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Sample records for abnormal glucose tolerance

  1. Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Ma, G.; Zhai, F.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Yang, X.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Inf

  2. Noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance

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    Edward L. Hull, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The ENGINE study evaluated noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. The AGT detection performance of SFS was compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG and hemoglobin A1C (A1C. The study was a head-to-head comparison of SFS to FPG and A1C in an at-risk population of 507 subjects, with no prior diagnosis of diabetes, each of whom received a 75 g, two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Subjects were measured by SFS on multiple days in fasting and non-fasting states. SFS data were acquired and analyzed with the SCOUT DS® device (VeraLight, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. Sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR, ROC area, and equal error rate (EER for detection of AGT were computed. The reproducibility of SFS and FPG was assessed. The AGT sensitivity of SFS at the device's recommended screening threshold of 50 was 75.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 5.6 mmol/L or 6.1 mmol/L and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% or 6.0%. The SFS FPR was 42.1%, comparable to an A1C threshold of 5.7% (FPR = 43.5%. The EERs of SFS, FPG and A1C were similar, as were the partial ROC areas for FPRs of 20–50%. The reproducibility of SFS was 7.7% versus 8.1% for FPG. SFS had similar AGT detection performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable alternative to screening individuals for AGT.

  3. Value of fructosamine measurement in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kui; YANG Hui-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background The concentration of serum fructosamine is correlated with plasma glucose level. The aim of this study was to determine whether the level of serum fructosamine can be diagnostic for abnormal glucose tolerance in pregnant women.Methods Serum samples were collected from 161 pregnant women between November 2004 and April 2005.The women were divided into three groups according to the gestational age (16-20 weeks group, 56 patients; 28-34 weeks group, 72; and 37-41 weeks group, 33). Each group was subdivided into normal and abnormal glucose tolerance subgroups. The levels of serum fructosamine were measured. Differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Correlations between the level of fructosamine and other variables including the results of glucose challenge test (GCT), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test, and infant's birth weight were analyzed by Pearson correlation.Results The level of serum fructosamine decreased with gestational age [(223.25 ±48.90) μmol/L, (98.44±29.57)μmol/L, and (53.99±29.94) μmol/L, respectively. P<0.05]. It was higher in women with abnormal glucose tolerance than that in women with normal glucose tolerance, however, the difference reached statistical significance only in the 28-34 weeks group (P<0.05). In this group, the level of serum fructosamine correlated positively with the GCT result (r=0.28, P<0.05). No correlation was found between fructosamine level and OGTT result, HbA1c level, or neonatal weight.Conclusions Fructosamine can be used to monitor the glucose level of pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance, and to identify the patients at high risk of abnormal glucose tolerance, but can not be used to predict gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early stage of pregnancy.

  4. The Role of Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Insulin Sensitivity, Beta Cell Function, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

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    Lou Rose Malamug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection, for example, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, has been thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Our aim was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in glucose metabolism in an American cohort. We examined data from 4,136 non-Hispanic white (NHW, non-Hispanic black (NHB, and Mexican Americans (MA aged 18 and over from the NHANES 1999-2000 cohort. We calculated the odds ratios for states of glucose tolerance based on the H. pylori status. We calculated and compared homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-B in subjects without diabetes based on the H. pylori status. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI, poverty index, education, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and physical activity. The H. pylori status was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance. After adjustment for age and BMI and also adjustment for all covariates, no difference was found in either HOMA-IR or HOMA-B in all ethnic and gender groups except for a marginally significant difference in HOMA-IR in NHB females. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor for abnormal glucose tolerance, nor plays a major role in insulin resistance or beta cell dysfunction.

  5. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricò, Domenico; Baldi, Simona; Frascerra, Silvia; Venturi, Elena; Marraccini, Paolo; Neglia, Danilo; Natali, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT). In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT) and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT), and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT), we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min), and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p equivalents, p metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217.

  6. Abnormal Glucose Tolerance Is Associated with a Reduced Myocardial Metabolic Flexibility in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Domenico Tricò

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by a metabolic shift from fat to carbohydrates and failure to increase myocardial glucose uptake in response to workload increments. We verified whether this pattern is influenced by an abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. In 10 patients with DCM, 5 with normal glucose tolerance (DCM-NGT and 5 with AGT (DCM-AGT, and 5 non-DCM subjects with AGT (N-AGT, we measured coronary blood flow and arteriovenous differences of oxygen and metabolites during Rest, Pacing (at 130 b/min, and Recovery. Myocardial lactate exchange and oleate oxidation were also measured. At Rest, DCM patients showed a reduced nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA myocardial uptake, while glucose utilization increased only in DCM-AGT. In response to Pacing, glucose uptake promptly rose in N-AGT (from 72 ± 21 to 234 ± 73 nmol/min/g, p<0.05, did not change in DCM-AGT, and slowly increased in DCM-NGT. DCM-AGT sustained the extra workload by increasing NEFA oxidation (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 2.9 ± 0.1 μmol/min/gO2 equivalents, p<0.05, while DCM-NGT showed a delayed increase in glucose uptake. Substrate oxidation rates paralleled the metabolites data. The presence of AGT in patients with DCM exacerbates both the shift from fat to carbohydrates in resting myocardial metabolism and the reduced myocardial metabolic flexibility in response to an increased workload. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02440217.

  7. Clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and obesity in Malaysian adult population.

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    Lim, T O; Ding, L M; Zaki, M; Merican, I; Kew, S T; Maimunah, A H; Rozita, H H; Rugayah, B

    2000-06-01

    We determine the prevalence and determinants of clustering of hypertension, abnormal glucose tolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and overweight in Malaysia. A national probability sample of 17,392 individuals aged 30 years or older had usable data. 61% of adults had at least one risk factor, 27% had 2 or more risk factors. The observed frequency of 4 factors cluster was 6 times greater than that expected by chance. Indian and Malay women were at particular high risk of risk factors clustering. Individuals with a risk factor had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of other risk factors. Ordinal regression analyses show that higher income, urban residence and physical inactivity were independently associated with risk factors clustering, lending support to the hypotheses that risk factors clustering is related to lifestyle changes brought about by modernisation and urbanisation. In conclusion, risk factor clustering is highly prevalent among Malaysian adults. Treatment and prevention programme must emphasise the multiple risk factor approach.

  8. The Impact of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance and Obesity on Fetal Growth

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    Erin Graves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Factors linked with insulin resistance were examined for their association with large-for-gestational-age (LGA infant birth weight and gestational diabetes. Study Design. Data came from a longitudinal cohort study of 2,305 subjects without overt diabetes, analyzed using multinomial logistic and linear regression. Results. High maternal BMI (OR=1.53 (1.11, 2.12, height (1.98 (1.62, 2.42, antidepressant use (1.71 (1.20, 2.44, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds (1.79 (1.25, 2.57, and high blood sugar (2.68, (1.53, 5.27 were all positively associated with LGA birth. Strikingly, the difference in risk from diagnosed and treated gestational diabetes compared to women with a single abnormal glucose tolerance test (but no diagnosis of gestational diabetes was significant (OR=0.65, p=0.12 versus OR=2.84, p<0.01. When weight/length ratio was used instead, different factors were found to be significant. BMI and pregnancy weight-gain were found to influence the development of gestational diabetes, through an additive interaction. Conclusions. High prepregnancy BM, height, antidepressant use, pregnancy weight-gain exceeding 40 pounds, and high blood sugar were associated with LGA birth, but not necessarily infant weight/length ratio. An additive interaction between BMI and pregnancy weight-gain influenced gestational diabetes development.

  9. High prevalence of abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation and impaired glucose tolerance in adults with hypopituitarism.

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    Krzyzanowska, K; Schnack, C; Mittermayer, F; Kopp, H P; Hofer, M; Kann, T; Schernthaner, G

    2005-09-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have an increased mortality from cardiovascular events. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure decline (non-dipping) and impaired glucose tolerance are considered as cardiovascular risk factors. To evaluate the role of these risk factors in patients with hypopituitarism we determined the 24-hour blood pressure regulation and glucose tolerance status in hypopituitary patients with and without growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Sixty-one hypopituitary subjects 5 +/- 3 years after brain surgery because of macroadenoma, 61 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and 20 healthy controls were included. Forty-four hypopituitary patients were GH deficient and 28 of these on GH treatment. Non-dipping was observed in 41 % (n = 7) of hypopituitary subjects with normal GH release, in 46 % (n = 13) of patients on GH therapy, and in 69 % (n = 11) of untreated GH deficient patients. Untreated GH deficient patients had a higher systolic night/day ratio (1.00 +/- 0.03) compared to non GH deficient (0.92 +/- 0.02; p < 0.02) and GH treated hypopituitary patients (0.93 +/- 0.01; p < 0.02). The rate of non-dipping in hypopituitarism was comparable to that in T2DM. Pathologic glucose tolerance was diagnosed in 30 % of the hypopituitary patients. The prevalence of non-dipping was independent of glucose metabolism in hypopituitary patients. All controls had normal night time blood pressure fall and glucose metabolism. The high prevalence of nocturnal non-dipping and glucose intolerance detected in this cohort might contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk of hypopituitary patients.

  10. Prevalence of glucose tolerance test abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Leila J. Gracelyn

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of IGT and Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM in women with PCOS was observed than expected. They have accelerated conversion from IGT to NIDDM. IGT is often asymptomatic and is a known risk factor for type 2 DM and cardiovascular disease. OGTT with 75 gms of glucose is the best screening method for glucose intolerance and a good measure to diagnose type 2 DM in PCOS women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1739-1745

  11. Detection of glycemic abnormalities in adolescents with beta thalassemia using continuous glucose monitoring and oral glucose tolerance in adolescents and young adults with β-thalassemia major: Pilot study

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    Ashraf T Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both insulin deficiency and resistance are reported in patients with β-thalassemia major (BTM. The use of continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM, among the different methods for early detection of glycemic abnormalities, has not been studied thoroughly in these adolescents. Materials and Methods: To assess the oralglucose tolerance (OGT and 72-h continuous glucose concentration by the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was conducted in 16 adolescents with BTM who were receiving regular blood transfusions every 2-4 weeks and iron-chelation therapy since early childhood. Results: Sixteen adolescents with BTM (age: 19.75 ± 3 years were investigated. Using OGTT, (25% had impaired fasting blood (plasma glucose concentration (BG (>5.6 mmol/L. 2-h after the glucose load, one of them had BG = 16.2 mmol/L (diabetic and two had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT (BG > 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L and 9 with IGT (56%. HOMA and QUICKI revealed levels 0.33 (0.36 ± 0.03, respectively, ruling out significant insulin resistance in these adolescents. There was a significant negative correlation between the β-cell function (B% on one hand and the fasting and the 2-h BG (r=−0.6, and − 0.48, P < 0.01, respectively on the other hand. Neither fasting serum insulin nor c-peptide concentrations were correlated with fasting BG or ferritin levels. The average and maximum blood glucose levels during CGM were significantly correlated with the fasting BG (r = 0.68 and 0.39, respectively, with P < 0.01 and with the BG at 2-hour after oral glucose intake (r = 0.87 and 0.86 respectively, with P < 0.001. Ferritin concentrations were correlated with the fasting BG and the 2-h blood glucose levels in the OGTT (r = 0.52, and r = 0.43, respectively, P < 0.01 as well as with the average BG recorded by CGM (r = 0.75, P < 0.01. Conclusion: CGM has proven to

  12. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

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    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test; Diabetic - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance ... Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be taken. You ...

  13. Valine Pyrrolidide Preserves Intact Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide and Improves Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Minipigs With Reduced β-Cell Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla; Wilken, Michael; Deacon, Carolyn F; Svendsen, Ove; Gotfredsen, Carsten F.; Carr, Richard David

    2003-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are important in blood glucose regulation.However, both incretin hormones are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV). The concept of DPPIV inhibition as a treatment for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced β-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)–treated min...

  14. Fursemida Influence on glucose tolerance

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    Valdivia, Héctor; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Garmendia, Fausto; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Dávila, Enrique; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of Fursemida on glucose tolerance in 82 patients : 14 mormales , 15 cirrhotic , 15 diabetics, 7 patients with cardioesclerosis , 8 with hypertension , 8 nephropathy without failure and 15 with failure, for which administered daily 80 me . diuretic for one week. In 8 patients (4 diabetic , cirrhotic March 1 with hypertension ) occurred a pathological increase in basal glycemia. Except with nephropathy , elevated in all groups glycemia curves was observed , which...

  15. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin......), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and -cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs...... size were taken into account (P > 0.28). Faster glucose absorption was related to higher fasting (P = 0.001) and lower 2-h (P = 0.001) glucose levels and to greater height and fat-free mass (P

  16. 妊娠期糖代谢异常对妊娠结局影响%Influence of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy on pregnanty outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇; 许榕仙; 张雪芹; 李健

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) on pregnant women and newborns. Methods Totally 250 pregnant women hospitalized for their deliveries and diagnosed with GDM( 105) or GIGT( 145) were recruited in the study. And 234 pregnant women witti normal blood glucose level were taken as control group at the same time. The pregnancy outcomes of the three groups were recorded and analyzed. Results There were significant differences among the three groups in the incidences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) positive (P - 0. 009) , caesarean birth (P = 0. 000), gestational hypertension (P = 0. 002), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (P = 0. 004), preterm delivery (P = 0.027 ) , small-for-date infant (P = 0. 011), neonatal hypoglycemia (P = 0. 007), neonatal pneumonia (P = 0. 001), and neonate hospitalization (P = 0. 000) among the three groups. Compared with those of the control group, there were significantly increased risks for HBV positive (P =0. 041) , caesarean birth ( P = 0. 000) .gestational hypertension ( P =0.001) , intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (P = 0.009),preterm delivery(/5=0. 012) ,small-for-date infant(P =0. 019) .neonatal hypoglycemia (P = 0, 03) .neonatal pneumonia( P = 0. 000) , and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (P = 0. 000) in the GDM group. The pregnant women in GIGT group showed higher risks of HBV positive ( P = 0. 041) , caesarean birth ( P = 0. 000) , gestational hypertension (P = 0. 021) , intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy ( P - 0. 021) , preterm delivery (P = 0. 048 ) , neonatal hypoglycemia( P = 0. 021), neonatal pneumonia ( P = 0. 004), and NICU admission (P = 0. 000). Conclusion GDM and GIGT could cause undesirable pregnancy outcomes. The perinatal screening for gestational abnormal glucose metabolism and standardized treatment for GDM and GIGT should be strengthened to improve pregnanty outcomes a-mong the wonen.%目的 研究妊娠期

  17. Continuous glucose monitoring, oral glucose tolerance, and insulin - glucose parameters in adolescents with simple obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Awwa, A; Soliman, A; Al-Ali, M; Yassin, M; De Sanctis, V

    2012-09-01

    In obese adolescents pancreatic beta-cells may not be able to cope with insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia and type2 diabetes (T2DM To assess oral glucose tolerance, 72-h continuous blood glucose concentrations (CGM) and calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in 13 adolescents with simple obesity (BMI SDS=4 ± 1.06). OGTT performed in 13 obese adolescents (13.47 ± 3 years) revealed 3 cases (23%) with impaired fasting glucose (IFG: fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/L), 4 cases (30%) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT: 2h blood glucose >7.8 7.8 and 11.1 mmol/L (diabetes) in one case (7.6%). Five cases had a minimum BG recorded of 2.6 and QUICKI values <0.35 denoting insulin resistance. Beta cell mass percent (B %) = 200 ± 94.8% and insulin sensitivity values (IS)=50.4 ± 45.5% denoted insulin resistance with hyper-insulinaemia and preserved beta cell mass. In obese adolescents, CGMS is superior to OGTT and HbA1C in detecting glycemic abnormalities, which appears to be secondary to insulin resistance.

  18. Importance of oral glucose tolerance test in patient with schizophrenia.

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    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Badanjak, Anica

    2005-06-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old patient with schizophrenia who developed worsening of glucose metabolism during treatment with two different atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and quetiapine. Diabetes mellitus was recognized during clozapine treatment. During quetiapine treatment, while patient was taking diabetic diet, fasting and 1-hour glucose levels and body mass index, decreased, but 2-hour glucose levels increased. This suggests that, in some patients, monitoring of only fasting glucose level and body mass index may be insufficient for detecting the glucose metabolism abnormalities. In those patients oral glucose tolerance test may be recommended. Recommendations about when and how often clinicians should administer the test do not exist in current guidelines. Further studies are needed for the elucidation of this question.

  19. Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome amongst the Taiwanese population- not correlated with insulin receptor substrate-1 Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism

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    Liang Shu-Fen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance and glucose dysmetabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are related with the polymorphisms in the genes encoding the insulin receptor substrate (IRS proteins, especially Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphism being reported to be associated with type-2 diabetes and PCOS. We intended to assess the prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT and insulin resistance in Taiwanese PCOS women. We also tried to assess whether the particular identity of Gly972Arg/Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of the IRS-1 gene mutation can be used as an appropriate diagnostic indicator for PCOS. Methods We designed a prospective clinical study. Forty-seven Taiwanese Hoklo and Hakka women, diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study as were forty-five healthy Hoklo and Hakka women as the control group. Insulin resistance was evaluated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose/insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMAIR. The genomic DNA of the subjects was amplified by PCR and digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism (RFLP with Bst N1 used for codon 972 and Dra III for codon 513. Results AGT was found in 46.8% of these PCOS patients and was significantly related to high insulin resistance rather than the low insulin resistance. Those patients with either insulin resistance or AGT comprised the majority of PCOS affected patients (AGT + fasting insulin ≥17: 83%, AGT + glucose/insulin ratio ≥6.5: 85.1%, AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 2: 87.2%, and AGT + HOMAIR ≥ 3.8: 72.3%. None of the tested samples revealed any polymorphism due to the absence of any Dra III recognition site or any Bst N1 recognition site in the amplified PCR fragment digested by restriction fragmented length polymorphism. Conclusion There is significantly high prevalence of AGT and insulin resistance in PCOS women, but Gly972Arg and Ala513Pro polymorphic alleles of IRS-1 are rare and are not associated with the elevated

  20. Impaired glucose tolerance in sleep disorders.

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    Marietta Keckeis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological and experimental data suggest a negative influence of shortened or disturbed night sleep on glucose tolerance. Due to the high prevalence of sleep disorders this might be a major health issue. However, no comparative studies of carbohydrate metabolism have been conducted in clinical sleep disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and assessed additional parameters of carbohydrate metabolism in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, N = 25, restless legs syndrome (RLS, N = 18 or primary insomnia (N = 21, and in healthy controls (N = 33. Compared to controls, increased rates of impaired glucose tolerance were found in OSAS (OR: 4.9 and RLS (OR: 4.7 patients, but not in primary insomnia patients (OR: 1.6. In addition, HbA1c values were significantly increased in the same two patient groups. Significant positive correlations were found between 2-h plasma glucose values measured during the OGTT and the apnea-arousal-index in OSAS (r = 0.56; p<0.05 and the periodic leg movement-arousal-index in RLS (r = 0.56, p<0.05, respectively. Sleep duration and other quantitative aspects of sleep were similar between patient groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that some, but not all sleep disorders considerably compromise glucose metabolism. Repeated arousals during sleep might be a pivotal causative factor deserving further experimental investigations to reveal potential novel targets for the prevention of metabolic diseases.

  1. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  2. The effect of PCSK1 variants on waist, waist-hip ratio and glucose metabolism is modified by sex and glucose tolerance status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette P; Vestmar, Marie A; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effects of the G-allele of rs6232 and the C-allele of rs6235 within PCSK1 on measures of body fat and glucose homeostasis in Danish individuals and to assess interactions of genotypes with age, sex and glucose tolerance status. Data were included in meta-analy...... composition which may be modified by sex, whereas the effect of rs6235 C-allele on fasting and stimulated circulating plasma glucose and hormone levels may be influenced by glucose tolerance status.......-allele was associated nominally with a 0.6% (0.1–1%, p = 0.01) reduction in fasting glucose, it interacted with glucose tolerance status for traits related to glucose metabolism and analysis among individuals having abnormal glucose tolerance revealed a 5% (20.7–9%, p = 0.02) elevated level of acute insulin response...

  3. 糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死患者血浆Hcy和血清hs-CRP水平的影响%The Influence of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance on the Levels of Plasma Homocysteine and Serum High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction(ACI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵红东; 陆敏; 唐冰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of abnormal glucose tolerance on the levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with acute cerebral infarction( AGI). Methods 756 patients with AGI were divided into normal glucose tolerance group (NGT, 33 leases) , abnormal glucose tolerance group(IGT,142cases) ,and diabetes mellitus group (DM,283 scase) ac-cording to the result of oral glucose tolerance test( OGTT). The serum levels of Hcy and hs-GRP were measured in 24 hours after ad-mission. Result The both levels of Hey and hs-GRP in IGT group(19.17 9.35juno]/L,20.46 10.56μmol/L) and DM group (8.0 2.9 mg/L,7.7 2.3 mg/L) were higher than the NGT group with no difference between each other. Conclusion The levels of Hey and hs-GRP in patients with AGI and abnormal glucose tolerance rise significantly,which indicate the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis in the stage of abnormal glucose tolerance. The results showed abnormal glucose tolerance is the risk factor of atherosclerosis as diabetes mellitus,and the OGTT test is valuable in screening risk factors of AGI and stroke prevention.%目的:观察糖耐量异常对急性脑梗死(acute cerebral infarction,ACI)患者的同型半胱氨酸(Hcy)、超敏C反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平的影响.方法:756例ACI患者按葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)结果分为糖耐量正常组(NGT,331例)、单纯性糖耐量异常组(IGT,142例)、2型糖尿病组(DM2,283例).在入院24h之内测定血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平并进行组间比较.结果:IGT组及DM2组的Hcy水平(19.17±9.35)μmol/L、(20.46±10.56)μmol/L以及hs-CRP水平(8.0±2.9)mg/L、(7.7±2.3)mg/L明显高于NGT组(16.17±7.35)μmol/L、(3.5±1.2)mg/L.IGT组及DM2组两组之间的Hcy、hs-CRP水平差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05、P>0.05).结论:单纯性糖耐量异常的ACI患者血清Hcy、hs-CRP水平明显升高,表明在糖耐量异常阶段,已经出现了慢性低水平炎症和动脉粥样硬化的发生.提

  4. High incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism in acute coronary syndrome patients at a moderate altitude: A sub-Himalayan study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokta, Jitender; Kumar, Subash; Ganju, Neeraj; Mokta, Kiran; Panda, Prashant Kumar; Gupta, Swatantra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abnormal glucose metabolic status at admission is an important marker of future cardiovascular events and long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether or not they are known diabetics. Objective: The aims were to study the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in ACS patients and to compare the different methods of diagnosing diabetes in ACS patients. Methods: We did a prospective study. About 250 consecutive nondiabetic patients (200 men and 50 women) with ACS admitted to a tertiary care institute of Himachal Pradesh in 1 year were enrolled. Admission plasma glucose, next morning fasting plasma glucose (FPG), A1C, and a standardized 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 72 h after admission were done. Glucose metabolism was categorized as normal glucose metabolism, impaired glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]), and diabetes. Diabetes was arbitrarily classified further as undiagnosed (HBA1c ≥6.5%) or possibly stress diabetes (HBA1c <6.5%). A repeat OGTT after 3 months in objects with IGT and stress hyperglycemia at a time of admission was done. Results: The mean age was 54 ± 12.46 years. The mean plasma glucose at admission was 124 ± 53.96 mg/dL, and the mean FPG was 102 ± 27.07 mg/dL. The mean 2-h postglucose load concentration was 159.5 ± 56.58 mg/dL. At baseline, 95 (38%) had normal glucose metabolism, 95 (38%) had impaired glucose metabolism (IGT and or IGT) and 60 (24%) had diabetes; 48 (19.2%) were undiagnosed diabetes and 12 (4.8%) had stress hyperglycemia. At follow up 58.66% and 55.55% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and stress hyperglycemia continued to have impaired glucose tolerance respectively. About 75 gm OGTT has highest sensitivity and specificity to diagnose diabetes, whereas A1C most specific to rule out stress hyperglycemia. Conclusions: In this small hilly state of India, abnormal glucose metabolism (previously undiagnosed diabetes and IGT) is

  5. Glucose abnormalities in Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    Bo Q

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qingyan Bo,1 Roberto Orsenigo,2 Junyi Wang,1 Louis Griffel,3 Clifford Brass3 1Beijing Novartis Pharma Co. Ltd., Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated a potential association between type 2 diabetes (T2D and hepatitis C virus infection in Western countries, while similar evidence is limited in Asia. We compared the prevalence of glucose abnormalities (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and T2D and their risk factors between Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients, and evaluated whether glucose abnormalities impacted the viral responses to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment (current standard of care in most Asian countries. This study retrospectively analyzed data of 1,887 CHC patients from three Phase II/III studies with alisporivir (DEB025 as treatment for CHC. The chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of IFG/T2D between Asian and non-Asian CHC patients, and logistic regression was used to adjust for sex, age, and cirrhosis status. Risk factors for IFG/T2D were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our results indicated that the prevalence of IFG/T2D was high in both Asian and non-Asian CHC patients (23.0% vs 20.9%, and no significant difference was found between these two populations (adjusted odds ratio: 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.7; P=0.08. Age, sex, and cirrhosis status were risk factors for IFG/T2D in both populations, while body mass index was positively associated with IFG/T2D in non-Asian but not in Asian participants. No significant differences in sustained virological response rates were seen between patients with normal fasting glucose and patients with IFG/T2D for both populations. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of glucose abnormalities in Asian CHC patients was similar to that in non-Asians, and glucose abnormalities had

  6. [Fatty acid patterns and glucose tolerance in Huntington's chorea (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, R; Hausmann, L; Kaffarnik, H; Zehner, J; Oepen, H

    1976-07-02

    Fatty acid patterns of plasma lipids and glucose-tolerance in Huntington's chorea. 25 patients with Huntington's chorea of various manifestation (9 predisposed symptomefree, 5 with light and 11 with severe manifestation) had studies of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These studies measured glucose-tolerance tests, insulin-, HGH-secretion, serum lipids and plasma fatty acid conposition of the cholesterylesters, triglycerides and phospholipids. The reactive insulin- but not HGH-levels were significantly raised, 32 % of the patients with Huntington's chorea had abnormal glucose-tolerance tests, compared with 3.2 % in a control group. Duration of symptoms correlated with higher cholesterol levels. Minor deviations were found in the fatty acid patterns in various lipid clases.

  7. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E

    2009-01-01

    tolerance test before discharge. LV function was assessed using echocardiographic measurements (LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV ejection fraction, restrictive diastolic filling pattern, early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity ratio [E/e'], and left...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend)

  8. Oxidative Injury and Neuropathy in Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, James W.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Vincent, Andrea M.; Freimann, Catherine L.; Sullivan, Kelli A.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with the development of neuropathy. The aim of the current study was to determine if neuropathy developed in the female Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, an animal model of IGT and type 2 diabetes. The ZDF rat develops impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) when fed a control diet, and frank diabetes when fed a high fat diet. Following 10 weeks of hyperglycemia, sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) and compound motor acti...

  9. Heterogeneity in glucose response curves during an oral glucose tolerance test and associated cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2017-01-01

    patterns of plasma glucose change during the oral glucose tolerance test. Cardiometabolic risk factor profiles were compared between the identified groups. Using latent class trajectory analysis, five glucose response curves were identified. Despite similar fasting and 2-h values, glucose peaks and peak...... in Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA. Each study included between 5 and 11 measurements at different time points during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, resulting in 9,602 plasma glucose measurements. Latent class trajectories with a cubic specification for time were fitted to identify different...... times varied greatly between groups, ranging from 7–12 mmol/L, and 35–70 min. The group with the lowest and earliest plasma glucose peak had the lowest estimated cardiovascular risk, while the group with the most delayed plasma glucose peak and the highest 2-h value had the highest estimated risk. One...

  10. Determinación del valor umbral de tamizaje de la glicemia en ayunas, para identificar la intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos Determination of fasting plasma glucose cut-off valuefor the identification of abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Linn Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar el valor predictivo de la glucosa en ayunas, para identificar intolerancia a los carbohidratos en pacientes con síndrome de ovario poliquístico. Materiales y métodos: a 100 mujeres con diagnóstico de síndrome de ovario poliquístico, se les realizó una prueba de tolerancia a 75 g de glucosa. Resultados: la sensibilidad para una cifra umbral de 101 mg/dl, fue de un 41,7%, IC 95%: 23% - 63%, y la especificidad de un 92,1%, IC95 %:83% - 97%. Con un valor predictivo positivo del 62,5%, y negativo del 83,3%.El valor de corte óptimo fue de 93mg /dl, con una sensibilidad del 75%, IC 95%: 53%-89%, y una especificidad del 73,7%, IC 95%: 62%-83%. La cifra de corte umbral óptima de la glicemia en ayunas para el tamizaje de intolerancia en mujeres con SOPQ, fue de 93 mg/dl. Conclusiones: las recomendaciones actuales para diagnosticar intolerancia a los carbohidratos, en mujeres con síndrome de ovario poliquístico, no son apropiadas.Objective: To determine the predictive value of fasting glucose to identify abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and methods: 100 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome underwent a tolerance test toa 75 gdose of glucose. Results: Sensitivity for a threshold value of 101 mg/dl was 41.7% (95% C.I.: 23% - 63% and specificity 92.1% (95% C.I.: 83% - 97%; with a positive predictive value of 62.5% and a negative predictive value of 83.3%. The optimum cut-off value was 93 mg/dL, with a sensitivity of 75% (95% C.I.: 53% - 89% and a specificity of 73.7% (95% C.I.: 62% - 83%. The optimum fasting plasma glucose cut-off value for intolerance in women with PCOS was 93md/dL. Conclusions: The current recommendations for diagnosing abnormal carbohydrate tolerance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome are not appropriate.

  11. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    : Among 264 term, healthy, and singleton infants eligible for inclusion, 248 were included. Of these 205 (83%) obese mother-newborn-dyads had a DXA scan and 2-h plasma glucose measurements. Linear regression analysis showed that birth weight z-scores correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels (p = 0......INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat...

  12. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-03-05

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc.

  13. Cerebral glucose metabolic abnormality in patients with congenital scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Seo, G. T.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, I. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jeon, S. M. [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A possible association between congenital scoliosis and low mental status has been recognized, but there are no reports describing the mental status or cerebral metabolism in patients with congenital scoliosis in detail. We investigated the mental status using a mini-mental status exam as well as the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose brain positron emission tomography in 12 patients with congenital scoliosis and compared them with those of 14 age-matched patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The mean mini-mental status exam score in the congenital scoliosis group was significantly lower than that in the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis group. Group analysis found that various brain areas of patients with congenital scoliosis showed glucose hypometabolisms in the left prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10), right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann area 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), left anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 24) and pulvinar of the left thalamus. From this study, we could find the metabolic abnormalities of brain in patients with congenital scoliosis and suggest the possible role of voxel-based analysis of brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

  14. Activin A Levels Are Associated With Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients With Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Geir Ø.; Ueland, Thor; Knudsen, Eva C.; Scholz, Hanne; Yndestad, Arne; Sahraoui, Afaf; Smith, Camilla; Lekva, Tove; Otterdal, Kari; Halvorsen, Bente; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Aukrust, Pål

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE On the basis of the role of activin A in inflammation, atherogenesis, and glucose homeostasis, we investigated whether activin A could be related to glucometabolic abnormalities in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Activin A measurement and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were performed in patients (n = 115) with acute MI, without previously known diabetes, and repeated after 3 months. Release of activin A and potential anti-inflammatory effects of activin A were measured in human endothelial cells. Activin A effects on insulin secretion and inflammation were tested in human pancreatic islet cells. RESULTS 1) In patients with acute MI, serum levels of activin A were significantly higher in those with abnormal glucose regulation (AGR) compared with those with normal glucose regulation. Activin A levels were associated with the presence of AGR 3 months later (adjusted odds ratio 5.1 [95% CI 1.73–15.17], P = 0.003). 2) In endothelial cells, glucose enhanced the release of activin A, whereas activin A attenuated the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and enhanced the mRNA levels of the antioxidant metallothionein. 3) In islet cells, activin A attenuated the suppressive effect of inflammatory cytokines on insulin release, counteracted the ability of these inflammatory cytokines to induce mRNA expression of IL-8, and induced the expression of transforming growth factor-β. CONCLUSIONS We found a significant association between activin A and newly detected AGR in patients with acute MI. Our in vitro findings suggest that this association represents a counteracting mechanism to protect against inflammation, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. PMID:21464440

  15. Estrogens, lactation and oral glucose tolerance test in the early puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, D; Eschwege, E

    1976-01-01

    An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on 98 women free from any known risk factor of diabetes on the fifth day of the puerperium. Results show that OGTT is greatly influenced by the conditions of lactation. A high proportion of abnormal curves (50%) is found among the group of women receiving estrogens as lactation suppressors at the time of the test. However, in breast feeding women or in non breast feeding women not given estrogen, the proportion of abnormal curves is less than 10%. It is concluded that the unexplained previously reported lack of specificity of the OGTT in the early puerperium could be related to hormonal treatment for lactation suppression.

  16. 糖筛查试验异常而糖耐量试验正常孕妇的妊娠结局分析%Analysis on pregnancy outcomes of abnormal glucose screening test and normal glucose tolerance test in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞凇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT ) and normal oral glu‐cose tolerance test (OGTT ) on the maternal and neonatal perinatal period in pregnant women ,and to observe and an‐alyze their outcomes to provide the objective basis for pregnancy health care .Methods 220 pregnant women with ab‐normal GCT and normal OGTT in our hospital from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as the observation group .Contemporaneous 240 normal pregnant women were selected as the control group .The pregnancy outcomes and neonatal status and Apgar scores were observed in the two groups .Results The vaginal delivery rate of the ob‐servation group was 61 .82% (136/220) ,which was lower than that of the control group ,the cesarean section rate of the observation group was 36 .36% (80/220) ,which was higher than that of the control group (P< 0 .05) .The post‐partum hemorrhage ,polyhydramnios ,puerperal infection and premature rupture of membranes in the observation group accounted for 9 .55% (21/220) ,which was higher than that of the control group (P< 0 .05) .The macrosomia , premature delivery and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia of the observation group were 15 .45% (34/220) ,5 .00% (11/220) and 5 .45% (12/220) respectively ,which were higher than those of the control group (P < 0 .05) ;the average neonatal body weight mass of the observation group was (3 186 .35 ± 31 .20)g ,which was higher than that of the con‐trol group ,the neonatal Apgar score of the observation group of was (9 .21 ± 0 .13) ,which was lower than that of the control group (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion The abnormal GCT and normal OGTT in pregnant women can significantly affect the perinatal health ,has lower natural labor rate and higher complications ,moreover the number of premature newborns and macrosomia is significantly increased ,easier to develop the complications of hyperbilirubinemia ,etc ., which affect the health and life safety of regnant women and perinatal period

  17. Abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin as a predictive factor for glucose metabolism disorders in antipsychotic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Leping; JI Juying; DUAN Yiyang; SHI Hui; ZHANG Bin; SHAO Yaqin; SUN Jian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the changes in glucose metabolism after antipsychotic(APS)therapy,to note the influencing factors,as well as to dicuss the relationship between the occurrence of glucose metabolism disorders of APS origin and abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c)levels.One hundred and fifty-two patients with schizophrenia,whose fasting plasma glucose(FPG)and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG)in the oral glucose tolerance test(2HPG)were normal,were grouped according to the HbA1c levels,one normal and the other abnormal,and were randomly enrolled into risperidone,clozapine and chlorpromazine treatment for six weeks.The FPG and 2hPG were measured at the baseline and at the end of the study.In the group with abnormal HbA1c and clozapine therapy,2HPG was higher after the study[(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than that before the study[(7.2±1.4)mmol/L]and the difierence was statistically significant(P<0.01).FPG had no statistically significant difference before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).HbA1c levels and drugs contributing to 2HPG at the end of study had statistical cross-action(P<0.01).In the abnormal HbA1c group,2HPG after the study was higher in the clozapine treatment group [(9.5±1.8)mmol/L]than in the risperidone treatment group [(7.4±1.7)mmol/L]and the chlorpromazine treatment group[(7.3±1.6)mmol/L].The differences were statistically significant(P<0.01).In the normal HbA1c group there was no statistically significant difierence before and after the study in any group(P>0.05).2HPG before[(7.1±1.6)mmol/L]and after the study[(8.1±1.9)mmol/L]was higher in the abnormal HbA1c group than in the normal HbA1c group[(6.2±1.4)mmol/L vs(6.5±1.4)mmol/L]with the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.01 vs P<0.001).As compared with normal HbA1c group,the relative risk (RR)of glucose metabolism disease occurrence was 4.7 in the abnormal HDA1C group wlth the difierence being statistically significant(P<0.001).Patients with abnormal HbA1c

  18. Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Unjin; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagreeable' to 'strongly agreeable.' Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (β = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.

  19. Demographic and metabolic characteristics of individuals with progressive glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Mendes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated changes in glucose tolerance of 17 progressors and 62 non-progressors for 9 years to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Changes in anthropometric measurements and responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were analyzed. We identified 14 pairs of individuals, one from each group, who were initially normal glucose tolerant and were matched for gender, age, weight, and girth. We compared initial plasma glucose and insulin curves (from OGTT, insulin secretion (first and second phases and insulin sensitivity indices (from hyperglycemic clamp assay for both groups. In the normal glucose tolerant phase, progressors presented: 1 a higher OGTT blood glucose response with hyperglycemia in the second hour and a similar insulin response vs non-progressors; 2 a reduced first-phase insulin secretion (2.0 ± 0.3 vs 2.3 ± 0.3 pmol/L; P < 0.02 with a similar insulin sensitivity index and a lower disposition index (3.9 ± 0.2 vs 4.1 ± 0.2 µmol·kg-1·min-1 ; P < 0.05 vs non-progressors. After 9 years, both groups presented similar increases in weight and fasting blood glucose levels and progressors had an increased glycemic response at 120 min (P < 0.05 and reduced early insulin response to OGTT (progressors, 1st: 2.10 ± 0.34 vs 2nd: 1.87 ± 0.25 pmol/mmol; non-progressors, 1st: 2.15 ± 0.28 vs 2nd: 2.03 ± 0.39 pmol/mmol; P < 0.05. Theses data suggest that β-cell dysfunction might be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Ceylon cinnamon does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Lindstedt, Sandra; Berntorp, Kerstin; Nilsson, Jan; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies on healthy subjects have shown that the intake of 6 g Cinnamomum cassia reduces postprandial glucose and that the intake of 3 g C. cassia reduces insulin response, without affecting postprandial glucose concentrations. Coumarin, which may damage the liver, is present in C. cassia, but not in Cinnamomum zeylanicum. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of C. zeylanicum on postprandial concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (GII) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of ten subjects with IGT were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with placebo or C. zeylanicum capsules. Finger-prick capillary blood samples were taken for glucose measurements and venous blood for insulin measurements, before and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. zeylanicum had no significant effect on glucose level, insulin response, GI or GII. Ingestion of C. zeylanicum does not affect postprandial plasma glucose or insulin levels in human subjects. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Europe has suggested the replacement of C. cassia by C. zeylanicum or the use of aqueous extracts of C. cassia to lower coumarin exposure. However, the positive effects seen with C. cassia in subjects with poor glycaemic control would then be lost.

  1. Pregnant outcomes and neonatal anthropometry in women with abnormal glucose challenge test and normal oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy%单纯葡萄糖筛查试验异常对妊娠结局和新生儿体质指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海天; 王子莲; 胡明晶; 李铭岚; 祝文晶; 刘斌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of abnormal glucose challenge test (GCT) on pregnancy outcomes and neonatal anthropometric data in women with normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).Methods Totally 214 women who delivered in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from November 2006 to December 2007 were enrolled.50 g GCT was performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation and 75 g OGTT would be followed if GCT≥7.8 mmol/L.Those patients,whose OGTT results below the following criteria (5.3 mmoL/L,10.0 mmol/L,8.6 mmol/L,7.8 mmol/L),were classified as normal OGTT.Altogether,116 of the 214 women with abnormal GCT and normal OGTT were collected as the study group and the rest 98 women with normal GCT as the control group.The pregnant outcomes of the two groups were analyzed.The neonatal anthropometry,including birth weight,body length,head circumference and shoulder circumference,were recorded.Other neonatal anthropometric data,such as upper arm circumference,tricep skinfold thickness and hypodermic fat thickness of abdomen were measured by a tape measure within 24 hours after birth.Results (1) Pregnant outcomes:No significant difference was found in the rate of assisted vaginal delivery,polyhydramnios,premature rupture of membranes and fetal distress between the study and control group[10.3% (12/116) vs 4% (4/98),5.2% (6/116) vs 10% (10/98),13.8% (16/116) vs 17% (17/98),20.7% (24/116) vs 13% (13/98),P >0.05,respectively],but the rate of cesarean section,spontaneous vaginal delivery and large for gestational age babies in the study group were different from those of the control[72.4% (84/116) vs 51% (51/98),17.2%(20/116) vs 45% (44/98),25.9% (30/116) vs 6% (6/98),P <0.05,respectively].(2)Neonatal anthropometry:The birth weight of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group[(3.4 ±0.4) kg vs (3.3±0.4) kg,P <0.05],but no significant difference was shown in any other neonatal anthropometric results between the study and

  2. Glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase retrieved from the metagenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku eUchiyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidases (BGLs hydrolyze cellooligosaccharides to glucose and play a crucial role in the enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass. Despite their significance for the production of glucose, most identified BGLs are commonly inhibited by low (~mM concentrations of glucose. Therefore, BGLs that are insensitive to glucose inhibition have great biotechnological merit. We applied a metagenomic approach to screen for such rare glucose-tolerant BGLs. A metagenomic library was created in Escherichia coli (approximately 10,000 colonies and grown on LB agar plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucoside, yielding 828 positive (blue colonies. These were then arrayed in 96-well plates, grown in LB, and secondarily screened for activity in the presence of 10% (w/v glucose. Seven glucose-tolerant clones were identified, each of which contained a single bgl gene. The genes were classified into two groups, differing by two nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were identical (452 aa and found to belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 1. The recombinant protein (Ks5A7 was overproduced in E. coli as a C-terminal 6 × His-tagged protein and purified to apparent homogeneity. The molecular mass of the purified Ks5A7 was determined to be 54 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and 160 kDa by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme was optimally active at 45°C and pH 5.0–6.5 and retained full or 1.5–2-fold enhanced activity in the presence of 0.1–0.5 M glucose. It had a low KM (78 µM with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 0.36 mM with cellobiose and high Vmax (91 µmol min-1 mg-1 with p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucoside; 155 µmol min-1 mg-1 with cellobiose among known glucose-tolerant BGLs and was free from substrate (0.1 M cellobiose inhibition. The efficient use of Ks5A7 in conjunction with Trichoderma reesei cellulases in enzymatic saccharification of alkaline-treated rice straw was demonstrated by increased production of glucose.

  3. On the status and comparison of glucose intolerance in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy through an oral glucose tolerance test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-jie Lu

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study is to estimate the status and comparison of glucose intolerance in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy through an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, as well as to learn the effect of chemotherapy on the glucose metabolism of breast cancer patients. METHODS: All the 79 breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis, with the mean age of 53.2 years, and 96 breast cancer patients before the 5th or 6th cycle of chemotherapy, with the mean age of 51.5 years, participated in the study from December 2012 to October 2013. After an overnight fast, participants underwent OGTT test, and fasting and 2-hour glucose levels were measured to identify undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes (i.e., impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance in them. Previously diagnosed diabetes among the female breast cancer patients was determined on the self-report and the medical record. RESULTS: The overall incidences of total normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, diabetes in female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were 24.1% and 38.5% (p0.05, respectively, and the differences of normal glucose tolerance and prediabetes instead of diabetes between the two groups were statistically significant. About 84% of the total diabetes and prediabetes in the female breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and 79.7% of those during chemotherapy need to be diagnosed with OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer patients have high incidences of diabetes and prediabetes. After chemotherapy even with steroids, some breast cancer patients with abnormal glucose metabolism may even become normal. Isolated hyperglycemia 2 hours after glucose loading is common, and OGTT should be made for breast cancer patients at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy.

  4. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  5. Impact of polymorphisms in WFS1 on prediabetic phenotypes in a population-based sample of middle-aged people with normal and abnormal glucose regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, T; Andersen, G; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    interaction of WFS1 rs734312 on insulin release and insulin resistance we introduced Hotelling's T (2) test. Assuming bivariate normal distribution, we constructed standard error ellipses of the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR when stratified according to glucose tolerance status around the means of each WFS1...... rs734312 genotype level. The interaction term between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and abnormal glucose regulation on the insulinogenic index and HOMA-IR was significantly associated with the traits (p = 0.0017). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Type 2 diabetes-associated risk alleles of WFS1...... are associated with estimates of a decreased pancreatic beta cell function among middle-aged individuals with abnormal glucose regulation....

  6. Unpredictable feeding impairs glucose tolerance in growing lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Jaquiery

    Full Text Available Irregular eating is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disease in adults but may affect young, growing children differently. We investigated the metabolic effects of unpredictable feeding in female juvenile lambs randomly assigned to receive, for six weeks, maintenance feed given twice daily in equal portions (Control Group, C; n = 24 or the same weekly feed amount in aliquots of variable size at unpredictable times (Unpredictable Group, U; n = 21. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT, and measurement of diurnal plasma cortisol concentrations were performed pre and post the dietary intervention. Groups were compared using t test and RM ANOVA. Weight gain was similar in both groups (C 18 ± 2%; U 16 ± 2% of initial body weight. Glucose area under the curve (AUC was unchanged in C (AUC pre 818 ± 34, post 801 ± 33 mmol.min.l(-1, but increased by 20% in U (pre 830 ± 25, post 1010 ± 19 mmol.min.l(-1; p<0.0001, with an inadequate insulin response to glucose load (log(AUC insulin first 40 minutes post intervention C 1.49 ± 0.04 vs U 1.36 ± 0.04 ng.min.ml(-1; p = 0.03. Insulin tolerance and diurnal variation of plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Unpredictable feeding impairs insulin response to glucose in growing lambs despite high quality food and normal weight gain. Irregular eating warrants investigation as a potentially remediable risk factor for disordered glucose metabolism.

  7. DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE AND ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST IN YOUNG WOMEN: IS IT RELATED TO EACH OTHER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M AMINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this study we wanted to compare the means of area under the curve (AVC of glucose tolerance test in young women depending on dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA levels. Methods. Selected subjects were examined for DHEA and glucose tolerance test. At first, they were divided into two groups (under the mean of DHEA vs above the mean of DHEA and then into three groups (under the mean-SD, between the mean±SD, above the mean + SD. 37 young women with no abnormality whose 8MI was below 30 Kg/m2 they were refered to research center of endocrinology and metabolism of IUMSHS. Results. The mean of DHEA was 2895±1113 ng/ml. The mean of AUC was 745±104.7 mmol/l/min in women under the mean of DHEA and 670±51.9 mmol/l/min in women above the mean of DHEA (P < 0.05. In comparison of women based on mean±SD, the AVe was 786±88.3, 691. 7 ± 77.5 and 670.8±92.5 mmol/l/min, respectively. Results showed a significant decrease of AVC in women above the mean+ SO of DHEA (P < 0.05. Discussion. This study suggests that in young healthy women DHEA can increase the glucose tolerance.

  8. Raised concentrations of lipid peroxidation products (LPO in pregnant women with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof C. Lewandowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Lipid peroxidation (LPO results from oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Whereas LPO rises in normal pregnancy, the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM on this process has not been clearly defined. materials and method. Fasting blood concentrations of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA, as LPO index, TNFa soluble receptors (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2, and soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, were measured in 51 women at 28 weeks of gestation. The women were divided according to the results of 50.0 g glucose challenge test (GCT and 75.0 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT: Controls (n=20, normal responses to both GCT and OGTT; Intermediate Group (IG (n=15, abnormal GCT but normal OGTT; GDM group (n=16, abnormal both GCT and OGTT. results. Glucose concentrations in women diagnosed with GDM were within the range of impaired glucose tolerance. There were no significant differences in concentrations of either TNF a soluble receptors R1 and R2, or sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1. LPO concentrations [MDA+4-HDA (nmol/mg protein] were significantly higher in women with GDM than in the other two groups [64.1±24.3 (mean±SD, 39.3±23.1, 47.0±18.1, for GDM, IG and Controls, respectively; p<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent correlation was between LPO level and glucose at 120 minutes of OGTT (rs=0.42; p=0.009. conclusions. Oxidative damage to membrane lipids is increased in GDM and might result directly from hyperglycaemia. Physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.

  9. [Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodríguez-López, Leticia; Lozano-Nuevo, José Juan; Vargas-Ayala, German; Beltrán-Soto, José Martín; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tienden a coexistir en el mismo paciente. La hiperglucemia postprandial de dos horas es un predictor de enfermedad cardiovascular. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la prevalencia de tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en sujetos hipertensos con glucosa de ayuno normal. Métodos: se incluyeron 65 pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos y con glucosa plasmática de ayuno glucosa. Resultados: encontramos tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en 32 pacientes (49.2 %), 29 en rango de intolerancia a la glucosa y tres casos en rango de diabetes mellitus. No hallamos relación entre glucosa postprandial con cifras de presión arterial ni con la edad, pero sí una correlación significativa entre intolerancia a la glucosa e índice de masa corporal > 32.6 (R = 0.59, p glucosa alterada, particularmente aquellos con índice de masa corporal aumentado, y que la glucosa de ayuno no es suficiente como prueba de monitoreo para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en ese tipo de pacientes.

  10. Effect of impaired glucose tolerance on cardiac dysfunction in a rat model of prediabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jia-liang; FENG Zhi-kuan; LIU Xiao-ying; LIN Qiu-xiong; FU Yong-heng; SHAN Zhi-xin; ZHU Jie-ning; LIN Shu-guang; YU Xi-yong

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on cardiac function during the chronic prediabetes state is complicated and plays an important role in clinical outcome. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. This study was designed to observe cardiac dysfunction in prediabetic rats with IGT and to determine whether glucose metabolic abnormalities, inflammation and apoptosis are linked to it.Methods The IGT rat models were induced by streptozocin, and the heart functions were assessed by echocardiography.Myocardial glucose metabolism was analyzed by glycogen periodic acid-Schiff staining, and the pro-apoptotic effect of IGT was evaluated by TUNEL staining. Additionally, caspase-3 activation, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) were detected by Western blotting in cardiac tissue lysates.Results Area-under-the-curve of blood glucose in rats injected with streptozotocin was higher than that in controls,increased by 16.28%, 38.60% and 38.61% at 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively (F=15.370, P=0.003). Abnormal cardiac functions and apoptotic cardiomyocytes were observed in the IGT rats, the ejection fraction (EF) being (68.59±6.62)% in IGT rats vs. (81.07±4.59)% in controls (t=4.020, P=0.002). There was more glucose which was converted to glycogen in the myocardial tissues of IGT rats, especially in cardiac perivascular tissues. Compared to controls, the cleaved caspase-3, MIF and GRK2 were expressed at higher levels in the myocardial tissues of IGT rats.Conclusions IGT in the prediabetes period resulted in cardiac dysfunction linked to abnormal glycogen storage and apoptosis. Additionally, MIF and GRK2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction in prediabetes and their regulation may contribute to the design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for those who have potential risks for diabetic cardiovascular complications.

  11. Predictors of stroke in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: results from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preiss, D.; Giles, T.D.; Thomas, L.E.; Sun, J.L.; Haffner, S.M.; Holman, R.R.; Standl, E.; Mazzone, T.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Tognoni, G.; Chiang, F.T.; McMurray, J.J.; Califf, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Risk factors for stroke are well-established in general populations but sparsely studied in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods—We identified predictors of stroke among participants with impaired glucose tolerance in the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired G

  12. Blood glucose rise after lactose tolerance testing in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D M; Mellits, E D; Chiu, F Y; Davis, L; Bayless, T M; Cordano, A

    1978-02-01

    Lactose tolerance tests are used clinically to screen children and infants. It is assumed that absorption of a lactose challenge in infants would occur in a predictable pattern prior to weaning. Twenty-one infants from 3 to 12 months of age were studied. The maximum blood glucose rise over fasting levels ranged from 11.0 to 62.0 mg/100 ml; the mean was 32.6 mg/100 ml. Six infants had a maximum rise of less than 20 mg/100 ml. Eleven infants (52%) had a maximum rise of greater than 30 mg/100 ml. Signs of intolerance were not noted in any subject. Weight and length were normally disturbed. Results indicate the variance in glucose rise existing within a population of infants growing normally and consuming milk. Gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption may influence the blood glucose rise after a lactose test. Established glucose levels used as an index to lactose absorption in older children and adults may not accurately reflect lactase activity in infants.

  13. Glucose and insulin tolerance throughout the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, P; Genazzani, A R; Felber, J P; Facchini, V; Onano, A M; Romagnino, S; Facchinetti, F; Piras, G L

    1975-03-01

    On the basis of the behaviour during menstrual cycle of the pituitary hormones plasma levels, the Authors have studied during the different periods of the cycle (follicular, ovulatory and luteal) the effects of OGTT and ITT's on the plasma levels of Glucose, insulin, HGH and Cortisol. Significantly lower levels of IRI, HGH and Cortisol were found in follicular phase compared to ovulatory period and luteal phase except for Cortisol in luteal phase. A slightly higher glucose tolerance was found in follicular phase as well as a reduced hypoglicemia under insulin load. Reduced HGH response to ITT was found in follicular phase as well as a reduced Cortisol response compared to the results observed in ovulatory and luteal phase. These data sustain the concept that hormonal variations occurring in an ovulatory cycle are also capable of modifying the woman's body response to various stimuli such as OGTT and ITT.

  14. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  15. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  16. Effects of celiac superior mesenteric ganglionectomy on glucose homeostasis and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance testing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Atsushi; Shikuma, Junpei; Ogihara, Norikazu; Eiki, Jun-ichi; Kanazawa, Masao; Notoya, Yōko; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Odawara, Masato

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in the body. In the prandial state, some of the glucose which is absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract is converted into glycogen and stored in the liver. In contrast, the liver produces glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis while fasting. Thus, the liver contributes to maintaining blood glucose level within normoglycemic range. Glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are regulated by various mechanisms including hormones, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and the hepatic glucose content. In this study, we examined a rat model in which the celiac superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG) was resected. We attempted to elucidate how the celiac sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating glucose homeostasis by assessing the effects of CSMG resection on glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, and by examining hepatic glycogen content and hepatic glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity. On the oral glucose tolerance test, CSMG-resected rats demonstrated improved glucose tolerance and significantly increased GP activity compared with sham-operated rats, whereas there were no significant differences in insulin, glucagon or catecholamine levels between the 2 groups. These results suggest that the celiac sympathetic nervous system is involved in regulating the rate of glycogen consumption through GP activity. In conclusion, the examined rat model showed that the celiac sympathetic nervous system regulates hepatic glucose metabolism in conjunction with vagal nerve innervations and is a critical component in the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis.

  17. Short-term reproducibility of impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes The ADDITION study, DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S S; Glümer, C; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    BG) individuals with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes had a second test done after 14 days. Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) were estimated in each glucose tolerance class using the approximation CV(2)(x)=var(ln(x)). Bland-Altman plots with limits...... of agreement were made. In the total population, the CV(intra) was 7.9% and 13.8% for FBG and 2hBG, respectively. Limits of agreement ranged from -1.15 to 1.67mmol/l for FBG and from - 2.62 to 3.27mmol/l for 2hBG. One individual with IFG and 22.5% with IGT had diabetes at the second test, 76.1% with diabetes...... persistently classified with abnormal glucose regulation; diabetes was confirmed in 76% of the cases. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-12...

  18. Persistent abnormal coronary flow reserve in association with abnormal glucose metabolism affects prognosis in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in coronary flow reserve (CFR) over time after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to left ventricular (LV) function and glucometabolic state and prognostic implication of abnormal CFR. Methods: 154 patients with first time AMI had a comprehensive...... baseline CFR (P = 0.004), S' (P = 0.045) and abnormal glucose metabolism (P = 0.001) were predictors of a decreased CFR at 3 months of follow-up. In multivariate analyses abnormal glucose metabolism (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.9-14.4; P = 0.001) remained a predictor of decreased CFR at follow-up, furthermore...... baseline CFR (OR: 0.5; 95%CI: 0.25-0.94; P = 0.032) and S' (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.94; P = 0.021) was predictors of decreased CFR. Finally, CFR was associated with a lower risk of cardiac events in patients with normal glucose metabolism (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.22-1.9; P = 0.42) than in patients...

  19. Improvements in glucose tolerance with Bikram Yoga in older obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stacy D; Dhindsa, Mandeep; Cunningham, Emily; Tarumi, Takashi; Alkatan, Mohammed; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Bikram yoga is an exotic form of physical activity combining hatha yoga and thermal therapy that could positively impact metabolic health. Although this increasingly popular alternative exercise may be ideal for obese adults due to its low impact nature, few studies have elucidated the health benefits associated with it. As an initial step, we determined the effect of Bikram yoga on glucose tolerance. Fourteen young lean and 15 older obese subjects completed an 8-week Bikram yoga intervention in which classes were completed 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was assessed using a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The area under the glucose curve following the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced as a result of the Bikram Yoga intervention in older obese (P yoga intervention improved glucose tolerance in older obese, but not in young lean adults.

  20. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  1. Cacao liquor procyanidin extract improves glucose tolerance by enhancing GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Yoko; Okabe, Masaaki; Natsume, Midori; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are associated with the increased risk of the metabolic syndrome and other severe health problems. The insulin-sensitive GLUT4 regulates glucose homoeostasis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated whether cacao liquor procyanidin (CLPr) extract, which contains epicatechin, catechin and other procyanidins, improves glucose tolerance by promoting GLUT4 translocation and enhances glucose uptake in muscle cells. Our results demo...

  2. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...

  3. Study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) : design and screening results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, M; Corpeleijn, E; Feskens, EJM; Kruijshoop, M; Saris, WHM; de Bruin, TWA; Blaak, EE

    2003-01-01

    The study on lifestyle-intervention and impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht (SLIM) is a 3 years randomised clinical trial designed to evaluate the effect of a combined diet and physical activity intervention program on glucose tolerance in a Dutch population at increased risk for developing type 2

  4. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fonville (Susanne); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.F. Lingsma (Hester)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiag

  5. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  6. St. John's wort impairs glucose tolerance by reducing insulin response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions; A: Baseline, B: After 21 days...

  7. A case of spontaneous hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in the same patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-01-31

    We present a rare case of an insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2)-secreting tumour of the thorax. This patient demonstrated the combination of fasting hypoglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance on oral glucose tolerance testing, which has not been previously described in this condition. A review of the literature of IGF-2-secreting intrathoracic tumours is presented here.

  8. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test.......This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test....

  9. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  10. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  11. Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Resistance in Isolated Impaired Fasting Glucose and Isolated Impaired Glucose Tolerance

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    Sae Aoyama-Sasabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the characteristics of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG, we analyzed the factors responsible for elevation of 2-hour postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG and fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels. Methods. We investigated the relationship between 2 h PG and FPG levels who underwent 75 g OGTT in 5620 Japanese subjects at initial examination for medical check-up. We compared clinical characteristics between isolated IGT and isolated IFG and analyzed the relationships of 2 h PG and FPG with clinical characteristics, the indices of insulin secretory capacity, and insulin sensitivity. Results. In a comparison between isolated IGT and isolated IFG, insulinogenic index was lower in isolated IGT than that of isolated IFG (0.43 ± 0.34 versus 0.50 ± 0.47, resp.; p<0.01. ISI composite was lower in isolated IFG than that of isolated IGT (6.87 ± 3.38 versus 7.98 ± 4.03, resp.; p<0.0001. In isolated IGT group, insulinogenic index showed a significant correlation with 2 h PG (r=-0.245, p<0.0001 and had the strongest correlation with 2 h PG (β=-0.290. In isolated IFG group, ISI composite showed a significant correlation with FPG (r=-0.162, p<0.0001 and had the strongest correlation with FPG (β=-0.214. Conclusions. We have elucidated that decreased early-phase insulin secretion is the most important factor responsible for elevation of 2 h PG levels in isolated IGT subjects, and decreased insulin sensitivity is the most important factor responsible for elevation of FPG levels in isolated IFG subjects.

  12. Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with reduced left ventricular contractile reserve and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, M; Kistorp, C N; Schou, M;

    2013-01-01

    years, 69% male, 59% had ischaemic heart disease, mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 37 ± 9%). Thirty-four (21%) patients had known diabetes mellitus (DM). Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) classified patients without a prior DM diagnosis as normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance......AIMS: To investigate the associations between glucose metabolism, left ventricular (LV) contractile reserve, and exercise capacity in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: From an outpatient HF clinic, 161 patients with systolic HF were included (mean age 70 ± 10...... detected by OGTT, is independently associated with reduced LV contractile reserve and exercise...

  13. Circulating Betatrophin Correlates with Triglycerides and Postprandial Glucose among Different Glucose Tolerance Statuses--A Case-Control Study.

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    Ting Gao

    Full Text Available Previous researches of betatrophin on glucose and lipids metabolism under insulin-resistant condition have reached controversial conclusions. To further identify the possible impact of betatrophin, we measured the circulating betatrophin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients, and in subjects with both impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and normal glucose tolerance (NGT and investigated the relationship between serum betatrophin and other clinical parameters in these patients with different glucose tolerance statuses.A total of 460 permanent residents of the Fengxian District, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. Based on the results of a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, we selected newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 50 patients and subjects with IGT (n = 51 and NGT (n = 50 according to their age, gender and body mass index (18-28 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood lipids and fasting insulin were measured. Serum betatrophin concentrations were determined via ELISA.Serum betatrophin levels in T2DM patients were increased significantly compared with IGT and NGT groups, and decreased in subjects with better islet beta cell function. Serum betatrophin was positively correlated with triglyceride, 2-hour postprandial glucose, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index in all subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed that 2-hour postprandial glucose was independently associated with serum betatrophin significantly.Circulating betatrophin is increased in newly-diagnosed T2DM patients and positively correlated with the triglycerides and postprandial glucose levels. The results suggest that betatrophin may participate in glucose and triglycerides metabolism.

  14. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, and decreased late postprandial secretion of ghrelin. CONCLUSION: Dietary thylakoids may be a novel agent in reducing the glycaemic responses to high carbohydrate and high glycaemic index foods. Thylakoids may in the future be promising for treatment and prevention of diabetes, overweight and obesity....

  15. Exogenous glucose administration impairs glucose tolerance and pancreatic insulin secretion during acute sepsis in non-diabetic mice.

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    Yoshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The development of hyperglycemia and the use of early parenteral feeding are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. We therefore examined the impact of exogenous glucose administration on the integrated metabolic function of endotoxemic mice using our recently developed frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT. We next extended our findings using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP sepsis model administered early parenteral glucose support. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice, 8-12 weeks, were instrumented with chronic indwelling arterial and venous catheters. Endotoxemia was initiated with intra-arterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg in the presence of saline or glucose infusion (100 µL/hr, and an FSIVGTT was performed after five hours. In a second experiment, catheterized mice underwent CLP and the impact of early parenteral glucose administration on glucose homeostasis and mortality was assessed over 24 hrs. MEASUREMENTS: AND MAIN RESULTS: Administration of LPS alone did not impair metabolic function, whereas glucose administration alone induced an insulin sensitive state. In contrast, LPS and glucose combined caused marked glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and significantly impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. Similarly, CLP mice receiving parenteral glucose developed fulminant hyperglycemia within 18 hrs (all > 600 mg/dl associated with increased systemic cytokine release and 40% mortality, whereas CLP alone (85 ± 2 mg/dL or sham mice receiving parenteral glucose (113 ± 3 mg/dL all survived and were not hyperglycemic. Despite profound hyperglycemia, plasma insulin in the CLP glucose-infused mice (3.7 ± 1.2 ng/ml was not higher than sham glucose infused mice (2.1 ± 0.3 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of parenteral glucose support and the systemic inflammatory response in the acute phase of sepsis induces profound insulin resistance and impairs compensatory pancreatic insulin

  16. Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Healthy Men Treated with St. John's Wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Nielsen, Lene Buch-Krogh; Højlund, Kurt; Brøsen, Kim

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the over-the-counter herbal medicinal plant St. John's wort affects glucose tolerance in healthy men. To do this, we included 10 healthy men who were examined by a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test on three occasions: A: baseline; B: after 21 days of treatment with St. John's wort; and C: at least 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was ingested. Plasma glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test and used for estimation of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) as well as indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. We found that treatment with St. John's wort increased total and incremental glucose AUC and 2-hr plasma glucose levels. Surprisingly, this effect was sustained and even further increased 6 weeks after the last capsule of St. John's wort was taken. No effect on indices of insulin sensitivity was seen, but indices of insulin secretion were reduced even after adjustment for insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study indicates that long-term treatment with St. John's wort may impair glucose tolerance by reducing insulin secretion in young, healthy men. The unregulated use of this over-the-counter drug might be a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S;

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects......). Plasma levels of GLP-1 and GIP increased after oral glucose. Total secretion of these incretin hormones during the 3-hour test did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the 30-minute increase in GLP-1 concentrations was lower in IGT than in NGT (P =.036). We conclude that also in non-obese subjects...

  18. A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Romaiyan, A; King, A J; Persaud, S J; Jones, P M

    2013-07-01

    Herbal medicines, especially plant-derived extracts, have been used to treat Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for many centuries, and offer the potential of cheap and readily available alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals in developing countries. Extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) have anti-diabetic activities and have been used as a folk medicine in India for centuries. We have investigated the effects of a novel high molecular weight GS extract termed OSA® on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice, and on insulin secretion and synthesis by isolated mouse islets. Single administration of OSA® (500 mg/kg) to ob/ob mice 30 min before an intraperitoneal glucose load improved their abnormal glucose tolerance. In vitro studies indicated that OSA® (0.25 mg/ml) initiated rapid and reversible increases in insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets at substimulatory (2 mM) and stimulatory (20 mM) glucose concentrations. In addition, prolonged treatment (24-48 h) of mouse islets with OSA® elevated the expression of preproinsulin mRNA and maintained the total insulin content of mouse islets in the presence of stimulated insulin secretion. These effects of OSA® are consistent with its potential use as a therapy for the hyperglycemia associated with obesity-related T2DM.

  19. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    of lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. RESULTS: After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels...... RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose...... program: Food, Fitness & Pharma for Health and Disease (see www.foodfitnesspharma.ku.dk ). Funding was received from the Novo Nordisk foundation and the Strategic Research Counsel for the Capital Area and Danish Research Agency. The primary investigator received a PhD scholarship from the University...

  20. Diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia in an elderly population - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Pols, HAP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, PTVM; Hofman, A; Grobbee, DE

    1997-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in the elderly, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed as part of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study in subjects aged 55 years and over, The study population consisted of 2,668 men and 3,950 women, Diabetes mellitus was defined as the

  1. A Novel EPO Receptor Agonist Improves Glucose Tolerance via Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle in a Mouse Model of Diabetes

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    Michael S. Scully

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients treated with recombinant human Epo demonstrate an improvement in insulin sensitivity. We aimed to investigate whether CNTO 530, a novel Epo receptor agonist, could affect glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. A single administration of CNTO 530 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the area under the curve in a glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese and diabetic mice after 14, 21, and 28 days. HOMA analysis suggested an improvement in insulin sensitivity, and this effect was confirmed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Uptake of 14C-2-deoxy-D-glucose indicated that animals dosed with CNTO 530 transported more glucose into skeletal muscle and heart relative to control animals. In conclusion, CNTO530 has a profound effect on glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rodents likely because of improving peripheral insulin sensitivity. This effect was observed with epoetin-α and darbepoetin-α, suggesting this is a class effect, but the effect with these compounds relative to CNTO530 was decreased in duration and magnitude.

  2. Hemoglobin A1c Versus Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Postpartum Diabetes Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Picón, María José; Murri, Mora; Muñoz, Araceli; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Francisco J Tinahones

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the usefulness of measuring hemoglobin A1c (A1C), alone or combined with the fasting glucose test, compared with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the reassessment of the carbohydrate metabolism status in postpartum women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated the status of carbohydrate metabolism by performing the OGTT and fasting glucose and A1C tests in 231 postpartum women with prior GDM 1 year after ...

  3. Predictors of cardiovascular events in a contemporary population with impaired glucose tolerance : an observational analysis of the Nateglinide and Valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research (NAVIGATOR) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preiss, David; Thomas, Laine E.; Sun, Jie-Lena; Haffner, Steven M.; Holman, Rury R.; Standl, Eberhard; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Mazzone, Theodore; Rutten, Guy E.; Tognoni, Gianni; Martinez, Felipe A.; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Califf, Robert M.; McMurray, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Risk factors for cardiovascular events are well established in general populations and those with diabetes but have been sparsely studied in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We sought to identify predictors of (1) a composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myoca

  4. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance...... unchanged BMI compared to baseline but increased fasting and 2 hour glucose levels. Impaired OGTT outcome during follow-up was seen in 14/66 (21.2%) women, 5/66 (7.6%) developed diabetes. Women who took oral contraceptives had a significantly decreased area under the curve (AUC) for insulin during follow...

  5. Utility of hemoglobin A1c to screen for impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy K. Ginting

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Childhood obesity is associated with an increased likelihood for having impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c has emerged as a recommended diagnostic tool for identifying diabetes and persons at risk for the disease. This recommendation was based on data in adults, showing the relationship between HbA1C and the future development of diabetes. However, studies in the pediatric population have been limited and no standard values of HbA1c levels in children have been established. Objective To evaluate HbA1c as a test for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents and to identify the optimal HbA1c threshold level (cut off point. Methods We studied 65 obese and 4 overweight children (BMI ≥ +2 SD for age and gender aged 10-15 years in Palembang. All subjects underwent HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance tests. Results Nineteen out of 69 subjects (28% had impaired glucose tolerance. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve, the optimal cut off point of HbA1c related to impaired glucose tolerance as diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test was found to be 5.25%, with 63% sensitivity and 64% specificity, 40% positive predictive value, and 82% negative predictive value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.687 (95%CI 0.541–0.833; P < 0.001. Conclusion A HbA1c cut off value of 5.25% may be used as a screening tool to identify children and adolescents with impaired glucose tolerance. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:223-6.].

  6. Morphological and glucose metabolism abnormalities in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome: group comparisons and individual analyses.

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    Anne-Lise Pitel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gray matter volume studies have been limited to few brain regions of interest, and white matter and glucose metabolism have received limited research attention in Korsakoff's syndrome (KS. Because of the lack of brain biomarkers, KS was found to be underdiagnosed in postmortem studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine consecutively selected patients with KS and 22 matched controls underwent both structural magnetic resonance imaging and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography examinations. Using a whole-brain analysis, the between-group comparisons of gray matter and white matter density and relative glucose uptake between patients with KS and controls showed the involvement of both the frontocerebellar and the Papez circuits, including morphological abnormalities in their nodes and connection tracts and probably resulting hypometabolism. The direct comparison of the regional distribution and degree of gray matter hypodensity and hypometabolism within the KS group indicated very consistent gray matter distribution of both abnormalities, with a single area of significant difference in the middle cingulate cortex showing greater hypometabolism than hypodensity. Finally, the analysis of the variability in the individual patterns of brain abnormalities within our sample of KS patients revealed that the middle cingulate cortex was the only brain region showing significant GM hypodensity and hypometabolism in each of our 9 KS patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate widespread brain abnormalities in KS including both gray and white matter damage mainly involving two brain networks, namely, the fronto-cerebellar circuit and the Papez circuit. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the middle cingulate cortex may play a key role in the pathophysiology of KS and could be considered as a potential in vivo brain biomarker.

  7. Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

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    Grabczewska Zofia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although European guidelines advise oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI before or shortly after hospital discharge, data supporting this recommendation are inconclusive. We aimed to analyze whether disturbances in glucose metabolism diagnosed before hospital discharge in AMI patients represents a latent pre-existing condition or rather temporary finding. Additionally, we planned to investigate the value of pre-selected glycemic control parameters as predictors of long-term glucometabolic state. Methods We assessed admission glycemia, glycated hemoglobin, mean blood glucose concentration on days 1 and 2 in 200 patients with a first AMI but without overt disturbances of glucose metabolism. We also performed OGTT at discharge and 3 months after discharge. Results The prevalence of disturbances in glucose metabolism (as assessed by OGTT at 3 months was significantly lower than at discharge (29% vs. 48%, p = 0.0001. Disturbances in glucose metabolism were not confirmed in 63% of patients with impaired glucose tolerance and in 36% of patients with diabetes mellitus diagnosed during the acute phase of AMI. Age >77 years, glucose ≥12.06 mmol/l at 120 minutes during OGTT before discharge and mean blood glucose level on day 2 >7.5 mmol/l were identified as independent predictors of disturbances in glucose metabolism at the 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Disturbances in glucose metabolism observed in patients with a first AMI are predominantly transient. Elderly age, high plasma glucose concentration at 120 minutes during OGTT at discharge and elevated mean blood glucose level on day 2 were associated with sustained disturbances in glucose metabolism.

  8. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  9. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

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    Theresa Schöttl

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance.

  10. [The effects of indigestible dextrin on sugar tolerance: III. Improvement in sugar tolerance by indigestible dextrin on the impaired glucose tolerance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, S

    1993-06-20

    Recently developed, Indigestible Dextrin (PF-C) is a low viscosity, water-soluble dietary fiber obtained by heating and enzyme-treatment of potato starch. It has an average molecular weight of 1600. Results from methylation analysis via gas chromatography show the indigestible portion to be a dextrin composed of alpha-1.4, alpha-1.6, beta-1.2, beta-1.3, and beta-1.6 glucosidic bonds and 1.6-anhydro-beta-D-glucose (levoglucosan) as part of the reducing terminal. Physiological attributes such as an improvement in sucrose tolerance and a reduction in blood lipid levels have since been demonstrated. In this study to establish a dose response for PF-C on blood glucose and insulin levels following a sucrose load, administration studies were conducted on normal rats and rats with impaired glucose tolerance. The results are summarized as follows: 1) To estimate an effective dose of PF-C on the reduction in blood glucose and insulin levels following an oral sucrose load, an oral sucrose (1.5g/kg body weight) tolerance test was conducted on rats. The increase in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following a sucrose+PF-C (0.075, 0.15, 0.60, and 1.5g/kg body weight) load was significantly lower compared to the sucrose load. The results show that the most effective dose of PF-C was found to be 0.15g/kg body weight. 2) Another sucrose tolerance test was conducted on three different rat model groups with drug or diet induced impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose tolerance was achieved by injecting one group with streptozotocin at 1.5 days (60mg/kg body weight); a second group was injected at seven weeks (30mg/kg body weight), and a third group was fed on a high (65%) sucrose diet. For this sucrose tolerance test, the adult (7-week) streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and the high-sucrose diet rats on concurrent administrations of PF-C (0.15g/kg body weight) showed decreases in both plasma glucose and insulin levels following a sucrose (1.5g/kg body weight) load. For

  11. Predictors of incretin concentrations in subjects with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmer, Kirsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Baller, Birgit;

    2008-01-01

    endogenous factors are associated with the concentrations of GLP-1? In particular, do elevated fasting glucose or glucagon levels diminish GLP-1 responses? RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with mild type 2 diabetes, 17 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, and 14 matched control subjects...... three groups in both experiments. GIP responses were 186 +/- 17% higher after mixed meal ingestion than after the oral glucose load (P fasting glucagon and integrated FFA levels...... and subsequent GLP-1 concentrations. In contrast, fasting FFA and integrated glucagon levels after glucose or meal ingestion and female sex were positively related to GLP-1 concentrations. Incretin levels were unrelated to measures of glucose control or insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Deteriorations in glucose...

  12. Glucose tolerance of pregnant sows is related to postnatal pig mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, B; Soede, N M; Vesseur, P C; Helmond, F A; Spoorenberg, J H; Frankena, K

    1996-04-01

    An experiment was conducted on three farms to study the relationship between the results of an oral glucose tolerance test on d 104 +/- 4 of pregnancy and subsequent reproductive performance of 104 multiparous sows. After an overnight period without feed, sows were fed (3 g/kg BW.75) glucose, and blood samples were taken for analyses of glucose at -10, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 70, 80, 90, 105, and 120 min after administration of glucose. Glucose concentrations before glucose administration ranged from 2.0 to 3.6 mmol/L. Sows with lesser pretest glucose concentrations had longer (P < .01) durations of pregnancy (corrected for number of live pigs born) and heavier (P < .05) pigs at birth (corrected for farm and number of live pigs born). Peak glucose concentrations and areas under the curves (i.e., first 70 min and entire 120 min) ranged from .1 to 4.4 mmol/L, -40 to 211 (mmol/L).min, and -95 to 247 (mmol/L).min, respectively. Sows with greater (P < .01) peak concentration of glucose and greater area under the curve (first 70 min [P < .01] and entire 120 min [P < .01]) had increased pig mortality during the first 7 d after farrowing (corrected for live weight of the sows). In 83 sows, a sample of morning urine (before feeding) was collected and tested for glucose and ketone bodies. Neither glucose nor the ketone body acetoacetic acid was detected in the urine. The results indicate that sows that are less glucose-tolerant have greater pig mortality.

  13. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

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    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  14. Detecting Prediabetes and Diabetes: Agreement between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Thai Adults

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate an agreement in identifying dysglycemia between fasting plasma glucose (FPG and the 2 hr postprandial glucose tolerance test (OGTT in a population with high risk of diabetes. Methods. A total of 6,884 individuals aged 35–65 years recruited for a community-based diabetes prevention program were tested for prediabetes including impaired fasting glucose (IFG or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and diabetes. The agreement was assessed by Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with missed prediabetes and diabetes by FPG. Results. A total of 2671 (38.8% individuals with prediabetes were identified. The prevalence of prediabetes identified by FPG and OGTT was 32.2% and 22.3%, respectively. The proportions of diabetes classified by OGTT were two times higher than those identified by FPG (11.0% versus 5.4%, resp.. The Kappa statistics for agreement of both tests was 0.55. Overall, FPG missed 46.3% of all prediabetes and 54.7% of all diabetes cases. Prediabetes was more likely to be missed by FPG among female, people aged <45 yrs, and those without family history of diabetes. Conclusion. The detection of prediabetes and diabetes using FPG only may miss half of the cases. Benefit of adding OGTT to FPG in some specific groups should be confirmed.

  15. Plasma myeloperoxidase is inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation in elderly subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Leonard P; Teerlink, Tom; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Henry, Ronald M A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Heine, Robert J; Scheffer, Peter G

    2010-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a biomarker related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and nitric oxide scavenging, has been shown to impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Because elevated hydrogen peroxide concentrations in diabetic vessels may enhance MPO activity, we hypothesized that a stronger association of MPO with flow-mediated dilation (FMD) may be found in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. Myeloperoxidase concentrations were measured in EDTA plasma samples from participants of a population-based cohort study, including 230 subjects with normal glucose metabolism and 386 with abnormal glucose metabolism. Vascular function was expressed as FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. In subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, MPO was negatively associated with FMD (-20.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -41.7 to -0.2] -μm change in FMD per SD increment of MPO). This association remained significant after adjustment for nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (-31.1 [95% CI, -50.0 to -12.3]) and was not attenuated after further adjustment for established risk factors. In subjects with normal glucose metabolism, MPO was not significantly associated with FMD (2.0 [95% CI, -16.0 to 20.0]). In conclusion, in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, plasma levels of MPO are inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation, possibly reflecting enhancement of MPO activity by vascular oxidative stress.

  16. Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after...

  17. Value of oral glucose tolerance test in the acute phase of myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Grabczewska Zofia; Bronisz Marek; Kubica Aldona; Sukiennik Adam; Swiatkiewicz Iwona; Gierach Joanna; Fabiszak Tomasz; Magielski Przemyslaw; Kozinski Marek; Bronisz Agata; Sinkiewicz Anna; Junik Roman; Kubica Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although European guidelines advise oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before or shortly after hospital discharge, data supporting this recommendation are inconclusive. We aimed to analyze whether disturbances in glucose metabolism diagnosed before hospital discharge in AMI patients represents a latent pre-existing condition or rather temporary finding. Additionally, we planned to investigate the value of pre-selected glyc...

  18. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Gunton

    Full Text Available AIMS AND HYPOTHESIS: Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. METHODS: Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. RESULTS: Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  19. THE EFFECT OF AVOCADO (PERSEA AMERICANA MILL. LEAVES EXTRACT TOWARDS THE MOUSE'S BLOOD GLUCOSE DECREASE WITH THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirly Kumala*, Hesty Utami and Wahyu Kartika Sari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in blood glucose level test with the use of oral glucose tolerance method from Avocado leaves was carried out. Swiss Webster male mice were divided randomly into five groups. They were negative control, positive control (Glipizide 0.013 mg/20 g BW and three test groups treated with dosage of avocado leaves ethanol extract 0.490 g/kg, 0.980 g/kg and 1.960 g /BW respectively. Experiment was begun with feeding the mice with the test solution followed by feeding glucose solution (1.5 g/kg BW 30 minutes later. Blood glucose levels were assessed using glucometer kit, from zero to 3 hours, at ½ hourly interval. These results analysed by one way ANOVA showed there were significant difference (p<0.05 between Ethanol extract of avocado leaves treated with mice (0.490, 0.980 g/kg BW and control groups. Furthermore, when Tukey’s test was performed, avocado treated mice (1.960g/kg BW reduce glucose level to 64.27%. The effectiveness of this treatment was not significantly different to those treated with glipizide (68.50%.

  20. Acute effects of light and dark roasted coffee on glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rakvaag, Elin; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee contains caffeine and several other components that may modulate glucose regulation. The chlorogenic acids (CGA) in coffee have been indicated as constituents that may help...... to normalize the acute glucose response after a carbohydrate challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two coffee beverages that differ in CGA content due to different roasting degrees will differentially affect glucose regulation. METHODS: In a controlled crossover trial, 11 healthy fasted...... volunteers consumed 300 mL of either light (LIR) or dark (DAR) roasted coffee, or water, followed 30 min later by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 30, 60, and 120 min. Differences in glucose and insulin responses and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were...

  1. Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease: Relation to Autophagy/Mitophagy and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Kalpita; Munshi, Soumyabrata; Frank, David E.; Gibson, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Diminished glucose metabolism accompanies many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. An understanding of the relation of these metabolic changes to the disease will enable development of novel therapeutic strategies. Following a metabolic challenge, cells generally conserve energy to preserve viability. This requires activation of many cellular repair/regenerative processes such as mitophagy/autophagy and fusion/fission. These responses may diminish cell function in the long term. Prolonged fission induces mitophagy/autophagy which promotes repair but if prolonged progresses to mitochondrial degradation. Abnormal glucose metabolism alters protein signaling including the release of proteins from the mitochondria or migration of proteins from the cytosol to the mitochondria or nucleus. This overview provides an insight into the different mechanisms of autophagy/mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in response to the diminished metabolism that occurs with diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The review discusses multiple aspects of mitochondrial responses including different signaling proteins and pathways of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Improving cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial dynamics will alter protein signaling and improve cellular/mitochondrial repair and regeneration. An understanding of these changes will suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26077923

  2. Cocoa, glucose tolerance, and insulin signaling: cardiometabolic protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mai, Francesca; Martella, Letizia; De Feo, Martina; Soddu, Daniele; Fellini, Emanuela; Veneri, Mariangela; Stamerra, Cosimo A; Ferri, Claudio

    2015-11-18

    Experimental and clinical evidence reported that some polyphenol-rich natural products may offer opportunities for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, due to their biological properties. Natural products have been suggested to modulate carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as restoring β-cell integrity and physiology and enhancing insulin-releasing activity and glucose uptake. Endothelium is fundamental in regulating arterial function, whereas insulin resistance plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological mechanisms of prediabetic and diabetic states. Glucose and insulin actions in the skeletal muscle are improved by insulin-dependent production of nitric oxide, favoring capillary recruitment, vasodilatation, and increased blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction, with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability, is a critical step in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, insulin resistance has been described, at least in part, to negatively affect endothelial function. Consistent with this, conditions of insulin resistance are usually linked to endothelial dysfunction, and the exposure of the endothelial cells to cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability, resulting in impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction has been described as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and cocoa flavonoids may positively affect the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction with possible benefits in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  3. Intima-Media Thickness of Carotid Artery is Associated with Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in Elderly Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-na Zhang; Can Cui; Ying Fan; Man-li Chang; Wei Wu; Wei-gang Yu; Ning Tan; Feng-chen Liu; Jin-chao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Previous studies have shown that patients with type 2 diabetes and even those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)have marked higher risk of atherosclerosis than nondiabetic subjects. The relationship between carotid atherosclerosis intima-media thickness (IMT) with glucose tolerance status and insulin sensitivity was studied in the elderly Chinese subjects.

  4. Impaired glucose tolerance in midlife and longitudinal changes in brain function during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; Beason-Held, Lori L; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael; Metter, Jeffrey; Egan, Josephine; Ferrucci, Luigi; O'Brien, Richard; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-10-01

    We investigated whether individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in midlife subsequently show regionally specific longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) relative to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Sixty-four cognitively normal participants in the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent serial (15)O-water positron emission tomography scans (age at first scan, 69.6 ± 7.5 years) and oral glucose tolerance tests 12 years earlier (age at first oral glucose tolerance test, 57.2 ± 11.1 years). Using voxel-based analysis, we compared changes in rCBF over an 8-year period between 15 participants with IGT in midlife and 49 with NGT. Significant differences were observed in longitudinal change in rCBF between the IGT and NGT groups. The predominant pattern was greater rCBF decline in the IGT group in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Some brain regions in the frontal and temporal cortices also showed greater longitudinal increments in rCBF in the IGT group. Our findings suggest that IGT in midlife is associated with subsequent longitudinal changes in brain function during aging even in cognitively normal older individuals.

  5. Butter improves glucose tolerance compared with at highly polyunsaturated diet in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    -fat on glucose-tolerance in intervention studies. Methods: 16 rats were divided into two groups and fed a semisynthetic diet containing 31 E-% fat, either as butter or highly polyunsaturated grapeseed oil. After 12 weeks on the diets, glucose-tolerance was assayed with the oral-glucose tolerance test (OGTT......). Results and Discussion: The OGTT revealed that the rats on the butter-containing diet, had a substantially higher glucose tolerance than the rats, which were fed grapeseed oil (area under the curve =195  31 mM*min-2 vs. 310  13 mM*min-2, n= 8, p=0.004). There were no differences in serum triacylglycerol...... (TAG), serum free fatty acid and leptin between the groups. However, the butter-fed rats had a lower content of TAG in the white gastrocnemius muscle (7.7  1.5 vs. 23.1  6.2 mg/g tissue, p=0.01), and a much higher n-3 PUFA content (total n-3 PUFAs 1,43  0.06 vs 0.73  0.02g/mg tissue, p

  6. Preliminary validation of an exercise program suitable for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism: inhibitory effects of Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise on plasma glucose elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Sachina; Kagawa, Kyoko; Hori, Naohi; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There is insufficient evidence related to exercise programs that are safe and efficacious for pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise is an exercise program with validated safety and efficacy in improving physical function in the elderly. In this study, we investigated this program’s inhibitory effects on plasma glucose elevation when it was adapted to a pregnancy model. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve 18- to 19-year-old females without a history of pregnancy were randomly assorted into two groups: an intervention group, for which six subjects were outfitted with mock-pregnancy suits and asked to perform Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise, and a control group who did not perform exercise. The intervention group had a mean Borg Scale score of 11.1 ± 0.9 during the exercise. [Results] No significant intragroup differences were observed in fasting, baseline, or post-intervention/observation plasma glucose levels. On the other hand, the intergroup change in plasma glucose levels after intervention/observation was significant when comparing the intervention and control groups: −1.66 ± 7.0 and 9.42 ± 6.57 mg/dl, respectively. [Conclusion] Tai Chi Yuttari-exercise appears to effectively inhibit plasma glucose elevation at intensity and movement levels that can be safely applied to pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism. PMID:28174463

  7. Angelica dahurica Extracts Improve Glucose Tolerance through the Activation of GPR119.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Park

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor (GPR 119 is expressed in pancreatic β-cells and intestinal L cells, and is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 release, respectively. Therefore, the development of GPR119 agonists is a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes. We screened 1500 natural plant extracts for GPR119 agonistic actions and investigated the most promising extract, that from Angelica dahurica (AD, for hypoglycemic actions in vitro and in vivo. Human GPR119 activation was measured in GeneBLAzer T-Rex GPR119-CRE-bla CHO-K1 cells; intracellular cAMP levels and insulin secretion were measured in INS-1 cells; and GLP-1 release was measured in GLUTag cells. Glucose tolerance tests and serum plasma insulin levels were measured in normal C57BL6 mice and diabetic db/db mice. AD extract-treated cells showed significant increases in GPR119 activation, intracellular cAMP levels, GLP-1 levels and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as compared with controls. In normal mice, a single treatment with AD extract improved glucose tolerance and increased insulin secretion. Treatment with multiple doses of AD extract or n-hexane fraction improved glucose tolerance in diabetic db/db mice. Imperatorin, phellopterin and isoimperatorin were identified in the active fraction of AD extract. Among these, phellopterin activated GPR119 and increased active GLP-1 and insulin secretion in vitro and enhanced glucose tolerance in normal and db/db mice. We suggest that phellopterin might have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Chromium status and glucose tolerance in Saudi men with and without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Bahjri, Suhad M; Ahmed, Waqar H; Al-Ama, Nabeel; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2009-12-01

    Chromium deficiency is associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and dyslipidemia. Hence, the objective of the current study was to investigate chromium status among Saudi men with and without established cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its relationship to glucose tolerance, lipid profile and other established CVD risk factors. We measured serum and urine chromium concentrations, fasted lipid profile, plasma glucose, and serum lipid peroxide in 130 Saudi men with an established history of myocardial infarction and 130 age-matched controls without established CVD. Patients with established CVD had higher serum triglycerides (p < 0.05) and plasma glucose (p < 0.0001) and lower serum and urinary chromium concentrations (p < 0.0001) than controls. Serum chromium was inversely correlated with plasma glucose among cases and controls (r = -0.189, p < 0.05 and r = -0.354, p < 0.00001, respectively). Plasma glucose (OR 1.127, CI 1.0-1.269, p < 0.05), serum chromium (OR 0.99, CI 0.985-0.995, p < 0.0001), and urinary chromium (OR 0.988, CI 0.981-0.995, p < 0.001) were independently associated with the presence of established coronary disease applying this model. While chromium metabolism appears to be altered in individuals with CVD, it is unclear whether chromium supplementation would be effective in CVD prevention among patients with IGT. This would need to be tested in long-term outcome trials.

  9. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive nerves in regulation of insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in conscious mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, Sven; Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.; Ahrén, Bo

    1994-01-01

    The impact of sensory nerves in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose tolerance was investigated in conscious mice treated neonatally with either capsaicin (Cap) or vehicle (Veh). At 10-12 wk after Cap, both the early (1 min) insulin secretory response to intravenous glucose (2.8 mmol/kg)

  10. Glucose tolerance and weight loss in obese women with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Gilardini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with glucose intolerance and the beneficial effect of lifestyle intervention have been poorly investigated in women particularly before menopausal status. The study explored 1 whether OSA is associated with impaired glucose homeostasis in obese non diabetic premenopausal and menopausal women and 2 the effects of a 3- month lifestyle intervention on glucose homeostasis in OSA women. DESIGN AND METHODS: We consecutively recruited 98 obese women (39 premenopausal from those referred for a weight loss intervention. Ambulatory nocturnal polysomnography, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity and β cell function were assessed before and after intervention. RESULTS: 41% of premenopausal and 64% of menopausal women had OSA which was associated with worse glucose homeostasis before menopausal status. Mean and minimal nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2 was associated with neck/height ratio (NHR, independently of total and central obesity. Mean and minimal nocturnal SaO2 and NHR were correlated with insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose. In multivariate analyses, nocturnal mean SaO2 was negatively and independently correlated with fasting glucose (p<0.0001 and NHR with insulin sensitivity (p<0.0001. In OSA women, the intervention induced a 5% weight reduction and a significant increase in minimal nocturnal SaO2, insulin sensitivity and β cell function. Changes in fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity were associated with those in minimal nocturnal SaO2 (p<0.05 and not with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: In obese women, glucose homeostasis worsens due to nocturnal hypoxia and increased neck circumference through mechanisms partially independent of obesity. OSA is more clearly associated with glucose intolerance in premenopausal than in menopausal women. In OSA women, the improvement of nocturnal hypoxia induced by lifestyle modifications is associated with that of

  11. All-cause cancer mortality over 15 years in multi-ethnic Mauritius: the impact of diabetes and intermediate forms of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica L; Soderberg, Stefan; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Pauvaday, Vassen; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Alberti, K George M M; J Magliano, Dianna

    2012-11-15

    There are accumulating data describing the association between diabetes and cancer mortality from Westernised populations. There are no data describing the relationship between diabetes and cancer mortality in African or South Asian populations from developing countries. We explored the relationship of abnormal glucose tolerance and diabetes on cancer mortality risk in a large, multi-ethnic cohort from the developing nation of Mauritius. Population-based surveys were undertaken in 1987, 1992 and 1998. The 9559 participants comprised 66% of South Asian (Indian), 27% of African (Creole), and 7% of Chinese descent. Cox's proportional hazards model with time varying covariates was used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk of cancer mortality, after adjustment for confounding factors. In men, but not women, cancer mortality risk increased with rising 2h-PG levels with HR for the top versus bottom quintile of 2.77 (95%CI: 1.28 to 5.98). South Asian men with known diabetes had a significantly greater risk of cancer mortality than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) HR: 2.74 (95%CI: 1.00-7.56). Overall, impaired glucose tolerance was associated with an elevated risk of cancer mortality compared to NGT (HR: 1.47, 95% CI: 0.98-2.19), though this was not significant. We have shown that the association between abnormal glucose tolerance and cancer extends to those of African and South Asian descent. These results highlight the importance of understanding this relationship in a global context to direct future health policy given the rapid increase in type 2 diabetes, especially in developing nations.

  12. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  13. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT. PMID:27647185

  14. Gut microbiota modulation with norfloxacin and ampicillin enhances glucose tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrez, Mathieu; Blancher, Florence; Jaquet, Muriel; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Cani, Patrice D; Burcelin, Rémy G; Corthesy, Irène; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2008-07-01

    Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from dose-determination studies showed that a combination of norfloxacin and ampicillin, at a dose of 1 g/L, maximally suppressed the numbers of cecal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in ob/ob mice. After a 2-wk intervention with the antibiotic combination, both ob/ob and diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice showed a significant improvement in fasting glycemia and oral glucose tolerance. The improved glycemic control was independent of food intake or adiposity because pair-fed ob/ob mice were as glucose intolerant as the control ob/ob mice. Reduced liver triglycerides and increased liver glycogen correlated with improved glucose tolerance in the treated mice. Concomitant reduction of plasma lipopolysaccharides and increase of adiponectin further supported the antidiabetic effects of the antibiotic treatment in ob/ob mice. In summary, modulation of gut microbiota ameliorated glucose tolerance of mice by altering the expression of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in inflammation and metabolism, and by changing the hormonal, inflammatory, and metabolic status of the host.

  15. Sourdough-leavened bread improves postprandial glucose and insulin plasma levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Mario; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Sanna, Manuela; Cherchi, Sara; Dettori, Mariella; Manca, Elena; Farris, Giovanni Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Sourdough bread has been reported to improve glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. In this study postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were evaluated in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) who had a meal containing sourdough bread leavened with lactobacilli, in comparison to a reference meal containing bread leavened with baker yeast. Sixteen IGT subjects (age range 52-75, average BMI 29.9 +/- 4.2 kg/ m2) were randomly given a meal containing sourdough bread (A) and a meal containing the reference bread (B) in two separate occasions at the beginning of the study and after 7 days. Sourdough bread was leavened for 8 h using a starter containing autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several bacilli able to produce a significant amount of D-and L-lactic acid, whereas the reference bread was leavened for 2 h with commercial baker yeast containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured at time 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. In IGT subjects sourdough bread induced a significantly lower plasma glucose response at 30 minutes (p = 0.048) and a smaller incremental area under curve (AUC) delta 0-30 and delta 0-60 min (p = 0.020 and 0.018 respectively) in comparison to the bread leavened with baker yeast. Plasma insulin response to this type of bread showed lower values at 30 min (p = 0.045) and a smaller AUC delta 0-30 min (p = 0.018). This study shows that in subjects with IGT glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after the consumption of sourdough bread are lower than after the bread leavened with baker yeast. This effect is likely due to the lactic acid produced during dough leavening as well as the reduced availability of simple carbohydrates. Thus, sour-dough bread may potentially be of benefit in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism.

  16. Microbially produced glucagon-like peptide 1 improves glucose tolerance in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Tulika; Wegmann, Udo; Bobhate, Anup;

    2016-01-01

    of the gluconeogenic genes G6pc and Pepck. RESULTS: Insulin release from primary islets of WT but not GLP1R-KO mice was higher following incubation with culture supernatant from LL-GLP1 compared with LL-UK200. In mice on chow, supplementation with LL-GLP1 versus LL-UK200 promoted increased vena porta levels of GLP-1...... (GLP1R-KO) mice with culture supernatant of these strains. In addition, we administered these strains to mice on chow or HFD. At the end of the study period, we measured plasma GLP-1 levels, performed intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance tests, and determined hepatic expression...... in both WT and GLP1R-KO mice; however, LL-GLP1 promoted improved glucose tolerance in WT but not in GLP1R-KO mice, indicating a requirement for the GLP-1 receptor. In mice on HFD and thus with impaired glucose tolerance, supplementation with LL-GLP1 versus LL-UK200 promoted a pronounced improvement...

  17. Insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in persons with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance in the EUGENE2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic...

  18. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenbacher, E G; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-four volunteers, mean age 78, including eight mildly non-insulin-dependent diabetics, were randomly allocated to one of two groups and were fed (daily for 8 wk) 9 g of either chromium-rich brewers' yeast (experimental) or chromium-poor torula yeast (control). Before and after yeast supplementation, the serum glucose and insulin response to 100 g oral glucose was measured at 30 min intervals for 2 h. Fasting serum cholesterol, total lipids, and triglycerides were also determined. In the total experimental group (normals + diabetics) and in both the diabetic and nondiabetic experimental subgroups, glucose tolerance improved significantly and insulin output decreased after supplementation. Cholesterol and total lipids fell significantly after supplementation in the total experimental group. The cholesterol decrease was particularly marked in hypercholesterolemic subjects (cholesterol > 300 mg/dl). In the control group, no significant change in glucose tolerance, insulin, triglycerides, or total lipids was found. Cholesterol was significantly lowered in the nondiabetic but not in the diabetic group. Thus, chromium-rich brewers' yeast improved glucose tolerance and total lipids in elderly subjects, while chromium-poor torula yeast did not. An improvement in insulin sensitivity also occurred with brewers' yeast supplementation. This supports the thesis that elderly people may have a low level of chromium and that an effective source for chromium repletion, such as brewers' yeast, may improve their carbohydrate tolerance and total lipids. The improvement in serum cholesterol in some control subjects, as well as in the total experimental group, also suggests the presence of a hypocholesterolemic factor other than chromium in both brewers' and torula yeast.

  19. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  20. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  1. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...... regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice....

  2. Neuropatia vegetativa em pacientes com tolerância diminuída à glicose Autonomic neuropathy in patients with impaired glucose tolerance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Freire Rezende

    1997-01-01

    individuals (Group 2. Every patient in each group underwent anamnesis and standardized autonomic tests which consisted of hear frequency test, Valsalva maneuver, postural test and sinus arrythmia. Routine hematologic exams as well as GTT were also made. RESULTS: Patients in group 1 had more systemic arterial hypertension, centripetal obesity, fasting and post-feeding hyperglicemia and dyslipidemia when compared with group 2. When we analysed the autonomic tests, the sinus arrythmia test was abnormal in 54.5% of the patients in group 1 and in 32.5% in group 2 (p=0.0039 and the Valsalva maneuver was abnormal in 34.1% of group 1 and in 7% of group 2 (p=0.004. The postural test was not different in both groups (p=0.334. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the involvement of the autonomic nervous system was more frequent in patients with IGT when compared to controls. These findings can explair the increased lethality due to vasculopathies observed in this group of patients and also alert physicians to care for patients with impaired glucose tolerance test.

  3. Conversion from Tacrolimus to Cyclosporine A Improves Glucose Tolerance in HCV-Positive Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon Handisurya

    Full Text Available Calcineurin-inhibitors and hepatitis C virus (HCV infection increase the risk of post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Chronic HCV infection promotes insulin resistance rather than beta-cell dysfunction. The objective was to elucidate whether a conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A affects fasting and/or dynamic insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or all in HCV-positive renal transplant recipients.In this prospective, single-center study 10 HCV-positive renal transplant recipients underwent 2h-75g-oral glucose tolerance tests before and three months after the conversion of immunosuppression from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Established oral glucose tolerance test-based parameters of fasting and dynamic insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were calculated. Data are expressed as median (IQR.After conversion, both fasting and challenged glucose levels decreased significantly. This was mainly attributable to a significant amelioration of post-prandial dynamic glucose sensitivity as measured by the oral glucose sensitivity-index OGIS [422.17 (370.82-441.92 vs. 468.80 (414.27-488.57 mL/min/m2, p = 0.005, which also resulted in significant improvements of the disposition index (p = 0.017 and adaptation index (p = 0.017 as markers of overall glucose tolerance and beta-cell function. Fasting insulin sensitivity (p = 0.721, insulinogenic index as marker of first-phase insulin secretion [0.064 (0.032-0.106 vs. 0.083 (0.054-0.144 nmol/mmol, p = 0.093 and hepatic insulin extraction (p = 0.646 remained unaltered. No changes of plasma HCV-RNA levels (p = 0.285 or liver stiffness (hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation, p = 0.463 were observed after the conversion of immunosuppression.HCV-positive renal transplant recipients show significantly improved glucose-stimulated insulin sensitivity and overall glucose tolerance after conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A. Considering the HCV-induced insulin resistance, HCV-positive renal transplant

  4. Macrosomia in non-gestational diabetes pregnancy:glucose tolerance test characteristics and feto-maternal complications in tropical Asia Pacific Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Algenes Aranha; Usman H Malabu; Venkat Vangaveti; Elham Saleh Reda; Yong Mong Tan; Kunwarjit Singh Sangla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To look into the glucose tolerance test characteristics and determine complications in non-gestational diabetes pregnant subjects.Methods:who delivered macrosomia at the North Australia’s Townsville Hospital were retrospectively reviewed by extracting data from clinical record. Glucose tolerance tests results were analysed in the light of an earlier diagnosis of non-GDM. From 2006 to 2009 all non-gestational diabetes mellitus (non-GDM) pregnant women Results: Ninety-one non-GDM mothers with macrosomia were studied and compared with 41 normoglycemic subjects without macrosomia. Of the subjects with non-GDM macrosomia, 45 (49.4%) had normal 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) without further testing, another 8 (8.8%) had abnormal GCT but normal 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 4 (4.4%) subjects had normal GCT and OGTT. Interestingly, 14 out of 16 (87.5%) subjects who were tested with OGTT owing to past history of macrosomia had normal results but delivered macrosomic babies. Only 12 subjects had both GCT and OGTT, the rest of the cohort had either of the two tests. Subjects with non-GDM macrosomia had higher frequency of neonatal hypoglycaemia 34% as compared to 10% in non-macrosomic babies (P=0.003). Other feto-maternal complications were similar in both groups.Conclusions:No significant pattern of glucose tolerance characteristics was identified in non-GDM mothers with macrosomic babies. In spite of being normoglycemic significant neonatal hypoglycaemia was recorded in non-GDM macrosomic babies. Further prospective studies on a larger population are needed to verify our findings.

  5. Circulating ZBED3 level is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗涌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the plasma zinc-finger BED domain-containing 3(ZBED3)levels in subjects with different status of glucose tolerance,and to explore the relationship between ZBED3 and insulin resistance.Methods There were 109 patients with newly diagnosed type 2diabetes mellitus(T2DM),89 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT),113 sex-,age-,and body mass index(BMI)-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)included in this study.Plasma ZBED3 level

  6. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    . The associations of VAT and SATwith blood pressure and lipids were examined by linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex,smoking, alcohol, physical activity, glucose tolerance status (GTS), medication use, and body massindex. Effect modification by GTS and sex was examined, and stratified analyses performed......Context: Regional fat distribution rather than overall obesity has been recognized as important tounderstanding the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Objective:We examined the associations of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominalsubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound...

  7. Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, Peter; Sørensen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy overweight or obesity in women with a normal glucose tolerance test. STUDY DESIGN: A historical cohort study of 2459 pregnant women systematically examined for gestational diabetes...... overweight and obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women........0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese women (BMI >or= 30.0 kg/m(2)) compared with women who were of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)). The frequencies of shoulder dystocia, preterm delivery, and infant morbidity other than macrosomia were not significantly associated with maternal BMI. CONCLUSION: Prepregnancy...

  8. Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in 481 obese glucose-tolerant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gestational weight gain in obese glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a historical cohort study of 481 women with prepregnancy BMI > or = 30 kg/m2 and a normal 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during the third trimester.......0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women...... is associated with increasing pregnancy complications. Our data suggest that minimal gestational weight gain might normalize birth weight. Prospective studies should be performed to clarify the safety of recommending limited gestational weight gain....

  9. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt;

    2012-01-01

    in their habitat. Slugs spontaneously froze at about -4 °C when cooled under dry conditions, but freezing of body fluids was readily induced at -1 °C when in contact with external ice crystals. All three species survived freezing for 2 days at -1 °C, and some A. rufus and A. lusitanicus also survived freezing......Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures....... Glucose increased from about 6 to 22 µg/mg dry tissue upon freezing in A. rufus, but less so in A. ater and A. lusitanicus. Glucose may thus act as a cryoprotectant in these slugs, although the concentrations are not as high as reported for other freeze tolerant invertebrates....

  10. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured...... in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine...

  11. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs,; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Hespel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-calo...

  12. Impact of incretin hormones on beta-cell function in subjects with normal or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muscelli, Elza; Mari, Andrea; Natali, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C-peptide deconvolu......The mechanisms by which the enteroinsular axis influences beta-cell function have not been investigated in detail. We performed oral and isoglycemic intravenous (IV) glucose administration in subjects with normal (NGT; n = 11) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 10), using C...... +/- 2 nmol/m(2) (32 +/- 4% of oral response), and its time course matched that of total insulin secretion. The beta-cell glucose sensitivity (OGTT/IV ratio = 1.52 +/- 0.26, P = 0.02), rate sensitivity (response to glucose rate of change, OGTT/IV ratio = 2.22 +/- 0.37, P = 0.06), and glucose...

  13. Periodic 48 h feed withdrawal improves glucose tolerance in growing pigs by enhancing adipogenesis and lipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Priya S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte numbers and peroxisome proliferators activated receptorγ (PPARγ expression of retroperitoneal tissue increased while area under the curve (AUC during the glucose tolerance test (GTT was reduced in rats subjected to certain feed withdrawal (FW regimens. Thus, using pigs as the experimental model, the hypothesis that FW regimens influence glucose tolerance by influencing fat cell function was evaluated with the objective of determining the effect of a single (FWx1; at age of 19 wk for 48 h or periodic, multiple (FWx4; 24 h FW at 7 and 11 wk of age and 48 h FW at 15 and 19 wk of age FW on AUC of glucose and insulin during the GTT relative to pigs that did not experience FW (Control. Methods Growth, body composition, adipocyte numbers, PPARγ expression, lipogenic potential as glucose uptake into fat of adipocytes of varying diameter in omental (OM and subcutaneous (SQ fat as affected by FW regimens were determined in pigs initiated into the study at 5 wk of age and fed the same diet, ad libitum. Results Blood glucose concentrations for prior to and 120 min post glucose meal tended to be lower (p = 0.105 and 0.097, respectively in pigs in FW treatments. In OM fat; cell numbers, glucose Universal14C [U14C] incorporation into fat and rate of incorporation per 104 cells was greatest for cells with diameters of 90-119 μm. Pigs undergoing FWx4 tended to have greater (p = 0.0685; by 191% number of adipocytes, increased (p = 0.0234 glucose U14C incorporation into adipocytes and greater (p = 0.0872 rate of glucose uptake into cells of 119-150 μm diameter than of cells from control or FWx1 pigs. Subcutaneous adipocyte numbers in 22-60 and 61-90 μm diameter ranges from pigs in FWx1 tended to be greater (p = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively than for those in FWx4 treatment, yet PPARγ expression and total cell number were not affected by treatment. Conclusions Results suggest that FW regimens influence fat cell function or

  14. Use of anesthesia dramatically alters the oral glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windeløv, Johanne A; Pedersen, Jens; Holst, Jens J

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the impact of anesthesia on oral glucose tolerance in mice. Anesthesia is often used when performing OGTT in mice to avoid the stress of gavage and blood sampling, although anesthesia may influence gastrointestinal motility, blood glucose, and plasma insulin dynamics. C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized using the following commonly used regimens: (1) hypnorm/midazolam repetitive or single injection; (2) ketamine/xylazine; (3) isoflurane; (4) pentobarbital; and (5) A saline injected, nonanesthetized group. Oral glucose was administered at time 0 min and blood glucose measured in the time frame -15 to +150 min. Plasma insulin concentration was measured at time 0 and 20 min. All four anesthetic regimens resulted in impaired glucose tolerance compared to saline/no anesthesia. (1) hypnorm/midazolam increased insulin concentrations and caused an altered glucose tolerance; (2) ketamine/xylazine lowered insulin responses and resulted in severe hyperglycemia throughout the experiment; (3) isoflurane did not only alter the insulin secretion but also resulted in severe hyperglycemia; (4) pentobarbital resulted in both increased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance. All four anesthetic regimens altered the oral glucose tolerance, and we conclude that anesthesia should not be used when performing metabolic studies in mice.

  15. Risk of impaired glucose tolerance in normal weight hirsute women during four years observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andries, Magdalene; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2010-08-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder affecting 5-20% of women in reproductive age. Only limited follow-up data exist regarding the prognosis for glucose tolerance and metabolic risk factors in hirsutism. Sixty-nine Caucasian hirsute women underwent a clinical examination and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during 1997-2002 (baseline) and during 2003-2004 (re-evaluation). The observation period was (median; range) 4 (2-7) years. During re-evaluation, body mass index (BMI) was 24.9 (22.4-29.0) kg/m(2) and total Ferriman-Gallwey score was 10 (7-15) (median; 25-75% quartile). The women had unchanged BMI compared to baseline but increased fasting and 2 hour glucose levels. Impaired OGTT outcome during follow-up was seen in 14/66 (21.2%) women, 5/66 (7.6%) developed diabetes. Women who took oral contraceptives had a significantly decreased area under the curve (AUC) for insulin during follow-up, whereas AUC glucose levels increased. The present data supported a high risk of diabetes in only moderately overweight hirsute women.

  16. Abnormal release of incretins and cortisol after oral glucose in subjects with insulin-resistant myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Asa; Olsson, Tommy; Cederquist, Kristina;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the incretins, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), as well as glucagon and cortisol, are known to influence islet function, the role of these hormones in conditions of insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes is unknown...... response. Furthermore, cortisol and ACTH levels increased paradoxically in patients after glucose; this was more pronounced in patients with long CTG repeat expansions. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the GLP-1 and ACTH/cortisol responses to oral glucose are abnormal in insulin-resistant DM1 patients...

  17. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  18. Circadian rhythms of GIP and GLP1 in glucose-tolerant and in type 2 diabetic patients after biliopancreatic diversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mingrone, G; Nolfe, G; Gissey, G Castagneto;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that the reversibility of insulin resistance and diabetes observed after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is related to changes in circadian rhythms of gastrointestinal hormones. METHODS: Ten morbidly obese participants, five with normal glucose tolerance ...

  19. Morning cortisol is lower in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen EP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Edavan P Praveen1, Jaya Prakash Sahoo1, Bindu Kulshreshtha2, Madan L Khurana3, Nandita Gupta1, Sada Nand Dwivedi3, Guresh Kumar3, Ariachery C Ammini11Department of Endocrinology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: There is no consensus on the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the relationship of morning plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels with body mass index (BMI and glucose tolerance.Subjects and methods: The sample frame was the “Offspring of individuals with diabetes study” database. A total of 358 offspring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and 287 individuals without a known family history of T2DM were recruited for the study. Subjects who were ≥10 years of age were selected from the database for analysis. Subjects with T2DM were excluded. All participants underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lipid profile were estimated from the fasting sample.Results: Four hundred and ninety-five participants (305 males [62%] and 190 females [38%] were included in the analysis. ACTH and cortisol levels were higher in normal-weight subjects than in overweight/obese subjects. Both ACTH and cortisol increased as fasting plasma glucose increased. Cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of T2DM subjects with MS than in offspring of T2DM subjects without MS. When adjusted for BMI, the significance was marginal. In males, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with early insulin secretion during OGTT (insulinogenic index [0–30] and positively with waist circumference and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In females, fasting

  20. Assessment of Bridelia ferruginea benth for its therapeutic potential in pregnancy-induced impaired glucose tolerance in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo I.A; Adewumi O.O; Odeigah P.G.C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy induced diabetes also known as gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an insulin resistant state that may induce impaired glucose tolerance and often gestational diabetes in susceptible women. Gestational diabetes causes serious problems to the mother and the baby. Therefore, the use of herbal remedies such as Bridelia ferruginea with the potential ability to improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy will definitely improve pregnancy outcome in ges...

  1. The significance of resistance training and psychobiology in primary prevention of Type 2 diabetes among people with impaired glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the importance of physical activity in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and, therefore, at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Also, factors were identified that could have motivational significance for lifestyle change to improve glucose tolerance and, consequently, reduce the risk of having Type 2 diabetes. Methods were adopted including qualitative and correlational research as well as experimental manipulation. One specific purpose of...

  2. The opposing effects of the flavonoids isoquercitrin and sissotrin, isolated from Pterospartum tridentatum, on oral glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Alexandra; Martins, Sofia; Branco, Pedro; Dias, Teresa; Borges, Carlos; Rodrigues, Ana Isabel; Costa, Maria do Céu; Teixeira, Adriano; Mota-Filipe, Hélder

    2008-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Pterospartum tridentatum on the blood glucose levels of normal Wistar rats was investigated in a situation of oral glucose challenge. The extract at 300 mg/kg showed an antihyperglycaemic effect in the first 30 min after glucose challenge but then the blood glucose levels rose above those of the control group, indicating the presence of compounds with different effects on glucose tolerance. Nine compounds of isoflavone and flavonol skeletons were identified in the extract by HPLC-ESI-MS(n), four of them being identified for the first time in this species. The isoflavone sissotrin and the flavonol derivative, isoquercitrin, were selected for the oral glucose tolerance test. Isoquercitrin (100 mg/kg) showed time-dependent antihyperglycaemic activity by delaying the post-oral glucose load glycaemic peak at 30 min, as did the sodium-dependent glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin (100 mg/kg). In contrast, sissotrin (100 mg/kg) showed an opposite effect, impairing glucose tolerance. In conclusion, these preliminary results indicate that the effect of the extract on blood glucose may be either antihyperglycaemic or hyperglycaemic. Additionally, as far as is known, these are the first in vivo results on the acute antihyperglycaemic potential of isoquercitrin.

  3. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion...... underwent measurements of body composition, HbA1c, fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT), and VO2max. OGTT-derived insulin sensitivity (SiOGTT), glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSISOGTT), and the disposition index (DIOGTT) (the product of SiOGTT and GSISOGTT) were measured, and associations...... between VO2max and these determinants of glycemic control were examined. RESULTS: A low VO2max was associated with high HbA1c (r = -0.33), high fasting glucose (r = -0.34), high 2-h OGTT glucose (r = -0.33), low SiOGTT (r = 0.73), and high early-phase (r = -0.34) and late-phase (r = -0.36) GSISOGTT...

  4. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia, before and after antipsychotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Ahmad Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with antipsychotics increases the risk of developing diabetes in patients of schizophrenia but this diabetogenic potential of different antipsychotics seems to be different. Moreover, there may be an independent link between schizophrenia and diabetes. So we plan to study the prevalence of glucose dysregulation in patients of schizophrenia before and after treatment with various antipsychotics. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (32 males and 18 females diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated for glucose dysregulation using oral glucose tolerance test, initially (drug naive and after antipsychotic treatment. Age- and sex-matched healthy volunteer group of 50 subjects (35 males and 15 females was taken for comparison. Results were interpreted using American Diabetic Association criteria. Results: Though the glycemic status of the patient group was comparable with healthy controls initially but antipsychotic treatment was associated with glucose dysregulation. For first 6 weeks the antipsychotic (olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol and aripiprazole-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with the olanzapine-treated group at the end of this study, 14 weeks. Conclusion: We conclude that antipsychotic treatment of nondiabetic drug naive schizophrenia patients was associated with adverse effects on glucose regulation. For initial 6 weeks the antipsychotic-induced glucose dysregulation was comparable, which was seen to be maximum with olanzapine at the end of study, i.e. 14 weeks. Keeping this at the back of mind we can stabilize a patient initially with a more effective drug, olanzapine, and later on shift to one with less metabolic side effects.

  5. Monitoring changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin with optical coherence tomography during an in vivo glucose tolerance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, M.; Tausta, S.; Myllylä, R.; Vainio, S.

    2007-05-01

    A non-invasive glucose monitoring technique would make evaluation of blood glucose values easier and more convenient. This would help diabetic patients to control their blood glucose values more regularly. A few years ago optical coherence tomography (OCT) was proposed as a non-invasive sensor for monitoring changes in blood glucose concentration. The method is based on monitoring glucose-induced changes in the scattering properties of the target. This article describes how OCT was used to monitor changes in the scattering properties of mouse skin during an in vivo glucose tolerance test. The results show that OCT has the potential to register glucose-induced changes in the optical properties of the sample. However, a commercial OCT device with a probe designed for imaging is not very suitable for non-invasive monitoring of glucose-induced changes in scattering. The problems confronted in this study, possibly originating from the small size of the animals, are discussed in the article.

  6. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lin Shi; Wen-Juan Liu; Xiao-Fang Zhang; Wei-Juan Su; Ning-Ning Chen; Shu-Hua Lu; Li-Ying Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide.Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule,a Chinese herbal recipe,in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM.Methods:Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group,n =34) or no drug intervention (control group,n =31) for 12 weeks.Oral glucose tolerance test,glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c),body mass index,blood lipids levels,fasting insulin,and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment.Results:Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group).There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001),2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001),and HOMA-IR (P =0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment.After 12 weeks of treatment,two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose,and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group,while in the JLD group,14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM.There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P =0.001).Conclusions:JLD granule effectively improved glucose control,increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose,and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT.This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  7. A miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell with a high tolerance against ascorbic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Zhang, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Graduate School of CAS, Beijing (China); Su, L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Ohsaka, T. [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan); Mao, L.

    2009-02-15

    This study demonstrates a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell (BFC) with a high tolerance against physiological level of ascorbic acid (AA) by immobilising ascorbate oxidase (AAox) on both the bioanode and the biocathode. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-modified carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are employed as the substrate electrode for the bioanode and biocathode. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) are used as the biocatalysts for the electro-oxidation of glucose and for the electro-reduction of oxygen, respectively. SWNTs are used as the support for the both, stably confining the electrocatalyst (i.e. polymerised methylene blue, polyMB) for the oxidation of NADH co-factor for GDH and efficiently facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e. BOD) for O{sub 2} reduction. The prepared micro-sized GDH-based bioanode and BOD-based biocathode employed for the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose and reduction of oxygen, respectively, are further over-coated with AAox to give a miniature glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with a high tolerance against AA. The maximum power density and the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC are 52 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.60 V, respectively. These values remain unchanged with the presence of AA in solution. In the human serum containing 10 mM NAD{sup +} and under ambient air, the maximum power density and the OCV of the assembled glucose/O{sub 2} BFC with AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode are 35 {mu}W cm{sup -2} and 0.39 V, respectively. These values are remarkably larger than those of the glucose/O{sub 2} BFC without AAox immobilisation on both the bioanode and the biocathode. This study could offer a new route to the development of enzymatic BFCs with promising application in real biological systems. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Therapeutic effects of adropin on glucose tolerance and substrate utilization in diet-induced obese mice with insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Gao

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Adropin treatment of DIO mice enhances glucose tolerance, ameliorates insulin resistance and promotes preferential use of carbohydrate over fat in fuel selection. Skeletal muscle is a key organ in mediating adropin's whole-body effects, sensitizing insulin signaling pathways and altering fuel selection preference to favor glucose while suppressing fat oxidation.

  9. Differential relationship between physical activity and progression to diabetes by glucose tolerance status: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, S; Glümer, C; Witte, D R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse how strongly commuting and leisure-time physical activity affect progression to diabetes and to study whether this relationship is different in individuals with isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG) and isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT)....

  10. EVALUATION OF HONEY INCORPORATED FOOD PREPARATION ON THE BASIS OF GLYCEMIC INDEX AND THEIR ADVOCACY IN IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seema

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey is a natural sweetener and it is a nature’s gift to mankind. Honey is important edible substance, which contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements, vitamins and sugars as major constituents. Honey is frequently used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as variety of the Ayurvedic preparations are taken along with or in combination with honey. The present study was conducted to determine the glycemic index of food products made with different natural sweeteners including honey. Normal healthy subjects (n = 10 and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 10 were included in the study and administered with equicarbohydrate quantity of glucose and a food preparation ‘sweet roll’ containing different sweeteners at fasted state on various days. Monitoring of blood glucose in normal healthy subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes indicated a significant difference in incremental area under the curve (IAUC of glucose and food preparations made with different sweeteners. The mean incremental area under the curve of food preparations was significantly lower (p = < 0.01 than that of glucose in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance as well as normal healthy subjects. At the same time honey incorporated sweet rolls were found to have lower glycemic index when compared to rolls prepared with cane sugar and jaggery. This indicated honey incorporated foods may be occasionally consumed by subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  11. Effects of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP on glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria S; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine N; Nielsen, Signe;

    2016-01-01

    Exaggerated secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is important for postprandial glucose tolerance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), whereas the role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) remains to be resolved. We aimed to explore the relative importance of endogenously...

  12. Dual roles of glucose in the freeze-tolerant earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra: cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderon, Sofia; Holmstrup, Martin; Westh, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Ectothermic animals inhabiting the subarctic and temperate regions have evolved strategies to deal with periods of continuous frost during winter. The earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra is freeze tolerant and accumulates large concentrations of glucose upon freezing. The present study investigates...... degrees C of the 'average' D. octaedra. Such conditions are very likely to occur in the northern distribution ranges of this stress-tolerant earthworm....

  13. Overexpression of a proton-coupled vacuolar glucose exporter impairs freezing tolerance and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemens, Patrick A W; Patzke, Kathrin; Trentmann, Oliver; Poschet, Gernot; Büttner, Michael; Schulz, Alexander; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard

    2014-04-01

    Arabidopsis vacuoles harbor, besides sugar transporter of the TMT-type, an early response to dehydration like 6 (ERDL6) protein involved in glucose export into the cytosol. However, the mode of transport of ERDL6 and the plant's feedback to overexpression of its activity on essential properties such as, for example, seed germination or freezing tolerance, remain unexplored. Using patch-clamp studies on vacuoles expressing AtERDL6 we demonstrated directly that this carrier operates as a proton-driven glucose exporter. Overexpression of BvIMP, the closest sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) homolog to AtERDL6, in Arabidopsis leads surprisingly to impaired seed germination under both conditions, sugar application and low environmental temperatures, but not under standard conditions. Upon cold treatment, BvIMP overexpressor plants accumulated lower quantities of monosaccharides than the wild-type, a response in line with the reduced frost tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and the fact that cold temperatures inhibits BvIMP transcription in sugar beet leaves. With these findings we show that the tight control of vacuolar sugar import and export is a key requisite for cold tolerance and seed germination of plants.

  14. May Inhaled Corticosteroid Use Give Rise to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Bronchial Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Köksal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic side effects of inhaler corticosteroids (IC are quite rarely. It is also well known that systemic use of corticosteroids for a long period of time may have diabetogenic effects. In this study, the relationship between use of IC in patients with bronchial asthma and tendency of development of diabetes was investigated via oral glucose tolerance test. Eighty three patients with bronchial asthma and 34 healthy subjects without any known disease as a control group were enrolled the study. Asthma group and control group were similar according to gender, age and BMI. Mean period for the diagnosis of asthma was 8.9±6.4 years, for IC use was 4.2±2.7 years and mean daily dose of IC was 616.66±355.62 µgr. Fasting blood glucose (FBG for asthma group who were on IC and for control group were 92.96±6.82 mg/dl and 93.05±12.51 mg/dl, respectively. Following 75 gr OGTT, glucose levels for asthma group and control group were 110.21±32.17 mg/dl and 109.08±28.41 mg/dl, respectively. FBG levels and 2-hour glucose levels separately in both groups were not statistically significant (p0.05. In asthma group, correlations between duration of IC use and, FBG and 2-hour glucose levels, and also between dose of IC and FBG and 2-hour glucose levels were evaluated. Statistically significant but mild positive correlation was seen between duration of IC (4.2±2.7 year use and 2-hour glucose levels (110.21±32.17 mg/dl (p=0.007, r=0.292. In conclusion, in patients with asthma, mild positive correlation between IC use and 2-hour glucose levels was observed. Our findings may point out that IC use over a long period of time may lead glucose intolerance.

  15. Postprandial Reactive Hypoglycaemia: Varying Presentation Patterns on Extended Glucose Tolerance Tests and Possible Therapeutic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive hypoglycemia is a state characterised by sympathetic or neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycaemia in the postprandial state resulting in considerable distress to the patient. It is our practice to carry out either extended glucose tolerance tests (eGTTs or mixed meal tests in these patients. We describe two patients who experienced hypoglycaemic symptoms early and late during eGTT. The patient who experienced symptoms early, in contrast to the patient who presented with late symptoms, did not possess any characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Based on clinical symptoms, glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA levels, we speculate on possible mechanisms that may have accounted for each of their presentation patterns. We then discuss low glycaemic index diet which will be the mainstay of management.

  16. Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Pelgrim, Koen; Deldicque, Louise; Hesselink, Matthijs; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Hespel, Peter

    2010-11-01

    A fat-rich energy-dense diet is an important cause of insulin resistance. Stimulation of fat turnover in muscle cells during dietary fat challenge may contribute to maintenance of insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the fasted state markedly stimulates energy provision via fat oxidation. Therefore, we investigated whether exercise training in the fasted state is more potent than exercise in the fed state to rescue whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during a period of hyper-caloric fat-rich diet. Healthy male volunteers (18-25 y) received a hyper-caloric (∼+30% kcal day(-1)) fat-rich (50% of kcal) diet for 6 weeks. Some of the subjects performed endurance exercise training (4 days per week) in the fasted state (F; n = 10), whilst the others ingested carbohydrates before and during the training sessions (CHO; n = 10). The control group did not train (CON; n = 7). Body weight increased in CON (+3.0 ± 0.8 kg) and CHO (+1.4 ± 0.4 kg) (P glucose tolerance and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (P training in F elevated AMP-activated protein kinase α phosphorylation (+25%) as well as up-regulated fatty acid translocase/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 mRNA levels compared with CON (∼+30%). High-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid but not diacylglycerol and ceramide contents, either in the absence or presence of training. This study for the first time shows that fasted training is more potent than fed training to facilitate adaptations in muscle and to improve whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity during hyper-caloric fat-rich diet.

  17. Beta-cell ARNT is required for normal glucose tolerance in murine pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Mei Lau

    Full Text Available AIMS: Insulin secretion increases in normal pregnancy to meet increasing demands. Inability to increase beta-cell function results in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. We have previously shown that the expression of the transcription factor ARNT (Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator is reduced in the islets of humans with type 2 diabetes. Mice with a beta-cell specific deletion of ARNT (β-ARNT mice have impaired glucose tolerance secondary to defective insulin secretion. We hypothesised that ARNT is required to increase beta-cell function during pregnancy, and that β-ARNT mice would be unable to compensate for the beta-cell stress of pregnancy. The aims of this study were to investigate the mechanisms of ARNT regulation of beta-cell function and glucose tolerance in pregnancy. METHODS: β-ARNT females were mated with floxed control (FC males and FC females with β-ARNT males. RESULTS: During pregnancy, β-ARNT mice had a marked deterioration in glucose tolerance secondary to defective insulin secretion. There was impaired beta-cell proliferation in late pregnancy, associated with decreased protein and mRNA levels of the islet cell-cycle regulator cyclinD2. There was also reduced expression of Irs2 and G6PI. In contrast, in control mice, pregnancy was associated with a 2.1-fold increase in ARNT protein and a 1.6-fold increase in cyclinD2 protein, and with increased beta-cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Islet ARNT increases in normal murine pregnancy and beta-cell ARNT is required for cyclinD2 induction and increased beta-cell proliferation in pregnancy.

  18. Exercise tolerance, lung function abnormalities, anemia, and cardiothoracic ratio in sickle cell patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beers, Eduard J; van der Plas, Mart N; Nur, Erfan; Bogaard, Harm-Jan; van Steenwijk, Reindert P; Biemond, Bart J; Bresser, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a reduced exercise capacity and abnormal lung function. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) can identify causes of exercise limitation. Forty-four consecutive SCD patients (27 HbSS, 11 HbSC, and 6 HbS-beta thalassemia) with a median age (interquartile range) of 26 (21-41) years underwent pulmonary function tests, CPET, chest x-ray, and echocardiography to further characterize exercise limitation in SCD. Peak oxygen uptake (V'O2 -peak), expressing maximum exercise capacity, was decreased in 83% of the studied patients. V'O2 -peak correlated with hemoglobin levels (R = 0.440, P = 0.005), forced vital capacity (FVC) (R = 0.717, P anemia (n = 17), cardiovascular dysfunction (n = 2), musculoskeletal function (n = 10), pulmonary ventilatory abnormalities (n = 1), pulmonary vascular exercise limitation (n = 1), and poor effort (n = 3). In the present study we demonstrate that anemia is the most important determinant of reduced exercise tolerance observed in SCD patients without signs of pulmonary hypertension. We found a strong correlation between various parameters of lung volume and cardiothoracic ratio and we hypothesize that cardiomegaly and relative small chest size may be important causes of the impairment in pulmonary function, that is, reduced long volumes and diffusion capacity, in SCD. Taking into account anthropomorphic differences between SCD patients and controls could help to interpret lung function studies in SCD better.

  19. Dietary intake, food pattern, and abnormal blood glucose status of middle-aged adults: a cross-sectional community-based study in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaing Hlaing Hlaing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle changes, particularly dietary intake, had resulted in increasing trends of type-2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, dietary intake is diverse across country contexts. This study aimed to compare the dietary intake, food patterns, and blood glucose among middle-aged adults living in urban and suburban areas in Mandalay city, Myanmar, and explore their relationships. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted during June–November 2014. Adults aged 35–64 were randomly selected and requested to record all food they ate in a 4-day diary. Fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose values were measured over two consecutive days. Dietary intakes were calculated in terms of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index, and glycemic load, and food patterns were identified by factor analysis. The relationships between food pattern, dietary intake, and blood glucose were assessed. Results: Of 440 participants, dietary intake between urban and suburban residents was significantly different. Six food patterns were identified. There was no difference in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose between urban and suburban residents, but a strong correlation between fasting blood glucose and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose was found (correlation coefficient=0.8. Identification of abnormal blood glucose status using original fasting and converted 2-hour postprandial values showed substantial agreement (prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa= 0.8. Relationships between food patterns and blood glucose or abnormal blood glucose status were not found. Conclusion: Food patterns were associated with dietary intake, not with abnormal blood glucose status. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was highly correlated with fasting blood glucose and may be used for identifying abnormal blood glucose status.

  20. Research Progress of 1-hour Hyperglycemia after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test%口服葡萄糖耐量试验后1h高血糖的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志标

    2012-01-01

    1 -hour hyperglycemia during oral glucose tolerance test is a transitional state of abnormal glucose regulation from normal glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is an independent risk factor for both type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Compared with normal glucose tolerance persons,they have a decreased (3 cell function and higher probability of the conversion to impaired glucose regulation or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Weight control,reasonable exercise and drugs such as biguanides can improve insulin pcell function, thus decrease serum glucose level.%口服葡萄糖耐量试验后1h高血糖是正常糖耐量过渡到2型糖尿病的异常糖代谢状态,它是2型糖尿病和心血管疾病的独立危险因素,与正常血糖人群相比,其胰岛β细胞功能已经降低,更容易发展成为葡萄糖调节受损或2型糖尿病的状态.控制体质量,适当的运动,服用双胍类均可改善胰岛β细胞功能,从而降低血糖水平.

  1. The Study of Abnormal Metabalism in Essential Hypertention out Patient with Normol Fasting Blood Glucose%空腹血糖正常的门诊高血压患者代谢异常研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊利; 费丽萍; 牛青英; 李艳芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the factors that influence glucose tolerance in essential hypertention,identify the clinical characteristics of abnormal metabalism.Methods:436 outpatients with essential hypertention,with no history of diabites mellitus and normol fasting blood glucose were recruited.All eligible patients received oral glucose tolerance test. We analyzed the relationships between impaired glucose tolerance and other variables including age,gender,body mass index, blood pressure,uric acid,lipid levels,and carotid atherosclerosis plague.Results:Among 436 patients,the number of patients with impaired glucose tolerance was 127 (29.1%),the number of newly diagnosed diabites DM was 41 (9.5%).A positive correlation exists between glucose tolerance and other variables including age,gender,lowdensity cholesterol,uric acid and carotid atherosclerosis plague.Conclusion:High prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance was discoved in essential hypertention patients with normol fasting blood glucose.Oral glucose tolerance test should be actively engaged in those patients to detect impaired glucose toleranc early.And it is helpful to postpone progression of diabites and reduce risk of cardelvassculer and cerebrovassculer disease.%目的::研究空腹血糖正常的门诊原发性高血压患者糖代谢异常临床特征,揭示糖耐量异常与血脂、尿酸及颈动脉粥样硬化的情况。方法:选择确诊有原发性高血压而无糖尿病的患者436例,入选患者口服葡萄糖耐量实验测定,分析年龄、性别、体重指数、血脂水平、颈动脉粥样硬化等参数与糖耐量异常的关系。结果:436例患者中检出糖耐量减低患者127例,占29.1%,糖尿病患者41例,占9.5%,糖耐量异常与性别、年龄、血尿酸水平、低密度脂蛋白、颈动脉粥样硬化呈正相关。结论:空腹血糖正常的门诊高血压患者合并糖耐量异常比例较高,常伴有血脂

  2. Urinary C peptide creatinine ratio in pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes: evidence for insulin secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoska, Ankica; Valaiyapathi, Rajalakshmi; Thorn, Chloe; Dornhorst, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis In pregnancy, urinary C peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR) reflects endogenous insulin secretion in women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods UCPCR and serum C peptide were measured in 90 glucose-tolerant women at 0 and 120 min during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 28 weeks of gestation. UCPCR was measured in 2 samples obtained over 10 weeks apart in 7 pregnant women with longstanding type 1 diabetes. Results UCPCROGTT and serum C peptideOGTT of glucose-tolerant women were significantly correlated at 0 and 120 min (rs0.675, 0.541 respectively, p<0.0001). All 7 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes had detectable first sample UCPCR (median (range) 49 (6–1038) pmol/mmol) that rose in 6 women by 477 (29–1491) pmol/mmol. Conclusions Detectable UCPCR in pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and type 1 diabetes is likely to reflect endogenous insulin secretion and hence β-cell activity. PMID:28090333

  3. Acute postexercise effects of concentric and eccentric exercise on glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matthew David; Myers, Stephen David; Kelly, John Stephen Michael; Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus

    2015-02-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance was shown to be present 48 hr following muscle-damaging eccentric exercise. We examined the acute effect of concentric and muscle-damaging eccentric exercise, matched for intensity, on the responses to a 2-hr 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten men (27 ± 9 years, 178 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 11 kg, VO₂max: 52.3 ± 7.3 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹) underwent three OGTTs after an overnight 12 hr fast: rest (control), 40-min (5 × 8-min with 2-min interbout rest) of concentric (level running, 0%, CON) or eccentric exercise (downhill running, -12%, ECC). Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m. quadriceps femoris of both legs was measured before and after the running protocols. Downhill running speed was higher (level: 9.7 ± 2.1, downhill: 13.8 ± 3.2 km · hr⁻¹, p eccentric exercise.

  4. ATLANTIC DIP: the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [95% CI 1.24-1.98]) and obese (OB) (2.65 [2.03-3.46]) women. Hypertensive disorders increased in OW (2.30 [1.55-3.40]) and OB (3.29 [2.14-5.05]) women. Reported miscarriages increased in OB (1.4 [1.11-1.77]) women. Mean birth weight was 3.46 kg in normal BMI (NBMI), 3.54 kg in OW, and 3.62 kg in OB (P < 0.01) mothers. Macrosomia occurred in 15.5, 21.4, and 27.8% of babies of NBMI, OW, and OB mothers, respectively (P < 0.01). Shoulder dystocia occur in 4% (>4 kg) compared with 0.2% (<4 kg) babies (P < 0.01). Congenital malformation risk increased for OB (2.47 [1.09-5.60]) women. CONCLUSIONS OW and OB glucose-tolerant women have greater adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Allele summation of diabetes risk genes predicts impaired glucose tolerance in female and obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Linder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in approximately 40 genes have been associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D in genome-wide association studies. It is not known whether a similar genetic impact on the risk of prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glycemia [IFG] exists. METHODS: In our cohort of 1442 non-diabetic subjects of European origin (normal glucose tolerance [NGT] n = 1046, isolated IFG n = 142, isolated IGT n = 140, IFG+IGT n = 114, an impact on glucose homeostasis has been shown for 9 SNPs in previous studies in this specific cohort. We analyzed these SNPs (within or in the vicinity of the genes TCF7L2, KCNJ11, HHEX, SLC30A8, WFS1, KCNQ1, MTNR1B, FTO, PPARG for association with prediabetes. RESULTS: The genetic risk load was significantly associated with the risk for IGT (p = 0.0006 in a model including gender, age, BMI and insulin sensitivity. To further evaluate potential confounding effects, we stratified the population on gender, BMI and insulin sensitivity. The association of the risk score with IGT was present in female participants (p = 0.008, but not in male participants. The risk score was significantly associated with IGT (p = 0.008 in subjects with a body mass index higher than 30 kg/m(2 but not in non-obese individuals. Furthermore, only in insulin resistant subjects a significant association between the genetic load and the risk for IGT (p = 0.01 was found. DISCUSSION: We found that T2D genetic risk alleles cause an increased risk for IGT. This effect was not present in male, lean and insulin sensitive subjects, suggesting a protective role of beneficial environmental factors on the genetic risk.

  6. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isordia-Salas, Irma; Galván-Plata, María Eugenia; Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Aguilar-Sosa, Eberth; Anaya-Gómez, Francisco; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santiago-Germán, David

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n = 473, pre-DM n = 250, and T2DM n = 216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P = 0.01) and hs-CRP (P = 0.05). Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.53, P<0.0001). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2 = 0.31, P<0.0001), and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2 = 0.33, P<0.0001). Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels. PMID:24772446

  7. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Isordia-Salas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n=473, pre-DM n=250, and T2DM n=216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P=0.01 and hs-CRP (P=0.05. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r=0.53, P<0.0001. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2=0.31, P<0.0001, and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2=0.33, P<0.0001. Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels.

  8. Gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and triglyceride concentration in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2013-12-01

    Gallic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, has been shown to exert a variety of effects, including anti-oxidative, anti- carcinogenic, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we attempted to determine whether gallic acid affects metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes. Diet-induced obesity mice were treated intraperitoneally once per day with gallic acid (10 mg/kg/day). After 2 weeks of treatment, the mice were sacrificed to collect the blood for metabolic parameter assessments, and the adipose tissues and liver to weigh and analyze. The triglyceride concentrations were significantly improved in the gallic acid group relative to those measured in the control group. And most importantly, the blood glucose concentrations in the gallic acid group were significantly improved. In the epididymal white adipose tissue of the gallic acid group, adipocyte size was reduced, PPARγ expression was induced, and the Akt signaling pathway was activated. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid improves glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism in the obesity mice, thereby showing evidence of anti-hyperglycemic activity. The findings of an upregulation of PPARγ expression and Akt activation also contribute to our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of gallic acid on glucose metabolism.

  9. Diacylglycerol kinase ϵ deficiency preserves glucose tolerance and modulates lipid metabolism in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Schönke, Milena; Brozinick, Joseph T; Vetterli, Laurène; Bui, Hai-Hoang; Sanders, Philip; Nascimento, Emmani B M; Björnholm, Marie; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-02-28

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) catalyze the phosphorylation and conversion of DAG into phosphatidic acid. DGK isozymes have unique primary structures, expression patterns, subcellular localizations, regulatory mechanisms and DAG preferences. DGKε has a hydrophobic segment that promotes its attachment to membranes and shows substrate specificity for DAG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain in the sn-2 position of the substrate. We determined the role of DGKε in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in relation to diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity using DGKε deficient (KO) and wild-type mice. Lipidomic analysis revealed elevated unsaturated and saturated DAG species in skeletal muscle of DGKε KO mice, which was paradoxically associated with increased glucose tolerance. While skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was unaltered, whole body respiratory exchange ratio was reduced, and abundance of mitochondrial markers was increased, indicating a greater reliance on fat oxidation and intracellular lipid metabolism in DGKε KO mice. Thus, the increased intracellular lipids in skeletal muscle from DGKε KO mice may undergo rapid turnover due to increased mitochondrial function and lipid oxidation, rather than storage, which in turn may preserve insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, DGKε plays a role in glucose and energy homeostasis by modulating lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  10. Carotid intima-media thickness is reduced 12 months after gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Tarnow, Lise; Hansen, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS: Observati......AIM: To investigate whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) - an in vivo model for normalisation of hyperglycaemia - improves carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). METHODS...

  11. Seventy-five gram glucose tolerance test to assess carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa Urita; Motonobu Sugimoto; Kazumasa Miki; Susumu Ishihara; Tatsuo Akimoto; Hiroto Kato; Noriko Hara; Yoshiko Honda; Yoko Nagai; Kazushige Nakanishi; Nagato Shimada

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate non-invasively the incidence of absorption of carbohydrates in diabetic patients during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine whether malabsorption may be associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance.METHODS: A standard 75-g OGTT was performed in 82 diabetic patients. The patients received 75 g of anhydrous glucose in 225 mL of water after an overnight fasting and breath samples were collected at baseline and up to 120 min afler ingestion. Breath hydrogen and methane concentrations were measured. Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were measured before ingestion and at 30, 60, g0, 120 min post-ingestion.RESULTS: When carbohydrate malabsorption was defined as subjects with an increase of at least 10 ppm (parts per million) in hydrogen or methane excretion within a 2-h period, 28 (34%) had carbohydrate malabsorption. According to the result of increased breath test, 21 (75%) patients were classified as small bowel bacterial overgrowth and 7 (25%) as glucose malabsorption. Patients with carbohydrate malabsorption were older and had poor glycemic control as compared with those without carbohydrate malabsorption. The HOMA value, the sum of serum insulin during the test and the Ainsulin/Aglucose ratio were greater in patients with carbohydrate malabsorption.CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance may be overestimated by using these markers if the patient has carbohydrate malabsorption, or that carbohydrate malabsorption may be present prior to the development of insulin resistance.Hence carbohydrate malabsorption should be taken into account for estimating insulin resistance and β-cell function.

  12. Progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screening programme in general practice: the ADDITION Study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Sætre; Glümer, Charlotte; Sandbæk, Annelli;

    2007-01-01

    in Primary Care]). METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years were screened for type 2 diabetes based on a high-risk, stepwise strategy. At baseline, anthropometric measurements, blood samples and questionnaire data were collected. A total of 1,160 persons had IFG or IGT at baseline: 811 (70%) accepted re......-examination after 1 year. Glucose tolerance classification was based on the 1999 WHO definition. At follow-up, diabetes was based on one diabetic glucose value of fasting blood glucose or 2-h blood glucose. RESULTS: At baseline, 308 persons had IFG and 503 had IGT. The incidence of diabetes was 17.6 and 18.8 per...... 100 person-years in the two groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: IFG and IGT identified in general practice during a stepwise, high-risk screening programme for type 2 diabetes have high 1-year progression rates to diabetes. Consequently, intensive follow-up and intervention strategies...

  13. Determinants of Glycated Hemoglobin in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Subanalysis of the Japan Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Naoki; Sato, Juichi; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tsujii, Satoru; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Kawazu, Shoji; Sato, Yuzo; Usui, Takeshi; Kamae, Isao; Yoshida, Toshihide; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sato, Shigeaki; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Kaoru; Kuzuya, Hideshi; Group, JDPP Research

    2017-01-01

    Background Limited evidence is available about the relationship of lifestyle factors with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The aim of study was to identify such determinant factors of HbA1c in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods This cross-sectional study included 121 men and 124 women with impaired glucose tolerance, who were diagnosed based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Demographic and biochemical parameters, including the body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-load glucose (2-h PG), and HbA1c, were measured. The pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance were assessed using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-β). Dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Results The levels of FPG, 2-h PG, and carbohydrate intake were correlated with the HbA1c level in men, while the FPG and 2-h PG levels were correlated with the HbA1c level in women. In multiple regression analyses, BMI, FPG, 2-h PG, and white rice intake were associated with HbA1c levels in men, while BMI, FPG, HOMA-β, and bread intake were associated with HbA1c levels in women. Conclusions The present findings suggest that a substantial portion of HbA1c may be composed of not only glycemic but also several lifestyle factors in men with impaired glucose tolerance. These factors can be taken into consideration as modifiable determinants in assessing the HbA1c level for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the disease course. PMID:28270897

  14. Therapeutic effects of berberine in impaired glucose tolerance rats and its influence on insulin secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-hua LENG; Fu-er LU; Li-jun XU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-diabetic effects of berberine and its influence on insulin secretion. METHODS: Impaired glucose tolerance rats induced by iv injection of streptozotocin 30 mg/kg were treated with berberine 187.5 and 562.5 mg/kg while fed with high fat laboratory chow. After rats were treated for 4 weeks, oral glucose tolerance was determined, and for 8 weeks, the fasting blood glucose, insulin, lipid series were determined. In insulin secretion experiments, berberine 93.75, 187.5, and 562.5 mg/kg was administered orally to BALB/c mice at a bolus. The murine serum was collected 2 h after the berberine administration for insulin determination. Insulin released from HIT-T 15 cells and pancreatic islets incubated with berberine 1-100 μmol/L for 12 h was determined. RESULTS:The levels of fasting blood glucose (7.4± 1.5 or 7.3± 1.3 vs 9.3± 1.3 mmol/L), triglycerides (0.61±0.22 or 0.63±0.17 vs 1.8±0.7 mmol/L), total cholesterol (1.8±0.3 or 1.9±0.3 vs 2.2±0.2 mmol/L), free fatty acid (456±93 or 460±72 vs 550± 113 μmol/L) and apolipoprotein B (0.37±0.02 or 0.42±0.05 vs 0.46±0.04 g/L) were reduced greatly in berberine-treated groups at doses of 187.5 and 562.5 mg.kg-1.d-l, respectively as compared with those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (1.5±0.3 or 1.4±0.3 vs 1.1±0.1 g/L), apolipoprotein A1 (0.80±0.08 or 0.87±0.08 vs 0.71±0.06 g/L) were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and oral glucose tolerance was improved. In vitro experiment showed that berberine 1-10 μmol/L facilitated insulin secretion of HIT-T15 cells and murine pancreatic islets in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile murine serum insulin level (27.5±2.7 or 29±4 or 29±4 vs 24.3±2.8 plU/L) was undoubtedly promoted and blood glucose (4.52±0.31 or 4.45±0.29 or 4.30±0.19 vs 4.87±0.21 mmol/L) was reduced after berberine administration at doses of 93.75, 187.5,and 562.5 mg/kg, respectively in the BALB/c mice. CONCLUSION

  15. How Fast Is Recovery of Impaired Glucose Tolerance after 21-Day Bed Rest (NUC Study in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Heer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We hypothesized that 4 days of normal daily activity after 21 days of experimental bed rest (BR will not reverse BR induced impaired glucose tolerance. Design. Glucose tolerance of seven male, healthy, untrained test subjects (age: 27.6 (3.3 years (mean (SD; body mass: 78.6 (6.4 kg; height: 1.81 (0.04 m; VO2 max: 39.5 (5.4 ml/kg body mass/min was studied. They stayed twice in the metabolic ward (crossover design, 21 days in bed and 7 days before and after BR each. Oral glucose tolerance tests were applied before, on day 21 of BR, and 5 and 14 days after BR. Results. On day 21 of BR, AUC120 min of glucose concentration was increased by 28.8 (5.2% and AUC120 min of insulin by 35.9 (10.2% (glucose: P<0.001; insulin: P=0.02. Fourteen days after BR, AUC120 min of serum insulin concentrations returned to pre-bed-rest concentrations (P=0.352 and AUC120 min of glucose was still higher (P=0.038. Insulin resistance did not change, but sensitivity index was reduced during BR (P=0.005. Conclusion. Four days of light physical workload does not compensate inactivity induced impaired glucose tolerance. An individually tailored and intensified training regime is mandatory in patients being in bed rest to get back to normal glucose metabolism in a reasonable time frame.

  16. Molecular cloning of glucose transporter 1 in grouper Epinephelus coioides and effects of an acute hyperglycemia stress on its expression and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Liqiao; Tan, Beiping

    2017-02-01

    The glucose transporter family proteins play pivotal roles in glucose metabolism. In this study, we successfully cloned the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) glucose transporter 1 (EcGlut1) gene (GenBank accession: JQ623903). The full-length EcGlut1 cDNA was 2126 bp with a 1476 bp ORF, a 437bp5'-UTR and 223bp3'-UTR. EcGlut1 is predicted to encode a 491 amino acid protein with a MW of 53.9 kDa, a pI of 8.66 and a Pfam domain. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that EcGlut1 was evolutionally conserved between fishes with 80-89 % amino acid identities. EcGlut1 was expressed predominantly in heart and liver and at lower levels in muscle, intestine, stomach and brain. We also investigated the effect of acute hyperglycemia stress on EcGlut1 expression. In glucose tolerance test, changes in EcGlut1 mRNA expression in response to glucose injection and glucose metabolism-related indictors were assessed at the same time. Glucose injection significantly suppressed EcGlut1 mRNA expression in liver at 12 h and in brain at 24 h postinjection (P < 0.05). EcGlut1 mRNA levels in heart were increased at 6 h (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose level increased significantly and reached its maximum at 3 h postinjection (P < 0.05). The spatiotemporal expression of EcGlut1 and glucose metabolism suggested that orange spotted grouper might rely on fat anabolism to reduce acute hyperglycemia stress and the delayed transcription of EcGlut1 gene might be one reason for glucose intolerance in E. coioides.

  17. The impact of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on incretin effect, glucose tolerance, and gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Østoft, Signe Harring; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    /mol [5.3±0.1%]) were randomised to two paired study days comprising a 4h 50 g-OGTT with paracetamol (A) and an isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusion (IIGI) (B), with (A1+B1) and without (A2+B2) preceding administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Results Isoglycaemia was obtained in all subjects...... gastric emptying (Tmax for plasma paracetamol: 86±9 vs 80±12 min, p=0.60) changed following DPP-4 inhibition. Conclusions These results suggest that acute increases in active incretin hormone levels do not affect glucose tolerance, GIGD, incretin effect, glucagon responses or gastric emptying in healthy...

  18. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    , we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation...... was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported...... by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...

  19. STUDY ON OBESITY RELATED FACTORS: FFA, LEPTIN AND ADIPONECTIN IN SUBJECTS WITH VARYING GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾卫琼; 洪洁; 张翼飞; 宁光; 陈名道; 唐金凤

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the fasting serum levels of obesity related factors: FFA, leptin and adiponectin in subjects with varying glucose tolerance and their relationship with BMI, insulin sensitivity index and islet beta-cell function. Methods Serum levels of FFA, leptin and adiponectin in 24 normal, 32 simple obese, 34IGT and 36 T2DM subjects were measured by ACS-ACOD assay or RIA. Results The serum levels of leptin and FFA in three groups: simple obese, IGT and DM were much higher than those in normal control (P<0. 001 ). In contrast, serum level of adiponectin of simple obese, IGT and DM groups were significant lower than that of normal control, among them DM subjects had the lowest level ( P<0. 001 ). Correlation analysis showed that FFA was positively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, fasting insulin level and negatively correlated to SI; adiponectin was negatively correlated to BMI, WHR, FBG, PBG, but positively correlated to SI and AIRg; and leptin was positively correlated to BMI, fasting insulin and AIRg when negatively correlated to FBG and SI. None of them was correlated to age.Conclusion Subjects with insulin resistance have high serum FFA and leptin levels but low serum adiponectin level.With the glucose tolerance deterioration, serum FFA level increases much higher while the adiponectin deceases much lower. Unlike insulin, none of these obesity related factors can be used as the simple indicating or determining factor of SI, though each of them, to different extent, takes part in the development of insulin resistance.

  20. Insulin resistance and lipid profile during an oral glucose tolerance test in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zx; Wu, Y; Zhu, Xy; Fang, Q; Chen, Dq

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare changes in insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during pregnancy and those with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Overall, 105 pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation, 50 with NGT and 55 with GDM according to NDDG standard, were enrolled into the study. The levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) and the insulin levels, blood glucose levels at 1, 2 and 3 hours post oral glucose administration during an OGTT (5.8, 10.6, 9.2 and 8.1 mmol/L, respectively) were measured. Then, insulin resistance (IR) index was calculated. There was no significant difference in fasting, 3-h insulin levels and 3-h blood glucose levels between those with NGT and those with GDM (P > 0.05). However, 1-h and 2-h insulin levels, fasting and 1-h and 2-h blood glucose levels in women with GDM were significantly higher than those in the NGT group (P women with GDM was significantly lower than that observed in those with NGT. Reducing IR and blood lipids in women with GDM could potentially improve maternal and foetal outcomes.

  1. Changes of ghrelin following oral glucose tolerance test in obese children with insulin resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Min Wang; You-Jun Jiang; Li Liang; Li-Zhong Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To characterize changes in ghrelin levels in response to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to correlate changes in ghrelin levels with changes in insulin and glucose following OGTT in Chinese obese children of Tanner I and Ⅱ stage with insulin resistance.METHODS: 22 obese children with insulin resistance state were divided into four groups according to their Tanner stage and gender: boys of Tanner I (BT-Ⅰ), boys of Tanner Ⅱ (BT- Ⅱ), girls of Tanner Ⅰ (GT-Ⅰ), girls of Tanner Ⅱ (GT-Ⅱ). Ghrelin, insulin and glucose were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min following OGTT. The control children with normal BMI were divided into control boys of Tanner I (CBT-Ⅰ, n = 6), control boys of Tanner Ⅱ (CBT- Ⅱ, n = 5), control girls of Tanner I (CGT-1, n = 6), control girls of Tanner II (CGT- Ⅱ, n = 5). Fasting serum ghrelin levels were analyzed.RESULTS: Ghrelin levels were lower in obese groups. Ghrelin levels of control group decreased in Tanner Ⅱ stage (CGT-Ⅰ vs CGT-Ⅱ t = -4.703, P = 0.001; CBT-Ⅰ vs CBT-n t = -4.794, P = 0.001). Basal ghrelin levels in BT- Ⅱ decreased more significantly than that in BT-Ⅰ group (t = 2.547, P = 0.029). Ghrelin levels expressed a downward trend after OGTT among obese children. The decrease in ghrelin levels at 60 min with respect to basal values was 56.9% in BT-Ⅰ. Ghrelin concentrations at 0 min correlated directly with glucose level at 0 min in BT-Ⅰ (r = 0.898, P = 0.015). There wasn't a significant correlation of ghrelin changes with glucose changes and insulin changes during OGTT in obese children with insulin resistance.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in obese children with insulin resistance, ghrelin levels decreased with advancing pubertal stage. Ghrelin secretion suppression following OGTT was influenced by gender and pubertal stage. Baseline ghrelin levels and ghrelin suppression after OGTT did not significantly correlate with the degree of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity.

  2. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Neuropathy in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Omar; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Alam, Uazman; Jones, Wendy; Jeziorska, Maria; Marshall, Andrew; Ponirakis, Georgios; Fadavi, Hassan; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Tavakoli, Mitra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) represents one of the earliest stages of glucose dysregulation and is associated with macrovascular disease, retinopathy, and microalbuminuria, but whether IGT causes neuropathy is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-seven subjects with IGT and 20 age-matched control subjects underwent a comprehensive evaluation of neuropathy by assessing symptoms, neurological deficits, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, heart rate variability deep breathing (HRVdb), skin biopsy, and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). RESULTS Subjects with IGT had a significantly increased neuropathy symptom profile (P < 0.001), McGill pain index (P < 0.001), neuropathy disability score (P = 0.001), vibration perception threshold (P = 0.002), warm threshold (P = 0.006), and cool threshold (P = 0.03), with a reduction in intraepidermal nerve fiber density (P = 0.03), corneal nerve fiber density (P < 0.001), corneal nerve branch density (P = 0.002), and corneal nerve fiber length (P = 0.05). No significant difference was found in sensory and motor nerve amplitude and conduction velocity or HRVdb. CONCLUSIONS Subjects with IGT have evidence of neuropathy, particularly small-fiber damage, which can be detected using skin biopsy and CCM. PMID:24969581

  3. Beta-cell function, incretin effect, and incretin hormones in obese youth along the span of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to Type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the hyperglycemic and euglycemic clamp, we demonstrated impaired Beta-cell function in obese youth with increasing dysglycemia. Herein we describe oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-modeled Beta-cell function and incretin effect in obese adolescents spanning the range of glucose tolerance. Bet...

  4. Lack of associations between serum leptin, a polymorphism in the gene for the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor and glucose tolerance in the Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Koper, JW; Stolk, RP; Englaro, P; Uitterlinden, AG; Huang, Q; van Leeuwen, JPTM; Blum, WF; Attanasio, AMF; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, FH; Lamberts, SWJ

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND The associations between leptin levels and the prevalence of a polymorphism in the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor were studied in a cross-sectional analysis of 600 participants in a population-based study, which were stratified for glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS

  5. 妊娠期糖代谢异常162例母儿预后分析%Analysis on the outcomes of 162 maternal and fetal with abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes.Methods: 162 patients were diagnosed definitely in our hospital from June 2003 to August 2007.They were divided into Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) group (58 cases) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (104 cases).150 pregnant women of normal blood glucose were taken as normal glucose tolerance (GNGT) group, maternal and fetal outcomes were compared in three groups.Results: The incidences of postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean section, pregnancy - induced hypertension, polyhydramnios, fatal macrosomia, premature delivery, neonatal hypoglycemia were higher in GDM group than in GNGT group (P < 0.05 ).The incidences of cesarean section, polyhydramnios, fatal acrosomia were higher in the GIGT group than in GNGT group (P <0.05).Conclusion: Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy can produce adverse effect on mothers and neonates.It is very important to positive treatment the pregnant women of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常对母儿预后的影响.方法:2003年6月~2007年8月在大同市第一人民医院诊断为妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕妇162例,其中妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组58例,妊娠期糖耐量减低(GIGT)组104例,另选择150例血糖值正常孕妇作为血糖正常(GNGT)组,比较3组的母儿预后.结果:GDM组孕妇产后即时出血、剖宫产、妊娠期高血压疾病、羊水过多、巨大儿、早产儿和新生儿低血糖的发生率均显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05);GIGT组剖宫产、羊水过多、巨大儿的发生率显著高于GNGT组(P<0.05).结论:妊娠期糖代谢异常对孕产妇和围生儿的预后有不良影响,应对妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇进行积极干预.

  6. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and other types of dysglycaemia among young twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egegaard Hennild, Ditte; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Joaquím, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twins may be at increased risk of dysglycaemic disorders due to adverse fetal conditions. Data from Africa regarding this association is limited. We studied impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and other types of dysglycemia among twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study...

  7. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue;

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2))....

  8. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. METHODS: A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. RESULTS: Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI 0.27-0.65, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46, and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of 30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  9. EFFECT OF CHRONIC ACE INHIBITION ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND INSULIN SENSITIVITY IN HYPERTENSIVE TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹卫东; G.Seghieri; C.Boni,G,Sanna; R.Anichinl; G.Bartolomei; E.Ferrannini

    1994-01-01

    We studied 14 moderately overweight Type 2 diabetic patients with essential hypertension in stable metabolic control after a run-in period,and again after 3 months of antihypertensive treatment with the angiotensin-convert-ing enzyme(ACE)inhibitor captopril.Glucose tolerance was tested with a 75g oral glucose load (OGTT) and in-sulin sensitivity was measured by the insulin suppression test (IST)while dietary and drug treatment of the hyper-glycemia was maintained constant.In the whole group,mean blood pressure (MBP) fell progressively over 3 months from a baseline value of 123±3mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133kpa)to a final value of 115±2mmHg(P<0.005).After treatment,fasting plasma glucose,insulin,free fatty acid (FFA),potassium,and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations were unchanged from baseling.There were no significant differences in glucose toler-ance and insulin sensitivity between pre-and post-trearment values.Neither endogenous (oral glucose)nor exoge-nous(IST)insulin caused any change in plasma potassium concentration. This resistance to the hypokalemic action of insulin was not affected by captopril.

  10. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  11. Effects of bittergourd (Momordica Charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in type-l l diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Parmar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia or bittergourd commonly known as karella, (family: Cucurbitaceae, has been proved for hypoglycaemic effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of bittergourd (momordica charantia fruit juice on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocininduced type-II diabetic rat. Two days old neonatal pups (7–10 g were used & they were made diabetic by intraperitoneally (i.p. injection of 90 mg/kg STZ in citrate buffer solution. Different groups of animals were treated by 25% and 50% bitter gourd fruit juice (BFJ for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks treatment biochemical parameters from blood serum were analyzed. The significant differences of glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, in 50%BFJ treated group compare to diabetic group were found. So, from present study it is concluded that Bitter gourd fruit juice has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced type-II diabetic rat.

  12. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats.

  13. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  14. Dietary antioxidants: Do they have a role to play in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon, Antoine; Hokayem, Marie; Bisbal, Catherine; Lambert, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Overfeeding, an increased intake of saturated fatty acids, and sugary foods are key dietary changes that have occurred in recent decades in addition to the emergence of the obesity epidemic. In addition to an increase in energy storage as fat, these dietary changes are accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial macronutrient oxidation, leading to an excessive free radical production and, hence, oxidative stress. The latter has long been considered a central mechanism linking nutrient overload, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. However, food, through fruit and vegetable consumption, also can be a great source of antioxidants that protect the body against oxidative damage and insulin resistance and thus help cope with the metabolic backlash of the energy-dense Westernized diet. Experimental data are in favor of the beneficial role conveyed by antioxidants in glucose metabolism, but clinical data in humans remain controversial. This review therefore aimed to sort out any underlying discrepancies and provide an overall clear view of the role of antioxidants in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism.

  15. Objective 3D surface evaluation of intracranial electrophysiologic correlates of cerebral glucose metabolic abnormalities in children with focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jeong-Won; Asano, Eishi; Kumar Pilli, Vinod; Nakai, Yasuo; Chugani, Harry T; Juhász, Csaba

    2017-03-21

    To determine the spatial relationship between 2-deoxy-2[(18) F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) metabolic and intracranial electrophysiological abnormalities in children undergoing two-stage epilepsy surgery, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to correlate hypo- and hypermetabolic cortical regions with ictal and interictal electrocorticography (ECoG) changes mapped onto the brain surface. Preoperative FDG-PET scans of 37 children with intractable epilepsy (31 with non-localizing MRI) were compared with age-matched pseudo-normal pediatric control PET data. Hypo-/hypermetabolic maps were transformed to 3D-MRI brain surface to compare the locations of metabolic changes with electrode coordinates of the ECoG-defined seizure onset zone (SOZ) and interictal spiking. While hypometabolic clusters showed a good agreement with the SOZ on the lobar level (sensitivity/specificity = 0.74/0.64), detailed surface-distance analysis demonstrated that large portions of ECoG-defined SOZ and interictal spiking area were located at least 3 cm beyond hypometabolic regions with the same statistical threshold (sensitivity/specificity = 0.18-0.25/0.94-0.90 for overlap 3-cm distance); for a lower threshold, sensitivity for SOZ at 3 cm increased to 0.39 with a modest compromise of specificity. Performance of FDG-PET SPM was slightly better in children with smaller as compared with widespread SOZ. The results demonstrate that SPM utilizing age-matched pseudocontrols can reliably detect the lobe of seizure onset. However, the spatial mismatch between metabolic and EEG epileptiform abnormalities indicates that a more complete SOZ detection could be achieved by extending intracranial electrode coverage at least 3 cm beyond the metabolic abnormality. Considering that the extent of feasible electrode coverage is limited, localization information from other modalities is particularly important to optimize grid coverage in cases of large hypometabolic cortex. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017

  16. Chromium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and isolation of glucose tolerance factor from yeast biomass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vlatka Gulan Zetic; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas; Slobodan Grba; Lavoslav Lutilsky; Damir Kozlek

    2001-06-01

    Fermentations with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in semiaerobic and in static conditions with the addition of chromic chloride into the used molasses medium were analysed. It was proved that the addition of optimal amounts of CrCl3 into the basal medium enhanced the kinetics of alcohol fermentations. The addition of 200 mg/l CrCl3 into the medium stimulated both the yeast growth and the ethanol production in all experimental conditions. On the other hand, the results showed that Cr3+ ions were incorporated into yeast cells during fermentation. Under these conditions the accumulation of Cr3+ ions was performed by yeast cells during the exponential growth phase, and with enriched amounts of 30–45 g/gd.m. of cells. Yeast biomass enriched with chromium ions was extracted with 0.1 mol/l NH4OH assuming that the extracts had the glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Then the extracts were passed through a gel-filtration column in order to isolate and purify the GTF. The presence of GTF in the purified fractions was determined by measuring the absorbance at 260 nm. It is evident from the obtained results that the added purified fractions enhanced the rates of CO2 production as well as the glucose utilization during alcoholic fermentation. As expected, the enhancement of both rates depended on the amounts of extracts added to the fermentation substrate. Thus, it is evident that purified extracts contained the GTF compound, and that Cr3+ ions were bonded to the protein molecule.

  17. ASSOCIATION OF INSULIN RESISTANCE AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang-ping; LV An-kang; SHEN Wei-feng; LIU Hai-feng; ZHANG Qi; DING Feng-hua; ZHANG Rui-yan; CAI Xu; YANG Zhen-kun; HU Jian; ZHANG Jian-sheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine insulin resistance and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) association with clinical and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with normal glucose tolerance.Methods In 638 consecutive patients with normal glucose tolerance, 221 had atypical chest pain and normal coronary artery (control group), 279 had stable angina and CAD (SAP group), and 138 suffered acute myocardial infarction (MI group). The degree of CAD was further divided into borderline lesion (lumen diameter narrowing 50%-69%), significant 1-, 2- or 3-vessel disease (luminal diameter narrowing ≥70%). Fasting serum glucose, insulin and hsCRP levels and lipid profiles were measured, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess risk factors for 3-vessel disease or acute MI.Results Serum hsCRP, lipoprotein (a) levels, and insulin resistance index (IRI) were higher in AMI group than those in SAP and control groups. Serum hsCRP level and IRI were also higher in 3-vessel disease than those in other groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that insulin resistance, cigarette smoking, serum hsCRP, and lipoprotein (a) levels were independent risk factors for acute MI. Lipoprotein (a) elevation was an independent risk factor for 3-vessel disease.Conclusion Insulin resistance and high serum hsCRP level were associated with occurrence of acute MI and angiographic severity of coronary disease in patients with normal glucose tolerance.

  18. Growth hormone ameliorates adipose dysfunction during oxidative stress and inflammation and improves glucose tolerance in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, H; Ishikawa, M; Ishii, S; Okamoto, M; Minami, S

    2014-08-01

    Patients with adult growth hormone deficiency exhibit visceral fat accumulation, which gives rise to a cluster of metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Plasma growth hormone levels are lower in obese patients with metabolic syndrome than in healthy subjects. Here we examined the hypothesis that exogenous growth hormone administration regulates function of adipose tissue to improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Twelve-week-old obese male C57BL/6 J mice received bovine growth hormone daily for 6 weeks. In epididymal fat, growth hormone treatment antagonized diet-induced changes in the gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and significantly increased the gene expression of interleukin-10 and CD206. Growth hormone also suppressed the accumulation of oxidative stress marker, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in the epididymal fat and enhanced the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. Moreover, growth hormone significantly restored glucose tolerance in obese mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, growth hormone prevented the decline in adiponectin gene expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that growth hormone administration ameliorates glucose intolerance in obese mice presumably by decreasing adipose mass, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in the visceral fat.

  19. Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-09-01

    Vanillin is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and, as one of the major biomass conversion inhibitors, inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. Vanillin was recently shown to induce the mitochondrial fragmentation and formation of mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural, another major biomass conversion inhibitor, also induces oxidative stress and is reduced in an NAD(P)H-dependent manner to its less toxic alcohol derivative. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), through which most NADPH is generated, plays a role in tolerance to furfural. Although vanillin also induces oxidative stress and is reduced to vanillyl alcohol in a NADPH-dependent manner, the relationship between vanillin and PPP has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting NADPH-producing step in PPP, for yeast tolerance to vanillin. The growth of the null mutant of G6PDH gene (zwf1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, and vanillin was efficiently reduced in the culture of wild-type cells but not in the culture of zwf1Δ cells. Furthermore, zwf1Δ cells easily induced the activation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, mitochondrial fragmentation, and P-body formation with the vanillin treatment, which indicated that zwf1Δ cells were more susceptible to vanillin than wild type cells. These findings suggest the importance of G6PDH and PPP in the response of yeast to vanillin.

  20. 妊娠期糖尿病高危因素与产后早发糖代谢异常的关系%Relationship between Risk Factors of GDM and Postpartum Early Abnormal Glucose Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫小庆; 王子莲; 曹筱佩; 肖海鹏; 李延兵

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between traditional risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregnancy outcome as well as postpartum early abnormal glucose regulation. [Methods] Risk factors or 50 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were used to scan GDM in 3017 pregnant women, the 75 g OGTT were performed to confirm the diagnosis of GDM in those with positive results. GDM women were divided into two groups; women with risk factors (n = 143) and without risk factors (re = 175). All GDM women were recruited to take 75 g OGTT at 6-8 weeks and 6-12 months after delivery. [Results] Total 318 GDM were confirmed in those 3017 pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM in women with risk factors were higher than those without risk factors (41.81% vs 6.54%, P<0.01). Additionally, compare to those without risk factors, women with risk factors has higher pregnant complications, higher premature birth rate, and birth-weight. Also a higher incidence of early postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance was observed in those with GDM risk factors. Logistic regression analysis indicated that family history of diabetes and positive uric glucose were relative to the early postpartum abnormal glucose tolerance. [Conclusions] The GDM risk factors are not only the predictor of GDM, but also are relative to postpartum early abnormal glucose regulation. Among these risk factors, family history of diabetes and positive uric glucose are of greater contribution.%[目的]探讨妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)传统高危因素与妊娠结局及产后早发糖代谢异常的关系.[方法]3 017名孕妇以高危因素或50 g葡萄糖筛查试验进行GDM筛查,阳性者行75 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)确诊GDM,GDM孕妇分为高危因素组(G1组,n=143)与非高危因素组(G2组,n=175),并于产后6~8周及产后6~ 12月复查OGTT.[结果]3 017名孕妇中318例确诊GDM,存在高因危素的孕妇GDM患病率明显高于无高危因素的孕妇(41.81% VS 6.54

  1. Clinical Observation on Senile Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance Treated by Point Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yuquan; Fei Mingfeng; He Yongsheng; Zhang Cunhai; Zheng Wei; Wu Yajun; Li Weihong

    2006-01-01

    In order to observe and evaluate the therapeutic effects of point application on senile impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 64 senile IGT patients were randomly divided into two groups with 32 cases in each group.The control group was treated with interference therapy of controlling diet, while the observation group was given point application at Yishu (胰俞 1.5 cun lateral to the Du Channel, at the level of the lower border of the spinous process of the eighth thoracic vertebra), Pishu (BL 20), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36) and other points in addition to interference therapy of controlling diet. After 2 courses of treatment, the postprandial blood sugar was detected. As a result, the postprandial blood sugar obviously reduced in both groups (P<0.05, P<0.01) with a lower level in the observation group than in the control group (P<0.05), indicating that point application in combination with interference therapy of controlling diet has a reliable therapeutic effect on senile IGT patients.

  2. Weight cycling increases T-cell accumulation in adipose tissue and impairs systemic glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily K; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of morbidity in the U.S. Accumulation of proinflammatory immune cells in adipose tissue (AT) contributes to the development of obesity-associated disorders. Weight loss is the ideal method to counteract the negative consequences of obesity; however, losses are rarely maintained, leading to bouts of weight cycling. Fluctuations in weight have been associated with worsened metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes; yet, the mechanisms explaining this potential correlation are not known. For determination of whether weight cycling modulates AT immune cell populations, inflammation, and insulin resistance, mice were subjected to a diet-switch protocol designed to induce weight cycling. Weight-cycled mice displayed decreased systemic glucose tolerance and impaired AT insulin sensitivity when compared with mice that gained weight but did not cycle. AT macrophage number and polarization were not modulated by weight cycling. However, weight cycling did increase the number of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in AT. Expression of multiple T helper 1-associated cytokines was also elevated subsequent to weight cycling. Additionally, CD8(+) effector memory T cells were present in AT of both obese and weight-cycled mice. These studies indicate that an exaggerated adaptive immune response in AT may contribute to metabolic dysfunction during weight cycling.

  3. Association testing of novel type 2 diabetes risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, TSPAN8, THADA, ADAMTS9, and NOTCH2 loci with insulin release, insulin sensitivity, and obesity in a population-based sample of 4,516 glucose-tolerant middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andersen, Gitte; Krarup, Nikolaj Thure

    2008-01-01

    identified by meta-analysis of genome-wide association data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We genotyped the six variants in 4,516 middle-aged glucose-tolerant individuals of the population-based Inter99 cohort who were all characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: Homozygous carriers......: If replicated, our data suggest that type 2 diabetes at-risk alleles in the JAZF1, CDC123/CAMK1D, and TSPAN8 loci associate with various OGTT-based surrogate measures of insulin release, emphasizing the contribution of abnormal pancreatic beta-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes....

  4. Abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity associated with illness course, symptoms and fasting blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suijing Cui; Jinhua Qiu; Weiliang Luo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has shown that abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity during onset of diabetes mellitus is not related to age and sex, but to symptoms, illness course and level of fasting blood glucose.OBJECTIVE: To measure correlation of abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with various illness courses, symptoms and levels of fasting blood glucose of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Central People's Hospital of Huizhou.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 patients who were diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from Central People's Hospital of Huizhou from September 2001 to October 2005. There were 75 males and 53 females aged 32-83 years and the illness course ranged from 1 month to 20 years.METHODS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received neuro-electrophysiological study and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to measure peripheral nerve conduction velocity and fasting blood glucose so as to investigate the correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms,illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation of peripheral nerve conduction velocity with clinical symptoms, illness course and levels of fasting blood glucose.RESULTS: All 128 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were involved in the final analysis. ① Among 128patients, 114 patients had abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 110 patients had clinical symptoms, including 102 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity; 18 patients did not have clinical symptoms, including 12 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity.There were significant differences between them (x2=8.275, P=0.04). ② Among 128 patients, illness course of 75 patients was equal to or less than 5 years, including 27 patients having abnormality of peripheral nerve conduction velocity

  5. Deletion of insulin-degrading enzyme elicits antipodal, age-dependent effects on glucose and insulin tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer O Abdul-Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE is widely recognized as the principal protease responsible for the clearance and inactivation of insulin, but its role in glycemic control in vivo is poorly understood. We present here the first longitudinal characterization, to our knowledge, of glucose regulation in mice with pancellular deletion of the IDE gene (IDE-KO mice. METHODOLOGY: IDE-KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates were characterized at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in terms of body weight, basal glucose and insulin levels, and insulin and glucose tolerance. Consistent with a functional role for IDE in insulin clearance, fasting serum insulin levels in IDE-KO mice were found to be ∼3-fold higher than those in wild-type (WT controls at all ages examined. In agreement with previous observations, 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited a severe diabetic phenotype characterized by increased body weight and pronounced glucose and insulin intolerance. In marked contrast, 2-mo-old IDE-KO mice exhibited multiple signs of improved glycemic control, including lower fasting glucose levels, lower body mass, and modestly enhanced insulin and glucose tolerance relative to WT controls. Biochemically, the emergence of the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice correlated with age-dependent reductions in insulin receptor (IR levels in muscle, adipose, and liver tissue. Primary adipocytes harvested from 6-mo-old IDE-KO mice also showed functional impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the diabetic phenotype in IDE-KO mice is not a primary consequence of IDE deficiency, but is instead an emergent compensatory response to chronic hyperinsulinemia resulting from complete deletion of IDE in all tissues throughout life. Significantly, our findings provide new evidence to support the idea that partial and/or transient inhibition of IDE may constitute a valid approach to the treatment of diabetes.

  6. Rapidly alternating photoperiods disrupt central and peripheral rhythmicity and decrease plasma glucose, but do not affect glucose tolerance or insulin secretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varcoe, Tamara J; Gatford, Kathryn L; Voultsios, Athena; Salkeld, Mark D; Boden, Michael J; Rattanatray, Leewen; Kennaway, David J

    2014-09-01

    Disrupting circadian rhythms in rodents perturbs glucose metabolism and increases adiposity. To determine whether these effects occur in a large diurnal animal, we assessed the impact of circadian rhythm disruption upon metabolic function in sheep. Adult ewes (n = 7) underwent 3 weeks of a control 12 h light-12 h dark photoperiod, followed by 4 weeks of rapidly alternating photoperiods (RAPs) whereby the time of light exposure was reversed twice each week. Measures of central (melatonin secretion and core body temperature) and peripheral rhythmicity (clock and metabolic gene expression in skeletal muscle) were obtained over 24 h in both conditions. Metabolic homeostasis was assessed by glucose tolerance tests and 24 h glucose and insulin profiles. Melatonin and core body temperature rhythms resynchronized within 2 days of the last photoperiod shift. High-amplitude Bmal1, Clock, Nr1d1, Cry2 and Per3 mRNA rhythms were apparent in skeletal muscle, which were phase advanced by up to 3.5 h at 2 days after the last phase shift, whereas Per1 expression was downregulated at this time. Pparα, Pgc1α and Nampt mRNA were constitutively expressed in both conditions. Nocturnal glucose concentrations were reduced following chronic phase shifts (zeitgeber time 0, -5.5%; zeitgeber time 12, -2.9%; and zeitgeber time 16, -5.7%), whereas plasma insulin, glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion were not altered. These results demonstrate that clock gene expression within ovine skeletal muscle oscillates over 24 h and responds to changing photoperiods. However, metabolic genes which link circadian and metabolic clocks in rodents were arrhythmic in sheep. Differences may be due to the ruminant versus monogastric digestive organization in each species. Together, these results demonstrate that despite disruptions to central and peripheral rhythmicity following exposure to rapidly alternating photoperiods, there was minimal impact on glucose homeostasis in

  7. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, I.; Hansen, C. H. F.; Ellekilde, M.;

    2013-01-01

    at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study...... in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a "window" exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well...... as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning....

  8. Effect of chicory seed extract on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and metabolic profile in early and late stage diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamarian Abdolreza; Abdollahi Mohammad; Su Xiaogang; Amiri Azita; Ahadi Ali; Nowrouzi Azin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background and purpose of the study The goal was to evaluate and compare the effects of aqueous extract of the seeds of chicory, Cichorium intybus L., on glucose tolerance test (GTT) and blood biochemical indices of experimentally-induced hyperglycemic rats. Methods Late stage and early stage of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) and a combination of STZ and niacinamide (NIA/STZ), respectively. Within each group, one subgroup received daily i...

  9. Relation of Serial Changes in Childhood Body-Mass Index to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Barker, David J.P.; Biswas, Sushant K. Dey; Ramji, Siddharth; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased in people who have low birth weights and who subsequently become obese as adults. Whether their obesity originates in childhood and, if so, at what age are unknown. Understanding the origin of obesity may be especially important in developing countries, where type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing yet public health messages still focus on reducing childhood “undernutrition.” METHODS We evaluated glucose tolerance and plasma insulin concentrations in 1492 men and women 26 to 32 years of age who had been measured at birth and at intervals of three to six months throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence in a prospective, population-based study. RESULTS The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 10.8 percent, and that of diabetes was 4.4 percent. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes typically had a low body-mass index up to the age of two years, followed by an early adiposity rebound (the age after infancy when body mass starts to rise) and an accelerated increase in body-mass index until adulthood. However, despite an increase in body-mass index between the ages of 2 and 12 years, none of these subjects were obese at the age of 12 years. The odds ratio for disease associated with an increase in the body-mass index of 1 SD from 2 to 12 years of age was 1.36 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.57; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between thinness in infancy and the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in young adulthood. Crossing into higher categories of body-mass index after the age of two years is also associated with these disorders. PMID:14985484

  10. Analysis of gestational diabetes in pregnant women with different blood glucose abnormalities and pregnancy Outcome%妊娠期糖尿病孕妇不同血糖指标异常与妊娠结局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丽

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察并研究妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇各项血糖指标异常对妊娠结局的影响.方法 选取400例产前检查并选择在院分娩的产妇为本次研究对象,通过75 g葡萄糖耐量实验检测方法将其均分为对照组和实验组,即正常血糖组(服糖后1/2 h、空腹血糖处于正常状态)和妊娠期糖尿病组(GDM),其中实验组(妊娠期糖尿病组)分为实验组A(仅空腹血糖异常)、实验组B(服糖后1/2 h、空腹血糖均表现异常)和实验组C(服糖后任意时间点和空腹血糖值均表现异常);同时根据葡萄糖耐量实验结果将实验组患者划分为GDM1(1项血糖指数异常)、GDM2(2项血糖指数异常)、GDM3(3项血糖指数异常),通过对照研究方法评估不同类型GDM产妇妊娠结局.结果 与对照组相比,实验组整体早产率、剖宫产率以及大于胎龄儿(LGA)发生率更高,组间差异显著(P<0.05);实验组中,实验组B患者中LGA、巨大儿发生率超出对照组和实验组C,组间差异显著(P<0.05);GDM1、GDM2、GDM3组剖宫产率、LGA和巨大儿发生率高于对照组,组间差异显著(P<0.05).结论 在妊娠期糖尿病患者中,空腹血糖异常且伴有血糖指数不同时间点内异常(不低于1项)者明显出现妊娠结局不良的情况,临床应根据此种情况针对产妇实施密切观察和有效干预,以控制不良妊娠结局.此外,空腹血糖指数低于4.4 mmol/L的孕妇通常不会发生妊娠期糖尿病或出现不良妊娠结局,不建议临床采用葡萄糖耐量实验对此类孕妇进行检测.%Objective To observe and study the effect of glucose abnormalities on pregnancy outcome in pregnant women with gestational diabetes(GDM).Methods Four hundred cases of prenatal care and childbirth were selected for the study object,through 75 g glucose tolerance test method to detect both into control group and experimental group,namely normal glucose group (oral glucose after 1/2 h,fasting blood glucose in

  11. Ampicillin-Improved Glucose Tolerance in Diet-Induced Obese C57BL/6NTac Mice Is Age Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rune

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ampicillin has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in mice. We hypothesized that this effect is present only if treatment is initiated prior to weaning and that it disappears when treatment is terminated. High-fat fed C57BL/6NTac mice were divided into groups that received Ampicillin at different ages or not at all. We found that both diet and Ampicillin significantly changed the gut microbiota composition in the animals. Furthermore, there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in Ampicillin-treated, five-week-old mice compared to nontreated mice in the control group. At study termination, expressions of mRNA coding for tumor necrosis factor, serum amyloid A, and lactase were upregulated, while the expression of tumor necrosis factor (ligand superfamily member 15 was downregulated in the ileum of Ampicillin-treated mice. Higher dendritic cell percentages were found systemically in high-fat diet mice, and a lower tolerogenic dendritic cell percentage was found both in relation to high-fat diet and late Ampicillin treatment. The results support our hypothesis that a “window” exists early in life in which an alteration of the gut microbiota affects glucose tolerance as well as development of gut immunity and that this window may disappear after weaning.

  12. Expression and characterization of a novel highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase from a soil metagenome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lu; Liqin Du; Yutuo Wei; Yuanyuan Hu; Ribo Huang

    2013-01-01

    A β-glucosidase gene unbgl1A was isolated by the functionbased screening of a metagenomic library and the enzyme protein was expressed in Escherichia coli,purified,and biochemically characterized.The enzyme Unbgl1A had a Km value of 2.09 ± 0.31 mM,and a Vmax value of 183.90 ± 9.61 μmol min-1 mg-1 under the optimal reaction conditions,which were pH 6.0 at 50℃.Unbgl1A can be activated by a variety of monosaccharides,disaccharides,and NaCl,and exhibits a high level of stability at high concentration of NaCl.Two prominent features for this enzyme are:(i) high glucose tolerance.It can be tolerant to glucose as high as 2000 mM,with Ki =1500 mM; (ii) high NaCl tolerance.Its activity is not affected by 600 mM NaCl.The enzyme showed transglucosylation activities resulting in the formation of cellotriose from cellobiose.These properties of Unbgl1A should have important practical implication in its potential applications for better industrial production of glucose or bioethanol started from lignocellulosic biomass.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE PREVALENCE RATE AND RISK FACTOR OF ABNORMAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN CADRE MEMBERS%副厅级以上干部人群糖代谢异常患病情况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英; 曾莉; 吴琴琴; 张帆; 秦恳; 邹天富; 黄燕; 王佑娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To realize the prevalence rate and analyse the risk factor of abnormal glucose metabolism in cadre members in Sichuan province to provide scientific evidence to set up the preventive strategies.[Methods]Information were collected in the cadre menbers checked in our hospital and medical examination including height, weight, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and biochemical test, etc.Abnormal glucose metabolism was based on the diagnosis criteria in 1999.The relationships between risk factors and IGR were analyzed by unconditional multivariate logistic regression.[Results](1) The detection rate of total abnormal glucose metabolism was 33.2%, with 7.3% of DM.The detection rate of IGR was 25.8%.The detection rate of I-IFG, I-IGT, IFG/IGT was 1.9%, 20.3%, 3.6%, respectively, (2) Compared with the NGT group, the IGR group had higher body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), triglyceride (TG) , systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum creatinine (Cr) , lower high density lipoprotein with statistical significance (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05).(3) Age, BMI, WHR, TG were risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism (P< 0.01 or P< 0.05).[Conclusion]The abnormality rare of glucose metabolism in cadre menbers in Sichuan province is high.Age, BMI, WHR, TG are main risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism.%[目的]了解四川省干部人群糖代谢异常的患病情况并分析其危险因素,为制定适宜的干预措施提供依据.[方法]选用2009年在某院健康体检的干部人群,分别进行身高体重血压测定、糖耐量试验(OGTT)及生化指标检查等.糖代谢异常的诊断依据WHO1999年糖尿病的诊断标准.运用多因素非条件Logistic回归分析,探讨影响糖代谢异常发生的危险因素.[结果](1)糖代谢异常总检出率为33.2%,其中DM的检出率7.3%,糖调节受损(IGR,糖尿病前期)总的检出率为25.8%,IGR各亚组的检出率分别为:I-IFG1.9%、I-IGT20.3%及IFG/IGT3

  14. 多囊卵巢综合征患者糖代谢异常发生率及其特点%Characteristics and prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪仁敏; 钟俊敏; 陈晓莉; 李琳; 李予; 陈亚肖; 刘雯; 杨冬梓

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨多囊卵巢综合征患者糖代谢异常特点及其发生率.方法 回顾性分析2006年6月1日至2009年2月1日广州中山大学孙逸仙纪念医院妇产科收治的初诊多囊卵巢综合征患者654例(青春期101例,成人553例),以120名年龄匹配的健康志愿者为对照组(青春期40名,成人80名).病例和对照组均行口服葡萄糖耐量试验和胰岛素释放试验,比较病例组和对照组、成人多囊卵巢综合征与青春期多囊卵巢综合征、不同体重指数亚组中糖代谢异常的特点及其发生率.结果 多囊卵巢综合征患者糖代谢异常的发生率为24.5%(160/654),显著高于对照组的3.3%(4/120)(χ2=27.11,P7.0 mmol/L,9例(69.2%)通过口服葡萄糖耐量试验筛查发现.多囊卵巢综合征组糖代谢异常的发生率随体重指数升高而升高(χ2=53.71,P<0.0001).结论 多囊卵巢综合征患者为糖代谢异常的高危人群,其糖代谢异常以糖耐量受损为主,空腹血糖受损次之.多囊卵巢综合征患者(尤其是肥胖者)应行口服葡萄糖耐最试验,以早期发现其糖代谢异常.%Objective To evaluate the characteristics and prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 654 PCOS patients (101 were in adolescence, 553 were adults) and 120 healthy controls (40 were in adolescence, 80 were adults). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin releasing test (IRT), and other biochemical testing were underwent in all patients and controls. The characteristics and prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism were analyzed and compared. Results The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, including impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM), was 24.5% in PCOS patients, which was significantly higher than that in the controls (χ2 = 27.11, P < 0.0001). The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism in

  15. Sleep Duration, Lifestyle Intervention, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Henri; Peltonen, Markku; Partinen, Markku; Lavigne, Gilles; Eriksson, Johan G.; Herder, Christian; Aunola, Sirkka; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lindström, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Both short and long sleep duration have frequently been found to be associated with an increased risk for diabetes. The aim of the present exploratory analysis was to examine the association between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes after lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance in a 7-year prospective follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 522 individuals (aged 40–64 years) were randomly allocated either to an intensive diet-exercise counseling group or to a control group. Diabetes incidence during follow-up was calculated according to sleep duration at baseline. Sleep duration was obtained for a 24-h period. Physical activity, dietary intakes, body weight, and immune mediators (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were measured. RESULTS Interaction between sleep duration and treatment group was statistically significant (P = 0.003). In the control group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for diabetes were 2.29 (1.38–3.80) and 2.74 (1.67–4.50) in the sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, respectively, compared with for that of the 7–8.5 h group. In contrast, sleep duration did not influence the incidence of diabetes in the intervention group; for sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.10 (0.60–2.01) and 0.73 (0.34–1.56), respectively, compared with that in the reference group (7–8.5 h sleep). Lifestyle intervention resulted in similar improvement in body weight, insulin sensitivity, and immune mediator levels regardless of sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS Long sleep duration is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Lifestyle intervention with the aim of weight reduction, healthy diet, and increased physical activity may ameliorate some of this excess risk. PMID:19651919

  16. Effects of Acute Pinitol Supplementation on Plasma Pinitol Concentration, Whole Body Glucose Tolerance, and Activation of the Skeletal Muscle Insulin Receptor in Older Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, A. J.; Wood, K V; Thyfault, J. P.; Campbell, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62 ± 1 years, mean ± SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Su...

  17. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated.

  18. Burden and Socio-Behavioral Correlates of Uncontrolled Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in an Urban Population of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Mahapatra, Umakanta; Pandey, Naren; Thomson, Peter L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Mitra, Ramendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. Methods From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7.24%) were interviewed, examined [blood pressure (BP), anthropometry], tested for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Those having pre-diagnosed diabetes or FPG ≥126 or HbA1c≥6.5 were defined as diabetic. Among non-diabetics, subjects with FPG (mg/dl) = 100–125 or HbA1C(%) = 5.7–6.4 were defined as pre-diabetic. Pre-diagnosed cases with current FPG ≥126 were defined as uncontrolled AGM. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted using SAS-9.3.2. Results Among participants, 28.62% [95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) = 23.19–34.06)] were overweight [body mass index(BMI) = (25–29.99)kg/meter2], 7.81% (4.58–11.03) were obese(BMI≥30kg/meter2), 20.82% (15.93–25.70) were current smokers, 12.64% (8.64–16.64) were current alcohol-drinkers and 46.32% of responders (39.16–53.47) had family history of diabetes. 17.84% (13.24–22.45) had stage-I [140≤average systolic BP (AvSBP in mm of mercury)business-owners [OR = 25.53(24.91–16.18)], retired [OR = 46.53(45.38–47.72)], ex-smokers [OR = 4.75(1.09–20.78)], ex-drinkers [OR = 22.43(4.62–108.81)] and hypertensives [ORStage II = 13.17(1.29–134.03)] were more likely to have uncontrolled AGM. Conclusions Burden of uncontrolled AGM was high among participants. Efforts to curb the diabetes epidemic in urban India should include interventions targeting appropriate diabetic control among relatively older persons, unemployed, business-owners, retired, ex-smokers, ex

  19. Effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor vildagliptin on incretin hormones, islet function, and postprandial glycemia in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Julio; Foley, James E; Rendell, Marc;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the effects of vildagliptin on incretin hormone levels, islet function, and postprandial glucose control in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study compa...

  20. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  1. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reno, Candace M; Puente, Erwin C; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J; Routh, Vanessa H; Kahn, Barbara B; Fisher, Simon J

    2017-03-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose.

  2. Predictive Value of Glucose Parameters Obtained From Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in Identifying Individuals at High Risk for the Development of Diabetes in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Ha, Hee-Sung; Rhee, Marie; Lee, Jin-Hee; Park, Yong-Moon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Kang, Moo-Il; Lee, Won-Chul; Son, Ho-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that the future risk for type 2 diabetes is not similar among subjects in the same glucose tolerance category. In this study, we aimed to evaluate simple intuitive indices to identify subjects at high risk for future diabetes development by using 0, 30, 120 minute glucose levels obtained during 75 g OGTTs from participants of a prospective community-based cohort in Korea.Among subjects enrolled at the Chungju Metabolic disease Cohort, those who performed an OGTT between 2007 and 2010 and repeated the test between 2011 and 2014 were recruited after excluding subjects with diabetes at baseline. Subjects were categorized according to their 30 minute glucose (G30) and the difference between 120 and 0 minute glucose (G(120-0)) levels with cutoffs of 9.75 and 2.50 mmol/L, respectively.Among 1126 subjects, 117 (10.39%) developed type 2 diabetes after 4 years. In diabetes nonconverters, increased insulin resistance was accompanied by compensatory insulin secretion, but this was not observed in converters during 4 years of follow-up. Subjects with G(120-0) ≥ 2.50 mmol/L or G30 ≥ 9.75 mmol/L demonstrated lower degrees of insulin secretion, higher degrees of insulin resistance, and ∼6-fold higher risk of developing future diabetes compared to their lower counterparts after adjustment for possible confounding factors. Moreover, subjects with high G(120-0) and high G30 demonstrated 22-fold higher risk for diabetes development compared to subjects with low G(120-0) and low G30.By using the G(120-0) and G30 values obtained during the OGTT, which are less complicated measurements than previously reported methods, we were able to select individuals at risk for future diabetes development. Further studies in different ethnicities are required to validate our results.

  3. Insulin Dynamics in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Normal Glucose Tolerance across Categories of Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Castagneto-Gissey, Lidia; Arrighi, Eugenio; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Brufani, Claudia; Luciano, Rosa; Mingrone, Geltrude

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence favours insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia as the predominant, perhaps primary, defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate insulin metabolism in young women with PCOS but normal glucose tolerance as compared with age, body mass index and insulin resistance-matched controls to answer the question whether women with PCOS hypersecrete insulin in comparison to appropriately insulin resistance-matched controls. Research Design and Methods Sixty-nine cases were divided according to their body mass index (BMI) in normal-weight (N = 29), overweight (N = 24) and obese patients (N = 16). Controls were 479 healthy women (age 16–49 y). Whole body Insulin Sensitivity (WBISI), fasting, and total insulin secretion were estimated following an oral glucose tolerance test (C-peptide deconvolution method). Results Across classes of BMI, PCOS patients had greater insulin resistance than matched controls (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons), but they showed higher fasting and total insulin secretion than their age, BMI and insulin resistance-matched peers (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons). Conclusion Women with PCOS show higher insulin resistance but also larger insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose homeostasis than age-, BMI- and insulin resistance-matched controls. PMID:24705280

  4. Insulin dynamics in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal glucose tolerance across categories of body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Manco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence favours insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia as the predominant, perhaps primary, defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to evaluate insulin metabolism in young women with PCOS but normal glucose tolerance as compared with age, body mass index and insulin resistance-matched controls to answer the question whether women with PCOS hypersecrete insulin in comparison to appropriately insulin resistance-matched controls. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixty-nine cases were divided according to their body mass index (BMI in normal-weight (N = 29, overweight (N = 24 and obese patients (N = 16. Controls were 479 healthy women (age 16-49 y. Whole body Insulin Sensitivity (WBISI, fasting, and total insulin secretion were estimated following an oral glucose tolerance test (C-peptide deconvolution method. RESULTS: Across classes of BMI, PCOS patients had greater insulin resistance than matched controls (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons, but they showed higher fasting and total insulin secretion than their age, BMI and insulin resistance-matched peers (p<0.0001 for all the comparisons. CONCLUSION: Women with PCOS show higher insulin resistance but also larger insulin secretion to maintain normal glucose homeostasis than age-, BMI- and insulin resistance-matched controls.

  5. Th1/Th17 Plasticity Is a Marker of Advanced β Cell Autoimmunity and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert-Hartwall, Linnea; Honkanen, Jarno; Salo, Harri M.; Nieminen, Janne K.; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Härkönen, Taina; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Knip, Mikael; Knip, Mikael; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Härkönen, Taina; Ryhänen, Samppa; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Ormisson, Anne; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svetlana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Ilonen, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Hanna; Hyöty, Heikki; Kondrashova, Anita; Oikarinen, Sami; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjalt; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation of IL-17 immunity and detrimental effects of IL-17 on human islets have been implicated in human type 1 diabetes. In animal models, the plasticity of Th1/Th17 cells contributes to the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that the upregulation of the IL-17 pathway and Th1/Th17 plasticity in peripheral blood are markers of advanced β cell autoimmunity and impaired β cell function in human type 1 diabetes. Activated Th17 immunity was observed in the late stage of preclinical diabetes in children with β cell autoimmunity and impaired glucose tolerance, but not in children with early β cell autoimmunity. We found an increased ratio of IFN-γ/IL-17 expression in Th17 cells in children with advanced β cell autoimmunity, which correlated with HbA1c and plasma glucose concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test, and thus impaired β cell function. Low expression of Helios was seen in Th17 cells, suggesting that Th1/Th17 cells are not converted thymus-derived regulatory T cells. Our results suggest that the development of Th1/Th17 plasticity may serve as a biomarker of disease progression from β cell autoantibody positivity to type 1 diabetes. These data in human type 1 diabetes emphasize the role of Th1/Th17 plasticity as a potential contributor to tissue destruction in autoimmune conditions. PMID:25480564

  6. Pioglitazone is equally effective for diabetes prevention in older versus younger adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Sara E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Tripathy, Devjit; Clement, Stephen C; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, Mary Ann; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of pioglitazone to prevent type 2 diabetes in older compared to younger adults with pre-diabetes. Six hundred two participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were randomized in double blind fashion to placebo or pioglitazone for diabetes prevention in the ACT NOW study (NEJM 364:1104-1115, 2011). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to compare time to development of diabetes over a mean of 2 years between older (≥61 years) and younger participants. We compared effects of pioglitazone versus placebo on metabolic profiles, inflammatory markers, adipokines, β cell function (disposition index), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), and body composition by ANOVA. Diabetes incidence was reduced by 85 % in older and 69 % in younger subjects (p = 0.41). β cell function (disposition index) increased by 35.0 % in the older and 26.7 % in younger subjects (p = 0.83). Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) increased by 3.07 (5.2-fold) in older and by 2.54 (3.8-fold) in younger participants (p = 0.58). Pioglitazone more effectively increased adiponectin in older versus younger subjects (22.9 ± 3.2 μg/mL [2.7-fold] vs. 12.7 ± 1.4 μg/mL [2.2-fold], respectively; p = 0.04). Younger subjects tended to have a greater increase in whole body fat mass compared to older subjects (3.6 vs. 3.1 kg; p = 0.061). Younger and older subjects had similar decreases in bone mineral density (0.018 ± 0.0071 vs. 0.0138 ± 0.021 g/cm(2)). Younger and older pre-diabetic adults taking pioglitazone had similar reductions in conversion to diabetes and older adults had similar or greater improvements in metabolic risk factors, demonstrating that pioglitazone is useful in preventing diabetes in older adults.

  7. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  8. Determining pancreatic β-cell compensation for changing insulin sensitivity using an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Malin, Steven K; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide responses during an OGTT are informative for both research and clinical practice in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to use such information to determine insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion so as to calculate an oral glucose disposition index...

  9. Adult Metabolic Syndrome and Impaired Glucose Tolerance Are Associated With Different Patterns of BMI Gain During Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H.D.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Biswas, Sushant Dey; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil; Ramji, Siddharth; Reddy, K. Srinath; Barker, David J.P.; Bhargava, Santosh K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of infant, childhood, and adolescent BMI and weight associated with adult metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We measured waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition) in 1,492 men and women aged 26–32 years in Delhi, India, whose weight and height were recorded every 6 months throughout infancy (0–2 years), childhood (2–11 years), and adolescence (11 years–adult). RESULTS—Men and women with metabolic syndrome (29% overall), any of its component features, or higher (greater than upper quartile) insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) had more rapid BMI or weight gain than the rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Glucose intolerance (impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes) was, like metabolic syndrome, associated with rapid BMI gain in childhood and adolescence but with lower BMI in infancy. CONCLUSIONS—In this Indian population, patterns of infant BMI and weight gain differed for individuals who developed metabolic syndrome (rapid gain) compared with those who developed glucose intolerance (low infant BMI). Rapid BMI gain during childhood and adolescence was a risk factor for both disorders. PMID:18835958

  10. Effect of Tang No.1 Granule(糖1号方) in Treating Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan; HONG Yu-zhi; YE Xun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of Tang No.1 granule (糖1号方, T1G) in treating patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods: One hundred and forty patients with visiting sequence into two equal groups. The control group received only general knowledge about IGT, but to the treated group, based on current knowledge available, TIG was given additionally for 6 months. Changes in related laboratory indexes, including fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FPG and FINS), plasma glucose 2 h after meal (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc), serum triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), were observed. Results: The levels of FPG, 2hPG, HbA1c, FINS, TG and HOMA-IR were significantly decreased after treatment in the treated group, showing a significant difference compared to the control group (P<0.01). Among them, HbAlc decreased from 7.08±1.41% to 6.56±1.29% in the treated group, while in the control group, it decreased from 7.02±1.37% to 6.93±1.31%. The level of LDL was also reduced in the treated group after treatment (P<0.05). In the treated group, 13 out of 68 patients (19.12%) had their glucose tolerance reversed to normal, while in the control group, only 2/64 (3.1%) got it reverse; a comparison between the two groups in terms of reversion rate showed a significant difference (P<0.01). No severe adverse reaction was found in the therapeutic course. Conclusions: T1G has good clinical effect as a treatment intervention for IGT, as it could improve glycometabolism, significantly depress the levels of post-prandial blood sugar and blood lipids, alleviate clinical symptoms of patients, and effectively cut-off and reverse the yielding and development of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Genetically obese rats with (SHR/N-cp) and without diabetes (LA/N-cp) share abnormal islet responses to glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, K I; Voyles, N R; Recant, L

    1992-10-01

    To assess the effect of hyperglycemia on the function of islets obtained from obese rats, the behavior of isolated islets from LA/N-corpulent (nondiabetic obese) and SHR/N-corpulent (diabetic obese) male rats was examined and compared. Islets from both genetic models showed a left-shifted glucose dose-response curve for insulin release (concentrations for half-maximal release, 5 to 6 mmol/L v 12 to 13 mmol/L in LA/N lean littermates and 3 mmol/L v 10 mmol/L in lean SHR/N). When insulin release was expressed per unit islet volume, the fourfold to fivefold enlarged islets from both obese diabetic and obese nondiabetic rats showed decreased insulin secretory response in high (16.5 to 28 mmol/L) glucose concentrations, although the decrease was more severe in the diabetic rats. Glucose-stimulated insulin release by islets from both models was relatively resistant to inhibition by 1.2 mmol/L mannoheptulose (eg, 82% +/- 3% inhibition in LA/N lean v 16% +/- 8% in LA/N obese), although nearly complete inhibition was observed with 16 mmol/L mannoheptulose (96% v 85%, NS). Islets of obese diabetic rats were also resistant to the calcium-channel blocker, verapamil, suggesting an abnormal pathway of stimulus-secretion coupling for glucose. Glucose oxidation to carbon dioxide was increased in both obese models at all glucose concentrations when expressed per islet. In data expressed per unit volume, the larger islets from the obese-nondiabetic rats showed a left-shifted dose-response curve with an unchanged maximum rate of glucose oxidation at high (16.5 mmol/L) glucose concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Influence of the interleukin-6 -174 G/C gene polymorphism on exercise training-induced changes in glucose tolerance indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jennifer A; Weiss, Edward P; Ghiu, Ioana A; Kulaputana, Onanong; Phares, Dana A; Ferrell, Robert E; Hagberg, James M

    2004-10-01

    A polymorphism in the IL-6 gene, a G-to-C substitution 176 bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation site, has been associated with diabetes prevalence and insulin resistance. Interventions including exercise training are frequently used to modify cardiovascular disease risk factors. Consequently, this project examined associations between the IL-6 -174 genotype and oral glucose tolerance test outcomes in 50- to 75-yr-old sedentary men and postmenopausal women before and after aerobic exercise training. Among the 87 individuals who started the study, 56 were retested after 6 mo of aerobic exercise training. Subject characteristics at baseline did not differ between the IL-6 genotype groups with the exception of fasting glucose, which was higher (P = 0.02, covariates age, gender, and ethnicity) in the CC genotype group. The training-induced change in glucose area under the curve during the oral glucose tolerance test varied between the IL-6 -174 genotype groups (P = 0.05, covariates age, gender, ethnicity, baseline glucose area under the curve, and percent body fat change) with a significant decrease occurring only in the GG genotype group. Insulin outcomes did not differ among the groups at baseline or after training. Training-induced changes in weight, percent body fat, maximal oxygen consumption, fasting glucose, and an insulin sensitivity index also changed similarly among the genotype groups. In conclusion, fasting glucose and the extent to which glucose tolerance changes with exercise training may be influenced by the IL-6 -174 gene polymorphism.

  13. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to study the potential mechanisms responsible for the improvement in glucose control in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Thirteen obese subjects with T2D and twelve matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were examined during a liquid.......003)] but not in NGT. HOMA-IR decreased by 50% in both groups. ß-GS increased in T2D [Pre: 1.03 ± 0.49, 1 wk: 1.70 ± 1.2, (P = 0.012)] but did not change in NGT. The increase in DI(ß-GS) was 3-fold in T2D and 1.5-fold in NGT. After RYGB, glucagon secretion was increased in response to the meal. GIP secretion...... was unchanged, while GLP-1 secretion increased more than 10-fold in both groups. The changes induced by RYGB were sustained or further enhanced 3 mo and 1 yr after surgery. Improvement in glycemic control in T2D after RYGB occurs within days after surgery and is associated with increased insulin sensitivity...

  14. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G. N.; Shakib, Marie-Christine R.; Gabrial, Gamal N.

    2016-01-01

    . The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic index (GI) for quinoa (89.4). The GI of buckwheat recorded a low value (26.8). CONCLUSION: The two studied pseudocereals; quinoa and buckwheat have high potential to improve glucose tolerance at the first and second meal (lunch) and are recommended to be introduced in our daily diet for healthy and diabetic subjects. PMID:28028392

  15. Determinants of progression from impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes in a high-risk screened population: 3 year follow-up in the ADDITION study, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S S; Glümer, C; Sandbaek, A;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to identify determinants of progression from impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to diabetes in high-risk screened individuals. METHODS: In general practices in Denmark, stepwise screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in persons aged 40...... to 69 years included a risk questionnaire, random blood glucose, HbA(1c), fasting blood glucose and an OGTT. The 1,821 individuals with IGT or isolated IFG (WHO 1999) were re-invited after 1 and 3 years. Follow-up data on glucose measurements were available in 1,510 individuals and additional clinical...... of glucose measures, larger BMI, known hypertension and hypertriacylglycerolaemia are significant determinants of progression in high-risk screened individuals. Weight loss of 1 kg/year or reduction of hypertriacylglycerolaemia markedly reduced the risk of diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  16. Fufang Cangzhu Tang for Treatment of Senile Obesity or Overweight Complicated with Impaired Glucose Tolerance--A Clinical Observation in 32 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of Fufang Cangzhu Tang (复方苍术汤 Composite Atractylodes Decoction) on senile obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).Methods: 32 cases of senile obesity or overweight with IGT were treated with Composite Atractylodes Decoction, with another 30 cases treated with dimethyldiguanide as the controls. Changes of body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist hip circumference ratio (WHR), glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid before and after treatment were compared. Results: After treatment, the body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the Composite Atractylodes Decoction treatment group decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), with no significant difference as compared with the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Composite Atractylodes Decoction can obviously decrease the body weight,waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, glucose tolerance, fast serum insulin and blood lipid in the senile patients with obesity or overweight with impaired glucose tolerance.

  17. Short-Term Regulation of Lipocalin-2 but not RBP-4 During Oral Lipid Tolerance Test and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2016-02-01

    The postprandial regulation of lipocalin-2 and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn after 0, 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT and after 0, 1, and 2 h in OGTT. In order to dissect carbohydrate-induced from lipid-induced effects, a novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of lipocalin-2 and RBP-4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Whereas RBP-4 levels remained unchanged during OGTT, lipocalin-2 concentrations significantly decreased during OGTT. During OLTT, RBP-4 levels were not influenced, whereas lipocalin-2 levels decreased significantly and stepwise. Fasting concentrations of RBP-4 were negatively correlated with BMI and waist-hip ratio, whereas lipocalin-2 levels were positively associated with BMI and waist-hip ratio. Female users of hormonal contraception had higher RBP-4 levels than females not on contraceptives. There is no significant short-term regulation of RBP-4 by orally ingested lipids or carbohydrates. Lipocalin-2 is downregulated after lipid and carbohydrate ingestion and this kind of regulation was not predicted by age, sex, triglycerides, glucose, or insulin levels.

  18. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie S.; Rippe, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US), one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ± 13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p 0.05). There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L), insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L), or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05). These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others. PMID:26512691

  19. Effects of short-term cinnamon ingestion on in vivo glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, A K

    2007-01-01

    Various spices display insulin-potentiating activity in vitro, and in particular, cinnamon spice and its phenolic extracts have been shown to exhibit these capabilities. In vivo study shows that cinnamon may have beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis; therefore the aim of this study was to fu...

  20. SIRT1 Polymorphism, Long-Term Survival and Glucose Tolerance in the General Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figarska, S.M.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations that increase activity of Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) are associated with extended lifespan of yeast, fruit flies and worms. SIRT1, the human homolog of Sir2, that controls numerous physiological processes including the glucose metabolism, is considered a candidate gene for predi

  1. Neonatal Exendin-4 Reduces Growth, Fat Deposition and Glucose Tolerance during Treatment in the Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Saidatul N. B.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Harland, M. Lyn; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin action and β-cell mass and function in the IUGR neonate in the sheep, a species with a more developed pancreas at birth. Methods Twin IUGR lambs were injected s.c. daily with vehicle (IUGR+Veh, n = 8) or exendin-4 (1 nmol.kg-1, IUGR+Ex-4, n = 8), and singleton control lambs were injected with vehicle (CON, n = 7), from d 1 to 16 of age. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured in vivo during treatment (d 12–14). Body composition, β-cell mass and in vitro insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets were measured at d 16. Principal Findings IUGR+Veh did not alter in vivo insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or β-cell mass, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 treatment of the IUGR lamb impaired glucose tolerance in vivo, reflecting reduced insulin sensitivity, and normalised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 also reduced neonatal growth and visceral fat accumulation in IUGR lambs, known risk factors for later T2DM. Conclusions Neonatal exendin-4 induces changes in IUGR lambs that might improve later insulin action. Whether these effects of exendin-4 lead to improved insulin action in adult life after IUGR in the sheep, as in the PR rat, requires further investigation. PMID:23424667

  2. Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance entails acceptance of the very things one disagrees with, disapproves of or dislikes. Tolerance can be seen as ‘a flawed virtue’ (Schuyt, 2001), because it concerns acceptance of the differences between others and ourselves we would rather fight, ignore or overcome. Although tolerance carr

  3. Insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obese Chinese with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during glucose tolerance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Gu, Wei-qiong; Zhang, Yu-wen; Su, Yu-xia; Chi, Zhen-ni; Wang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-ying; Ning, Guang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obesity with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l, post-loading hyperglycemia, PLH) in Chinese population. A total of 196 nondiabetic subjects were included in the present study, among them 99 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, subdivided into 32 lean NGT and 67 obese NGT), 74 had obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 23 had obesity with PLH. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) was assessed by the Bergman's minimal model method with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT), insulin secretion was determined by acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg). The disposition index (DI), the product of AIRg and S(I) was used to determine whether AIRg was adequate to compensate for insulin resistance. S(I) was significantly equally lower in three obese subgroups. AIRg was significantly increased in obese NGT as compared with lean NGT controls, and reduced to the same extent in IGT and PLH subjects. There was no significant difference among lean NGT, IGT and PLH subjects. DI value was reduced from obese NGT individuals, IGT and PLH subjects had a similar lower level of DI. In conclusion, our present results demonstrated that the pathophysiological basis of obese subjects with PLH were clearly insulin resistance and defective in first-phase insulin secretion as that in IGT subjects in Chinese population.

  4. Treatment of Abnormal Glucose Regulation and Huge Ovarian Cysts with High Dose Insulin Glargine in an Infant with Leprechaunism - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yasemin Çelik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leprechaunism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the insulin receptor gene. In this report; we present a 75 days old infant with leprecahunism treated by high dose insulin glargine.Case Report: Yetmiş day old girl was diagnosed as leprechaunism because of the hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and dysmorphic appearance. Huge cysts with multiple septa were determined in her ovaries. High dose insulin glargine were adjusted to achieve target blood glucose regulation. Huge ovarian cysts resolved by this treatment.Conclusion: Leprechaunism is characterized by intra-uterine and postnatal growth restriction, lipo-atrophy, characteristic facial features, severe acanthosis nigricans, abnormal glucose homeostasis, clitoromegaly and hirsutism. It is usually fatal within the 1st year of life because of diabetic ketoacidosis or recurrent infections. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 119-22

  5. Circadian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system in insulin resistant subjects with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Pietro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In type 2 diabetes mellitus both insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are considered responsible for autonomic dysfunction. The relation between the autonomic activity, impaired fasting glycemia and impaired glucose tolerance is, however, unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the circadian autonomic activity expressed as heart rate variability (HRV measured by 24-hours ECG recording in insulin resistant subjects (IR with characteristics as follow: IR subjects with normal oral glucose tolerance test results, IR subjects with impaired fasting glucose, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Eighty Caucasian insulin resistant subjects (IR and twenty five control subjects were recruited for the study. IR subjects were divided into four groups according to the outcoming results of oral glucose tests (OGTTs: IR subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR, IR subjects with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG, IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Autonomic nervous activity was studied by 24-hours ECG recording. Heart rate variability analysis was performed in time and frequency domains: SDNN, RMS-SD, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF were calculated. Results The total SDNN showed statistically significant reduction in all four groups with insulin resistant subjects (IR when compared to the control group (p Conclusion The results of our study suggest that insulin resistance might cause global autonomic dysfunction which increases along with worsening glucose metabolic impairment. The analysis of sympathetic and parasympathetic components and the sympathovagal balance demonstrated an association between insulin resistance and sympathetic over-activity, especially during night. The results indicated that the sympathetic over-activity is directly correlated to the grade of insulin resistance

  6. Saturated- and n-6 polyunsaturated-fat diets each induce ceramide accumulation in mouse skeletal muscle: reversal and improvement of glucose tolerance by lipid metabolism inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioudakis, G; Garrard, J; Raddatz, K; Nadler, J L; Mitchell, T W; Schmitz-Peiffer, C

    2010-09-01

    Lipid-induced insulin resistance is associated with intracellular accumulation of inhibitory intermediates depending on the prevalent fatty acid (FA) species. In cultured myotubes, ceramide and phosphatidic acid (PA) mediate the effects of the saturated FA palmitate and the unsaturated FA linoleate, respectively. We hypothesized that myriocin (MYR), an inhibitor of de novo ceramide synthesis, would protect against glucose intolerance in saturated fat-fed mice, while lisofylline (LSF), a functional inhibitor of PA synthesis, would protect unsaturated fat-fed mice. Mice were fed diets enriched in saturated fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fat, or chow for 6 wk. Saline, LSF (25 mg/kg x d), or MYR (0.3 mg/kg x d) were administered by mini-pumps in the final 4 wk. Glucose homeostasis was examined by glucose tolerance test. Muscle ceramide and PA were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Expression of LASS isoforms (ceramide synthases) was evaluated by immunoblotting. Both saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets increased muscle ceramide and induced glucose intolerance. MYR and LSF reduced ceramide levels in saturated and unsaturated fat-fed mice. Both inhibitors also improved glucose tolerance in unsaturated fat-fed mice, but only LSF was effective in saturated fat-fed mice. The discrepancy between ceramide and glucose tolerance suggests these improvements may not be related directly to changes in muscle ceramide and may involve other insulin-responsive tissues. Changes in the expression of LASS1 were, however, inversely correlated with alterations in glucose tolerance. The demonstration that LSF can ameliorate glucose intolerance in vivo independent of the dietary FA type indicates it may be a novel intervention for the treatment of insulin resistance.

  7. Reduced plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 in elderly men are associated with impaired glucose tolerance but not with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathanson, D; Zethelius, B; Berne, C;

    2009-01-01

    stimulated GLP-1 levels and: (1) cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, urinary albumin, waist circumference and insulin sensitivity index [M/I] assessed by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp); and (2) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: During the follow......-up period (maximum 13.8 years), of 294 participants with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 69 experienced a CHD event (13.8 years), as did 42 of 141 with IGT and 32 of 74 with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DeltaGLP-1 did not predict CHD (HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.52-2.28). The prevalence of IGT was associated with Delta...

  8. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Changes in glucose and glucose tolerance at various time points in rats with abdominal open injury coupled with sea water immersion%腹部开放伤合并海水浸泡大鼠不同时期血糖及糖耐量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽; 刘敏; 王大鹏; 周丽君; 郭启煜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study abnormality of glucose metabolism in rats with abdominal open injury coupled with sea water immersion through the observation of the changes in glucose and glucose tolerance at various time points.Methods Eighteen male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:the control group,the laparotomy for 45 min group (the L45 group) and the laparotomy coupled with sea water immersion for 45 min group ( the L + S45 group ),each consisting of 6 animals.Changes in blood glucose and glucose tolerance were monitored at various time points before and after surgery.Results Before surgery,no significant differences in body weight,glucose and glucose tolerance could be noted in all the 3 groups.The level of blood glucose for the L45 group detected immediately after surgery was the highest [ (14.51 ± 1.44)mmol/L],the blood glucose level for the L + S45 group came the next [ ( 12.63 ± 1.64 ) mmol/L].Six hours after surgery,blood glucose levels of the 2 groups began to decrease,but were still obviously higher than those of the control group.Eighteen hours after surgery,blood glucose levels of the L + S45 group were higher than those of the L45 group,and the difference remained until 90 hours after surgery.No differences in glucose levelscould be seen in various groups at hour 186.Results of glucose tolerance test (GTT) after surgery indicated that glucose levels of the L45 group and the L + S45 group at various time points were higher,when compared with those of pre-surgery,and the area under curve (AUC) was found to be elevated significantly.When compared with the L45 group,more significant GTT abnormality and AUC increased more significantly in the L + S45 group.Moreover,these changes persisted for quite a long time.Conclusions When comparisons were made between the rats with abdominal open injury + sea water immersion and the rats with simple abdominal open injury,blood glucose level did not increase considerably at the initial stage of injury

  10. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...... is linked to a different set of circumstances than the ones suggested by existing models in contemporary democratic theory. Reorienting the discussion of tolerance, the book raises the question of how to disclose new possibilities within our given context of affect and perception. Once we move away from...

  11. Effects of colupulone, a component of hops and brewers yeast, and chromium on glucose tolerance and hepatic cytochrome P450 in nondiabetic and spontaneously diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannering, G J; Shoeman, J A; Shoeman, D W

    1994-05-16

    Brewers yeast contains factors that increase and decrease glucose tolerance. Hop components (lupulones) that adhere to yeast during the brewing process elicit a variety of biological effects including the induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A. Colupulone was tested for its effects on glucose tolerance and cytochrome P450. Serum glucose levels 30 min after the injection of glucose were lowered by colupulone in nondiabetic Swiss-Webster mice, elevated in diabetic C57B1/KSJ-db/db mice, and unaffected in nondiabetic C57B1/KSJ+m/+m mice. Colupulone lowered hemoglobin glycation slightly in +m/+m mice but not in db/db mice. The cytochrome P450 system was highly induced by colupulone in both db/db and +m/+m mice. Chromium, which acts in concert with the factor in yeast that enhances glucose tolerance, had little or no effect on the plasma glucose level or the cytochrome P450 system in either +m/+m or db/db mice.

  12. Boron-doped graphene quantum dots for selective glucose sensing based on the "abnormal" aggregation-induced photoluminescence enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Liang, Ru-Ping; Li, Ya-Hua; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2014-05-06

    A hydrothermal approach for the cutting of boron-doped graphene (BG) into boron-doped graphene quantum dots (BGQDs) has been proposed. Various characterizations reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully doped into graphene structures with the atomic percentage of 3.45%. The generation of boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces facilitates their application as a new photoluminescence (PL) probe for label free glucose sensing. It is postulated that the reaction of the two cis-diol units in glucose with the two boronic acid groups on the BGQDs surfaces creates structurally rigid BGQDs-glucose aggregates, restricting the intramolecular rotations and thus resulting in a great boost in the PL intensity. The present unusual "aggregation-induced PL increasing" sensing process excludes any saccharide with only one cis-diol unit, as manifested by the high specificity of BGQDs for glucose over its close isomeric cousins fructose, galactose, and mannose. It is believed that the doping of boron can introduce the GQDs to a new kind of surface state and offer great scientific insights to the PL enhancement mechanism with treatment of glucose.

  13. Predictive performance for population models using stochastic differential equations applied on data from an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas Bech; Overgaard, R.V.; Madsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of the OGTT is a difficult problem in need of further investigation. The present work aimed at investigating the power of SDEs to predict the first phase insulin secretion (AIR(0-8)) in the IVGTT based on parameters obtained from the minimal model of the OGTT, published by Breda et al. (Diabetes 50(1): 150...... the properties of the indexes obtained using the SDE models more correctly assessed the properties of the first phase indexes obtained from the IVGTT. In general it is concluded that the presented SDE approach not only caused autocorrelation of errors to decrease but also improved estimation of clinical measures...... obtained from the glucose tolerance tests. Since, the estimation time of extended models was not heavily increased compared to basic models, the applied method is concluded to have high relevance not only in theory but also in practice....

  14. Effect of inoculating C57BL/6NTac mice with different gut microbiotas on gut colonization and glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Viscardi, Monika; Rune, Ida

    In recent decades, the gut microbiota (GM) has been demonstrated influential in diseases of immunological and inflammatory origin such as asthma, allergy, arthritis and diabetes. This indicates a possibility to affect disease development by changing the GM composition. Previously our group has...... demonstrated a possibility to affect GM composition by inoculation in germfree mice. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether it was also possible to change the GM of conventional mice and secondly if this change would affect glucose tolerance. 64 five week old C57BL/6NTac mice (half males, half...... females) were given oral ampicillin for three weeks to eliminate their GM. At the age of eight weeks, the mice were then split in four groups receiving an oral suspension of GM from a BALB/c mouse, a DBA mouse, a B6-Lepob mouse or PBS as control. GM composition was analyzed prior to antibiotic treatment...

  15. Resistant maltodextrin promotes fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and production together with glucose tolerance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Tohru; Ikee, Asuka; Kishimoto, Yuka; Kanahori, Sumiko; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-07-14

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is produced and released from enteroendocrine L cells, plays pivotal roles in postprandial glycaemia. The ingestion of resistant maltodextrin (RMD), a water-soluble non-digestible saccharide, improves the glycaemic response. In the present study, we examined whether the continuous feeding of RMD to rats affected GLP-1 levels and glycaemic control. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were fed an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G-based diet containing either cellulose (5 %) as a control, RMD (2.5 or 5 %), or fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS, 2.5 or 5 %) for 7 weeks. During the test period, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed after 6 weeks. Fasting GLP-1 levels were significantly higher in the 5 % RMD group than in the control group after 6 weeks. The IPGTT results showed that the glycaemic response was lower in the 5 % RMD group than in the control group. Lower caecal pH, higher caecal tissue and content weights were observed in the RMD and FOS groups. Proglucagon mRNA levels were increased in the caecum and colon of both RMD and FOS groups, whereas caecal GLP-1 content was increased in the 5 % RMD group. In addition, a 1 h RMD exposure induced GLP-1 secretion in an enteroendocrine L-cell model, and single oral administration of RMD increased plasma GLP-1 levels in conscious rats. The present study demonstrates that continuous ingestion of RMD increased GLP-1 secretion and production in normal rats, which could be stimulated by its direct and indirect (enhanced gut fermentation) effects on GLP-1-producing cells, and contribute to improving glucose tolerance.

  16. The Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Thalassemia Major in Iran: A systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is one of the most common endocrine complications in major thalassemia patients. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major has been differently in different studies in Iran, about which no total estimate can be proposed. Hence, this meta analysis study aimed to investigate IGT prevalence in major thalassemia patients in Iran. Methods: This study was a systematic review based on electronic databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, Sciencedirect, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley as well as Google Scholar search engine without any time limitations up to 2015. All the potentially relevant papers were reviewed independently by two investigators using the standard key words. Then, all the reviewed studies that had inclusion criterion were evaluated. In order to statistically analyze the study data, random effect model was used via Stata software (Ver.11.1. Results: 1346 subjects were examined in 13 studies. IGT prevalence in patients with thalassemia major was estimated 9.6 %( CI: 95%, 6.6-12.5 in Iran. The IGT prevalence in male and female major thalassemia patients were 6.5 %( CI: 95%, 1.6-11.3 and 10.2 %( CI: 95% , 6.1-14.3, respectively. Conclusion: IGT Prevalence was demonstrated to be really high in patients with thalassemia major. As a result, implementing screening programs seems to be necessary in regard with early diagnosis of endocrine disorders especially IGT in these patients. Furthermore, it is recommended that annual glucose tolerance test be taken within such patients.

  17. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  18. Evaluation of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in the diagnosis of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Campos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of a 1-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, a cohort of 4998 women, 20 years or older, without previous diabetes being treated in prenatal care clinics in Brazil answered a questionnaire and performed a 75-g OGTT including fasting, 1-h and 2-h glucose measurements between their 24th and 28th gestational weeks. Pregnancy outcomes were transcribed from medical registries. GDM was defined according to WHO criteria (fasting: ≥126 mg/dL; 2-h value: ≥140 mg/dL and macrosomia as a birth weight equal to or higher than 4000 g. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC were compared and diagnostic properties of various cut-off points were evaluated. The AUCs for the prediction of macrosomia were 0.606 (0.572-0.637 for the 1-h and 0.589 (0.557-0.622 for the 2-h plasma glucose test. Similar predictability was demonstrable regarding combined adverse outcomes: 0.582 (0.559-0.604 for the 1-h test and 0.572 (0.549-0.595 for the 2-h test. When the 1-h glucose test was evaluated against a diagnosis of GDM defined by the 2-h glucose test, the AUC was 0.903 (0.886-0.919. The cut-off point that maximized sensitivity (83% and specificity (83% was 141 mg/dL, identifying 21% of the women as positive. A cut-off point of 160 mg/dL, with lower sensitivity (62%, had higher specificity (94%, labeling 8.6% as positive. Detection of GDM can be done with a 1-h 75-g OGTT: the value of 160 mg/dL has the same diagnostic performance as the conventional 2-h value (140 mg/dL. The simplification of the test may improve coverage and timing of the diagnosis of GDM.

  19. Proposed diagnostic thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Maternal and perinatal outcomes in 3260 Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Damm, P; Sørensen, B

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To study if established diagnostic threshold values for gestational diabetes based on a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test can be supported by maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 3260 pregnant women examined for gestational diabetes on the basis of risk....../l. Despite treatment, 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l and > or = 11.1 mmol/l were both associated with increased rates of macrosomia, spontaneous preterm delivery, hypertensive complications, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Adverse outcomes tended to be more frequent in women with 2-h glucose > or = 11.1 mmol....../l than in women with 2-h glucose of 9.0-11.0 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The risk for several maternal and perinatal complications increased with the diagnostic threshold for 2-h glucose. Large-scale blinded studies are needed to clarify the question of a clinically meaningful diagnosis of gestational diabetes...

  20. IVGTT-based simple assessment of glucose tolerance in the Zucker fatty rat: Validation against minimal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morettini, Micaela; Faelli, Emanuela; Perasso, Luisa; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2017-01-01

    For the assessment of glucose tolerance from IVGTT data in Zucker rat, minimal model methodology is reliable but time- and money-consuming. This study aimed to validate for the first time in Zucker rat, simple surrogate indexes of insulin sensitivity and secretion against the glucose-minimal-model insulin sensitivity index (SI) and against first- (Φ1) and second-phase (Φ2) β-cell responsiveness indexes provided by C-peptide minimal model. Validation of the surrogate insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and of two sets of coupled insulin-based indexes for insulin secretion, differing from the cut-off point between phases (FPIR3-SPIR3, t = 3 min and FPIR5-SPIR5, t = 5 min), was carried out in a population of ten Zucker fatty rats (ZFR) and ten Zucker lean rats (ZLR). Considering the whole rat population (ZLR+ZFR), ISI showed a significant strong correlation with SI (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.88; Panimal model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:28264067

  1. A Novel Animal Model of Impaired Glucose Tolerance Induced by the Interaction of Vitamin E Deficiency and 60Co Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, known as the prediabetes stage, is usually induced by habits of life or environmental factors. Established IGT animal models are mostly conducted with chemical compounds such as streptozocin or genetic modification. However, the occasion of exposure to these factors in daily life is seldom. The objective of this study was to establish a new animal model of IGT induced by VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation. SD rats were treated individually or in combination of these two factors. In the combination group, the calculated insulin sensitivity index decreased; then HOMA-β value increased. Oxidative damage and IGT were observed. Insulin secretion level in perfusate from pancreas response to glucose was characterized by a rapid but reduced first phase and an obviously defective second phase upon pancreas perfusion. Histopathological images demonstrated the pathological changes. Western blotting analysis showed that the insulin signaling pathway was downregulated. The interaction of VE deficiency in diet and exposure to radiation could break the equilibrium of oxidation and antioxidation and result in IGT. More importantly, a new IGT model was successfully established which may be conducive to further research into development of drugs against human IGT.

  2. No Effect of Added Sugar Consumed at Median American Intake Level on Glucose Tolerance or Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Lowndes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20–60 years old were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that consumed low fat milk with added fructose containing sugars in amounts equivalent to the 50th percentile of fructose consumption (US, one which consumed low-fat milk sweetened with glucose, and one unsweetened low-fat milk control group. The intervention lasted ten weeks. In the entire study population there was less than 1 kg increase in weight (73.6 ±13.0 vs. 74.5 ± 13.3 kg, p < 0.001, but the change in weight was comparable among groups (p > 0.05. There were no changes in fasting glucose (49 ± 0.4 vs. 5.0 ± 0.5 mmol/L, insulin (56.9 ± 38.9 vs. 61.8 ± 50.0 pmol/L, or insulin resistance, as measured by the Homeostasis Model Assessment method (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 2.0 ± 1.5, all p > 0.05. These data suggest that added sugar consumed at the median American intake level does not produce changes in measures of insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance and that no sugar has more deleterious effects than others.

  3. Tolerance to glucose polymers in malnourished infants with diarrhea and disaccharide intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes-Neto, U; Viaro, T; Lifshitz, F

    1985-02-01

    The response of infants with diarrhea and lactose intolerance to feedings containing soy protein and sucrose (Sobee), and/or to a carbohydrate free formula (RCF), to which glucose polymers (GP) were added, was assessed in twenty patients. They all were less than ten months of age and had varying degrees of malnutrition. Eleven had acute diarrhea and nine had chronic diarrhea. None of them had classical enteropathogenic strains and parasites in the stools. All had lactose intolerance when feedings were begun with cow's milk formula and some also had sucrose intolerance when fed sucrose containing soy formulas. They had persistent loose stools and excreted feces with an acid pH and with carbohydrates, thus they were given dietary treatment with RCF with GP. There were 9 patients with acute diarrhea and lactose intolerance (1 of them also had sucrose intolerance), who improved on RCF with GP feedings; but 2 patients (lactose and sucrose intolerant) failed to respond to this diet. There were six patients with chronic diarrhea and lactose intolerance (four of them also had sucrose intolerance), who improved on RCF with GP formula, but there were three patients who failed on this treatment. These data show that some infants with diarrhea, malnutrition, and lactose-sucrose intolerance may also develop intolerance to GP and require further dietary management with glucose as the source of carbohydrate in the diet.

  4. Metformin and sitAgliptin in patients with impAired glucose tolerance and a recent TIA or minor ischemic Stroke (MAAS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Osei; S. Fonville (Susanne); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Brouwers (Paul); L.J.M.M. Mulder (Laus J. M.); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impaired glucose tolerance is present in one third of patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke and is associated with a two-fold risk of recurrent stroke. Metformin improves glucose tolerance, but often leads to side effects. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility,

  5. A common polymorphism in the promoter of the IGF-I gene associates with increased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose-tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Lajer, Maria;

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if absence of a common allele in a microsatellite polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) promoter was associated with type 2 diabetes and alterations in quantitative traits in glucose-tolerant subjects....

  6. Impaired fasting glycaemia vs impaired glucose tolerance: similar impairment of pancreatic alpha and beta cell function but differential roles of incretin hormones and insulin action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Vaag, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The impact of strategies for prevention of type 2 diabetes in isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG) vs isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT) may differ depending on the underlying pathophysiology. We examined insulin secretion during OGTTs and IVGTTs, hepatic and peri...

  7. Endothelin-1 as a predictor of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes--A longitudinal study in the Vara-Skövde Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, Josefin; Daka, Bledar; Hellgren, Margareta I; Larsson, Charlotte A; Petzold, Max; Lindblad, Ulf; Jansson, Per-Anders

    2016-03-01

    We addressed whether endothelin-1, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, predicts impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a population study in south-western Sweden. Follow-up after 9.7 years showed an association between circulating endothelin-1 levels at baseline and development of IGT/T2DM in women but not in men.

  8. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in European non-diabetic carriers of a polymorphism upstream of CDKN2A and CDKN2B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hribal, M L; Presta, I; Procopio, T

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the rs10811661 polymorphism near the CDKN2B/CDKN2A genes with glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and insulin release in three samples of white people with European ancestry....

  9. Comparison of fatty acid proportions in serum cholesteryl esters among people with different glucose tolerance status: The CoDAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenbergh, van G.J.; Kuijsten, A.; Kallen, C.J.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Blaak, E.E.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim - Altered fatty acid patterns in blood may be associated with insulin resistance and related disorders. We investigated whether serum proportions of cholesteryl fatty acids and desaturase activity are associated with glucose tolerance status and insulin resistance. Methods and res

  10. Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochikuzhyil Benson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the effect of saturated fatty acid (SFA-rich dietary vegetable oils on the lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p. in neonatal rats. Twenty-eight-day-old normal (N and diabetic (D male Wistar rats were fed for 45 days with a fat-enriched special diet (10% prepared with coconut oil (CO - lauric acid-rich SFA, palm oil (PO - palmitic acid-rich SFA and groundnut oil (GNO - control (N and D. Lipid profile, endogenous antioxidant enzymes and oral glucose tolerance tests were monitored. Results : D rats fed with CO (D + CO exhibited a significant decrease in the total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Besides, they also showed a trend toward improving antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance as compared to the D + GNO group, whereas D + PO treatment aggravated the dyslipidemic condition while causing a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase levels when compared to N rats fed with GNO (N + GNO. D + PO treatment also impaired the glucose tolerance when compared to N + GNO and D + GNO. Conclusion : The type of FA in the dietary oil determines its deleterious or beneficial effects. Lauric acid present in CO may protect against diabetes-induced dyslipidemia.

  11. Effects of additional starch or fat in late-gestating high nonstarch polysaccharide diets on litter performance and glucose tolerance in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of feeding additional starch or fat from d 85 of gestation until parturition on litter performance and on glucose tolerance in sows that were fed a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) were studied. The day after breeding, 141 multiparous sows were assign

  12. Central sensibility of human cases with different body mass during oral glucose tolerance test using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the limitation of technique, there are few researches on regulating function of central hypothalamus by metabolism, especially the researches on real-time function.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of hypothalamus to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in different body-weighted subjects by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) so as to investigate the relationship between the sensitivity of hypothalamus in glycoregulation and disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism.DESIGN: Paired design.SETTING: Department of Radiology and Beijing Geriatrics Institute, Beijing Hospital, National Public Health Bureau.PARTICIPANTS: A total of twenty healthy volunteers were selected from Beijing Geriatrics Institute,National Public Health Bureau, including 10 subjects with obesity (5 males and 5 females; body mass >28.0 kg/m2) and 10 subjects with normal body mass (5 males and 5 females; body mass from 18.5 to 23.9 kg/m2). All subjects gave written informed consent before participating in the study.METHODS: fMRI study was performed on GE 1.5 T Signa Twinspeed Infinity with Excite. Each volunteer was ingested of glucose during the fMRI scan. T2* images were acquired using a single-shot gradient echo (EPI) technique. The parameters of EPI included: TR 3 000 ms, TE 40 ms, Flip angle 90 ° , field of view (FOV) 24 cm × 24 cm, thickness 5 mm, gap 0 mm, matrix 64 × 64, number of excitation 1. All 10 subjects with normal body mass underwent a repeat fMRI scan after consuming an equivalent amount of water without glucose on a separate day. The procedure for the fMRI scan with water intake was the same as for glucose ingestion. fMRI data were processed with Intensity Averaging Method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The central response of hypothalamus and feedback orientation during OGTT in different body-weighted subjects.RESULTS: An acute transient decrease of fMRI intensity in posterior inferior and anterior inferior of hypothalamus was observed in all

  13. Long-term exposure to abnormal glucose levels alters drug metabolism pathways and insulin sensitivity in primary human hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matthew D.; Ballinger, Kimberly R.; Khetani, Salman R.

    2016-06-01

    Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can progress to inflammation, fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding how chronic hyperglycemia affects primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) can facilitate the development of therapeutics for these diseases. Conversely, elucidating the effects of hypoglycemia on PHHs may provide insights into how the liver adapts to fasting, adverse diabetes drug reactions, and cancer. In contrast to declining PHH monocultures, micropatterned co-cultures (MPCCs) of PHHs and 3T3-J2 murine embryonic fibroblasts maintain insulin-sensitive glucose metabolism for several weeks. Here, we exposed MPCCs to hypo-, normo- and hyperglycemic culture media for ~3 weeks. While albumin and urea secretion were not affected by glucose level, hypoglycemic MPCCs upregulated CYP3A4 enzyme activity as compared to other glycemic states. In contrast, hyperglycemic MPCCs displayed significant hepatic lipid accumulation in the presence of insulin, while also showing decreased sensitivity to insulin-mediated inhibition of glucose output relative to a normoglycemic control. In conclusion, we show for the first time that PHHs exposed to hypo- and hyperglycemia can remain highly functional, but display increased CYP3A4 activity and selective insulin resistance, respectively. In the future, MPCCs under glycemic states can aid in novel drug discovery and mechanistic investigations.

  14. Prevalence of endocrine diseases and abnormal glucose tolerance tests in 340 Caucasian premenopausal women with hirsutism as the referral diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform an audit on the examination of hirsute patients and to establish a rational routine examination program in an outpatient endocrine clinic. DESIGN: Systematic, retrospective audit. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care medical center. PATIENT(S): Three hundred forty women...... patients with irregular menses should include serum (s)-17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, s-prolactin, s-Testosterone (T), and s-sex hormone-binding globulin. Further evaluation is needed in patients with markedly elevated s-T or with clinical Cushing's syndrome. Hirsute patients have a high risk of diabetes...

  15. Glucose Tolerance, MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T Polymorphisms, and Global DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry African Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E. Matsha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to quantify global DNA methylation and investigate the relationship with diabetes status and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T and NOS3 G894T genes in mixed ancestry subjects from South Africa. Global DNA methylation was measured, and MTHFR rs1801133 and NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms were genotyped using high throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Of the 564 participants, 158 (28% individuals had T2DM of which 97 (17.2% were screen-detected cases. Another 119 (21.1% had prediabetes, that is, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or the combination of both, and the remainder 287 (50.9% had normal glucose tolerance. Global DNA methylation was significantly higher in prediabetes and screen-detected diabetes than in normal glucose tolerance (both p≤0.033 and in screen-detected diabetes compared to known diabetes on treatment (p=0.019. There was no difference in global DNA methylation between known diabetes on treatment and normal glucose tolerance (p>0.999. In multivariable linear regression analysis, only NOS3 was associated with increasing global DNA methylation (β=0.943; 95% CI: 0.286 to 1.560. The association of global DNA methylation with screen-detected diabetes but not treated diabetes suggests that glucose control agents to some extent may be reversing DNA methylation. The association between NOS3 rs1799983 polymorphisms and DNA methylation suggests gene-epigenetic mechanisms through which vascular diabetes complications develop despite adequate metabolic control.

  16. Delphinidin-Rich Maqui Berry Extract (Delphinol® Lowers Fasting and Postprandial Glycemia and Insulinemia in Prediabetic Individuals during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Alvarado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delphinidin anthocyanins have previously been associated with the inhibition of glucose absorption. Blood glucose lowering effects have been ascribed to maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis extracts in humans after boiled rice consumption. In this study, we aimed to explore whether a standardized delphinidin-rich extract from maqui berry (Delphinol affects glucose metabolism in prediabetic humans based on glycemia and insulinemia curves obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT after a challenge with pure glucose. Volunteers underwent four consecutive OGTTs with at least one week washout period, in which different doses of Delphinol were administered one hour before glucose intake. Delphinol significantly and dose-dependently lowered basal glycemia and insulinemia. Lower doses delayed postprandial glycemic and insulinemic peaks, while higher doses reversed this tendency. Glycemia peaks were dose-dependently lowered, while insulinemia peaks were higher for the lowest dose and lower for other doses. The total glucose available in blood was unaffected by treatments, while the total insulin availability was increased by low doses and decreased by the highest dose. Taken together, these open exploratory results suggest that Delphinol could be acting through three possible mechanisms: by inhibition of intestinal glucose transporters, by an incretin-mediated effect, or by improving insulin sensitivity.

  17. Effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, whole body glucose tolerance, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, A J; Wood, K V; Thyfault, J P; Campbell, W W

    2009-05-01

    Limited research with rodents and humans suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3- O-methyl- D- CHIRO-inositol) might positively influence glucose tolerance. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study assessed the effects of acute pinitol supplementation on plasma pinitol concentration, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor. Fifteen older, nondiabetic subjects (62+/-1 years, mean+/-SEM) completed four, 1-day trials. Subjects consumed a non-nutritive beverage with nothing (placebo) or 1,000 mg pinitol. Sixty minutes later, the subjects consumed beverages that were either energy- and carbohydrate-free (Sham) or contained 75 g glucose (OGTT). Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min testing period. For the OGTT trials only, vastus lateralis samples were obtained before the placebo and pinitol supplementation and 60 min after consuming the 75 g glucose beverage. Plasma pinitol concentration increased and was maintained for 240 min. Pinitol did not influence the fasting state and 180-min area under the curves for plasma glucose and insulin during the Sham and OGTT trials or hepatic (placebo 0.83+/-0.08; pinitol 0.80+/-0.08) and whole-body (placebo 6.10+/-0.54; pinitol 6.22+/-0.52) insulin sensitivities. Activation of the muscle insulin receptor was increased by 140% with glucose ingestion (Pre 0.62+/-0.12; Post 1.49+/-0.35), but pinitol did not influence this response. These results show that the pinitol supplement was quickly absorbed, but did not acutely influence indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, or the activation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor in older, nondiabetic humans.

  18. Cigarette smoking increases levels of retinol-binding protein-4 in healthy men with normal glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shan; WANG Yong-hui; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is related with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.Retinol-binding protein-4 is a new adipocytokine associated with insulin resistance.We investigated the serum levels of a series of adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4 in smokers and non-smokers to explore the possible roles of adipocytokines on smoking induced insulin resistance.Methods A total of 136 healthy male subjects (92 smokers and 44 non-smokers) with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled in the study.Adipocytokines including retinol-binding protein-4,visfatin,leptin,resistin,adiponectin were measured for the comparison between the two groups.Serum lipid profile,glucose,true insulin and proinsulin levels were measured as well in both groups.Food intake spectrum was also investigated.Results Both groups had similar profile of food consumption; visfatin,leptin,resistin and adiponectin,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,as well as blood pressure and body mass index,were similar in both groups.Triglycerides,retinol-binding protein-4 and homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance were higher in smoker group ((2.58±2.53) vs.(1.60±0.94)mmol/L,(26.05±8.50) vs.(21.83±8.40) μg/ml,and 2.25±2.08 vs.1.58±1.15,respectively).Conclusion Smoking may have effect on insulin sensitivity,which is correlated with retinol-binding protein-4.

  19. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  20. A cross-over study of the acute effects of espresso coffee on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jeremy D; Parry-Strong, Amber; Weatherall, Mark; Carroll, Richard W; Downie, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of a single dose of espresso caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eighteen participants who were habitual coffee drinkers, were studied using a random-order cross-over design. After a fasting blood sample participants consumed either a double-shot black espresso coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or hot water. The main outcomes were area under the curve (AUC) glucose and insulin, and insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed one hour later. Other outcomes were change in glucose and insulin and also the insulinogenic index (IGI) and disposition index (DI). AUC glucose was marginally different between beverages (P=.06) being greater following caffeinated coffee than water, mean difference 104 mmol/L/180 min (95% CI 0.1 to 198.1, P=.031), or decaffeinated coffee, mean difference 92.1 mmol/L/180 min (95% CI -1.9 to 186.1, P=.055). There was no difference in AUC insulin (P=.87) or insulin sensitivity (P=.47), nor in change in glucose or insulin over the hour following beverage consumption. There was a marginal difference in IGI between beverages (P=.097) with coffee having a lower incremental increase in insulin/glucose than water (P=.037) though no difference between coffee and decaffeinated coffee (P=.54) and no difference in DI (P=.23). Black espresso coffee in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus results in a marginally greater excursion of glucose during a following OGTT compared with water or decaffeinated coffee. This effect does not appear to be mediated by changes in insulin sensitivity.

  1. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Zohre; Yang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Han; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn; Chan, Catherine B

    2015-04-01

    Pulses, including dried peas, are nutrient- and fibre-rich foods that improve glucose control in diabetic subjects compared with other fibre sources. We hypothesized feeding cooked pea seed coats to insulin-resistant rats would improve glucose tolerance by modifying gut responses to glucose and reducing stress on pancreatic islets. Glucose intolerance induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet (HFD; 10% cellulose as fibre) was followed by 3 weeks of HFD with fibre (10%) provided by cellulose, raw-pea seed coat (RP), or cooked-pea seed coat (CP). A fourth group consumed low-fat diet with 10% cellulose. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (oGTT, ipGTT) were done. CP rats had 30% and 50% lower glucose and insulin responses in oGTT, respectively, compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05) but ipGTT was not different. Plasma islet and incretin hormone concentrations were measured. α- and β-cell areas in the pancreas and density of K- and L-cells in jejunum and ileum were quantified. Jejunal expression of hexose transporters was measured. CP feeding increased fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses (P < 0.05), but K- and L-cells densities were comparable to HFD, as was abundance of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA. No significant difference in β-cell area between diet groups was observed. α-cell area was significantly smaller in CP compared with RP rats (P < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that CP feeding can reverse adverse effects of HFD on glucose homeostasis and is associated with enhanced incretin secretion and reduced α-cell abundance.

  2. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Regulation in Anoxia Tolerance of the Freshwater Crayfish Orconectes virilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, the enzyme which catalyzes the rate determining step of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, controls the production of nucleotide precursor molecules (R5P and powerful reducing molecules (NADPH that support multiple biosynthetic functions, including antioxidant defense. G6PDH from hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish (Orconectes virilis showed distinct kinetic changes in response to 20 h anoxic exposure. Km values for both substrates decreased significantly in anoxic crayfish; Km NADP+ dropped from 0.015±0.008 mM to 0.012±0.008 mM, and Km G6P decreased from 0.13±0.02 mM to 0.08±0.007 mM. Two lines of evidence indicate that the mechanism involved is reversible phosphorylation. In vitro incubations that stimulated protein kinase or protein phosphatase action mimicked the effects on anoxia on Km values, whereas DEAE-Sephadex chromatography showed the presence of two enzyme forms (low- and high-phosphate whose proportions changed during anoxia. Incubation studies implicated protein kinase A and G in mediating the anoxia-responsive changes in G6PDH kinetic properties. In addition, the amount of G6PDH protein (measured by immunoblotting increased by ∼60% in anoxic hepatopancreas. Anoxia-induced phosphorylation of G6PDH could contribute to modifying carbon flow through the PPP under anoxic conditions, potentially maintaining NADPH supply for antioxidant defense during prolonged anoxia-induced hypometabolism.

  3. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Wara

    Full Text Available Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6 were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03 food intake (- 22% but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03 by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  4. Short-Term Estrogen Replacement Effects on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in At-Risk Cats for Feline Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wara, Allison; Hunsucker, Sara; Bove, Krystal; Backus, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Male domestic cats that are neutered and overweight are at an increased risk for developing a type-2-like diabetes mellitus. Beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on glucose homeostasis may be lost with neutering and thereby account for increased diabetes risk. To evaluate this, adult male neutered overweight cats (n=6) were given daily E2 (1.0 μg/kg) or vehicle (Vh; ethanol, 1.0 μL/kg) in a single crossover trial of 14-day periods with a 7-day washout. The E2 and Vh were voluntarily ingested on food. The E2 dosage was determined in a pre-trial to significantly and transiently reduce food intake with no measurable change in plasma E2 concentration. During treatments, physical activity was assessed with collar-mounted accelerometers on days 9-11, and tests of intravenous insulin tolerance and intravenous glucose tolerance were conducted on days 13 and 14, respectively. Over the 14 days, E2 compared to Vh treatment reduced (p=0.03) food intake (- 22%) but not enough to significantly reduce body weight; activity counts were not significantly changed. With E2 compared to Vh treatment, the late-phase plasma insulin response of the glucose tolerance test was less (p=0.03) by 31%, while glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity indexes were not significantly changed. The results indicate that oral E2 at a dosage that moderately affects food intake may reduce insulin requirement for achieving glucose homeostasis in neutered male cats. Further investigation is needed to identify the mechanism underlying the E2 effect.

  5. Analysis of glucose tolerance screening and its influence factors of 2 306 pregnant women%2306例孕妇糖耐量筛查及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马轶

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解妊娠期糖代谢异常的发生率,探讨其相关因素,为制定干预措施提供科学依据.方法:对2 306例孕妇进行50 g葡萄糖筛查试验(GCT),50 g GCT结果≥7.8 mmol/L再行口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)明确诊断,将临床资料进行统计分析.结果:妊娠期50 g GCT阳性率20.77%.其中葡萄耐量降低发生率4.16%,妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)检出率3.64%.高龄、孕前肥胖及糖尿病家族史为妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关因素.结论:GDM母儿并发症多,50 g GCT对GDM的及时发现和管理具有重要的意义.妊娠期糖耐量异常的发生率与孕妇的年龄、孕前体重指数及糖尿病家族史相关.做好孕前保健工作,按时对孕妇进行50 g GCT检测,特别是对GDM高危孕妇的筛查与管理有非常重要的临床意义.%Objective; To understand the incidence of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism, discuss its related factors, and provide scientific basis to intervention measures. Methods; 2 306 pregnant women were detecting by Sog glucose screening test ( GOT) , the pregnant women whose GCT result ≥7. 8 mmol/L were diagnosed by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), then the clinical data were statistically analyzed . Results; The positive rate of 50g glucose screening test was 20. 77% , the incidence of lower glucose tolerance was 4. 16% , the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was 3. 64%. The senility, obesity before gestation and family diabetes history ware related factors of abnormal gestation sugar metabolism. Conclusion; The complications are a lot for the maternal and fetal with GDM. Sog GCT has a vital significance to GDMs timely discovery and management The incidence of abnormal gestation glucose tolerance is related to age, body mass index before gestation and family diabetes history of pregnant women. Its very important for screening and management of pregnant women with GDM to care before gestation, do GCT detection timely.

  6. The effect of short-term metformin treatment on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Okrzesik, Joanna; Okopien, Boguslaw

    2015-05-01

    Metformin was found to affect plasma levels of some pituitary hormones. This study was aimed at investigating whether metformin treatment has an impact on plasma prolactin levels in bromocriptine-treated patients with hyperprolactinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The study included 27 patients with hyperprolactinaemia, who had been treated for at least 6 months with bromocriptine. Based on prolactin levels, bromocriptine-treated patients were divided into two groups: patients with elevated (group A, n = 12) and patients with normal (group B, n = 15) prolactin levels. The control group included 16 age-, sex- and weight-matched hyperprolactinaemia-free individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (group C).The lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ratio (HOMA-IR), glycated haemoglobin, as well as plasma levels of prolactin, thyrotropin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were assessed at baseline and after 4 months of metformin treatment (2.55-3 g daily). In all treatment groups, metformin reduced HOMA-IR, plasma triglycerides and 2-h postchallenge plasma glucose. In patients with hyperprolactinaemia, but not in the other groups of patients, metformin slightly reduced plasma levels of prolactin, and this effect correlated weakly with the metabolic effects of this drug. Our study shows that metformin decreases plasma prolactin levels only in patients with elevated levels of this hormone. The obtained results suggest that metformin treatment may bring some benefits to hyperprolactinaemic patients with coexisting glucose metabolism disturbances already receiving dopamine agonist therapy.

  7. A high-fat diet reverses improvement in glucose tolerance induced by duodenal-jejunal bypass in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shao-zhuang; SUN Dong; ZHANG Guang-yong; WANG Lei; LIU Teng; SUN Yu; LI Ming-xia; HU San-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery offers successful resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).However,recurrence of T2DM has been observed in a number of patients with initial resolution after bariatric surgery.This study aimed to induce reversal of the improvement of diabetes in T2DM rats after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB),and identify the effects of weight changes and gut hormones that might be involved.Methods DJB surgery was performed in two T2DM rat models (n=20 for each group):non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats,and moderately-obese T2DM rats induced by a combination of a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (HS rats).The controls were sham-operated and non-treated rats.All rats were then randomly divided into HFD- and low-fat diet (LFD)-fed groups.Glucose tolerance,insulin tolerance,glucose-stimulated insulin,glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) secretion,food intake and body weight were measured and compared with controls.Results DJB surgery resulted in a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in both GK and HS rats fed with either HFD or LFD.In contrast to LFD-fed rats,improved glucose tolerance was impaired in GK and HS rats fed with an HFD,accompanied by re-impairment of insulin tolerance and failure in enhancement of insulin secretion.There was no significant difference in food intake and body weight between DJB-operated and control rats,and between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and PYY levels were significantly increased after DJB surgery; however,they were not significantly different between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Conclusion An HFD reverses the improvement in glucose tolerance induced by DJB surgery in T2DM rats,primarily ascribing to the re-impairment of insulin sensitivity,but does not change body weight,GLP-1 and PYY levels.

  8. 糖耐量减低的危险因素%Risk Factors of the Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文清

    2001-01-01

    糖耐量减低(Impaired glucose tolerance,IGT)是发生Ⅱ型糖尿病的必经阶段.它的发生与遗传易感性及环境因素有关,是多因素综合作用的结果.现比较公认的危险因素有增龄、肥胖、遗传因素、体力活动过少、饮食习惯不良等.近期一些研究提出出生时低体重、绝经期妇女的雄激素水平等也是IGT的危险因素.有目的地针对可能导致IGT的危险因素进行防治,及时在人群中筛检出IGT,对减少或延缓DM的发生具有重要意义.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of a Short Message Service Intervention to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes from Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos K. H. Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the costs and cost-effectiveness of a short message service (SMS intervention to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Methods. A Markov model was developed to simulate the cost and effectiveness outcomes of the SMS intervention and usual clinical practice from the health provider’s perspective. The direct programme costs and the two-year SMS intervention costs were evaluated in subjects with IGT. All costs were expressed in 2011 US dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as cost per T2DM onset prevented, cost per life year gained, and cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY gained. Results. Within the two-year trial period, the net intervention cost of the SMS group was $42.03 per subject. The SMS intervention managed to reduce 5.05% onset of diabetes, resulting in saving $118.39 per subject over two years. In the lifetime model, the SMS intervention dominated the control by gaining an additional 0.071 QALY and saving $1020.35 per person. The SMS intervention remained dominant in all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions. The SMS intervention for IGT subjects had the superiority of lower monetary cost and a considerable improvement in preventing or delaying the T2DM onset. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556880.

  10. 冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆Ghrelin水平及临床意义%Plasma ghrelin level in patients with coronary heart disease with abnormal glucose metabolism and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞军刚; 徐新; 唐良秋; 张社兵; 江志平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆胃饥饿素(Ghrelin)水平及其相关临床意义.方法:将纳入研究对象依据相关检验及检查结果分为正常对照组、冠心病组(冠心病糖代谢正常组和冠心病糖代谢异常组)、单纯糖代谢异常组.收集所有入选对象人院第2天清晨空腹血样,采用ELISA方法同批检测血浆Ghrelin水平.结果:①冠心病组及单纯糖代谢异常组血浆Ghrelin水平均显著低于正常对照组.②冠心病糖代谢异常组血浆Ghrelin水平显著低于冠心病糖代谢正常组及单纯糖代谢异常组.③析因分析结果显示:冠心病与糖代谢异常在对血浆Ghrelin水平影响方面不存在交互作用.然而,糖代谢异常比冠心病对血浆Ghrelin水平的影响更明显.结论:冠心病糖代谢异常患者血浆Ghrelin水平显著下降,且糖代谢异常对Ghrelin的影响更明显.%AIM: To study plasma ghrelin level distribution in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) with abnormal glucose metabolism and to discuss its clinical significance. METHODS; According to laboratory examination results, subjects were divided into control group, coronary heart disease with normal glucose metabolism group, coronary heart disease with abnormal glucose metabolism group and abnormal glucose metabolism group. Fasting blood samples were collected the morning after admission with EDTA-2K anticoagulation tubes. Blood samples were then transferred to centrifuge tubes containing aprotinin and were centrifuged to extract plasma for cryopreservation. All blood plasma ghrelin levels were tested with ELISA. RESULTS: Compared with those in control group, ghrelin levels were significantly reduced in the group with CHD with normal glucose metabolism, group of CHD with abnormal glucose metabolism and group with abnormal glucose metabolism. Compared with those in the group of CHD with normal glucose metabolism, levels of ghrelin were significantly reduced in patients with

  11. Investigation and analysis of risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnant women%妊娠期糖代谢异常相关因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红媛; 刘春燕

    2014-01-01

    [ study group , including 75 cases with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 33 with gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT)] and 91 normal pregnant women ( control group ) recruited from April to September of 2011 in Zhuhai Maternity and Child Health Hospital .Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy .Results The mean age , body mass index ( BMI ) before pregnancy , maternal weight gains during pregnancy , gravidity and parity were significantly different between study group and control group ( t value was -6.567, -4.818, -1.929, -3.231 and-3.270, respectively, all P<0.05).The proportion of study group with lower education than senior high school was significantly higher than that of control group (χ2 =5.642,P<0.05).Univariate analysis showed that many factors were related with abnormal glucose metabolism, including gravidity, parity, education background, age≥30 years, BMI≥24kg/m2 before pregnancy, diabetes family history, bad pregnancy or reproduction history , hypertriglyceridemia , recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis ( VVC) history, craving for sweets , large amount of fruits and exercise during pregnancy .Multivariate logistic regression showed that seven factors came into main effect model , including craving for sweets during pregnancy , craving for fruits during pregnancy , diabetes family history , BMI≥24kg/m2 before pregnancy, VCC, age≥30 years and exercise during pregnancy .All were risk factors except exercise.Conclusion Poor eating habits, family history of diabetes , over weight before gestation , maternal age≥30 and recurrent VCC are high risk factors for gestational abnormal glucose metabolism .Exercise during pregnancy is protective factor .More guidance should be provided for the pregnant women with the above high risk factors during antenatal care visits .

  12. Ambivalent role of gallated catechins in glucose tolerance in humans: a novel insight into non-absorbable gallated catechin-derived inhibitors of glucose absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Jin, J Y; Baek, W K; Park, S H; Sung, H Y; Kim, Y K; Lee, J; Song, D K

    2009-12-01

    Prolonged postprandial hyperglycemia is a detrimental factor for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The benefit of green tea extract (GTE) consumption still requires confirmation. We report the effects of circulating green tea catechins on blood glucose and insulin levels. Oral glucose loading 1 h after GTE ingestion in humans led to higher blood glucose and insulin levels than in control subjects. Gallated catechins were required for these effects, although within the intestinal lumen they have been known to decrease glucose and cholesterol absorption. Treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate hindered 2-deoxyglucose uptake into liver, fat, pancreatic beta-cell, and skeletal muscle cell lines. The glucose intolerance was ameliorated by gallated catechin-deficient GTE or GTE mixed with polyethylene glycol, which was used as an inhibitor of intestinal absorption of gallated catechins. These findings may suggest that the gallated catechin when it is in the circulation elevates blood glucose level by blocking normal glucose uptake into the tissues, resulting in secondary hyperinsulinemia, whereas it decreases glucose entry into the circulation when they are inside the intestinal lumen. These findings encourage the development of non-absorbable derivatives of gallated catechins for preventative treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which would specifically induce only the positive luminal effect.

  13. 妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关危险因素分析%Risk Factors of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Gestation Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代明甫; 李倩; 钟思燕; 杨霜雪; 邬小臣

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in gestation period, and provide the theory basis for the clinical prevention and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM ) . Method:A case-control study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with clinically confirmed gestational abnormal glucose metabolism as study group, and 100 pregnant women of same gestational weeks with normal glucose metabolism as control group from Jun.2011 to May 2014.The general information, gestational mate-rials and behaviors of the two groups were investigated and the risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism in gestation period were analyzed.Result:Multi-factor logistic regression analysis showed that diabetes family history ( OR =2.398, 95%CI 1.042~5.012) , age was more than 28 years ( OR=1.413, 95%CI 1.322~4. 352) , BMI>24 ( OR=6.543, 95%CI 0.782~2.320) , abortion history ( OR=0.212, 95%CI 0.025~2. 256) , smoking history ( OR=0.246, 95%CI 0.045~3.452) were the risk factor of GDM morbidity.Con-clusion:Pregnant women with diabetes family history,>28 years, BMI>24,history of abortion and smoking should undergo gestational diabetes screening during early trimester of pregency.%目的:探讨妇女妊娠期糖代谢异常分布情况及发病的相关危险因素,为预防和控制妊娠期糖尿病提供理论依据。方法:以我院2011年6月至2014年5月保健门诊确诊的妊娠期糖代谢异常的孕产妇100例为病例组,以糖代谢正常及孕周相同的孕产妇100例为对照组。调查两组孕产妇一般情况,分析妊娠期糖代谢异常相关因素。结果:Logistic回归分析发现糖尿病遗传史( OR=2.398,95%, CI:1.042~5.012)、年龄>28岁( OR=1.413,95%,CI:1.322~4.352)、体质指数>24( OR=6.543,95%, CI:0.782~2.320)、流产史( OR=0.212,95%,CI:0.025~2.256)、吸烟史( OR=0.246,95%,CI:0.045~3.452)是妊娠

  14. Valine pyrrolidide preserves intact glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and improves abnormal glucose tolerance in minipigs with reduced beta-cell mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Olholm; Rolin, Bidda; Ribel, Ulla;

    2003-01-01

    for type 2 diabetes was evaluated in a new large animal model of insulin-deficient diabetes and reduced beta-cell mass, the nicotinamide (NIA) (67 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (STZ) (125 mg/kg)-treated minipig, using the DPPIV inhibitor, valine pyrrolidide (VP) (50 mg/kg). VP did not significantly affect...

  15. Evidence for an association between the Leu162Val polymorphism of the PPARalpha gene and decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels in glucose tolerant subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva-Maria D; Hansen, Lars; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler;

    2003-01-01

    for the Leu162Val variant had, on average, a 20% decrease in fasting serum triglyceride levels (P=0.014). This finding was replicated in middle-aged subjects (P=0.023). The Leu162Val polymorphism was not related to alterations in insulin sensitivity, insulin release or level of glycaemia. In conclusion......, the Leu162Val polymorphism of PPARalpha is associated with a decreased level of fasting serum triglyceride in glucose tolerant white subjects....

  16. Growth phase effect on the dark anaerobic hydrogen production in the glucose tolerant mutant of unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adipa Chongsuksantikul*

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study has examined the effect of growth phase on hydrogenproduction from cells of a glucose tolerant mutant of Synechocystissp. strain PCC6803. The extracellular products including hydrogen,lactate and acetate from cyanobacteria cells in dark anaerobicnitrate-free solution, yielded different excretory profiles dependingon which growth phases were prepared from photosynthesis. Theamount of hydrogen generated cells prepared from stationary phasewas highest in HEPES buffer and nitrate-free solution, darkanaerobic condition.

  17. Newly diagnosed glucose intolerance and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction: comparison of post-challenge versus fasting glucose concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minako; Takagi, Tsutomu; Yamamuro, Atsushi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that newly diagnosed glucose intolerance is common among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term clinical cardiovascular outcomes in participants with AMI with abnormal fasting glucose compared with normal fasting glucose and an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared with a normal OGTT. Methods A prospective study was performed in 275 consecutive patients with AMI, 85 of whom had pre-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM). Those without DM were divided into two groups based on the 75 g OGTT at the time of discharge. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) was defined as 2 h glucose ≥140 mg/dl; 78 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 112 had AGT. The same patients were also reclassified into the normal fasting glucose group (NFG; n=168) or the impaired fasting glucose group (IFG; n=22). The association between the glucometabolic status and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event rates was evaluated. Results Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the AGT group had a worse prognosis than the NGT group and an equivalent prognosis to the DM group (p<0.0005). Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that the HR of AGT to NGT for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 2.65 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.15, p=0.004) while the HR of DM to NGT was 3.27 (1.68 to 6.38, p=0.0005). However, Cox HR of IFG to NFG for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 1.83 (0.86 to 3.87), which was not significant. Conclusion In patients with AMI, an abnormal OGTT is a better risk factor for future adverse cardiovascular events than impaired fasting blood glucose. PMID:22581733

  18. Impaired oral glucose tolerance and influencing factors in patients with impaired fasting glucose%空腹血糖受损患者糖耐量异常及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左惠芬; 刘冬青; 商晓丽; 张燕; 许丽丽; 林运

    2014-01-01

    Objective To get to know the status of impaired oral glucose tolerance (IGT) and influencing factors in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Methods IFG patients (n=337, FPG being 5.6 mmol/L-6.1 mmol/L) were chosen and their data of age, sex, diabetes family history, height, weight, waistline, blood pressure and blood fat were collected. The level of blood glucose was detected after patients taken 75 g glucose for 2 h, and the status of IGT and influencing factors were analyzed. Results Among 337 IFG patients 46.6%of them (157/337) had IGT. The proportion of overweight and obesity was 75.0%in abnormal group and 63.1%in normal group (P<0.05). The level of triglyceride (TG) was higher and level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was lower in abnormal group compared with normal group (P<0.05). The multi-factor Logistic regression analysis showed that age, body mass index (BMI) and TG level were influencing factors of IGT, and relative risk was, respectively, 1.06 (95%CI:1.03-1.08), 1.11 (95%CI:1.05-119) and 1.58 (95%CI:1.23-2.09). The further analysis on influencing factors in IFG patients with normal weight showed that, besides of age, TG level was a influencing factor of IGT and relative risk was 2.10 (95%CI:1.29-3.43). Conclusion There are about half of IFG patients with IGT, and BMI and TG level are influencing factors of IGT.%目的:了解空腹血糖受损(IFG)患者糖耐量异常(IGT)情况及其影响因素。方法纳入空腹血糖为5.6~6.1 mmol/L的IFG患者337例,检测患者口服75克葡萄糖后2小时血糖等资料,分析患者IGT情况及其影响因素。结果纳入的337例IFG患者中46.6%(157/337)伴有IGT。口服葡萄糖耐量异常和正常组超重和肥胖率分别为75.0%和63.1%(P<0.05);口服葡萄糖耐量异常组甘油三酯水平显著高于正常组,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平低于正常组,均有统计学差异(P<0.05)。多因素Logistic回归分析结

  19. Pathophysiology and aetiology of impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance: does it matter for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K; Borch-Johnsen, K; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2009-01-01

    the transition from the prediabetic states to overt type 2 diabetes is characterised by a non-reversible vicious cycle that includes severe deleterious effects on glucose metabolism, there are good reasons to use the well-established aetiological and pathophysiological differences in i-IFG, i-IGT and IFG......Prior to the development of type 2 diabetes, glucose levels increase into the prediabetic states of isolated impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), or combined IFG/IGT. A better understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology of the prediabetic states...... might give a basis for the development of individualised prevention and treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. Several studies have examined mechanisms and potential aetiological factors leading to the development of the different prediabetic states. The pathophysiology of i-IFG seems to include...

  20. The effect of a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist on glucose tolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Vedtofte, Louise; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R;

    2013-01-01

    ). The disease normally disappears after delivery. Nevertheless, women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. We aim to investigate the early development of T2D in women with previous GDM and to evaluate whether treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor...... (GLP-1R) agonist, liraglutide, may modify their risk of developing T2D. METHODS AND ANALYSES: 100 women with previous GDM will be randomised to either liraglutide or placebo treatment for 1 year (blinded) with an open-label extension for another 4 years. Additionally, 15 women without previous GDM...... will constitute a baseline control group. Women will be tested with an oral glucose tolerance test (primary endpoint: area under the curve for plasma glucose) and an isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion at baseline, after 1 year and after 5 years. Additional evaluations include a glucagon test, dual-energy X...

  1. Mechanism-based population modelling for assessment of L-cell function based on total GLP-1 response following an oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B.; Jusko, William J.; Gao, Wei;

    2011-01-01

    GLP-1 is an insulinotropic hormone that synergistically with glucose gives rise to an increased insulin response. Its secretion is increased following a meal and it is thus of interest to describe the secretion of this hormone following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The aim of this study...... was to build a mechanism-based population model that describes the time course of total GLP-1 and provides indices for capability of secretion in each subject. The goal was thus to model the secretion of GLP-1, and not its effect on insulin production. Single 75 g doses of glucose were administered orally....... The individual estimates of absorption rate constants were used in the model for GLP-1 secretion. Estimation of parameters was performed using the FOCE method with interaction implemented in NONMEM VI. The final transit/indirect-response model obtained for GLP-1 production following an OGTT included two...

  2. The insulinotropic effect of GIP is impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis and secondary diabetes mellitus as compared to patients with chronic pancreatitis and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Højberg, Patricia V;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incretin effect is reduced and the insulinotropic effect of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is abolished in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To evaluate the causality of this deficiency we investigated 8...... patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (fasting plasma glucose (FPG): 5.5 (4.5-6.0) mM (mean (range); HbA(1c): 5.8 (5.4-6.3) %) and 8 patients with CP and secondary diabetes not requiring insulin (FPG: 7.1 (6.0-8.8) mM; HbA(1c): 7.0 (5.8-10.0) %) during three 15-m...

  3. Effects of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy on fetal body mass and incidence of neonatal complications%妊娠期糖代谢异常对胎儿体质量及新生儿并发症发生率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李女好; 林碧绿; 曾胤; 庄泽吟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy on the incidence of fetal body mass and neonatal complications.Methods Oral 50g glucose challenge test (GCT)was done in 2502 cases of pregnant women,156 cases of abnormal 75g oral glucose tolerance retest (OGTT),diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in 86 cases,gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) in 70 cases,and 300 cases of the control group,then we compared the incidence of fetal students body mass,neonatal complications.Results Fetal body mass of GIGT and GDM groups was large for gestational age and fetal macrosomia,significantly higher than that of the control group,the appropriate for gestational age at birth rate was significantly lower than that of the control group,there was statistical significant difference (P < 0.01); small for gestational age infants birth rate was also higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05); GIGT and GDM groups of pregnant women neonatal hypoglycemia,hyperbilirubinemia and in birth injury incidence was significantly higher than that in the control group,there was significant difference (P < 0.01); concurrent premature,asphyxia morbidity were igher than those of the control group,there was statistical significant difference (P < 0.05).Conclusion In clinical practice it is very necessary to detect glucose metabolism with anomaly detection and diagnosis system for all pregnant women,normal glucose metabolism treatment should be standardized and monitored; neonates delivered by all pregnant women with abnormal glucose metabolism should be given timely monitoring of blood glucose,complications and timely intervention.%目的 探讨妊娠期糖耐量异常对胎儿体质量及新生儿并发症发生率的影响.方法 对2502例孕妇进行口服50 g葡萄糖筛查试验(GCT),对156例异常者再行75 g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),确诊妊娠期糖尿病(GDM) 86例,妊娠糖耐量受损(GIGT) 70例,与对照组300

  4. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished. PMID:22107734

  5. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeilly Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise. The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p p p p p > 0.05. These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished.

  6. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Andrea M; Davison, Gareth W; Murphy, Marie H; Nadeem, Nida; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Novials, Anna; McEneny, Jane

    2011-11-22

    Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p decreased following exercise training (p 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished.

  7. 不同糖代谢状态血管内皮功能变化及相关影响因素分析%Changes and influencing factors of vascular endothelial function in different abnormal glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾蕾; 张丽娜; 郭立新

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the vascular endothelial function and explore the related influencing factors in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism by use of ultrasound technology. Methods A total of 109 participants selected from endocrinology outpatients of Beijing Hospital from October 2011 to June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was carried out, including fasting plasma glucose(FPG) and postprandial glucose(PPG), fasting and 2 hours after glucose load testing insulin, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), glycated albumin(GA), lipids, liver and kidney function, blood uric acid,flow-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (FMEDD), serum nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1(ET-1), serum malondialdehyde(MDA) and superoxide dismutase(SOD).With the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve, the best critical points of fasting and glucose loading vascular endothelial function were obtained. Results (1)The critical points of FMEDD in the state of abnormal glucose metabolism: fasting FMEDD was 13.37%, Youden index was 0.467, and the area under the curve was 0.786 (95%CI:0.697⁃0.876);FMEDD of OGTT 2 h was 10.67%,Youden index was 0.458, and the area under the curve was 0.774(95% CI:0.687⁃0.861). (2)Body mass index(BMI), FPG, HbA1c, GA, triglyceride (TG), MDA in the patients withabnormal fasting FMEDD were significantly higher than those in the normalgroup(t=-3.013,-4.567,-3.487,-4.611,-2.309,-2.909, all P<0.05); and the homeostasis model assessment⁃β(HOMA⁃β), NO, SOD were significantly lower than those in the normal group(t=2.765,2.472, 5.937, all P<0.05). PPG, HbA1c, GA in the patients with abnormal FMEDD after glucose load were significantly higher than those in the normal group(t=-4.907,-4.236,-3.896, all P<0.05);and the HOMA⁃β, NO, SOD were all significantly lower than those in the normal group(t=2.704,4.675,4.633, all P<0.05).(3) FPG,HbA1c,GA were negatively correlated with fasting FMEDD(r=-0

  8. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavazos, Alexis Elias; Cereda, Emanuele; Ermetici, Federica; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Briganti, Silvia; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Morricone, Lelio

    2015-01-01

    “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP) is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23%) adult (age: 18–70 years) overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2) having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM) and composite (IGT + T2-DM) abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P = 0.006 and P = 0.007, resp.). LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose. PMID:25792981

  9. The “Lipid Accumulation Product” Is Associated with 2-Hour Postload Glucose Outcomes in Overweight/Obese Subjects with Nondiabetic Fasting Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Elias Malavazos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available “Lipid accumulation product” (LAP is a continuous variable based on waist circumference and triglyceride concentration previously associated with insulin resistance. We investigated the accuracy of LAP in identifying oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT abnormalities and compared it to the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in a population of overweight/obese outpatients presenting with nondiabetic fasting glucose. We studied 381 (male: 23% adult (age: 18–70 years overweight/obese Caucasians (body mass index: 36.9 ± 5.4 Kg/m2 having fasting plasma glucose < 7.0 mmol/L. OGTT was used to diagnose unknown glucose tolerance abnormalities: impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM. According to OGTT 92, subjects had an IGT and 33 were diagnosed T2-DM. Logistic regression analysis detected a significant association for both LAP and HOMA-IR with single (IGT and T2-DM and composite (IGT + T2-DM abnormal glucose tolerance conditions. However, while the association with diabetes was similar between LAP and HOMA-IR, the relationship with IGT and composite outcomes by models including LAP was significantly superior to those including HOMA-IR (P=0.006 and P=0.007, resp.. LAP seems to be an accurate index, performing better than HOMA-IR, for identifying 2-hour postload OGTT outcomes in overweight/obese patients with nondiabetic fasting glucose.

  10. Steroid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are both associated with a progressive decline of incretin effect in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D H; Aaboe, K; Henriksen, J E;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the separate impact of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on the incretin effect. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a 75 g OGTT, an isoglycaemic i.......v. glucose test and a mixed meal to evaluate the incretin effect before and after treatment with dexamethasone to increase insulin resistance. Beta cell glucose sensitivity, beta cell index and fasting proinsulin were measured as indices of beta cell function. RESULTS: After dexamethasone, ten individuals...... had increased insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance (NGT), while 11 individuals with an equal increase in insulin resistance developed IGT. In the NGT and IGT groups, the incretin effects were 71¿±¿3.2% and 67¿±¿4.6% (p¿=¿0.4) before treatment, but decreased significantly in both groups...

  11. Unmasking Glucose Metabolism Alterations in Stable Renal Transplant Recipients: A Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Patricia; Diaz, Juan Manuel; Silva, Irene; Osorio, José M.; Osuna, Antonio; Bayés, Beatriz; Lauzurica, Ricardo; Arellano, Edgar; Campistol, Jose Maria; Dominguez, Rosa; Gómez-Alamillo, Carlos; Ibernon, Meritxell; Moreso, Francisco; Benitez, Rocio; Lampreave, Ildefonso; Porrini, Esteban; Torres, Armando

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Emerging information indicates that glucose metabolism alterations are common after renal transplantation and are associated with carotid atheromatosis. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of different glucose metabolism alterations in stable recipients as well as the factors related to the condition. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted of 374 renal transplant recipients without pre- or posttransplantation diabetes. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Results: Glucose metabolism alterations were present in 119 (31.8%) recipients: 92 (24.6%) with an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test and 27 (7.2%) with isolated impaired fasting glucose. The most common disorder was impaired glucose tolerance (17.9%), and an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test was observed for 21.5% of recipients with a normal fasting glucose. By multivariate analysis, age, prednisone dosage, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and β blocker use were shown to be factors related to glucose metabolism alterations. Remarkably, triglyceride levels, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and the proportion of recipients with impaired fasting glucose were already higher throughout the first posttransplantation year in recipients with a current glucose metabolism alteration as compared with those without the condition. Conclusions: Glucose metabolism alterations are common in stable renal transplant recipients, and an oral glucose tolerance test is required for its detection. They are associated with a worse metabolic profile, which is already present during the first posttransplantation year. These findings may help planning strategies for early detection and intervention. PMID:18322043

  12. Effect of dietary supplementation of different oils during the first or second half of pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Litten, J C; Dodds, P F; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-07-01

    Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.

  13. Prevalence of Blood Pressure, Blood Glucose and Serum Lipids Abnormalities Among Ethiopian Immigrants: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadzadeh, Maryam; Demerath, Ellen W; Tura, Yisehak

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hypertension, glucose and blood lipid abnormalities among a community of Ethiopian immigrants in Minnesota. This cross-sectional study used data from the parish nursing program 2007-2012. A total of 673 encounters were included in this study. Various dependent variables including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (BG), and serum lipids were examined. High blood pressure was defined as a mean SBP equal to or higher than 140 mm/Hg and/or DBP equal to or higher than 90 mmHg. Elevated fasting glucose defined as levels equal to or higher than 126 mg/dL. High level of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were defined as ≥240, ≥200, ≥160 and ≤40 mg/dL, respectively. General linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship of participants' age and gender, to the continuously distributed response variables, which included systolic and DBP, BG, TC, TG, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. This is a nonrandom sample of adult Ethiopian church members who were invited to participate in a parish nurse cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor screening program. Participants in this sample were 43 % male and 57 % female. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 30.1 % with a cut off mark of 140/90 mm/Hg. The prevalence of hypertension was 33 and 24 % among men than among women, respectively (p 240 mg/dL) were observed in 15 % of the women and 10 % of the men (p = 0.2). Higher SBP and DBP were significantly higher in male participants than their female counterparts (p  0.05). This opportunity sample suggests high prevalence of CVD risk factors in a community of Ethiopian-American adults, and a pressing need for more comprehensive and systematic assessment of chronic disease health needs in this growing community.

  14. Effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation depend on treatment dose, treatment duration and meal contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Masayuki; Ebato, Chie; Mita, Tomoya [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Takahisa [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamori, Ryuzo [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Beta Cell Biology and Regeneration, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Fujitani, Yoshio, E-mail: fujitani@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Center for Therapeutic Innovations in Diabetes, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, Hirotaka, E-mail: hwatada@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Medicine, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Sportology Center, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-18

    Beta-cell proliferation is regulated by various metabolic demands including peripheral insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. In addition to enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion, agonists for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) stimulate proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of beta-cells, thereby probably preserve beta-cell mass. To evaluate the beta-cell preserving actions of GLP-1R agonists, we assessed the acute and chronic effects of exendin-4 on beta-cell proliferation, mass and glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice under various conditions. Short-term administration of high-dose exendin-4 transiently stimulated beta-cell proliferation. Comparative transcriptomic analysis showed upregulation of IGF-1 receptor and its downstream effectors in islets. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 daily for 4 weeks (long-term administration) and feeding high-fat diet resulted in significant inhibition of weight gain and improvement of glucose tolerance with reduced insulin secretion and beta-cell mass. These findings suggest that long-term GLP-1 treatment results in insulin sensitization of peripheral organs, rather than enhancement of beta-cell proliferation and function, particularly when animals are fed high-fat diet. Thus, the effects of exendin-4 on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and beta-cell proliferation largely depend on treatment dose, duration of treatment and meal contents. While GLP-1 enhances proliferation of beta-cells in some diabetic mice models, our results suggest that GLP-1 stimulates beta-cell growth only when expansion of beta-cell mass is required to meet metabolic demands.

  15. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE-2 AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AMONG ADULTS IN A RURAL AREA OF KATIHAR, BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazid Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus is increasing globally particularly in developing countries. Previously, diabetes mellitus type-2 was disease of middle aged and elderly, but recently it is affecting younger age group including adolescents especially in the high risk population. OBJECTIVES 1. To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 in a rural population of age 30 years and above, 2. To determine the prevalence of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in a rural population of age 30 year and above, and 3. To study the association of various risk factors with diabetes mellitus type-2 and Impaired Glucose Tolerance. METHODOLOGY A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in population 30 years and above at Chanpi village in the district of Katihar in Bihar during the study period of 1st January to 31st December 2014. This was a community-based study in which all persons aged 30 years or more living in this village were eligible for participation. After taking early morning fasting sample, the study subjects were given 75 gm of anhydrous glucose in 200 mL of water to drink in 5 minutes and blood samples were collected exactly after 2 hours to estimate oral glucose tolerance. Samples were tested in the laboratory on the same day. RESULTS Total sample size in this study was 916 and out of this 31 were found to have type-2 diabetes mellitus and 75 were Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT. Distribution of type 2 diabetes among non-vegetarians was found to be 77.42% and 85.33% in IGT. 54.84% males and 45.16% females were found to be type-2 diabetes mellitus and almost same percentage of males and females were found in IGT. Distribution of DM-2 according to literacy level was found to be 29.03%, 41.94%, 19.35%, 6.45%, 3.23% are illiterate, just literate, primary, secondary, higher secondary school person respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that the prevalence of diabetes and IGT is high in the subjects having sedentary

  16. 空腹血糖受损、糖耐量受损人群3年自然转归及其影响因素的研究%The survey of three-year follow-up and the related risk factors of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海光; 王岩; 王旭辉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the natural outcome and the related risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods During April 2006 to June 2006, 79 subjects with IFG and IGT, who had been diagnosed as abnormal glucose metabolism based on a diabetes mellitus census of 1 062 citizens in Chaoyang city from April 2003 to June 2003, were examined with height, weight, waist circumference,blood pressure, and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Meanwhile, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were also tested.Results Of the 65 subjects 22 subjects had diabetes mellitus(DM). Among them the conversion rates to DM were 10.8 %, 9.2 %, and 10.4% for the subjects with I-IFG, I-IGT, and IFG/ IGT, respectively. With the age increasing, abnormal glucose metabolism, hypertension, obesity and abnormal lipid metabolism became much severer. Incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism obviously increased in the subjects aged above 40 years. The results of mono-factor analysis showed that glucose increase may be related to the aging, DM family history, work intensity, increase of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, abnormal blood fat. Logistic regression found that aging, central obesity, hypertension and less physical work were all the risk factors of DM. Conclusion Cumulative life-incidence of DM in the subjects with I-IGT, IGT/IFG is significantly higher than that in the subjects with I-IFG. Aging, central obesity, hypertension and less physical work are the main risk factors of abnormal glucose metabolism. Therefore, it is essential to control blood pressure and body weight and enhance physical exercise in order to prevent from DM.%目的 探讨空腹血糖受损(IFG)、糖耐量受损(IGT)人群发生糖尿病的危险性及其影响因素. 方法对2003年4~6月朝阳市市区居民1 062人糖尿病普查中IFG、IGT患者79人于2006年4~6月进行

  17. Purification, biochemical characterization, and gene cloning of a new extracellular thermotolerant and glucose tolerant maltooligosaccharide-forming alpha-amylase from an endophytic ascomycete Fusicoccum sp. BCC4124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champreda, Verawat; Kanokratana, Pattanop; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2007-08-01

    An endophytic fungus, Fusicoccum sp. BCC4124, showed strong amylolytic activity when cultivated on multi-enzyme induction enriched medium and agro-industry substrates. alpha-Amylase and alpha-glucosidase activities were highly induced in the presence of maltose and starch. The purified target alpha-amylase, Amy-FC1, showed strong hydrolytic activity on soluble starch (kcat/Km=6.47 x 10(3) min(-1)(ml/mg)) and selective activity on gamma- and beta-cyclodextrins, but not on alpha-cyclodextrin. The enzyme worked optimally at 70 degrees C in a neutral pH range with t(1/2) of 240 min in the presence of Ca(2+) and starch. Maltose, matotriose, and maltotetraose were the major products from starch hydrolysis but prolonged reaction led to the production of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose from starch, cyclodextrins, and maltooligosaccharides (G3-G7). The amylase showed remarkable glucose tolerance up to 1 M, but was more sensitive to inhibition by maltose. The deduced protein primary structure from the putative gene revealed that the enzyme shared moderate homology between alpha-amylases from Aspergilli and Lipomyces sp. This thermotolerant, glucose tolerant maltooligosaccharide-forming alpha-amylase is potent for biotechnological application.

  18. Improved metabolic response after 16 weeks of calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin in impaired glucose tolerance subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzed the metabolic effects of dietary advice to follow calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet with metformin in overweight / obese impaired glucose tolerance subjects. Methods: Sixteen subjects with body mass index between 27-38 kg/m² were followed monthly for 16 weeks and treated with metformin (1 g/day and dietary prescription for low-glycaemic index diet with energy reduction of 25-30% their total energy expenditure. Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition, and food intake parameters were measured before and after the treatment. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used to compare differences from baseline, with a statistical significance criterion of p < 0.05. Results: There were significant reductions in anthropometric and body composition parameters, decrease in HOMA2-%β and triglycerides concentrations, and increase in Cederholm index. These results show enhanced peripheral insulin sensitivity and preservation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Conclusion: Calorie-restricted low-glycaemic index diet and metformin was benefit to metabolic and anthropometric parameters in overweight/obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  19. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    in monounsaturated fatty acids ( > 20% of energy); 2) LF diet (n = 18): low-fat diet (20-30% of energy), and 3) control diet (n = 12): 35% of energy as fat ( > 15% of energy as saturated fatty acids). Protein accounted for 15% of energy in all 3 diets. A 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed before......BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  20. A clinical analysis of abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman%妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米阳; 闫坤; 黄谱; 苟文丽

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationship between abnormal gestational glucose metabolism and pregnancy outcome of the woman. Methods 1 636 pregnant women who received antenatal examination in Shannxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital in a period from January to June, 2008 were screened at their 24~28 weeks of gestation with 50g glucose challenge test (GCT). Those pregnant women with abnormal GCT results further received oral 75g glucose tolerance test (OGTT). According to OGTT results, the pregnant women were divided into 2 groups: GDM group (n=69) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance group (GIGT group, n=124). 300 pregnant women with normal glucose metabolism were as controls. All of them were followed up untill delivery and the perinatal outcomes in the 3groups were compared. Results The incidence of GDM was 4.21% and that of GIGT was 7.58%. The incidences of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy, polyhydramnios, premature rupture of membrane and premature delivery in GDM group were higher than those in the control group (χ2=4.660,11.530,5.193,4.661 respectively,all P<0.05).In GIGT group ,the incidences of polyhydramnios and premature rupture of membrane were significantly higher than those in the control group(χ2=12.450,6.325,respectively,both P<0.05). Conclusion The pregnant women with GDM or GIGT have significantly high incidences of obstetric complications and rate of cesarean section. So, screening of GDM should be strengthened and early diagnosis, early treatment, gestational supervision and guidance should be carried out in order to reduce incidence rates of maternal and infantile complications.%目的 探讨妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局的关系.方法 选取2008年1~6月在陕西省妇幼保健院进行产前检查的1 636名孕妇,于24~28周进行50g葡萄糖筛查试验,异常者行75g糖耐量试验,按糖代谢异常情况分为妊娠期糖尿病组(69例)和妊娠期糖耐量受损组(124例);

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase regulation in the hepatopancreas of the anoxia-tolerant marine mollusc, Littorina littorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Judeh L; Bell, Ryan A V; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) gates flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and is key to cellular antioxidant defense due to its role in producing NADPH. Good antioxidant defenses are crucial for anoxia-tolerant organisms that experience wide variations in oxygen availability. The marine mollusc, Littorina littorea, is an intertidal snail that experiences daily bouts of anoxia/hypoxia with the tide cycle and shows multiple metabolic and enzymatic adaptations that support anaerobiosis. This study investigated the kinetic, physical and regulatory properties of G6PDH from hepatopancreas of L. littorea to determine if the enzyme is differentially regulated in response to anoxia, thereby providing altered pentose phosphate pathway functionality under oxygen stress conditions. Several kinetic properties of G6PDH differed significantly between aerobic and 24 h anoxic conditions; compared with the aerobic state, anoxic G6PDH (assayed at pH 8) showed a 38% decrease in K m G6P and enhanced inhibition by urea, whereas in pH 6 assays K m NADP and maximal activity changed significantly between the two states. The mechanism underlying anoxia-responsive changes in enzyme properties proved to be a change in the phosphorylation state of G6PDH. This was documented with immunoblotting using an anti-phosphoserine antibody, in vitro incubations that stimulated endogenous protein kinases versus protein phosphatases and significantly changed K m G6P, and phosphorylation of the enzyme with (32)P-ATP. All these data indicated that the aerobic and anoxic forms of G6PDH were the high and low phosphate forms, respectively, and that phosphorylation state was modulated in response to selected endogenous protein kinases (PKA or PKG) and protein phosphatases (PP1 or PP2C). Anoxia-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of G6PDH may facilitate sustained or increased production of NADPH to enhance antioxidant defense during long term anaerobiosis and/or during the transition

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase regulation in the hepatopancreas of the anoxia-tolerant marine mollusc, Littorina littorea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judeh L. Lama

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH gates flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and is key to cellular antioxidant defense due to its role in producing NADPH. Good antioxidant defenses are crucial for anoxia-tolerant organisms that experience wide variations in oxygen availability. The marine mollusc, Littorina littorea, is an intertidal snail that experiences daily bouts of anoxia/hypoxia with the tide cycle and shows multiple metabolic and enzymatic adaptations that support anaerobiosis. This study investigated the kinetic, physical and regulatory properties of G6PDH from hepatopancreas of L. littorea to determine if the enzyme is differentially regulated in response to anoxia, thereby providing altered pentose phosphate pathway functionality under oxygen stress conditions. Several kinetic properties of G6PDH differed significantly between aerobic and 24 h anoxic conditions; compared with the aerobic state, anoxic G6PDH (assayed at pH 8 showed a 38% decrease in Km G6P and enhanced inhibition by urea, whereas in pH 6 assays Km NADP and maximal activity changed significantly between the two states. The mechanism underlying anoxia-responsive changes in enzyme properties proved to be a change in the phosphorylation state of G6PDH. This was documented with immunoblotting using an anti-phosphoserine antibody, in vitro incubations that stimulated endogenous protein kinases versus protein phosphatases and significantly changed Km G6P, and phosphorylation of the enzyme with 32P-ATP. All these data indicated that the aerobic and anoxic forms of G6PDH were the high and low phosphate forms, respectively, and that phosphorylation state was modulated in response to selected endogenous protein kinases (PKA or PKG and protein phosphatases (PP1 or PP2C. Anoxia-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of G6PDH may facilitate sustained or increased production of NADPH to enhance antioxidant defense during long term anaerobiosis and/or during the

  3. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  4. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szöko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome.

  5. The clinical value of Mood glucose and insulin detection in early period of pregnancy on predicting abnormal glucose metabolism%妊娠初期检测血糖和胰岛素预测糖代谢异常的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in early period of pregnancy and abnormal glucose metabolism during gestation period.Methods Two hundred and seventy-seven women with single pregnancy and non-propregnant diabetes mellitus were selected.FPG,fasting insulin,insulin resistance index were detected in early period of pregnancy ( <19 weeks).One hundred g oral glucose tolerant test (OGTT) was taken during 24-36 weeks.According to OGTT,patients were divided into gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) group (24 cases),gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) group(23 cases),OGTT 1 h higher blood glucose (HG-1) group (26 cases) and normal group (204 cases).Results FPG,fasting insulin and insulin resistance index of GDM group and HG-1 group were obviously higher than those of normal group [( 4.58 ± 0.36 ),( 4.58 ± 0.38) mmol/L vs.( 4.20 ±0.33) mmol/L,(9.4 ± 1.1),(9.3 ±2.1) U/L vs.(7.0 ± 2.1) U/L,2.0 ± 0.4,2.0 ± 0.3 vs.1.3 ± 0.4,P< 0.05].FPG of GIGT group [(4.45 ±0.36) mmol/L] was higher than that of normal group (P <0.05).After controlled age,body mass index,family history of type-2 diabetes mellitus and sport exercises,the relative risk degree of blood glucose metabolism had correlation with FPG,fasting insulin and insulin resistance index in early period of pregnancy (P < 0.05).Conclusion FPG,fasting insulin and insulin resistance index in early period of pregnancy can predict abnormal glucose metabolism.%目的 探讨妊娠初期空腹血糖(FPG)与妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关性.方法 单胎非孕前糖尿病孕妇277例,在妊娠初期(<19周)检测FPG、空腹血胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数.在妊娠24 ~ 36周行100 g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),按OGTT结果进行分组,妊娠期糖耐量受损(GIGT)组24例,妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)组23例,OGTT1 h高血糖(HG-1)组26例,正常组204例.结果 GDM组和HG-1组FPG、空腹血胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数均明显高于正常组[(4.58±0

  6. The Impact of EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner in Obese Patients with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Federspiel, Cecilie A; Vilmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal...... intake was reduced at 1w in NGT subjects; no changes in appetite measures or food intake were observed in the T2D group. No effect of DJBS on postprandial gallbladder emptying was observed, and gastric emptying was not delayed. CONCLUSIONS: DJBS-induced weight loss was associated with only marginal...... changes in postprandial physiology, which may explain the lack of effect on postprandial glucose metabolism....

  7. Graves病患者糖耐量、糖化血红蛋白及胰岛素变化的研究%Study on changes of glucose tolerance,glycohemoglobin and insulin in Graves disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢英才; 武革; 苏建民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance on the changes of glycometablism, glycohemoglobin(GHb) and insulin in Graves disease patients. Methods: The 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), insulin release tests, GHb and the concentration of serum thyroxin were detected in 86 Graves disease patients, and these indexes were compared with those of the normal group and type 2 diabetes group. Results: The abnormality rate of glycometabolism was 55.8% in Graves disease patients, and of GHb was 54.6%, 34.9% of the patients showed impaired glucose tolerance( IGT), 20.9% of the patients presented glucose tolerance compatible with diabetes(GTCD)who were found to be with obviously high postprandial insulin. After 6 months to 1 years antithyroid treatment, in IGT group, 93.3% of patients showed normal blood glucose, and 83.3% showed normal GHb, in GTCD group only 28%of patients presented normal blood glucose and 16.7% presented normal postprandial insulin. Conclusions: It is suggested that a routine detection of OGTT, GHb and regularly following up these indexes are necessary for Graves disease patients, while the postprandial insulin and glutamate decarboxylase antibody ( GAD - Ab) are also necessary detection for part of Graves disease patients.%目的探讨Graves病患者糖代谢状况及糖化血红蛋白、胰岛素变化的临床意义.方法对86例Graves病患者作口服葡萄糖耐量试验(0GTr)、胰岛素释放试验、糖化血红蛋白(GHb)及甲状腺激素水平测定,并与正常人组及2型糖尿病组进行比较.结果Graves病患者合并糖代谢异常者占55.8%(30/86+18/86),GHb异常率占54.6%,其中糖耐量低减者占34.9%,呈糖尿病样者占20.9%,糖尿病样者餐后胰岛素明显升高.经抗甲亢6个月~1年,甲状腺激素恢复正常后,糖耐量低减组93.3%的患者血糖恢复正常,83.3%患者的GHb恢复正常;糖尿病样组28%的患者血糖恢复正常,餐后胰岛素仅16.7%恢复正常.结论Graves

  8. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2008-04-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P < 0.05). At breakfast, the glucose response was inversely correlated with colonic fermentation (r = -0.25; P < 0.05) and GLP-1 (r = -0.26; P < 0.05) and positively correlated with FFA (r = 0.37; P < 0.001). IL-6 was lower (P < 0.01) and adiponectin was higher (P < 0.05) at breakfast following an evening meal with barley-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P < 0.01) and inversely with GER (r = -0.23; P < 0.05). In conclusion, the composition of indigestible carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

  9. Use of intensified comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation to improve risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance--the randomized DANish StUdy of impaired glucose metabolism in the settings of cardiac rehabilitation (DANSUK) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Frederiksen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The DANish StUdy of impaired glucose metabolism in the settings of cardiac rehabilitation (DANSUK) examined the effect of an intensified multifactorial intervention on risk factor profile in 104 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) attendin...

  10. Capillary blood glucose screening for gestational diabetes: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, M B; Cembrowski, G S; Gabbe, S G

    1986-10-01

    Home glucose monitoring with the use of reflectance meters is an important adjunct in the care of pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The accuracy of reflectance meters for the assay of capillary glucose specimens has been well documented. The present preliminary study was undertaken to determine the utility of outpatient screening for gestational diabetes mellitus with the use of a reflectance meter (Accu-Chek, Boehringer Mannheim Co.). One hundred twenty-five patients in our high-risk practice had a standard 50 gm glucose load at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation. Capillary glucose values were measured on site with the Accu-Chek. Venous plasma glucose levels were measured by the central laboratory chemistry analyzer. While the laboratory (x) and meter (y) glucose determinations between the two sets of values were highly correlated (R = 0.89, p less than 0.001), there was a significant difference in their average values (x = 111.74, y = 136.35, p less than 0.0001). With the use of a receiver operator characteristic curve, a meter value of 160 mg/dl was determined as the optimal threshold for performing a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. The sensitivity and specificity with the use of a meter value of 160 mg/dl were 93% and 96%, respectively, for detecting an abnormal screening test in venous plasma (greater than or equal to 135 mg/dl). A total of 32 glucose tolerance tests were performed, with four patients included who had venous values less than 135 mg/dl. All eight patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were correctly identified. These data suggest that a glucose reflectance meter can be used for accurate outpatient screening of gestational diabetes mellitus. The potential advantages of capillary blood glucose screening include both cost and efficiency. Patients with abnormal screening values can be promptly identified and scheduled for a follow-up 3-hour glucose tolerance test.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 is essential for LPS-induced sensitization and tolerance to oxygen-glucose deprivation in murine neonatal organotypic hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Tina; Cronberg, Tobias; Cilio, Corrado; Pronk, Cornelis; Wieloch, Tadeusz; Ley, David

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation and ischemia have a synergistic damaging effect in the immature brain. The role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors 1 and 2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sensitization and tolerance to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was evaluated in neonatal murine hippocampal organotypic slices. Hippocampal slices from balb/c, C57BL/6 TNFR1(-/-), TNFR2(-/-), and wild-type (WT) mice obtained at P6 were grown in vitro for 9 days. Preexposure to LPS immediately before OGD increased propidium iodide-determined cell death in regions CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus from 4 up to 48 h after OGD (P<0.001). Extending the time interval between LPS exposure and OGD to 72 h resulted in tolerance, that is reduced neuronal cell death after OGD (P<0.05). Slices from TNFR1(-/-) mice showed neither LPS-induced sensitization nor LPS-induced tolerance to OGD, whereas both effects were present in slices from TNFR2(-/-) and WT mice. Cytokine secretion (TNFalpha and interleukin-6) during LPS exposure was decreased in TNFR1(-/-) slices and increased in TNFR2(-/-) as compared with WT slices. We conclude that LPS induces sensitization or tolerance to OGD depending on the time interval between exposure to LPS and OGD in murine hippocampal slice cultures. Both paradigms are dependent on signaling through TNFR1.

  12. Evaluation of fasting state-/oral glucose tolerance test-derived measures of insulin release for the detection of genetically impaired β-cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke A Herzberg-Schäfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, fasting state- and different oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-derived measures are used to estimate insulin release with reasonable effort in large human cohorts required, e.g., for genetic studies. Here, we evaluated twelve common (or recently introduced fasting state-/OGTT-derived indices for their suitability to detect genetically determined β-cell dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort of 1364 White European individuals at increased risk for type 2 diabetes was characterized by OGTT with glucose, insulin, and C-peptide measurements and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to affect glucose- and incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. One fasting state- and eleven OGTT-derived indices were calculated and statistically evaluated. After adjustment for confounding variables, all tested SNPs were significantly associated with at least two insulin secretion measures (p≤0.05. The indices were ranked according to their associations' statistical power, and the ranks an index obtained for its associations with all the tested SNPs (or a subset were summed up resulting in a final ranking. This approach revealed area under the curve (AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30 as the best-ranked index to detect SNP-dependent differences in insulin release. Moreover, AUC(Insulin(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, corrected insulin response (CIR, AUC(C-Peptide(0-30/AUC(Glucose(0-30, AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120, two different formulas for the incremental insulin response from 0-30 min, i.e., the insulinogenic indices (IGI(2 and IGI(1, and insulin 30 min were significantly higher-ranked than homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B; p<0.05. AUC(C-Peptide(0-120/AUC(Glucose(0-120 was best-ranked for the detection of SNPs involved in incretin-stimulated insulin secretion. In all analyses, HOMA-β displayed the highest rank sums and, thus, scored last. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With AUC(Insulin(0

  13. Natural history and physiological determinants of changes in glucose tolerance in a non-diabetic population: the RISC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrannini, E; Natali, A; Muscelli, E;

    2011-01-01

    The natural history and physiological determinants of glucose intolerance in subjects living in Europe have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of this area....

  14. The solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of cinnamic acid from glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, K.; Luijk, N. van; Bont, J.A.M. de; Wery, J.

    2005-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that efficiently produced thefine chemical cinnamic acid from glucose or glycerol via the central metabolite phenylalanine. The gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase from the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was introduced. Phenylalanine availabilit

  15. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis in skeletal muscle in obesity. The role of the sympathoadrenal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Henriksen, O

    1987-01-01

    From a 7-day food recording in 29 morbidly obese patients two groups of six patients each were selected: a high-energy-intake group (HEI) and a low-energy-intake group (LEI). The groups were otherwise comparable. Five lean subjects served as controls for some observations. Oral glucose tolerance ...... tests showed that all patients in the HEI group and the lean controls had normal glucose tolerance, whereas it was abnormal in all subjects in the LEI group. The fasting metabolic rate did not differ between the obese groups but was significantly lower in the lean group. The glucose...

  16. Evaluation of glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Lü; Xiaoyan Guo; Zuansun Cao; Wenjun Mao

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate glucose metabolism in women with multiple ovarian follicles (MOF) and explore the relationship between glucose metabolism, insulin resistance and body weight. Methods:We evaluated 46 women with MFO and 30 nor mal women as controls. All the subjects were given 75g of glucose orally in order to perform the oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) and insulin releasing test(IRT), and they were also evaluated for insulin resistance using the insulin resistance index with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Results:The occurrence of impaired glucose tolerance in women with MOF was 10.87%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.33% ,P < 0.05). The rate of insulin resistance was 30.43% in the study group as compared to 10.00% in the control group. The results showed that there was significant difference between the two groups(P < 0.05). The levels of FSH,LH,PRL,E2,T and P between the two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05). BMI in women with impaired glucose tolerance was correlated positively to insulin resistance (r =0.567, P < 0.05). Conclusion :Abnormal glucose metabolism was observed in women with unitary multiple ovarian follicles,and this could be attributed to obesity and insulin resistance. Women with MOF and associated obesity should be subjected to OGTT so that their glucose levels can be monitored as a preventive measure.

  17. Limitations in the use of indices using glucose and insulin levels to predict insulin sensitivity: impact of race and gender and superiority of the indices derived from oral glucose tolerance test in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisprasert, Veeradej; Ingram, Katherine H; Lopez-Davila, Maria F; Munoz, A Julian; Garvey, W Timothy

    2013-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the utility of commonly used insulin sensitivity indices in nondiabetic European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two-hundred forty nondiabetic participants were studied. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was the gold standard approach to assess glucose disposal rates (GDR) normalized by lean body mass. The homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated from fasting plasma glucose and insulin (FIL). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed to determine Matsuda index, the simple index assessing insulin sensitivity (SI(is)OGTT), Avignon index, and Stomvoll index. Relationships among these indices with GDR were analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS GDR values were similar in EA and AA subgroups; even so, AA exhibited higher FIL and were insulin-resistant compared with EA, as assessed by HOMA-IR, QUICKI, Matsuda index, SI(is)OGTT, Avignon index, and Stumvoll index. In the overall study population, GDR was significantly correlated with all studied insulin sensitivity indices (/r/ = 0.381-0.513); however, these indices were not superior to FIL in predicting GDR. Race and gender affected the strength of this relationship. In AA males, FIL and HOMA-IR were not correlated with GDR. In contrast, Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT were significantly correlated with GDR in AA males, and Matsuda index was superior to HOMA-IR and QUICKI in AAs overall. CONCLUSIONS Insulin sensitivity indices based on glucose and insulin levels should be used cautiously as measures of peripheral insulin sensitivity when comparing mixed gender and mixed race populations. Matsuda index and SI(is)OGTT are reliable in studies that include AA males.

  18. 合并糖代谢异常的冠心病患者血浆脂联素水平变化及其临床意义%Plasma level of adiponectin in coronary heart disease patients combined with abnormal glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏珂; 郭兰燕; 赵震宇; Ali Sheikh Md Sayed; 李非; 杨天伦

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the plasma adiponectin concentration in coronary heart disease (CHD)patients combined with abnormal glucose metabolism, and to explore the clinical significance ofadiponectin.Methods: Eighty-seven hospitalized CHD patients confirmed by coronary angiography fromAugust 2009 to April 2010 at Xiangya Hospital were enrolled and divided into 3 groups according to their glucose metabolic state: 31 patients were selected as a simple CHD group, 28 were selected as a CHD combined with impaired glucose tolerance group (CHD+IGT group), and the other 28 as a CHD combined with diabetes mellitus group (CHD+DM group). The 31 healthy subjects who got health checkup at the same time were enrolled as a normal control group (NC group). Plasma adiponectin was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The height, weight, waistline and blood pressure of all the subjects were checked, and the fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), free fatty acids (FFA), the liver function and the renal function were checked as well. The body mass index and the homeostasis model were assessed for insulin resistance.Results: 1) Plasma adiponectin in the CHD group, the CHD+IGT group, and the CHD+DM group was all lower than that in the NC group (P<0.05); 2) Compared with the CHD group, the plasma adiponectin in the CHD+DM group was the lowest, followed by the CHD+IGT group, and there was significant difference in the 3 groups (P<0.05); 3) Plasma adiponectin level was positively related with the high density lipoprotein cholesterol-C (HDL-C) (r=0.483, P<0.01), while it was negatively related with the hs-CRP and Gensini score (r=-0.489, P<0.05; r=-0.252, P<0.05). Conclusion: Plasma adiponectin concentration is reduced in the CHD patients, and significantly reduced in CHD patients combined with abnormal glucose metabolism. Plasma adiponectin concentration decreases significantly with the severity of abnormal glucose metabolism. CHD

  19. Age-related differences in glucose abnormalities in women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Gensini, Gian Franco; D'Alfonso, Maria Grazia; Chiostri, Marco; Attanà, Paola; Valente, Serafina

    2015-05-01

    No datum is so far available on the relation between age and the acute glucose response to stress in women with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We evaluated the age-related differences in the acute glucose response in 373 STEMI women submitted to PCI. The oldest women, when compared to the other age subgroups, showed the higher admission and peak glycemia (P acute glucose response to myocardial injury since older women showed the higher admission glucose values and the poorer in-hospital glucose control, in the lack of differences of insulin-resistance incidence. Glucose values were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, but were not related to long-term survival.

  20. High Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Elderly Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance%老年糖耐量减低患者发生冠心病的高危因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗劲涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the high risk factors for coronary heart disease in elderly patients with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods Body mass index(BMI),fasting blood glucose (FPG),2-hour postprandial blood glucose(2-hPG),glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c),serum to-tal cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),triglyceride(TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),serum C-reactive protein(CRP),insulin resistance index(HO-MA-IR)and distribution of coronary artery calcification score(CACS)>400 and ankle brachial index(ABI)were compared between 60 patients with impaired glucose tolerance(group A)and 60 healthy subjects with normal glucose tolerance(group B).Results Compared with group B,the BMI,2 hPG,CRP,HOMA-IR,TC,TG and LDL-C significantly increased and HbA1c significantly decreased in group A(P 400 was 35.0%(21/60)in group A, and 6.7%(4/60)in group B.The prevalence of ABI<0.9 was 40.0%(24/60)in group A,and 8.3%(5/60)in group B.The differences were significant between the two groups(P < 0.05). Conclusion The obesity,hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance are the high risk factors for coro-nary heart disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.The strengthening of intervention for abnormal glucose tolerance is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of coro-nary heart disease.%目的:探讨老年糖耐量减低患者发生冠心病的高危因素。方法收集糖耐量减低患者60例(A 组),另选取健康人群60例归类为糖耐量正常组(B 组)60例。比较2组 BMI、空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h 血糖(2 hPG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血清总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、血清 C-反应蛋白(CRP)、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)水平,以及冠状动脉钙化积分(CACS)>400、踝臂指数(ABI)<0.9的分布。结果A 组 BMI、2 h

  1. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Jeong Hwang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWomen with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD; continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period.MethodsWe performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT (n=100, pre-diabetes (n=73, and diabetes mellitus (DM (n=11. Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery.ResultsEating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups.ConclusionAlthough diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM.

  2. Hepatic and Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Are Differentially Regulated: Results From a Novel Model-Based Analysis of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David C; Bergman, Richard N; Chung, Stephanie T; Sumner, Anne E

    2016-06-01

    Insulin clearance is a highly variable and important factor that affects circulating insulin concentrations. We developed a novel model-based method to estimate both hepatic and extrahepatic insulin clearance using plasma insulin and C-peptide profiles obtained from the insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Data from 100 African immigrants without diabetes (mean age 38 years, body weight 81.7 kg, fasting plasma glucose concentration 83 mg/dL, and fasting insulin concentration 37 pmol/L) were used. Endogenous insulin secretion (calculated by C-peptide deconvolution) and insulin infusion rates were used as inputs to a new two-compartment model of insulin kinetics and hepatic and extrahepatic clearance parameters were estimated. Good agreement between modeled and measured plasma insulin profiles was observed (mean normalized root mean square error 6.8%), and considerable intersubject variability in parameters of insulin clearance among individuals was identified (the mean [interquartile range] for hepatic extraction was 25.8% [32.7%], and for extrahepatic insulin clearance was 20.7 mL/kg/min [11.7 mL/kg/min]). Parameters of insulin clearance were correlated with measures of insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response to glucose. The method described appears promising for future research aimed at characterizing variability in insulin clearance and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of insulin clearance.

  3. [Activity of Vegetative Nervous System and Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines During Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects With Optimal and High Normal Blood Pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangileva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen patients with high normal (main group) and 15 subjects with optimal (control group) blood pressure (BP) were examined. Fasting and postprandial (60 and 120 min after oral intake of glucose) levels of glucose, insulin, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and C-reactive protein were measured. At the same time spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was done. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance index (as HOMA-IR) were calculated. In patients with high normal BP total power of HRV was decreased (p transient elevation of low frequency component and low/high ratio in 60 min after onset of glucose tolerance test (GTT) were registered; values of both parameters were higher than in the main group (p system activity in control group were accompanied by transient elevations of levels of inflammatory cytokines: IL-10 and TNF-α in 60 min, IL-6 in 120 min after GTT onset (p system reactions to pulsatile hyperglycemia which is accompanied by changes of levels of inflammatory cytokines and worsening of carbohydrate metabolism in patients with high normal BP.

  4. Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs7754840 of CDKAL1 is associated with impaired insulin secretion in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and in a large sample of men with normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancáková, Alena; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Kuusisto, Johanna;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: CDKAL1 is a recently discovered susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the impact of rs7754840 of CDKAL1 on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Study 1 (the EUGENE2 study) was a cross......)) participated. In study 2, subjects included 3900 middle-aged men (533 type 2 diabetic and 3367 nondiabetic subjects). Interventions: Interventions included iv glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT), oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT), and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in study 1 and OGTT in study 2. MAIN OUTCOME...... MEASURES: Parameters of insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and glucose tolerance status were assessed. RESULTS: In study 1, carriers of the GC and CC genotypes of rs7754840 had 11 and 24% lower first-phase insulin release in an IVGTT compared with that in carriers of the GG genotype (P = 0.002). The C...

  5. Long-term inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves glucose tolerance and preserves islet function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, M Kvist; Holst, Jens Juul; Ahrén, B

    2002-01-01

    DPPIV activity to 0.01+/-0.03 mU/ml vs 3.26+/-0.19 mU/ml in controls (Pgavage, as judged by the area under the curve for plasma glucose levels over the 120 min study period, was increased after 8 weeks by NVP DPP728 in mice fed normal diet (P=0...

  6. Changes in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity following 2 weeks of daily cinnamon ingestion in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Blannin, Andrew K

    2009-01-01

    Cinnamon can improve fasting glucose in humans yet data on insulin sensitivity are limited and controversial. Eight male volunteers (aged 25 +/- 1 years, body mass 76.5 +/- 3.0 kg, BMI 24.0 +/- 0.7 kg m(-2); mean +/- SEM) underwent two 14-day interventions involving cinnamon or placebo supplement...

  7. Effects of food restriction on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, and islet-cell proliferation in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Seijsener, AFJ; Moes, H; Koiter, TR

    1999-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increased pancreatic is in-cell proliferation. In the present study it was investigated whether increased food intake, as occurs during pregnancy, Is Involved in the regulation of these phenomena. From Day 0 of pregnancy

  8. Mitochondrial DNA copy number augments performance of A1C and oral glucose tolerance testing in the prediction of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong Beom; Koh, InSong; Nam, Hye-Young; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Lee, Hong Kyu; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2017-01-01

    Here, we tested the performance of the mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) in predicting future type 2 diabetes (n = 1108). We used the baseline clinical data (age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and the mtDNA-CN, hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels and results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) including fasting plasma glucose, 1-hour glucose, and 2-hour glucose levels, to predict future diabetes. We built a prediction model using the baseline data and the diabetes status at biannual follow-up of 8 years. The mean area under curve (AUC) for all follow-ups of the full model including all variables was 0.92 ± 0.04 (mean ± standard deviation), while that of the model excluding the mtDNA-CN was 0.90 ± 0.03. The sensitivity of the f4ull model was much greater than that of the model not including mtDNA-CN: the mean sensitivities of the model with and without mtDNA-CN were 0.60 ± 0.06 and 0.53 ± 0.04, respectively. We found that the mtDNA-CN of peripheral leukocytes is a biomarker that augments the predictive power for future diabetes of A1C and OGTT. We believe that these results could provide invaluable information for developing strategies for the management of diabetes. PMID:28251996

  9. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, J; Andersen, G; Urhammer, S A;

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) dia......We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non...

  10. A mixture of cod and scallop protein reduces adiposity and improves glucose tolerance in high-fat fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Sørup Tastesen

    Full Text Available Low-protein and high-protein diets regulate energy metabolism in animals and humans. To evaluate whether different dietary protein sources modulate energy balance when ingested at average levels obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed high-fat diets (67 energy percent fat, 18 energy percent sucrose and 15 energy percent protein with either casein, chicken filet or a mixture of cod and scallop (1:1 on amino acid content as protein sources. At equal energy intake, casein and cod/scallop fed mice had lower feed efficiency than chicken fed mice, which translated into reduced adipose tissue masses after seven weeks of feeding. Chicken fed mice had elevated hepatic triglyceride relative to casein and cod/scallop fed mice and elevated 4 h fasted plasma cholesterol concentrations compared to low-fat and casein fed mice. In casein fed mice the reduced adiposity was likely related to the observed three percent lower apparent fat digestibility compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. After six weeks of feeding an oral glucose tolerance test revealed that despite their lean phenotype, casein fed mice had reduced glucose tolerance compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. In a separate set of mice, effects on metabolism were evaluated by indirect calorimetry before onset of diet-induced obesity. Spontaneous locomotor activity decreased in casein and chicken fed mice when shifting from low-fat to high-fat diets, but cod/scallop feeding tended (P = 0.06 to attenuate this decrease. Moreover, at this shift, energy expenditure decreased in all groups, but was decreased to a greater extent in casein fed than in cod/scallop fed mice, indicating that protein sources regulated energy expenditure differently. In conclusion, protein from different sources modulates energy balance in C57BL/6J mice when given at normal levels. Ingestion of a cod/scallop-mixture prevented diet-induced obesity compared to intake of chicken filet and

  11. Effect of caffeine on glucose tolerance of healthy adults%咖啡因对健康成人糖耐量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁艳; 陈充抒; 梁莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察口服400 mg咖啡因对正常成人糖耐量的影响.方法:采用单盲、安慰剂对照的随机临床研究.46位年龄在25~40岁的健康成人在4周观察期内需戒饮茶,咖啡,可口可乐或巧克力,并写下知情同意书.观察期结束后,随机分为两组分别服用1周咖啡因或安慰剂,进行葡萄糖耐量测试.结果:在前2h,两组受试者血糖值正常且相似,但到第3,4h,口服咖啡因组受试者与空白对照组比较,糖耐量曲线明显左移,血浆胰岛素水平略有增加.结论:健康成人口服咖啡因有降低血糖的作用,且伴有胰岛素水平轻微升高的依赖作用.%Objective; To investigate the effect of 400 mg oral caffeine on glucose tolerance. Methods; In a single-blind random clinical study, 46 healthy adults aged 25 ~40 years were treated with oral caffeine or placebo after getting their informed consents. They were abstained from coffee, tea, chocolate and cola for 4 weeks before testing. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed one week after taking caffeine or placebo. Results; The blood glucose curve was normal in all subjects, and was similar in the two groups until the second hour. In subjects taking caffeine, a shift in the curve towards the left was detected at the 3rd and 4th hours in comparison to those taking the placebo. Blood insulin levels were increased at 3rd and 4th hours after taking caffeine. Conclusion; Caffeine can reduce blood glucose levels in an insulin-dependent manner.

  12. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Stefan J Green; KUKREJA, SUBHASH; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose t...

  13. 丙型肝炎病毒感染致糖代谢异常的相关机制研究进展%Progress in mechanisms of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康姚洁(综述); 王煊(审校)

    2014-01-01

    丙型肝炎病毒感染者糖代谢异常的发病率有不同程度的升高。除了肝源性糖尿病共有的发病机制外,胰岛β细胞功能的减低和胰岛素抵抗(IR)在丙型肝炎病毒感染者糖代谢异常的发病机制中起着重要作用。但IR可能更为重要,而肝脂肪变性、肿瘤坏死因子-α过表达、脂联素水平下降、细胞因子信号抑制因子合成以及铁代谢异常等都可能参与了IR的形成。%The morbidity of abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with hepatitis C infection increases gradually. In addition to the common pathogenesis similar to hepatogenous diabetes,malfunciton in pancreaticβ-cell and insulin resistance (IR) play important roles in the pathogenesis of abnormal glucose metabolism in pa-tients with hepatitis C virus infection. IR may be more important,and hepatic steatosis, tumor necrosis factor-αoverexpression,decreased adiponectin, abnormality in synthesis of cytokine signaling inhibitory factors and in iron metabolism may all be involved in IR.

  14. Gluten-free diet increases beta-cell volume and improves glucose tolerance in an animal model of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haupt-Jørgensen, Martin; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Background Gluten-free (GF) diet alleviates type 1 diabetes in animal models and possibly in humans. We recently showed that fatty acid-induced insulin secretion is enhanced by enzymatically digested gluten (gliadin) stimulation in INS-1E insulinoma cells. We therefore hypothesized that GF diet...... would induce beta-cell rest and ameliorate type 2 diabetes. Methods C57BL/6JBomTac (B6) mice were fed a high-fat (HF), gluten-free high-fat (GF–HF), standard (STD) or gluten-free (GF) diet for 42 weeks. Results Short-term (6–24 weeks) GF–HF versus HF feeding impaired glucose tolerance and increased...

  15. GPR21 KO mice demonstrate no resistance to high fat diet induced obesity or improved glucose tolerance [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gpr21 KO mice generated with Gpr21 KO ES cells obtained from Deltagen showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when fed a high fat diet. Further mRNA expression analysis revealed changes in Rabgap1 levels and raised the possibility that Rabgap1 gene may have been modified. To assess this hypothesis a new Gpr21 KO mouse line using TALENS technology was generated. Gpr21 gene deletion was confirmed by PCR and Gpr21 and Rabgap1 mRNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR. The newly generated Gpr21 KO mice when fed a normal or high fat diet chow did not maintain their improved metabolic phenotype. In conclusion, Rabgap1 disturbance mRNA expression levels may have contributed to the phenotype of the originally designed Gpr21 KO mice.

  16. GPR21 KO mice demonstrate no resistance to high fat diet induced obesity or improved glucose tolerance [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghong Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gpr21 KO mice generated with Gpr21 KO ES cells obtained from Deltagen showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when fed a high fat diet. Further mRNA expression analysis revealed changes in Rabgap1 levels and raised the possibility that Rabgap1 gene may have been modified. To assess this hypothesis a new Gpr21 KO mouse line using TALENS technology was generated. Gpr21 gene deletion was confirmed by PCR and Gpr21 and Rabgap1 mRNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR. The newly generated Gpr21 KO mice when fed a normal or high fat diet chow did not maintain their improved metabolic phenotype. In conclusion, Rabgap1 disturbance mRNA expression levels may have contributed to the phenotype of the originally designed Gpr21 KO mice.

  17. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: the Mihama diabetes prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance.

  18. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut. Methods A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19–59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose) versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract. Results Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC) (glucose (mmol / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316), -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022) and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234), -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004) and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence). Conclusions Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a

  19. 糖耐量异常对冠心病支架植入术后主要心脏事件的影响%Impact of abnormal glucose metabolism on major adverse cardiac event in patients after coronary artery gent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪军; 何胜虎

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨糖耐量异常对冠心病支架植入术后冠心病患者主要心脏事件的影响.方法 215例冠状动脉造影资料齐全的支架术后的患者,分为合并2型糖尿病(2-DM)组(A组)、糖耐量异常组(B组)、糖代谢正常组(NDM)(C组),比较三组在住院期间和随访期间发生典型心绞痛、非致死性心肌梗死、心源性死亡和靶血管重建等主要心脏事件(MACE)的发生率.结果 A组与B组主要心脏事件发生率显著高于C组(P<0.01);A组与B组间差异无统计学意义;A组再狭窄发生率高于B组(P<0.01).结论 冠心病合并糖耐量异常患者与冠心病合并糖尿病患者一样,有较高的心脏事件发生率,故对合并糖耐量异常的冠心病患者应及早干预,积极控制血糖.%Objective To investigate impact of abnormal slucose metabolism on major adverse cardiac event in patients after coronary artery stent implantation.Methods Two hundred and fifteen patients whose data were available were enrolled in this study,and the patients were divided into 3 groups,diabetes group(group A),abnormal glucose metabolism group(group B),normal glucose tolerance group(group C).The clinica,coronary artery lesion characteristics and major adverse cardiac event(MACE)rate during in hospital and follow up periods were compared.Resuits There was a higher occurrence of MACE in group A and group B than that in group C(P<0.01).There was no significant difference between group A and group B.Conclusion The patients of coronary heart disease with abnormal slucose metabolism have higher MACE rate than abnormal slueese metabolism.

  20. Relationship between erythrocyte insulinase activity and insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance%糖耐量低减患者红细胞胰岛素酶活性与胰岛素抵抗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晨钟; 张素华; 薛耀明; 邱鸿鑫

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) is mainly related to genetic factors and environmental factors including excessive calorie intake and obesity. Insulin resistance(IR) plays a major role in the onset of IGT.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between erythrocyte insulinase activity(EIA) and IR in patients with IGT soas to provide theoretic basis for improving IR in patients with IGT by exercise.DESIGN: Observational and comparative study based on IGT patients as the subjects and adults with normal glucose tolerance as controls.SETTING: Department of endocrinology of a hospital affiliated to a military medical university.SUBJECTS: The study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology of Nanfang Hospital, First Military Medical University of Chinese PLA, from January 2001 to April 2003. A total of 50 inpatients and outpatients with IGT, 26 males and 24 females aged(52 ± 7) years, were randomly selected. Inclusion criteria: those whose diagnosis met the WHO 1999 for criteria oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and whose heart, liver and kidney functions and blood test were within the normal range without taking any antidiabetics. Exclusion criteria: those who had liver and kidney diseases, infection, malignant tumor, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disorder and connective tissue disease. The patients with IGT were divided into 2 subgroups according to the presence of abnormal fasting plasma glucose (FPG).Subgroup A consisted of 20 patients (9 males and 11 females) with IGT accompanied with impaired FPG. Subgroup B was composed of 30 IGT patients (17 males and 13 females) with normal FPG. Twenty adults with normal glucose tolerance were set as control group(20 females and 10 males) with the age of(48 ± 12)years.METHODS: EIA was measured with the method of radioenzymatic assay in all subjects. Blood sugar, serum insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin were also measured, and homeostasis model analysis-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was

  1. Impact of two common polymorphisms in the PPARgamma gene on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Andersen, Gitte; Fenger, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARgamma2 gene has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Recently, an association between dizygotic twinning and PPARgamma gene polymorphisms has been proposed. We investigated the phenotypic appearance of the two polymorphi......The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARgamma2 gene has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Recently, an association between dizygotic twinning and PPARgamma gene polymorphisms has been proposed. We investigated the phenotypic appearance of the two...... polymorphism on glucose tolerance, diabetic status, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, and plasma insulin profiles in twins. No impact of the silent exon 6 polymorphism on glucose homeostasis or plasma insulin profiles was found. Independent of the polymorphisms, we observed a significant...... an association between the Ala allele and reduced risk of diabetes and insulin resistance in twins. However, the differences in metabolic profiles among MZ and DZ twins were not explained by differences in frequencies of the genetic variants and may be due to intrauterine environmental factors operating in twins...

  2. Impact of two common polymorphisms in the PPARgamma gene on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin profiles in monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Pernille; Andersen, Gitte; Fenger, Mogens;

    2003-01-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARgamma2 gene has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Recently, an association between dizygotic twinning and PPARgamma gene polymorphisms has been proposed. We investigated the phenotypic appearance of the two polymorphi......The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARgamma2 gene has been associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Recently, an association between dizygotic twinning and PPARgamma gene polymorphisms has been proposed. We investigated the phenotypic appearance of the two...... polymorphism on glucose tolerance, diabetic status, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, and plasma insulin profiles in twins. No impact of the silent exon 6 polymorphism on glucose homeostasis or plasma insulin profiles was found. Independent of the polymorphisms, we observed a significant...... an association between the Ala allele and reduced risk of diabetes and insulin resistance in twins. However, the differences in metabolic profiles among MZ and DZ twins were not explained by differences in frequencies of the genetic variants and may be due to intrauterine environmental factors operating in twins...

  3. Mice Lacking beta2-Integrin Function Remain Glucose Tolerant in Spite of Insulin Resistance, Neutrophil Infiltration and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Paul J; Morrison, Vicky L; Sneddon, Claire C; Savinko, Terhi; Uotila, Liisa; Jalicy, Susan M; Gabriel, Jennie L; Kang, Li; Ashford, Michael L J; Fagerholm, Susanna C

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-integrins are important in leukocyte trafficking and function, and are regulated through the binding of cytoplasmic proteins, such as kindlin-3, to their intracellular domain. Here, we investigate the involvement of beta2-integrins in the regulation of metabolic disease using mice where the kindlin-3 binding site in the beta2-integrin cytoplasmic tail has been mutated (TTT/AAA-beta2-integrin knock-in (KI) mice), leading to expressed but dysfunctional beta2-integrins and significant neutrophilia in vivo. Beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed normal weight gain, and normal accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver, but increased neutrophil numbers especially in WAT. In addition, beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed significantly increased peripheral insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. However, this was associated with improved glucose disposal following glucose load. Interestingly, beta2-integrin KI neutrophils produced more elastase in vitro, in response to stimulation. Beta2-integrin KI mice displayed variability of tissue inflammatory status, with liver and WAT exhibiting little or no difference in inflammation compared to high fat fed controls, whereas skeletal muscle demonstrated a raised inflammatory profile in association with higher elastase levels and diminished signalling through the IRS1-PKB pathway. In conclusion, although expression of dysfunctional beta2-integrins increased neutrophil production and infiltration into tissue, skeletal muscle was the most affected tissue exhibiting evidence of higher neutrophil activity and insulin resistance. Thus, beta2-integrins modulate glucose homeostasis during high fat feeding predominantly through actions on skeletal muscle to affect metabolic phenotype in vivo.

  4. Mice Lacking beta2-Integrin Function Remain Glucose Tolerant in Spite of Insulin Resistance, Neutrophil Infiltration and Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Meakin

    Full Text Available Beta2-integrins are important in leukocyte trafficking and function, and are regulated through the binding of cytoplasmic proteins, such as kindlin-3, to their intracellular domain. Here, we investigate the involvement of beta2-integrins in the regulation of metabolic disease using mice where the kindlin-3 binding site in the beta2-integrin cytoplasmic tail has been mutated (TTT/AAA-beta2-integrin knock-in (KI mice, leading to expressed but dysfunctional beta2-integrins and significant neutrophilia in vivo. Beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed normal weight gain, and normal accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT and liver, but increased neutrophil numbers especially in WAT. In addition, beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed significantly increased peripheral insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. However, this was associated with improved glucose disposal following glucose load. Interestingly, beta2-integrin KI neutrophils produced more elastase in vitro, in response to stimulation. Beta2-integrin KI mice displayed variability of tissue inflammatory status, with liver and WAT exhibiting little or no difference in inflammation compared to high fat fed controls, whereas skeletal muscle demonstrated a raised inflammatory profile in association with higher elastase levels and diminished signalling through the IRS1-PKB pathway. In conclusion, although expression of dysfunctional beta2-integrins increased neutrophil production and infiltration into tissue, skeletal muscle was the most affected tissue exhibiting evidence of higher neutrophil activity and insulin resistance. Thus, beta2-integrins modulate glucose homeostasis during high fat feeding predominantly through actions on skeletal muscle to affect metabolic phenotype in vivo.

  5. Profile of liver enzymes in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and newly detected untreated type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The perception of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD as an uncommon and benign condition is rapidly changing. Approximately, 70% type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients have a fatty liver, which may follow an aggressive course with necroinflammation and fibrosis. Aims: To assess the profile of liver enzymes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, new onset treatment naive T2DM and normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without NAFLD. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional clinic-based study. Subjects and Methods: 152 IGT and 158 recently detected T2DM subjects aged between 30 and 69 years, along with 160 age and gender matched controls with NGT. An ultrasonography scan of the upper abdomen was done in all patients in order to examine presence of fatty liver. Anthropometry, lipid profile, liver enzymes were also analyzed in all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test, Chi-square/Fisher Exact test (for categorical variables, Pearson/Spearmen correlation test to find significant difference, association and correlation between two or more groups respectively. Results: NAFLD was significantly associated with higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT but not ALP levels in IGT and T2DM patients. ALT, GGT significant correlated with waist circumference, body mass index, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment- insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride. 57% of NAFLD patients had normal ALT between 25 and 40 U/L, 53% of NAFLD subjects had normal GGT between 15 and 30 U/L. ALT 40 U/L and GGT > 30 U/L had highest positive predictivity for presence of NAFLD in our study sample. Conclusions: Mild elevations of liver enzymes in the upper normal range are associated with features of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD even in IGT and recently detected T2DM patients. Novel cut-offs for liver enzymes are warranted in order to prevent unnecessary

  6. ATLANTIC-DIP: raised maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects maternal and foetal outcomes in glucose tolerant women classified using International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, MC

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Raised maternal body mass index (BMI), in association with hyperglycaemia is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Whether BMI has an independent effect on adverse pregnancy outcome is not clear. We aimed to investigate the effects of raised maternal BMI on pregnancy outcome in glucose tolerant women, classified using the IADPSG criteria.\\r\

  7. Mosapride, a selective serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonist, and alogliptin, a selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exert synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacologic stimulation of serotonin 5-HT4 receptors increased plasma active glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels independent of feeding, and that pharmacologic stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors and pharmacologic inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 exerted synergic effects on plasma active GLP-1 levels and glucose tolerance in mice.

  8. Clinical study of glucose tolerance with Cushing's syndrome%库欣综合征患者糖代谢临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 秦贵军; 丁晨召; 赵天雪; 乐昊

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析库欣综合征( Cushing's syndrome,CS)患者的临床资料,了解CS与糖代谢的关系。方法回顾性分析CS患者的临床资料,分析口服葡萄糖耐量实验( OGTT )及胰岛素水平、身高体重指数(BMI)、(08∶00、16∶00、00∶00)血皮质醇、24小时尿游离皮质醇(24 h UFC)、糖尿病家族史等临床指标。结果 CS合并糖尿病( CS/DM)患者病程长于糖耐量异常( CS/IGT)及糖耐量正常( CS/NGT)组。CS/NGT的患者66.67%存在胰岛素抵抗。 Logistic回归分析,结果显示年龄、病程、00∶00皮质醇为CS患者发生糖尿病的危险因素。 CS/DM组有糖尿病家族史比例较高,3组间BMI、24 h UFC差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论年龄、病程、00∶00血皮质醇为CS患者发生糖尿病的危险因素,需早期行OGTT、胰岛素测定及早诊断和干预治疗。%Objective To analyze the clinical data of patients with Cushing's syndrome(CS)and to un-derstand the relationship between glucose metabolism and CS .Methods Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the level of insulin, body mass index(BMI), 24-hour urinary free cortisol(24h UFC), family history of diabetes in patients with CS were retrospectively analyzed .Results The course of disease in patients of CS complicated with diabetes mellitus ( CS/DM) group was longer than CS complicated with impaired glucose tolerance ( CS/IGT) and CS complicated with normal glucose tolerance (CS/NGT)group.66.67%of patients with CS/NGT have insu-lin resistance .Logistic regression analysis indicated that age , course of disease , midnight plasma cortisol were risk factors of CS induced diabetes mellitus .CS/DM group had higher proportion of family history of diabetes . 24h UFC and BMI had no significant differences among the three groups (P>0.05).Conclusions Age, course of disease , midnight plasma cortisol are risk factors of CS induced diabetes mellitus .OGTT and

  9. Evaluación crítica del test de tolerancia oral a la glucosa para el diagnóstico de resistencia insulínica en pacientes con síndrome de ovario poliquístico Critical evaluation of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia E. Calvar

    2007-02-01

    women with PCO, and the ability of fasting tests to detect postprandial hyperglycemia. One hundred fourteen women with PCO and 29 normal women were evaluated by a 2 hours OGTT. Fasting plasma insulin (INS and glucose were measured during the test. GLU:INS ratio (r (fasting glucose/fasting insulin, HOMA (homeostatic model assessment, QUICKI (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (fasting tests, as well as the AUCI (area under the curve of INS and ISI composite (ISI (insulin sensitivity index (OGTT tests, were determined. A significant correlation between fasting tests and OGTT tests was found. Normal fasting tests with abnormal OGTT tests were found in 9 patients. No patient with fasting insulin levels less than 9.9 UI/ml were IR, and all women with fasting insulin levels over 18.4 UI/ml were classified as having IR. We found glucose levels 120 min post glucose load (G 120 ³ 140 mg/dl in 14 patients (12.2%. Fasting glucose and insulin levels and the fasting tests, were poor predictors of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes (DBT 2. Thus, fasting tests are useful in the diagnostic of IR in PCO patients. OGTT is necessary when the fasting insulin levels range between 9.9 and 18.4 UI/ml. Women with PCO should undergo periodic screening for abnormal glucose tolerance.

  10. Six different fat tolerance tests in young, healthy subjects –gender dependent postprandial lipemia and glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Winther; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    tolerenctes (OFTT) with varying amoun of saturated fat. Methods: With six different types of fatin random order to tomatoes we measured postprandial lipemia, lipoprotein, glucose and insulin increments for eight hours in 14 young lean healthy students, seven of each gender. The area under the curve (AUC......) was dtermined for the postprandial values. Results: The meals with six types of butters had similar postprandial response even if the saturated fat content varied with 50%.Gender significantly affected the TG responses, as time to pesk was 90 minutes in women and 180 min in men. Postprandial AUC was higherwith...... responses and postprandial lipemia was gender-specific. Replacement of saturated fat by mono- or polyunsaturated fat did not alter postprandial lipemia during single OFTT...

  11. Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer's disease case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almkvist, Ove; Kadir, Ahmadul; Nordberg, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality.

  12. A importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos The importance of oral glucose tolerance test in diagnosis of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Pontes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância do teste de tolerância à glicose oral (TTGO no diagnóstico da intolerância à glicose (IG e diabetes mellitus do tipo 2 (DM-2 em mulheres com SOP. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo em que foram incluídas 247 pacientes portadoras de SOP, selecionadas de forma aleatória. O diagnóstico de IG foi obtido por meio do TTGO de duas horas com 75 gramas de glicose de acordo com os critérios do World Health Organization (WHO (IG: glicemia plasmática aos 120 minutos >140 mg/dL e 200 mg/dL quanto pela glicemia de jejum segundo os critérios da American Diabetes Association (glicemia de jejum alterada: glicemia plasmática >100 e 126 mg/dL. Para comparar o TTGO com a glicemia de jejum foi aplicado o modelo de regressão logística para medidas repetidas. Para a análise das características clínicas e bioquímicas das pacientes com e sem IG e/ou DM-2 foi utilizada a ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey. O valor pPURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of the oral glucose tolerance test for the diagnosis of glucose intolerance (GI and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 in women with PCOS. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 247 patients with PCOS selected at random. The diagnosis of GI was obtained from the two-hour oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO (GI: 120 minutes for plasma glucose >140 mg/dL and 200 mg/dL and fasting glucose using the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose: fasting plasma glucose >100 and 126 mg/dL. A logistic regression model for repeated measures was applied to compare the oral glucose tolerance test with fasting plasma glucose. ANOVA followed by the Tukey test was used for the analysis of the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with and without GI and/or DM-2. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: PCOS patients had a mean age of 24.8±6.3, and body

  13. High sensitive C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and urine albumin excretion rate in Chinese coronary artery disease patients with different glucose tolerance status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin levels and urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) are probably associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the three markers in coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects with different glucose tolerance status in a Chinese population and further explore the levels of the three markers in these subjects and the possible association of these markers with CAD risk factors and the severity of CAD as well. Methods A total of 242 subjects with angiographically documented CAD were recruited, and then assigned to three groups: the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) + CAD group, including 100 CAD patients with NGT; the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) + CAD group, 40 CAD patients with IGT; the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) + CAD group, 102 CAD patients with T2DM. Serum hs-CRP, adiponectin levels as well as UAER were measured in all subjects. Results Serum hs-CRP levels were increased in the T2DM + CAD group compared with the NGT + CAD group (4.71±2.59) vs (3.60±2.46) mg/L, P=0.037. Serum adiponectin levels were gradually decreased from the NGT + CAD to IGT + CAD to T2DM + CAD groups, (5.99±1.84), (5.82±1.72) and (4.65±1.71) mg/L, P=0.002 and 0.040 for NGT + CAD and IGT + CAD groups vs T2DM + CAD group, respectively. While the UAER was gradually increased from the NGT + CAD to IGT + CAD to T2DM + CAD groups, (6.42±2.51), (6.89±2.94) and (15.03±4.22) pg/min (P<0.001) for NGT + CAD and IGT + CAD groups vs T2DM + CAD group. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that waist-hip ratio (WHR) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were the significant determinants of serum hs-CRP levels; triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), age, WHR, T2DM, 2-hour serum insulin (2hlNS), sex, and apolipoprotein B were the significant determinants of serum adiponecUn levels; and systolic blood pressure (SBP), T2DM, and hemoglobin Alc

  14. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by isoflurane preconditioning during tolerance against neuronal injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifang Li; Yesen Zhu; Hong Jiang; Hui Xu; Heping Liu

    2008-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to produce bile pigments and carbon monoxide. The HO-1 isozyme is induced by a variety of factors such as heat, heme, ischemia, and hydrogen peroxide. In recent years, mounting findings have suggested that HO-1 has a neuroprotective activity against ischemic injury. The neuroprotective role of isoflurane, a commonly used anesthetic, has been well documented, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. Recently, isoflurane has been shown to up-regulate HO-1 in the liver. In this study,we show that isoflurane preconditioning promotes the survival of cultured ischemic hippocampal neurons by increasing the number of surviving neurons and their viability. Further study by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that isoflurane preconditioning significantly increases HO-1 expression in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury. Furthermore,inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin partially abolishes isoflurane preconditioning's protective effect as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release in OGD neurons.These findings indicated that the neuroprotective role of isoflurane preconditioning against OGD-induced injury might be associated with its role in up-regulating HO-1 in ischemic neurons.

  15. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by isoflurane preconditioning during tolerance against neuronal injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifang; Zhu, Yesen; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Heping

    2008-09-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to produce bile pigments and carbon monoxide. The HO-1 isozyme is induced by a variety of factors such as heat, heme, ischemia, and hydrogen peroxide. In recent years, mounting findings have suggested that HO-1 has a neuroprotective activity against ischemic injury. The neuroprotective role of isoflurane, a commonly used anesthetic, has been well documented, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. Recently, isoflurane has been shown to up-regulate HO-1 in the liver. In this study, we show that isoflurane preconditioning promotes the survival of cultured ischemic hippocampal neurons by increasing the number of surviving neurons and their viability. Further study by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that isoflurane preconditioning significantly increases HO-1 expression in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury. Furthermore, inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin partially abolishes isoflurane preconditioning's protective effect as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release in OGD neurons. These findings indicated that the neuroprotective role of isoflurane preconditioning against OGD-induced injury might be associated with its role in up-regulating HO-1 in ischemic neurons.

  16. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness...... in the development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance...... test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs...

  17. 妊娠糖耐量受损的早期干预效果评价%Effectiveness evaluation of early intervention of gestational impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱洁; 王维; 李建梅; 徐英; 麦光兴; 李艳英

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness evaluation of early intervention of pregnant women with gestational diabetes me litus ( GDM) at early stage and the health status of fetuses. Methods: Among 2 379 pregnant women receiving GDM screening, 88 pregrtai women were found with impaired fasting glucose, 364 pregnant women were found with gestational impaired glucose tolerance ( GIGT) ; ati tal of 400 pregnant women participated in the study after informed consent, then they were randomly divided into intervention group and coi trol group, 200 pregnant women in each group. The pregnant women in intervention group received early intervention. GIGT, related bioma kers, and complications in the two groups were compared. Results: The incidences of GDM, GIGT, persistent impaired fasting glucose postpartum oral glucose tolerance test ( OGTT) in intervention group after intervention were significantly lower than those in control group the incidence of non - inflammatory reaction in intervention group was significantly higher than that in control group; the incidences of poh hydramnios and macrosomia in intervention group were significantly lower than those in control group, the fetal growth and development indt in intervention group was significantly higher than that in control group (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; Early intervention of GDM contributes I reducing the incidence of GDM and complications, and promoting maternal and fetal health.%目的:探讨妊娠糖尿病前期早期干预及胎儿健康状况的效果评价.方法:筛查的2 379例孕妇中,空腹血糖受损88例,糖耐量受损364例,知情同意后共400例参与项目研究,并随机分为干预组及对照组各200例.对干预组实施早期干预模式,比较两组的糖耐量受损、相关生化指标及妊娠高危及并发症情况.结果:干预组干预后GDM、GIGT持续、持续空腹血糖受损、产后0GTT的发生率均低于对照组,非炎症反应(C反应蛋白)的发生率高于对照组,羊

  18. Inhibition of Small Maf Function in Pancreatic β-Cells Improves Glucose Tolerance Through the Enhancement of Insulin Gene Transcription and Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hida, Yoko; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Sharma, Arun J.; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    The large-Maf transcription factor v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) has been found to be crucial for insulin transcription and synthesis and for pancreatic β-cell function and maturation. However, insights about the effects of small Maf factors on β-cells are limited. Our goal was to elucidate the function of small-Maf factors on β-cells using an animal model of endogenous small-Maf dysfunction. Transgenic (Tg) mice with β-cell-specific expression of dominant-negative MafK (DN-MafK) experiments, which can suppress the function of all endogenous small-Mafs, were fed a high-fat diet, and their in vivo phenotypes were evaluated. Phenotypic analysis, glucose tolerance tests, morphologic examination of β-cells, and islet experiments were performed. DN-MafK-expressed MIN6 cells were also used for in vitro analysis. The results showed that DN-MafK expression inhibited endogenous small-Maf binding to insulin promoter while increasing MafA binding. DN-MafK Tg mice under high-fat diet conditions showed improved glucose metabolism compared with control mice via incremental insulin secretion, without causing changes in insulin sensitivity or MafA expression. Moreover, up-regulation of insulin and glucokinase gene expression was observed both in vivo and in vitro under DN-MafK expression. We concluded that endogenous small-Maf factors negatively regulates β-cell function by competing for MafA binding, and thus, the inhibition of small-Maf activity can improve β-cell function. PMID:25763640

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient epithelial cells are less tolerant to infection by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Hsieh

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway and provides reducing energy to all cells by maintaining redox balance. The most common clinical manifestations in patients with G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia. The effects of microbial infection in patients with G6PD deficiency primarily relate to the hemolytic anemia caused by Plasmodium or viral infections and the subsequent medication that is required. We are interested in studying the impact of bacterial infection in G6PD-deficient cells. G6PD knock down A549 lung carcinoma cells, together with the common pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, were employed in our cell infection model. Here, we demonstrate that a lower cell viability was observed among G6PD-deficient cells when compared to scramble controls upon bacterial infection using the MTT assay. A significant increase in the intracellular ROS was detected among S. aureus-infected G6PD-deficient cells by observing dichlorofluorescein (DCF intensity within cells under a fluorescence microscope and quantifying this signal using flow cytometry. The impairment of ROS removal is predicted to enhance apoptotic activity in G6PD-deficient cells, and this enhanced apoptosis was observed by annexin V/PI staining under a confocal fluorescence microscope and quantified by flow cytometry. A higher expression level of the intrinsic apoptotic initiator caspase-9, as well as the downstream effector caspase-3, was detected by Western blotting analysis of G6PD-deficient cells following bacterial infection. In conclusion, we propose that bacterial infection, perhaps the secreted S. aureus α-hemolysin in this case, promotes the accumulation of intracellular ROS in G6PD-deficient cells. This would trigger a stronger apoptotic activity through the intrinsic pathway thereby reducing cell viability when compared to wild type cells.

  20. A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (P=0.037. The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 (P=0.014 and ICAM-1 (P=0.048 were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (P=0.003. These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.

  1. Influence of moderate physical activity on the levels of plasma lipoproteins in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković-Košćal Milanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity and healthy diet, as lifestyle factors, are essential components in the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Impared glucose intolerance (IGT is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Dyslipidaemia is a cardiometabolic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of moderate physical activity of plasma lipoprotein indicators in high-risk subjects for diabetes mellitus during one-year planned intervention. Methods. We randomly assigned 60 overweight subjects with IGT aged 30-60 years. The subjects were divided into intervention group with 30 subjects, who were intensively and individually instructed on weight reduction, nutrition and increased physical activity, and control group with 30 subjects, who were counselled, as standard, on nutrition and increased exercise. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides (Tg were measured at the beginning of the study, and at 2 months, 6 months, and at the end of the study (12 months. Results. Compared to the beginning of the study, after 2 and 6 months there was no statistically significant difference in serum lipid values. After 12 months, the average values of the measured lipid levels in the intervention group decreased by 18.36% for TC, 27.3% for LDL-C, and 34.2% for Tg (compared to 10.27%, 13.45%, and 10.4%, respectively in the control group. Value of HDL-C in the intervention group increased by 19.12%, and decreased in the control group by 1.48%. Total/HDL-C ratio was reduced by 30.6% and LDL-C/H by 38.1% in the intervention group (compared to 12.36%, and 15.9% in the control group. After 12 months, significantly greater decrease in TC (p<0.01, LDL-C (p<0.01 and Tg (p<0.0001 and significantly greater increase in HDL-C (p<0.05 was detected in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Plasma lipoproteins can

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel β-glucosidase with high hydrolyzing ability for soybean isoflavone glycosides and glucose-tolerance from soil metagenomic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jiang, Yang; Fan, Xin-Jiong; Liu, Yu-Huan

    2012-11-01

    A novel β-glucosidase (Bgl1269) was identified from a metagenomic library of mangrove soil by activity-based functional screening. Sequence analysis revealed that Bgl1269 encodes a protein of 422 amino acids. After being overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified, the enzymatic properties of Bgl1269 were investigated. The recombinant enzyme displayed a pH optimum of 6.0 and a temperature optimum of 40°C, and the addition of most common metal ions (1 or 10mM) increased the enzymatic activity evidently. In addition, the enzyme showed high hydrolyzing ability for soybean isoflavone glycosides, and 0.8unit of enzyme could completely converted daidzin and genistin (0.5mg/mL) to daidzein and genistein at 40°C for 0.5h. Interestingly, Bgl1269 also exhibited a very high glucose-tolerance, with the highest inhibition constant K(i) (4.28M) among β-glucosidases reported so far. These properties make it a good candidate in the production of soybean isoflavone aglycones after further study.

  3. MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

    2013-05-01

    Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process.

  4. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated with insulin resistance at the cellular level. However, the contribution of whole body lipid kinetics to FFA-induced insulin resistance is not well understood, and the effect of exercise and diet on this metabolic defect is not known. We investigated.......8 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2)) or a eucaloric (n = 8; 67 +/- 2 yr, 35.3 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2)) diet and aerobic exercise (1 h/day at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake) regimen. Lipid kinetics ([1-(14)C]palmitate) were assessed throughout a 7-h, 40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, during which insulin...... the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32...

  5. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene PsG6PDH from Freezing-tolerant Populus suaveolens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yuan-zhen; Lin Shan-zhi; Zhang Wei; Zhang Qian; Zhang Zhi-yi; Guo Huan

    2005-01-01

    A 1207 hp cDNA fragment (PsG6PDH) was amplified by PT-PCR from cold-induced total Pna of the freexing-tolerant P. Suaveolens, using primers based on the highly comserved region of published plant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH)genes. The sepuence analysis showed that PsG6PDH coding region had 1 101 bp and encoded 367 predicted aminoacid residues. Moreover, the nucleotide sequence of psG6PDH showed 83%,82%,79%,79% and 78% identity, and the derived amino acid sequence shared 44.2%,44.7%,42.0%,40.5% and 43.9% identity with those of the Solanum tuberosum, Nicotiana tabacum, Triticum aestivum, Oryxa sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The results show that PsG6PDH is a new member of G6PDH gene family and belongs to cytosolic G6PDH gene. This is the first report on clonign of the G6PDH gene from woody plants.

  6. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMIBMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMIBMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (pBMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Whole Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance Using Indices from Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Morbidly Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Qureshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is a marker of Insulin Resistance (IR. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp is the gold standard for measuring whole body IR (hepatic + peripheral IR. However, it is an invasive and expensive procedure. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index for Insulin Sensitivity (HOMA-IS, Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI for hepatic IR and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI0,120, and Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity Index (WBISI for whole body IR are the indices calculated after Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT. We used these indices as noninvasive methods of IR (inverse of insulin sensitivity estimation and compared hepatic/peripheral components of whole body IR in NAFLD. Methods. 113 morbidly obese, nondiabetic subjects who underwent gastric bypass surgery and intraoperative liver biopsy were included in the study. OGTT was performed preoperatively and the indices were calculated. Subjects were divided into closely matched groups as normal, fatty liver (FL and Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH based on histology. Results. Whole body IR was significantly higher in both FL and NASH groups (NAFLD as compared to Normal, while hepatic IR was higher only in NASH from Normal. Conclusions. FL is a manifestation of peripheral IR but not hepatic IR.

  8. Pro-oxidant effect of α-tocopherol in patients with Type 2 Diabetes after an oral glucose tolerance test – a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winterbone Mark S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a part of a larger study investigating the effects of α-tocopherol on gene expression in type 2 diabetics we observed a pro-oxidant effect of α-tocopherol which we believe may be useful in interpreting outcomes of large intervention trials of α-tocopherol. Methods 19 type 2 diabetes subjects were randomised into two groups taking either 1200 IU/day of α-tocopherol or a matched placebo for 4 weeks. On day 0 and 29 of this study oxidative DNA damage was assessed in mononuclear cells from fasted blood samples and following a 2 h glucose tolerance test (GTT. Results On day 0 there was no significant difference in oxidative DNA damage between the two groups or following a GTT. On day 29 there was no significant difference in oxidative DNA damage in fasted blood samples, however following a GTT there was a significant increase in oxidative DNA damage in the α-tocopherol treatment group. Conclusion High dose supplementation with α-tocopherol primes mononuclear cells from patients with type 2 diabetes for a potentially damaging response to acute hyperglycaemia.

  9. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study...... protocol. In this sub-study, we included subjects (n = 89) from three Nordic centers: Kuopio (n = 26), Lund (n = 30), and Oulu (n = 33) with a maximum weight change of ±4 kg, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration ≤10 mg L(-1), and baseline body mass index

  10. 出生体重与成年期肥胖指标联合效应对糖代谢异常的影响%Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席波; 程红; 陈芳芳; 赵小元; 米杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Methods Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. Results There were 972 subjects (males:50.7%, mean age:(46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9± 2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95%confidence interval (CI

  11. The Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) update of the Finnish diabetes risk score for prediction of incident type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alssema, M; Vistisen, D; Heymans, M W;

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Finnish diabetes risk questionnaire is a widely used, simple tool for identification of those at risk for drug-treated type 2 diabetes. We updated the risk questionnaire by using clinically diagnosed and screen-detected type 2 diabetes instead of drug-treated diabetes...... as an endpoint and by considering additional predictors. METHODS: Data from 18,301 participants in studies of the Evaluation of Screening and Early Detection Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (DETECT-2) project with baseline and follow-up information on oral glucose tolerance status....... Internal validation was by bootstrapping techniques. RESULTS: Of the 18,301 participants, 844 developed type 2 diabetes in a period of 5 years (4.6%). The Finnish risk score had an area under the ROC curve of 0.742 (95% CI 0.726-0.758). Re-estimation of the regression coefficients improved the area under...

  12. Analysis of Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Combined With Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-ping GAO; Li-wen LIE; Ying-ling ZHOU; Hao-jian DONG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To study the morbidity of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) combined with impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data about patients with CAD in 1997, 2002 and 2007, sepa-rately. A total of 2951 patients were enrolled, among whom had coexistence of 457 abnormal glycometabolism, inclu-ding impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results The prevalence of ab-normal glycometabolism in patients with CAD was increasing year by year. The morbidity raised from 3.8% and 16. 5% to 10. 8% in these three years. Contusion It is more and more common to detect CAD with impaired glucose metabolism, and it should be emphasized in the secondary prevention of CAD.

  13. Efficacy and safety of 131Ⅰ in treating hyperthyroidism combined with abnormal glucose metabolism%131Ⅰ治疗甲亢合并糖代谢异常的有效性和安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳丹华; 叶学和; 黄庆娟; 梁深; 谭宗连

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 131Ⅰ in treating hyperthyroidism combined with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 108 patients with hyperthyroidism combined with abnormal glucose metabolism were divided into 131 Ⅰ group of 55 cases and antithyroid drug(ATD) group of 53 cases as contrast group. Compared the curative effect of hyperthyroidism, blood sugar,glycosylated hemoglobin(HbAlc), β-cell function and adverse reaction between the two groups. Results The total efficiency of hyperthyroidism in 131 Ⅰ group was obviously higher than that of the contrast group (P=0. 008). The hyperthyroidism recurrence rate of 131 Ⅰ group was evidently much lower than the contrast group (P=0. 001). The occurring rate of hypothyroidism in 131 Ⅰ group was evidently higher than the contrast group (P=0. 031). After treatment, fasting plasma glucose(FPG), two hour plasma glucose after breakfast (2hPG), bAlc and HOMA-IR in the 131Ⅰ group were evidently under than those in the contrast group (P <0.05). HOMA-IS was distinctly higher than that in the contrast group (P<0. 05). There was no other adverse reaction in 131 Ⅰ group, while diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia and other adverse reaction in the contrast group. Conclusion 131 Ⅰ has a good curative effect in treating hyperthyroidism combined with abnormal glucose metabolism,with little adverse reaction.%目的 评价131Ⅰ治疗甲状腺功能亢进症(甲亢)合并糖代谢异常的疗效及安全性.方法 108例甲亢合并糖代谢异常患者分为131Ⅰ治疗组55例和抗甲状腺药物(ATD)对照组53例,比较两组甲亢的疗效、血糖、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、胰岛β细胞功能及不良反应.结果 治疗组甲亢总有效率显著高于对照组(P=0.008),复发率显著低于对照组(P=0.001),甲状腺功能减退症(甲减)发生率高于对照组(P=0.031),治疗后治疗组的空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(2hPG)、HbA1c及胰岛素抵抗指数显著低于对照组(P<0

  14. 糖耐量低减危险因素的病例对照研究%A case-control study for the risk factors of impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建; 李明秀; 徐静

    2000-01-01

    @@ 为明确糖耐量低减(Impaired glucose tolerance,IGT)发生的危险因子及影响转化过程的积极因素,减少DM及IGT的发生率,引导IGT的良性转归,有着相当重要的意义.本研究探讨了IGT发生的危险因素,现报告如下.

  15. The efficacy and safety of probiotics intervention in preventing conversion of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes: study protocol for a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of the Probiotics Prevention Diabetes Programme (PPDP)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in intestinal microbiota correlate with risk of development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Probiotics have been suggested to play an important role in the management of dysglycemia, although the evidence is limited. In this study, we aim to explore the efficacy and safety of probiotics intervention in preventing type 2 diabetes in Chinese patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods/Design A 24-month randomized intervention is conducted from January 2014 to Decemb...

  16. Influência do tratamento com metformina sobre a tolerância à glicose induzida por corticosteróides em ratos Wistar = Influence of metformin treatment on glucose tolerance induced by corticosteroid administration in rats Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio César Gonçalves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticóides induzem um estado de intolerância à glicose, resistência à insulina e hiperglicemia. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a participação de corticosteróides endógenos sobre a hiperglicemia aguda em modelo experimental de intolerância à glicose induzida por dexametasona (0,1 mg kg-1, s.c., 4 dias. O modelo experimental foicaracterizado pela determinação da concentração de glicose sanguínea, volume urinário de 24 horas, consumo de ração e água. Os ratos foram tratados com clorpropamida (100 mg kg-1, metformina (300 mg kg-1 ou pioglitazona (10 mg kg-1 durante 4 dias e o efeito do tratamento foi avaliado pelo teste de tolerância à glicose endovenoso (GTT. Aadrenalectomia corrigiu o quadro de intolerância à glicose destes animais, demonstrando que a dexametasona promove hiperglicemia por meio de um provável efeito sinérgico sobre os corticosteróides endógenos. O tratamento com metformina reduziu a alteração glicêmica.Nossos resultados sugerem um efeito benéfico na utilização da metformina como profilático no uso de corticóides em pacientes hiperglicêmicos.This work evaluated the effect of the corticosteroid administration on glucose intolerance state induced by dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg-1, s.c., 4 days. The experimental model was characterized through bloodand urine glucose levels determination, 24 hour urinary volume, food and water intake. The rats were treated with chlorpropamide (100 mg kg-1, metformin (300 mg kg-1 or pioglitazone (10 mg kg-1 during 4 days. The effect of adrenalectomy or the drugs treatment effectiveness on hyperglycemia state were evaluated during intravenousGTT. Metformin treatment restored the altered hyperglycemia observed in this experimental model. Results suggest that dexamethasone promotes a hyperglycemia state through a synergic effect on endogenous corticosteroids, and that metformin treatment restores these altered responses. Indeed, the dexamethasone induced

  17. The effect of DPP-4 inhibition with sitagliptin on incretin secretion and on fasting and postprandial glucose turnover in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Gerlies; Man, Chiara Dalla; Micheletto, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Low Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations have been observed in impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It is uncertain if these abnormalities contribute directly to the pathogenesis of IFG and impaired glucose tolerance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors raise incretin...... period, the mixed meal was repeated. Results: As expected, subjects with IFG who received placebo did not experience any change in glucose concentrations. Despite raising intact GLP-1 concentrations, treatment with sitagliptin did not alter either fasting or postprandial glucose, insulin or C....... Conclusions: DPP-4 inhibition did not alter fasting or postprandial glucose turnover in people with IFG. Low incretin concentrations are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of IFG....

  18. 铬镁离子对糖代谢异常患者的影响及研究进展%Research progress and advances in chromium magnesium ion effect on patients with abnormal glucose metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蒙蒙; 王会玲; 姚民秀

    2015-01-01

    血清镁离子及三价铬离子均是体内重要的阳性离子,2型糖尿病患者普遍存在血清铬及镁离子浓度的降低;铬镁离子可促进葡萄糖的利用,增加机体对胰岛素的敏感性,改善胰岛素抵抗,预防或延缓2型糖尿病的发生。铬镁离子可调节细胞内信号转导,降低血糖,保护组织器官,铬镁离子对脂质代谢也具有改善作用。下面就铬镁离子对糖尿病及糖耐量异常患者的影响做一综述。%Serum magnesium ion and trivalent chromium ion are important cations in body, magnesium ion and chromium ion are general deficiencies in type 2 diabetes mellitus. They can promote glucose metabolism, improve insulin sensitivity and beneficial to insulin resistance, prevent normal persons to diabetes. Magnesium ion and chromium ion can adjust the information transmission of intracellular, decrease the glucose, protect the tissues and organs. They are beneficial to the lipid metabolism. Here we made a review about the impact of chromium ion and magnesium ion in patients with diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance.

  19. [Glucose Metabolism: Stress Hyperglycemia and Glucose Control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M

    2016-05-01

    It is important for the anesthesiologists to understand pathophysiology of perioperative stress hyperglycemia, because it offers strategies for treatment of stress hyperglycemia. The effect of glucose tolerance is different in the choice of the anesthetic agent used in daily clinical setting. Specifically, the volatile anesthetics inhibit insulin secretion after glucose load and affects glucose tolerance. During minor surgery by the remifentanil anesthesia, the stress reaction is hard to be induced, suggesting that we should consider low-dose glucose load. Finally it is necessary to perform the glycemic control of the patients who fell into stress hyperglycemia depending on the individual patient. However, there are a lot of questions to be answered in the future. The prognosis of the perioperative patients is more likely to be greatly improved if we can control stress hyperglycemia.

  20. ASSOCIATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS WITH ELEVATED HEPATIC ENZYME AND LIVER FAT IN JAPANESE PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Nagano

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available No study has so far determined whether a favorable level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CF contributes to a reduced risk of elevated hepatic enzymes and a high degree of liver fat in patients having various metabolic risks. This study investigated the association between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and high liver fat, while considering such factors as abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia and the other metabolic risks. The study enrolled newly diagnosed Japanese patients (n = 84; 52 males and 32 females; aged 25-69 years with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type2DM who did not receive any intervention or pharmacological therapy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the distribution of the VO2max for each sex. The odds ratios (ORs for the prevalence of elevated aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT and high degree of liver fat adjusted for age, sex, disease type, daily ethanol intake, and current smoking were significantly lower in the moderate- and high CF groups in comparison to the low CF group. In addition, a significant OR for AST was maintained in the moderate and high CF group after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. The significant ORs for the prevalence of elevated ALT and a high degree of liver fat were attenuated after adjusting for abdominal obesity and/or hyperinsulinemia. No significant OR for the prevalence of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT was recognized in all logistic models. These results indicated that CF was negatively and independently associated with the prevalence of elevated AST even in Japanese diabetic patients having various metabolic risks. It was concluded that the AST level might be useful as a simple marker reflecting physical inactivity in such subjects

  1. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-06-21

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP.

  2. The changes of serum Vitamin D level in people with different glucose tolerance%不同糖耐量人群血清维生素D水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱翔; 周剑; 朱文静; 杨光伟; 汪兰兰; 邵丽洁; 王卫东; 康冬梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the level of serum Vitamin D with different degrees of impaired glucose toler-ance.Methods according to the level of blood glucose,Seventy-nine patients were divided into normal glucose toler-ance group(NC group),impaired glucose tolerance group(IGT group)and T2DMgroup according to the level of blood glucose 25-Hydroxyvitamins D(25(OH)D3)and related metabolic parameters were compared.Results The 25(OH) D3 has the digression trend in the NC group,IGT group and T2DMgroup.There were significant difference on p2hBG, TG,LDL,BMI,HOMA-IR and 25(OH)D3 among three groups.Multiple regression analysis indicates 25(OH)D3 was positively correlated with HOMA-IR and BMI was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR.Conclusion Vitamin D is re-lated to glucose metabolism,and may contribute to insulin resistance.%目的:探讨血清维生素 D 在不同糖耐量状态下的变化。方法根据血糖水平将79例受试者分为糖耐量正常组(NC 组)、糖耐量减低组(IGT 组)和2型糖尿病组(T2DM组),比较不同组间25羟维生素 D3[25(OH)D3]水平及相关代谢指标的差异。结果25(OH)D3在 NC 组、IGT 组和 T2DM组呈递减趋势,NC 组、IGT 组和 T2DM组这三组间在餐后2h 血糖、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白、体质量指数、稳态胰岛素评价指数(HOMA-IR)和25(OH)D3上差异有统计学意义。进一步行多元回归分析显示,25(OH)D3与 HOMA-IR 正相关,BMI 与 HOMA-IR 负相关。结论维生素 D 与糖代谢相关,可能参与了胰岛素抵抗。

  3. 自我血糖监测对预测糖调节异常者与糖尿病患者的日内血糖波动的价值%Estimating lntraday Blood Glucose Variability Through Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose in People with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丽芳; 王椿; 刘关键; 陈大伟; 陈利鸿; 李永恒; 周健; 贾伟平; 冉兴无

    2011-01-01

    parameters of intraday blood glucose variability [nean absolute glucose excursions (MAGE), mean postprandial glucose excursion (MPPGE) and standard deviation of blood glucose (sBG)]measured by the continuous glucose monitoring system.Methods A 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring was performed in a sample 105 people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGR, n= 51) and newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, n=54) to calculate MAGE, MPPGE and sBG.Meanwhile, fingertip blood glucose selfmonitoring was performed to determine fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood glucose after breakfast (BGAB), blood glucose before lunch (BGBL), blood glucose after lunch (BGAL), blood glucose before supper (BGBs), blood glucose after supper (BGAs), and blood glucose before sleeping (BGBR) at the same period of time.Multiple stepwise regression analysis was performed to generate equations for predicting MAGE, MPPGE and sBG with age and the self-monitoring blood glucose parameters in 80% of the subjects (41 IGR and 44 T2DM, randomly selected from the overall sample).These equations were then cross-validated in the remaining 20% subjects (10 IGR and 10 T2DM).Results BGAs, BGAB, BGAL and FBG entered into the regression equations predicting MAGE, sBG and MPPGE for the IGR subject, while age only entered into the regression equations predicting MPPGE and sBG.For the subjects with T2DM, BGAs, BGAL and age entered into the equation predicting MAGE; BGAs, BGAL, BGBL and BGBs entered into the equation predicting MPPGE; BGAs, BGAL and FBG entered into the equation predicting sBG.The cross-validation study showed that the differences between predicted and observed values of MAGE in the subjects with IGR and T2DM were 4.1% and 8.2%, respectively; the differences between predicted and observed values of MPPGE in the subjects with IGR and T2DM were 23.1% and 1.3%, respectively; and the differences between predicted and observed values of sBG in the subjects with IGR and T2DM were 1.2% and 6.8

  4. Abnormal brain glucose metabolism and depressive mood in patients with pre-dialytic chronic kidney disease: SPM analysis of F-18 FDG positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Min; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki [Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between depressive mood and pre-dialytic CKD, to localize and quantify depressive mood -related lesions in pre-dialytic CKD patients through statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of brain positron emission tomography (PET), and to examine the usefulness of brain PET for early detection and proper treatment of depressive mood. Twenty one patients with stage 5 CKD and 22 healthy volunteers were analyzed by depressive mood assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of 18F-FDG PET. Depressive mood assessment was done by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The largest clusters were areas including precentral gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex of left hemisphere. Other clusters were left transverse temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46, 44), right inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left angular gyrus. In addition, correlation was found between hypometabolized areas and HDRS scores of CKD patients in right prefrontal cortex (BA 11) and right anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 24). In conclusion, this study demonstrated specific depressive mood-related abnormal metabolic lesion. Interestingly, in CKD patients with severe depressive mood, cerebral metabolism was similar to that of MDD.

  5. Deletion of Rab GAP AS160 modifies glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and impairs glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansey, Melissa N; Walker, Natalie N; Hargett, Stefan R; Stevens, Joseph R; Keller, Susanna R

    2012-11-15

    Tight control of glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes is crucial to glucose homeostasis and is mediated by regulating glucose transporter GLUT4 subcellular distribution. In cultured cells, Rab GAP AS160 controls GLUT4 intracellular retention and release to the cell surface and consequently regulates glucose uptake into cells. To determine AS160 function in GLUT4 trafficking in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and investigate its role in glucose homeostasis, we characterized AS160 knockout (AS160(-/-)) mice. We observed increased and normal basal glucose uptake in isolated AS160(-/-) adipocytes and soleus, respectively, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was impaired and GLUT4 expression decreased in both. No such abnormalities were found in isolated AS160(-/-) extensor digitorum longus muscles. In plasma membranes isolated from AS160(-/-) adipose tissue and gastrocnemius/quadriceps, relative GLUT4 levels were increased under basal conditions and remained the same after insulin treatment. Concomitantly, relative levels of cell surface-exposed GLUT4, determined with a glucose transporter photoaffinity label, were increased in AS160(-/-) adipocytes and normal in AS160(-/-) soleus under basal conditions. Insulin augmented cell surface-exposed GLUT4 in both. These observations suggest that AS160 is essential for GLUT4 intracellular retention and regulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles in which it is normally expressed. In vivo studies revealed impaired insulin tolerance in the presence of normal (male) and impaired (female) glucose tolerance. Concurrently, insulin-elicited increases in glucose disposal were abolished in all AS160(-/-) skeletal muscles and liver but not in AS160(-/-) adipose tissues. This suggests AS160 as a target for differential manipulation of glucose homeostasis.

  6. 农村高血压患者血糖与血脂参数改变的调查%Investigation on abnormality of glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension in rural area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁永华; 诸葛毅; 徐军

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the abnormality of glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension in rural population in mountain area of Kaihua county and to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Methods:298 cases of patients with hypertension in rural population in mountain area of Kaihua county as objective group and 291 cases of healthy people as control group were investigated with total cholesterol, triglyceride,high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose. The comparative study was done. Results:There were 84 cases of patients with hyperlipidemia in objective group and 21 cases with hyperlipidemia in control group, x =44.2,P<0.01. There was a low positive correlation( r = 0. 117, P < 0. 05 ) between diastolic pressure and total cholesterol of plasma in patients with hypertension. Conclusion:The fact showed that abnormality of glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension in rural population in mountain area of Kaihua county was present. Glucose, lipid parameters contributed to the clinical observation of disease in patients with hypertension. Health education should be carried out and rural population should be encouraged to cultivate a healthy mode of life. The measures to adjust the blood lipid levels should be carried out.%目的:调查开化山区高血压患者的血糖与血脂代谢异常,为心血管疾病的防治提供参考依据.方法:298例高血压患者为观察组,291例健康人为对照组,测定空腹血糖、总胆固醇、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇,比较分析.结果:高血压观察组检出高血脂84例,对照组检出高血脂21例,x2=44.2,P<0.01.高血压组舒张压与血总胆固醇之间呈低度显著正相关(r为0.117,P<0.05).结论:开化山区高血压患者存在血糖、血脂参数的异常改变,测定血糖、血脂参数有助于临床观察高血压患者

  7. Establishment and Evaluation of Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%糖代谢异常的代谢综合征大鼠模型的建立及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 石岩; 蒲纪; 张文顺; 张冰冰; 马贤德

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To establish and to evaluate rat model of metabolic syndrome (MS) with abnormal glucose metablism. Method: Wistar male rats were fed with a diet of high fat, salt and sugar for 12 weeks.Afterwards, body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein and insulin level were determined. According to the MS diagnostic criteria established by Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) and statistical theory, the model was evaluated. Result: In the first 8 weeks, rats were significantly increased body weight and systolic blood pressure; in the first 12 weeks, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, insulin level were significantly elevated, high-density lipoprotein significantly reduced. Based on the evaluation criteria, a success rate of 80% for the model was found. Conclusion: We successfully established the rat model of MS with abnormal glucose metabolism, and also the preliminary evaluation criteria for the model.%目的:建立糖代谢异常的代谢综合征大鼠模型及其评价标准.方法:采用高脂高盐高糖饮食配合饮用蔗糖水喂养Wistar雄性大鼠12周,喂养结束后检测其体重、血压、血糖、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白及胰岛素水平.根据中华医学会糖尿病学分会关于代谢综合征(MS)的诊断标准和统计学原理建立模型评价标准.结果:第8周开始,高脂高糖高盐膳食组大鼠体重(367±17)g和收缩压(130.67±4.31)mmHg与普通膳食对照组比较显著升高(P<0.01);第12周时,大鼠空腹血糖(10.51±0.89)mmol·L-1、甘油三酯(1.63±0.23)mmol·L-1、胰岛素水平(1.97±1.07)mmol·L-1显著升高(P<0.01或P<0.05),高密度脂蛋白(0.54±0.07)mmol·L-1显著降低(P<0.01).根据评价标准,模型成功率达到80%.结论:实验成功建立了糖代谢异常的MS大鼠模型,并初步建立了该模型的评价标准.

  8. 妊娠期糖代谢异常与妊娠结局%Gestational impaired glucose tolerance and pregnancy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶芸; 张新清; 李江; 彭春燕; 胡云英

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) on pregnancy outcome. Methods; After prenatal examination in the hospital from January 2008 to May 2009, 103 cases were diagnosed as GDM definitely, and 90 cases were diagnosed as GIGT definitely, 100 healthy pregnant women who gave birth to their babies during the same period were selected as control group; the pregnancy outcomes in the three groups were compared. Results; The cesarean section rates and incidences of macrosomia in GDM 1 group (treatment group) and GIGT group were statistically significantly higher than those in control group ( P 0. 05 ) ; the incidences of maternal and infantile complications in GDM 2 group (non ?treatment group) were statistically significantly higher than those in the other groups (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; GDM and GIGT are important factors inducing short ?term and long ?term severe maternal and infantile complications, clinicians should pay more attention to screening, diagnosis, and treatment of GIGT, blood glucose of pregnant women should be controlled within normal range as possible.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病及糖耐量受损对妊娠结局的影响.方法:2008年1月~2009年5月在该院进行产前检查,确诊妊娠期糖尿病(GDM) 103例,妊娠期糖耐量受损(GIGT) 90例,选择同期分娩100例健康孕妇为对照组,比较三组的妊娠结局.结果:GDM1组(治疗组)及GIGT组仅剖宫产率、巨大儿发生率明显高于正常组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),妊娠期高血压疾病、胎膜早破、羊水过多、胎儿窘迫、早产、新生儿低血糖与正常组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);GDM2组(未治疗组)母儿并发症的发生率明显高于其他各组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:GDM与GIGT是导致母婴近期远期严重并发症的重要因素,临床医师应重视孕期糖代谢异常的筛查、诊断和治疗,尽可能使孕妇血糖控制在正常范围.

  9. Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Johan G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  10. Exaggerated release and preserved insulinotropic action of glucagon-like peptide-1 underlie insulin hypersecretion in glucose-tolerant individuals after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun;

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) improves glycaemic control in part by increasing postprandial insulin secretion through exaggerated glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 release. However, it is unknown whether islet cell responsiveness to i.v. glucose, non-glucose (arginine) and incretin hormones...

  11. A randomized trial comparing the effect of weight loss and exercise training on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Jürs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The majority of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism, which is associated with mortality even at non-diabetic glucose levels. This trial aims to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and exercise with limited weight loss on glucose...... followed by 2-4 weeks' weight maintenance diet. Glucose tolerance, insulin action, β-cell function and suppression of lipolysis were assessed using a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. ISI-composite and ISI-HOMA (=1/HOMA-IR) were calculated as surrogate measures of whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity......, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging estimated abdominal adipose tissue. Twenty-six (74%) AIT and 29 (83%) LED participants completed intervention per protocol. LED increased ISI-composite by 55% and ISI-HOMA by 70% (p0.7) revealing a significant...

  12. Postprandial diabetic glucose tolerance is normalized by gastric bypass feeding as opposed to gastric feeding and is associated with exaggerated GLP-1 secretion: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Dorte L; Madsbad, Sten;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine after gastric bypass the effect of peroral versus gastroduodenal feeding on glucose metabolism. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A type 2 diabetic patient was examined on 2 consecutive days 5 weeks after gastric bypass. A standard liquid meal was given on the first day...... into the bypassed gastric remnant and on the second day perorally. Plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, incretin hormones, peptide YY, and free fatty acids were measured. RESULTS: Peroral feeding reduced 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (7.8 vs. 11.1 mmol/l) and incremental area under the glucose curve (i......AUC) (0.33 vs. 0.49 mmol . l(-1) . min(-1)) compared with gastroduodenal feeding. beta-Cell function (iAUC(Cpeptide/Glu)) was more than twofold improved during peroral feeding, and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 response increased nearly fivefold. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in postprandial glucose...

  13. 糖脂代谢异常对肝硬化患者疾病进展的影响%Impact of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism on the progression of disease in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑光力; 岑柏春

    2015-01-01

    ,triglycerides (TG) in patients with different Child-Pugh score had no statistically significant difference,P =0.558,0.169.The level of serum albumin (ALB) of patients with DM in cirrhosis was significantly lower than those without DM,P =0.009.The patients with DM in liver cirrhosis had higher incidence of complications such as ascites,gastro esophageal variceal bleeding(GEVB) or hepatic encephalopathy than those without DM,P =0.000.Conclusion The patients with cirrhosis had higher incidence of abnormal glucose metabolism,and DM lead to progression of liver disease in turn.

  14. Impacts of Abnormal Glucose Metabolism on Chronic Ischemic Leukoaraiosis%糖代谢异常对慢性缺血性脑白质疏松的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君梅; 李静; 金桂花; 田沈

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究糖代谢异常对慢性缺血性脑白质疏松(LA)的影响。方法回顾性分析2013年6月~12月中国医科大学附属第四医院神经内科收治的258例缺血性脑血管疾病患者的临床资料。根据病史及化验结果将糖代谢情况分为正常糖代谢、2型糖尿病以及前驱期糖尿病,依据头MRI结果对LA严重程度进行分级,分析比较不同糖代谢情况以及不同血糖化验指标(包括FPG、2hPG及HbA1c)对慢性缺血性脑白质疏松及其严重程度的影响。结果单因素分析显示,慢性缺血性脑白质疏松的相关危险因素有年龄、高血压病史、糖尿病病史、糖代谢异常、甘油三酯、2hPG(OR>1,P<0.05)。Logistic回归分析显示脑白质疏松与年龄、高血压病史、2hPG相关(P<0.05)。Spearman秩相关检验显示LA严重程度分级与年龄大小、高血压病史时长、2hPG水平呈正相关,与HDL、apoA、腔梗病史呈负相关(P<0.05,r=0.402、0.227、0.135、-0.154、-0.147、-0.312)。结论年龄、高血压病史、糖尿病病史、糖代谢异常、2hPG、甘油三酯是脑白质疏松的危险因素;年龄越大、高血压病史时间越长、2hPG越高、HDL及apoA越低,脑白质疏松越严重;而FPG、HbA1c、前驱期糖尿病、糖尿病及其时长与脑白质疏松的严重程度无相关性。%Objective To explore the impacts of abnormal glucose metabolism on chronic ischemic leukoaraiosis (LA).Methods The clinical data of 258 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease were analyzed who were cured in the Fourth Affi liated Hospital of China Medical University from Jun to December in 2013. According to the medical history and laboratory reports, these patients were divided into normal glucose metabolism group, type 2 diabetes group and pre-diabetes group. Based on the results of head MRI, the severity of leukoaraiosis was graded. Then we compared and analyzed the impacts of

  15. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Fujibayashi

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis (HS or visceral fat accumulation (VFA have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA.The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+ or absence (- of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups.Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-/VFA(-, HS(-/VFA(+, HS(+/VFA(-, and HS(+/VFA(+, respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05. On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01.It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies

  16. Salivary Glucose Concentration and Excretion in Normal and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Jurysta

    2009-01-01

    saliva glucose concentration was comparable, however, to that of blood glucose concentration. The relationship between these two variables was also documented in normal subjects and diabetic patients undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test.

  17. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Metabolomic analysis reveals amino-acid responses to an oral glucose tolerance test in women with prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bentley-Lewis, MD, MBA, MMSc

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Greater change in metabolite levels after a glucose challenge was significantly associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding and higher BMI. Further exploration of these preliminary observations and closer examination of the specific pathways implicated are warranted.

  19. Effect of single oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, on incretin and plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, Gary A; Bergman, Arthur; Stevens, Catherine;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: In response to a meal, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released and modulate glycemic control. Normally these incretins are rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors are a novel class of oral antihyperglyce...

  20. 正常血压人群中糖耐量水平与A型性格的关系%Association between Glucose Tolerance Status and Type A Personality in Normotensive Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉娜; 商丽华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential association between glucose tolerance status and type A personality in normotensive population. Methods The interview on type A personality and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were preformed among 85 normotensive subjects, aged 35-76 years. Results The prevalence (50%) of type A personality in subjects with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) was the highest among three groups compared with 36.7% in the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) group and 22.2% in the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group. However, it was not statistically significant. After adjusted for age, gender and SBP in an multiple linear regression model, the adjusted coefficient was 1.4 and it indicated that subjects with type A personality had their 2-h plasma glucose 1.4 mmol/L increased, which significantly higher than those with type B(P=0.025). Conclusion Results indicated that the people with type A personality will be more likely to have a higher post-load plasma glucose and much more insulin resistance compared to people with type B.%目的 研究糖耐量水平与A型性格之间的潜在联系.方法 在85例年龄35~76岁正常血压的受试者中实施A型性格的问卷调查及75g口服葡萄糖耐量试验( OGTT).根据血糖检测结果将受试者分为新诊断糖尿病组、糖耐量受损组及正常糖耐量组.A型性格测试采用1985年由“全国心身医学协作研究组”开发的A型行为问卷(TABQ).结果 新诊断糖尿病组、糖耐量受损组、正常糖耐量组A型性格的构成比分别为50%、36.7%和22.2%,新诊断糖尿病组A型性格的构成比在三组中最高.应用多元线性回归,对年龄、性别及收缩压等潜在混杂因素进行调整后,校正系数1.4,表明具有A型性格的受试者2h餐后血糖较非A型性格受试者显著高1.4mmol/L(P=0.025).结论 A型性格人群有可能具有较高的餐后血糖水平以及较差的糖耐量状况.

  1. Dopaminergic drugs in type 2 diabetes and glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Vicchi, Felicitas; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Brie, Belen; Nogueira, Juan Patricio; Garcia Tornadu, Isabel; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2016-07-01

    The importance of dopamine in central nervous system function is well known, but its effects on glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β cell function are beginning to be unraveled. Mutant mice lacking dopamine type 2 receptors (D2R) are glucose intolerant and have abnormal insulin secretion. In humans, administration of neuroleptic drugs, which block dopamine receptors, may cause hyperinsulinemia, increased weight gain and glucose intolerance. Conversely, treatment with the dopamine precursor l-DOPA in patients with Parkinson's disease reduces insulin secretion upon oral glucose tolerance test, and bromocriptine improves glycemic control and glucose tolerance in obese type 2 diabetic patients as well as in non diabetic obese animals and humans. The actions of dopamine on glucose homeostasis and food intake impact both the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Different central actions of the dopamine system may mediate its metabolic effects such as: (i) regulation of hypothalamic noradrenaline output, (ii) participation in appetite control, and (iii) maintenance of the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. On the other hand, dopamine inhibits prolactin, which has metabolic functions; and, at the pancreatic beta cell dopamine D2 receptors inhibit insulin secretion. We review the evidence obtained in animal models and clinical studies that posited dopamine receptors as key elements in glucose homeostasis and ultimately led to the FDA approval of bromocriptine in adults with type 2 diabetes to improve glycemic control. Furthermore, we discuss the metabolic consequences of treatment with neuroleptics which target the D2R, that should be monitored in psychiatric patients to prevent the development in diabetes, weight gain, and hypertriglyceridemia.

  2. No Islet Cell Hyperfunction, but Altered Gut-Islet Regulation and Postprandial Hypoglycemia in Glucose-Tolerant Patients 3 Years After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Eiken, Aleksander; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2016-01-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemia characterizes Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sometimes leads to reactive hypoglycemia. We prospectively evaluated changes in beta cell function in seven RYGB-operated patients with a median follow-up of 2.9 years with hyperglycemic clamps and oral glucose tolera...

  3. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  4. Optimization of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 as host for the production of p-coumarate from glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, K.; Westerhof, R.G.M.; Ballerstedt, H.; Bont, J.A.M.de; Wery, J.

    2007-01-01

    A Pseudomonas putida S12 strain was constructed that is able to convert glucose to p-coumarate via the central metabolite l-tyrosine. Efficient production was hampered by product degradation, limited cellular L-tyrosine availability, and formation of the by-product cinnamate via L-phenylalanine. The

  5. Glucagon suppression during OGTT worsens while suppression during IVGTT sustains alongside development of glucose intolerance in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T; Larsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    To examine plasma glucagon responses to oral and intravenous (iv) glucose in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), secondary impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or secondary diabetes mellitus (DM).......To examine plasma glucagon responses to oral and intravenous (iv) glucose in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and either normal glucose tolerance (NGT), secondary impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or secondary diabetes mellitus (DM)....

  6. Leukocyte abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, T G

    1980-07-01

    Certain qualitative abnormalities in neutrophils and blood monocytes are associated with frequent, severe, and recurrent bacterial infections leading to fatal sepsis, while other qualitative defects demonstrated in vitro may have few or no clinical sequelae. These qualitative defects are discussed in terms of the specific functions of locomotion, phagocytosis, degranulation, and bacterial killing.

  7. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  8. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X......-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scanning, respectively. The lithogenic index was measured in aspirated bile. The gallbladder volume was determined by ultrasound and the gallbladder ejection fraction% by dynamic cholescintigraphy. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations during a meal were measured...

  9. Identification of genes required for maximal tolerance to high-glucose concentrations, as those present in industrial alcoholic fermentation media, through a chemogenomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel C; Raposo, Luís R; Palma, Margarida; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2010-04-01

    Chemogenomics, the study of genomic responses to chemical compounds, has the potential to elucidate the basis of cellular resistance to those chemicals. This knowledge can be applied to improve the performance of strains of industrial interest. In this study, a collection of approximately 5,000 haploid single deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which each nonessential yeast gene was individually deleted, was screened for strains with increased susceptibility toward stress induced by high-glucose concentration (30% w/v), one of the main stresses occurring during industrial alcoholic fermentation processes aiming the production of alcoholic beverages or bio-ethanol. Forty-four determinants of resistance to high-glucose stress were identified. The most significant Gene Ontology (GO) terms enriched in this dataset are vacuolar organization, late endosome to vacuole transport, and regulation of transcription. Clustering the identified resistance determinants by their known physical and genetic interactions further highlighted the importance of nutrient metabolism control in this context. A concentration of 30% (w/v) of glucose was found to perturb vacuolar function, by reducing cell ability to maintain the physiological acidification of the vacuolar lumen. This stress also affects the active rate of proton efflux through the plasma membrane. Based on results of published studies, the present work revealed shared determinants of yeast resistance to high-glucose and ethanol stresses, including genes involved in vacuolar function, cell wall biogenesis (ANP1), and in the transcriptional control of nutrient metabolism (GCN4 and GCR1), with possible impact on the design of more robust strains to be used in industrial alcoholic fermentation processes.

  10. Lower Maternal Body Condition During Pregnancy Affects Skeletal Muscle Structure and Glut-4 Protein Levels But Not Glucose Tolerance in Mature Adult Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Paula M.; Hollis, Lisa J.; Cripps, Roselle L.; Bearpark, Natasha; Patel, Harnish P.; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A.; Ozanne, Susan E.; Lucy R Green

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal maternal nutrition and body composition are implicated in metabolic disease risk in adult offspring. We hypothesized that modest disruption of glucose homeostasis previously observed in young adult sheep offspring from ewes of a lower body condition score (BCS) would deteriorate with age, due to changes in skeletal muscle structure and insulin signaling mechanisms. Ewes were fed to achieve a lower (LBCS, n = 10) or higher (HBCS, n = 14) BCS before and during pregnancy. Baseline pla...

  11. 富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂对糖耐量异常患者糖脂代谢的影响%Effect of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文俊; 项松英; 沈飞霞; 王毅; 陈雄; 谷雪梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)肠内营养(EN)制剂对糖耐量异常(IGT)患者糖脂代谢的影响。方法:62例IGT患者随机分为试验餐组(n=32)和普通餐组(n=30)。试验餐组服用富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂(雅培益力佳SR)替代早餐,普通餐组服用等热量的纯牛奶+淡馒头,所有患者分别于干预前和干预4周后检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、餐后2 h胰岛素(PINS)以及血脂系列,就各项指标进行组内前后比较和组间比较。结果:试验餐组干预4周后体质量以及PPG、PINS、血清甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-c)均低于干预前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);干预后,试验餐组PPG、PINS、TG、TC和LDL-c均低于普通餐组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论:富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂有利于降低单纯IGT患者PPG和PINS水平,并改善脂质代谢。%Objective: To investigate the effects of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods:Sixty-two patients with impaired glucose tolerance from out-patient clinic were randomized to experimental meal group (Abbott Glucerna SR,n=32) and common breakfast group (isocaloric normal oral diet,n=30), the fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour postprandial insulin, serum lipid pro-ifle were examined before and after 4-week intervention, and the parameters were compared within groups and between groups.Results: The 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, postprandial serum insulin, serum triglycer-ide, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol signiifcantly decreased in experimental meal group (P<0.05 orP<0.01), when compared with that of

  12. Glucose intolerance in uremic patients: the relative contributions of impaired beta-cell function and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvestrand, A; Mujagic, M; Wajngot, A; Efendic, S

    1989-04-01

    Glucose tolerance and tissue sensitivity to insulin were examined in 19 renal failure patients on chronic regular hemodialysis (group U) and in 6 matched control subjects with normal renal function (group A). Based on glucose tolerance as assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose tolerance was normal in 5 (group U:N), borderline in 5 (group U:BL) and decreased in 9 uremic subjects (group U:D). Compared with group A the uremics demonstrated significantly (p less than 0.01) impaired insulin sensitivity as assessed by a continuous mixed infusion of somatostatin, insulin and glucose (SIGIT). In addition 19 non-diabetic subjects with normal fasting blood glucose and normal renal function, matching the uremic patients with respect to glucose tolerance as assessed by OGTT, were studied (group B). In group B impairments in both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity tended to be more pronounced in subjects with decreased OGTT as compared with those with borderline OGTT. In contrast, insulin resistance was present to a similar degree in uremic subjects of group U:N, U:BL and U:D. During SIGIT endogenous insulin, glucagon and growth hormone (GH) were suppressed in both uremic and control subjects. This implies that insulin resistance in uremia is most likely not due to hyperglucagonemia or abnormal GH metabolism. During OGTT subjects of group U:N had significantly higher insulin response than subjects of group U:BL (p less than 0.02) and group U:D (p less than 0.01). Insulinogenic index was significantly higher in group U:N than in group U:BL (p less than 0.02) and group U:D (p = 0.01) and was higher in group U:BL than in group U:D (p less than 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  14. 二甲双胍和吡格列酮对初诊糖代谢异常伴腹型肥胖患者血清ghrelin水平的影响%Effects of metformin and pioglitazone on plasma ghrelin in patients with newly diagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism and abdominal obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淼; 郭毅飞; 时立新; 吴丹荣; 张松; 胡颖; 徐毅; 林巧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of metformin and pioglitazone on plasma ghrelin in patients with newly diagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism and abdominal obesity.Methods From April to September 2010,39 patients with abnormal glucose metabolism (including impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed type diabetes mellitus,glycated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) <7% ) and obesity were enrolled in the study.They were randomly assigned to metformin group(500 mg tid,n =20,15 females and 5 males,aged (51±9) years,MET group) or pioglitazone group (30 mg/d,n =19,11 females and 8 males,aged (53 ±7) years,PIO group) on the basis of diet and exercise therapy for3 months.Three males in PIO group with drawed because of itching and edema.At baseline and after 3 months,plasma glucose,serum insulin and ghrelin levels during oral glucose tolerance test( OGTT,0 min,0.5,1.0,2.0,3.0 h),body weight,body mass index(BMI),HbA1c,etc were measured.The t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for statistical analysis. Partial correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to examine the association between serum ghrelin levels and influencing factors.Results ( 1 ) In PIO group,serum ghrelin levels after treatment were OGTT 0 min (1069 ±467)ng/L,0.5 h (898 ±407)ng/L,1.0 h (812 ±371) ng/L,2.0 h (705 ± 328) ng/L and 3.0 h ( 1059 ± 606 ) ng/L,respectively.All increased than those before treatment ( (905 ±449),(688 ±378),(614 ±358),(572 ± 334)and(720 ±403)ng/L,Z value was from -2.354 to - 3.351,respectively,all P < 0.05 ).(2) In MET group,serum ghrelin levels at OGTT 0 min,1.0,2.0,3.0 h after treatment were (731 ± 241 ),(642 ± 208 ),( 525 ± 195 ),(462 ± 146 ) and ( 611 ± 267 ) ng/L,respectively.Compared with the ghrelin levels before treatment( (731 ± 241 ),(642 ± 208 ),(525 ± 195 ),(462 ± 146) and (611 ± 267)ng/L),only the difference at 0 min,2.0,3.0 h was statistically significant (all P<0.05).Serum ghrelin levels of MET group at OGTT 0.5,1.0 and 3.0 h

  15. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  16. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  17. Metabolic glucose status and pituitary pathology portend therapeutic outcomes in acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cheng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is frequently associated with impaired glucose tolerance and/or diabetes. To evaluate the relationship between glucose metabolism and acromegaly disease, we evaluated 269 consecutive patients from two referral centres. METHODS: Clinical presentation, pituitary tumor size and invasiveness, and pituitary pathology were captured in a dedicated database. RESULTS: 131 women and 138 men with a mean age of 53.8 years were included. Of these, 201 (74.7% presented with a macroadenoma and 18 (6.7% with a microadenoma. Radiographic invasion was present in 91 cases (33.8%. Mean tumor diameter was 1.86 cm (0.2-4.6. Pituitary histopathologic findings revealed pure GH-producing somatotroph adenomas (SA in 147 patients, prolactin-production by mixed lactotroph (LA and SA or mammosomatotroph adenoma (MSA in 46 [22.4%], acidophil stem cell adenoma in 6 [2.9%], and other diagnoses in 6 [2.9%]. Medical treatment included octreotide in 96 [36.9%] and in combination with pegvisomant or dopamine agonists in 63 [24.2%]. Nearly 80% of patients achieved IGF-1 normalization. Importantly, patients with pure somatotroph adenomas were significantly more likely to present with abnormal glucose metabolism [48.7%] than those with mixed adenomas [9.7%] [p<0.001] independent of GH/IGF-1 levels or tumor invasiveness. Abnormal glucose metabolism and pituitary pathology also remained linked following IGF-1 normalization. Moreover patients with pure SA and abnormal glucose metabolism were significantly (p<0.001 less likely to achieve disease remission despite the same therapeutic strategies. Conversely, patients with mixed adenomas were more likely (OR: 2.766 (95% CI: 1.490-5.136 to achieve disease remission. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with pure somatotroph adenomas are more likely than those with mixed adenomas to exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism.

  18. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  19. 初诊糖尿病与糖尿病前期诊断的探讨%Study on diagnosis of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting plasma glucose and impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联耀; 李江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of newly diagnosed diabetes type 2 and IGTIFG with disorders of glucose metabolism related risk symptoms. Methods 242 outpatients were divided into NGR?FG,IGT and T2DM by OGTT. The age, MBI, triglyceriDe (TG), HBAlc and its distribution in different concentration HBAlc were observed. Results 24 cases were IFG (9. 92%), 79 cases IGT(32. 64%) and 63 cases T2DM( 26.03%). Conclusion Strengthen the screening patients with disorders of glucose metabolism related risk symptoms by OGTT can effectively increase T2 DM and IGTIFG diagnoses rate.%目的 了解具有糖代谢异常危险症状患者初诊Ⅱ型糖尿病(T2DM)、糖尿病前期(IFG、IGT)的临床特征.方法 242例患者根据空腹血糖与口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)服糖2小时后血糖分为4组:正常血糖(NGR)、空腹血糖受损(IFG)、糖耐量受损(IGT)、T2DM,对各组平均年龄、体重指数(BMI)、糖化血红蛋白(HBA1c)、甘油三酯(TG)进行分析,并对各组在不同HBA1c浓度中分布情况进行分析.结果 检出IFG 24例,IGT 79例,T2DM 63例,NGR 76 例,阳性率68.59%.结论 加强对伴有糖代谢异常危险症状患者的筛查,行OGTT,可有效提高初诊T2DM、糖尿病前期诊断率.

  20. Glucose metabolism in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者葡萄糖代谢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 汪鲁华; 古丽扎尔·买买提明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe glucose metabolism changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods A total of 162 patients were diagnosed with polysomnography, and 50 healthy vonlunteers were as controls. Oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin and C-reactive protein were measured to observe the impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Results The incidences of diabetes mellitus, abnormal glucose tolerance and C-reactive protein were higher in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome than those in controls. Conclusion Glucose metabolism is abnormal in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and is properly related to inflammation.%目的:观察阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征(obstructive sleep apnea syndrome,OSAS)患者葡萄糖代谢情况.方法:用多导睡眠图检查确诊的重度OSAS患者162例(OSAS组),行口服糖耐量试验检查、空腹胰岛素及C反应蛋白测定,观察空腹血糖受损及糖耐量异常.并选择同期健康体检者50例作为对照组.结果:OSAS组糖尿病、糖耐量异常发病率及C反应蛋白水平明显高于对照组.结论:OSAS患者存在明显的糖代谢紊乱,可能与炎症有关.

  1. 胃旁路手术对糖耐量正常犬血糖、糖依赖性胰岛素释放肽和胰高血糖素样肽-1的影响%The effects of gastric bypass procedures on blood glucose, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 of normal glucose tolerance dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘立镇; 白日星; 宋茂民; 李有国; Lisa Zhou; 钟志强; 许俊; 袁辉生; 崔真

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对糖耐量正常犬行胃旁路手术,观察术后糖耐量、糖依赖性胰岛素释放肽(gastric inhibitory polypeptide,GIP)和胰高血糖素样肽-1(glucagon-like peptide-1,GLP-1)的变化,探讨胃旁路手术治疗2型糖尿病的机制.方法 选取6只糖耐量正常犬行胃旁路手术,于术前、术后1、2、4周行口服与静脉糖耐量实验,观察各时点血糖、胰岛素、GIP、GLP-1变化,以及术前、术后4周胰腺组织形态改变.结果 与术前比较,术后第2周空腹血糖[(3.58 ±O.33) mmol/L]明显降低(t=3.571,P<0.05);术后第1周空腹及口服葡萄糖后30 min时GLP-1升高[分别为(0.90±0.21)、(0.91±0.19) pmol/L,t=-3.660、-2.971,P<0.05],第2周时开始下降;术后第4周各指标基本恢复至术前水平.术后第4周时与术前比较,胰岛组织形态、胰岛数量(分别为6.8±0.8、7.1±0.8)及胰岛细胞数量(分别为16.7±2.5、16.3±3.1)均无明显变化(P>0.05).结论 胃旁路手术对糖耐量正常犬的血糖、胰岛素及部分糖尿病相关胃肠激素仅有短暂的影响.%Objective To observe postoperative glucose tolerance,gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP),and glucogan-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in normal glucose level dogs after undergoing gastric bypass procedures,and to explore the mechanism of gastric bypass procedures to treat type 2 diabetes.Methods The 6 dogs with normal glucose tolerance had undergone gastric bypass procedures,and measure preoperative and postoperative oral and intravenous glucose tolerance (at time points 1,2,and 4 weeks) through changes in blood glucose,insulin,gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP),glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1),and measure preoperative and postoperative week 4 pancreatic tissue morphology.Results Second weeks after operation,the fasting blood sugar was (3.58 ± 0.33) mmol/L,and significantly lower than preoperative (t =3.571,P <0.05).The GLP-1 level before oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and 30 minutes after

  2. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  3. Improved Insulin Sensitivity during Pioglitazone Treatment Is Associated with Changes in IGF-I and Cortisol Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Lisa; Rajamand Ekberg, Neda; Höybye, Charlotte; Brismar, Kerstin; Alvarsson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hypercortisolism and type 2 diabetes (T2D) share clinical characteristics. We examined pioglitazone's effects on the GH-IGF-I and HPA axes in men with varying glucose intolerance. Methods. 10 men with T2D and 10 with IGT received pioglitazone 30-45 mg for 12 weeks. OGTT with microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue and 1 μg ACTH-stimulation test were performed before and after. Glucose, insulin, IGF-I, IGFBP1, and interstitial measurements were analyzed during the OGTT. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using HOMA-IR. Results. HOMA-IR improved in both groups. IGF-I was initially lower in T2D subjects (P = 0.004) and increased during treatment (-1.4 ± 0.5 to -0.5 ± 0.4 SD; P = 0.007); no change was seen in IGT (0.4 ± 39 SD before and during treatment). Fasting glycerol decreased in T2D (P = 0.038), indicating reduced lipolysis. Fasting cortisol decreased in T2D (400 ± 30 to 312 ± 25 nmol/L; P = 0.041) but increased in IGT (402 ± 21 to 461 ± 35 nmol/L; P = 0.044). Peak cortisol was lower in T2D during treatment (599 ± 32 to 511 ± 43, versus 643 ± 0.3 to 713 ± 37 nmol/L in IGT; P = 0.007). Conclusions. Pioglitazone improved adipose tissue and liver insulin sensitivity in both groups. This may explain increased IGF-I in T2D. Pioglitazone affected cortisol levels in both groups but differently, suggesting different mechanisms for improving insulin sensitivity between T2D and IGT.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  5. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froissart, Roseline; Piraud, Monique; Boudjemline, Alix Mollet; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Petit, François; Hubert-Buron, Aurélie; Eberschweiler, Pascale Trioche; Gajdos, Vincent; Labrune, Philippe

    2011-05-20

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  6. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  7. 儿童及青少年肥胖症糖脂代谢异常早期诊断和干预的研究%Research into abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in early diagnosis and intervention in obese children and adolescents.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆亚平; 韩萍; 辛颖; 赵方; 马洪刚; 刘立旻; 李娜; 王岩; 李玢; 关丽君; 李书琴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between obesity and glucose and lipid metabolism , and the damage of the related target organs such as liver and heart in order to take early intervention. Methods Totally 516 children with simple obesity made up obesity group, 100 normal-weight children as a control group. Detect the fasting plasma glucose (FPC) , triglyceride (TC) , total cholesterol (TC) , alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , fasting insulin (FINS) and other projects; calculate the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and insulin value of f$-cell function (HOMA-p ) ; oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test were done in obese children; perform liver and heart ultrasonogra-phy in all children. Results Obese children's systolic and diastolic blood pressure were higher than the control group (P< 0.05) .hypertension was detected in 12.0% (62/516)of obese children; the FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B of obese children were higher than the control group (P < 0.05) ; the TC, TC, LDL-C were higher than the control group, while HDL-C lower than the control group, the differences being significant (P < 0.05) ; the incidence of fatty liver of the light moderate and severe groups were significantly different (P < 0.001). With the increase of the obesity degree, fatty liver was significantly increased ( X2 = 12.97, P < 0.001). External fat thickness of the pericardium increasedin 268 cases of obese group, external fat thickness of the pericardium being 3.372 ± 0.098 (mm) ;compared with the control group the difference was significant (P < 0.001). Early joint intervention was done in 97 MS pa-tients, including dieting and increasing physical activity, combined with oral metformin drugs,and the FINS and HDL-C improvement was of significant difference (P < 0.001) .Conclusion The risk of hypertension in obese children is higher than non-obese children.Abnormal glucose metabolism is more comman in obese children than in non-obese children; children with mild

  8. 不同糖耐量良性前列腺增生患者的相关危险因素研究%Associated risk factors in different state of glucose tolerance of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆鹏; 刘敏; 王淼; 黄占强; 周健; 王义围

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in patients with differ-ent glucose tolerance. Methods Ninety-nine patients with BPH, aged≥50 years old, were divided into impaired glu-cose regulation group (n=53, IGR group) and diabetes mellitus group (n=46, DM group) according to 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. Twenty subjects of normal glucose tolerance without BPH were selected as control group. The baseline data, biochemical indexes, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), prostate volume (PV) were ana-lyzed. Results The body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h plasma glucose (2 hPG), HbA1c, fast-ing insulin (FINS), 2 h insulin (2 h Ins), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in DM group than IGR group and control group (α'<0.017). In IGR group, the 2 hPG, 2 h INS were significantly higher than those in control group (α'<0.017). The TG were higher in DM group than IGR group (P<0.05). From control group to IGR group, DM group, IPSS and PV showed a trend of increasing gradually, and PV, IPSS were higher in DM group and IGR group than control group (α'<0.017). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that PV was positively correlat-ed with age (r=0.897, P<0.05), BMI (r=1.488, P<0.05), and IPSS was positively correlated with age (r=0.427, P<0.05). Conclusion Blood glucose and lipid metabolic disorder is common in patients with BPH. Age and BMI were identified as significant risk factors for BPH.%目的:探讨不同糖耐量的良性前列腺增生(BPH)患者的危险因素。方法2013年12月至2015年6月选取99例年龄≥50岁的BPH患者,根据口服75 g葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTI)结果分为糖调节受损(IGR)组(n=53)和糖尿病(DM)组(n=46),并选取20例糖耐量正常且无BPH患者为正常对照组。比较各组人群基线资料、生化指标、国际前列腺症状评分(IPSS)、前列腺体积(PV)。结果 DM组的体重指数(BMI)

  9. Impact of screening and early detection of impaired fasting glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes in Canada: a Markov model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawi A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soroush Mortaz*, Christine Wessman*, Ross Duncan, Rachel Gray, Alaa Badawi Office of Biotechnology Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada*Both authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a major global health problem. An estimated 20%–50% of diabetic subjects in Canada are currently undiagnosed, and around 20%–30% have already developed complications. Screening for high blood glucose levels can identify people with prediabetic conditions and permit introduction of timely and effective prevention. This study examines the benefit of screening for impaired fasting glucose (IFG and T2DM. If intervention is introduced at this prediabetic stage, it can be most effective in delaying the onset and complications of T2DM.Methods: Using a Markov model simulation, we compare the cost-effectiveness of screening for prediabetes (IFG and T2DM with the strategy of no screening. An initial cohort of normoglycemic, prediabetic, or undiagnosed diabetic adults with one or more T2DM risk factors was used to model the strategies mentioned over a 10-year period. Subjects without known prediabetes or diabetes are screened every 3 years and persons with prediabetes were tested for diabetes on an annual basis. The model weighs the increase in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs associated with early detection of prediabetes and earlier diagnosis of T2DM due to lifestyle intervention and early treatment in asymptomatic subjects.Results: Costs for each QALY gained were $2281 for conventional screening compared with $2890 for no screening. Thus, in this base-case analysis, conventional screening with a frequency of once every 3 years was favored over no screening. Furthermore, conventional screening was more favorable compared with no screening over a wide range of willingness-to-pay thresholds. Changing the frequency of screening did not affect the overall results. Screening

  10. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Richa; Hivert, Marie-France; Langenberg, Claudia;

    2010-01-01

    Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620)...

  11. Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Saxena (Richa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); C. Langenberg (Claudia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Pankow (James); P. Vollenweider (Peter); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); N. Bouatia-Naji (Nabila); J. Dupuis (Josée); A.U. Jackson (Anne); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Li (Man); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); A.K. Manning (Alisa); J. Anluan (Jian); H.M. Stringham (Heather); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Johnson (Toby); N. Grarup (Niels); T.W. Boesgaard (Trine); C. Lecoeur (Cécile); P. Shrader (Peter); J.R. O´Connell; E. Ingelsson (Erik); D.J. Couper (David); K. Rice (Kenneth); K. Song (Kijoung); C.H. Andreasen (Camilla); C. Dina (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); O.L. Bacquer (Olivier); F. Pattou (François); J. Taneera (Jalal); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); D. Rybin (Denis); K.G. Ardlie (Kristin); M.J. Sampson (Michael); L. Qi (Lu); M.V. Hoek; M.N. Weedon (Michael); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); H. Grallert (Harald); B. Balkau (Beverley); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.J. Bielinski (Suzette); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); K. Borch-Johnsen; Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); E. Brunner (Eric); T.A. Buchanan (Thomas); S. Bumpstead (Suzannah); C. Cavalcanti-Proença (Christine); G. Charpentier (Guillaume); C. Chen (Chao); P.S. Chines (Peter); F.S. Collins (Francis); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); G. Crawford (Gabe); J. Delplanque (Jerome); A.S.F. Doney (Alex); J.M. Egan (Josephine); M.R. Erdos (Michael); M. Firmann (Mathieu); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); C.S. Fox (Caroline); M. Goodarzi (Mark); J. Graessler (Jürgen); A. Hingorani (Aroon); B. Isomaa (Bo); T. Jørgensen (Torben); M. Kivimaki (Mika); P. Kovacs (Peter); K. Krohn (Knut); M. Kumari (Meena); T. Lauritzen (Torsten); C. Lévy-Marchal (Claire); V. Mayor (Vladimir); J.B. McAteer (Jarred); D. Meyre (David); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); M.A. Morken (Mario); N. Narisu (Narisu); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); R. Pakyz (Ruth); L. Pascoe (Laura); F. Payne (Felicity); D. Pearson (Daniel); W. Rathmann (Wolfgang); A. Sandbaek (Annelli); A.A. Sayer; L.J. Scott (Laura); S.J. Sharp (Stephen); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.S. Siscovick (David); N.L. Smith (Nicholas); T. Sparsø (Thomas); A.J. Swift (Amy); H. Syddall (Holly); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tönjes (Anke); T. Tuomi (Tiinamaija); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); T.T. Valle (Timo); G. Waeber (Gérard); A. Walley (Andrew); D. Waterworth (Dawn); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); J.H. Zhao; G. Consortium (Giant); T. Illig (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Erich); J.F. Wilson (James); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); F.B. Hu (Frank); A.D. Morris (Andrew); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); P. Nilsson (Peter); A.C. Syvänen; A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); M. Walker (Mark); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); P. Schwarz (Peter); G.H. Williams (Gordon); D.M. Nathan (David); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); M. Laakso (Markku); C. Cooper (Charles); M. Marmot (Michael); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); V. Mooser (Vincent); M. Stumvoll (Michael); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); D. Altshuler (David); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); T. Hansen (Torben); O. Pedersen (Oluf); J.C. Florez (Jose); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); M. Boehnke (Michael); I. Barroso (Inês); R. Sladek (Rob); P. Froguel (Philippe); J.B. Meigs (James); L. Groop (Leif); N.J. Wareham (Nick); R.M. Watanabe (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,95

  12. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Labrune Philippe; Gajdos Vincent; Eberschweiler Pascale; Hubert-Buron Aurélie; Petit François; Vianey-Saban Christine; Boudjemline Alix; Piraud Monique; Froissart Roseline

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, betw...

  13. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake,palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gitte HANSEN; Jacob JELSING; Niels VRANG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity.Methods:The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar.To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DlO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome,the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats.Liraglutide(200 μg/kg,sc) was administered bi-daily,and sibutramine (5 mg/kg,po) was administered once daily for 23 d.Results:Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake,body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance.Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubradiet,the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet,indicating a shift in food preference.Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index,primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.Conclusion:This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action.Moreover,the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning induces tolerance against oxidative injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation by up-regulating heat shock protein 32 in rat spinal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyang Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO preconditioning (HBO-PC has been testified to have protective effects on spinal cord injury (SCI. However, the mechanisms remain enigmatic. The present study aimed to explore the effects of HBO-PC on primary rat spinal neurons against oxidative injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD and the relationship with heat shock proteins (HSPs. METHODS: Primary rat spinal neurons after 7 days of culture were used in this study. HSPs were detected in rat spinal neurons following a single exposure to HBO at different time points by Western blot. Using lactate dehydrogenase release assay and cell counting kit-8 assay, the injuries induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 insult or OGD were determined and compared among neurons treated with HBO-PC with or without HSP inhibitors. RESULTS: The results of Western blot showed that HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90 have a slight but not significant increase in primary neurons following HBO exposure. However, HSP32 expression significantly increased and reached highest at 12 h following HBO exposure. HBO-PC significantly increased the cell viability and decreased the medium lactate dehydrogenase content in cultures treated with H2O2 or OGD. Pretreatment with zinc protoporphyrin IX, a specific inhibitor of HSP32, significantly blocked the protective effects of HBO-PC. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HBO-PC could protect rat spinal neurons in vitro against oxidative injury and OGD mostly by up-regulating of HSP32 expression.

  15. 高脂高糖饮食对家兔糖耐量影响实验研究%High fat-sucrose diet effect on glucose tolerance of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光伟; 林燕; 朱宁红; 白艳萍; 杨佩刚; 刘恩岐

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To induce metabolic syndrome in Japanese white rabbit by high fat/high sucrose diet (HFSD) .Methods:Twenty male Japanese white rabbits were divided into 2 groups by randomized block de-sign :normal diet group (n=10) and HFSD group (n=10 ,with 10 % lard ,30 % white cane sugar and 60 % nor-mal fodder) ,and observed for 36 weeks .The blood samples of the rabbits were tested for the levels of plasma glu-cose and triglyceride after overnight fasting every two weeks .At the end of 36th week ,after intravenous glucose tol-erance test (IVGTT) ,all the rabbits were killed to observe vital organs and weight all adipose tissues .Results:The difference between the 2 groups was not significant in plasma glucose ,triglyceride and insulin except in IVGTT . HFSD group were higher in body weight [(3 .90 ± 0 .09) kg vs (3 .18 ± 0 .27) kg] and adipose tissue [total adipose tissue:(493 .40 ± 55 .25) g vs (331 .45 ± 38 .28) g ;visceral adipose tissue :(354 .90 ± 48 .18) g vs (214 .35 ± 23 .74) g] as compared with control group ,and the difference was significant .Conclusion:HFSD can induce impaired glu-cose tolerance and trend of central obesity in Japanese white rabbits .%目的:探讨高脂高糖饮食对日本大耳白兔糖代谢和脂代谢的影响,建立日本大耳白兔代谢综合征模型。方法:将20只雄性日本大耳白兔随机分为两组(每组10只),对照组饲喂基础饲料,实验组饲喂高糖高脂饲料(配方:10%猪油+30%蔗糖+60%基础饲料),观察36周,期间每2周抽血1次,检测血糖和甘油三酯的水平。于第36周结束时,对动物进行葡萄糖耐量试验,而后麻醉处死动物,观察动物重要脏器和全身脂肪重量变化。结果:实验组家兔在36周时,体重[(3.90±0.09)kg vs (3.18±0.27)kg]、脂肪重量[总脂肪:(493.40±55.25)g vs (331.45±38.28)g]和内脏脂肪[(354.90±48.18)g vs (214.35±23.74)g]均

  16. Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Lifestyle Intervention and/or Pioglitazone in Reversion to Normal Glucose Tolerance in Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with prediabetes are at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. No study has explored whether intervention could revert prediabetes to normal glycemic status as the primary outcome. Beijing Prediabetes Reversion Program (BPRP would evaluate whether intensive lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia and improve the risk factors of CVD as well. Methods. BPRP is a randomized, multicenter, 2 × 2 factorial design study. Participants diagnosed as prediabetes were randomized into four groups (conventional/intensive lifestyle intervention and 30 mg pioglitazone/placebo with a three-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was conversion into normal glucose tolerance. The trial would recruit 2000 participants (500 in each arm. Results. Between March 2007 and March 2011, 1945 participants were randomized. At baseline, the individuals were 53±10 years old, with median BMI 26.0 (23.9, 28.2 kg/m2 and HbA1c 5.8 (5.6, 6.1%. 85% of the participants had IGT and 15% had IFG. Parameters relevant to glucose, lipids, blood pressure, lifestyle, and other metabolic markers were similar between conventional and intensive lifestyle intervention group at baseline. Conclusion. BPRP was the first study to determine if lifestyle modification and/or pioglitazone could revert prediabetic state to normoglycemia in Chinese population. Major baseline parameters were balanced between two lifestyle intervention groups. This trial is registered with www.chictr.org.cn: ChiCTR-PRC-06000005.

  17. Diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose são subdiagnosticados nas unidades de terapia intensiva Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance are underdiagnosed in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Teixeira Ladeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de diabetes mellitus e a intolerância à glicose em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes clínicos, em pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas e de urgência, e excluídos aqueles com história de diabetes mellitus. Para o diagnóstico de alterações prévias da glicemia, utilizou-se a dosagem da hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c na admissão do paciente, sendo classificado em normal (6,4%. Durante os 3 primeiros dias da internação, foram avaliados o controle glicêmico e as complicações clínicas. A evolução para óbito foi acompanhada por 28 dias. Para as análises estatísticas, utilizaram-se testes do qui-quadrado, ANOVA, teste t de Student, Kruskall-Wallis ou Mann Whitney. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 30 pacientes, 53% do gênero feminino, idade de 53,4±19,7 anos e APACHE II de 13,6±6,6. A maioria dos pacientes foi admitida por sepse grave ou choque séptico, seguido por pós-operatório de cirurgias eletivas, oncológicas, politraumatismo e cirurgia de urgência. Ao classificar esses pacientes segundo a HbA1c, apesar da ausência prévia de história de diabetes mellitus, apenas 13,3% tinham HbA1c normal, 23,3% tinham níveis compatíveis com o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus e 63,3% eram compatíveis com intolerância à glicose. Houve associação significativa entre o diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus ou intolerância a glicose e o uso de droga vasoativa (p=0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Foi encontrada alta prevalência de diabetes mellitus e intolerância à glicose, sem diagnóstico prévio, em pacientes internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva geral.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in intensive care unit inpatients. METHODS: The study included patients in post-surgical care for elective and emergency surgery and excluded those patients with known diabetes mellitus. To diagnose prior serum glucose

  18. 南阳市宛城区居民DM、IGT患病率与相关因素分析%ANALYSIS ON DIABETES MELLITUS AND PREVALENCE RATE OF IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND THE RELATED FACTORS IN WANCHENG DISTRICT OF NANYANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢志浩; 陈庚军

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional and cluster sampling method were used in 645 residents aged from 15 to 74 years old in Wancheng district in Nanyang to investigate the status of diabetes mcllitus( DM ) and impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) and the correlated factors in Nanyang in 2012. The rude detection rates were 12.56% for DM and 10.39% for IGT. The analyses show that age,smoking, body mass index, physical exercise and blood pressure are the risk factors for development of DM ( P 〈 0.05 ) ; age, smoking, body mass index and blood pressure are the risk factors for development of IGT (P 〈 0.05 ). New detection rate of DM is 51.85, medication rate is 66.67% , blood sugar control rate is 29.73%. The prevalence rates of DM and IGT are considerably high and the medication rate is relatively low in the current state. Some DM patients arc missed for there is no oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in routine physical examination. Measures should be taken to prevent and reduce sugar metabolism disorders popular.%采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,横断面调查宛城区15~74岁常住居民645人。了解南阳市宛城区糖尿病(DM)和糖耐量减低(IGT)的患病现状与相关因素。DM和IGT的总患病率分别为12.56%和10.39%。分析表明DM的危险因素有年龄、吸烟、体质指数、体育锻炼和血压;IGT的危险因素有年龄、吸烟、体质指数和血压。DM的新检出率51.85%,服药率66.67%,血糖控制率19.23%。该地区的DM及IGT患病率均较高,药物控制率低,常规体检无口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT)项目导致部分DM患者漏检。应采取积极措施,预防和降低该地区的糖代谢异常流行。

  19. Expression of visfatin mRNA in adipose tissues of subjects with different glucose tolerance%内脂素基因在不同糖耐量个体脂肪组织的表达差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秀云; 郑冬梅; 庄霞; 张海清; 孔磊; 管庆波; 赵家军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of visfatin mRNA expression in abdominal subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance(the IGT group) and to explore the relationship between visfafin mRNA expression and indexes of correlation metabolism. Methods The subjects were Chinese Han population, including 23 controls with no family history of diabetes(the control group), 18 patients with impaired glucose tolerance(the IGT group) and 22 with type 2 diabetes(T2DM group). The blood pressure, FBG, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, HbA1c, and Fins were determined, and (T2DM BMI, WHR, and HOMA-IR were calculated. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine visfatin mRNA expres-sion in adipose tissues. Results Visfatin mRNA expression of omental adipose tissues in the T2DM group was higher than that in the IGT and control groups(P0.05). There was no statistical difference in visfatin mRNA expression of subcutaneous adipose tissues among the three groups (P>0.05).Visfafin expression of omental adipose tissues in the fat/overweight group was higher than that in the control group (P0.05).对照组、IGT组及T2DM组皮下脂肪组织的内脂素基因表达量无统计学差异(P>0.05).肥胖/超重组网膜脂肪组织的内脂素基因表达量高于体质量正常组(P0.05),而皮下脂肪组织内脂素基因表达则与,TC相关(P<0.05).结论内脂素在汉族人群T2DM、肥胖者中表达增加,且主要在内脏脂肪组织中表达,在维持葡萄糖稳态平衡中发挥作用.

  20. Effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on fasting and postprandial inflammation-related parameters in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance and in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Jorgensen, Nils Bruun; Just, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    explored the hypothesis that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in obese normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects. Methods: Thirteen obese subjects with T2D...... [weight; 129 +/- 14 kg, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c); 7.0 +/- 0.9%, body mass index (BMI); 43.2 +/- 5.3 kg/m(2), mean +/- SD] and twelve matched obese NGT subjects [weight; 127 +/- 15 kg, HbA1c; 5.5 +/- 0.4%, BMI; 41.5 +/- 4.8 kg/m(2), mean +/- SD] were examined before, one week, three months, and one year...... between the two groups. Before surgery, HbA1c was higher and HOMA-IR lower in T2D patients, however, converged to the values of NGT subjects one year after surgery. Circulating cytokine concentrations did not differ between the two groups at any time point. One week after surgery, circulating IL-6 and IL...

  1. Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Fasting and Postprandial Levels of the Inflammatory Markers YKL-40 and MCP-1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Tolerant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Brinkløv Thomsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inflammatory markers YKL-40 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 are elevated in morbidly obese patients and decline after weight loss. The objective of our study was to investigate the possible changes of YKL-40 and MCP-1, in both the fasting and the postprandial states, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D and normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Methods. Ten obese patients with T2D and 10 subjects with NGT were examined in the fasting state and after a standard meal prior to and after (1 week, 3 months, and 1 year RYGB. Results. Fasting state MCP-1 levels decreased after RYGB in both groups (P values < 0.0001 whereas fasting YKL-40 levels were unchanged (P values ≥ 0.120. Postprandial MCP-1 levels showed a tendency towards a decrease on most study days; however, the changes were only significant at 1 week (P=0.001 and 1 yr (P<0.0001 in the T2D group and at 3 mo after RYGB in the NGT group (P=0.009. YKL-40 levels showed a slight, postprandial suppression on all study days in the T2D group (all P values ≤ 0.021. Conclusions. Fasting MCP-1 levels, but not YKL-40 levels, decrease after RYGB in subjects with T2D and NGT. Postprandial changes of inflammatory markers are discrete and inconsistent.

  2. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  3. 妊娠期孕妇糖代谢异常对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染及妊娠结局的影响%The influence of gestational abnormal glucose metabolism on vulvovaginal candidiasis infection and pregnan-cy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of abnormal glucose metabolism on vulvovaginal candidiasis infection and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women.Methods One thousand and fifty-six pregnant women were col-lected who did prenatal examination and termly deliveried in the department of obstetrics and gynecology of our hospi-tal from Jun 2011 to Jun 2013.According to the glucose screening test results, they were divided into glucose normal group(n=624), GCT abnormal group(n=326)and gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) group(n=106).The oc-currence of the vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) infection and pregnancy outcome of the three groups were observed during pregnancy.Results The occurrence rates of VVC of GCT abnormal group and GDM group had no significant differences(P>0.05), but they were significantly higher than those of glucose normal group(P0.05).Conclusion Abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy may increase occurrence risk of VVC, which affects the outcome of pregnancy and in-creases the risk of cesarean section and premature rupture of membranes and intrauterine fetal distress, thus it should be payed more attention to the changes of blood glucose level.Glycated hemoglobin level in pregnant women should be monitored.%目的:探讨妊娠期孕妇糖代谢异常对外阴阴道假丝酵母菌感染及妊娠结局的影响。方法收集行产前检查并足月分娩的初次孕产妇1056例,根据葡萄糖筛查试验( GCT )结果将孕妇分为血糖正常组624例,GCT异常组326例,妊娠期糖尿病( GDM)组106例。观察三组在妊娠期间外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)的发生情况及妊娠结局情况。结果 GDM组、GCT异常组VVC发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但均明显高于血糖正常组(P<0.05);三组VVC复发率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。 GCT异常组、GDM组的胎膜早破、胎儿宫内窘迫发生率、剖宫产率、足月低体重儿率

  4. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with Different Blood Glucose Abnormalities%妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)孕妇不同血糖指标异常的母婴结局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pregnant women with different glycemic in-dex of abnormal pregnancy outcome. Methods Admitted to our hospital with 300 cases of pregnancy with gestational dia-betes mellitus pregnant women and 150 cases of normal pregnant women as the observation object, the admitted time for June 5, 2012 to 2015, the normal pregnant women as control group, the 300 cases of pregnancy with gestational diabetes, according to the degree of blood glucose control points for normal glycemic index group (158 cases) and abnormal blood glu-cose index group (142 cases), three groups of clinical data were retrospectively analyzed to observe the differences between the three groups of pregnant women, maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results Control group and blood sugar index normal group of pregnant women pregnancy differences between outcome was not significant (P > 0.05); control group and blood sugar index group of abnormal pregnant women, maternal and neonatal outcomes between the difference is significant (P0.05);对照组与血糖指标异常组孕妇母婴结局之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且血糖指标异常组与血糖指标正常组之间对比的母婴结局,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论妊娠期糖尿病孕妇不同血糖指标对母婴结局的影响较大,临床中应注意控制孕妇的血糖水平,达到改善母婴结局的效果。

  5. 糖耐量减低患者饮食治疗认知行为干预效果分析%Analysis of the cognitive behavioral intervention result with the diet therapy for the patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨饮食治疗认知行为干预对糖耐量减低(IGT)患者的效果.方法:将92例 IGT 患者随机分为干预组(46例)与对照组(46例).对干预组进行为期12个月的饮食治疗认知行为干预,对照组患者进行常规门诊治疗.比较干预前、后两组患者饮食治疗知识知晓率、糖尿病年转化率和血糖指标的差异.结果:干预12个月后干预组患者的饮食治疗知识知晓率高于对照组,糖尿病年转化率、血糖值明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01).结论:饮食治疗认知行为干预对降低患者糖尿病的发生有一定效果.%  Objective: To explore the result of the diet therapy cognitive behavioral intervention for the patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Method:92 cases of IGT were divided into the intervention group (46 cases ) and the control group(46 cases ) at random. The intervention group received the dietary treatment of the cognitive behavioral intervention for 12 months and the control group was treated with the general out-patient service. The difference of the diet therapy knowledge awareness and diabetes annual conversion rate and the glycemic index was compared before and after the two groups’ intervention. Result: After 12 months the diet therapy knowledge awareness of the intervention group was higher than that of the control group. The diabetes annual conversion rate and blood glucose levels were obviously lower than those of the control group, whose difference had statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusion: The diet therapy cognitive behavioral intervention has certain effect to reduce the occurrence of the diabetes.

  6. Effect of Metformin Intervention on Blood Sugar of Patients with Breast Cancer Chemotherapy with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism%二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟媛媛

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究二甲双胍干预对乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢异常患者血糖的影响.方法 整群选择2012年2月—2014年8月来该院行乳腺癌化疗,伴糖代谢紊乱的60例患者作为研究对象,随机分为两组. 对照组给予AC-T化疗方案,同时给予患者饮食控制和运动治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用二甲双胍,观察两组血糖控制情况. 结果 观察组化疗结束时和化疗结束后3个月正常血糖患者例数显著多于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). 结论 二甲双胍对于控制乳腺癌化疗伴糖代谢紊乱患者血糖水平效果显著,且具有潜在抗肿瘤作用,值得进一步研究.%Objective To research the effect of metformin intervention on blood sugar of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods 60 cases of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with ab-normal glucose metabolism in our hospital from February 2012 to August 2014 were selected as the research object and randomly divided into two groups, the control group received AC-T chemotherapy plan, and were treated with diet control and exercise, the observation group were given additional metformin on the basis of the control group, the blood sugar con-trol conditions of the two groups were observed. Results The case number of patients with normal blood sugar at the end of chemotherapy and in 3 months after chemotherapy in the observation group was obviously more than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Metformin for controlling the blood sugar levels of patients with breast cancer chemotherapy with abnormal glucose metabolism has an obvious effect and has a potential anti-tumor effect, which is further research.

  7. Correlation between insulin resistance and coronary artery disease in patients with normal glucose tolerance%正常糖耐量患者胰岛素抵抗与冠状动脉病变的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶子青; 乔松; 俞志红; 叶莉; 金海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨正常糖耐量患者胰岛素抵抗(IR)与冠状动脉病变的相关性.方法 纳入浙江医院2007年1月-2010年12月收治的正常糖耐量患者129例,根据新HOMA稳态模型按胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)分为胰岛素敏感(IS)组(n= 68)和IR组(7=61),分别测定两组总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、同型半胱氨酸(HCY)、血尿酸(UA)水平,并进行选择性冠状动脉造影及Gensini评分,采用Spearman、偏相关和多元逐步回归对结果 进行相关性分析.结果 与IS组比较,IR组冠状动脉病变程度严重,0支病变(29.8%vs 11.8%,P<0.05)和1支病变(26.3%vs 11.8%,P<0.05)比例显著降低,而多支病变比例(14.1%vs 49.0%,P<0.01)、Gensini评分(10.6士12.7 vs 32.2士34.3,P<0.01)显著增高.校正影响因素后,Gensini评分与ISI呈明显的负相关(r=-0.354,P<0.01);多元逐步线性回归分析显示,ISI、HCY是影响Gensini评分的独立因素.结论在正常糖耐量患者中,IR与冠状动脉病变显著相关,是其独立的危险因子.%Objective To investigate the correlation between insulin resistance (IR) and coronary artery disease in patients with normal glucose tolerance. Methods One hundred and twenty-nine patients with normal glucose tolerance, who visited Zhejiang Hospital from January 2007 to December 2010, were enrolled in the present study and were divided into two groups according to homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity index (ISI): insulin sensitive group (IS, n=68) and IR group (n=61). The total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), homocysteine (HCY), and uric acid (UA) were measured for each patient using an auto biochemistry analyzer. Selective coronary angiography and Gensini score were performed on all the patients. Spearman's correlations and stepwise multiple regression

  8. Metabolic Abnormalities in Children with Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Childhood asthma and obesity have reached epidemic proportions worldwide, and the latter is also contributing to increasing rates of related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. Yet, the relationship between asthma, obesity, and abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism is not well understood, nor has it been adequately explored in children.

  9. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablo-Fernández, Eduardo; Breen, David P; Bouloux, Pierre M; Barker, Roger A; Foltynie, Thomas; Warner, Thomas T

    2017-02-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and include disruption of melatonin secretion, disturbances of glucose, insulin resistance and bone metabolism, and body weight changes. They have been associated with multiple non-motor symptoms in PD and have important clinical consequences, including therapeutics. Some of the underlying mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and represent promising targets for the development of disease biomarkers and neuroprotective therapies. In this systems-based review, we describe clinically relevant neuroendocrine abnormalities in Parkinson's disease to highlight their role in overall phenotype. We discuss pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical implications, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions based on the current evidence. We also review recent advances in the field, focusing on the potential targets for development of neuroprotective drugs in Parkinson's disease and suggest future areas for research.

  10. 妊娠期糖代谢异常与尿酸、C肽、超敏C反应蛋白、糖化血红蛋白相关性%Correlation of gestational abnormal glucose metabolism and uric acid,C peptide,high sensitivity C reactive protein,glycated hemoglobin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静姝; 金海甲; 刘飞; 郝凤燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨C肽、超敏C反应蛋白、糖化血红蛋白、尿酸及血脂等多因素与妊娠期糖代谢异常的相关性。方法:2010年1月-2011年8月收集分娩孕妇,统计其在孕24~28周前后检测的血糖与尿酸、CRP、血脂、超敏CRP、C肽、糖化血红蛋白、体重、血压及文化背景等,其中异常23例;随机抽取40例正常者为对照。C肽采用电化学发光方法,超敏C反应蛋白采用芬兰试剂,糖化血红蛋白用TDM100糖化血红蛋白分析仪测定。采用多因素分析评价其相关性。结果:多因素联合分析比单个独立因素评价糖代谢异常相关性高。结论:多项联合检测能提前预测糖代谢异常的发生,提前采取治疗措施,预防疾病发生,得到很好的预后效果。%Objective:To explore the correlation of gestational abnormal glucose metabolism and C peptide,high sensitivity C reactive protein,glycated hemoglobin,uric acid,blood lipid and other factors.Methods:Childbirth pregnant womens were selected from January 2010 to August 2011.The blood glucose and uric acid,CRP,blood lipid,high sensitivity CRP,C peptide,glycated hemoglobin that were detected before and after pregnancy 24 to 28 weeks.Weight,blood pressure and cultural background were statistically analyzed,in which 23 cases were abnormal.A random sample of 40 normal persons was as the control.C peptide used electrochemiluminescence method,the high sensitive C reactive protein used finland reagent,the glycated hemoglobin was detected by TDM100 glycated hemoglobin analyzer instrument.The correlation was analyzed and evaluated by multi factors. Results:The multi factor combined analysis in the evaluation of abnormal glucose metabolism correlation was higher than a single independent factor.Conclusion:The multiple combined detection can predict abnormal glucose metabolism in advance.It can advance to take treatment,prevent disease,and obtain very good prognosis effect.

  11. Fructose, but not glucose, impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-sensitive tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Miguel; Sangüesa, Gemma; Dávalos, Alberto; Latasa, María-Jesús; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Sánchez, Rosa María; Roglans, Núria; Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta

    2016-05-19

    Human studies support the relationship between high intake of fructose-sweetened beverages and type 2 diabetes, but there is a debate on whether this effect is fructose-specific or it is merely associated to an excessive caloric intake. Here we investigate the effects of 2 months' supplementation to female rats of equicaloric 10% w/v fructose or glucose solutions on insulin sensitivity in target tissues. Fructose supplementation caused hepatic deposition of triglycerides and changed the fatty acid profile of this fraction, with an increase in monounsaturated and a decrease in polyunsaturated species, but did not cause inflammation and oxidative stress. Fructose but not glucose-supplemented rats displayed an abnormal glucose tolerance test, and did not show increased phosphorylation of V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) in white adipose tissue and liver after insulin administration. In skeletal muscle, phosphorylation of Akt and of Akt substrate of 160 kDA (AS160) was not impaired but the expression of the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the plasma membrane was reduced only in fructose-fed rats. In conclusion, fructose but not glucose supplementation causes fatty liver without inflammation and oxidative stress and impairs insulin signaling in the three major insulin-responsive tissues independently from the increase in energy intake.

  12. Combined effect of terbutaline and betamethasone on glucose homeostasis in preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, K; Ou, C N; Cotton, D B

    1993-01-01

    The short- and long-term effects of simultaneous administration of terbutaline and betamethasone were investigated in 8 gravidas treated for preterm labor. Their plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, C-peptide, lactate and potassium were compared to a control group receiving intravenous magnesium sulfate and betamethasone. The patients on terbutaline therapy had a marked hyperglycemia at 11 h which remained elevated for 48 h. There was a simultaneous rise in plasma insulin and C-peptide, and a fall in plasma glucagon. Lactate levels were markedly elevated. Only 1 of the 8 patients had an abnormal glucose tolerance test at 1 week of therapy. The metabolic changes of control patients were minimal in comparison and there was no lacticacidemia. This suggests that glucocorticoids potentiate the hyperglycemic response of terbutaline.

  13. Glucose Homeostatic Law: Insulin Clearance Predicts the Progression of Glucose Intolerance in Humans.