue increased while area under the curve (AUC during the glucose tolerance test (GTT was reduced in rats subjected to certain feed withdrawal (FW regimens. Thus, using pigs as the experimental model, the hypothesis that FW regimens influence glucose tolerance by influencing fat cell function was evaluated with the objective of determining the effect of a single (FWx1; at age of 19 wk for 48 h or periodic, multiple (FWx4; 24 h FW at 7 and 11 wk of age and 48 h FW at 15 and 19 wk of age FW on AUC of glucose and insulin during the GTT relative to pigs that did not experience FW (Control. Methods Growth, body composition, adipocyte numbers, PPARγ expression, lipogenic potential as glucose uptake into fat of adipocytes of varying diameter in omental (OM and subcutaneous (SQ fat as affected by FW regimens were determined in pigs initiated into the study at 5 wk of age and fed the same diet, ad libitum. Results Blood glucose concentrations for prior to and 120 min post glucose meal tended to be lower (p = 0.105 and 0.097, respectively in pigs in FW treatments. In OM fat; cell numbers, glucose Universal14C [U14C] incorporation into fat and rate of incorporation per 104 cells was greatest for cells with diameters of 90-119 μm. Pigs undergoing FWx4 tended to have greater (p = 0.0685; by 191% number of adipocytes, increased (p = 0.0234 glucose U14C incorporation into adipocytes and greater (p = 0.0872 rate of glucose uptake into cells of 119-150 μm diameter than of cells from control or FWx1 pigs. Subcutaneous adipocyte numbers in 22-60 and 61-90 μm diameter ranges from pigs in FWx1 tended to be greater (p = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively than for those in FWx4 treatment, yet PPARγ expression and total cell number were not affected by treatment. Conclusions Results suggest that FW regimens influence fat cell function or

  17. Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Michelle C; Hulston, Carl J; Cox, Hannah R; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-03-01

    Green tea consumption is reportedly associated with various health-promoting properties. For example, it has been shown to promote fat oxidation in humans at rest and to prevent obesity and improve insulin sensitivity in mice. We investigated the effects of acute ingestion of green tea extract (GTE) on glucose tolerance and fat oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise in humans. Two studies were performed, both with a counter-balanced crossover design. In study A, 12 healthy men performed a 30-min cycling exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) before and after supplementation. In study B, 11 healthy men took an oral-glucose-tolerance test before and after supplementation. In the 24-h period before the experimental trials, participants ingested 3 capsules containing either GTE (total: 890 +/- 13 mg polyphenols and 366 +/- 5 mg EGCG) or a corn-flour placebo (total: 1729 +/- 22 mg). Average fat oxidation rates were 17% higher after ingestion of GTE than after ingestion of placebo (0.41 +/- 0.03 and 0.35 +/- 0.03 g/min, respectively; P fat oxidation to total energy expenditure was also significantly higher, by a similar percentage, after GTE supplementation. The insulin area under the curve decreased in both the GTE and placebo trials (3612 +/- 301 and 4280 +/- 309 microIU/dL . 120 min, respectively; P fat oxidation during moderate-intensity exercise and can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy young men.

  18. Prevalence of diabetes in Catalonia (Spain): an oral glucose tolerance test-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Tresserras, R; Serra, J; Goday, A; Lloveras, G; Salleras, L

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult population of Catalonia and study their association with obesity, central obesity, hypertension and smoking habit. A random sample of 3839 subjects aged 30-89 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 2214 subjects underwent a health examination with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 1625 were interviewed by phone. Diabetes prevalence (known and unknown) in the 30-89-year-old population was 10.3%, (95% CI: 9.1-11.6). In this age group, the prevalence rates of known diabetes, unknown diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were 6.4, 3.9 and 11.9% in men and 6.9, 3.4 and 11.9% in women. The age adjusted prevalence to the world population for the 30-64-year-old age group was 6.1% (7.1% in men and 5.2% in women).The factors significantly associated with diabetes were age, obesity, hypertension and family history of diabetes. The high ratio of previously known diabetic cases to newly discovered ones, specially in the oldest age group, suggests good levels of awareness and medical services. The prevalence in Catalonia is similar to that observed in other Mediterranean countries.

  19. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-08-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during 1997-2002 (baseline) and during 2003-2004 (re-evaluation). The observation period was (median; range) 4 (2-7) years. During re-evaluation, body mass index (BMI) was 24.9 (22.4-29.0) kg/m(2) and total Ferriman-Gallwey score was 10 (7-15) (median; 25-75% quartile). The women had unchanged BMI compared to baseline but increased fasting and 2 hour glucose levels. Impaired OGTT outcome during follow-up was seen in 14/66 (21.2%) women, 5/66 (7.6%) developed diabetes. Women who took oral contraceptives had a significantly decreased area under the curve (AUC) for insulin during follow-up, whereas AUC glucose levels increased. The present data supported a high risk of diabetes in only moderately overweight hirsute women.

  20. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice.

  1. β2-Adrenergic receptor ablation modulates hepatic lipid accumulation and glucose tolerance in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Shu, Zhen-Ju; Xue, Xiaoling; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Katz, Michael S; Kamat, Amrita

    2016-06-01

    Catecholamines acting through β-adrenergic receptors (β(1)-, β(2)-, β(3)-AR subtypes) modulate important biological responses in various tissues. Our previous studies suggest a role for increased hepatic β-AR-mediated signaling during aging as a mediator of hepatic steatosis, liver glucose output, and insulin resistance in rodents. In the current study, we have utilized β(2)-AR knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) control mice to define further the role of β(2)-AR signaling during aging on lipid and glucose metabolism. Our results demonstrate for the first time that age-related increases in hepatic triglyceride accumulation and body weight are attenuated upon β(2)-AR ablation. Although no differences in plasma triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids or insulin levels were detected between old WT and KO animals, an age-associated increase in hepatic expression of lipid homeostasis regulator Cidea was significantly reduced in old KO mice. Interestingly, we also observed a shift from reduced glucose tolerance in young adult KO animals to significantly improved glucose tolerance in old KO when compared to age-matched WT mice. These results provide evidence for an important role played by β(2)-ARs in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism during aging. The effect of β(2)-AR ablation on caloric intake during aging is currently not known and requires investigation. Future studies are also warranted to delineate the β(2)-AR-mediated mechanisms involved in the control of lipid and glucose homeostasis, especially in the context of a growing aging population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Comparison of oral glucose tolerance tests and mixed meals in patients with apparent idiopathic postabsorptive hypoglycemia: absence of hypoglycemia after meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M A; Hofeldt, F; Shackelford, A; Waldeck, N; Dodson, L E; Bunker, D; Coggins, J T; Eichner, H

    1981-06-01

    The relationship between symptoms of idiopathic postabsorptive hypoglycemia and glucose homeostasis was evaluated by giving oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and mixed meals to 18 patients and 16 controls. Chemical hypoglycemia after OGTT occurred as often in patients referred because of possible hypoglycemia symptoms, 18 out of 80 (23%), as in controls, 4 out of 16 (25%). After glucose, patients showed both clinical and chemical hypoglycemia (mean +/- SE plasma glucose, 48 +/- 3 mg/dl), but insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone responses were similar to controls. After mixed meals, no chemical hypoglycemia occurred in patients (mean plasma glucose, 79 +/- 3 mg/dl), yet 14 out of 18 (78%) had symptoms and/or signs consistent with hypoglycemia. No abnormality of glucose homeostasis was observed after meals that could account for symptoms or signs experienced by patients with idiopathic postabsorptive hypoglycemia. Since factors other than hypoglycemia appear to be involved, the disorder should be termed the idiopathic postprandial syndrome to avoid the connotation of chemical hypoglycemia.

  3. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2007-01-01

    in Primary Care]). METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years were screened for type 2 diabetes based on a high-risk, stepwise strategy. At baseline, anthropometric measurements, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. A total of 1,160 persons had IFG or IGT at baseline: 811 (70%) accepted re......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...

  4. Glucose tolerance status is a better predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes than metabolic syndrome: a prospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furtado de Souza, Camila; Dalzochio, Mériane Boeira; de Oliveira, Francisco Jorge Arsego; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease in patients with and without Metabolic Syndrome from a population treated in a primary care unit...

  5. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  6. Retrospective study on the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate diet for impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maekawa S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Maekawa,1 Tetsuya Kawahara,2 Ryosuke Nomura,1 Takayuki Murase,1 Yasuyoshi Ann,1 Masayuki Oeholm,1 Masaru Harada31Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Japan Labor Health and Welfare Organization, Niigata Rosai Hospital, Joetsu, Niigata, Japan; 3Third Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, JapanBackground: In recent years, the number of people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT has increased steadily worldwide. It is clear that the prevention of diabetes is important from the perspective of public health, medical care, and economics. It was recently reported that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD is useful for achieving weight loss and glycemic control, but there is no information about the effects of the LCD on IGT. We designed a 7-day in-hospital educational program focused on the LCD for IGT.Methods: The subjects were 72 patients with IGT (36 in the LCD group and 36 in the control group who were enrolled from April 2007–March 2012 and followed for 12 months. We retrospectively compared the LCD group with the control group.Results: In 69.4% of the LCD group, blood glucose was normalized at 12 months and the 2-hour plasma glucose level in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was reduced by 33 mg/dL. In addition, the incidence of diabetes was significantly lower in the LCD group than in the control group at 12 months (0% versus 13.9%, P=0.02. The LCD group showed a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance value, body weight and serum triglycerides (TGs at 12 months, while there was a significant increase of the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol level.Conclusion: The LCD is effective for normalizing blood glucose and preventing progression to type 2 diabetes in

  7. Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum β-glucosidase: a glucose-tolerant enzyme with high specific activity for cellobiose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jianjun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background β-Glucosidase is an important component of the cellulase enzyme system. It does not only participate in cellulose degradation, it also plays an important role in hydrolyzing cellulose to fermentable glucose by relieving the inhibition of exoglucanase and endoglucanase from cellobiose. Therefore, the glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase with high specific activity for cellobiose might be a potent candidate for industrial applications. Results The β-glucosidase gene bgl that encodes a 443-amino-acid protein was cloned and over-expressed from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571 in Escherichia coli. The phylogenetic trees of β-glucosidases were constructed using Neighbor-Joining (NJ and Maximum-Parsimony (MP methods. The phylogeny and amino acid analysis indicated that the BGL was a novel β-glucosidase. By replacing the rare codons for the N-terminal amino acids of the target protein, the expression level of bgl was increased from 6.6 to 11.2 U/mg in LB medium. Recombinant BGL was purified by heat treatment followed by Ni-NTA affinity. The optimal activity was at pH 6.4 and 70°C. The purified enzyme was stable over pH range of 5.2–7.6 and had a 1 h half life at 68°C. The activity of BGL was significantly enhanced by Fe2+ and Mn2+. The Vmax of 64 U/mg and 120 U/mg were found for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (Km value of 0.62 mM and cellobiose (Km value of 7.9 mM, respectively. It displayed high tolerance to glucose and cellobiose. The Kcat for cellobiose was 67.7 s-1 at 60°C and pH 6.4, when the concentration of cellobiose was 290 mM. It was activated by glucose at concentrations lower that 200 mM. With glucose further increasing, the enzyme activity of BGL was gradually inhibited, but remained 50% of the original value in even as high as 600 mM glucose. Conclusions The article provides a useful novel β-glucosidase which displayed favorable properties: high glucose and cellobiose tolerance

  8. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential in pregnancy-induced impaired glucose tolerance in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo I.A; Adewumi O.O; Odeigah P.G.C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced diabetes also known as gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an insulin resistant state that may induce impaired glucose tolerance and often gestational diabetes in susceptible women. Gestational diabetes causes serious problems to the mother and the baby. Therefore, the use of herbal remedies such as Bridelia ferruginea with the potential ability to improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy will definitely improve pregnancy outcome in ges...

  9. The significance of resistance training and psychobiology in primary prevention of Type 2 diabetes among people with impaired glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the importance of physical activity in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and, therefore, at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Also, factors were identified that could have motivational significance for lifestyle change to improve glucose tolerance and, consequently, reduce the risk of having Type 2 diabetes. Methods were adopted including qualitative and correlational research as well as experimental manipulation. One specific purpose of...

  10. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... between VO2max and these determinants of glycemic control were examined. RESULTS: A low VO2max was associated with high HbA1c (r = -0.33), high fasting glucose (r = -0.34), high 2-h OGTT glucose (r = -0.33), low SiOGTT (r = 0.73), and high early-phase (r = -0.34) and late-phase (r = -0.36) GSISOGTT...

  11. How Tom Moon's research highlighted the question of glucose tolerance in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakof, S; Panserat, S

    2016-09-01

    Fifteen years ago, Tom Moon wrote a review on this journal in order to propose some explanations to the exacerbated glycaemic response after a glucose load or a carbohydrate meal intake observed in fish, the so-called intolerance to glucose. Before, but in most of cases after this paper, several laboratories worldwide started to make important efforts in order to better understand this strange phenotype observed in fish and that so far seemed to belong to diabetic humans only. Tom had been worked on fish metabolism for at least 30years when he proposed that mini-review and the paths opened by him in 2001 were followed by tens of fish researchers, making this paper a breaking point on the field. Fifteen years later, we propose not only to have a look to the answers given to the questions rose in that paper, but also to summarize how his career over all these years impacted the domain of glucose metabolism in fish. In the review, we will show how Tom Moon analysed at different levels (from genes up to the whole organism), using distinct experimental tools (cells, hormone or glucose injection, pumps, drugs) the questions of glucose metabolism, tolerance and nutrition in fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The opposing effects of the flavonoids isoquercitrin and sissotrin, isolated from Pterospartum tridentatum, on oral glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Alexandra; Martins, Sofia; Branco, Pedro; Dias, Teresa; Borges, Carlos; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Costa, Maria do Céu; Teixeira, Adriano; Mota-Filipe, Hélder

    2008-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Pterospartum tridentatum on the blood glucose levels of normal Wistar rats was investigated in a situation of oral glucose challenge. The extract at 300 mg/kg showed an antihyperglycaemic effect in the first 30 min after glucose challenge but then the blood glucose levels rose above those of the control group, indicating the presence of compounds with different effects on glucose tolerance. Nine compounds of isoflavone and flavonol skeletons were identified in the extract by HPLC-ESI-MS(n), four of them being identified for the first time in this species. The isoflavone sissotrin and the flavonol derivative, isoquercitrin, were selected for the oral glucose tolerance test. Isoquercitrin (100 mg/kg) showed time-dependent antihyperglycaemic activity by delaying the post-oral glucose load glycaemic peak at 30 min, as did the sodium-dependent glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin (100 mg/kg). In contrast, sissotrin (100 mg/kg) showed an opposite effect, impairing glucose tolerance. In conclusion, these preliminary results indicate that the effect of the extract on blood glucose may be either antihyperglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. Additionally, as far as is known, these are the first in vivo results on the acute antihyperglycaemic potential of isoquercitrin.

  13. Abnormal release of incretins and cortisol after oral glucose in subjects with insulin-resistant myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Asa; Olsson, Tommy; Cederquist, Kristina;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), as well as glucagon and cortisol, are known to influence islet function, the role of these hormones in conditions of insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes is unknown...... response. Furthermore, cortisol and ACTH levels increased paradoxically in patients after glucose; this was more pronounced in patients with long CTG repeat expansions. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the GLP-1 and ACTH/cortisol responses to oral glucose are abnormal in insulin-resistant DM1 patients...

  14. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive and after antipsychotic treatment. Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria. Results: Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine-treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks. Conclusion: We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects.

  15. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  16. A miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell with a high tolerance against ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Zhang, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Graduate School of CAS, Beijing (China); Su, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Ohsaka, T. [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Mao, L.

    2009-02-15

    This study demonstrates a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell (BFC) with a high tolerance against physiological level of ascorbic acid (AA) by immobilising ascorbate oxidase (AAox) on both the bioanode and the biocathode. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-modified carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are employed as the substrate electrode for the bioanode and biocathode. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) are used as the biocatalysts for the electro-oxidation of glucose and for the electro-reduction of oxygen, respectively. SWNTs are used as the support for the both, stably confining the electrocatalyst (i.e. polymerised methylene blue, polyMB) for the oxidation of NADH co-factor for GDH and efficiently facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e. BOD) for O{sub 2} reduction. The prepared micro-sized GDH-based bioanode and BOD-based biocathode employed for the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose and reduction of oxygen, respectively, are further over-coated with AAox to give a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with a high tolerance against AA. The maximum power density and the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC are 52 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.60 V, respectively. These values remain unchanged with the presence of AA in solution. In the human serum containing 10 mM NAD{sup +} and under ambient air, the maximum power density and the OCV of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode are 35 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.39 V, respectively. These values are remarkably larger than those of the glucose/O{sub 2} BFC without AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode. This study could offer a new route to the development of enzymatic BFCs with promising application in real biological systems. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lin Shi; Wen-Juan Liu; Xiao-Fang Zhang; Wei-Juan Su; Ning-Ning Chen; Shu-Hua Lu; Li-Ying Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide.Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule,a Chinese herbal recipe,in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM.Methods:Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group,n =34) or no drug intervention (control group,n =31) for 12 weeks.Oral glucose tolerance test,glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c),body mass index,blood lipids levels,fasting insulin,and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment.Results:Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group).There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001),2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001),and HOMA-IR (P =0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment.After 12 weeks of treatment,two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose,and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group,while in the JLD group,14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM.There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P =0.001).Conclusions:JLD granule effectively improved glucose control,increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose,and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT.This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  18. Monitoring changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin with optical coherence tomography during an in vivo glucose tolerance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, M.; Tausta, S.; Myllylä, R.; Vainio, S.

    2007-05-01

    A non-invasive glucose monitoring technique would make evaluation of blood glucose values easier and more convenient. This would help diabetic patients to control their blood glucose values more regularly. A few years ago optical coherence tomography (OCT) was proposed as a non-invasive sensor for monitoring changes in blood glucose concentration. The method is based on monitoring glucose-induced changes in the scattering properties of the target. This article describes how OCT was used to monitor changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin during an in vivo glucose tolerance test. The results show that OCT has the potential to register glucose-induced changes in the optical properties of the sample. However, a commercial OCT device with a probe designed for imaging is not very suitable for non-invasive monitoring of glucose-induced changes in scattering. The problems confronted in this study, possibly originating from the small size of the animals, are discussed in the article.

  19. Therapeutic effects of adropin on glucose tolerance and substrate utilization in diet-induced obese mice with insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Gao

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Adropin treatment of DIO mice enhances glucose tolerance, ameliorates insulin resistance and promotes preferential use of carbohydrate over fat in fuel selection. Skeletal muscle is a key organ in mediating adropin's whole-body effects, sensitizing insulin signaling pathways and altering fuel selection preference to favor glucose while suppressing fat oxidation.

  20. EVALUATION OF HONEY INCORPORATED FOOD PREPARATION ON THE BASIS OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND THEIR ADVOCACY IN IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seema

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural sweetener and it is a nature’s gift to mankind. Honey is important edible substance, which contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins and sugars as major constituents. Honey is frequently used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as variety of the Ayurvedic preparations are taken along with or in combination with honey. The present study was conducted to determine the glycemic index of food products made with different natural sweeteners including honey. Normal healthy subjects (n = 10 and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 10 were included in the study and administered with equicarbohydrate quantity of glucose and a food preparation ‘sweet roll’ containing different sweeteners at fasted state on various days. Monitoring of blood glucose in normal healthy subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes indicated a significant difference in incremental area under the curve (IAUC of glucose and food preparations made with different sweeteners. The mean incremental area under the curve of food preparations was significantly lower (p = < 0.01 than that of glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance as well as normal healthy subjects. At the same time honey incorporated sweet rolls were found to have lower glycemic index when compared to rolls prepared with cane sugar and jaggery. This indicated honey incorporated foods may be occasionally consumed by subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  1. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  2. Effects of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP on glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria S; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Nielsen, Signe;

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is important for postprandial glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), whereas the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains to be resolved. We aimed to explore the relative importance of endogenously...

  3. Overexpression of a proton-coupled vacuolar glucose exporter impairs freezing tolerance and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemens, Patrick A W; Patzke, Kathrin; Trentmann, Oliver; Poschet, Gernot; Büttner, Michael; Schulz, Alexander; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis vacuoles harbor, besides sugar transporter of the TMT-type, an early response to dehydration like 6 (ERDL6) protein involved in glucose export into the cytosol. However, the mode of transport of ERDL6 and the plant's feedback to overexpression of its activity on essential properties such as, for example, seed germination or freezing tolerance, remain unexplored. Using patch-clamp studies on vacuoles expressing AtERDL6 we demonstrated directly that this carrier operates as a proton-driven glucose exporter. Overexpression of BvIMP, the closest sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) homolog to AtERDL6, in Arabidopsis leads surprisingly to impaired seed germination under both conditions, sugar application and low environmental temperatures, but not under standard conditions. Upon cold treatment, BvIMP overexpressor plants accumulated lower quantities of monosaccharides than the wild-type, a response in line with the reduced frost tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the fact that cold temperatures inhibits BvIMP transcription in sugar beet leaves. With these findings we show that the tight control of vacuolar sugar import and export is a key requisite for cold tolerance and seed germination of plants.

  4. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates...... degrees C of the 'average' D. octaedra. Such conditions are very likely to occur in the northern distribution ranges of this stress-tolerant earthworm....

  5. May Inhaled Corticosteroid Use Give Rise to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Bronchial Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Köksal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic side effects of inhaler corticosteroids (IC are quite rarely. It is also well known that systemic use of corticosteroids for a long period of time may have diabetogenic effects. In this study, the relationship between use of IC in patients with bronchial asthma and tendency of development of diabetes was investigated via oral glucose tolerance test. Eighty three patients with bronchial asthma and 34 healthy subjects without any known disease as a control group were enrolled the study. Asthma group and control group were similar according to gender, age and BMI. Mean period for the diagnosis of asthma was 8.9±6.4 years, for IC use was 4.2±2.7 years and mean daily dose of IC was 616.66±355.62 µgr. Fasting blood glucose (FBG for asthma group who were on IC and for control group were 92.96±6.82 mg/dl and 93.05±12.51 mg/dl, respectively. Following 75 gr OGTT, glucose levels for asthma group and control group were 110.21±32.17 mg/dl and 109.08±28.41 mg/dl, respectively. FBG levels and 2-hour glucose levels separately in both groups were not statistically significant (p0.05. In asthma group, correlations between duration of IC use and, FBG and 2-hour glucose levels, and also between dose of IC and FBG and 2-hour glucose levels were evaluated. Statistically significant but mild positive correlation was seen between duration of IC (4.2±2.7 year use and 2-hour glucose levels (110.21±32.17 mg/dl (p=0.007, r=0.292. In conclusion, in patients with asthma, mild positive correlation between IC use and 2-hour glucose levels was observed. Our findings may point out that IC use over a long period of time may lead glucose intolerance.

  6. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  7. Beta-cell ARNT is required for normal glucose tolerance in murine pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Mei Lau

    Full Text Available AIMS: Insulin secretion increases in normal pregnancy to meet increasing demands. Inability to increase beta-cell function results in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. We have previously shown that the expression of the transcription factor ARNT (Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator is reduced in the islets of humans with type 2 diabetes. Mice with a beta-cell specific deletion of ARNT (β-ARNT mice have impaired glucose tolerance secondary to defective insulin secretion. We hypothesised that ARNT is required to increase beta-cell function during pregnancy, and that β-ARNT mice would be unable to compensate for the beta-cell stress of pregnancy. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms of ARNT regulation of beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. METHODS: β-ARNT females were mated with floxed control (FC males and FC females with β-ARNT males. RESULTS: During pregnancy, β-ARNT mice had a marked deterioration in glucose tolerance secondary to defective insulin secretion. There was impaired beta-cell proliferation in late pregnancy, associated with decreased protein and mRNA levels of the islet cell-cycle regulator cyclinD2. There was also reduced expression of Irs2 and G6PI. In contrast, in control mice, pregnancy was associated with a 2.1-fold increase in ARNT protein and a 1.6-fold increase in cyclinD2 protein, and with increased beta-cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Islet ARNT increases in normal murine pregnancy and beta-cell ARNT is required for cyclinD2 induction and increased beta-cell proliferation in pregnancy.

  8. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Hespel, Peter

    2010-11-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-caloric fat-rich diet. Healthy male volunteers (18-25 y) received a hyper-caloric (∼+30% kcal day(-1)) fat-rich (50% of kcal) diet for 6 weeks. Some of the subjects performed endurance exercise training (4 days per week) in the fasted state (F; n = 10), whilst the others ingested carbohydrates before and during the training sessions (CHO; n = 10). The control group did not train (CON; n = 7). Body weight increased in CON (+3.0 ± 0.8 kg) and CHO (+1.4 ± 0.4 kg) (P glucose tolerance and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (P training in F elevated AMP-activated protein kinase α phosphorylation (+25%) as well as up-regulated fatty acid translocase/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 mRNA levels compared with CON (∼+30%). High-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid but not diacylglycerol and ceramide contents, either in the absence or presence of training. This study for the first time shows that fasted training is more potent than fed training to facilitate adaptations in muscle and to improve whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during hyper-caloric fat-rich diet.

  9. Intergenerational transmission of macrosomia in women with gestational diabetes and normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, J; Miazgowski, T

    2015-12-01

    It has been suggested that neonatal macrosomia may contribute to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in later life. Much less is known about the association between maternal birth weight (MBW) and offspring birth weight (OBW). This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence of macrosomia in women with treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. The study also investigated associations between MBW and OBW. Medical records of 519 pregnant women with treated GDM and 766 women with normal glucose tolerance, referred to the Gestational Diabetes Outpatient Clinic in Szczecin, Poland, were analyzed. The following data were assessed: maternal age, pregravid body weight, height, gestational weight gain, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, MBW and OBW. Birth weight was classified as small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia (≥4000g). OBW was obtained from birth certificates, and MBW was obtained from birth certificates or self-report. The overall prevalence of macrosomia was 8.1%, and was comparable in subgroups of women with and without GDM (7.7% and 8.4%, respectively; p=0.905). The frequencies of SGA, AGA and LGA did not differ between study groups. A positive correlation was found between MBW and OBW in women with treated GDM (r=0.211, pmacrosomia in offspring [odds ratio (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.36 in women with treated GDM; OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.76 in women with normal glucose tolerance). Other independent predictors of fetal macrosomia were gestational weight gain, prior macrosomia and pregravid body mass index (BMI). MBW, prior macrosomia, pregravid BMI and gestational weight gain were predictors of macrosomia in offspring, but GDM was not. High MBW seems to contribute to intergenerational transmission of macrosomia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beers, Eduard J; van der Plas, Mart N; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Biemond, Bart J; Bresser, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age (interquartile range) of 26 (21-41) years underwent pulmonary function tests, CPET, chest x-ray, and echocardiography to further characterize exercise limitation in SCD. Peak oxygen uptake (V'O2 -peak), expressing maximum exercise capacity, was decreased in 83% of the studied patients. V'O2 -peak correlated with hemoglobin levels (R = 0.440, P = 0.005), forced vital capacity (FVC) (R = 0.717, P anemia (n = 17), cardiovascular dysfunction (n = 2), musculoskeletal function (n = 10), pulmonary ventilatory abnormalities (n = 1), pulmonary vascular exercise limitation (n = 1), and poor effort (n = 3). In the present study we demonstrate that anemia is the most important determinant of reduced exercise tolerance observed in SCD patients without signs of pulmonary hypertension. We found a strong correlation between various parameters of lung volume and cardiothoracic ratio and we hypothesize that cardiomegaly and relative small chest size may be important causes of the impairment in pulmonary function, that is, reduced long volumes and diffusion capacity, in SCD. Taking into account anthropomorphic differences between SCD patients and controls could help to interpret lung function studies in SCD better.

  11. Variations in the ghrelin receptor gene associate with obesity and glucose metabolism in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Mager

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ghrelin may influence the development of obesity through its role in the control of energy balance, food intake, and regulation of body weight. The effects of ghrelin are mediated via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the GHSR gene and assessed the association between those SNPs and obesity and type 2 diabetes-related phenotypes from 507 middle-aged overweight persons with impaired glucose tolerance participating in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Additionally, we performed in silico screening of the 5'-regulatory region of GHSR and evaluated SNPs disrupting putative transcription factor (TF binding sites in vitro with gelshift assays to determine differences in protein binding between different alleles of SNPs. Rs9819506 in the promoter region of GHSR was associated with body weight (p = 0.036; persons with rs9819506-AA genotype having the lowest body weight. Individuals with rs490683-CC genotype displayed highest weight loss in the whole study population (p = 0.032. The false discovery rate for these results was <10%. Rs490683 and rs509035 were associated with several measures of glucose and insulin metabolism during the follow-up. Rs490683 may be a functional SNP, since gelshift experiments showed differential protein binding between the alleles, with higher binding to the G-allele. Rs490683-C may disrupt a putative binding site for the TF nuclear factor 1 (NF-1, thus rs4906863-GG genotype where the NF-1 site is intact may lead to a higher GHSR gene expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Polymorphisms in the GHSR promoter may modify changes in body weight during long-term lifestyle intervention and affect ghrelin receptor signalling through modulation of GHSR gene expression.

  12. Age, BMI, and race are less important than random plasma glucose in identifying risk of glucose intolerance: the Screening for Impaired Glucose Tolerance Study (SIGT 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, David C; Kolm, Paul; Weintraub, William S; Vaccarino, Viola; Rhee, Mary K; Caudle, Jane M; Irving, Jade M; Koch, David D; Narayan, K M Venkat; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2008-05-01

    Age, BMI, and race/ethnicity are used in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines to prompt screening for pre-diabetes and diabetes, but cutoffs have not been evaluated rigorously. Random plasma glucose (RPG) was measured and 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 1,139 individuals without known diabetes. Screening performance was assessed by logistic regression and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC). NIDDK/ADA indicators age >45 years and BMI >25 kg/m(2) provided significant detection of both diabetes and dysglycemia (both AROCs 0.63), but screening was better with continuous-variable models of age, BMI, and race and better still with models of age, BMI, race, sex, and family history (AROC 0.78 and 0.72). However, screening was even better with RPG alone (AROCs 0.81 and 0.72). RPG >125 mg/dl could be used to prompt further evaluation with an OGTT. Use of age, BMI, and race/ethnicity in guidelines for screening to detect diabetes and pre-diabetes may be less important than evaluation of RPG. RPG should be investigated further as a convenient, inexpensive screen with good predictive utility.

  13. The effect of weight loss by energy restriction on metabolic profile and glucose tolerance in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weyenberg, S; Hesta, M; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2008-10-01

    In nine initially obese ponies, a weekly weight loss according to 1% of their ideal body weight was evaluated for its impact on insulin sensitivity and metabolic profile. Weight loss was obtained solely through energy restriction, initially at 70% of maintenance energy requirements, but to maintain constant weight loss, feed amount had to be decreased to 50% and 35% of maintenance energy requirement during the course of the trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17. Fasted blood samples were taken on weeks 0, 3, 10, 17 for analysis of triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), T(3), T(4) and leptin. Total average weight loss was 18.2%. When the OGTT was performed at weeks 0, 10 and 17, ponies had lost 0.22%, 9.9% and 16.3% of their initial weight respectively. Weight loss was associated with a decreased AUC for glucose and insulin. Moreover, greater % weight loss was associated with a significantly lower glucose peak and a lower area under the curve (AUC glucose). The lower glucose response after an OGTT in lean ponies was not the result of an increased insulin secretion, but an improved insulin sensitivity. Restricted feeding led to mobilization of TG and NEFA and to a reduced basal metabolism, with lower LDH, CPK, T(3) and leptin. in obese Shetland ponies, weight loss at a rate of 1% of ideal body weight per week through restricted energy intake, ameliorated insulin sensitivity.

  14. Acute postexercise effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew David; Myers, Stephen David; Kelly, John Stephen Michael; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-02-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance was shown to be present 48 hr following muscle-damaging eccentric exercise. We examined the acute effect of concentric and muscle-damaging eccentric exercise, matched for intensity, on the responses to a 2-hr 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten men (27 ± 9 years, 178 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 11 kg, VO₂max: 52.3 ± 7.3 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹) underwent three OGTTs after an overnight 12 hr fast: rest (control), 40-min (5 × 8-min with 2-min interbout rest) of concentric (level running, 0%, CON) or eccentric exercise (downhill running, -12%, ECC). Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m. quadriceps femoris of both legs was measured before and after the running protocols. Downhill running speed was higher (level: 9.7 ± 2.1, downhill: 13.8 ± 3.2 km · hr⁻¹, p eccentric exercise.

  15. ATLANTIC DIP: the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [95% CI 1.24-1.98]) and obese (OB) (2.65 [2.03-3.46]) women. Hypertensive disorders increased in OW (2.30 [1.55-3.40]) and OB (3.29 [2.14-5.05]) women. Reported miscarriages increased in OB (1.4 [1.11-1.77]) women. Mean birth weight was 3.46 kg in normal BMI (NBMI), 3.54 kg in OW, and 3.62 kg in OB (P < 0.01) mothers. Macrosomia occurred in 15.5, 21.4, and 27.8% of babies of NBMI, OW, and OB mothers, respectively (P < 0.01). Shoulder dystocia occur in 4% (>4 kg) compared with 0.2% (<4 kg) babies (P < 0.01). Congenital malformation risk increased for OB (2.47 [1.09-5.60]) women. CONCLUSIONS OW and OB glucose-tolerant women have greater adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in 481 obese glucose-tolerant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    .0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimester......-weight women (3,478 g). In multivariate analyses, increasing weight gain was associated with significantly higher rates of hypertension (OR 4.8 [95% CI for group 4 vs. group 1: 1.7-13.1]), cesarean section (3.5 [1.6-7.8]), induction of labor (3.7 [1.7-8.0]), and large-for-gestational-age infants (4.7 [2...

  17. Urinary C peptide creatinine ratio in pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes: evidence for insulin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoska, Ankica; Valaiyapathi, Rajalakshmi; Thorn, Chloe; Dornhorst, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis In pregnancy, urinary C peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR) reflects endogenous insulin secretion in women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods UCPCR and serum C peptide were measured in 90 glucose-tolerant women at 0 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28 weeks of gestation. UCPCR was measured in 2 samples obtained over 10 weeks apart in 7 pregnant women with longstanding type 1 diabetes. Results UCPCROGTT and serum C peptideOGTT of glucose-tolerant women were significantly correlated at 0 and 120 min (rs0.675, 0.541 respectively, p<0.0001). All 7 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes had detectable first sample UCPCR (median (range) 49 (6–1038) pmol/mmol) that rose in 6 women by 477 (29–1491) pmol/mmol. Conclusions Detectable UCPCR in pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes is likely to reflect endogenous insulin secretion and hence β-cell activity. PMID:28090333

  18. Research Progress of 1-hour Hyperglycemia after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test%口服葡萄糖耐量试验后1h高血糖的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志标

    2012-01-01

    1 -hour hyperglycemia during oral glucose tolerance test is a transitional state of abnormal glucose regulation from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is an independent risk factor for both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Compared with normal glucose tolerance persons,they have a decreased (3 cell function and higher probability of the conversion to impaired glucose regulation or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Weight control,reasonable exercise and drugs such as biguanides can improve insulin pcell function, thus decrease serum glucose level.%口服葡萄糖耐量试验后1h高血糖是正常糖耐量过渡到2型糖尿病的异常糖代谢状态,它是2型糖尿病和心血管疾病的独立危险因素,与正常血糖人群相比,其胰岛β细胞功能已经降低,更容易发展成为葡萄糖调节受损或2型糖尿病的状态.控制体质量,适当的运动,服用双胍类均可改善胰岛β细胞功能,从而降低血糖水平.

  19. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isordia-Salas, Irma; Galván-Plata, María Eugenia; Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Aguilar-Sosa, Eberth; Anaya-Gómez, Francisco; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santiago-Germán, David

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n = 473, pre-DM n = 250, and T2DM n = 216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P = 0.01) and hs-CRP (P = 0.05). Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.53, P<0.0001). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2 = 0.31, P<0.0001), and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2 = 0.33, P<0.0001). Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels. PMID:24772446

  20. Allele summation of diabetes risk genes predicts impaired glucose tolerance in female and obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in approximately 40 genes have been associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D in genome-wide association studies. It is not known whether a similar genetic impact on the risk of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glycemia [IFG] exists. METHODS: In our cohort of 1442 non-diabetic subjects of European origin (normal glucose tolerance [NGT] n = 1046, isolated IFG n = 142, isolated IGT n = 140, IFG+IGT n = 114, an impact on glucose homeostasis has been shown for 9 SNPs in previous studies in this specific cohort. We analyzed these SNPs (within or in the vicinity of the genes TCF7L2, KCNJ11, HHEX, SLC30A8, WFS1, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, PPARG for association with prediabetes. RESULTS: The genetic risk load was significantly associated with the risk for IGT (p = 0.0006 in a model including gender, age, BMI and insulin sensitivity. To further evaluate potential confounding effects, we stratified the population on gender, BMI and insulin sensitivity. The association of the risk score with IGT was present in female participants (p = 0.008, but not in male participants. The risk score was significantly associated with IGT (p = 0.008 in subjects with a body mass index higher than 30 kg/m(2 but not in non-obese individuals. Furthermore, only in insulin resistant subjects a significant association between the genetic load and the risk for IGT (p = 0.01 was found. DISCUSSION: We found that T2D genetic risk alleles cause an increased risk for IGT. This effect was not present in male, lean and insulin sensitive subjects, suggesting a protective role of beneficial environmental factors on the genetic risk.

  1. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Isordia-Salas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n=473, pre-DM n=250, and T2DM n=216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P=0.01 and hs-CRP (P=0.05. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r=0.53, P<0.0001. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2=0.31, P<0.0001, and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2=0.33, P<0.0001. Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels.

  2. Gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and triglyceride concentration in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, has been shown to exert a variety of effects, including anti-oxidative, anti- carcinogenic, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we attempted to determine whether gallic acid affects metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes. Diet-induced obesity mice were treated intraperitoneally once per day with gallic acid (10 mg/kg/day). After 2 weeks of treatment, the mice were sacrificed to collect the blood for metabolic parameter assessments, and the adipose tissues and liver to weigh and analyze. The triglyceride concentrations were significantly improved in the gallic acid group relative to those measured in the control group. And most importantly, the blood glucose concentrations in the gallic acid group were significantly improved. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of the gallic acid group, adipocyte size was reduced, PPARγ expression was induced, and the Akt signaling pathway was activated. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in the obesity mice, thereby showing evidence of anti-hyperglycemic activity. The findings of an upregulation of PPARγ expression and Akt activation also contribute to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of gallic acid on glucose metabolism.

  3. Diacylglycerol kinase ϵ deficiency preserves glucose tolerance and modulates lipid metabolism in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Schönke, Milena; Brozinick, Joseph T; Vetterli, Laurène; Bui, Hai-Hoang; Sanders, Philip; Nascimento, Emmani B M; Björnholm, Marie; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-02-28

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) catalyze the phosphorylation and conversion of DAG into phosphatidic acid. DGK isozymes have unique primary structures, expression patterns, subcellular localizations, regulatory mechanisms and DAG preferences. DGKε has a hydrophobic segment that promotes its attachment to membranes and shows substrate specificity for DAG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain in the sn-2 position of the substrate. We determined the role of DGKε in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in relation to diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity using DGKε deficient (KO) and wild-type mice. Lipidomic analysis revealed elevated unsaturated and saturated DAG species in skeletal muscle of DGKε KO mice, which was paradoxically associated with increased glucose tolerance. While skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was unaltered, whole body respiratory exchange ratio was reduced, and abundance of mitochondrial markers was increased, indicating a greater reliance on fat oxidation and intracellular lipid metabolism in DGKε KO mice. Thus, the increased intracellular lipids in skeletal muscle from DGKε KO mice may undergo rapid turnover due to increased mitochondrial function and lipid oxidation, rather than storage, which in turn may preserve insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, DGKε plays a role in glucose and energy homeostasis by modulating lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  4. Selective amino acid deficiency in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Bjoern A; Schrader, Henning; Ritter, Peter R; Ellrichmann, Mark; Uhl, Waldemar; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Meier, Juris J

    2010-02-25

    Amino acids are important modulators of glucose metabolism, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, little is known about the changes in amino acid metabolism in patients with diabetes. The circulating amino acid levels were determined in 17 patients with type 2 diabetes, 17 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 control subjects. Total amino acid concentrations were 2850+/-57micromol/l in patients with type 2 diabetes, 2980+/-77micromol/l in individuals with IGT, and 2886+/-74micromol/l in control subjects (p=0.38). Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibited significant reductions in the concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), arginine, glutamine and phosphoethanolamine (pamino acids were positively related to fasting and post-challenge glucose levels, fasting C-peptide, HOMA insulin resistance and fasting glucagon levels (pamino acids differ significantly between these groups. These alterations may contribute to the disturbances in insulin secretion and action in diabetic patients and may provide a rationale for offering specific amino acid supplementations to diabetic patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional changes of the coronary microvasculature with aging regarding glucose tolerance, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Couturier, Karine; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Azarnoush, Kasra; Richardson, Melanie; Demaison, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at characterizing the functional progression of the endothelial (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the coronary microvasculature between youth and old age, as well as at determining the mechanisms of the observed changes on the basis of the glucose tolerance, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. Male rats were divided into four age groups (3, 6, 11, and 17 months for the young (Y), young adult (YA), middle-aged (MA), and old (O) animals). The cardiac mechanical function, endothelial-dependent dilatation (EDD) and endothelial-independent dilatation (EID) of the coronary microvasculature were determined in a Langendorff preparation. The mitochondrial respiration and H2O2 production were evaluated and completed by ex vivo measurements of oxidative stress. EDD progressively decreased from youth to old age. The relaxation properties of the SMCs, although high in the Y rats, decreased drastically between youth and young adulthood and stabilized thereafter, paralleling the reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The ECs dilatation activity, low at youth, was stimulated in YA animals and returned to their initial level at middle age. That parameter followed faithfully the progression of the amount of active cardiac endothelial nitric oxide synthase and whole body glucose intolerance. In conclusion, the progressive decrease in EDD occurring with aging is due to different functional behaviors of the ECs and SMCs, which appear to be associated with the systemic glucose intolerance and cardiac energy metabolism.

  6. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  7. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Hlaing Hlaing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June-November 2014. Adults aged 35-64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8). Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa=0.8). Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  8. The Study of Abnormal Metabalism in Essential Hypertention out Patient with Normol Fasting Blood Glucose%空腹血糖正常的门诊高血压患者代谢异常研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊利; 费丽萍; 牛青英; 李艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the factors that influence glucose tolerance in essential hypertention,identify the clinical characteristics of abnormal metabalism.Methods:436 outpatients with essential hypertention,with no history of diabites mellitus and normol fasting blood glucose were recruited.All eligible patients received oral glucose tolerance test. We analyzed the relationships between impaired glucose tolerance and other variables including age,gender,body mass index, blood pressure,uric acid,lipid levels,and carotid atherosclerosis plague.Results:Among 436 patients,the number of patients with impaired glucose tolerance was 127 (29.1%),the number of newly diagnosed diabites DM was 41 (9.5%).A positive correlation exists between glucose tolerance and other variables including age,gender,lowdensity cholesterol,uric acid and carotid atherosclerosis plague.Conclusion:High prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance was discoved in essential hypertention patients with normol fasting blood glucose.Oral glucose tolerance test should be actively engaged in those patients to detect impaired glucose toleranc early.And it is helpful to postpone progression of diabites and reduce risk of cardelvassculer and cerebrovassculer disease.%目的::研究空腹血糖正常的门诊原发性高血压患者糖代谢异常临床特征,揭示糖耐量异常与血脂、尿酸及颈动脉粥样硬化的情况。方法:选择确诊有原发性高血压而无糖尿病的患者436例,入选患者口服葡萄糖耐量实验测定,分析年龄、性别、体重指数、血脂水平、颈动脉粥样硬化等参数与糖耐量异常的关系。结果:436例患者中检出糖耐量减低患者127例,占29.1%,糖尿病患者41例,占9.5%,糖耐量异常与性别、年龄、血尿酸水平、低密度脂蛋白、颈动脉粥样硬化呈正相关。结论:空腹血糖正常的门诊高血压患者合并糖耐量异常比例较高,常伴有血脂

  9. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati......AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS...

  10. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter; Overgaard, Johannes

    2009-03-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates the roles of glucose accumulation for long-term freeze tolerance in worms kept frozen at -2 degrees C for 47 days. During this period, worms were sampled periodically for determination of survival and for measurements of glucose, glycogen, lactate, alanine and succinate. In addition we performed calorimetric measurements to assess metabolic rate of frozen and unfrozen worms. Long-term freezing was associated with a gradual depletion of glucose and worms that succumbed during this period were always characterised by low glucose and glycogen levels. The anaerobic waste products lactate and alanine increased slightly whereas succinate levels remained constant. However, it is argued that other waste products (particularly propionate) could be the primary end product of a continued anaerobic metabolism. Calorimetric measures of the metabolic rate of frozen worms were in accord with values calculated from the reduction in glucose assuming that most ( approximately 90%) glucose was metabolised anaerobically. Both estimates of metabolic rate demonstrated a 10-fold metabolic depression associated with freezing. Thus, in addition to the suspected role of glucose as cryoprotectant, the present study demonstrates that glucose accumulation is vital to ensure substrate for long-term anaerobic metabolism in frozen worms. On the basis of the estimated metabolite levels, we calculate that the combined effect of metabolic depression and large glucose stores enables a projected 3 months survival of freezing at -2 degrees C of the ;average' D. octaedra. Such conditions are very likely to occur in the northern distribution ranges of this stress-tolerant earthworm.

  11. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa Urita; Motonobu Sugimoto; Kazumasa Miki; Susumu Ishihara; Tatsuo Akimoto; Hiroto Kato; Noriko Hara; Yoshiko Honda; Yoko Nagai; Kazushige Nakanishi; Nagato Shimada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.METHODS: A standard 75-g OGTT was performed in 82 diabetic patients. The patients received 75 g of anhydrous glucose in 225 mL of water after an overnight fasting and breath samples were collected at baseline and up to 120 min afler ingestion. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations were measured. Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured before ingestion and at 30, 60, g0, 120 min post-ingestion.RESULTS: When carbohydrate malabsorption was defined as subjects with an increase of at least 10 ppm (parts per million) in hydrogen or methane excretion within a 2-h period, 28 (34%) had carbohydrate malabsorption. According to the result of increased breath test, 21 (75%) patients were classified as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and 7 (25%) as glucose malabsorption. Patients with carbohydrate malabsorption were older and had poor glycemic control as compared with those without carbohydrate malabsorption. The HOMA value, the sum of serum insulin during the test and the Ainsulin/Aglucose ratio were greater in patients with carbohydrate malabsorption.CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance may be overestimated by using these markers if the patient has carbohydrate malabsorption, or that carbohydrate malabsorption may be present prior to the development of insulin resistance.Hence carbohydrate malabsorption should be taken into account for estimating insulin resistance and β-cell function.

  12. Therapeutic effects of berberine in impaired glucose tolerance rats and its influence on insulin secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-hua LENG; Fu-er LU; Li-jun XU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-diabetic effects of berberine and its influence on insulin secretion. METHODS: Impaired glucose tolerance rats induced by iv injection of streptozotocin 30 mg/kg were treated with berberine 187.5 and 562.5 mg/kg while fed with high fat laboratory chow. After rats were treated for 4 weeks, oral glucose tolerance was determined, and for 8 weeks, the fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid series were determined. In insulin secretion experiments, berberine 93.75, 187.5, and 562.5 mg/kg was administered orally to BALB/c mice at a bolus. The murine serum was collected 2 h after the berberine administration for insulin determination. Insulin released from HIT-T 15 cells and pancreatic islets incubated with berberine 1-100 μmol/L for 12 h was determined. RESULTS:The levels of fasting blood glucose (7.4± 1.5 or 7.3± 1.3 vs 9.3± 1.3 mmol/L), triglycerides (0.61±0.22 or 0.63±0.17 vs 1.8±0.7 mmol/L), total cholesterol (1.8±0.3 or 1.9±0.3 vs 2.2±0.2 mmol/L), free fatty acid (456±93 or 460±72 vs 550± 113 μmol/L) and apolipoprotein B (0.37±0.02 or 0.42±0.05 vs 0.46±0.04 g/L) were reduced greatly in berberine-treated groups at doses of 187.5 and 562.5 mg.kg-1.d-l, respectively as compared with those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (1.5±0.3 or 1.4±0.3 vs 1.1±0.1 g/L), apolipoprotein A1 (0.80±0.08 or 0.87±0.08 vs 0.71±0.06 g/L) were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and oral glucose tolerance was improved. In vitro experiment showed that berberine 1-10 μmol/L facilitated insulin secretion of HIT-T15 cells and murine pancreatic islets in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile murine serum insulin level (27.5±2.7 or 29±4 or 29±4 vs 24.3±2.8 plU/L) was undoubtedly promoted and blood glucose (4.52±0.31 or 4.45±0.29 or 4.30±0.19 vs 4.87±0.21 mmol/L) was reduced after berberine administration at doses of 93.75, 187.5,and 562.5 mg/kg, respectively in the BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION

  13. Determinants of Glycated Hemoglobin in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Subanalysis of the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Naoki; Sato, Juichi; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tsujii, Satoru; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawazu, Shoji; Sato, Yuzo; Usui, Takeshi; Kamae, Isao; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sato, Shigeaki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Kaoru; Kuzuya, Hideshi; Group, JDPP Research

    2017-01-01

    Background Limited evidence is available about the relationship of lifestyle factors with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The aim of study was to identify such determinant factors of HbA1c in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods This cross-sectional study included 121 men and 124 women with impaired glucose tolerance, who were diagnosed based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Demographic and biochemical parameters, including the body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load glucose (2-h PG), and HbA1c, were measured. The pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance were assessed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-β). Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Results The levels of FPG, 2-h PG, and carbohydrate intake were correlated with the HbA1c level in men, while the FPG and 2-h PG levels were correlated with the HbA1c level in women. In multiple regression analyses, BMI, FPG, 2-h PG, and white rice intake were associated with HbA1c levels in men, while BMI, FPG, HOMA-β, and bread intake were associated with HbA1c levels in women. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a substantial portion of HbA1c may be composed of not only glycemic but also several lifestyle factors in men with impaired glucose tolerance. These factors can be taken into consideration as modifiable determinants in assessing the HbA1c level for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the disease course. PMID:28270897

  14. How Fast Is Recovery of Impaired Glucose Tolerance after 21-Day Bed Rest (NUC Study in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Heer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We hypothesized that 4 days of normal daily activity after 21 days of experimental bed rest (BR will not reverse BR induced impaired glucose tolerance. Design. Glucose tolerance of seven male, healthy, untrained test subjects (age: 27.6 (3.3 years (mean (SD; body mass: 78.6 (6.4 kg; height: 1.81 (0.04 m; VO2 max: 39.5 (5.4 ml/kg body mass/min was studied. They stayed twice in the metabolic ward (crossover design, 21 days in bed and 7 days before and after BR each. Oral glucose tolerance tests were applied before, on day 21 of BR, and 5 and 14 days after BR. Results. On day 21 of BR, AUC120 min of glucose concentration was increased by 28.8 (5.2% and AUC120 min of insulin by 35.9 (10.2% (glucose: P<0.001; insulin: P=0.02. Fourteen days after BR, AUC120 min of serum insulin concentrations returned to pre-bed-rest concentrations (P=0.352 and AUC120 min of glucose was still higher (P=0.038. Insulin resistance did not change, but sensitivity index was reduced during BR (P=0.005. Conclusion. Four days of light physical workload does not compensate inactivity induced impaired glucose tolerance. An individually tailored and intensified training regime is mandatory in patients being in bed rest to get back to normal glucose metabolism in a reasonable time frame.

  15. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue

    2011-01-01

    )). Method: Before and after the life style intervention an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed and a muscle biopsy was obtained in the fasted state. Maximal oxygen uptake was measured by an indirect test. Results: After the intervention body weight was decreased (P......Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2...

  16. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...

  17. Molecular cloning of glucose transporter 1 in grouper Epinephelus coioides and effects of an acute hyperglycemia stress on its expression and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Liqiao; Tan, Beiping

    2017-02-01

    The glucose transporter family proteins play pivotal roles in glucose metabolism. In this study, we successfully cloned the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) glucose transporter 1 (EcGlut1) gene (GenBank accession: JQ623903). The full-length EcGlut1 cDNA was 2126 bp with a 1476 bp ORF, a 437bp5'-UTR and 223bp3'-UTR. EcGlut1 is predicted to encode a 491 amino acid protein with a MW of 53.9 kDa, a pI of 8.66 and a Pfam domain. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that EcGlut1 was evolutionally conserved between fishes with 80-89 % amino acid identities. EcGlut1 was expressed predominantly in heart and liver and at lower levels in muscle, intestine, stomach and brain. We also investigated the effect of acute hyperglycemia stress on EcGlut1 expression. In glucose tolerance test, changes in EcGlut1 mRNA expression in response to glucose injection and glucose metabolism-related indictors were assessed at the same time. Glucose injection significantly suppressed EcGlut1 mRNA expression in liver at 12 h and in brain at 24 h postinjection (P < 0.05). EcGlut1 mRNA levels in heart were increased at 6 h (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose level increased significantly and reached its maximum at 3 h postinjection (P < 0.05). The spatiotemporal expression of EcGlut1 and glucose metabolism suggested that orange spotted grouper might rely on fat anabolism to reduce acute hyperglycemia stress and the delayed transcription of EcGlut1 gene might be one reason for glucose intolerance in E. coioides.

  18. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  19. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both sexes, and SAT was additionallyassociated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels in women andwith higher blood pressure in participants with diabetes. Conclusion: Both abdominal VAT and SAT are independent of overall obesity......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound....... Results: Independent of SAT and overall obesity, VAT was associated with higher triglyceride andlower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in both men and women and additionallyassociated with higher total cholesterol in men. SAT was independently associated with highertotal cholesterol...

  20. Diagnostic Accuracies of Glycated Hemoglobin, Fructosamine, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in Predicting Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or New Onset Diabetes After Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosettenstein, Kerri; Viecelli, Andrea; Yong, Kenneth; Nguyen, Hung Do; Chakera, Aron; Chan, Doris; Dogra, Gursharan; Lim, Ee Mun; Wong, Germaine; Lim, Wai H

    2016-07-01

    New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is associated with a 3-fold greater risk of cardiovascular disease events, with early identification and treatment potentially attenuating this risk. The optimal screening test to identify those with NODAT remains unclear, and the aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic accuracies of 4 screening tests in identifying impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and NODAT. This is a single-center prospective cohort study of 83 nondiabetic kidney transplant recipients between 2008 and 2011. Oral glucose tolerance test was considered the gold standard in identifying IFG/IGT or NODAT. Diagnostic accuracies of random blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c), fructosamine, and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance in predicting IFG/IGT or NODAT were assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Forty (48%) recipients had IFG/IGT or NODAT. Compared with HBA1c with adjusted area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.77-0.93), fructosamine was the most accurate test with adjusted AUC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.83-0.96). The adjusted AUCs of random blood glucose and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance in identifying IFG/IGT were between 0.81 and 0.85. Restricting to identifying IGT/NODAT using 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (n = 66), fructosamine was the most accurate diagnostic test with adjusted AUC of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-0.99), but not statistically different to HBA1c with adjusted AUC of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.96). Although HBA1c is an acceptable and widely used screening test in detecting IFG/IGT or NODAT, fructosamine may be a more accurate diagnostic test but this needs to be further examined in larger cohorts.

  1. STUDY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS: FFA, LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN SUBJECTS WITH VARYING GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张翼飞; 宁光; 陈名道; 唐金凤

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the fasting serum levels of obesity related factors: FFA, leptin and adiponectin in subjects with varying glucose tolerance and their relationship with BMI, insulin sensitivity index and islet beta-cell function. Methods Serum levels of FFA, leptin and adiponectin in 24 normal, 32 simple obese, 34IGT and 36 T2DM subjects were measured by ACS-ACOD assay or RIA. Results The serum levels of leptin and FFA in three groups: simple obese, IGT and DM were much higher than those in normal control (P<0. 001 ). In contrast, serum level of adiponectin of simple obese, IGT and DM groups were significant lower than that of normal control, among them DM subjects had the lowest level ( P<0. 001 ). Correlation analysis showed that FFA was positively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, fasting insulin level and negatively correlated to SI; adiponectin was negatively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, PBG, but positively correlated to SI and AIRg; and leptin was positively correlated to BMI, fasting insulin and AIRg when negatively correlated to FBG and SI. None of them was correlated to age.Conclusion Subjects with insulin resistance have high serum FFA and leptin levels but low serum adiponectin level.With the glucose tolerance deterioration, serum FFA level increases much higher while the adiponectin deceases much lower. Unlike insulin, none of these obesity related factors can be used as the simple indicating or determining factor of SI, though each of them, to different extent, takes part in the development of insulin resistance.

  2. Changes of ghrelin following oral glucose tolerance test in obese children with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Min Wang; You-Jun Jiang; Li Liang; Li-Zhong Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterize changes in ghrelin levels in response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to correlate changes in ghrelin levels with changes in insulin and glucose following OGTT in Chinese obese children of Tanner I and Ⅱ stage with insulin resistance.METHODS: 22 obese children with insulin resistance state were divided into four groups according to their Tanner stage and gender: boys of Tanner I (BT-Ⅰ), boys of Tanner Ⅱ (BT- Ⅱ), girls of Tanner Ⅰ (GT-Ⅰ), girls of Tanner Ⅱ (GT-Ⅱ). Ghrelin, insulin and glucose were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min following OGTT. The control children with normal BMI were divided into control boys of Tanner I (CBT-Ⅰ, n = 6), control boys of Tanner Ⅱ (CBT- Ⅱ, n = 5), control girls of Tanner I (CGT-1, n = 6), control girls of Tanner II (CGT- Ⅱ, n = 5). Fasting serum ghrelin levels were analyzed.RESULTS: Ghrelin levels were lower in obese groups. Ghrelin levels of control group decreased in Tanner Ⅱ stage (CGT-Ⅰ vs CGT-Ⅱ t = -4.703, P = 0.001; CBT-Ⅰ vs CBT-n t = -4.794, P = 0.001). Basal ghrelin levels in BT- Ⅱ decreased more significantly than that in BT-Ⅰ group (t = 2.547, P = 0.029). Ghrelin levels expressed a downward trend after OGTT among obese children. The decrease in ghrelin levels at 60 min with respect to basal values was 56.9% in BT-Ⅰ. Ghrelin concentrations at 0 min correlated directly with glucose level at 0 min in BT-Ⅰ (r = 0.898, P = 0.015). There wasn't a significant correlation of ghrelin changes with glucose changes and insulin changes during OGTT in obese children with insulin resistance.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in obese children with insulin resistance, ghrelin levels decreased with advancing pubertal stage. Ghrelin secretion suppression following OGTT was influenced by gender and pubertal stage. Baseline ghrelin levels and ghrelin suppression after OGTT did not significantly correlate with the degree of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity.

  3. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on incretin effect, glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Østoft, Signe Harring; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    /mol [5.3±0.1%]) were randomised to two paired study days comprising a 4h 50 g-OGTT with paracetamol (A) and an isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (IIGI) (B), with (A1+B1) and without (A2+B2) preceding administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Results Isoglycaemia was obtained in all subjects...... gastric emptying (Tmax for plasma paracetamol: 86±9 vs 80±12 min, p=0.60) changed following DPP-4 inhibition. Conclusions These results suggest that acute increases in active incretin hormone levels do not affect glucose tolerance, GIGD, incretin effect, glucagon responses or gastric emptying in healthy...

  4. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  5. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Neuropathy in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Omar; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Alam, Uazman; Jones, Wendy; Jeziorska, Maria; Marshall, Andrew; Ponirakis, Georgios; Fadavi, Hassan; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Tavakoli, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) represents one of the earliest stages of glucose dysregulation and is associated with macrovascular disease, retinopathy, and microalbuminuria, but whether IGT causes neuropathy is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-seven subjects with IGT and 20 age-matched control subjects underwent a comprehensive evaluation of neuropathy by assessing symptoms, neurological deficits, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, heart rate variability deep breathing (HRVdb), skin biopsy, and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). RESULTS Subjects with IGT had a significantly increased neuropathy symptom profile (P < 0.001), McGill pain index (P < 0.001), neuropathy disability score (P = 0.001), vibration perception threshold (P = 0.002), warm threshold (P = 0.006), and cool threshold (P = 0.03), with a reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber density (P = 0.03), corneal nerve fiber density (P < 0.001), corneal nerve branch density (P = 0.002), and corneal nerve fiber length (P = 0.05). No significant difference was found in sensory and motor nerve amplitude and conduction velocity or HRVdb. CONCLUSIONS Subjects with IGT have evidence of neuropathy, particularly small-fiber damage, which can be detected using skin biopsy and CCM. PMID:24969581

  6. Glucose tolerance, lipids, and GLP-1 secretion in JCR:LA-cp rats fed a high protein fiber diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Raylene A; Russell, James C

    2008-01-01

    We have shown that individually, dietary fiber and protein increase secretion of the anorexigenic and insulinotropic hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Our objective was to combine, in one diet, high levels of fiber and protein to maximize GLP-1 secretion, improve glucose tolerance, and reduce weight gain. Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male James C Russell corpulent (JCR:LA-cp) rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were fed one of four experimental diets (control, high protein (HP), high fiber (HF, prebiotic fiber inulin), or combination (CB)) for 3 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to evaluate plasma GLP-1, insulin and glucose. Plasma lipids and intestinal proglucagon mRNA expression were determined. Energy intake was lower with the HF diet in lean and obese rats. Weight gain did not differ between diets. Higher colonic proglucagon mRNA in lean rats fed a CB diet was associated with higher GLP-1 secretion during OGTT. The HP diet significantly reduced plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT in obese rats, which reflected both an increased GLP-1 AUC and higher fasting insulin. Diets containing inulin resulted in the lowest plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels. Overall, combining HP with HF in the diet increased GLP-1 secretion in response to oral glucose, but did not improve glucose tolerance or lipid profiles more than the HF diet alone did. We also suggest that glycemic and insulinemic response to prebiotics differ among rat models and future research work should examine their role in improving glucose tolerance in diet-induced vs. genetic obesity with overt hyperleptinemia.

  7. Ethnic differences in the relationships between obesity and glucose-metabolic abnormalities: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, F; Anand, S; Vuksan, V; Davis, B; Jacobs, R; Teo, K K; Yusuf, S

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate whether body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric indices of visceral obesity vary by ethnic group in their distribution and their relationship to metabolic abnormalities. Cross-sectional study. Canadian men and women, aged 35-75 years, of South Asian (n=342), Chinese (n=317), European (n=326) and Aboriginal (n=301) descent were recruited using stratified random sampling. Anthropometric indices (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC)), metabolic markers (fasting glucose, HbA1c, the ratio of total cholesterol/HDL) and clinical markers (systolic blood pressure) were assessed. In subjects with BMI88 cm in women, >102 cm in men) vs people with normal WC were 6.16 vs 5.34 mmol/l for fasting glucose, 6.05 vs 5.66% for HbA1c and 5.46 vs 4.68 for the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL (PBMI, non-European ethnic groups displayed significantly higher marker levels than Europeans. For example, for a given BMI, age and sex, the difference between European and non-European groups in HbA1c levels was 0.53% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37-0.69) for South Asians, 0.37% (95% CI: 0.2-0.54) for Chinese and 0.95% (95% CI: 0.78-1.12) for Aboriginal People. Uniform cut-points for the classification of obesity using BMI, WHR or WC result in marked variation in the levels of glucose-metabolic abnormalities between ethnic groups. Existing action thresholds for these anthropometric indices do not apply to non-European ethnic groups and warrant revision.

  8. Assessment of glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome: HbA1c or fasting glucose compared with the oral glucose tolerance test as a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchbaum, E; Schwetz, V; Giuliani, A; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Are HbA1c and fasting glucose (FG) useful in predicting the presence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in a large cohort of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? HbA1c and FG are not suitable as screening tools for prediabetes in a large cohort of PCOS women but do show a good level of agreement with T2DM. Women with PCOS have an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. As performing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is time consuming, HbA1c and FG have been suggested as screening tools for prediabetes and T2DM. This was a cross-sectional study of 671 women with PCOS conducted from 2006 to 2012. The study was carried out at the endocrinological outpatient department of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. We performed 75 g 2-h OGTTs and measured HbA1c in 671 women with PCOS aged 16-45 years with a median BMI of 24.2 (21.3-30.1) kg/m². PCOS was defined according to the Rotterdam criteria. Prediabetes (FG 100-125 mg/dl and/or 2-h glucose 140-199 mg/dl and/or HbA1c 5.7-6.4%) and T2DM (FG ≥ 126 mg/dl and/or 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dl and/or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) were diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Levels of agreement between different definitions were analyzed using κ-index. According to the ADA criteria, we found prediabetes and T2DM in 12.8% (n = 76) and 1.5% (n = 9) of PCOS women, respectively. When using elevated HbA1c (5.7-6.4%) for defining prediabetes, 19 (3.2%) of all PCOS women had prediabetes with a κ-index of 0.36. When using elevated FG (100-125 mg/dl) for defining prediabetes, 31 (5.2%) of all the PCOS women were diagnosed with prediabetes with a κ-index of 0.05. Further, elevated HbA1c (≥6.5% defining T2DM) was found in six (0.9%) PCOS women (κ-index 0.80), and elevated FG (≥126 mg/dl diagnosing T2DM) was found in seven PCOS women (1%; κ-index 0.82). Our results are limited to an Austrian cohort of PCOS women diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria with a median BMI in the normal weight range

  9. Impaired glucose regulation predicted 1-year mortality of Chinese patients with ischemic stroke: data from abnormal glucose regulation in patients with acute stroke across China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qian; Liu, Gaifen; Zheng, Huaguang; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-05-01

    It remains uncertain if impaired glucose regulation (IGR) as a predictor for stroke outcomes. This study aimed at observing the effect of IGR on the 1-year outcomes in Chinese patients with ischemic stroke. Patients with acute ischemic stroke were recruited consecutively in multihospitals across China. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed to identify IGR. Cox proportion hazard model was performed to investigate the effect of IGR on 1-year mortality or stroke recurrence in patients with ischemic stroke. The study recruited 2639 patients with ischemic stroke. IGR was shown as an independent risk factor for the mortality of patients with ischemic stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.088 [1.386-6.884]; P=0.006). However, IGR showed no significant effects on the dependency or stroke recurrence of patients (P=0.540 and 0.618, respectively). IGR was an independent predictor for the mortality of patients with ischemic stroke. IGR should be highlighted and intervened actively in the patients with ischemic stroke.

  10. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egegaard Hennild, Ditte; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twins may be at increased risk of dysglycaemic disorders due to adverse fetal conditions. Data from Africa regarding this association is limited. We studied impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and other types of dysglycemia among twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study...

  11. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  12. Lack of associations between serum leptin, a polymorphism in the gene for the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor and glucose tolerance in the Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Koper, JW; Stolk, RP; Englaro, P; Uitterlinden, AG; Huang, Q; van Leeuwen, JPTM; Blum, WF; Attanasio, AMF; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND The associations between leptin levels and the prevalence of a polymorphism in the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor were studied in a cross-sectional analysis of 600 participants in a population-based study, which were stratified for glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS

  13. EFFECT OF CHRONIC ACE INHIBITION ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN HYPERTENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卫东; G.Seghieri; C.Boni,G,Sanna; R.Anichinl; G.Bartolomei; E.Ferrannini

    1994-01-01

    We studied 14 moderately overweight Type 2 diabetic patients with essential hypertension in stable metabolic control after a run-in period,and again after 3 months of antihypertensive treatment with the angiotensin-convert-ing enzyme(ACE)inhibitor captopril.Glucose tolerance was tested with a 75g oral glucose load (OGTT) and in-sulin sensitivity was measured by the insulin suppression test (IST)while dietary and drug treatment of the hyper-glycemia was maintained constant.In the whole group,mean blood pressure (MBP) fell progressively over 3 months from a baseline value of 123±3mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133kpa)to a final value of 115±2mmHg(P<0.005).After treatment,fasting plasma glucose,insulin,free fatty acid (FFA),potassium,and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations were unchanged from baseling.There were no significant differences in glucose toler-ance and insulin sensitivity between pre-and post-trearment values.Neither endogenous (oral glucose)nor exoge-nous(IST)insulin caused any change in plasma potassium concentration. This resistance to the hypokalemic action of insulin was not affected by captopril.

  14. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  15. DPP4 gene variation affects GLP-1 secretion, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in humans with high body adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, Anja; Wagner, Robert; Machicao, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) cleaves and inactivates the insulinotropic hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide, collectively termed incretins. DPP-4 inhibitors entered clinical practice as approved therapeutics for type-2 diabetes in 2006. However......-BMI interaction effects were detected (p = 0.8). After stratification for body fat content, the SNP negatively affected glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels (p = 0.0229), insulin secretion (p = 0.0061), and glucose tolerance (p = 0.0208) in subjects with high body fat content only. CONCLUSIONS: A common variant, i......, inter-individual variance in the responsiveness to DPP-4 inhibitors was reported. Thus, we asked whether genetic variation in the DPP4 gene affects incretin levels, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance in participants of the TÜbingen Family study for type-2 diabetes (TÜF). RESEARCH DESIGN...

  16. Effects of bittergourd (Momordica Charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l l diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Parmar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia or bittergourd commonly known as karella, (family: Cucurbitaceae, has been proved for hypoglycaemic effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocininduced type-II diabetic rat. Two days old neonatal pups (7–10 g were used & they were made diabetic by intraperitoneally (i.p. injection of 90 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer solution. Different groups of animals were treated by 25% and 50% bitter gourd fruit juice (BFJ for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks treatment biochemical parameters from blood serum were analyzed. The significant differences of glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, in 50%BFJ treated group compare to diabetic group were found. So, from present study it is concluded that Bitter gourd fruit juice has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rat.

  17. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  18. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats.

  19. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Aimée E; Olthof, Margreet R; Meeuse, Joke C; Seebus, Elin; Heine, Rob J; van Dam, Rob M

    2009-06-01

    Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. We conducted a randomized crossover trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo (1 g mannitol) on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 15 overweight men. Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline ingestion significantly reduced glucose (-0.7 mmol/l, P = 0.007, and -0.5 mmol/l, P = 0.024, respectively) and insulin (-73 pmol/l, P = 0.038, and -117 pmol/l, P = 0.007) concentrations 15 min following an OGTT compared with placebo. None of the treatments affected insulin or glucose area under the curve values during the OGTT compared with placebo. Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline reduced early glucose and insulin responses during an OGTT.

  20. Long-term feeding of red algae (Gelidium amansii ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism in a high fructose diet-impaired glucose tolerance rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hshuan-Chen Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of Gelidium amansii (GA on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats with high fructose (HF diet (57.1% w/w. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HF diet to induce glucose intolerance and hyperlipidemia. The experiment was divided into three groups: (1 control diet group (Con; (2 HF diet group (HF; and (3 HF with GA diet group (HF + 5% GA. The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 23 weeks. The results showed that GA significantly decreased retroperitoneal fat mass weight of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of GA caused a decrease in plasma glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin. HF diet increased hepatic lipid content. However, intake of GA reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids including total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride contents. GA elevated the excretion of fecal lipids and bile acid in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, GA significantly decreased plasma TC, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein plus very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and TC/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in HF diet-fed rats. HF diet induced an in plasma glucose and an impaired glucose tolerance, but GA supplementation decreased homeostasis model assessment equation-insulin resistance and improved impairment of glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation of GA can improve the impairment of glucose and lipid metabolism in an HF diet-fed rat model.

  1. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  2. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolation of glucose tolerance factor from yeast biomass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vlatka Gulan Zetic; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas; Slobodan Grba; Lavoslav Lutilsky; Damir Kozlek

    2001-06-01

    Fermentations with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in semiaerobic and in static conditions with the addition of chromic chloride into the used molasses medium were analysed. It was proved that the addition of optimal amounts of CrCl3 into the basal medium enhanced the kinetics of alcohol fermentations. The addition of 200 mg/l CrCl3 into the medium stimulated both the yeast growth and the ethanol production in all experimental conditions. On the other hand, the results showed that Cr3+ ions were incorporated into yeast cells during fermentation. Under these conditions the accumulation of Cr3+ ions was performed by yeast cells during the exponential growth phase, and with enriched amounts of 30–45 g/gd.m. of cells. Yeast biomass enriched with chromium ions was extracted with 0.1 mol/l NH4OH assuming that the extracts had the glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Then the extracts were passed through a gel-filtration column in order to isolate and purify the GTF. The presence of GTF in the purified fractions was determined by measuring the absorbance at 260 nm. It is evident from the obtained results that the added purified fractions enhanced the rates of CO2 production as well as the glucose utilization during alcoholic fermentation. As expected, the enhancement of both rates depended on the amounts of extracts added to the fermentation substrate. Thus, it is evident that purified extracts contained the GTF compound, and that Cr3+ ions were bonded to the protein molecule.

  4. Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-09-01

    Vanillin is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and, as one of the major biomass conversion inhibitors, inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. Vanillin was recently shown to induce the mitochondrial fragmentation and formation of mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural, another major biomass conversion inhibitor, also induces oxidative stress and is reduced in an NAD(P)H-dependent manner to its less toxic alcohol derivative. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), through which most NADPH is generated, plays a role in tolerance to furfural. Although vanillin also induces oxidative stress and is reduced to vanillyl alcohol in a NADPH-dependent manner, the relationship between vanillin and PPP has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting NADPH-producing step in PPP, for yeast tolerance to vanillin. The growth of the null mutant of G6PDH gene (zwf1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, and vanillin was efficiently reduced in the culture of wild-type cells but not in the culture of zwf1Δ cells. Furthermore, zwf1Δ cells easily induced the activation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, mitochondrial fragmentation, and P-body formation with the vanillin treatment, which indicated that zwf1Δ cells were more susceptible to vanillin than wild type cells. These findings suggest the importance of G6PDH and PPP in the response of yeast to vanillin.

  5. ASSOCIATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang-ping; LV An-kang; SHEN Wei-feng; LIU Hai-feng; ZHANG Qi; DING Feng-hua; ZHANG Rui-yan; CAI Xu; YANG Zhen-kun; HU Jian; ZHANG Jian-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine insulin resistance and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) association with clinical and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with normal glucose tolerance.Methods In 638 consecutive patients with normal glucose tolerance, 221 had atypical chest pain and normal coronary artery (control group), 279 had stable angina and CAD (SAP group), and 138 suffered acute myocardial infarction (MI group). The degree of CAD was further divided into borderline lesion (lumen diameter narrowing 50%-69%), significant 1-, 2- or 3-vessel disease (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%). Fasting serum glucose, insulin and hsCRP levels and lipid profiles were measured, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess risk factors for 3-vessel disease or acute MI.Results Serum hsCRP, lipoprotein (a) levels, and insulin resistance index (IRI) were higher in AMI group than those in SAP and control groups. Serum hsCRP level and IRI were also higher in 3-vessel disease than those in other groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that insulin resistance, cigarette smoking, serum hsCRP, and lipoprotein (a) levels were independent risk factors for acute MI. Lipoprotein (a) elevation was an independent risk factor for 3-vessel disease.Conclusion Insulin resistance and high serum hsCRP level were associated with occurrence of acute MI and angiographic severity of coronary disease in patients with normal glucose tolerance.

  6. Growth hormone ameliorates adipose dysfunction during oxidative stress and inflammation and improves glucose tolerance in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, H; Ishikawa, M; Ishii, S; Okamoto, M; Minami, S

    2014-08-01

    Patients with adult growth hormone deficiency exhibit visceral fat accumulation, which gives rise to a cluster of metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Plasma growth hormone levels are lower in obese patients with metabolic syndrome than in healthy subjects. Here we examined the hypothesis that exogenous growth hormone administration regulates function of adipose tissue to improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Twelve-week-old obese male C57BL/6 J mice received bovine growth hormone daily for 6 weeks. In epididymal fat, growth hormone treatment antagonized diet-induced changes in the gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and significantly increased the gene expression of interleukin-10 and CD206. Growth hormone also suppressed the accumulation of oxidative stress marker, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in the epididymal fat and enhanced the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. Moreover, growth hormone significantly restored glucose tolerance in obese mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, growth hormone prevented the decline in adiponectin gene expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that growth hormone administration ameliorates glucose intolerance in obese mice presumably by decreasing adipose mass, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in the visceral fat.

  7. Dietary antioxidants: Do they have a role to play in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon, Antoine; Hokayem, Marie; Bisbal, Catherine; Lambert, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Overfeeding, an increased intake of saturated fatty acids, and sugary foods are key dietary changes that have occurred in recent decades in addition to the emergence of the obesity epidemic. In addition to an increase in energy storage as fat, these dietary changes are accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial macronutrient oxidation, leading to an excessive free radical production and, hence, oxidative stress. The latter has long been considered a central mechanism linking nutrient overload, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. However, food, through fruit and vegetable consumption, also can be a great source of antioxidants that protect the body against oxidative damage and insulin resistance and thus help cope with the metabolic backlash of the energy-dense Westernized diet. Experimental data are in favor of the beneficial role conveyed by antioxidants in glucose metabolism, but clinical data in humans remain controversial. This review therefore aimed to sort out any underlying discrepancies and provide an overall clear view of the role of antioxidants in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism.

  8. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  9. Clinical Observation on Senile Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance Treated by Point Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yuquan; Fei Mingfeng; He Yongsheng; Zhang Cunhai; Zheng Wei; Wu Yajun; Li Weihong

    2006-01-01

    In order to observe and evaluate the therapeutic effects of point application on senile impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 64 senile IGT patients were randomly divided into two groups with 32 cases in each group.The control group was treated with interference therapy of controlling diet, while the observation group was given point application at Yishu (胰俞 1.5 cun lateral to the Du Channel, at the level of the lower border of the spinous process of the eighth thoracic vertebra), Pishu (BL 20), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36) and other points in addition to interference therapy of controlling diet. After 2 courses of treatment, the postprandial blood sugar was detected. As a result, the postprandial blood sugar obviously reduced in both groups (P<0.05, P<0.01) with a lower level in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05), indicating that point application in combination with interference therapy of controlling diet has a reliable therapeutic effect on senile IGT patients.

  10. Weight cycling increases T-cell accumulation in adipose tissue and impairs systemic glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily K; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the U.S. Accumulation of proinflammatory immune cells in adipose tissue (AT) contributes to the development of obesity-associated disorders. Weight loss is the ideal method to counteract the negative consequences of obesity; however, losses are rarely maintained, leading to bouts of weight cycling. Fluctuations in weight have been associated with worsened metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes; yet, the mechanisms explaining this potential correlation are not known. For determination of whether weight cycling modulates AT immune cell populations, inflammation, and insulin resistance, mice were subjected to a diet-switch protocol designed to induce weight cycling. Weight-cycled mice displayed decreased systemic glucose tolerance and impaired AT insulin sensitivity when compared with mice that gained weight but did not cycle. AT macrophage number and polarization were not modulated by weight cycling. However, weight cycling did increase the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in AT. Expression of multiple T helper 1-associated cytokines was also elevated subsequent to weight cycling. Additionally, CD8(+) effector memory T cells were present in AT of both obese and weight-cycled mice. These studies indicate that an exaggerated adaptive immune response in AT may contribute to metabolic dysfunction during weight cycling.

  11. Objective 3D surface evaluation of intracranial electrophysiologic correlates of cerebral glucose metabolic abnormalities in children with focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Asano, Eishi; Kumar Pilli, Vinod; Nakai, Yasuo; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2017-03-21

    To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data. Hypo-/hypermetabolic maps were transformed to 3D-MRI brain surface to compare the locations of metabolic changes with electrode coordinates of the ECoG-defined seizure onset zone (SOZ) and interictal spiking. While hypometabolic clusters showed a good agreement with the SOZ on the lobar level (sensitivity/specificity = 0.74/0.64), detailed surface-distance analysis demonstrated that large portions of ECoG-defined SOZ and interictal spiking area were located at least 3 cm beyond hypometabolic regions with the same statistical threshold (sensitivity/specificity = 0.18-0.25/0.94-0.90 for overlap 3-cm distance); for a lower threshold, sensitivity for SOZ at 3 cm increased to 0.39 with a modest compromise of specificity. Performance of FDG-PET SPM was slightly better in children with smaller as compared with widespread SOZ. The results demonstrate that SPM utilizing age-matched pseudocontrols can reliably detect the lobe of seizure onset. However, the spatial mismatch between metabolic and EEG epileptiform abnormalities indicates that a more complete SOZ detection could be achieved by extending intracranial electrode coverage at least 3 cm beyond the metabolic abnormality. Considering that the extent of feasible electrode coverage is limited, localization information from other modalities is particularly important to optimize grid coverage in cases of large hypometabolic cortex. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017

  12. Long-Term Feeding of Chitosan Ameliorates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a High-Fructose-Diet-Impaired Rat Model of Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Cai, Fang-Ying; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2015-12-10

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of chitosan on plasma glucose and lipids in rats fed a high-fructose (HF) diet (63.1%). Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were used as experimental animals. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) normal group (normal); (2) HF group; (3) chitosan + HF group (HF + C). The rats were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 21 weeks. The results showed that chitosan (average molecular weight was about 3.8 × 10⁵ Dalton and degree of deacetylation was about 89.8%) significantly decreased body weight, paraepididymal fat mass, and retroperitoneal fat mass weight, but elevated the lipolysis rate in retroperitoneal fats of HF diet-fed rats. Supplementation of chitosan causes a decrease in plasma insulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin, and an increase in plasma adiponectin. The HF diet increased hepatic lipids. However, intake of chitosan reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids, including total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents. In addition, chitosan elevated the excretion of fecal lipids in HF diet-fed rats. Furthermore, chitosan significantly decreased plasma TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), the TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, and increased the HDL-C/(LDL-C + VLDL-C) ratio, but elevated the plasma TG and free fatty acids concentrations in HF diet-fed rats. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) protein expression was not affected by the HF diet, but it was significantly increased in chitosan-supplemented, HF-diet-fed rats. The high-fructose diet induced an increase in plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, but chitosan supplementation decreased plasma glucose and improved impairment of glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Taken together, these results indicate that supplementation with chitosan can improve the impairment of

  13. Deletion of insulin-degrading enzyme elicits antipodal, age-dependent effects on glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer O Abdul-Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is widely recognized as the principal protease responsible for the clearance and inactivation of insulin, but its role in glycemic control in vivo is poorly understood. We present here the first longitudinal characterization, to our knowledge, of glucose regulation in mice with pancellular deletion of the IDE gene (IDE-KO mice. METHODOLOGY: IDE-KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates were characterized at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in terms of body weight, basal glucose and insulin levels, and insulin and glucose tolerance. Consistent with a functional role for IDE in insulin clearance, fasting serum insulin levels in IDE-KO mice were found to be ∼3-fold higher than those in wild-type (WT controls at all ages examined. In agreement with previous observations, 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited a severe diabetic phenotype characterized by increased body weight and pronounced glucose and insulin intolerance. In marked contrast, 2-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited multiple signs of improved glycemic control, including lower fasting glucose levels, lower body mass, and modestly enhanced insulin and glucose tolerance relative to WT controls. Biochemically, the emergence of the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice correlated with age-dependent reductions in insulin receptor (IR levels in muscle, adipose, and liver tissue. Primary adipocytes harvested from 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice also showed functional impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice is not a primary consequence of IDE deficiency, but is instead an emergent compensatory response to chronic hyperinsulinemia resulting from complete deletion of IDE in all tissues throughout life. Significantly, our findings provide new evidence to support the idea that partial and/or transient inhibition of IDE may constitute a valid approach to the treatment of diabetes.

  14. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance: a randomized, controlled crossover trial in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were analyzed. The CGA and caffeine contents in the coffees were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. No differences in glucose area under the curve (AUC) were found between treatments. Glucose concentrations were higher at 60 min after ingestion of DAR compared with water, while ingestion of LIR showed similar glucose concentrations as ingestion of water. Insulin AUC was higher after ingestion of DAR compared with water, and both coffees raised insulin concentrations and reduced ISI compared with water, with no difference between the two coffees. Two coffees with different CGA contents did not differentially affect glucose or insulin responses during an OGTT, but both increased the insulin response compared with water.

  15. Rapidly alternating photoperiods disrupt central and peripheral rhythmicity and decrease plasma glucose, but do not affect glucose tolerance or insulin secretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Tamara J; Gatford, Kathryn L; Voultsios, Athena; Salkeld, Mark D; Boden, Michael J; Rattanatray, Leewen; Kennaway, David J

    2014-09-01

    Disrupting circadian rhythms in rodents perturbs glucose metabolism and increases adiposity. To determine whether these effects occur in a large diurnal animal, we assessed the impact of circadian rhythm disruption upon metabolic function in sheep. Adult ewes (n = 7) underwent 3 weeks of a control 12 h light-12 h dark photoperiod, followed by 4 weeks of rapidly alternating photoperiods (RAPs) whereby the time of light exposure was reversed twice each week. Measures of central (melatonin secretion and core body temperature) and peripheral rhythmicity (clock and metabolic gene expression in skeletal muscle) were obtained over 24 h in both conditions. Metabolic homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance tests and 24 h glucose and insulin profiles. Melatonin and core body temperature rhythms resynchronized within 2 days of the last photoperiod shift. High-amplitude Bmal1, Clock, Nr1d1, Cry2 and Per3 mRNA rhythms were apparent in skeletal muscle, which were phase advanced by up to 3.5 h at 2 days after the last phase shift, whereas Per1 expression was downregulated at this time. Pparα, Pgc1α and Nampt mRNA were constitutively expressed in both conditions. Nocturnal glucose concentrations were reduced following chronic phase shifts (zeitgeber time 0, -5.5%; zeitgeber time 12, -2.9%; and zeitgeber time 16, -5.7%), whereas plasma insulin, glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were not altered. These results demonstrate that clock gene expression within ovine skeletal muscle oscillates over 24 h and responds to changing photoperiods. However, metabolic genes which link circadian and metabolic clocks in rodents were arrhythmic in sheep. Differences may be due to the ruminant versus monogastric digestive organization in each species. Together, these results demonstrate that despite disruptions to central and peripheral rhythmicity following exposure to rapidly alternating photoperiods, there was minimal impact on glucose homeostasis in

  16. Association testing of novel type 2 diabetes risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, TSPAN8, THADA, ADAMTS9, and NOTCH2 loci with insulin release, insulin sensitivity, and obesity in a population-based sample of 4,516 glucose-tolerant middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andersen, Gitte; Krarup, Nikolaj Thure

    2008-01-01

    identified by meta-analysis of genome-wide association data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped the six variants in 4,516 middle-aged glucose-tolerant individuals of the population-based Inter99 cohort who were all characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Homozygous carriers......: If replicated, our data suggest that type 2 diabetes at-risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, and TSPAN8 loci associate with various OGTT-based surrogate measures of insulin release, emphasizing the contribution of abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes....

  17. 妊娠期糖尿病高危因素与产后早发糖代谢异常的关系%Relationship between Risk Factors of GDM and Postpartum Early Abnormal Glucose Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫小庆; 王子莲; 曹筱佩; 肖海鹏; 李延兵

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between traditional risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregnancy outcome as well as postpartum early abnormal glucose regulation. [Methods] Risk factors or 50 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were used to scan GDM in 3017 pregnant women, the 75 g OGTT were performed to confirm the diagnosis of GDM in those with positive results. GDM women were divided into two groups; women with risk factors (n = 143) and without risk factors (re = 175). All GDM women were recruited to take 75 g OGTT at 6-8 weeks and 6-12 months after delivery. [Results] Total 318 GDM were confirmed in those 3017 pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM in women with risk factors were higher than those without risk factors (41.81% vs 6.54%, P<0.01). Additionally, compare to those without risk factors, women with risk factors has higher pregnant complications, higher premature birth rate, and birth-weight. Also a higher incidence of early postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance was observed in those with GDM risk factors. Logistic regression analysis indicated that family history of diabetes and positive uric glucose were relative to the early postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance. [Conclusions] The GDM risk factors are not only the predictor of GDM, but also are relative to postpartum early abnormal glucose regulation. Among these risk factors, family history of diabetes and positive uric glucose are of greater contribution.%[目的]探讨妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)传统高危因素与妊娠结局及产后早发糖代谢异常的关系.[方法]3 017名孕妇以高危因素或50 g葡萄糖筛查试验进行GDM筛查,阳性者行75 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)确诊GDM,GDM孕妇分为高危因素组(G1组,n=143)与非高危因素组(G2组,n=175),并于产后6~8周及产后6~ 12月复查OGTT.[结果]3 017名孕妇中318例确诊GDM,存在高因危素的孕妇GDM患病率明显高于无高危因素的孕妇(41.81% VS 6.54

  18. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...... as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  19. Relation of Serial Changes in Childhood Body-Mass Index to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Barker, David J.P.; Biswas, Sushant K. Dey; Ramji, Siddharth; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased in people who have low birth weights and who subsequently become obese as adults. Whether their obesity originates in childhood and, if so, at what age are unknown. Understanding the origin of obesity may be especially important in developing countries, where type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing yet public health messages still focus on reducing childhood “undernutrition.” METHODS We evaluated glucose tolerance and plasma insulin concentrations in 1492 men and women 26 to 32 years of age who had been measured at birth and at intervals of three to six months throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence in a prospective, population-based study. RESULTS The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 10.8 percent, and that of diabetes was 4.4 percent. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes typically had a low body-mass index up to the age of two years, followed by an early adiposity rebound (the age after infancy when body mass starts to rise) and an accelerated increase in body-mass index until adulthood. However, despite an increase in body-mass index between the ages of 2 and 12 years, none of these subjects were obese at the age of 12 years. The odds ratio for disease associated with an increase in the body-mass index of 1 SD from 2 to 12 years of age was 1.36 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.57; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between thinness in infancy and the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in young adulthood. Crossing into higher categories of body-mass index after the age of two years is also associated with these disorders. PMID:14985484

  20. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamarian Abdolreza; Abdollahi Mohammad; Su Xiaogang; Amiri Azita; Ahadi Ali; Nowrouzi Azin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i...

  1. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesized that this effect is present only if treatment is initiated prior to weaning and that it disappears when treatment is terminated. High-fat fed C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into groups that received Ampicillin at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study termination, expressions of mRNA coding for tumor necrosis factor, serum amyloid A, and lactase were upregulated, while the expression of tumor necrosis factor (ligand superfamily member 15 was downregulated in the ileum of Ampicillin-treated mice. Higher dendritic cell percentages were found systemically in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a “window” exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning.

  2. Expression and characterization of a novel highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from a soil metagenome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lu; Liqin Du; Yutuo Wei; Yuanyuan Hu; Ribo Huang

    2013-01-01

    A β-glucosidase gene unbgl1A was isolated by the functionbased screening of a metagenomic library and the enzyme protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,purified,and biochemically characterized.The enzyme Unbgl1A had a Km value of 2.09 ± 0.31 mM,and a Vmax value of 183.90 ± 9.61 μmol min-1 mg-1 under the optimal reaction conditions,which were pH 6.0 at 50℃.Unbgl1A can be activated by a variety of monosaccharides,disaccharides,and NaCl,and exhibits a high level of stability at high concentration of NaCl.Two prominent features for this enzyme are:(i) high glucose tolerance.It can be tolerant to glucose as high as 2000 mM,with Ki =1500 mM; (ii) high NaCl tolerance.Its activity is not affected by 600 mM NaCl.The enzyme showed transglucosylation activities resulting in the formation of cellotriose from cellobiose.These properties of Unbgl1A should have important practical implication in its potential applications for better industrial production of glucose or bioethanol started from lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity associated with illness course, symptoms and fasting blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suijing Cui; Jinhua Qiu; Weiliang Luo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity during onset of diabetes mellitus is not related to age and sex, but to symptoms, illness course and level of fasting blood glucose.OBJECTIVE: To measure correlation of abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with various illness courses, symptoms and levels of fasting blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Central People's Hospital of Huizhou.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from Central People's Hospital of Huizhou from September 2001 to October 2005. There were 75 males and 53 females aged 32-83 years and the illness course ranged from 1 month to 20 years.METHODS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received neuro-electrophysiological study and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to measure peripheral nerve conduction velocity and fasting blood glucose so as to investigate the correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms,illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms, illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.RESULTS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were involved in the final analysis. ① Among 128patients, 114 patients had abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 110 patients had clinical symptoms, including 102 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 18 patients did not have clinical symptoms, including 12 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity.There were significant differences between them (x2=8.275, P=0.04). ② Among 128 patients, illness course of 75 patients was equal to or less than 5 years, including 27 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity

  4. Risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, Elizabeth L M; Zimmet, Paul Z; Welborn, Timothy A; Jolley, Damien; Magliano, Dianna J; Dunstan, David W; Cameron, Adrian J; Dwyer, Terry; Taylor, Hugh R; Tonkin, Andrew M; Wong, Tien Y; McNeil, John; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2007-01-01

    ..., as well as diabetes mellitus, increase the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. In 1999 to 2000, glucose tolerance status was determined in 10,428 participants of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab...

  5. Sleep Duration, Lifestyle Intervention, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Henri; Peltonen, Markku; Partinen, Markku; Lavigne, Gilles; Eriksson, Johan G.; Herder, Christian; Aunola, Sirkka; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lindström, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Both short and long sleep duration have frequently been found to be associated with an increased risk for diabetes. The aim of the present exploratory analysis was to examine the association between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes after lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance in a 7-year prospective follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 522 individuals (aged 40–64 years) were randomly allocated either to an intensive diet-exercise counseling group or to a control group. Diabetes incidence during follow-up was calculated according to sleep duration at baseline. Sleep duration was obtained for a 24-h period. Physical activity, dietary intakes, body weight, and immune mediators (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were measured. RESULTS Interaction between sleep duration and treatment group was statistically significant (P = 0.003). In the control group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for diabetes were 2.29 (1.38–3.80) and 2.74 (1.67–4.50) in the sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, respectively, compared with for that of the 7–8.5 h group. In contrast, sleep duration did not influence the incidence of diabetes in the intervention group; for sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.10 (0.60–2.01) and 0.73 (0.34–1.56), respectively, compared with that in the reference group (7–8.5 h sleep). Lifestyle intervention resulted in similar improvement in body weight, insulin sensitivity, and immune mediator levels regardless of sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS Long sleep duration is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Lifestyle intervention with the aim of weight reduction, healthy diet, and increased physical activity may ameliorate some of this excess risk. PMID:19651919

  6. Rare Sugar Syrup Containing d-Allulose but Not High-Fructose Corn Syrup Maintains Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Sensitivity Partly via Hepatic Glucokinase Translocation in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Tomoya; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Iida, Tetsuo; Nagata, Yasuo; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Toyoda, Yukiyasu

    2017-04-05

    Ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is associated with the risk of both diabetes and obesity. Rare sugar syrup (RSS) has been developed by alkaline isomerization of HFCS and has anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, the influence of RSS on glucose metabolism has not been explored. We investigated whether long-term administration of RSS maintains glucose tolerance and whether the underlying mechanism involves hepatic glucokinase translocation. Wistar rats were administered water, RSS, or HFCS in drinking water for 10 weeks and then evaluated for glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, liver glycogen content, and subcellular distribution of liver glucokinase. RSS significantly suppressed body weight gain and abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05). The glucose tolerance test revealed significantly higher blood glucose levels in the HFCS group compared to the water group, whereas the RSS group had significantly lower blood glucose levels from 90 to 180 min (p < 0.05). At 30, 60, and 90 min, the levels of insulin in the RSS group were significantly lower than those in the water group (p < 0.05). The amount of hepatic glycogen was more than 3 times higher in the RSS group than that in the other groups. After glucose loading, the nuclear export of glucokinase was significantly increased in the RSS group compared to the water group. These results imply that RSS maintains glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, at least partly, by enhancing nuclear export of hepatic glucokinase.

  7. Molecular Genetic Regulation of Slc30a8/ZnT8 Reveals a Positive Association With Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ryan K; Hu, Ming; Chabosseau, Pauline L; Cane, Matthew C; Meur, Gargi; Bellomo, Elisa A; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Collinson, Lucy M; Li, Wen-Hong; Hodson, David J; Rutter, Guy A

    2016-01-01

    Zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), encoded by SLC30A8, is chiefly expressed within pancreatic islet cells, where it mediates zinc (Zn(2+)) uptake into secretory granules. Although a common nonsynonymous polymorphism (R325W), which lowers activity, is associated with increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, rare inactivating mutations in SLC30A8 have been reported to protect against T2D. Here, we generate and characterize new mouse models to explore the impact on glucose homeostasis of graded changes in ZnT8 activity in the β-cell. Firstly, Slc30a8 was deleted highly selectively in these cells using the novel deleter strain, Ins1Cre. The resultant Ins1CreZnT8KO mice displayed significant (P < .05) impairments in glucose tolerance at 10 weeks of age vs littermate controls, and glucose-induced increases in circulating insulin were inhibited in vivo. Although insulin release from Ins1CreZnT8KO islets was normal, Zn(2+) release was severely impaired. Conversely, transgenic ZnT8Tg mice, overexpressing the transporter inducibly in the adult β-cell using an insulin promoter-dependent Tet-On system, showed significant (P < .01) improvements in glucose tolerance compared with control animals. Glucose-induced insulin secretion from ZnT8Tg islets was severely impaired, whereas Zn(2+) release was significantly enhanced. Our findings demonstrate that glucose homeostasis in the mouse improves as β-cell ZnT8 activity increases, and remarkably, these changes track Zn(2+) rather than insulin release in vitro. Activation of ZnT8 in β-cells might therefore provide the basis of a novel approach to treating T2D.

  8. Analysis of intravenous glucose tolerance test data using parametric and nonparametric modeling: application to a population at risk for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Shin, Dae C; Zhang, Yaping; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Pacini, Giovanni; D'Argenio, David Z

    2013-07-01

    Modeling studies of the insulin-glucose relationship have mainly utilized parametric models, most notably the minimal model (MM) of glucose disappearance. This article presents results from the comparative analysis of the parametric MM and a nonparametric Laguerre based Volterra Model (LVM) applied to the analysis of insulin modified (IM) intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data from a clinical study of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). An IM IVGTT study was performed 8 to 10 weeks postpartum in 125 women who were diagnosed with GDM during their pregnancy [population at risk of developing diabetes (PRD)] and in 39 control women with normal pregnancies (control subjects). The measured plasma glucose and insulin from the IM IVGTT in each group were analyzed via a population analysis approach to estimate the insulin sensitivity parameter of the parametric MM. In the nonparametric LVM analysis, the glucose and insulin data were used to calculate the first-order kernel, from which a diagnostic scalar index representing the integrated effect of insulin on glucose was derived. Both the parametric MM and nonparametric LVM describe the glucose concentration data in each group with good fidelity, with an improved measured versus predicted r² value for the LVM of 0.99 versus 0.97 for the MM analysis in the PRD. However, application of the respective diagnostic indices of the two methods does result in a different classification of 20% of the individuals in the PRD. It was found that the data based nonparametric LVM revealed additional insights about the manner in which infused insulin affects blood glucose concentration. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. Analysis of gestational diabetes in pregnant women with different blood glucose abnormalities and pregnancy Outcome%妊娠期糖尿病孕妇不同血糖指标异常与妊娠结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察并研究妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇各项血糖指标异常对妊娠结局的影响.方法 选取400例产前检查并选择在院分娩的产妇为本次研究对象,通过75 g葡萄糖耐量实验检测方法将其均分为对照组和实验组,即正常血糖组(服糖后1/2 h、空腹血糖处于正常状态)和妊娠期糖尿病组(GDM),其中实验组(妊娠期糖尿病组)分为实验组A(仅空腹血糖异常)、实验组B(服糖后1/2 h、空腹血糖均表现异常)和实验组C(服糖后任意时间点和空腹血糖值均表现异常);同时根据葡萄糖耐量实验结果将实验组患者划分为GDM1(1项血糖指数异常)、GDM2(2项血糖指数异常)、GDM3(3项血糖指数异常),通过对照研究方法评估不同类型GDM产妇妊娠结局.结果 与对照组相比,实验组整体早产率、剖宫产率以及大于胎龄儿(LGA)发生率更高,组间差异显著(P<0.05);实验组中,实验组B患者中LGA、巨大儿发生率超出对照组和实验组C,组间差异显著(P<0.05);GDM1、GDM2、GDM3组剖宫产率、LGA和巨大儿发生率高于对照组,组间差异显著(P<0.05).结论 在妊娠期糖尿病患者中,空腹血糖异常且伴有血糖指数不同时间点内异常(不低于1项)者明显出现妊娠结局不良的情况,临床应根据此种情况针对产妇实施密切观察和有效干预,以控制不良妊娠结局.此外,空腹血糖指数低于4.4 mmol/L的孕妇通常不会发生妊娠期糖尿病或出现不良妊娠结局,不建议临床采用葡萄糖耐量实验对此类孕妇进行检测.%Objective To observe and study the effect of glucose abnormalities on pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with gestational diabetes(GDM).Methods Four hundred cases of prenatal care and childbirth were selected for the study object,through 75 g glucose tolerance test method to detect both into control group and experimental group,namely normal glucose group (oral glucose after 1/2 h,fasting blood glucose in

  10. The association between self-reported lack of sleep, low vitality and impaired glucose tolerance: a Swedish cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andersson, Susanne; Ekman, Inger; Friberg, Febe; Bøg-Hansen, Erik; Lindblad, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ... of developing type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (IR). This study explore how self-reported lack of sleep and low vitality, are associated with IGT in a representative Swedish population...

  11. Association of Serum Ferritin Level with Risk of Incident Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Southwestern China: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangli; Zhao, Zhuoxian; Tian, Li; Zheng, Tianpeng; Gao, Yun; Chen, Tao; Yan, Fangfang; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) in Southwestern Chinese population. The 383 subjects who are aged ≥20 years and free of AGM at baseline between in 2007 and in 2008 were included in Southwestern China, and their baseline serum ferritin levels were measured. Among these subjects, 140 subjects were developed into AGM during the follow-up (2008-2012). In logistic regression models, the relative risk in the top versus that in the lowest quartile of serum ferritin levels was 2.86 (p = 0.013) in females and 3.50 (p = 0.029) in males after adjusting the age, gender, family history of diabetes, current smoking, and alcohol; however, serum ferritin levels were not significantly associated with incident of AGM after controlling for metabolic factors (waist circumference, systolic pressure (SBP), triglyceride (TG), and homeostasis model assessment formula insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)). Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with AGM but not an independent risk factor.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE PREVALENCE RATE AND RISK FACTOR OF ABNORMAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN CADRE MEMBERS%副厅级以上干部人群糖代谢异常患病情况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英; 曾莉; 吴琴琴; 张帆; 秦恳; 邹天富; 黄燕; 王佑娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To realize the prevalence rate and analyse the risk factor of abnormal glucose metabolism in cadre members in Sichuan province to provide scientific evidence to set up the preventive strategies.[Methods]Information were collected in the cadre menbers checked in our hospital and medical examination including height, weight, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and biochemical test, etc.Abnormal glucose metabolism was based on the diagnosis criteria in 1999.The relationships between risk factors and IGR were analyzed by unconditional multivariate logistic regression.[Results](1) The detection rate of total abnormal glucose metabolism was 33.2%, with 7.3% of DM.The detection rate of IGR was 25.8%.The detection rate of I-IFG, I-IGT, IFG/IGT was 1.9%, 20.3%, 3.6%, respectively, (2) Compared with the NGT group, the IGR group had higher body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), triglyceride (TG) , systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum creatinine (Cr) , lower high density lipoprotein with statistical significance (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05).(3) Age, BMI, WHR, TG were risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism (P< 0.01 or P< 0.05).[Conclusion]The abnormality rare of glucose metabolism in cadre menbers in Sichuan province is high.Age, BMI, WHR, TG are main risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism.%[目的]了解四川省干部人群糖代谢异常的患病情况并分析其危险因素,为制定适宜的干预措施提供依据.[方法]选用2009年在某院健康体检的干部人群,分别进行身高体重血压测定、糖耐量试验(OGTT)及生化指标检查等.糖代谢异常的诊断依据WHO1999年糖尿病的诊断标准.运用多因素非条件Logistic回归分析,探讨影响糖代谢异常发生的危险因素.[结果](1)糖代谢异常总检出率为33.2%,其中DM的检出率7.3%,糖调节受损(IGR,糖尿病前期)总的检出率为25.8%,IGR各亚组的检出率分别为:I-IFG1.9%、I-IGT20.3%及IFG/IGT3

  13. Effects of Acute Pinitol Supplementation on Plasma Pinitol Concentration, Whole Body Glucose Tolerance, and Activation of the Skeletal Muscle Insulin Receptor in Older Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, A. J.; Wood, K V; Thyfault, J. P.; Campbell, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62 ± 1 years, mean ± SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Su...

  14. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. 多囊卵巢综合征患者糖代谢异常发生率及其特点%Characteristics and prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪仁敏; 钟俊敏; 陈晓莉; 李琳; 李予; 陈亚肖; 刘雯; 杨冬梓

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨多囊卵巢综合征患者糖代谢异常特点及其发生率.方法 回顾性分析2006年6月1日至2009年2月1日广州中山大学孙逸仙纪念医院妇产科收治的初诊多囊卵巢综合征患者654例(青春期101例,成人553例),以120名年龄匹配的健康志愿者为对照组(青春期40名,成人80名).病例和对照组均行口服葡萄糖耐量试验和胰岛素释放试验,比较病例组和对照组、成人多囊卵巢综合征与青春期多囊卵巢综合征、不同体重指数亚组中糖代谢异常的特点及其发生率.结果 多囊卵巢综合征患者糖代谢异常的发生率为24.5%(160/654),显著高于对照组的3.3%(4/120)(χ2=27.11,P7.0 mmol/L,9例(69.2%)通过口服葡萄糖耐量试验筛查发现.多囊卵巢综合征组糖代谢异常的发生率随体重指数升高而升高(χ2=53.71,P<0.0001).结论 多囊卵巢综合征患者为糖代谢异常的高危人群,其糖代谢异常以糖耐量受损为主,空腹血糖受损次之.多囊卵巢综合征患者(尤其是肥胖者)应行口服葡萄糖耐最试验,以早期发现其糖代谢异常.%Objective To evaluate the characteristics and prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 654 PCOS patients (101 were in adolescence, 553 were adults) and 120 healthy controls (40 were in adolescence, 80 were adults). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin releasing test (IRT), and other biochemical testing were underwent in all patients and controls. The characteristics and prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism were analyzed and compared. Results The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, including impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM), was 24.5% in PCOS patients, which was significantly higher than that in the controls (χ2 = 27.11, P < 0.0001). The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in

  16. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear...

  17. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Candace M; Puente, Erwin C; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J; Routh, Vanessa H; Kahn, Barbara B; Fisher, Simon J

    2017-03-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose.

  18. Wholegrain barley β-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of oat and barley β-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley β-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% β-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% β-glucan) β-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley β-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Foley, James E; Rendell, Marc;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of vildagliptin on incretin hormone levels, islet function, and postprandial glucose control in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study compa...

  20. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  1. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  2. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine

  3. Pioglitazone is equally effective for diabetes prevention in older versus younger adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Sara E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, Mary Ann; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of pioglitazone to prevent type 2 diabetes in older compared to younger adults with pre-diabetes. Six hundred two participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were randomized in double blind fashion to placebo or pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in the ACT NOW study (NEJM 364:1104-1115, 2011). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compare time to development of diabetes over a mean of 2 years between older (≥61 years) and younger participants. We compared effects of pioglitazone versus placebo on metabolic profiles, inflammatory markers, adipokines, β cell function (disposition index), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and body composition by ANOVA. Diabetes incidence was reduced by 85 % in older and 69 % in younger subjects (p = 0.41). β cell function (disposition index) increased by 35.0 % in the older and 26.7 % in younger subjects (p = 0.83). Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) increased by 3.07 (5.2-fold) in older and by 2.54 (3.8-fold) in younger participants (p = 0.58). Pioglitazone more effectively increased adiponectin in older versus younger subjects (22.9 ± 3.2 μg/mL [2.7-fold] vs. 12.7 ± 1.4 μg/mL [2.2-fold], respectively; p = 0.04). Younger subjects tended to have a greater increase in whole body fat mass compared to older subjects (3.6 vs. 3.1 kg; p = 0.061). Younger and older subjects had similar decreases in bone mineral density (0.018 ± 0.0071 vs. 0.0138 ± 0.021 g/cm(2)). Younger and older pre-diabetic adults taking pioglitazone had similar reductions in conversion to diabetes and older adults had similar or greater improvements in metabolic risk factors, demonstrating that pioglitazone is useful in preventing diabetes in older adults.

  4. Insulin Dynamics in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Normal Glucose Tolerance across Categories of Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Castagneto-Gissey, Lidia; Arrighi, Eugenio; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Brufani, Claudia; Luciano, Rosa; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence favours insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia as the predominant, perhaps primary, defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate insulin metabolism in young women with PCOS but normal glucose tolerance as compared with age, body mass index and insulin resistance-matched controls to answer the question whether women with PCOS hypersecrete insulin in comparison to appropriately insulin resistance-matched controls. Research Design and Methods Sixty-nine cases were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) in normal-weight (N = 29), overweight (N = 24) and obese patients (N = 16). Controls were 479 healthy women (age 16–49 y). Whole body Insulin Sensitivity (WBISI), fasting, and total insulin secretion were estimated following an oral glucose tolerance test (C-peptide deconvolution method). Results Across classes of BMI, PCOS patients had greater insulin resistance than matched controls (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons), but they showed higher fasting and total insulin secretion than their age, BMI and insulin resistance-matched peers (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons). Conclusion Women with PCOS show higher insulin resistance but also larger insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose homeostasis than age-, BMI- and insulin resistance-matched controls. PMID:24705280

  5. Insulin dynamics in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance across categories of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Manco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence favours insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia as the predominant, perhaps primary, defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate insulin metabolism in young women with PCOS but normal glucose tolerance as compared with age, body mass index and insulin resistance-matched controls to answer the question whether women with PCOS hypersecrete insulin in comparison to appropriately insulin resistance-matched controls. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-nine cases were divided according to their body mass index (BMI in normal-weight (N = 29, overweight (N = 24 and obese patients (N = 16. Controls were 479 healthy women (age 16-49 y. Whole body Insulin Sensitivity (WBISI, fasting, and total insulin secretion were estimated following an oral glucose tolerance test (C-peptide deconvolution method. RESULTS: Across classes of BMI, PCOS patients had greater insulin resistance than matched controls (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons, but they showed higher fasting and total insulin secretion than their age, BMI and insulin resistance-matched peers (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons. CONCLUSION: Women with PCOS show higher insulin resistance but also larger insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose homeostasis than age-, BMI- and insulin resistance-matched controls.

  6. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  7. Th1/Th17 Plasticity Is a Marker of Advanced β Cell Autoimmunity and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert-Hartwall, Linnea; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri M.; Nieminen, Janne K.; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Härkönen, Taina; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Knip, Mikael; Knip, Mikael; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Ormisson, Anne; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svetlana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Ilonen, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Hanna; Hyöty, Heikki; Kondrashova, Anita; Oikarinen, Sami; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjalt; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of IL-17 immunity and detrimental effects of IL-17 on human islets have been implicated in human type 1 diabetes. In animal models, the plasticity of Th1/Th17 cells contributes to the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that the upregulation of the IL-17 pathway and Th1/Th17 plasticity in peripheral blood are markers of advanced β cell autoimmunity and impaired β cell function in human type 1 diabetes. Activated Th17 immunity was observed in the late stage of preclinical diabetes in children with β cell autoimmunity and impaired glucose tolerance, but not in children with early β cell autoimmunity. We found an increased ratio of IFN-γ/IL-17 expression in Th17 cells in children with advanced β cell autoimmunity, which correlated with HbA1c and plasma glucose concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test, and thus impaired β cell function. Low expression of Helios was seen in Th17 cells, suggesting that Th1/Th17 cells are not converted thymus-derived regulatory T cells. Our results suggest that the development of Th1/Th17 plasticity may serve as a biomarker of disease progression from β cell autoantibody positivity to type 1 diabetes. These data in human type 1 diabetes emphasize the role of Th1/Th17 plasticity as a potential contributor to tissue destruction in autoimmune conditions. PMID:25480564

  8. Fasting Insulin is Better Partitioned according to Family History of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus than Post Glucose Load Insulin of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Saritha; Chandran, Sindhu Padinjareveedu; Nesheera, K K; Jacob, Jose

    2017-05-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is contributed by insulin resistance, hepatic insulin uptake, insulin secretion and rate of insulin degradation. Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been reported to cause hyperinsulinemia. Correlation of fasting insulin with post glucose load Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) insulin in young adults and their partitioning according to family history of type 2 diabetes. In this observational cross-sectional study, clinical evaluation and biochemical assays of insulin and diabetes related parameters, and secondary clinical influences on type 2 diabetes in volunteers were done for inclusion as participants (n=90) or their exclusion. Cut off levels of quantitative biochemical variables were fixed such that they included the effects of insulin resistance, but excluded other secondary clinical influences. Distribution was analysed by Shapiro-Wilk test; equality of variances by Levene's test; Log10 transformations for conversion of groups to Gaussian distribution and for equality of variances in the groups compared. When the groups compared had Gaussian distribution and there was equality of variance, parametric methods were used. Otherwise, non parametric methods were used. Fasting insulin was correlating significantly with 30, 60 and 120 minute OGTT insulin showing that hyperinsulinemia in the fasting state was related to hyperinsulinemia in the post glucose load states. When fasting and post glucose load OGTT insulin were partitioned into those without and with family history of type 2 diabetes, maximum difference was seen in fasting insulin (pinsulin. The 30 minute insulin could not be partitioned (p=0.574). Fasting, 60 and 120 minute OGTT insulin can be partitioned according to family history of type 2 diabetes, demonstrating stratification and heterogeneity in the insulin sample. Of these, fasting insulin was better partitioned and could be used for baseline reference interval calculations.

  9. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results.

  10. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    /l. Despite treatment, 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l and > or = 11.1 mmol/l were both associated with increased rates of macrosomia, spontaneous preterm delivery, hypertensive complications, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Adverse outcomes tended to be more frequent in women with 2-h glucose > or = 11.1 mmol...

  11. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  12. Burden and Socio-Behavioral Correlates of Uncontrolled Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in an Urban Population of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Pandey, Naren; Thomson, Peter L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Mitra, Ramendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. Methods From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7.24%) were interviewed, examined [blood pressure (BP), anthropometry], tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Those having pre-diagnosed diabetes or FPG ≥126 or HbA1c≥6.5 were defined as diabetic. Among non-diabetics, subjects with FPG (mg/dl) = 100–125 or HbA1C(%) = 5.7–6.4 were defined as pre-diabetic. Pre-diagnosed cases with current FPG ≥126 were defined as uncontrolled AGM. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted using SAS-9.3.2. Results Among participants, 28.62% [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) = 23.19–34.06)] were overweight [body mass index(BMI) = (25–29.99)kg/meter2], 7.81% (4.58–11.03) were obese(BMI≥30kg/meter2), 20.82% (15.93–25.70) were current smokers, 12.64% (8.64–16.64) were current alcohol-drinkers and 46.32% of responders (39.16–53.47) had family history of diabetes. 17.84% (13.24–22.45) had stage-I [140≤average systolic BP (AvSBP in mm of mercury)business-owners [OR = 25.53(24.91–16.18)], retired [OR = 46.53(45.38–47.72)], ex-smokers [OR = 4.75(1.09–20.78)], ex-drinkers [OR = 22.43(4.62–108.81)] and hypertensives [ORStage II = 13.17(1.29–134.03)] were more likely to have uncontrolled AGM. Conclusions Burden of uncontrolled AGM was high among participants. Efforts to curb the diabetes epidemic in urban India should include interventions targeting appropriate diabetic control among relatively older persons, unemployed, business-owners, retired, ex-smokers, ex

  13. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Adult Metabolic Syndrome and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Are Associated With Different Patterns of BMI Gain During Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H.D.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Biswas, Sushant Dey; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil; Ramji, Siddharth; Reddy, K. Srinath; Barker, David J.P.; Bhargava, Santosh K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of infant, childhood, and adolescent BMI and weight associated with adult metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We measured waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) in 1,492 men and women aged 26–32 years in Delhi, India, whose weight and height were recorded every 6 months throughout infancy (0–2 years), childhood (2–11 years), and adolescence (11 years–adult). RESULTS—Men and women with metabolic syndrome (29% overall), any of its component features, or higher (greater than upper quartile) insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) had more rapid BMI or weight gain than the rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes) was, like metabolic syndrome, associated with rapid BMI gain in childhood and adolescence but with lower BMI in infancy. CONCLUSIONS—In this Indian population, patterns of infant BMI and weight gain differed for individuals who developed metabolic syndrome (rapid gain) compared with those who developed glucose intolerance (low infant BMI). Rapid BMI gain during childhood and adolescence was a risk factor for both disorders. PMID:18835958

  15. Synergistic effect of calcium and zinc on glucose/xylose utilization and butanol tolerance of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youduo; Xue, Chuang; Chen, Lijie; Yuan, Wenjie; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-03-01

    Biobutanol outperforms bioethanol as an advanced biofuel, but is not economically competitive in terms of its titer, yield and productivity associated with feedstocks and energy cost. In this work, the synergistic effect of calcium and zinc was investigated in the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum using glucose, xylose and glucose/xylose mixtures as carbon source(s). Significant improvements associated with enhanced glucose/xylose utilization, cell growth, acids re-assimilation and butanol biosynthesis were achieved. Especially, the maximum butanol and ABE production of 16.1 and 25.9 g L(-1) were achieved from 69.3 g L(-1) glucose with butanol/ABE productivities of 0.40 and 0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) compared to those of 11.7 and 19.4 g/L with 0.18 and 0.30 g L(-1) h(-1) obtained in the control respectively without any supplement. More importantly, zinc was significantly involved in the butanol tolerance based on the improved xylose utilization under various butanol-shock conditions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g L(-1) butanol). Under the same conditions, calcium and zinc co-supplementation led to the best xylose utilization and butanol production. These results suggested that calcium and zinc could play synergistic roles improving ABE fermentation by C. acetobutylicum. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of Tang No.1 Granule(糖1号方) in Treating Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan; HONG Yu-zhi; YE Xun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of Tang No.1 granule (糖1号方, T1G) in treating patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods: One hundred and forty patients with visiting sequence into two equal groups. The control group received only general knowledge about IGT, but to the treated group, based on current knowledge available, TIG was given additionally for 6 months. Changes in related laboratory indexes, including fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FPG and FINS), plasma glucose 2 h after meal (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), serum triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), were observed. Results: The levels of FPG, 2hPG, HbA1c, FINS, TG and HOMA-IR were significantly decreased after treatment in the treated group, showing a significant difference compared to the control group (P<0.01). Among them, HbAlc decreased from 7.08±1.41% to 6.56±1.29% in the treated group, while in the control group, it decreased from 7.02±1.37% to 6.93±1.31%. The level of LDL was also reduced in the treated group after treatment (P<0.05). In the treated group, 13 out of 68 patients (19.12%) had their glucose tolerance reversed to normal, while in the control group, only 2/64 (3.1%) got it reverse; a comparison between the two groups in terms of reversion rate showed a significant difference (P<0.01). No severe adverse reaction was found in the therapeutic course. Conclusions: T1G has good clinical effect as a treatment intervention for IGT, as it could improve glycometabolism, significantly depress the levels of post-prandial blood sugar and blood lipids, alleviate clinical symptoms of patients, and effectively cut-off and reverse the yielding and development of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Comparison of A1C to Oral Glucose Tolerance Test for the Diagnosis of Prediabetes in Overweight and Obese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Aditi; Naraparaju, Gayathri; Friedman, Miriam; Perez-Colon, Sheila; Umpaichitra, Vatcharapan; Chin, Vivian L

    2017-07-01

    IN BRIEF This study reports performance of A1C against the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in predicting prediabetes among overweight and obese African-American and Caribbean children. A retrospective chart review was completed for 230 children. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to find the predictive performances of different tests against the OGTT. A1C alone is a poor discriminator of prediabetes in our study population, with low sensitivity (70%) and specificity (48.8%). BMI z score, A1C, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance are significant predictors of prediabetes and, when taken together, provide better discrimination for prediabetes.

  18. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    .... Various statistical methods were used to classify plasma metabolic signatures associated with post-prandial glucose and/or training status when using a repeated measures/cross-over study design...

  19. Influence of the interleukin-6 -174 G/C gene polymorphism on exercise training-induced changes in glucose tolerance indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer A; Weiss, Edward P; Ghiu, Ioana A; Kulaputana, Onanong; Phares, Dana A; Ferrell, Robert E; Hagberg, James M

    2004-10-01

    A polymorphism in the IL-6 gene, a G-to-C substitution 176 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation site, has been associated with diabetes prevalence and insulin resistance. Interventions including exercise training are frequently used to modify cardiovascular disease risk factors. Consequently, this project examined associations between the IL-6 -174 genotype and oral glucose tolerance test outcomes in 50- to 75-yr-old sedentary men and postmenopausal women before and after aerobic exercise training. Among the 87 individuals who started the study, 56 were retested after 6 mo of aerobic exercise training. Subject characteristics at baseline did not differ between the IL-6 genotype groups with the exception of fasting glucose, which was higher (P = 0.02, covariates age, gender, and ethnicity) in the CC genotype group. The training-induced change in glucose area under the curve during the oral glucose tolerance test varied between the IL-6 -174 genotype groups (P = 0.05, covariates age, gender, ethnicity, baseline glucose area under the curve, and percent body fat change) with a significant decrease occurring only in the GG genotype group. Insulin outcomes did not differ among the groups at baseline or after training. Training-induced changes in weight, percent body fat, maximal oxygen consumption, fasting glucose, and an insulin sensitivity index also changed similarly among the genotype groups. In conclusion, fasting glucose and the extent to which glucose tolerance changes with exercise training may be influenced by the IL-6 -174 gene polymorphism.

  20. Effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance in obese adults: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert; Hudson, Robert; Stotz, Paula J; Lam, Miu

    2015-03-03

    Exercise reduces obesity and related glucose tolerance, but whether increasing exercise intensity offers additional benefit at fixed exercise amounts is unknown. To determine the separate effects of exercise amount and intensity on abdominal obesity and glucose tolerance. 24-week, single-center, parallel-group trial from 2009 to 2013. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00955071). Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 300 abdominally obese adults. Control (no exercise) (n = 75) or 5 weekly sessions of low-amount, low-intensity exercise (LALI) (180 and 300 kcal/session for women and men, respectively, at 50% of maximum oxygen consumption [V̇o2peak]) (n = 73); high-amount, low-intensity exercise (HALI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 50% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76); or high-amount, high-intensity exercise (HAHI) (360 and 600 kcal/session, respectively, at 75% of V̇o2peak) (n = 76). Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometer. Waist circumference and 2-hour glucose level (primary outcomes) and cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of insulin action (secondary measurements). 217 participants (72.3%) completed the intervention. Mean exercise time in minutes per session was 31 (SD, 4.4) for LALI, 58 (SD, 7.6) for HALI, and 40 (SD, 6.2) for HAHI. Daily unsupervised physical activity and sedentary time did not change in any exercise group versus control (P > 0.33). After adjustment for age and sex in a linear mixed model, reductions in waist circumference were greater in the LALI (-3.9 cm [95% CI, -5.6 to -2.3 cm]; P exercise groups (P > 0.43). After adjustment for covariates, reductions in 2-hour glucose level were greater in the HAHI group (-0.7 mmol/L [-12.5 mg/dL] [CI, -1.3 to -0.1 mmol/L {-23.5 to -1.5 mg/dL}]; P = 0.027) than the control group but did not differ for the LALI or HALI group versus the control group (P > 0.159). Weight loss was greater in all exercise groups than the control group (P exercise groups (P > 0.182). The

  1. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    . The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic index (GI) for quinoa (89.4). The GI of buckwheat recorded a low value (26.8). CONCLUSION: The two studied pseudocereals; quinoa and buckwheat have high potential to improve glucose tolerance at the first and second meal (lunch) and are recommended to be introduced in our daily diet for healthy and diabetic subjects. PMID:28028392

  2. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to study the potential mechanisms responsible for the improvement in glucose control in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Thirteen obese subjects with T2D and twelve matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were examined during a liquid.......003)] but not in NGT. HOMA-IR decreased by 50% in both groups. ß-GS increased in T2D [Pre: 1.03 ± 0.49, 1 wk: 1.70 ± 1.2, (P = 0.012)] but did not change in NGT. The increase in DI(ß-GS) was 3-fold in T2D and 1.5-fold in NGT. After RYGB, glucagon secretion was increased in response to the meal. GIP secretion...... was unchanged, while GLP-1 secretion increased more than 10-fold in both groups. The changes induced by RYGB were sustained or further enhanced 3 mo and 1 yr after surgery. Improvement in glycemic control in T2D after RYGB occurs within days after surgery and is associated with increased insulin sensitivity...

  3. Genetically obese rats with (SHR/N-cp) and without diabetes (LA/N-cp) share abnormal islet responses to glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, K I; Voyles, N R; Recant, L

    1992-10-01

    To assess the effect of hyperglycemia on the function of islets obtained from obese rats, the behavior of isolated islets from LA/N-corpulent (nondiabetic obese) and SHR/N-corpulent (diabetic obese) male rats was examined and compared. Islets from both genetic models showed a left-shifted glucose dose-response curve for insulin release (concentrations for half-maximal release, 5 to 6 mmol/L v 12 to 13 mmol/L in LA/N lean littermates and 3 mmol/L v 10 mmol/L in lean SHR/N). When insulin release was expressed per unit islet volume, the fourfold to fivefold enlarged islets from both obese diabetic and obese nondiabetic rats showed decreased insulin secretory response in high (16.5 to 28 mmol/L) glucose concentrations, although the decrease was more severe in the diabetic rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin release by islets from both models was relatively resistant to inhibition by 1.2 mmol/L mannoheptulose (eg, 82% +/- 3% inhibition in LA/N lean v 16% +/- 8% in LA/N obese), although nearly complete inhibition was observed with 16 mmol/L mannoheptulose (96% v 85%, NS). Islets of obese diabetic rats were also resistant to the calcium-channel blocker, verapamil, suggesting an abnormal pathway of stimulus-secretion coupling for glucose. Glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide was increased in both obese models at all glucose concentrations when expressed per islet. In data expressed per unit volume, the larger islets from the obese-nondiabetic rats showed a left-shifted dose-response curve with an unchanged maximum rate of glucose oxidation at high (16.5 mmol/L) glucose concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Determinants of progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screened population: 3 year follow-up in the ADDITION study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S S; Glümer, C; Sandbaek, A;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to identify determinants of progression from impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to diabetes in high-risk screened individuals. METHODS: In general practices in Denmark, stepwise screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in persons aged 40...... to 69 years included a risk questionnaire, random blood glucose, HbA(1c), fasting blood glucose and an OGTT. The 1,821 individuals with IGT or isolated IFG (WHO 1999) were re-invited after 1 and 3 years. Follow-up data on glucose measurements were available in 1,510 individuals and additional clinical...... of glucose measures, larger BMI, known hypertension and hypertriacylglycerolaemia are significant determinants of progression in high-risk screened individuals. Weight loss of 1 kg/year or reduction of hypertriacylglycerolaemia markedly reduced the risk of diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  5. Brief neonatal nutritional supplementation has sex-specific effects on glucose tolerance and insulin regulating genes in juvenile lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquiery, Anne L; Park, Sharon S; Phua, Hui Hui; Berry, Mary J; Meijler, Daphne; Harding, Jane E; Oliver, Mark H; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2016-12-01

    The nutritional plane and composition during fetal life can impact upon growth and epigenetic regulation of genes affecting pancreatic β-cell development and function. However, it is not clear whether β-cell development can be altered by nutritional factors or growth rate after birth. We therefore investigated the effect of neonatal nutritional supplements on growth, glucose tolerance, and pancreatic development in lambs. Newborn lambs were randomized to daily nutritional supplements, calculated to increase macronutrient intake to a similar degree as human breast milk fortifier, or an equivalent volume of water, for 2 wk while continuing to suckle ewe milk. Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed at 4 mo of age, and pancreata collected for molecular analysis. Supplemented lambs had slower weight gain than controls. In supplemented lambs, insulin response to IVGTT was increased in males but decreased in females, compared to same sex controls, and was unrelated to growth rate. mRNA expression of key genes in β-cell development showed sexually dimorphic effects. Epigenetic change occurred in the promotor region of PDX1 gene with decreased suppression and increased activation marks in supplemented lambs of both sexes. Nutritional interventions in early life have long-term, sex-specific effects on pancreatic function.

  6. Fufang Cangzhu Tang for Treatment of Senile Obesity or Overweight Complicated with Impaired Glucose Tolerance--A Clinical Observation in 32 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of Fufang Cangzhu Tang (复方苍术汤 Composite Atractylodes Decoction) on senile obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods: 32 cases of senile obesity or overweight with IGT were treated with Composite Atractylodes Decoction, with another 30 cases treated with dimethyldiguanide as the controls. Changes of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist hip circumference ratio (WHR), glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid before and after treatment were compared. Results: After treatment, the body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the Composite Atractylodes Decoction treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with no significant difference as compared with the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Composite Atractylodes Decoction can obviously decrease the body weight,waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the senile patients with obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance.

  7. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels.

  8. Glucose tolerance and antioxidant activity of spent brewer's yeast hydrolysate with a high content of Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Young; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Choi, Jang Won; Ra, Kyung Soo; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2011-03-01

    To elevate the Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) content in yeast, the yeast hydrolysate that was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis was subjected to various treatments. Flavourzyme-treated hydrolysate showed the highest CHP content (674.0 μg/g) among the various proteases treatments. Ultrafiltration was selected as the best method for concentrating CHP in yeast hydrolysate, based on the yields and CHP contents. In addition, we evaluated the radical scavenge and glucose tolerance of yeast hydrolysate with a high content of CHP. Yeast hydrolysate showed intense scavenging abilities of both 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. The IC(50) values of yeast hydrolysate on DPPH and ABTS radicals were 1.9 and 0.9 mg/mL, respectively. There were significant differences in glucose level between the diabetes-control and yeast hydrolysate group at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after injection in a type 1 diabetes model (P CHP as an antioxidative and/or antidiabetic material for the preparation of functional foods. This study tried to develop a material containing a high content of CHP using yeast for possible applications of this cyclic dipeptide in the therapy of metabolic disorders. The yeast hydrolysate prepared with Flavourzyme showed a high level of CHP. The hydrolysate with a high content of CHP showed high levels of radical scavenging activities and oral glucose tolerance activity. Therefore, it is possible to use the yeast hydrolysate with high levels of CHP as an antioxidative and/or antidiabetic material for the preparation of functional foods.

  9. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  10. Primary defects in beta-cell function further exacerbated by worsening of insulin resistance mark the development of impaired glucose tolerance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, Anna M G; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Dziura, James; Seyal, Aisha; Shaw, Melissa; Allen, Karin; Chen, Shu; Caprio, Sonia

    2009-03-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of increasing prevalence among obese adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to IGT in obese adolescents. We determined the evolution of beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity (S(I)), and glucose tolerance in a multiethnic group of 60 obese adolescents over the course of approximately 30 months. Each subject underwent three serial 3-h oral glucose tolerance tests. Dynamic, static, and total beta-cell responsivity (Phi(d), Phi(s), and Phi(tot), respectively) and S(i) were assessed by oral C-peptide and glucose minimal models. The disposition index (DI), which adjusts insulin secretion for S(i), was calculated. At baseline, all 60 subjects had NGT. Seventy-seven percent (46 subjects) maintained NGT over the three testing periods (nonprogressors), whereas 23% (14 subjects) developed IGT over time (progressors). At baseline, percent fat and BMI Z score were comparable between the groups. Fasting plasma glucose, 2-h glucose, glucose area under the curve at 180 min, and Phi(d) were significantly different between the two groups at baseline, whereas S(i) was comparable between the two groups. Over time, although S(i) remained unchanged in nonprogressors, it steadily worsened by approximately 45% (P > 0.04) in progressors. beta-Cell responsivity decreased by 20% in progressors, whereas it remained stable in nonprogressors. The DI showed a progressive decline in progressors compared with a modest improvement in nonprogressors (P = 0.02). Obese adolescents who progress to IGT may manifest primary defects in beta-cell function. In addition, progressive decline in S(i) further aggravates beta-cell function, contributing to the worsening of glucose intolerance.

  11. Primary Defects in β-Cell Function Further Exacerbated by Worsening of Insulin Resistance Mark the Development of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cali, Anna M.G.; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Dziura, James; Seyal, Aisha; Shaw, Melissa; Allen, Karin; Chen, Shu; Caprio, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of increasing prevalence among obese adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of progression from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to IGT in obese adolescents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We determined the evolution of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity (SI), and glucose tolerance in a multiethnic group of 60 obese adolescents over the course of approximately 30 months. Each subject underwent three serial 3-h oral glucose tolerance tests. Dynamic, static, and total β-cell responsivity (Φd, Φs, and Φtot, respectively) and Si were assessed by oral C-peptide and glucose minimal models. The disposition index (DI), which adjusts insulin secretion for Si, was calculated. RESULTS—At baseline, all 60 subjects had NGT. Seventy-seven percent (46 subjects) maintained NGT over the three testing periods (nonprogressors), whereas 23% (14 subjects) developed IGT over time (progressors). At baseline, percent fat and BMI Z score were comparable between the groups. Fasting plasma glucose, 2-h glucose, glucose area under the curve at 180 min, and Φd were significantly different between the two groups at baseline, whereas Si was comparable between the two groups. Over time, although Si remained unchanged in nonprogressors, it steadily worsened by ∼45% (P > 0.04) in progressors. β-Cell responsivity decreased by 20% in progressors, whereas it remained stable in nonprogressors. The DI showed a progressive decline in progressors compared with a modest improvement in nonprogressors (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS—Obese adolescents who progress to IGT may manifest primary defects in β-cell function. In addition, progressive decline in Si further aggravates β-cell function, contributing to the worsening of glucose intolerance. PMID:19106382

  12. SIRT1 Polymorphism, Long-Term Survival and Glucose Tolerance in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figarska, S.M.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations that increase activity of Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) are associated with extended lifespan of yeast, fruit flies and worms. SIRT1, the human homolog of Sir2, that controls numerous physiological processes including the glucose metabolism, is considered a candidate gene for

  13. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study was to fu...

  14. Biomarkers of food intake and nutrient status are associated with glucose tolerance status and development of type 2 diabetes in older Swedish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Otto; Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Bergström, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet is frequently associated with both the development and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is a lack of objective tools for assessing the relation between diet and T2D. Biomarkers of dietary intake are unconfounded by recall and reporting bias, and using multiple dietary...... multiple dietary biomarkers.Design: Dietary biomarkers were measured in plasma from 64-y-old Swedish women with different GTS [normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 190), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 209), and diabetes (n = 230)]. The same subjects were followed up after 5 y to determine changes...... in glucose tolerance (n = 167 for NGT, n = 174 for IGT, and n = 159 for diabetes). ANCOVA and logistic regression were used to explore baseline data for associations between dietary biomarkers, GTS, and new T2D cases at follow-up (n = 69).Results: Of the 10 dietary biomarkers analyzed, β-alanine (beef) (P...

  15. Neonatal Exendin-4 Reduces Growth, Fat Deposition and Glucose Tolerance during Treatment in the Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Saidatul N. B.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Harland, M. Lyn; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin action and β-cell mass and function in the IUGR neonate in the sheep, a species with a more developed pancreas at birth. Methods Twin IUGR lambs were injected s.c. daily with vehicle (IUGR+Veh, n = 8) or exendin-4 (1 nmol.kg-1, IUGR+Ex-4, n = 8), and singleton control lambs were injected with vehicle (CON, n = 7), from d 1 to 16 of age. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured in vivo during treatment (d 12–14). Body composition, β-cell mass and in vitro insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets were measured at d 16. Principal Findings IUGR+Veh did not alter in vivo insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or β-cell mass, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 treatment of the IUGR lamb impaired glucose tolerance in vivo, reflecting reduced insulin sensitivity, and normalised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 also reduced neonatal growth and visceral fat accumulation in IUGR lambs, known risk factors for later T2DM. Conclusions Neonatal exendin-4 induces changes in IUGR lambs that might improve later insulin action. Whether these effects of exendin-4 lead to improved insulin action in adult life after IUGR in the sheep, as in the PR rat, requires further investigation. PMID:23424667

  16. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  17. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  18. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...

  19. Insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obese Chinese with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Gu, Wei-qiong; Zhang, Yu-wen; Su, Yu-xia; Chi, Zhen-ni; Wang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-ying; Ning, Guang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obesity with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l, post-loading hyperglycemia, PLH) in Chinese population. A total of 196 nondiabetic subjects were included in the present study, among them 99 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, subdivided into 32 lean NGT and 67 obese NGT), 74 had obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 23 had obesity with PLH. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) was assessed by the Bergman's minimal model method with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT), insulin secretion was determined by acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg). The disposition index (DI), the product of AIRg and S(I) was used to determine whether AIRg was adequate to compensate for insulin resistance. S(I) was significantly equally lower in three obese subgroups. AIRg was significantly increased in obese NGT as compared with lean NGT controls, and reduced to the same extent in IGT and PLH subjects. There was no significant difference among lean NGT, IGT and PLH subjects. DI value was reduced from obese NGT individuals, IGT and PLH subjects had a similar lower level of DI. In conclusion, our present results demonstrated that the pathophysiological basis of obese subjects with PLH were clearly insulin resistance and defective in first-phase insulin secretion as that in IGT subjects in Chinese population.

  20. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance.

  2. Circadian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system in insulin resistant subjects with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Pietro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are considered responsible for autonomic dysfunction. The relation between the autonomic activity, impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance is, however, unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the circadian autonomic activity expressed as heart rate variability (HRV measured by 24-hours ECG recording in insulin resistant subjects (IR with characteristics as follow: IR subjects with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, IR subjects with impaired fasting glucose, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Eighty Caucasian insulin resistant subjects (IR and twenty five control subjects were recruited for the study. IR subjects were divided into four groups according to the outcoming results of oral glucose tests (OGTTs: IR subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR, IR subjects with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Autonomic nervous activity was studied by 24-hours ECG recording. Heart rate variability analysis was performed in time and frequency domains: SDNN, RMS-SD, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were calculated. Results The total SDNN showed statistically significant reduction in all four groups with insulin resistant subjects (IR when compared to the control group (p Conclusion The results of our study suggest that insulin resistance might cause global autonomic dysfunction which increases along with worsening glucose metabolic impairment. The analysis of sympathetic and parasympathetic components and the sympathovagal balance demonstrated an association between insulin resistance and sympathetic over-activity, especially during night. The results indicated that the sympathetic over-activity is directly correlated to the grade of insulin resistance

  3. Reduced plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in elderly men are associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C;

    2009-01-01

    stimulated GLP-1 levels and: (1) cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, urinary albumin, waist circumference and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp); and (2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During the follow......-up period (maximum 13.8 years), of 294 participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 69 experienced a CHD event (13.8 years), as did 42 of 141 with IGT and 32 of 74 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DeltaGLP-1 did not predict CHD (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.52-2.28). The prevalence of IGT was associated with Delta...

  4. Effects of colupulone, a component of hops and brewers yeast, and chromium on glucose tolerance and hepatic cytochrome P450 in nondiabetic and spontaneously diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannering, G J; Shoeman, J A; Shoeman, D W

    1994-05-16

    Brewers yeast contains factors that increase and decrease glucose tolerance. Hop components (lupulones) that adhere to yeast during the brewing process elicit a variety of biological effects including the induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A. Colupulone was tested for its effects on glucose tolerance and cytochrome P450. Serum glucose levels 30 min after the injection of glucose were lowered by colupulone in nondiabetic Swiss-Webster mice, elevated in diabetic C57B1/KSJ-db/db mice, and unaffected in nondiabetic C57B1/KSJ+m/+m mice. Colupulone lowered hemoglobin glycation slightly in +m/+m mice but not in db/db mice. The cytochrome P450 system was highly induced by colupulone in both db/db and +m/+m mice. Chromium, which acts in concert with the factor in yeast that enhances glucose tolerance, had little or no effect on the plasma glucose level or the cytochrome P450 system in either +m/+m or db/db mice.

  5. Changes in glucose and glucose tolerance at various time points in rats with abdominal open injury coupled with sea water immersion%腹部开放伤合并海水浸泡大鼠不同时期血糖及糖耐量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽; 刘敏; 王大鹏; 周丽君; 郭启煜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study abnormality of glucose metabolism in rats with abdominal open injury coupled with sea water immersion through the observation of the changes in glucose and glucose tolerance at various time points.Methods Eighteen male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:the control group,the laparotomy for 45 min group (the L45 group) and the laparotomy coupled with sea water immersion for 45 min group ( the L + S45 group ),each consisting of 6 animals.Changes in blood glucose and glucose tolerance were monitored at various time points before and after surgery.Results Before surgery,no significant differences in body weight,glucose and glucose tolerance could be noted in all the 3 groups.The level of blood glucose for the L45 group detected immediately after surgery was the highest [ (14.51 ± 1.44)mmol/L],the blood glucose level for the L + S45 group came the next [ ( 12.63 ± 1.64 ) mmol/L].Six hours after surgery,blood glucose levels of the 2 groups began to decrease,but were still obviously higher than those of the control group.Eighteen hours after surgery,blood glucose levels of the L + S45 group were higher than those of the L45 group,and the difference remained until 90 hours after surgery.No differences in glucose levelscould be seen in various groups at hour 186.Results of glucose tolerance test (GTT) after surgery indicated that glucose levels of the L45 group and the L + S45 group at various time points were higher,when compared with those of pre-surgery,and the area under curve (AUC) was found to be elevated significantly.When compared with the L45 group,more significant GTT abnormality and AUC increased more significantly in the L + S45 group.Moreover,these changes persisted for quite a long time.Conclusions When comparisons were made between the rats with abdominal open injury + sea water immersion and the rats with simple abdominal open injury,blood glucose level did not increase considerably at the initial stage of injury

  6. Modulating the gut microbiota improves glucose tolerance, lipoprotein profile and atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Ida; Rolin, Bidda; Larsen, Christian Schiøth

    2016-01-01

    cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets...... on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors...... in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets...

  7. Effect of inoculating C57BL/6NTac mice with different gut microbiotas on gut colonization and glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Viscardi, Monika; Rune, Ida

    In recent decades, the gut microbiota (GM) has been demonstrated influential in diseases of immunological and inflammatory origin such as asthma, allergy, arthritis and diabetes. This indicates a possibility to affect disease development by changing the GM composition. Previously our group has...... demonstrated a possibility to affect GM composition by inoculation in germfree mice. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether it was also possible to change the GM of conventional mice and secondly if this change would affect glucose tolerance. 64 five week old C57BL/6NTac mice (half males, half...... females) were given oral ampicillin for three weeks to eliminate their GM. At the age of eight weeks, the mice were then split in four groups receiving an oral suspension of GM from a BALB/c mouse, a DBA mouse, a B6-Lepob mouse or PBS as control. GM composition was analyzed prior to antibiotic treatment...

  8. Circadian rhythms of GIP and GLP1 in glucose-tolerant and in type 2 diabetic patients after biliopancreatic diversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mingrone, G; Nolfe, G; Gissey, G Castagneto

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the reversibility of insulin resistance and diabetes observed after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is related to changes in circadian rhythms of gastrointestinal hormones. METHODS: Ten morbidly obese participants, five with normal glucose tolerance......(-1)). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: An incretin circadian rhythm was shown for the first time in morbid obesity. The effect of BPD on the 24 h pattern of incretin differed between NGT and diabetic patients. GLP1 secretion impairment was reversed in NGT and could not be overcome by surgery in diabetes....... On the other hand, GIP secretion was blunted after the operation only in diabetic patients, suggesting a role in insulin resistance and diabetes....

  9. Treatment of Abnormal Glucose Regulation and Huge Ovarian Cysts with High Dose Insulin Glargine in an Infant with Leprechaunism - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yasemin Çelik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the insulin receptor gene. In this report; we present a 75 days old infant with leprecahunism treated by high dose insulin glargine.Case Report: Yetmiş day old girl was diagnosed as leprechaunism because of the hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and dysmorphic appearance. Huge cysts with multiple septa were determined in her ovaries. High dose insulin glargine were adjusted to achieve target blood glucose regulation. Huge ovarian cysts resolved by this treatment.Conclusion: Leprechaunism is characterized by intra-uterine and postnatal growth restriction, lipo-atrophy, characteristic facial features, severe acanthosis nigricans, abnormal glucose homeostasis, clitoromegaly and hirsutism. It is usually fatal within the 1st year of life because of diabetic ketoacidosis or recurrent infections. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 119-22

  10. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  11. The Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Thalassemia Major in Iran: A systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is one of the most common endocrine complications in major thalassemia patients. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major has been differently in different studies in Iran, about which no total estimate can be proposed. Hence, this meta analysis study aimed to investigate IGT prevalence in major thalassemia patients in Iran. Methods: This study was a systematic review based on electronic databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley as well as Google Scholar search engine without any time limitations up to 2015. All the potentially relevant papers were reviewed independently by two investigators using the standard key words. Then, all the reviewed studies that had inclusion criterion were evaluated. In order to statistically analyze the study data, random effect model was used via Stata software (Ver.11.1. Results: 1346 subjects were examined in 13 studies. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major was estimated 9.6 %( CI: 95%, 6.6-12.5 in Iran. The IGT prevalence in male and female major thalassemia patients were 6.5 %( CI: 95%, 1.6-11.3 and 10.2 %( CI: 95% , 6.1-14.3, respectively. Conclusion: IGT Prevalence was demonstrated to be really high in patients with thalassemia major. As a result, implementing screening programs seems to be necessary in regard with early diagnosis of endocrine disorders especially IGT in these patients. Furthermore, it is recommended that annual glucose tolerance test be taken within such patients.

  12. Resistant maltodextrin promotes fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and production together with glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Tohru; Ikee, Asuka; Kishimoto, Yuka; Kanahori, Sumiko; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-07-14

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is produced and released from enteroendocrine L cells, plays pivotal roles in postprandial glycaemia. The ingestion of resistant maltodextrin (RMD), a water-soluble non-digestible saccharide, improves the glycaemic response. In the present study, we examined whether the continuous feeding of RMD to rats affected GLP-1 levels and glycaemic control. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G-based diet containing either cellulose (5 %) as a control, RMD (2.5 or 5 %), or fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS, 2.5 or 5 %) for 7 weeks. During the test period, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed after 6 weeks. Fasting GLP-1 levels were significantly higher in the 5 % RMD group than in the control group after 6 weeks. The IPGTT results showed that the glycaemic response was lower in the 5 % RMD group than in the control group. Lower caecal pH, higher caecal tissue and content weights were observed in the RMD and FOS groups. Proglucagon mRNA levels were increased in the caecum and colon of both RMD and FOS groups, whereas caecal GLP-1 content was increased in the 5 % RMD group. In addition, a 1 h RMD exposure induced GLP-1 secretion in an enteroendocrine L-cell model, and single oral administration of RMD increased plasma GLP-1 levels in conscious rats. The present study demonstrates that continuous ingestion of RMD increased GLP-1 secretion and production in normal rats, which could be stimulated by its direct and indirect (enhanced gut fermentation) effects on GLP-1-producing cells, and contribute to improving glucose tolerance.

  13. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamarian Abdolreza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days. Results During 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p Conclusions Chicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and long-term (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  14. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats.MethodsLate stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ, respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i. p. injections of chicory extract (125 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days. Body weight and fasting blood sugar (FBS were measured weekly. Blood was analyzed for glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and sera for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, nitric oxide (NO, triacylglycerol (TG, total cholesterol (TC, total protein, and insulin on days 10 and 28 after treatment. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT along with insulin determination was performed on a different set of rats in which the chicory-treated groups received the extract for 10 days.ResultsDuring 4 weeks of treatment, chicory prevented body-weight loss and decreased FBS. ALT activities and levels of TG, TC and HbA1c decreased, and concentration of NO increased in the chicory treated groups (p < 0.05. Unlike late-stage diabetes, fasting serum insulin concentrations were higher and GTT pattern approximated to normal in chicory-treated earlystage diabetic rats.ConclusionsChicory appeared to have short-term (about 2 hours, as far as GTT is concerned and longterm (28 days, in this study effects on diabetes. Chicory may be useful as a natural dietary supplement for slowing down the pace of diabetes progress, and delaying the development of its complications.

  15. The impact of EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Federspiel, Cecilie A; Vilmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose...... metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal...

  16. Increased Short-Term Beat-to-Beat QT Interval Variability in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prediabetic states and diabetes are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Determination of short-term QT interval variability (STVQT is a non-invasive method for assessment of proarrhythmic risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate the STVQT in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. 18 IGT patients [age: 63 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI: 31 ± 6 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 6.0 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 9.0 ± 1.0 mmol/l, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c: 5.9 ± 0.4%; mean ± SD] and 18 healthy controls (age: 56 ± 9 years, BMI: 27 ± 5 kg/m2, fasting glucose: 5.2 ± 0.4 mmol/l, 120 min postload glucose: 5.5 ± 1.3 mmol/l, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.3% were enrolled into the study. ECGs were recorded, processed, and analyzed off-line. The RR and QT intervals were expressed as the average of 30 consecutive beats, the temporal instability of beat-to-beat repolarization was characterized by calculating STVQT as follows: STVQT = Σ|QTn + 1 − QTn| (30x√2−1. Autonomic function was assessed by means of standard cardiovascular reflex tests. There were no differences between IGT and control groups in QT (411 ± 43 vs 402 ± 39 ms and QTc (431 ± 25 vs 424 ± 19 ms intervals or QT dispersion (44 ± 13 vs 42 ± 17 ms. However, STVQT was significantly higher in IGT patients (5.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.7 ± 0.7, P < 0.0001. The elevated temporal STVQT in patients with IGT may be an early indicator of increased instability of cardiac repolarization during prediabetic conditions.

  17. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  18. Boron-doped graphene quantum dots for selective glucose sensing based on the "abnormal" aggregation-induced photoluminescence enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Liang, Ru-Ping; Li, Ya-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2014-05-06

    A hydrothermal approach for the cutting of boron-doped graphene (BG) into boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) has been proposed. Various characterizations reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully doped into graphene structures with the atomic percentage of 3.45%. The generation of boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces facilitates their application as a new photoluminescence (PL) probe for label free glucose sensing. It is postulated that the reaction of the two cis-diol units in glucose with the two boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces creates structurally rigid BGQDs-glucose aggregates, restricting the intramolecular rotations and thus resulting in a great boost in the PL intensity. The present unusual "aggregation-induced PL increasing" sensing process excludes any saccharide with only one cis-diol unit, as manifested by the high specificity of BGQDs for glucose over its close isomeric cousins fructose, galactose, and mannose. It is believed that the doping of boron can introduce the GQDs to a new kind of surface state and offer great scientific insights to the PL enhancement mechanism with treatment of glucose.

  19. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 3260 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l. Despite treatment, 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l and > or = 11.1 mmol/l were both associated with increased rates of macrosomia, spontaneous preterm delivery, hypertensive complications, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Adverse outcomes tended to be more frequent in women with 2-h glucose > or = 11.1 mmol....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...

  20. Hemolysis is a major cause of variability in insulin measurement during oral glucose tolerance test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Giorgio; Sulas, Maria Giovanna; Mairate, Elisabetta; Bardone, Maria Beatrice; Rolla, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is widely employed to evaluate insulin resistance in children with growth hormone deficiency. Due to the difficulty in blood sampling, hemolysis is a frequent pre-analytic interference. The present study was performed to characterize the effects of hemolysis on insulin assays, in order to assess the need to generate automatic hemolysis reports and/or to reject hemolyzed samples. Insulin plasma levels were measured using a Siemens ADVIA Centaur on samples obtained from children with suspected GH deficiency at risk for insulin resistance during OGTT. The presence of hemolysis (with a concentration of free hemoglobin above 75 mg/dL) promotes a dose- and time-dependent decrease in immunoreactive insulin at any time-point evaluated during OGTT. As a consequence, the variability of insulin is particularly high (often exceeding 100% of the mean value) as compared to that of glucose. This variability is markedly reduced after removal of the hemolyzed samples. When hemolysis is not taken into account a misinterpretation of insulin secretion pattern can occur. It is therefore imperative to: (i) analyze blood samples immediately after sampling, (ii) reject samples with a concentration of free hemoglobin equal to or above 125 mg/dL and (iii) always report the possible interference.

  1. Microbial-Host Co-metabolites Are Prodromal Markers Predicting Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Behavior, Obesity, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Emmanuel Dumas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the gut microbiome on metabolic and behavioral traits is widely accepted, though the microbiome-derived metabolites involved remain unclear. We carried out untargeted urine 1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping in an isogenic C57BL/6J mouse population (n = 50 and show that microbial-host co-metabolites are prodromal (i.e., early markers predicting future divergence in metabolic (obesity and glucose homeostasis and behavioral (anxiety and activity outcomes with 94%–100% accuracy. Some of these metabolites also modulate disease phenotypes, best illustrated by trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO, a product of microbial-host co-metabolism predicting future obesity, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and behavior while reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Chronic in vivo TMAO treatment limits IGT in HFD-fed mice and isolated pancreatic islets by increasing insulin secretion. We highlight the prodromal potential of microbial metabolites to predict disease outcomes and their potential in shaping mammalian phenotypic heterogeneity.

  2. IVGTT-based simple assessment of glucose tolerance in the Zucker fatty rat: Validation against minimal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morettini, Micaela; Faelli, Emanuela; Perasso, Luisa; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2017-01-01

    For the assessment of glucose tolerance from IVGTT data in Zucker rat, minimal model methodology is reliable but time- and money-consuming. This study aimed to validate for the first time in Zucker rat, simple surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and secretion against the glucose-minimal-model insulin sensitivity index (SI) and against first- (Φ1) and second-phase (Φ2) β-cell responsiveness indexes provided by C-peptide minimal model. Validation of the surrogate insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and of two sets of coupled insulin-based indexes for insulin secretion, differing from the cut-off point between phases (FPIR3-SPIR3, t = 3 min and FPIR5-SPIR5, t = 5 min), was carried out in a population of ten Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) and ten Zucker lean rats (ZLR). Considering the whole rat population (ZLR+ZFR), ISI showed a significant strong correlation with SI (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.88; Panimal model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:28264067

  3. A Novel Animal Model of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Induced by the Interaction of Vitamin E Deficiency and 60Co Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, known as the prediabetes stage, is usually induced by habits of life or environmental factors. Established IGT animal models are mostly conducted with chemical compounds such as streptozocin or genetic modification. However, the occasion of exposure to these factors in daily life is seldom. The objective of this study was to establish a new animal model of IGT induced by VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation. SD rats were treated individually or in combination of these two factors. In the combination group, the calculated insulin sensitivity index decreased; then HOMA-β value increased. Oxidative damage and IGT were observed. Insulin secretion level in perfusate from pancreas response to glucose was characterized by a rapid but reduced first phase and an obviously defective second phase upon pancreas perfusion. Histopathological images demonstrated the pathological changes. Western blotting analysis showed that the insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. The interaction of VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation could break the equilibrium of oxidation and antioxidation and result in IGT. More importantly, a new IGT model was successfully established which may be conducive to further research into development of drugs against human IGT.

  4. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  5. Higher incremental insulin area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test predicts less food intake and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Votruba, S; Venti, C; Krakoff, J

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the correlation of peripheral insulin concentrations with food intake and body weight. Cross sectional and longitudinal clinical study: we investigated the association of peripheral insulin concentrations in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with subsequent measures of ad libitum food intake and body weight change. Food intake analysis: Pima Indians (n=67, 63% male; body mass index (mean ± s.d.) 34.2 ± 9.4 kg m(-2)) with normal glucose regulation (NGR; fasting glucose libitum food intake measured over 3 days by an automated vending machine system. Weight change analysis: Pima Indians with NGR (n=339) who also participated in a longitudinal study of risks for type 2 diabetes and had follow-up weights. Food intake analysis: incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for insulin during the OGTT was negatively associated with mean daily ad libitum energy intake (DEI) (r=-0.26, P=0.04), calories consumed as percent weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN) (r=-0.38, P=0.002) and carbohydrate intake (gram per day) (r=-0.35, P=0.005). Adjustment for age and sex attenuated the association of iAUC with DEI (P=0.06) not with %WMEN and carbohydrate intake (P=0.005, P=0.008). Weight change analysis: after adjustment for age, sex, follow-up time and initial body weight, higher insulin iAUC predicted less absolute and percent weight change (β=-6.9, P=0.02; β=-0.08, P=0.008, respectively). In healthy Pima Indians with NGR, higher plasma iAUC during an OGTT predicted lower food intake and carbohydrate consumption and less weight gain. These data indicated a role for peripheral insulin as a negative feedback signal in the regulation of energy intake and body weight.

  6. Tolerance to glucose polymers in malnourished infants with diarrhea and disaccharide intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes-Neto, U; Viaro, T; Lifshitz, F

    1985-02-01

    The response of infants with diarrhea and lactose intolerance to feedings containing soy protein and sucrose (Sobee), and/or to a carbohydrate free formula (RCF), to which glucose polymers (GP) were added, was assessed in twenty patients. They all were less than ten months of age and had varying degrees of malnutrition. Eleven had acute diarrhea and nine had chronic diarrhea. None of them had classical enteropathogenic strains and parasites in the stools. All had lactose intolerance when feedings were begun with cow's milk formula and some also had sucrose intolerance when fed sucrose containing soy formulas. They had persistent loose stools and excreted feces with an acid pH and with carbohydrates, thus they were given dietary treatment with RCF with GP. There were 9 patients with acute diarrhea and lactose intolerance (1 of them also had sucrose intolerance), who improved on RCF with GP feedings; but 2 patients (lactose and sucrose intolerant) failed to respond to this diet. There were six patients with chronic diarrhea and lactose intolerance (four of them also had sucrose intolerance), who improved on RCF with GP formula, but there were three patients who failed on this treatment. These data show that some infants with diarrhea, malnutrition, and lactose-sucrose intolerance may also develop intolerance to GP and require further dietary management with glucose as the source of carbohydrate in the diet.

  7. Endothelin-1 as a predictor of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes--A longitudinal study in the Vara-Skövde Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, Josefin; Daka, Bledar; Hellgren, Margareta I; Larsson, Charlotte A; Petzold, Max; Lindblad, Ulf; Jansson, Per-Anders

    2016-03-01

    We addressed whether endothelin-1, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, predicts impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a population study in south-western Sweden. Follow-up after 9.7 years showed an association between circulating endothelin-1 levels at baseline and development of IGT/T2DM in women but not in men.

  8. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  9. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32...

  10. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in European non-diabetic carriers of a polymorphism upstream of CDKN2A and CDKN2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hribal, M L; Presta, I; Procopio, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the rs10811661 polymorphism near the CDKN2B/CDKN2A genes with glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in three samples of white people with European ancestry....

  11. A common polymorphism in the promoter of the IGF-I gene associates with increased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose-tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Lajer, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if absence of a common allele in a microsatellite polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) promoter was associated with type 2 diabetes and alterations in quantitative traits in glucose-tolerant subjects....

  12. Impaired fasting glycaemia vs impaired glucose tolerance: similar impairment of pancreatic alpha and beta cell function but differential roles of incretin hormones and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The impact of strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG) vs isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) may differ depending on the underlying pathophysiology. We examined insulin secretion during OGTTs and IVGTTs, hepatic and peri...

  13. Macrosomia in non–gestational diabetes pregnancy: glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto–maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algenes Aranha

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  14. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P

  15. Effects of additional starch or fat in late-gestating high nonstarch polysaccharide diets on litter performance and glucose tolerance in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of feeding additional starch or fat from d 85 of gestation until parturition on litter performance and on glucose tolerance in sows that were fed a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) were studied. The day after breeding, 141 multiparous sows were assign

  16. Comparison of fatty acid proportions in serum cholesteryl esters among people with different glucose tolerance status: The CoDAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Kuijsten, A.; Kallen, C.J.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Blaak, E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim - Altered fatty acid patterns in blood may be associated with insulin resistance and related disorders. We investigated whether serum proportions of cholesteryl fatty acids and desaturase activity are associated with glucose tolerance status and insulin resistance. Methods and res

  17. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Osei; S. Fonville (Susanne); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Brouwers (Paul); L.J.M.M. Mulder (Laus J. M.); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility,

  18. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  19. Han Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome risk variants in women of European ancestry: relationship to FSH levels and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Georgopoulos, N A; Braaten, T J; Bjonnes, A C; Koika, V; Panidis, D; Welt, C K

    2015-06-01

    associated with insulin (-0.16 ± 0.05, P = 0.0029) and glucose levels (-0.20 ± 0.05, P = 0.0002) 120 min after an oral glucose test. The study was large and contained replication cohorts, but was limited by a small number of controls in the Greek cohort and a small number of cases in the second Boston cohort. The second Boston group was identified using electronic medical record review, but was validated for the cardinal features of PCOS. This study demonstrates a cross-ethnic PCOS risk locus in FSHR in women of European ancestry with PCOS. The variant may influence FSH receptor responsiveness as suggested by the associated change in FSH levels. The relationship between a variant near RAB5B and SUOX and glucose stimulated insulin and glucose levels suggests an influence of one of these genes on glucose tolerance, but the absence of a relationship with PCOS points to potential differences in the international PCOS patient populations. The project was supported by Award Number R01HD065029 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health & Human Development, Award Number 1 UL1 RR025758, Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, from the National Center for Research Resources, award 1-10-CT-57 from the American Diabetes Association and the Partners Healthcare Center for Personalized Genetics Project Grant. C.K.W. is a consultant for Takeda Pharmaceuticals. NCT00166569. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 Caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women...... patients with irregular menses should include serum (s)-17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, s-prolactin, s-Testosterone (T), and s-sex hormone-binding globulin. Further evaluation is needed in patients with markedly elevated s-T or with clinical Cushing's syndrome. Hirsute patients have a high risk of diabetes...

  1. High Blood Pressure and Obesity Increase the Risk of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Young Adult African Americans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huan, Yonghong; DeLoach, Stephanie; Keith, Scott W; Pequignot, Edward C; Falkner, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is an interaction between hypertension and obesity that significantly increases the expression of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease...

  2. Glucose Tolerance, MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T Polymorphisms, and Global DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry African Individuals

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    Tandi E. Matsha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to quantify global DNA methylation and investigate the relationship with diabetes status and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T genes in mixed ancestry subjects from South Africa. Global DNA methylation was measured, and MTHFR rs1801133 and NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms were genotyped using high throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Of the 564 participants, 158 (28% individuals had T2DM of which 97 (17.2% were screen-detected cases. Another 119 (21.1% had prediabetes, that is, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or the combination of both, and the remainder 287 (50.9% had normal glucose tolerance. Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in prediabetes and screen-detected diabetes than in normal glucose tolerance (both p≤0.033 and in screen-detected diabetes compared to known diabetes on treatment (p=0.019. There was no difference in global DNA methylation between known diabetes on treatment and normal glucose tolerance (p>0.999. In multivariable linear regression analysis, only NOS3 was associated with increasing global DNA methylation (β=0.943; 95% CI: 0.286 to 1.560. The association of global DNA methylation with screen-detected diabetes but not treated diabetes suggests that glucose control agents to some extent may be reversing DNA methylation. The association between NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms and DNA methylation suggests gene-epigenetic mechanisms through which vascular diabetes complications develop despite adequate metabolic control.

  3. Glucose Tolerance, MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T Polymorphisms, and Global DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry African Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsha, Tandi E; Pheiffer, Carmen; Mutize, Tinashe; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify global DNA methylation and investigate the relationship with diabetes status and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T genes in mixed ancestry subjects from South Africa. Global DNA methylation was measured, and MTHFR rs1801133 and NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms were genotyped using high throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Of the 564 participants, 158 (28%) individuals had T2DM of which 97 (17.2%) were screen-detected cases. Another 119 (21.1%) had prediabetes, that is, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or the combination of both, and the remainder 287 (50.9%) had normal glucose tolerance. Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in prediabetes and screen-detected diabetes than in normal glucose tolerance (both p ≤ 0.033) and in screen-detected diabetes compared to known diabetes on treatment (p = 0.019). There was no difference in global DNA methylation between known diabetes on treatment and normal glucose tolerance (p > 0.999). In multivariable linear regression analysis, only NOS3 was associated with increasing global DNA methylation (β = 0.943; 95% CI: 0.286 to 1.560). The association of global DNA methylation with screen-detected diabetes but not treated diabetes suggests that glucose control agents to some extent may be reversing DNA methylation. The association between NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms and DNA methylation suggests gene-epigenetic mechanisms through which vascular diabetes complications develop despite adequate metabolic control.

  4. Delphinidin-Rich Maqui Berry Extract (Delphinol® Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glycemia and Insulinemia in Prediabetic Individuals during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests

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    Jorge L. Alvarado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delphinidin anthocyanins have previously been associated with the inhibition of glucose absorption. Blood glucose lowering effects have been ascribed to maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis extracts in humans after boiled rice consumption. In this study, we aimed to explore whether a standardized delphinidin-rich extract from maqui berry (Delphinol affects glucose metabolism in prediabetic humans based on glycemia and insulinemia curves obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT after a challenge with pure glucose. Volunteers underwent four consecutive OGTTs with at least one week washout period, in which different doses of Delphinol were administered one hour before glucose intake. Delphinol significantly and dose-dependently lowered basal glycemia and insulinemia. Lower doses delayed postprandial glycemic and insulinemic peaks, while higher doses reversed this tendency. Glycemia peaks were dose-dependently lowered, while insulinemia peaks were higher for the lowest dose and lower for other doses. The total glucose available in blood was unaffected by treatments, while the total insulin availability was increased by low doses and decreased by the highest dose. Taken together, these open exploratory results suggest that Delphinol could be acting through three possible mechanisms: by inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, by an incretin-mediated effect, or by improving insulin sensitivity.

  5. Hepatic glucose sensing is impaired, but can be normalized, in people with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Leigh; Færch, Kristine; Kerege, Anna A; Bacon, Samantha D; Bergman, Bryan C

    2014-07-01

    Abnormal endogenous glucose production (EGP) is a characteristic feature in people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We sought to determine whether impaired hepatic glucose sensing contributes to abnormal EGP in IFG and whether it could be experimentally restored. Glucose production (rate of appearance; Ra) and flux (glucose cycling) were assessed during a hyperglycemic-euinsulinemic somatostatin clamp with an infusion of [6,6-(2)H2-]glucose and [2-(2)H]glucose before and after enhanced hepatic glucokinase activity via an infusion of low-dose fructose in people with IFG and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). During euglycemia, neither endogenous glucose production [(6,6-(2)H2)-glucose Ra; P = 0.53] or total glucose output (TGO; [2-(2)H]-glucose Ra; P = .12) was different between groups, but glucose cycling ([2-(2)H]glucose Ra to [6,6-(2)H2-]glucose Ra; a surrogate measure of hepatic glucokinase activity in the postabsorptive state) was lower in IFG than NGT (P = .04). Hyperglycemia suppressed EGP more in NGT than IFG (P vs IFG), whereas TGO decreased similarly in both groups (P = .77). The addition of fructose completely suppressed EGP in IFG (P Glucose cycling (which reflects glucose-6-phosphatase activity during glucose infusion) was similar in IFG and NGT (P = .51) during hyperglycemia and was unchanged and comparable between groups with the addition of fructose (P = .24). In summary, glucose sensing is impaired in IFG but can be experimentally restored with low-dose fructose. Glucokinase activation may prove to be a novel strategy for the prevention of diabetes in this high-risk group.

  6. Effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, whole body glucose tolerance, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, A J; Wood, K V; Thyfault, J P; Campbell, W W

    2009-05-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3- O-methyl- D- CHIRO-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62+/-1 years, mean+/-SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Subjects consumed a non-nutritive beverage with nothing (placebo) or 1,000 mg pinitol. Sixty minutes later, the subjects consumed beverages that were either energy- and carbohydrate-free (Sham) or contained 75 g glucose (OGTT). Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min testing period. For the OGTT trials only, vastus lateralis samples were obtained before the placebo and pinitol supplementation and 60 min after consuming the 75 g glucose beverage. Plasma pinitol concentration increased and was maintained for 240 min. Pinitol did not influence the fasting state and 180-min area under the curves for plasma glucose and insulin during the Sham and OGTT trials or hepatic (placebo 0.83+/-0.08; pinitol 0.80+/-0.08) and whole-body (placebo 6.10+/-0.54; pinitol 6.22+/-0.52) insulin sensitivities. Activation of the muscle insulin receptor was increased by 140% with glucose ingestion (Pre 0.62+/-0.12; Post 1.49+/-0.35), but pinitol did not influence this response. These results show that the pinitol supplement was quickly absorbed, but did not acutely influence indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, or the activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older, nondiabetic humans.

  7. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  8. Cigarette smoking increases levels of retinol-binding protein-4 in healthy men with normal glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shan; WANG Yong-hui; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance.We investigated the serum levels of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance.Methods A total of 136 healthy male subjects (92 smokers and 44 non-smokers) with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study.Adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4,visfatin,leptin,resistin,adiponectin were measured for the comparison between the two groups.Serum lipid profile,glucose,true insulin and proinsulin levels were measured as well in both groups.Food intake spectrum was also investigated.Results Both groups had similar profile of food consumption; visfatin,leptin,resistin and adiponectin,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,as well as blood pressure and body mass index,were similar in both groups.Triglycerides,retinol-binding protein-4 and homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance were higher in smoker group ((2.58±2.53) vs.(1.60±0.94)mmol/L,(26.05±8.50) vs.(21.83±8.40) μg/ml,and 2.25±2.08 vs.1.58±1.15,respectively).Conclusion Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity,which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4.

  9. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P yam dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models.

  10. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulation in Anoxia Tolerance of the Freshwater Crayfish Orconectes virilis

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    Benjamin Lant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, the enzyme which catalyzes the rate determining step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, controls the production of nucleotide precursor molecules (R5P and powerful reducing molecules (NADPH that support multiple biosynthetic functions, including antioxidant defense. G6PDH from hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis showed distinct kinetic changes in response to 20 h anoxic exposure. Km values for both substrates decreased significantly in anoxic crayfish; Km NADP+ dropped from 0.015±0.008 mM to 0.012±0.008 mM, and Km G6P decreased from 0.13±0.02 mM to 0.08±0.007 mM. Two lines of evidence indicate that the mechanism involved is reversible phosphorylation. In vitro incubations that stimulated protein kinase or protein phosphatase action mimicked the effects on anoxia on Km values, whereas DEAE-Sephadex chromatography showed the presence of two enzyme forms (low- and high-phosphate whose proportions changed during anoxia. Incubation studies implicated protein kinase A and G in mediating the anoxia-responsive changes in G6PDH kinetic properties. In addition, the amount of G6PDH protein (measured by immunoblotting increased by ∼60% in anoxic hepatopancreas. Anoxia-induced phosphorylation of G6PDH could contribute to modifying carbon flow through the PPP under anoxic conditions, potentially maintaining NADPH supply for antioxidant defense during prolonged anoxia-induced hypometabolism.

  11. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

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    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  12. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with word memory source monitoring recollection deficits but not simple recognition familiarity deficits following water, low glycaemic load, and high glycaemic load breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Moulin, Chris A J; Dye, Louise

    2014-01-30

    It has been established that type 2 diabetes, and to some extent, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are associated with general neuropsychological impairments in episodic memory. However, the effect of abnormalities in glucose metabolism on specific retrieval processes such as source monitoring has not been investigated. The primary aim was to investigate the impact of type 2 diabetes and IGT on simple word recognition (familiarity) and complex source monitoring (recollection). A secondary aim was to examine the effect of acute breakfast glycaemic load manipulations on episodic memory. Data are presented from two separate studies; (i) 24 adults with type 2 diabetes and 12 controls aged 45-75years, (ii) 18 females with IGT and 47 female controls aged 30-50years. Controls were matched for age, IQ, BMI, waist circumference, and depression. Recognition of previously learned words and memory for specifically which list a previously learned word had appeared in (source monitoring) was examined at two test sessions during the morning after consumption of low glycaemic load, high glycaemic load and water breakfasts according to a counterbalanced, crossover design. Type 2 diabetes (p<0.05) and IGT (p<0.01) were associated with significant source monitoring recollection deficits but not impairments in familiarity. Impairments were only observed in the late postprandial stage at the second test session. These impairments were not attenuated by the breakfast glycaemic load manipulations. Isolated source monitoring recollection deficits indicate that abnormalities in glucose metabolism are not detrimental for global episodic memory processes. This enhances our understanding of how metabolic disorders are associated with memory impairments. © 2013.

  13. A cross-over study of the acute effects of espresso coffee on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jeremy D; Parry-Strong, Amber; Weatherall, Mark; Carroll, Richard W; Downie, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of a single dose of espresso caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eighteen participants who were habitual coffee drinkers, were studied using a random-order cross-over design. After a fasting blood sample participants consumed either a double-shot black espresso coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or hot water. The main outcomes were area under the curve (AUC) glucose and insulin, and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed one hour later. Other outcomes were change in glucose and insulin and also the insulinogenic index (IGI) and disposition index (DI). AUC glucose was marginally different between beverages (P=.06) being greater following caffeinated coffee than water, mean difference 104 mmol/L/180 min (95% CI 0.1 to 198.1, P=.031), or decaffeinated coffee, mean difference 92.1 mmol/L/180 min (95% CI -1.9 to 186.1, P=.055). There was no difference in AUC insulin (P=.87) or insulin sensitivity (P=.47), nor in change in glucose or insulin over the hour following beverage consumption. There was a marginal difference in IGI between beverages (P=.097) with coffee having a lower incremental increase in insulin/glucose than water (P=.037) though no difference between coffee and decaffeinated coffee (P=.54) and no difference in DI (P=.23). Black espresso coffee in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus results in a marginally greater excursion of glucose during a following OGTT compared with water or decaffeinated coffee. This effect does not appear to be mediated by changes in insulin sensitivity.

  14. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Zohre; Yang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Han; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn; Chan, Catherine B

    2015-04-01

    Pulses, including dried peas, are nutrient- and fibre-rich foods that improve glucose control in diabetic subjects compared with other fibre sources. We hypothesized feeding cooked pea seed coats to insulin-resistant rats would improve glucose tolerance by modifying gut responses to glucose and reducing stress on pancreatic islets. Glucose intolerance induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet (HFD; 10% cellulose as fibre) was followed by 3 weeks of HFD with fibre (10%) provided by cellulose, raw-pea seed coat (RP), or cooked-pea seed coat (CP). A fourth group consumed low-fat diet with 10% cellulose. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (oGTT, ipGTT) were done. CP rats had 30% and 50% lower glucose and insulin responses in oGTT, respectively, compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05) but ipGTT was not different. Plasma islet and incretin hormone concentrations were measured. α- and β-cell areas in the pancreas and density of K- and L-cells in jejunum and ileum were quantified. Jejunal expression of hexose transporters was measured. CP feeding increased fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses (P < 0.05), but K- and L-cells densities were comparable to HFD, as was abundance of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA. No significant difference in β-cell area between diet groups was observed. α-cell area was significantly smaller in CP compared with RP rats (P < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that CP feeding can reverse adverse effects of HFD on glucose homeostasis and is associated with enhanced incretin secretion and reduced α-cell abundance.

  15. Triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as screening tool for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Grugni, Graziano; Di Pietro, Mario; Balsamo, Antonio; Di Candia, Stefania; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Franzese, Adriana; Di Bonito, Procolo; Maffeis, Claudio; Valerio, Giuliana

    2016-06-01

    To identify metabolic phenotypes at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Italian overweight/obese children (n = 148, age 5-10 years) and adolescents (n = 531, age 10-17.9 year). Phenotypes were defined as follows: obesity by the 95th cut-points of the Center for Disease Control body mass index reference standards, impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl), high circulating triglycerides (TG), TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2, waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) >0.6, and combination of the latter with high TG or TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2. In the 148 obese children, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 20.19; 95 % CI 2.50-163.28, p = 0.005) and the combination of TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 and WTHR > 0.60 (OR 14.97; 95 % CI 2.18-102.76, p = 0.006) were significantly associated with IGT. In the 531 adolescents, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 1.991; 95 % CI 1.243-3.191, p = 0.004) and the combination with WTHR > 0.60 (OR 2.24; 95 % CI 1.29-3.87, p = 0.004) were associated with significantly increased risk of IGT. In the whole sample, having high TG levels according to the NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Expert Panel was not associated with an increased risk of presenting IGT. TG/HDL-C ratio can be useful, particularly in children, to identify obese young patients at risk of IGT. Its accuracy as screening tool in a general population needs to be verified. The combination of TG/HDL-C ratio and WTHR > 0.6 did not improve prediction. Having high TG according to the NIH definition was not associated with increased risk of developing IGT.

  16. Systemic effects of epidural methylprednisolone injection on glucose tolerance in diabetic patients

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    Zufferey Pascal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that in diabetic patients, the glycemic profile was disturbed after intra-articular injection of corticosteroids. Little is known about the impact of epidural injection in such patients. The goal of this study was double, at first comparing the glycaemic profile in diabetic patients after a unique injection of 80 mg of acetate methylprednisolone either intra-articular or epidural and secondly to compare the amount of systemic diffusion of the drug after both procedures. Methods Seventeen patients were included. Glycemic changes were compared in 9 diabetic patients following intra-articular (4 patients and epidural injections (5 patients. Epidural injections were performed using the sacral route under fluoroscopic control in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes control had to stable for more than 10 days and the renal function to be preserved. Blood glucose was monitored using a validated continuous measuring device (GMS, Medtronic the day before and for two days following the injection. Results were expressed in the form of daily glycemic profiles and as by mean, peak and minimal values +/- SD. The urinary excretion of methylprednisolone after the 2 routes of injection was analyzed in 8 patients (4 in each group. Urine samples were cropped one hour before the injections, then 4 times during the first day and 3 times a week for 2 weeks. The measurements included the free and conjugated fraction Results The glycaemic profile remains unchanged with no significant changes in the group of the 5 diabetic patients receiving epidural injections. On the other end, the average peak and and mean values were enhanced up to 3 mmol/l above baseline two days after the infiltration in the groups of the 4 diabetic patients infiltrated intra-articular. The mean urinary excretion of the steroid was about ten times higher in the intra-articular versus epidural group: 7000 ng/ml versus 700 ng/ml. Looking at

  17. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wara, Allison; Hunsucker, Sara; Bove, Krystal; Backus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6) were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg) or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg) in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03) food intake (- 22%) but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03) by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  18. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wara

    Full Text Available Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6 were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03 food intake (- 22% but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03 by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  19. Knockdown of neuropeptide Y in the dorsomedial hypothalamus reverses high-fat diet-induced obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in rats.

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    Kim, Yonwook J; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays an important role in the regulation of energy balance. While DMH NPY overexpression causes hyperphagia and obesity in rats, knockdown of NPY in the DMH via adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated RNAi (AAVshNPY) ameliorates these alterations. Whether this knockdown has a therapeutic effect on obesity and glycemic disorder has yet to be determined. The present study sought to test this potential using a rat model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance, mimicking human obesity with impaired glucose homeostasis. Rats had ad libitum access to rodent regular chow (RC) or HFD. Six weeks later, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for verifying HFD-induced glucose intolerance. After verification, obese rats received bilateral DMH injections of AAVshNPY or the control vector AAVshCTL, and OGTT and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed at 16 and 18 wk after viral injection (23 and 25 wk on HFD), respectively. Rats were killed at 26 wk on HFD. We found that AAVshCTL rats on HFD remained hyperphagic, obese, glucose intolerant, and insulin resistant relative to lean control RC-fed rats receiving DMH injection of AAVshCTL, whereas these alterations were reversed in NPY knockdown rats fed a HFD. NPY knockdown rats exhibited normal food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, as seen in lean control rats. Together, these results demonstrate a therapeutic action of DMH NPY knockdown against obesity and impaired glucose homeostasis in rats, providing a potential target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

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    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  1. Association Between Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels with Risk of Insulin Resistance and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Non-diabetic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ying Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a well known risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently discovered adipocyte-derived proteins (leptin and adiponectin might contribute to the pathologic mechanism linking obesity and insulin resistance. A total of 190 non-diabetic women were recruited from the Obesity Clinic of Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2003 and February 2004. All participants completed a simple questionnaire. Blood pressure and body mass index were measured; blood samples for fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, adiponectin, and fasting insulin level were collected after an overnight fast. Two-hour glucose level after a 75-g glucose tolerance test was determined. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated as the index of insulin resistance. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between adipocytokines and insulin resistance after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Leptin and adiponectin were found to be independently associated with HOMA-IR and fasting insulin concentration, but in divergent directions, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Adiponectin, but not leptin, was associated with impaired glucose tolerance after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The results suggest that leptin and adiponectin may be involved in the pathophysiologic link between obesity and insulin resistance independently. Low levels of adiponectin may increase the risks of developing impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes.

  2. A high-fat diet reverses improvement in glucose tolerance induced by duodenal-jejunal bypass in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shao-zhuang; SUN Dong; ZHANG Guang-yong; WANG Lei; LIU Teng; SUN Yu; LI Ming-xia; HU San-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery offers successful resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).However,recurrence of T2DM has been observed in a number of patients with initial resolution after bariatric surgery.This study aimed to induce reversal of the improvement of diabetes in T2DM rats after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB),and identify the effects of weight changes and gut hormones that might be involved.Methods DJB surgery was performed in two T2DM rat models (n=20 for each group):non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats,and moderately-obese T2DM rats induced by a combination of a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (HS rats).The controls were sham-operated and non-treated rats.All rats were then randomly divided into HFD- and low-fat diet (LFD)-fed groups.Glucose tolerance,insulin tolerance,glucose-stimulated insulin,glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) secretion,food intake and body weight were measured and compared with controls.Results DJB surgery resulted in a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in both GK and HS rats fed with either HFD or LFD.In contrast to LFD-fed rats,improved glucose tolerance was impaired in GK and HS rats fed with an HFD,accompanied by re-impairment of insulin tolerance and failure in enhancement of insulin secretion.There was no significant difference in food intake and body weight between DJB-operated and control rats,and between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and PYY levels were significantly increased after DJB surgery; however,they were not significantly different between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Conclusion An HFD reverses the improvement in glucose tolerance induced by DJB surgery in T2DM rats,primarily ascribing to the re-impairment of insulin sensitivity,but does not change body weight,GLP-1 and PYY levels.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K. H. Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider’s perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880.

  4. 糖耐量减低的危险因素%Risk Factors of the Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文清

    2001-01-01

    糖耐量减低(Impaired glucose tolerance,IGT)是发生Ⅱ型糖尿病的必经阶段.它的发生与遗传易感性及环境因素有关,是多因素综合作用的结果.现比较公认的危险因素有增龄、肥胖、遗传因素、体力活动过少、饮食习惯不良等.近期一些研究提出出生时低体重、绝经期妇女的雄激素水平等也是IGT的危险因素.有目的地针对可能导致IGT的危险因素进行防治,及时在人群中筛检出IGT,对减少或延缓DM的发生具有重要意义.

  5. Analysis of glucose tolerance screening and its influence factors of 2 306 pregnant women%2306例孕妇糖耐量筛查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马轶

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解妊娠期糖代谢异常的发生率,探讨其相关因素,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法:对2 306例孕妇进行50 g葡萄糖筛查试验(GCT),50 g GCT结果≥7.8 mmol/L再行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)明确诊断,将临床资料进行统计分析.结果:妊娠期50 g GCT阳性率20.77%.其中葡萄耐量降低发生率4.16%,妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)检出率3.64%.高龄、孕前肥胖及糖尿病家族史为妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关因素.结论:GDM母儿并发症多,50 g GCT对GDM的及时发现和管理具有重要的意义.妊娠期糖耐量异常的发生率与孕妇的年龄、孕前体重指数及糖尿病家族史相关.做好孕前保健工作,按时对孕妇进行50 g GCT检测,特别是对GDM高危孕妇的筛查与管理有非常重要的临床意义.%Objective; To understand the incidence of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism, discuss its related factors, and provide scientific basis to intervention measures. Methods; 2 306 pregnant women were detecting by Sog glucose screening test ( GOT) , the pregnant women whose GCT result ≥7. 8 mmol/L were diagnosed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), then the clinical data were statistically analyzed . Results; The positive rate of 50g glucose screening test was 20. 77% , the incidence of lower glucose tolerance was 4. 16% , the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was 3. 64%. The senility, obesity before gestation and family diabetes history ware related factors of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism. Conclusion; The complications are a lot for the maternal and fetal with GDM. Sog GCT has a vital significance to GDMs timely discovery and management The incidence of abnormal gestation glucose tolerance is related to age, body mass index before gestation and family diabetes history of pregnant women. Its very important for screening and management of pregnant women with GDM to care before gestation, do GCT detection timely.

  6. Acute disruption of glucagon secretion or action does not improve glucose tolerance in an insulin-deficient mouse model of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Vivi R.; Jensen, Signe Marie; Pedersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    receptor antagonism, in order to evaluate the effect of these on glucose tolerance. Methods: Severe diabetes was induced in transgenic and wild-type mice by streptozotocin. Glucose metab. was investigated using OGTT in transgenic mice with the human diphtheria toxin receptor expressed in proglucagon...... producing cells allowing for diphtheria toxin (DT)-induced alpha cell ablation and in mice treated with either a specific high affinity glucagon antibody or a specific glucagon receptor antagonist. Results: Near-total alpha cell elimination was induced in transgenic mice upon DT administration and resulted...

  7. Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into non-absorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Jin, J Y; Baek, W K; Park, S H; Sung, H Y; Kim, Y K; Lee, J; Song, D K

    2009-12-01

    Prolonged postprandial hyperglycemia is a detrimental factor for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The benefit of green tea extract (GTE) consumption still requires confirmation. We report the effects of circulating green tea catechins on blood glucose and insulin levels. Oral glucose loading 1 h after GTE ingestion in humans led to higher blood glucose and insulin levels than in control subjects. Gallated catechins were required for these effects, although within the intestinal lumen they have been known to decrease glucose and cholesterol absorption. Treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate hindered 2-deoxyglucose uptake into liver, fat, pancreatic beta-cell, and skeletal muscle cell lines. The glucose intolerance was ameliorated by gallated catechin-deficient GTE or GTE mixed with polyethylene glycol, which was used as an inhibitor of intestinal absorption of gallated catechins. These findings may suggest that the gallated catechin when it is in the circulation elevates blood glucose level by blocking normal glucose uptake into the tissues, resulting in secondary hyperinsulinemia, whereas it decreases glucose entry into the circulation when they are inside the intestinal lumen. These findings encourage the development of non-absorbable derivatives of gallated catechins for preventative treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which would specifically induce only the positive luminal effect.

  8. Insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and differences in curves of plasma glucose and insulin in the intermediate points of the standard glucose tolerance test in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; González Albarrán, Olga; Guisado Vasco, Pablo; Lamas Ferreiro, Adelaida; Máiz Carro, Luis

    2015-02-01

    diabetes has become a co-morbidity with a negative impact on nutritional status, lung function and survival in cystic fibrosis. To identify any changes in intermediate points after a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and insulin resistance in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. It was carried out a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 64 patients affected of cystic fibrosis, older than 14 years, using the first pathological OGTT. Peripheral insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA- IR), and pancreatic β-cell function was calculated according to Wareham. Time to maximum plasma insulin and glucose levels and area under the curve (AUC0-120) were also measured. Twenty-eight women and 36 men with a mean age of 26.8 years were enrolled, of whom 26.7% had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 18.3% cystic fibrosis-related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia (CFRD w/o FPG), 10% indeterminate (INDET), and 45% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). HOMA-IR values were not significantly different between the diagnostic categories. Patients with any pathological change had worse β cell function, with a significant delay in insulin secretion, although there were no differences in total insulin production (AUC0-120). Time to maximum glucose levels was significantly shorter in NGT patients as compared to other categories, with glucose AUC0-120 being higher in the different diagnostic categories as compared to NGT. In over half the cases, peak blood glucose levels during a standard OGTT are reached in the intermediate time points, rather than at the usual time of 120minutes. Patients with cystic fibrosis and impaired glucose metabolism have a delayed insulin secretion during the standard OGTT due to loss of first-phase insulin secretion, with no differences in total insulin production. Absence of significant changes in HOMA-IR suggests that β-cell dysfunction is the main pathogenetic

  9. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced beta-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)-treated minipig, using the DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg). VP did not significantly affect...

  10. Investigation and analysis of risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnant women%妊娠期糖代谢异常相关因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红媛; 刘春燕

    2014-01-01

    [ study group , including 75 cases with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 33 with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT)] and 91 normal pregnant women ( control group ) recruited from April to September of 2011 in Zhuhai Maternity and Child Health Hospital .Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy .Results The mean age , body mass index ( BMI ) before pregnancy , maternal weight gains during pregnancy , gravidity and parity were significantly different between study group and control group ( t value was -6.567, -4.818, -1.929, -3.231 and-3.270, respectively, all P<0.05).The proportion of study group with lower education than senior high school was significantly higher than that of control group (χ2 =5.642,P<0.05).Univariate analysis showed that many factors were related with abnormal glucose metabolism, including gravidity, parity, education background, age≥30 years, BMI≥24kg/m2 before pregnancy, diabetes family history, bad pregnancy or reproduction history , hypertriglyceridemia , recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis ( VVC) history, craving for sweets , large amount of fruits and exercise during pregnancy .Multivariate logistic regression showed that seven factors came into main effect model , including craving for sweets during pregnancy , craving for fruits during pregnancy , diabetes family history , BMI≥24kg/m2 before pregnancy, VCC, age≥30 years and exercise during pregnancy .All were risk factors except exercise.Conclusion Poor eating habits, family history of diabetes , over weight before gestation , maternal age≥30 and recurrent VCC are high risk factors for gestational abnormal glucose metabolism .Exercise during pregnancy is protective factor .More guidance should be provided for the pregnant women with the above high risk factors during antenatal care visits .

  11. 冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆Ghrelin水平及临床意义%Plasma ghrelin level in patients with coronary heart disease with abnormal glucose metabolism and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞军刚; 徐新; 唐良秋; 张社兵; 江志平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆胃饥饿素(Ghrelin)水平及其相关临床意义.方法:将纳入研究对象依据相关检验及检查结果分为正常对照组、冠心病组(冠心病糖代谢正常组和冠心病糖代谢异常组)、单纯糖代谢异常组.收集所有入选对象人院第2天清晨空腹血样,采用ELISA方法同批检测血浆Ghrelin水平.结果:①冠心病组及单纯糖代谢异常组血浆Ghrelin水平均显著低于正常对照组.②冠心病糖代谢异常组血浆Ghrelin水平显著低于冠心病糖代谢正常组及单纯糖代谢异常组.③析因分析结果显示:冠心病与糖代谢异常在对血浆Ghrelin水平影响方面不存在交互作用.然而,糖代谢异常比冠心病对血浆Ghrelin水平的影响更明显.结论:冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆Ghrelin水平显著下降,且糖代谢异常对Ghrelin的影响更明显.%AIM: To study plasma ghrelin level distribution in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) with abnormal glucose metabolism and to discuss its clinical significance. METHODS; According to laboratory examination results, subjects were divided into control group, coronary heart disease with normal glucose metabolism group, coronary heart disease with abnormal glucose metabolism group and abnormal glucose metabolism group. Fasting blood samples were collected the morning after admission with EDTA-2K anticoagulation tubes. Blood samples were then transferred to centrifuge tubes containing aprotinin and were centrifuged to extract plasma for cryopreservation. All blood plasma ghrelin levels were tested with ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with those in control group, ghrelin levels were significantly reduced in the group with CHD with normal glucose metabolism, group of CHD with abnormal glucose metabolism and group with abnormal glucose metabolism. Compared with those in the group of CHD with normal glucose metabolism, levels of ghrelin were significantly reduced in patients with

  12. Growth phase effect on the dark anaerobic hydrogen production in the glucose tolerant mutant of unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adipa Chongsuksantikul*

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study has examined the effect of growth phase on hydrogenproduction from cells of a glucose tolerant mutant of Synechocystissp. strain PCC6803. The extracellular products including hydrogen,lactate and acetate from cyanobacteria cells in dark anaerobicnitrate-free solution, yielded different excretory profiles dependingon which growth phases were prepared from photosynthesis. Theamount of hydrogen generated cells prepared from stationary phasewas highest in HEPES buffer and nitrate-free solution, darkanaerobic condition.

  13. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler;

    2003-01-01

    for the Leu162Val variant had, on average, a 20% decrease in fasting serum triglyceride levels (P=0.014). This finding was replicated in middle-aged subjects (P=0.023). The Leu162Val polymorphism was not related to alterations in insulin sensitivity, insulin release or level of glycaemia. In conclusion......, the Leu162Val polymorphism of PPARalpha is associated with a decreased level of fasting serum triglyceride in glucose tolerant white subjects....

  14. 妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关危险因素分析%Risk Factors of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Gestation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代明甫; 李倩; 钟思燕; 杨霜雪; 邬小臣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in gestation period, and provide the theory basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM ) . Method:A case-control study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with clinically confirmed gestational abnormal glucose metabolism as study group, and 100 pregnant women of same gestational weeks with normal glucose metabolism as control group from Jun.2011 to May 2014.The general information, gestational mate-rials and behaviors of the two groups were investigated and the risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in gestation period were analyzed.Result:Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes family history ( OR =2.398, 95%CI 1.042~5.012) , age was more than 28 years ( OR=1.413, 95%CI 1.322~4. 352) , BMI>24 ( OR=6.543, 95%CI 0.782~2.320) , abortion history ( OR=0.212, 95%CI 0.025~2. 256) , smoking history ( OR=0.246, 95%CI 0.045~3.452) were the risk factor of GDM morbidity.Con-clusion:Pregnant women with diabetes family history,>28 years, BMI>24,history of abortion and smoking should undergo gestational diabetes screening during early trimester of pregency.%目的:探讨妇女妊娠期糖代谢异常分布情况及发病的相关危险因素,为预防和控制妊娠期糖尿病提供理论依据。方法:以我院2011年6月至2014年5月保健门诊确诊的妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇100例为病例组,以糖代谢正常及孕周相同的孕产妇100例为对照组。调查两组孕产妇一般情况,分析妊娠期糖代谢异常相关因素。结果:Logistic回归分析发现糖尿病遗传史( OR=2.398,95%, CI:1.042~5.012)、年龄>28岁( OR=1.413,95%,CI:1.322~4.352)、体质指数>24( OR=6.543,95%, CI:0.782~2.320)、流产史( OR=0.212,95%,CI:0.025~2.256)、吸烟史( OR=0.246,95%,CI:0.045~3.452)是妊娠

  15. Glycemic and Metabolic Effects of Two Long Bouts of Moderate-Intensity Exercise in Men with Normal Glucose Tolerance or Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Reza Eshghi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe glycemic and insulinemic responses following 30–60 min of exercise have been extensively studied, and a dose–response has been proposed between exercise duration, or volume, and improvements in glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. However, few studies have examined the effects of longer bouts of exercise in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Longer bouts may have a greater potential to affect glucagon, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and incretin hormones [i.e., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP].AimTo examine the effect of two bouts of long-duration, moderate-intensity exercise on incretins, glucagon, and IL-6 responses before and after exercise, as well as in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT conducted the following day.MethodsTwelve men, six with and six without T2D, participated in two separate conditions (i.e., exercise vs. rest according to a randomized crossover design. On day 1, participants either rested or performed two 90 min bouts of treadmill exercise (separated by 3.5 h at 80% of their ventilatory threshold. All participants received standardized meals on day 1. On day 2 of each condition, glucose and hormonal responses were measured during a 4-h OGTT.ResultsOn day 1, exercise increased IL-6 at the end of the first bout of exercise (exercise by time interaction p = 0.03 and GIP overall (main effect of exercise p = 0.004. Glucose was reduced to a greater extent in T2D following exercise (exercise by T2D interaction p = 0.03. On day 2, GIP and active GLP-1 were increased in the fasting state (p = 0.05 and p = 0.03, respectively, while plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations were reduced during the OGTT (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively in the exercise compared to the rest condition for both healthy controls and T2D. Postprandial glucose was elevated in T2D compared to healthy control (p < 0.05 but was not affected by exercise

  16. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei;

    2011-01-01

    GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study...... was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  17. The effect of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on glucose tolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Vedtofte, Louise; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R;

    2013-01-01

    ). The disease normally disappears after delivery. Nevertheless, women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. We aim to investigate the early development of T2D in women with previous GDM and to evaluate whether treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor...... (GLP-1R) agonist, liraglutide, may modify their risk of developing T2D. METHODS AND ANALYSES: 100 women with previous GDM will be randomised to either liraglutide or placebo treatment for 1 year (blinded) with an open-label extension for another 4 years. Additionally, 15 women without previous GDM...... will constitute a baseline control group. Women will be tested with an oral glucose tolerance test (primary endpoint: area under the curve for plasma glucose) and an isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion at baseline, after 1 year and after 5 years. Additional evaluations include a glucagon test, dual-energy X...

  18. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    the transition from the prediabetic states to overt type 2 diabetes is characterised by a non-reversible vicious cycle that includes severe deleterious effects on glucose metabolism, there are good reasons to use the well-established aetiological and pathophysiological differences in i-IFG, i-IGT and IFG......Prior to the development of type 2 diabetes, glucose levels increase into the prediabetic states of isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), or combined IFG/IGT. A better understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology of the prediabetic states...... might give a basis for the development of individualised prevention and treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. Several studies have examined mechanisms and potential aetiological factors leading to the development of the different prediabetic states. The pathophysiology of i-IFG seems to include...

  19. Perceived psychosocial stress and glucose intolerance among pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M L; Whitcomb, B W; Pekow, P; Braun, B; Markenson, G; Dole, N; Manson, J E; Solomon, C G; Carbone, E T; Chasan-Taber, L

    2014-12-01

    Prior literature suggests a positive association between psychosocial stress and the risk of diabetes in non-pregnant populations, but studies during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the relationship between stress and glucose intolerance among 1115 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study in Western Massachusetts (2006-2011). Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was administered in early (mean = 12.3 weeks gestation; range 4.1-18 weeks) and mid- (mean = 21.3 weeks gestation; range 18.1-26 weeks) pregnancy. Participants were classified as having a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance, based on the degree of abnormality on glucose tolerance testing between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance was 4.1%, 7.2%, and 14.5%, respectively. Absolute levels of early or mid-pregnancy stress were not significantly associated with glucose intolerance. However, participants with an increase in stress from early to mid-pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (95% confidence intervals: 1.0-6.9) as compared to those with no change or a decrease in stress after adjusting for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index. In addition, every one-point increase in stress scores was associated with a 5.5mg/dL increase in screening glucose level (β=5.5; standard deviation=2.8; P=0.05), after adjusting for the same variables. In this population of predominantly Puerto Rican women, stress patterns during pregnancy may influence the risk of glucose intolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Impaired oral glucose tolerance and influencing factors in patients with impaired fasting glucose%空腹血糖受损患者糖耐量异常及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左惠芬; 刘冬青; 商晓丽; 张燕; 许丽丽; 林运

    2014-01-01

    Objective To get to know the status of impaired oral glucose tolerance (IGT) and influencing factors in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Methods IFG patients (n=337, FPG being 5.6 mmol/L-6.1 mmol/L) were chosen and their data of age, sex, diabetes family history, height, weight, waistline, blood pressure and blood fat were collected. The level of blood glucose was detected after patients taken 75 g glucose for 2 h, and the status of IGT and influencing factors were analyzed. Results Among 337 IFG patients 46.6%of them (157/337) had IGT. The proportion of overweight and obesity was 75.0%in abnormal group and 63.1%in normal group (P<0.05). The level of triglyceride (TG) was higher and level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was lower in abnormal group compared with normal group (P<0.05). The multi-factor Logistic regression analysis showed that age, body mass index (BMI) and TG level were influencing factors of IGT, and relative risk was, respectively, 1.06 (95%CI:1.03-1.08), 1.11 (95%CI:1.05-119) and 1.58 (95%CI:1.23-2.09). The further analysis on influencing factors in IFG patients with normal weight showed that, besides of age, TG level was a influencing factor of IGT and relative risk was 2.10 (95%CI:1.29-3.43). Conclusion There are about half of IFG patients with IGT, and BMI and TG level are influencing factors of IGT.%目的:了解空腹血糖受损(IFG)患者糖耐量异常(IGT)情况及其影响因素。方法纳入空腹血糖为5.6~6.1 mmol/L的IFG患者337例,检测患者口服75克葡萄糖后2小时血糖等资料,分析患者IGT情况及其影响因素。结果纳入的337例IFG患者中46.6%(157/337)伴有IGT。口服葡萄糖耐量异常和正常组超重和肥胖率分别为75.0%和63.1%(P<0.05);口服葡萄糖耐量异常组甘油三酯水平显著高于正常组,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平低于正常组,均有统计学差异(P<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析结

  1. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeilly Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise. The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p p p p p > 0.05. These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished.

  2. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Andrea M; Davison, Gareth W; Murphy, Marie H; Nadeem, Nida; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Novials, Anna; McEneny, Jane

    2011-11-22

    Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p decreased following exercise training (p 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished.

  3. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished. PMID:22107734

  4. Plasma total oxidant and antioxidant status after oral glucose tolerance and mixed meal tests in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukaydın, Zehra; Duran, Cevdet; Basaran, Mustafa; Camlica, Fatos; Erdem, Sami Said; Basaran, Ahmet; Kutlu, Orkide; Burnik, Ferda Sevimli; Elmas, Halis; Gonen, Mustafa Sait

    2016-10-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and increased oxidative stress (OS) are the characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and mixed meal tests (MMT) on plasma total oxidant (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in patients with PCOS and the relationship between these parameters and IR, calculated via homeostasis of model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda's insulin sensitivity index (ISI) derived from OGTT and MMT. Twenty-two patients with PCOS, and age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched 20 women as controls were enrolled into the study. Five-hour OGTT and MMT were performed on different days, and before and after these tests, plasma TOS and TAS levels were investigated. IR was calculated with HOMA-IR and Matsuda's ISI. HOMA-IR levels were higher in patients with PCOS, compared to controls, while Matsuda's ISI derived from OGTT and MMT was higher in controls. Plasma TOS levels before OGTT and MMT were higher in patients with PCOS than controls, while TAS levels were similar. After OGTT, plasma TOS levels became decreased at 5th hour, when compared to baseline values in PCOS group. Likewise, the same decrement was found in controls, but the decrement was not significant. After OGTT and MMT at 5th hour, no changes were observed in TAS levels, compared to baseline. Matsuda's ISIs derived from OGTT and MMT can be used instead of each other, and interestingly, we found a decrease in TOS levels after OGTT in patients with PCOS.

  5. Circulating omentin-1 levels and its association with insulin resistance in newly diagnosed impaired glucose tolerant subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue derived a novel adipokine; omentin -1, w hich has recently been characterized as a potent insulin-sensitizing agent, but its pathophysiologic role in the development of insulin resistance among the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT su bjects remains largely unknow n. The present study has been undertaken to explore the relationship of serum omentin -1 w ith insulin resistance in new ly diagnosed IGT subjects of Bangladeshi population. Fifty-five subjects w ith IGT and 50 (age, sex and body m ass index (BMI matched healthy control subjects w ere recruited in this study. Serum insulin and omentin-1 w ere measured by the ELISA technique. Insulin resistance (IR w as calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. HOMA-IR w as significantly higher (p < 0.001 as w ell as log transformed omentin-1 w as significantly low er (p = 0.031 in IGT subjects compared to the control. Pearson′s correlation analysis show ed a significant negative correlation of log omentin -1 w ith HOMA-IR (r = -0.290, p = 0.008 in all subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis show ed a significant negative association of HOMA-IR w ith log omentin-1 (β = -0.285, p = 0.017 in IGT subjects after adjusting the effects of potential confounders of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and triglyceride (TG. Binary logistic regression analysis show ed that log omentin-1 [odds ratio (OR = 0.631, p = 0.038] and HOMA-IR (OR = 1.998, p = 0.029 w ere found to be significant determinants of IGT after adjusting the effect of HbA1c and TG. Serum concentration of omentin-1 is decreased in the state of insulin resistance of IGT subjects and this reduction seemed to be mediated by adiposity and hyperglycemia among these subjects.

  6. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet increases weight gain and does not improve glucose tolerance, insulin secretion or β-cell mass in NZO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, B J; Waters, M F; Andrikopoulos, S

    2016-02-15

    Dietary guidelines for the past 20 years have recommended that dietary fat should be minimized. In contrast, recent studies have suggested that there could be some potential benefits for reducing carbohydrate intake in favor of increased fat. It has also been suggested that low-carbohydrate diets be recommended for people with type 2 diabetes. However, whether such diets can improve glycemic control will likely depend on their ability to improve β-cell function, which has not been studied. The objective of the study was to assess whether a low-carbohydrate and therefore high-fat diet (LCHFD) is beneficial for improving the endogenous insulin secretory response to glucose in prediabetic New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice. NZO mice were maintained on either standard rodent chow or an LCHFD from 6 to 15 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and blood glucose were assessed weekly. Blood glucose and insulin levels were also assessed after fasting and re-feeding and during an oral glucose tolerance test. The capacity of pancreatic β-cells to secrete insulin was assessed in vivo with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. β-Cell mass was assessed in histological sections of pancreata collected at the end of the study. In NZO mice, an LCHFD reduced plasma triglycerides (P=0.001) but increased weight gain (Ptissue mass (P=0.0015), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.044) and exacerbated glucose intolerance (P=0.013). Although fasting insulin levels tended to be higher (P=0.08), insulin secretory function in LCHFD-fed mice was not improved (P=0.93) nor was β-cell mass (P=0.75). An LCHFD is unlikely to be of benefit for preventing the decline in β-cell function associated with the progression of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

  7. Newly diagnosed glucose intolerance and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction: comparison of post-challenge versus fasting glucose concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minako; Takagi, Tsutomu; Yamamuro, Atsushi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that newly diagnosed glucose intolerance is common among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term clinical cardiovascular outcomes in participants with AMI with abnormal fasting glucose compared with normal fasting glucose and an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared with a normal OGTT. Methods A prospective study was performed in 275 consecutive patients with AMI, 85 of whom had pre-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM). Those without DM were divided into two groups based on the 75 g OGTT at the time of discharge. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) was defined as 2 h glucose ≥140 mg/dl; 78 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 112 had AGT. The same patients were also reclassified into the normal fasting glucose group (NFG; n=168) or the impaired fasting glucose group (IFG; n=22). The association between the glucometabolic status and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event rates was evaluated. Results Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the AGT group had a worse prognosis than the NGT group and an equivalent prognosis to the DM group (p<0.0005). Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that the HR of AGT to NGT for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 2.65 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.15, p=0.004) while the HR of DM to NGT was 3.27 (1.68 to 6.38, p=0.0005). However, Cox HR of IFG to NFG for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 1.83 (0.86 to 3.87), which was not significant. Conclusion In patients with AMI, an abnormal OGTT is a better risk factor for future adverse cardiovascular events than impaired fasting blood glucose. PMID:22581733

  8. Steroid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are both associated with a progressive decline of incretin effect in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D H; Aaboe, K; Henriksen, J E;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the separate impact of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on the incretin effect. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a 75 g OGTT, an isoglycaemic i.......v. glucose test and a mixed meal to evaluate the incretin effect before and after treatment with dexamethasone to increase insulin resistance. Beta cell glucose sensitivity, beta cell index and fasting proinsulin were measured as indices of beta cell function. RESULTS: After dexamethasone, ten individuals...... had increased insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance (NGT), while 11 individuals with an equal increase in insulin resistance developed IGT. In the NGT and IGT groups, the incretin effects were 71¿±¿3.2% and 67¿±¿4.6% (p¿=¿0.4) before treatment, but decreased significantly in both groups...

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of different oils during the first or second half of pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Litten, J C; Dodds, P F; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-07-01

    Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.

  10. Effects of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on fetal body mass and incidence of neonatal complications%妊娠期糖代谢异常对胎儿体质量及新生儿并发症发生率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李女好; 林碧绿; 曾胤; 庄泽吟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy on the incidence of fetal body mass and neonatal complications.Methods Oral 50g glucose challenge test (GCT