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Sample records for abnormal floral organs

  1. Over-expression of miR172 causes loss of spikelet determinacy and floral organ abnormalities in rice (Oryza sativa

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    Gubler Frank

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs plays a crucial role in many developmental and physiological processes in plants. miRNAs act to repress expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. Dozens of miRNA families have been identified in rice, 21 of which are conserved between rice and Arabidopsis. miR172 is a conserved miRNA family which has been shown to regulate expression of APETALA2 (AP2-like transcription factors in Arabidopsis and maize. The rice genome encodes five AP2-like genes predicted to be targets of miR172. To determine whether these rice AP2-like genes are regulated by miR172 and investigate the function of the target genes, we studied the effect of over-expressing two members of the miR172 family on rice plant development. Results Analysis of miR172 expression showed that it is most highly expressed in late vegetative stages and developing panicles. Analyses of expression of three miR172 targets showed that SUPERNUMERARY BRACT (SNB and Os03g60430 have high expression in developing panicles. Expression of miR172 was not inversely correlated with expression of its targets although miR172-mediated cleavage of SNB was detected by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Over-expression of miR172b in rice delayed the transition from spikelet meristem to floral meristem, and resulted in floral and seed developmental defects, including changes to the number and identity of floral organs, lower fertility and reduced seed weight. Plants over-expressing miR172b not only phenocopied the T-DNA insertion mutant of SNB but showed additional defects in floret development not seen in the snb mutant. However SNB expression was not reduced in the miR172b over-expression plants. Conclusions The phenotypes resulting from over-expression of miR172b suggests it represses SNB and at least one of the other miR172 targets, most likely Os03g60430, indicating roles for other AP2-like

  2. Specification of floral organs in Arabidopsis.

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    Wellmer, Frank; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Floral organs are specified by the activities of a small group of transcriptional regulators, the floral organ identity factors. Extensive genetic and molecular analyses have shown that these proteins act as master regulators of flower development, and function not only in organ identity determination but also during organ morphogenesis. Although it is now well established that these transcription factors act in higher order protein complexes in the regulation of transcription, the gene expression programmes controlled by them have remained largely elusive. Only recently, detailed insights into their functions have been obtained through the combination of a wide range of experimental methods, including transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. Here, we review the progress that has been made in the characterization of the floral organ identity factors from the main model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and we discuss what is known about the processes acting downstream of these regulators. We further outline open questions, which we believe need to be addressed to obtain a more complete view of the molecular processes that govern floral organ development and specification.

  3. UFO: an Arabidopsis gene involved in both floral meristem and floral organ development.

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    Levin, J Z; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-05-01

    We describe the role of the UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene in Arabidopsis floral development based on a genetic and molecular characterization of the phenotypes of nine ufo alleles. UFO is required for the proper identity of the floral meristem and acts in three different aspects of the process that distinguishes flowers from shoots. UFO is involved in establishing the whorled pattern of floral organs, controlling the determinacy of the floral meristem, and activating the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA genes required for petal and stamen identity. In many respects, UFO acts in a manner similar to LEAFY, but the ufo mutant phenotype also suggests an additional role for UFO in defining boundaries within the floral primordia or controlling cell proliferation during floral organ growth. Finally, genetic interactions that prevent flower formation and lead to the generation of filamentous structures implicate UFO as a member of a new, large, and diverse class of genes in Arabidopsis necessary for flower formation.

  4. Sterility Caused by Floral Organ Degeneration and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis and Cereal Grains

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    Ashley Rae Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural floral organ degeneration or abortion results in unisexual or fully sterile flowers, while abiotic stresses lead to sterility after initiation of floral reproductive organs. Since normal flower development is essential for plant sexual reproduction and crop yield, it is imperative to have a better understanding of plant sterility under regular and stress conditions. Here, we review the functions of ABC genes together with their downstream genes in floral organ degeneration and the formation of unisexual flowers in Arabidopsis and several agriculturally significant cereal grains. We further explore the roles of hormones, including auxin, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, and ethylene, in floral organ formation and fertility. We show that alterations in genes affecting hormone biosynthesis, hormone transport and perception cause loss of stamens/carpels, abnormal floral organ development, poor pollen production, which consequently result in unisexual flowers and male/female sterility. Moreover, abiotic stresses, such as heat, cold, and drought, commonly affect floral organ development and fertility. Sterility is induced by abiotic stresses mostly in male floral organ development, particularly during meiosis, tapetum development, anthesis, dehiscence, and fertilization. A variety of genes including those involved in heat shock, hormone signaling, cold tolerance, metabolisms of starch and sucrose, meiosis, and tapetum development are essential for plants to maintain normal fertility under abiotic stress conditions. Further elucidation of cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms about regulation of fertility will improve yield and quality for many agriculturally valuable crops.

  5. Epigenetic imbalance and the floral developmental abnormality of the in vitro-regenerated oil palm Elaeis guineensis

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    Jaligot, Estelle; Adler, Sophie; Debladis, Émilie; Beulé, Thierry; Richaud, Frédérique; Ilbert, Pascal; Finnegan, E. Jean; Rival, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background The large-scale clonal propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is being stalled by the occurrence of the mantled somaclonal variation. Indeed, this abnormality which presents a homeotic-like conversion of male floral organs into carpelloid structures, hampers oil production since the supernumerary female organs are either sterile or produce fruits with poor oil yields. Scope In the last 15 years, the prevailing point of view on the origin of the mantled floral phenotype has evolved from a random mutation event triggered by in vitro culture to a hormone-dependent dysfunction of gene regulation processes. In this review, we retrace the history of the research on the mantled variation in the light of the parallel advances made in the understanding of plant development regulation in model systems and more specifically in the role of epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the current state of oil palm genomic and transcriptomic resources, which are key to any comparison with model organisms, is given. We show that, while displaying original characteristics, the mantled phenotype of oil palm is morphologically, and possibly molecularly, related to MADS-box genes mutants described in model plants. We also discuss the occurrence of comparable floral phenotypes in other palm species. Conclusions Beyond its primary interest in the search for discriminating markers against an economically crippling phenotype, the study of the mantled abnormality also provides a unique opportunity to investigate the regulation of reproductive development in a perennial tropical palm. On the basis of recent results, we propose that future efforts should concentrate on the epigenetic regulation targeting MADS-box genes and transposable elements of oil palm, since both types of sequences are most likely to be involved in the mantled variant phenotype. PMID:21224269

  6. Differential expressions of putative genes in various floral organs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Differential expressions of putative genes in various floral organs of the Pigeon orchid (Dendrobium crumenatum) using GeneFishing. Faridah, Q. Z.1, 2, Ng, B. Z.3, Raha, A. R.4, Umi, K. A. B.5 and Khosravi, A. R.2*. 1Department of Biology, Faculty Science, University Putra ...

  7. Correlation between number and position of floral organs in Arabidopsis.

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    Penin, Aleksey A; Logacheva, Maria D

    2011-07-01

    The study of variation in number, position and type of floral organs may serve as a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying their variation, and will make it possible to improve the analysis of gene function in model plant species by means of a more accurate characterization of mutant phenotypes. The present analysis was carried out in order to understand the correlation between number and position of floral organs in Arabidopsis thaliana. An analysis of number and position of organs in flowers of wild type as well as in a series of mutations with floral organ position alterations was carried out, using light and electron microscopy. Variation common to different genotypes was analysed by means of individual diagrams, upon which generalized diagrams depicting variation in number and position of organs, were built by superimposition. It is shown that in the Arabidopsis flower a correlation exists between positions of petals and sepals, as well as between positions of stamens and carpels, whereas the position of carpels does not seem to depend on number and position of petals and stamens. This suggests that the position of organs in the basal (sepals) and apical (carpels) parts of the flower are determined before that in the intermediate zone. This assumption is consistent with the results of mathematical modelling and is supposed to be the consequence of stem-cell activity in the flower.

  8. Floral organ identity genes in the orchid Dendrobium crumenatum.

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    Xu, Yifeng; Teo, Lai Lai; Zhou, Jing; Kumar, Prakash P; Yu, Hao

    2006-04-01

    Orchids are members of Orchidaceae, one of the largest families in the flowering plants. Among the angiosperms, orchids are unique in their floral patterning, particularly in floral structures and organ identity. The ABCDE model was proposed as a general model to explain flower development in diverse plant groups, however the extent to which this model is applicable to orchids is still unknown. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms underlying orchid flower development, we isolated candidates for A, B, C, D and E function genes from Dendrobium crumenatum. These include AP2-, PI/GLO-, AP3/DEF-, AG- and SEP-like genes. The expression profiles of these genes exhibited different patterns from their Arabidopsis orthologs in floral patterning. Functional studies showed that DcOPI and DcOAG1 could replace the functions of PI and AG in Arabidopsis, respectively. By using chimeric repressor silencing technology, DcOAP3A was found to be another putative B function gene. Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that DcOAP3A/B and DcOPI could form heterodimers. These heterodimers could further interact with DcOSEP to form higher protein complexes, similar to their orthologs in eudicots. Our findings suggested that there is partial conservation in the B and C function genes between Arabidopsis and orchid. However, gene duplication might have led to the divergence in gene expression and regulation, possibly followed by functional divergence, resulting in the unique floral ontogeny in orchids.

  9. Molecular and regulatory mechanisms controlling floral organ development.

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    Stewart, Darragh; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2016-05-01

    The genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation of angiosperm flowers have been studied extensively for nearly three decades. This work has led to detailed insights into the gene regulatory networks that control this vital developmental process in plants. Here, we review some of the key findings in the field of flower development and discuss open questions that must be addressed in order to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of flower formation. In particular, we focus on the specification of the different types of floral organs and on how the morphogenesis of these organs is controlled to give rise to mature flowers. Central to this process are the floral organ identity genes, which encode members of the family of MADS-domain transcription factors. We summarize what is currently known about the functions of these master regulators and discuss a working model for the molecular mechanism that may underlie their activities. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. FON2 SPARE1 Redundantly Regulates Floral Meristem Maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in Rice

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    Suzaki, Takuya; Ohneda, Masako; Toriba, Taiyo; Yoshida, Akiko; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2009-01-01

    CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa), FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2), closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM). Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1) gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP) at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems. PMID:19834537

  11. FON2 SPARE1 redundantly regulates floral meristem maintenance with FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 in rice.

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    Takuya Suzaki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available CLAVATA signaling restricts stem cell identity in the shoot apical meristem (SAM in Arabidopsis thaliana. In rice (Oryza sativa, FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2, closely related to CLV3, is involved as a signaling molecule in a similar pathway to negatively regulate stem cell proliferation in the floral meristem (FM. Here we show that the FON2 SPARE1 (FOS1 gene encoding a CLE protein functions along with FON2 in maintenance of the FM. In addition, FOS1 appears to be involved in maintenance of the SAM in the vegetative phase, because constitutive expression of FOS1 caused termination of the vegetative SAM. Genetic analysis revealed that FOS1 does not need FON1, the putative receptor of FON2, for its action, suggesting that FOS1 and FON2 may function in meristem maintenance as signaling molecules in independent pathways. Initially, we identified FOS1 as a suppressor that originates from O. sativa indica and suppresses the fon2 mutation in O. sativa japonica. FOS1 function in japonica appears to be compromised by a functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP at the putative processing site of the signal peptide. Sequence comparison of FOS1 in about 150 domesticated rice and wild rice species indicates that this FNP is present only in japonica, suggesting that redundant regulation by FOS1 and FON2 is commonplace in species in the Oryza genus. Distribution of the FNP also suggests that this mutation may have occurred during the divergence of japonica from its wild ancestor. Stem cell maintenance may be regulated by at least three negative pathways in rice, and each pathway may contribute differently to this regulation depending on the type of the meristem. This situation contrasts with that in Arabidopsis, where CLV signaling is the major single pathway in all meristems.

  12. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat

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    Koji Murai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL, a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat.

  13. Homeotic Genes and the ABCDE Model for Floral Organ Formation in Wheat.

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    Murai, Koji

    2013-06-25

    Floral organ formation has been the subject of intensive study for over 20 years, particularly in the model dicot species Arabidopsis thaliana. These studies have led to the establishment of a general model for the development of floral organs in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, in which floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, or E genes specify floral organ identity. In Arabidopsis, class A, B, C, D, E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors except for the class A gene APETALA2. Mutation of these genes induces floral organ homeosis. In this review, I focus on the roles of these homeotic genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), particularly with respect to the ABCDE model. Pistillody, the homeotic transformation of stamens into pistil-like structures, occurs in cytoplasmic substitution (alloplasmic) wheat lines that have the cytoplasm of the related wild species Aegilops crassa. This phenomenon is a valuable tool for analysis of the wheat ABCDE model. Using an alloplasmic line, the wheat ortholog of DROOPING LEAF (TaDL), a member of the YABBY gene family, has been shown to regulate pistil specification. Here, I describe the current understanding of the ABCDE model for floral organ formation in wheat.

  14. Cytological behaviour of floral organs and in silico characterization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Biotechnology Centre, 2Nagarjuna Medicinal Garden, 4Department of Agricultural Botany, and 5Department of Plant. Pathology, Post ... Abstract. An attempt was made to understand the 'floral bud distortion' (FBD), an unexplored disorder prevailing in soybean. Cyto- .... USA) image processing software. Amplicons derived ...

  15. [In vitro regeneration and callogenesis in tissue culture of floral organs of the genus Iris (Iridaceae)].

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    Boltenkov, E V; Zarembo, E V

    2005-01-01

    We tested the differentiation and morphogenetic capacity of floral organs of Iris ensata, I. setosa, and I. sanguinea cultured in vitro. Organogenesis through direct formation of shoots from explants, callogenesis, and floral organogenesis were demonstrated in I. ensata callus culture in vitro. These processes depended on the plant species and on the content of phytohormones in the medium. Adventitious shoots proved to develop on the basal part of the perianth tube and on the apical part of the ovary, while roots were not formed. Direct organogenesis was induced by the following phytohormones: alpha-naphthylacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine for I. ensata and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine for I. setosa and I. sanguinea; while callogenesis was induced by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The obtained data indicate that development of adventitious structures from iris floral organs requires the presence of 6-benzylaminopurine in the growth medium.

  16. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development

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    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis. PMID:27869146

  17. TRL1 gene expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) floral organs after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenco, V.S.; Barbacar, N.I.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the expression patterns of a novel RAD16-like TRL1 (tomato RAD16-like 1) gene in the floral organs of tomato during anther meiosis and mature flower stages. The data on the induction of the TRL1 expression as a result of γ-irradiation is discussed. (authors)

  18. Kontrolle der Expression des UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) Gens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Hobe, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befaßt sich mit der Kontrolle des Expressionsmusters des UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) Gens von Arabidopsis thaliana. UFO wird im Sproß- und Blütenmeristemen aller Entwicklungsstadien der Pflanze exprimiert. In Blütenmeristemen agiert UFO als Kofaktor von LEAFY (LFY) bei der Aktivierung der Organidentitätsgene des zweiten und dritten Wirtels. UFO stellt also einen generellen Faktor der Musterbildung in Meristemen dar. Um regulatorische Gene, die die Expression von UFO bee...

  19. Control of reproductive floral organ identity specification in Arabidopsis by the C function regulator AGAMOUS.

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    ÓMaoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Wuest, Samuel E; Rae, Liina; Raganelli, Andrea; Ryan, Patrick T; Kwasniewska, Kamila; Das, Pradeep; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The floral organ identity factor AGAMOUS (AG) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, where it is involved in the formation of the reproductive floral organs as well as in the control of meristem determinacy. To obtain insights into how AG specifies organ fate, we determined the genes and processes acting downstream of this C function regulator during early flower development and distinguished between direct and indirect effects. To this end, we combined genome-wide localization studies, gene perturbation experiments, and computational analyses. Our results demonstrate that AG controls flower development to a large extent by controlling the expression of other genes with regulatory functions, which are involved in mediating a plethora of different developmental processes. One aspect of this function is the suppression of the leaf development program in emerging floral primordia. Using trichome initiation as an example, we demonstrate that AG inhibits an important aspect of leaf development through the direct control of key regulatory genes. A comparison of the gene expression programs controlled by AG and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, respectively, showed that while they control many developmental processes in conjunction, they also have marked antagonistic, as well as independent activities.

  20. Mediator subunit18 controls flowering time and floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

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    Zhengui Zheng

    Full Text Available Mediator is a conserved multi-protein complex that plays an important role in regulating transcription by mediating interactions between transcriptional activator proteins and RNA polymerase II. Much evidence exists that Mediator plays a constitutive role in the transcription of all genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. However, evidence is mounting that specific Mediator subunits may control the developmental regulation of specific subsets of RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Although the Mediator complex has been extensively studied in yeast and mammals, only a few reports on Mediator function in flowering time control of plants, little is known about Mediator function in floral organ identity. Here we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, MEDIATOR SUBUNIT 18 (MED18 affects flowering time and floral organ formation through FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and AGAMOUS (AG. A MED18 loss-of-function mutant showed a remarkable syndrome of later flowering and altered floral organ number. We show that FLC and AG mRNA levels and AG expression patterns are altered in the mutant. Our results support parallels between the regulation of FLC and AG and demonstrate a developmental role for Mediator in plants.

  1. Effect of Organic Fertilization and AMF Inoculation on Yield and Floral Quality Parameters of Common Marigold

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    Panayiota PAPASTYLIANOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Greece common marigold is one of the major medicinal plants widely used in cosmetics, perfumes and the pharmaceutical industry. A field experiment was conducted at Komotini, Greece, to compare the effect of organic and conventional fertilization combined with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on yield and floral qualitative characteristics of the common marigold during the 2015 growing season. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replicates, three main plots (fertilization treatments, inorganic, organic and untreated and two sub-plots (addition/non-addition of commercial mycorrhiza of the genus Glomus spp.. Floral fresh and dry weight as well as total phenolic and flavonoid content of the dried flowers were recorded. Data analysis confirmed no significant correlation between fresh/dry floral yield, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the dried flowers and type of fertilization. The results also demonstrate a tendency of increase of the fresh or dry weight of the flowers when the commercial mycorrhiza is applied but it is not statistically significant.

  2. SEP-class genes in Prunus mume and their likely role in floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Yong, Xue; Ahmad, Sagheer; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-01-13

    Flower phylogenetics and genetically controlled development have been revolutionised during the last two decades. However, some of these evolutionary aspects are still debatable. MADS-box genes are known to play essential role in specifying the floral organogenesis and differentiation in numerous model plants like Petunia hybrida, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, belonging to the MADS-box gene family, are members of the ABCDE and quartet models of floral organ development and play a vital role in flower development. However, few studies of the genes in Prunus mume have yet been conducted. In this study, we cloned four PmSEPs and investigated their phylogenetic relationship with other species. Expression pattern analyses and yeast two-hybrid assays of these four genes indicated their involvement in the floral organogenesis with PmSEP4 specifically related to specification of the prolificated flowers in P. mume. It was observed that the flower meristem was specified by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, the sepal by PmSEP1 and PmSEP4, petals by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3, stamens by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3 and pistils by PmSEP2 and PmSEP3. With the above in mind, flower development in P. mume might be due to an expression of SEP genes. Our findings can provide a foundation for further investigations of the transcriptional factors governing flower development, their molecular mechanisms and genetic basis.

  3. Translocation of heavy metals from soils into floral organs and rewards of Cucurbita pepo: Implications for plant reproductive fitness.

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    Xun, Erna; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jimin; Guo, Jixun

    2017-11-01

    Metals and metalloids in soil could be transferred into reproductive organs and floral rewards of hyperaccumulator plants and influence their reproductive success, yet little is known whether non-hyperaccumulator plants can translocate heavy metals from soil into their floral organs and rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether plant reproduction will be affected. In our studies, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Golden Apple) was exposed to heavy-metal treatments during bud stage to investigate the translocation of soil-supplemented zinc, copper, nickel and lead into its floral organs (pistil, anther and nectary) and rewards (nectar and pollen) as well as floral metal accumulation effects on its reproduction. The results showed that metals taken up by squash did translocate into its floral organs and rewards, although metal accumulation varied depending on different metal types and concentrations as well as floral organ/reward types. Mean foraging time of honey bees to each male and female flower of squash grown in metal-supplemented soils was shorter relative to that of plants grown in control soils, although the visitation rate of honeybees to both male and female flowers was not affected by metal treatments. Pollen viability, pollen removal and deposition as well as mean mass per seed produced by metal-treated squash that received pollen from plants grown in control soils decreased with elevated soil-supplemented metal concentrations. The fact that squash could translocate soil-supplemented heavy metals into floral organs and rewards indicated possible reproductive consequences caused either directly (i.e., decreasing pollen viability or seed mass) or indirectly (i.e., affecting pollinators' visitation behavior to flowers) to plant fitness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular evolution constraints in the floral organ specification gene regulatory network module across 18 angiosperm genomes.

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    Davila-Velderrain, Jose; Servin-Marquez, Andres; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2014-03-01

    The gene regulatory network of floral organ cell fate specification of Arabidopsis thaliana is a robust developmental regulatory module. Although such finding was proposed to explain the overall conservation of floral organ types and organization among angiosperms, it has not been confirmed that the network components are conserved at the molecular level among flowering plants. Using the genomic data that have accumulated, we address the conservation of the genes involved in this network and the forces that have shaped its evolution during the divergence of angiosperms. We recovered the network gene homologs for 18 species of flowering plants spanning nine families. We found that all the genes are highly conserved with no evidence of positive selection. We studied the sequence conservation features of the genes in the context of their known biological function and the strength of the purifying selection acting upon them in relation to their placement within the network. Our results suggest an association between protein length and sequence conservation, evolutionary rates, and functional category. On the other hand, we found no significant correlation between the strength of purifying selection and gene placement. Our results confirm that the studied robust developmental regulatory module has been subjected to strong functional constraints. However, unlike previous studies, our results do not support the notion that network topology plays a major role in constraining evolutionary rates. We speculate that the dynamical functional role of genes within the network and not just its connectivity could play an important role in constraining evolution.

  5. A soybean MADS-box protein modulates floral organ numbers, petal identity and sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Xu, Guangli; Chi, Yingjun; Liu, Haicui; Xue, Qian; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi; Yu, Deyue

    2014-04-02

    The MADS-box transcription factors play fundamental roles in reproductive developmental control. Although the roles of many plant MADS-box proteins have been extensively studied, there are almost no functional studies of them in soybean, an important protein and oil crop in the world. In addition, the MADS-box protein orthologs may have species-specific functions. Controlling male fertility is an important goal in plant hybrid breeding but is difficult in some crops like soybean. The morphological structure of soybean flowers prevents the cross-pollination. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for floral development will aid in engineering new sterile materials that could be applied in hybrid breeding programs in soybean. Through microarray analysis, a flower-enriched gene in soybean was selected and designated as GmMADS28. GmMADS28 belongs to AGL9/SEP subfamily of MADS-box proteins, localized in nucleus and showed specific expression patterns in floral meristems as well as stamen and petal primordia. Expression of GmMADS28 in the stamens and petals of a soybean mutant NJS-10Hfs whose stamens are converted into petals was higher than in those of wild-type plants. Constitutive expression of GmMADS28 in tobacco promoted early flowering and converted stamens and sepals to petals. Interestingly, transgenic plants increased the numbers of sepal, petal and stamen from five to six and exhibited male sterility due to the shortened and curly filaments and the failure of pollen release from the anthers. The ectopic expression of GmMADS28 was found to be sufficient to activate expression of tobacco homologs of SOC1, LEAFY, AGL8/FUL, and DEF. In addition, we observed the interactions of GmMADS28 with soybean homologs of SOC1, AP1, and AGL8/FUL proteins. In this study, we observed the roles of GmMADS28 in the regulation of floral organ number and petal identity. Compared to other plant AGL9/SEP proteins, GmMADS28 specifically regulates floral organ number, filament length and

  6. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  7. ASN1-encoded asparagine synthetase in floral organs contributes to nitrogen filling in Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufichon, Laure; Marmagne, Anne; Belcram, Katia; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Sakakibara, Yukiko; Hase, Toshiharu; Grandjean, Olivier; Clément, Gilles; Citerne, Sylvie; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Chardon, Fabien; Soulay, Fabienne; Xu, Xiaole; Trassaert, Marion; Shakiebaei, Maryam; Najihi, Amina; Suzuki, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Despite a general view that asparagine synthetase generates asparagine as an amino acid for long-distance transport of nitrogen to sink organs, its role in nitrogen metabolic pathways in floral organs during seed nitrogen filling has remained undefined. We demonstrate that the onset of pollination in Arabidopsis induces selected genes for asparagine metabolism, namely ASN1 (At3g47340), GLN2 (At5g35630), GLU1 (At5g04140), AapAT2 (At5g19950), ASPGA1 (At5g08100) and ASPGB1 (At3g16150), particularly at the ovule stage (stage 0), accompanied by enhanced asparagine synthetase protein, asparagine and total amino acids. Immunolocalization confined asparagine synthetase to the vascular cells of the silique cell wall and septum, but also to the outer and inner seed integuments, demonstrating the post-phloem transport of asparagine in these cells to developing embryos. In the asn1 mutant, aberrant embryo cell divisions in upper suspensor cell layers from globular to heart stages assign a role for nitrogen in differentiating embryos within the ovary. Induction of asparagine metabolic genes by light/dark and nitrate supports fine shifts of nitrogen metabolic pathways. In transgenic Arabidopsis expressing promoter Ca MV 35S ::ASN1 fusion, marked metabolomics changes at stage 0, including a several-fold increase in free asparagine, are correlated to enhanced seed nitrogen. However, specific promoter Napin2S ::ASN1 expression during seed formation and a six-fold increase in asparagine toward the desiccation stage result in wild-type seed nitrogen, underlining that delayed accumulation of asparagine impairs the timing of its use by releasing amide and amino nitrogen. Transcript and metabolite profiles in floral organs match the carbon and nitrogen partitioning to generate energy via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, GABA shunt and phosphorylated serine synthetic pathway. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Floral organ abscission peptide IDA and its HAE/HSL2 receptors control cell separation during lateral root emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpf, Robert P.; Shi, Chun-Lin; Larrieu, Antoine; Stø, Ida Myhrer; Butenko, Melinka A.; Péret, Benjamin; Riiser, Even Sannes; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Aalen, Reidunn B.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout their life cycle, plants produce new organs, such as leaves, flowers, and lateral roots. Organs that have served their purpose may be shed after breakdown of primary cell walls between adjacent cell files at the site of detachment. In Arabidopsis, floral organs abscise after pollination, and this cell separation event is controlled by the peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA), which signals through the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LI...

  9. A gain-of-function mutation in IAA8 alters Arabidopsis floral organ development by change of jasmonic acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yan, Da-Wei; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-05-01

    Auxin regulates a variety of physiological processes via its downstream factors included Aux/IAAs. In this study, one of these Aux/IAAs, IAA8 is shown to play its role in Arabidopsis development with transgenic plants expressing GFP-mIAA8 under the control of IAA8 promoter, in which IAA8 protein was mutated by changing Pro170 to Leu170 in its conserved domain II. These transgenic dwarfed plants had more lateral branches, short primary inflorescence stems, decreased shoot apical dominance, curled leaves and abnormal flower organs (short petal and stamen, and bent stigmas). Further experiments revealed that IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants functioned as gain-of-function mutation to increase GFP-mIAA8 amount probably by stabilizing IAA8 protein against proteasome-mediated protein degradation with IAA8::GFP-IAA8 plants as control. The searching for its downstream factors indicated its interaction with both ARF6 and ARF8, suggesting that IAA8 may involve in flower organ development. This was further evidenced by analyzing the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic genes and JA levels because ARF6 and ARF8 are required for normal JA production. These results indicated that in IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants, JA biosynthetic genes including DAD1 (AT2G44810), AOS (AT5G42650) and ORP3 (AT2G06050) were dramatically down-regulated and JA level in the flowers was reduced to 70 % of that in wild-type. Furthermore, exogenous JA application can partially rescue short petal and stamen observed IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants. Thus, IAA8 plays its role in floral organ development by changes in JA levels probably via its interaction with ARF6/8 proteins.

  10. UFO in the Arabidopsis inflorescence apex is required for floral-meristem identity and bract suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Shelley R; Klenz, Jennifer E; Haughn, George W

    2006-03-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene of Arabidopsis encodes an F-box protein required for the determination of floral-organ and floral-meristem identity. Mutation of UFO leads to dramatic changes in floral-organ type which are well-characterized whereas inflorescence defects are more subtle and less understood. These defects include an increase in the number of secondary inflorescences, nodes that alternate between forming flowers and secondary inflorescences, and nodes in which a single flower is subtended by a bract. Here, we show how inflorescence defects correlate with the abnormal development of floral primordia and establish a temporal requirement for UFO in this process. At the inflorescence apex of ufo mutants, newly formed primordia are initially bract-like. Expression of the floral-meristem identity genes LFY and AP1 are confined to a relatively small adaxial region of these primordia with expression of the bract-identity marker FIL observed in cells that comprise the balance of the primordia. Proliferation of cells in the adaxial region of these early primordia is delayed by several nodes such that primordia appear "chimeric" at several nodes, having visible floral and bract components. However, by late stage 2 of floral development, growth of the bract generally ceases and is overtaken by development of the floral primordium. This abnormal pattern of floral meristem development is not rescued by expression of UFO from the AP1 promoter, indicating that UFO is required prior to AP1 activation for normal development of floral primordia. We propose that UFO and LFY are jointly required in the inflorescence meristem to both promote floral meristem development and inhibit, in a non-cell autonomous manner, growth of the bract.

  11. Digital Gene Expression Analysis Based on De Novo Transcriptome Assembly Reveals New Genes Associated with Floral Organ Differentiation of the Orchid Plant Cymbidium ensifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxi Yang

    Full Text Available Cymbidium ensifolium belongs to the genus Cymbidium of the orchid family. Owing to its spectacular flower morphology, C. ensifolium has considerable ecological and cultural value. However, limited genetic data is available for this non-model plant, and the molecular mechanism underlying floral organ identity is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterize the floral transcriptome of C. ensifolium and present, for the first time, extensive sequence and transcript abundance data of individual floral organs. After sequencing, over 10 Gb clean sequence data were generated and assembled into 111,892 unigenes with an average length of 932.03 base pairs, including 1,227 clusters and 110,665 singletons. Assembled sequences were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous group terms, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and the plant transcription factor database. From these annotations, 131 flowering-associated unigenes, 61 CONSTANS-LIKE (COL unigenes and 90 floral homeotic genes were identified. In addition, four digital gene expression libraries were constructed for the sepal, petal, labellum and gynostemium, and 1,058 genes corresponding to individual floral organ development were identified. Among them, eight MADS-box genes were further investigated by full-length cDNA sequence analysis and expression validation, which revealed two APETALA1/AGL9-like MADS-box genes preferentially expressed in the sepal and petal, two AGAMOUS-like genes particularly restricted to the gynostemium, and four DEF-like genes distinctively expressed in different floral organs. The spatial expression of these genes varied distinctly in different floral mutant corresponding to different floral morphogenesis, which validated the specialized roles of them in floral patterning and further supported the effectiveness of our in silico analysis. This dataset generated in our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms

  12. Molecular basis for the specification of floral organs by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Samuel E; O'Maoileidigh, Diarmuid S; Rae, Liina; Kwasniewska, Kamila; Raganelli, Andrea; Hanczaryk, Katarzyna; Lohan, Amanda J; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2012-08-14

    How different organs are formed from small sets of undifferentiated precursor cells is a key question in developmental biology. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying organ specification in plants, we studied the function of the homeotic selector genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), which control the formation of petals and stamens during Arabidopsis flower development. To this end, we characterized the activities of the transcription factors that AP3 and PI encode throughout flower development by using perturbation assays as well as transcript profiling and genomewide localization studies, in combination with a floral induction system that allows a stage-specific analysis of flower development by genomic technologies. We discovered considerable spatial and temporal differences in the requirement for AP3/PI activity during flower formation and show that they control different sets of genes at distinct phases of flower development. The genomewide identification of target genes revealed that AP3/PI act as bifunctional transcription factors: they activate genes involved in the control of numerous developmental processes required for organogenesis and repress key regulators of carpel formation. Our results imply considerable changes in the composition and topology of the gene network controlled by AP3/PI during the course of flower development. We discuss our results in light of a model for the mechanism underlying sex-determination in seed plants, in which AP3/PI orthologues might act as a switch between the activation of male and the repression of female development.

  13. Control of Reproductive Floral Organ Identity Specification in Arabidopsis by the C Function Regulator AGAMOUS[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó’Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S.; Wuest, Samuel E.; Rae, Liina; Raganelli, Andrea; Ryan, Patrick T.; Kwaśniewska, Kamila; Das, Pradeep; Lohan, Amanda J.; Loftus, Brendan; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The floral organ identity factor AGAMOUS (AG) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, where it is involved in the formation of the reproductive floral organs as well as in the control of meristem determinacy. To obtain insights into how AG specifies organ fate, we determined the genes and processes acting downstream of this C function regulator during early flower development and distinguished between direct and indirect effects. To this end, we combined genome-wide localization studies, gene perturbation experiments, and computational analyses. Our results demonstrate that AG controls flower development to a large extent by controlling the expression of other genes with regulatory functions, which are involved in mediating a plethora of different developmental processes. One aspect of this function is the suppression of the leaf development program in emerging floral primordia. Using trichome initiation as an example, we demonstrate that AG inhibits an important aspect of leaf development through the direct control of key regulatory genes. A comparison of the gene expression programs controlled by AG and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, respectively, showed that while they control many developmental processes in conjunction, they also have marked antagonistic, as well as independent activities. PMID:23821642

  14. Ethylene-Dependent and -Independent Processes Associated with Floral Organ Abscission in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sara E.; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2004-01-01

    Abscission is an important developmental process in the life cycle of the plant, regulating the detachment of organs from the main body of the plant. This mechanism can be initiated in response to environmental cues such as disease or pathogen, or it can be a programmed shedding of organs that no longer provide essential functions to the plant. We have identified five novel dab (delayed floral organ abscission) mutants (dab1-1, dab2-1, dab3-1, dab3-2, and dab3-3) in Arabidopsis. These mutants each display unique anatomical and physiological characteristics and are governed by three independent loci. Scanning electron microscopy shows delayed development of the flattened fracture plane in some mutants and irregular elongation in the cells of the fracture plane in other mutants. The anatomical observations are also supported by breakstrength measurements that show high breakstrength associated with broken cells, moderate levels for the flattened fracture plane, and low levels associated with the initial rounding of cells. In addition, observations on the expression patterns in the abscission zone of cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, chitinase and cellulose, show altered patterns in the mutants. Last, we have compared these mutants with the ethylene-insensitive mutants etr1-1 and ein2-1 to determine if ethylene is an essential component of the abscission process and find that although ethylene can accelerate abscission under many conditions, the perception of ethylene is not essential. The role of the dab genes and the ethylene response genes during the abscission process is discussed. PMID:14701913

  15. Adenosine deaminase organic effect in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, A.M.; Samarai, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of the organic substances on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in normal and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Various concentrations of 2-mercaptopurine, Ame-tycine, Adenosine analogues (Guanine, Thymine) and ATP were tested to see their effect on ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF. ADA activity in normal and abnormal CSF was remarkably decreased with the increasing of concentrations of substances tested. These effects may have important therapeutic implications. (author)

  16. The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yang, M; Solava, J; Ma, H

    1999-09-01

    Normal flower development likely requires both specific and general regulators. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant ask1-1 (for -Arabidopsis skp1-like1-1), which exhibits defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. In the ask1-1mutant, rosette leaf growth is reduced, resulting in smaller than normal rosette leaves, and internodes in the floral stem are shorter than normal. Examination of cell sizes in these organs indicates that cell expansion is normal in the mutant, but cell number is reduced. In the mutant, the numbers of petals and stamens are reduced, and many flowers have one or more petals with a reduced size. In addition, all mutant flowers have short stamen filaments. Furthermore, petal/stamen chimeric organs are found in many flowers. These results indicate that the ASK1 gene affects the size of vegetative and floral organs. The ask1 floral phenotype resembles somewhat that of the Arabidopsis ufo mutants in that both genes affect whorls 2 and 3. We therefore tested for possible interactions between ASK1 and UFO by analyzing the phenotypes of ufo-2 ask1-1 double mutant plants. In these plants, vegetative development is similar to that of the ask1-1 single mutant, whereas the floral defects are more severe than those in either single mutant. Interior to the first whorl, the double mutant flowers have more sepals or sepal-like organs than are found in ufo-2, and less petals than ask1-1. Our results suggest that ASK1 interacts with UFO to control floral organ identity in whorls 2 and 3. This is very intriguing because ASK1 is very similar in sequence to the yeast SKP1 protein and UFO contains an F-box, a motif known to interact with SKP1 in yeast. Although the precise mechanism of ASK1 and UFO action is unknown, our results support the hypothesis that these two proteins physically interact in vivo. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Organic molecules with abnormal geometric parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, Igor V

    2001-01-01

    Organic molecules, the structural parameters of which (carbon-carbon bond lengths, bond and torsion angles) differ appreciably from the typical most frequently encountered values, are discussed. Using many examples of 'record-breaking' molecules, the limits of structural distortions in carbon compounds and their unusual chemical properties are demonstrated. Particular attention is devoted to strained compounds not yet synthesised whose properties have been predicted using quantum-chemical calculations. Factors that ensure the stability of such compounds are outlined. The bibliography includes 358 references.

  18. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Five MADS-Box B Class Genes Related to Floral Organ Identification in Tagetes erecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs. Yeast hybrid experiments of the B class proteins showed that TePI protein could form a homodimer and heterodimers with all the other four B class proteins TeAP3-1, TeAP3-2, TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2. No homodimer or interaction was observed between the euAP3 and TM6 clade members. Over-expression of five B class genes of T. erecta in Nicotiana rotundifolia showed that only the transgenic plants of 35S::TePI showed altered floral morphology compared with the non-transgenic line. This study could contribute to the understanding of the function of B class genes in flower development of T. erecta, and provide a theoretical basis for further research to change floral organ structures and create new materials for plant breeding.

  19. Modularity and intra-floral integration in metameric organisms: plants are more than the sum of their parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Pamela K

    2014-08-19

    Within-individual variation in virtually every conceivable morphological and functional feature of reiterated structures is a pervasive feature of plant phenotypes. In particular, architectural effects, regular, repeatable patterns of intra-individual variation in form and function that are associated with position are nearly ubiquitous. Yet, flowers also are predicted to be highly integrated. For animal-pollinated plants, the coordination of multiple organs within each flower is required to achieve the complex functions of pollinator attraction and orientation, pollen donation and pollen receipt. To the extent that pollinators may select for multiple independent functions, phenotypic integration within flowers may also be modular. That is, subsets of floral structures may be integrated but vary independently of other subsets of structures that are themselves integrated. How can phenotypic integration and modularity be understood within the context of architectural effects? This essay reviews recent research on patterns of floral integration and modularity and explores the potential for spatial and temporal changes in the selective environment of individual flowers to result in positional variation in patterns of morphological integration. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Floral organ abscission peptide IDA and its HAE/HSL2 receptors control cell separation during lateral root emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpf, Robert P; Shi, Chun-Lin; Larrieu, Antoine; Stø, Ida Myhrer; Butenko, Melinka A; Péret, Benjamin; Riiser, Even Sannes; Bennett, Malcolm J; Aalen, Reidunn B

    2013-03-26

    Throughout their life cycle, plants produce new organs, such as leaves, flowers, and lateral roots. Organs that have served their purpose may be shed after breakdown of primary cell walls between adjacent cell files at the site of detachment. In Arabidopsis, floral organs abscise after pollination, and this cell separation event is controlled by the peptide INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION (IDA), which signals through the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-LIKE2 (HSL2). Emergence of new lateral root primordia, initiated deep inside the root under the influence of auxin, is similarly dependent on cell wall dissolution between cells in the overlaying endodermal, cortical, and epidermal tissues. Here we show that this process requires IDA, HAE, and HSL2. Mutation in these genes constrains the passage of the growing lateral root primordia through the overlaying layers, resulting in altered shapes of the lateral root primordia and of the overlaying cells. The HAE and HSL2 receptors are redundant in function during floral organ abscission, but during lateral root emergence they are differentially involved in regulating cell wall remodeling genes. In the root, IDA is strongly auxin-inducible and dependent on key regulators of lateral root emergence--the auxin influx carrier LIKE AUX1-3 and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7. The expression levels of the receptor genes are only transiently induced by auxin, suggesting they are limiting factors for cell separation. We conclude that elements of the same cell separation signaling module have been adapted to function in different developmental programs.

  1. Pelvic organ prolapse and connective tissue abnormalities in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Sang Wook; Choe, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Park, Ki Hyun

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between pelvic organ prolapse in Korean women and joint hypermobility, which suggests a metabolic collagen fiber abnormality. Between March 1998 and March 2000, we investigated 55 patients with prolapse. The prevalence of joint hypermobility, by measuring finger extension angle, and the proportion of patients with joint hypermobility were measured in patients with pelvic organ prolapse and benign gynecologic patients (control group). In middle-aged women (40-59 years), the average finger extension angles were higher in the POP group than in the control group (50.04 +/- 9.70 degrees vs. 39.50 +/- 12.19 degrees, respectively; P .05). The prevalence of joint hypermobility was higher in the POP group and with advanced POP stage (III, IV) than in the control group and early POP stage (I, II). Our results suggest that intrinsic connective tissue abnormality is related to the development of pelvic organ prolapse. Further study involving more patients with pelvic organ prolapse is warranted, and molecular studies to determine the genetic basis of pelvic organ prolapse are also required to further elucidate this abnormality.

  2. Floral organ MADS-box genes in Cercidiphyllum japonicum (Cercidiphyllaceae: Implications for systematic evolution and bracts definition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupei Jin

    Full Text Available The dioecious relic Cercidiphyllum japonicum is one of two species of the sole genus Cercidiphyllum, with a tight inflorescence lacking an apparent perianth structure. In addition, its systematic place has been much debated and, so far researches have mainly focused on its morphology and chloroplast genes. In our investigation, we identified 10 floral organ identity genes, including four A-class, three B-class, two C-class and one D-class. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all ten genes are grouped with Saxifragales plants, which confirmed the phylogenetic place of C. japonicum. Expression patterns of those genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, with some variations that did not completely coincide with the ABCDE model, suggesting some subfunctionalization. As well, our research supported the idea that thebract actually is perianth according to our morphological and molecular analyses in Cercidiphyllum japonicum.

  3. [Abnormal floral meristem development in transgenic tomato plants do not depend on the expression of genes encoding defense-related PR-proteins and antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliluev, M R; Chaban, I A; Kononenko, N V; Baranova, E N; Dolgov, S V; Kharchenko, P N; Poliakov, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the morphological and cytoembryological analyses of the tomato plants transformed with the genes encoding chitin-binding proteins (ac and RS-intron-Shir) from Amaranthus caudatus L. andA. retroflexus L., respectively, as well as the gene amp2 encoding hevein-like antimicrobial peptides from Stellaria media L., have been performed. The transgenic lines were adapted to soil and grown the greenhouse. The analysis of putative transgenic tomato plants revealed several lines that did not differ phenotypically from the wild type plants and three lines with disruption in differentiation of the inflorescence shoot and the flower, as well as the fruit formation (modified plants of each line were transformed with a single gene as noted before). Abnormalities in the development of the generative organs were maintained for at least six vegetative generations. These transgenic plants were shown to be defective in the mail gametophyte formation, fertilization, and, consequently, led to parthenocarpic fruits. The detailed analysis of growing ovules in the abnormal transgenic plants showed that the replacement tissue was formed and proliferated instead of unfertilized embryo sac. The structure of the replacement tissue differed from both embryonic and endosperm tissue of the normal ovule. The formation of the replacement tissue occurred due to continuing proliferation of the endothelial cells that lost their ability for differentiation. The final step in the development of the replacement tissue was its death, which resulted in the cell lysis. The expression of the genes used was confirmed by RT-PCR in all three lines with abnormal phenotype, as well as in several lines that did not phenotypically differ from the untransformed control. This suggests that abnormalities in the organs of the generative sphere in the transgenic plants do not depend on the expression of the foreign genes that were introduced in the tomato genome. Here, we argue that agrobacterial

  4. Abnormal Brain Network Organization in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Donatello; Leow, Alex; Brown, Jesse A; Zhan, Liang; GadElkarim, Johnson; Hovav, Sarit; Feusner, Jamie D

    2013-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with misperceived defects of appearance, causing significant distress and disability. Previous studies suggest abnormalities in information processing characterized by greater local relative to global processing. The purpose of this study was to probe whole-brain and regional white matter network organization in BDD, and to relate this to specific metrics of symptomatology. We acquired diffusion-weighted 34-direction MR images from 14 unmedicated participants with DSM-IV BDD and 16 healthy controls, from which we conducted whole-brain deterministic diffusion tensor imaging tractography. We then constructed white matter structural connectivity matrices to derive whole-brain and regional graph theory metrics, which we compared between groups. Within the BDD group, we additionally correlated these metrics with scores on psychometric measures of BDD symptom severity as well as poor insight/delusionality. The BDD group showed higher whole-brain mean clustering coefficient than controls. Global efficiency negatively correlated with BDD symptom severity. The BDD group demonstrated greater edge betweenness centrality for connections between the anterior temporal lobe and the occipital cortex, and between bilateral occipital poles. This represents the first brain network analysis in BDD. Results suggest disturbances in whole brain structural topological organization in BDD, in addition to correlations between clinical symptoms and network organization. There is also evidence of abnormal connectivity between regions involved in lower-order visual processing and higher-order visual and emotional processing, as well as interhemispheric visual information transfer. These findings may relate to disturbances in information processing found in previous studies. PMID:23322186

  5. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Li, Long; Hou, Dan; Ma, Yanjun; Liu, Jun; Bai, Qingsong; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis . In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis , and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKC C , MIKC ∗ , Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis . Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15 , an AP1 -like gene, in Arabidopsis , and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis . Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis .

  6. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  7. Organ-specific transcriptome profiling of metabolic and pigment biosynthesis pathways in the floral ornamental progenitor species Anthurium amnicola Dressler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthurium amnicola Dressler possesses a number of desirable and novel ornamental traits such as a purple-colored upright spathe, profuse flowering, and floral scent, some of which have been introgressed into modern Anthurium cultivars. As a first step in identifying genes associated with these trai...

  8. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Ferrario, Silvia; Angenent, Gerco C; Kobayashi, Akira; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the stamen number and ovule development phenotypes of the Arabidopsis sup mutant. Two P. hybrida lines of transposon (dTph1) insertion mutants of PhSUP1 exhibited increased stamen number at the cost of normal carpel development, and ovule development was defective owing to aberrant growth of the integument. Unlike Arabidopsis sup mutants, phsup1 mutants also showed extra tissues connecting stamens, a petal tube and an ovary, and aberrancies in the development of anther and placenta. PhSUP1 transcripts occurred in the basal region of wild-type flowers around developing organ primordia in whorls 2 and 3 as well as in the funiculus of the ovule, concave regions of the placenta, and interthecal regions of developing anthers. Overexpression of PhSUP1 in P. hybrida resulted in size reduction of petals, leaves, and inflorescence stems. The shortening of inflorescence stems and petal tubes was primarily attributable to suppression of cell elongation, whereas a decrease in cell number was mainly responsible for the size reduction of petal limbs.

  9. The genome and transcriptome of Phalaenopsis yield insights into floral organ development and flowering regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Phalaenopsis orchid is an important potted flower of high economic value around the world. We report the 3.1 Gb draft genome assembly of an important winter flowering Phalaenopsis ‘KHM190’ cultivar. We generated 89.5 Gb RNA-seq and 113 million sRNA-seq reads to use these data to identify 41,153 protein-coding genes and 188 miRNA families. We also generated a draft genome for Phalaenopsis pulcherrima ‘B8802,’ a summer flowering species, via resequencing. Comparison of genome data between the two Phalaenopsis cultivars allowed the identification of 691,532 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, we reveal that the key role of PhAGL6b in the regulation of labellum organ development involves alternative splicing in the big lip mutant. Petal or sepal overexpressing PhAGL6b leads to the conversion into a lip-like structure. We also discovered that the gibberellin pathway that regulates the expression of flowering time genes during the reproductive phase change is induced by cool temperature. Our work thus depicted a valuable resource for the flowering control, flower architecture development, and breeding of the Phalaenopsis orchids.

  10. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Kerstin; Wellmer, Frank; Muiño, Jose M; Ferrier, Thilia; Wuest, Samuel E; Kumar, Vijaya; Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Madueño, Francisco; Krajewski, Pawel; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Angenent, Gerco C; Riechmann, José Luis

    2010-04-02

    The MADS-domain transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis flower development. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AP1 function, we identified its target genes during floral initiation using a combination of gene expression profiling and genome-wide binding studies. Many of its targets encode transcriptional regulators, including known floral repressors. The latter genes are down-regulated by AP1, suggesting that it initiates floral development by abrogating the inhibitory effects of these genes. Although AP1 acts predominantly as a transcriptional repressor during the earliest stages of flower development, at more advanced stages it also activates regulatory genes required for floral organ formation, indicating a dynamic mode of action. Our results further imply that AP1 orchestrates floral initiation by integrating growth, patterning, and hormonal pathways.

  11. An Abattoir Survey of Reproductive Organ Abnormalities in Beef Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenda, Drago

    1987-01-01

    During the period from April 1984 to March 1985, a survey of abnormalities in beef heifer reproductive tracts was performed in an Ontario abattoir. Data concerning both pregnancy and gross pathology were collected on 5800 heifers. Pregnancy was found in 382 (6.6%) of the heifers examined. Various abnormalities were detected in 1499 (27.7%) of the remaining 5418 heifers. Cystic ovaries were found in 807 nonpregnant heifers (14.9%) and ovarian bursal adhesions and mucometra affected 5.4% and 5.0% of heifers, respectively. The prevalence of cystic ovaries and mucometrs was higher (p<0.05) in heifers exposed to melengestrol acetate. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422881

  12. Characterization of wheat Bell1-type homeobox genes in floral organs of alloplasmic lines with Aegilops crassa cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murai Koji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alloplasmic wheat lines with Aegilops crassa cytoplasm often show homeotic conversion of stamens into pistils under long-day conditions. In the pistillody-exhibiting florets, an ectopic ovule is formed within the transformed stamens, and female sterility is also observed because of abnormal integument development. Results In this study, four wheat Bell1-like homeobox (BLH genes were isolated and named WBLH1 to WBLH4. WBLH1/WBLH3/WBLH4 expression was observed in the basal boundary region of the ovary in both normal pistils and transformed stamens. WBLH2 was also strongly expressed in integuments not only of normal ovules in pistils but also of the ectopic ovules in transformed stamens, and the WBLH2 expression pattern in the sterile pistils seemed to be identical to that in normal ovules of fertile pistils. In addition, WBLH1 and WBLH3 showed interactions with the three wheat KNOX proteins through the BEL domain. WBLH2, however, formed a complex with wheat KNOTTED1 and ROUGH SHEATH1 orthologs through SKY and BEL domains, but not with a wheat LIGULELESS4 ortholog. Conclusions Expression of the four WBLH genes is evident in reproductive organs including pistils and transformed stamens and is independent from female sterility in alloplasmic wheat lines with Ae. crassa cytoplasm. KNOX-BLH interaction was conserved among various plant species, indicating the significance of KNOX-BLH complex formation in wheat developmental processes. The functional features of WBLH2 are likely to be distinct from other BLH gene functions in wheat development.

  13. A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Leon Nidia; Arteaga-Vazquez Mario; Sakai Hajime; Kaushik Shail; Peiffer Jason A; Ghazal Hassan; Vielle-Calzada Jean-Philippe; Meyers Blake C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have further characterized floral organ-localized gene expression in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparison of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) data. Six libraries of RNA sequence tags from immature inflorescence tissues were constructed and matched to their respective loci in the annotated Arabidopsis genome. These signature libraries survey the floral transcriptome of wild-type tissue as well as the floral homeotic mutants, apetala1, ape...

  14. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  15. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  16. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  17. Variations on a theme: changes in the floral ABCs in angiosperms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the

  18. Variations on a theme: changes in the floral ABCs in angiosperms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, A.S.; Vandenbussche, M.; Koes, R.E.; Heijmans, K.; Gerats, T.

    2010-01-01

    Angiosperms display a huge variety of floral forms. The development of the ABC-model for floral organ identity, almost 20 years ago, has created an excellent basis for comparative floral development (evo-devo) studies. These have resulted in an increasingly more detailed understanding of the

  19. Genetics of Floral Development (By Christine Fleet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Summaryplantcell;29/11/tpc.117.tt1117/FIG1F1fig1A basic model for floral organ identity has been developed using model systems such as Arabidopsis thaliana , snapdragon ( Antirrhinum majus ), and petunia ( Petunia hybrida ). In this model, different combinations of proteins known as ABCDE proteins, mostly MADS-domain transcription factors, activate the transcription of target genes to specify the identity of each whorl of floral organs. Changes in the regulation or activation of these target genes contribute to the wide variety of floral forms that we see within and across species. In addition, duplications and divergence of these genes in different groups of flowering plants have resulted in differences in gene function and expression patterns, contributing to differences in flower form across species. Posted December 8, 2017.Click HERE to access Teaching Tool Components. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Cavitary Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia and abnormalities of the Basal Ganglia Case presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Enrique; Mora, Alfonso Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP) is a pulmonary disorder with a wide spectrum of radiological features. A case of a young patient of 16 years old is shown with CAT appearance of multiple cavitary nodules in both lungs that responded with a complete resolution after corticosteroid therapy. This patient also reveals abnormalities of the basal ganglia as the result of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with the acute presentation of this disorder. We justify the inclusion of COP in the differential diagnosis of multiple cavitary nodules, and it is discussed the differential diagnosis of her abnormalities of the basal ganglia

  1. Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Christina M; Parachnowitsch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Who Buys Oddly Shaped Food and Why? Impacts of Food Shape Abnormality and Organic Labeling on Purchase Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Schuitema, Geertje; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    experimentally. A representative sample of 964 Danish consumers indicated their purchase intentions for two fruits and two vegetables with varying levels of food shape abnormality (normal, moderately abnormal, and extremely abnormal) and organic labels (organic label, no label). Food shape abnormalities...... influence consumers’ purchase intentions, but only if the food deviates extremely from the norm; no differences in purchase intentions emerge for moderately abnormal food. Awareness of food waste issues and proenvironmental self-identities also drive purchase intentions, such that participants with high...... levels of these traits express significantly higher purchase intentions for abnormally shaped food. Thus, increasing awareness of food waste issues, particularly among those with strong proenvironmental self-identities, might encourage more consumers to purchase abnormally shaped fruits and vegetables....

  3. The floral transcriptome of ylang ylang (Cananga odorata var. fruticosa) uncovers biosynthetic pathways for volatile organic compounds and a multifunctional and novel sesquiterpene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Kim, Mi Jung; Dhandapani, Savitha; Tjhang, Jessica Gambino; Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Limsoon; Sarojam, Rajani; Chua, Nam-Hai; Jang, In-Cheol

    2015-07-01

    The pleasant fragrance of ylang ylang varieties (Cananga odorata) is mainly due to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the flowers. Floral scents are a key factor in plant-insect interactions and are vital for successful pollination. C. odorata var. fruticosa, or dwarf ylang ylang, is a variety of ylang ylang that is popularly grown in Southeast Asia as a small shrub with aromatic flowers. Here, we describe the combined use of bioinformatics and chemical analysis to discover genes for the VOC biosynthesis pathways and related genes. The scented flowers of C. odorata var. fruticosa were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and a total of 49 VOCs were identified at four different stages of flower development. The bulk of these VOCs were terpenes, mainly sesquiterpenes. To identify the various terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these essential oils, we performed RNA sequencing on mature flowers. From the RNA sequencing data, four full-length TPSs were functionally characterized. In vitro assays showed that two of these TPSs were mono-TPSs. CoTPS1 synthesized four products corresponding to β-thujene, sabinene, β-pinene, and α-terpinene from geranyl pyrophosphate and CoTPS4 produced geraniol from geranyl pyrophosphate. The other two TPSs were identified as sesqui-TPSs. CoTPS3 catalysed the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to α-bergamotene, whereas CoTPS2 was found to be a multifunctional and novel TPS that could catalyse the synthesis of three sesquiterpenes, β-ylangene, β-copaene, and β-cubebene. Additionally, the activities of the two sesqui-TPSs were confirmed in planta by transient expression of these TPS genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Shot-gun proteome and transcriptome mapping of the jujube floral organ and identification of a pollen-specific S-locus F-box gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The flower is a plant reproductive organ that forms part of the fruit produced as the flowering season ends. While the number and identity of proteins expressed in a jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. flower is currently unknown, integrative proteomic and transcriptomic analyses provide a systematic strategy of characterizing the floral biology of plants. We conducted a shotgun proteomic analysis on jujube flowers by using a filter-aided sample preparation tryptic digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. In addition, transcriptomics analyses were performed on HiSeq2000 sequencers. In total, 7,853 proteins were identified accounting for nearly 30% of the ‘Junzao’ gene models (27,443. Genes identified in proteome generally showed higher RPKM (reads per kilobase per million mapped reads values than undetected genes. Gene ontology categories showed that ribosomes and intracellular organelles were the most dominant classes and accounted for 17.0% and 14.0% of the proteome mass, respectively. The top-ranking proteins with iBAQ >1010 included non-specific lipid transfer proteins, histones, actin-related proteins, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, Bet v I type allergens, etc. In addition, we identified one pollen-specificity S-locus F-box-like gene located on the same chromosome as the S-RNase gene. Both of these may activate the behaviour of gametophyte self-incompatibility in jujube. These results reflected the protein profile features of jujube flowers and contributes new information important to the jujube breeding system.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a floral homeotic gene in Fraxinus nigra causing earlier flowering and homeotic alterations in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Hyung Lee; Paula M. Pijut

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive sterility, which can be obtained by manipulating floral organ identity genes, is an important tool for gene containment of genetically engineered trees. In Arabidopsis, AGAMOUS (AG) is the only C-class gene responsible for both floral meristem determinacy and floral organ identity, and its mutations produce...

  6. Floral structure and ontogeny of Syndiclis (Lauraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zeng

    Full Text Available Generic delimitation in the Beilschmiedia group of the Lauraceae remains ambiguous because flowering specimens of a few genera with confined distribution are poorly represented in herbaria, and a few floral characters important for taxonomy are still poorly known. Syndiclis is sporadically distributed in southwestern China, and is represented in the herbaria by only a few flowering specimens. We conducted field investigations to collect floral materials of four species and observed structures and ontogeny of the tiny flowers using both light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that the genus Syndiclis possesses flowers with huge variation in both merosity and organ number. Flowers of the genus are dimerous, trimerous, or tetramerous, or have mixed merosity with monomerous and dimerous, or dimerous and trimerous, or trimerous and tetramerous whorls. The number of staminodes ranges from two to eight, depending on floral merosity, and on how many stamens of the third androecial whorl are reduced to staminodes. The staminodes of the fourth androecial whorl are comparable to the staminodes in Potameia, but the staminodes of the third androecial whorl of Syndiclis are relatively larger than the staminodes in Potameia. They are erect or curved inwards, covering the ovary. The anthers are usually two-locular, but rarely one-locular or three-locular. Each stamen of the third androecial whorl bears two conspicuous and enlarged glands at the base. The lability of floral merosity and organ number of Syndiclis may have been caused by changes of pollination system and loss of special selective pressures that are present in most Lauraceous plants with fixed floral organ number. This study furthers our understanding of variation and evolution of a few important characters of the Beilschmiedia group and provides essential data for a revised generic classification of the group.

  7. The OCL3 promoter from Sorghum bicolor directs gene expression to abscission and nutrient-transfer zones at the bases of floral organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique J; Clemente, Tom E; Ge, Zhengxiang; Carman, John G

    2014-09-01

    During seed fill in cereals, nutrients are symplasmically unloaded to vascular parenchyma in ovules, but thereafter nutrient transport is less certain. In Zea mays, two mechanisms of nutrient passage through the chalaza and nucellus have been hypothesized, apoplasmic and symplasmic. In a recent study, nutrients first passed non-selectively to the chalazal apoplasm and were then selectively absorbed by the nucellus before being released to the endosperm apoplasm. This study reports that the promoter of OUTER CELL LAYER3 (PSbOCL3) from Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) directs gene expression to chalazal cells where the apoplasmic barrier is thought to form. The aims were to elucidate PSbOCL3 expression patterns in sorghum and relate them to processes of nutrient pathway development in kernels and to recognized functions of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) IV transcription factor family to which the promoter belongs. PSbOCL3 was cloned and transformed into sorghum as a promoter-GUS (β-glucuronidase) construct. Plant tissues from control and transformed plants were then stained for GUS, and kernels were cleared and characterized using differential interference contrast microscopy. A symplasmic disconnect between the chalaza and nucellus during seed fill is inferred by the combination of two phenomena: differentiation of a distinct nucellar epidermis adjacent to the chalaza, and lysis of GUS-stained chalazal cells immediately proximal to the nucellar epidermis. Compression of the GUS-stained chalazal cells during kernel maturation produced the kernel abscission zone (closing layer). The results suggest that the HD-Zip IV transcription factor SbOCL3 regulates kernel nutrition and abscission. The latter is consistent with evidence that members of this transcription factor group regulate silique abscission and dehiscence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, the findings suggest that processes of floral organ abscission are conserved among angiosperms and may in some

  8. Genetic Analysis of Streaked and Abnormal Floret Mutant st-fon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A double mutant with streaked leaf and abnormal floret was found and temporarily named streaked leaf and floral organ number mutant (st-fon. For this mutant, besides white streak appeared on culm, leaves and panicles, the number of floral organs increased and florets cracked. The extreme phenotype was that several small florets grew from one floret or branch rachis in small florets extended and developed into panicles. By using transmission electron microscope to observe the ultrastructure of white histocytes of leaves at the seedling stage, the white tissues which showed abnormal plastids, lamellas and thylakoids could not develop into normal chloroplast, and the development of chloroplast was blocked at the early growth stage of plastid. Scanning electron microscope and paraffin section were also used to observe the development of floral organs, and the results indicated that the development of floral meristem was out of order and unlimited, whereas in the twisty leaves, vascular bundle sheath cells grew excessively, or some bubbly cells increased. Genetic analyses carried out by means of cross and backcross with four normal-leaf-color materials revealed that the mutant is of cytoplasm inheritance.

  9. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  10. Congenital hydrocephalus and abnormal subcommissural organ development in Sox3 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie Lee

    Full Text Available Congenital hydrocephalus (CH is a life-threatening medical condition in which excessive accumulation of CSF leads to ventricular expansion and increased intracranial pressure. Stenosis (blockage of the Sylvian aqueduct (Aq; the narrow passageway that connects the third and fourth ventricles is a common form of CH in humans, although the genetic basis of this condition is unknown. Mouse models of CH indicate that Aq stenosis is associated with abnormal development of the subcommmissural organ (SCO a small secretory organ located at the dorsal midline of the caudal diencephalon. Glycoproteins secreted by the SCO generate Reissner's fibre (RF, a thread-like structure that descends into the Aq and is thought to maintain its patency. However, despite the importance of SCO function in CSF homeostasis, the genetic program that controls SCO development is poorly understood. Here, we show that the X-linked transcription factor SOX3 is expressed in the murine SCO throughout its development and in the mature organ. Importantly, overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal diencephalic midline of transgenic mice induces CH via a dose-dependent mechanism. Histological, gene expression and cellular proliferation studies indicate that Sox3 overexpression disrupts the development of the SCO primordium through inhibition of diencephalic roof plate identity without inducing programmed cell death. This study provides further evidence that SCO function is essential for the prevention of hydrocephalus and indicates that overexpression of Sox3 in the dorsal midline alters progenitor cell differentiation in a dose-dependent manner.

  11. Floral ontogeny in legume genera Petalostylis, Labichea, and Dialium (Caesalpinioideae: Cassieae), a series in floral reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, S

    1998-02-01

    Floral ontogeny of taxa of two subtribes (Labicheinae, Dialiinae) of caesalpinioid tribe Cassieae, characterized by reduced number of floral organs, was compared. All three taxa studied are distichous; Petalostylis labicheoides flowers are solitary in leaf axils, Labichea lanceolata has few-flowered racemes, and Dialium guineense has numerous-flowered cymes. The first sepal primordium in each is initiated abaxially and nonmedianly. Order of organogenesis in Petalostylis is: five sepals bidirectionally, five petals and carpel simultaneously, then five stamens bidirectionally, starting abaxially. The order in Labichea is: five sepals helically (one lagging in time), five petals unidirectionally starting abaxially, the carpel and petals concurrently, then two stamens successively, starting laterally. Order in Dialium is: five sepals bidirectionally, the single petal adaxially, and lastly the carpel and two stamens concurrently. Specializations include (1) reduction of the five sepals to four by fusion in Petalostylis and Labichea; (2) reduction of petal number to one in Dialium; (3) reduction of stamen number to two in Labichea and Dialium, and reduction of functional stamens to three in Petalostylis; and (4) an elaborate, late-developing style in Petalostylis. Floral asymmetry, another specialization, characterizes Labichea, expressed by dissimilar stamens, while the other genera have zygomorphic flowers. Floral ontogenies are compared with other taxa of Cassieae.

  12. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu eXiangzhe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are almost unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs, followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized shortest path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing the functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM.

  13. A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Leon Nidia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have further characterized floral organ-localized gene expression in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparison of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS data. Six libraries of RNA sequence tags from immature inflorescence tissues were constructed and matched to their respective loci in the annotated Arabidopsis genome. These signature libraries survey the floral transcriptome of wild-type tissue as well as the floral homeotic mutants, apetala1, apetala3, agamous, a superman/apetala1 double mutant, and differentiated ovules dissected from the gynoecia of wild-type inflorescences. Comparing and contrasting these MPSS floral expression libraries enabled demarcation of transcripts enriched in the petals, stamens, stigma-style, gynoecia, and those with predicted enrichment within the sepal/sepal-petals, petal-stamens, or gynoecia-stamens. Results By comparison of expression libraries, a total of 572 genes were found to have organ-enriched expression within the inflorescence. The bulk of characterized organ-enriched transcript diversity was noted in the gynoecia and stamens, whereas fewer genes demonstrated sepal or petal-localized expression. Validation of the computational analyses was performed by comparison with previously published expression data, in situ hybridizations, promoter-reporter fusions, and reverse transcription PCR. A number of well-characterized genes were accurately delineated within our system of transcript filtration. Moreover, empirical validations confirm MPSS predictions for several genes with previously uncharacterized expression patterns. Conclusion This extensive MPSS analysis confirms and supplements prior microarray floral expression studies and illustrates the utility of sequence survey-based expression analysis in functional genomics. Spatial floral expression data accrued by MPSS and similar methods will be advantageous in the elucidation of more comprehensive genetic

  14. A spatial dissection of the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome by MPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Jason A; Kaushik, Shail; Sakai, Hajime; Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario; Sanchez-Leon, Nidia; Ghazal, Hassan; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-04-21

    We have further characterized floral organ-localized gene expression in the inflorescence of Arabidopsis thaliana by comparison of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) data. Six libraries of RNA sequence tags from immature inflorescence tissues were constructed and matched to their respective loci in the annotated Arabidopsis genome. These signature libraries survey the floral transcriptome of wild-type tissue as well as the floral homeotic mutants, apetala1, apetala3, agamous, a superman/apetala1 double mutant, and differentiated ovules dissected from the gynoecia of wild-type inflorescences. Comparing and contrasting these MPSS floral expression libraries enabled demarcation of transcripts enriched in the petals, stamens, stigma-style, gynoecia, and those with predicted enrichment within the sepal/sepal-petals, petal-stamens, or gynoecia-stamens. By comparison of expression libraries, a total of 572 genes were found to have organ-enriched expression within the inflorescence. The bulk of characterized organ-enriched transcript diversity was noted in the gynoecia and stamens, whereas fewer genes demonstrated sepal or petal-localized expression. Validation of the computational analyses was performed by comparison with previously published expression data, in situ hybridizations, promoter-reporter fusions, and reverse transcription PCR. A number of well-characterized genes were accurately delineated within our system of transcript filtration. Moreover, empirical validations confirm MPSS predictions for several genes with previously uncharacterized expression patterns. This extensive MPSS analysis confirms and supplements prior microarray floral expression studies and illustrates the utility of sequence survey-based expression analysis in functional genomics. Spatial floral expression data accrued by MPSS and similar methods will be advantageous in the elucidation of more comprehensive genetic regulatory networks governing floral development.

  15. Novel FOXA2 mutation causes Hyperinsulinism, Hypopituitarism with Craniofacial and Endoderm-derived organ abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Dinesh; Vignola, Maria Lillina; Gualtieri, Angelica; Scagliotti, Valeria; McNamara, Paul; Peak, Matthew; Didi, Mohammed; Gaston-Massuet, Carles; Senniappan, Senthil

    2017-11-15

    Congenital hypopituitarism (CH) is characterized by the deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones and can present alone or in association with complex disorders. Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a disorder of unregulated insulin secretion despite hypoglycaemia that can occur in isolation or as part of a wider syndrome. Molecular diagnosis is unknown in many cases of CH and CHI. The underlying genetic etiology causing the complex phenotype of CH and CHI is unknown. In this study, we identified a de novo heterozygous mutation in the developmental transcription factor, forkhead box A2, FOXA2 (c.505T>C, p.S169P) in a child with CHI and CH with craniofacial dysmorphic features, choroidal coloboma and endoderm-derived organ malformations in liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract by whole exome sequencing. The mutation is at a highly conserved residue within the DNA binding domain. We demonstrated strong expression of Foxa2 mRNA in the developing hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, lungs and oesophagus of mouse embryos using in situ hybridization. Expression profiling on human embryos by immunohistochemistry showed strong expression of hFOXA2 in the neural tube, third ventricle, diencephalon and pancreas. Transient transfection of HEK293T cells with Wt (Wild type) hFOXA2 or mutant hFOXA2 showed an impairment in transcriptional reporter activity by the mutant hFOXA2. Further analyses using western blot assays showed that the FOXA2 p.(S169P) variant is pathogenic resulting in lower expression levels when compared with Wt hFOXA2. Our results show, for the first time, the causative role of FOXA2 in a complex congenital syndrome with hypopituitarism, hyperinsulinism and endoderm-derived organ abnormalities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Disrupted nodal and hub organization account for brain network abnormalities in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Koshimori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree. Hub regions were identified in the healthy control and patient groups. We found nodal and hub changes in patients compared with healthy controls, including the right pre-supplementary motor area, left anterior insula, bilateral mid-insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus. In general, nodal regions within the sensorimotor network (i.e. right pre-supplementary motor area and right mid-insula displayed weakened connectivity, with the former node associated with more severe bradykinesia, and impaired integration with default mode network regions. The left mid-insula also lost its hub properties in patients. Within the executive networks, the left anterior insular cortex lost its hub properties in patients, while a new hub region was identified in the right caudate nucleus, paralleled by an increased level of inter- and intra-connectivity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex possibly representing compensatory mechanisms. These findings highlight the diffuse changes in nodal organization and regional hub disruption accounting for the distributed abnormalities across brain networks and the clinical manifestations of Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Evolution of the process underlying floral zygomorphy development in pentapetalous angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Ghadeer; Zhang, Jingbo; Stevens, Peter F; Zhang, Wenheng

    2017-12-01

    Observations of floral ontogeny indicated that floral organ initiation in pentapetalous flowers most commonly results in a median-abaxial (MAB) petal during early development, a median-adaxial (MAD) petal being less common. Such different patterns of floral organ initiation might be linked with different morphologies of floral zygomorphy that have evolved in Asteridae. Here, we provide the first study of zygomorphy in pentapetalous angiosperms placed in a phylogenetic framework, the goal being to find if the different patterns of floral organ initiation are connected with particular patterns of zygomorphy. We analyzed patterns of floral organ initiation and displays of zygomorphy, extracted from floral diagrams representing 405 taxa in 330 genera, covering 83% of orders (30 out of 36) and 37% of families (116 out of 313) in core eudicots in the context of a phylogeny using ancestral state reconstructions. The MAB petal initiation is the ancestral state of the pattern of floral organ initiation in pentapetalous angiosperms. Taxa with MAD petal initiation represent ∼30 independent origins from the ancestral MAB initiation. There are distinct developmental processes that give rise to zygomorphy in different lineages of pentapetalous angiosperms, closely related lineages being likely to share similar developmental processes. We have demonstrated that development indeed constrains the processes that give rise to floral zygomorphy, while phylogenetic distance allows relaxation of these constraints, which provides novel insights on the role that development plays in the evolution of floral zygomorphy. © 2017 Bukhari et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  18. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  19. Geraniales flowers revisited: evolutionary trends in floral nectaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeiter, Julius; Weigend, Maximilian; Hilger, Hartmut H

    2017-02-01

    The detailed relationships in Geraniales in their current circumscription have only recently been clarified. The disparate floral morphologies and especially the nectaries of the corresponding group have consequently not previously been studied in a phylogenetic context. The present study investigates floral and especially nectary morphology and structure for representatives of 12 of the 13 currently accepted genera in the five families of the Geraniales. Flowers were studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The data demonstrate the derivation of even the most disparate floral morphologies from a basic pentamerous and pentacyclic organization, with an obdiplostemonous androecium and receptacular nectaries associated with the antesepalous stamens. Divergent morphologies are explained by modifications of merosity (tetramerous flowers), symmetry (several transitions to zygomorphic flowers) and elaboration of the nectaries into variously shaped outgrowths and appendages, especially in Francoaceae. The divergent development of nectar glands ultimately leads to either a reduction in their number (to one in some Geraniaceae and Melianthaceae) or their total loss (some Vivianiaceae). Floral morphology of the Geraniales shows a high degree of similarity, despite the variation in overall floral appearance and nectary morphology. A hypothesis on the transformation of the nectaries within the Geraniales is presented. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Improving work-up of the abnormal mammogram through organized assessment: results from the ontario breast screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, May Lynn; Shumak, Rene S; Majpruz, Vicky; Holloway, Claire M D; O'Malley, Frances P; Chiarelli, Anna M

    2012-03-01

    Women with an abnormal screening mammogram should ideally undergo an organized assessment to attain a timely diagnosis. This study evaluated outcomes of women undergoing work-up after abnormal mammogram through a formal breast assessment affiliate (BAA) program with explicit care pathways compared with usual care (UC) using developed quality indicators for screening mammography programs. Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, a total of 320,635 women underwent a screening mammogram through the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP), of whom 25,543 had an abnormal result requiring further assessment. Established indicators assessing timeliness, appropriateness of follow-up, and biopsy rates were compared between women who were assessed through either a BAA or UC using χ(2) analysis. Work-up of the abnormal mammogram for patients screened through a BAA resulted in a greater proportion of women attaining a definitive diagnosis within the recommended time interval when a histologic diagnosis was required. In addition, use of other quality measures including specimen radiography for both core biopsies and surgical specimens and preoperative core needle biopsy was greater in BAA facilities. These findings support future efforts to increase the number of BAAs within the OBSP, because the pathways and reporting methods associated with them result in improvements in our ability to provide timely and appropriate care for women requiring work-up of an abnormal mammogram.

  1. Drought and leaf herbivory influence floral volatiles and pollinator attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2016-01-01

    The effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood. Investigating the mechanisms by which species interactions may shift under altered environmental conditions will help form a more predictive understanding of such shifts. In particular, components of climate change have the potential to strongly influence floral volatile organic...

  2. Floral stem cell termination involves the direct regulation of AGAMOUS by PERIANTHIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pradeep; Ito, Toshiro; Wellmer, Frank; Vernoux, Teva; Dedieu, Annick; Traas, Jan; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2009-05-01

    In Arabidopsis, the population of stem cells present in young flower buds is lost after the production of a fixed number of floral organs. The precisely timed repression of the stem cell identity gene WUSCHEL (WUS) by the floral homeotic protein AGAMOUS (AG) is a key part of this process. In this study, we report on the identification of a novel input into the process of floral stem cell regulation. We use genetics and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to demonstrate that the bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA (PAN) plays a role in regulating stem cell fate by directly controlling AG expression and suggest that this activity is spatially restricted to the centermost region of the AG expression domain. These results suggest that the termination of floral stem cell fate is a multiply redundant process involving loci with unrelated floral patterning functions.

  3. Calceolariaceae: floral development and systematic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Eva M; Weber, Anton

    2006-03-01

    The recent establishment of the new family Calceolariaceae, separated from Scrophulariaceae on the basis of molecular evidence, is complemented here by a scanning electron microscopy study of floral morphology and development of 12 species encompassing all genera (Calceolaria, Jovellana, and Stemotria [= Porodittia]). All species showed a similar pattern of organ initiation. The slightly zygomorphic, four-merous calyx is the first floral organ series initiated, with the primordia emerging consecutively in a unidirectional (dorso-ventral) succession. The two entire corolla lips in Calceolaria and Jovellana arise as uniform meristematic ridges (sometimes with a central emargination, especially in Jovellana), kept apart by two lateral stamen primordia. Later the margins of the lips fuse across the backs of the young stamens, giving rise to the short corolla tube (late sympetaly). Stemotria stands out by having three stamens instead of two and a bilobed lower lip, resulting in a trimerous corolla. Similar architecture was found in teratological flowers of Calceolaria. The perianth of Calceolariaceae is shown to be derived from a tetramerous condition, not from pentamery as traditionally believed. This is in agreement with the separation of Calceolariaceae from Scrophulariaceae and with their placement in succession of Oleaceae and Tetrachondraceae in the basal Lamiales. The hitherto puzzling molecular evidence is thus supported by morphological-developmental features of the flower.

  4. Close pathological correlations between chronic kidney disease and reproductive organ-associated abnormalities in female cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sotozaki, Kozue; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus) is a useful experimental rodent for the study of human infectious diseases. We previously clarified that cotton rats, particularly females, developed chronic kidney disease characterized by cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis. The present study investigated female-associated factors for chronic kidney disease development in cotton rats. Notably, female cotton rats developed separation of the pelvic symphysis and hypertrophy in the vaginal parts of the cervix with age, which strongly associated with pyometra. The development of pyometra closely associated with the deterioration of renal dysfunction or immunological abnormalities was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine or spleen weight and serum albumin/globulin ratio, respectively. These parameters for renal dysfunction and immunological abnormalities were statistically correlated. These phenotypes found in the female reproductive organs were completely inhibited by ovariectomy. Further, the female cotton rats with pyometra tended to show more severe chronic kidney disease phenotypes and immunological abnormalities than those without pyometra; these changes were inhibited in ovariectomized cotton rats. With regard to renal histopathology, cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated by ovariectomy. Notably, the immunostaining intensity of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β were weak in the healthy kidneys, but both estrogen receptors were strongly induced in the renal tubules showing cystic changes. In conclusion, the close correlations among female reproductive organ-associated abnormalities, immunological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction characterize the chronic kidney disease features of female cotton rats. Thus, the cotton rat is a unique rodent model to elucidate the pathological crosstalk between chronic kidney disease and sex-related factors. Impact statement The increasing number of elderly individuals in the overall

  5. Evolutionary trends in the floral transcriptome: insights from one of the basalmost angiosperms, the water lily Nuphar advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Chanderbali, André S; Altman, Naomi S; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2010-11-01

    Current understanding of floral developmental genetics comes primarily from the core eudicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we explore the floral transcriptome of the basal angiosperm, Nuphar advena (water lily), for insights into the ancestral developmental program of flowers. We identify several thousand Nuphar genes with significantly upregulated floral expression, including homologs of the well-known ABCE floral regulators, deployed in broadly overlapping transcriptional programs across floral organ categories. Strong similarities in the expression profiles of different organ categories in Nuphar flowers are shared with the magnoliid Persea americana (avocado), in contrast to the largely organ-specific transcriptional cascades evident in Arabidopsis, supporting the inference that this is the ancestral condition in angiosperms. In contrast to most eudicots, floral organs are weakly differentiated in Nuphar and Persea, with staminodial intermediates between stamens and perianth in Nuphar, and between stamens and carpels in Persea. Consequently, the predominantly organ-specific transcriptional programs that characterize Arabidopsis flowers (and perhaps other eudicots) are derived, and correlate with a shift towards morphologically distinct floral organs, including differentiated sepals and petals, and a perianth distinct from stamens and carpels. Our findings suggest that the genetic regulation of more spatially discrete transcriptional programs underlies the evolution of floral morphology. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Floral colleters in Pleurothallidinae (Epidendroideae: Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Campbell, Lisa M; Mazzoni-Viveiros, Solange C; de Barros, Fábio

    2014-04-01

    The term colleter is applied to trichomes or emergences positioned close to developing vegetative and floral meristems that secrete a sticky, mucilaginous, and/or lipophilic exudate. Several ecological functions are attributed to these glands, but none are exclusive to colleters. Patterns of morphology and distribution of colleters may be valuable for systematics and phylogeny, especially concerning problematic and large groups such as the subtribe Pleurothallidinae, and are also essential to understand the evolution of these glands in Orchidaceae as a whole. We used scanning electron and light microscopy to examine the structure and occurrence of trichomes on bracts and sepals and in the invaginations of the external ovary wall (IEOW) in flowers in several developmental stages from species in seven genera. The exudate was composed of polysaccharides, lipophilic, and phenolic compounds. Colleters were secretory only during the development of floral organs, except for the glands in the IEOW that were also active in flowers at anthesis. After the secretory phase, fungal hyphae were found penetrating senescent trichomes. Trichome-like colleters seem to be a widespread character in Epidendroideae, and digitiform colleters are possibly the common type in this subfamily. Mucilage from IEOW colleters may aid in the establishment of symbiotic fungi necessary for seed germination. The presence of colleters in the IEOW may be a case of homeoheterotopy, in which extrafloral nectaries that produce simple sugar-based secretions (as in other orchid species) have changed to glands that produce secretions with complex polysaccharides, as in Pleurothallidinae.

  7. Identification of major quantitative trait loci underlying floral pollination syndrome divergence in Penstemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C; Rausher, Mark D

    2014-08-05

    Distinct floral pollination syndromes have emerged multiple times during the diversification of flowering plants. For example, in western North America, a hummingbird pollination syndrome has evolved more than 100 times, generally from within insect-pollinated lineages. The hummingbird syndrome is characterized by a suite of floral traits that attracts and facilitates pollen movement by hummingbirds, while at the same time discourages bee visitation. These floral traits generally include large nectar volume, red flower colour, elongated and narrow corolla tubes and reproductive organs that are exerted from the corolla. A handful of studies have examined the genetic architecture of hummingbird pollination syndrome evolution. These studies find that mutations of relatively large effect often explain increased nectar volume and transition to red flower colour. In addition, they suggest that adaptive suites of floral traits may often exhibit a high degree of genetic linkage, which could facilitate their fixation during pollination syndrome evolution. Here, we explore these emerging generalities by investigating the genetic basis of floral pollination syndrome divergence between two related Penstemon species with different pollination syndromes--bee-pollinated P. neomexicanus and closely related hummingbird-pollinated P. barbatus. In an F2 mapping population derived from a cross between these two species, we characterized the effect size of genetic loci underlying floral trait divergence associated with the transition to bird pollination, as well as correlation structure of floral trait variation. We find the effect sizes of quantitative trait loci for adaptive floral traits are in line with patterns observed in previous studies, and find strong evidence that suites of floral traits are genetically linked. This linkage may be due to genetic proximity or pleiotropic effects of single causative loci. Interestingly, our data suggest that the evolution of floral traits

  8. Regulation of floral meristem activity through the interaction of AGAMOUS, SUPERMAN, and CLAVATA3 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Xu, Yifeng; Wee, WanYi; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Shibata, Arisa; Shirasu, Ken; Ito, Toshiro

    2017-12-07

    Floral meristem size is redundantly controlled by CLAVATA3, AGAMOUS , and SUPERMAN in Arabidopsis. The proper regulation of floral meristem activity is key to the formation of optimally sized flowers with a fixed number of organs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple regulators determine this activity. A small secreted peptide, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), functions as an important negative regulator of stem cell activity. Two transcription factors, AGAMOUS (AG) and SUPERMAN (SUP), act in different pathways to regulate the termination of floral meristem activity. Previous research has not addressed the genetic interactions among these three genes. Here, we quantified the floral developmental stage-specific phenotypic consequences of combining mutations of AG, SUP, and CLV3. Our detailed phenotypic and genetic analyses revealed that these three genes act in partially redundant pathways to coordinately modulate floral meristem sizes in a spatial and temporal manner. Analyses of the ag sup clv3 triple mutant, which developed a mass of undifferentiated cells in its flowers, allowed us to identify downstream targets of AG with roles in reproductive development and in the termination of floral meristem activity. Our study highlights the role of AG in repressing genes that are expressed in organ initial cells to control floral meristem activity.

  9. Abnormal topological organization of the white matter network in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Xizhuo; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2016-05-23

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that mainly affects the processing of musical pitch. Brain imaging evidence indicates that it is associated with abnormal structural and functional connections in the fronto-temporal region. However, a holistic understanding of the anatomical topology underlying amusia is still lacking. Here, we used probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography and graph theory to examine whole brain white matter structural connectivity in 31 Mandarin-speaking amusics and 24 age- and IQ-matched controls. Amusics showed significantly reduced global connectivity, as indicated by the abnormally decreased clustering coefficient (Cp) and increased normalized shortest path length (λ) compared to the controls. Moreover, amusics exhibited enhanced nodal strength in the right inferior parietal lobule relative to controls. The co-existence of the lexical tone deficits was associated with even more deteriorated global network efficiency in amusics, as suggested by the significant correlation between the increments in normalized shortest path length (λ) and the insensitivity in lexical tone perception. Our study is the first to reveal reduced global connectivity efficiency in amusics as well as an increase in the global connectivity cost due to the co-existed lexical tone deficits. Taken together these results provide a holistic perspective on the anatomical substrates underlying congenital amusia.

  10. Genomic Approach to Study Floral Development Genes in Rosa sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Aurélie; Maene, Marion; Pécrix, Yann; Yang, Shu-Hua; Jeauffre, Julien; Thouroude, Tatiana; Boltz, Véronique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Janczarski, Stéphane; Legeai, Fabrice; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Vergne, Philippe; Le Bris, Manuel; Foucher, Fabrice; Bendahmane, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Cultivated for centuries, the varieties of rose have been selected based on a number of flower traits. Understanding the genetic and molecular basis that contributes to these traits will impact on future improvements for this economically important ornamental plant. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy and sections of meristems and flowers to establish a precise morphological calendar from early rose flower development stages to senescing flowers. Global gene expression was investigated from floral meristem initiation up to flower senescence in three rose genotypes exhibiting contrasted floral traits including continuous versus once flowering and simple versus double flower architecture, using a newly developed Affymetrix microarray (Rosa1_Affyarray) tool containing sequences representing 4765 unigenes expressed during flower development. Data analyses permitted the identification of genes associated with floral transition, floral organs initiation up to flower senescence. Quantitative real time PCR analyses validated the mRNA accumulation changes observed in microarray hybridizations for a selection of 24 genes expressed at either high or low levels. Our data describe the early flower development stages in Rosa sp, the production of a rose microarray and demonstrate its usefulness and reliability to study gene expression during extensive development phases, from the vegetative meristem to the senescent flower. PMID:22194838

  11. Jasmonic acid facilitates flower opening and floral organ development through the upregulated expression of SlMYB21 transcription factor in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Ishiguro, Rie; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ishiguro, Sumie

    2018-02-01

    Plants coordinate the timing of flower opening with pollen and gynoecium maturation to achieve successful pollination. However, little is known about how the coordination is executed. We found that flower bud development was paused immediately before flower opening in a jasmonic acid (JA)-insensitive tomato mutant, jai1-1. Phytohormone measurement and RNA analysis in flower buds revealed that newly synthesised JA peaked at two days before flower opening and the expression of a transcription factor gene SlMYB21 delayed in jai1-1. Buds of transgenic tomato plants expressing an artificial repressor, AtMYB24-SRDX, which was expected to impede the function of SlMYB21, aborted flower opening and resembled those of jai1-1. Furthermore, the AtMYB24-SRDX plants produced abnormal pollen grains deficient in germination and pistils that did not support pollen tube elongation. We concluded that JA facilitates the expression of SlMYB21, which coordinates flower opening, pollen maturation, and gynoecium function in tomato.

  12. Estruturas secretoras em órgãos vegetativos e florais de Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae Secretory structures in vegetative and floral organs of Secondatia densiflora A.DC. (Apocynaceae - Apocynoideae - Odontadenieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Martins

    2013-01-01

    characterize the secretory structures in vegetative and reproductive organs of Secondatia densiflora and to identify the major classes of chemical compounds in idioblasts and in the secretion of vegetative colleters. Idioblasts are distributed all over the aerial organs of the plant and their content is usually dense and strongly stained with safranin. Some idioblasts have secretion of granulated aspect. Histochemical tests evidenced phenolic compounds only. Laticiferous glands are of the anastomosed type and can be seen in all the studied organs and identified by their distinct content and, in some cases, by the presence of cell walls that are thicker than those of parenchyma cells. Latex is white, milky and leaks as the plant is injured. Vegetative colleters are of the standard type and formed of an elongated portion that becomes thinner towards the end. The secretory palisade epidermis delimits a parenchymatic region, while the short peduncle is covered by rectangular non-secretory epidermis. A thin cuticle covers the entire colleter. Mucilage is detected both inside the secretory cells and in the extracellular medium by ruthenium red staining and PAS reaction. Floral nectaries have receptacular origin and epidermis covering their entire structure, nectariferous parenchyma, and vascular bundles; they are fused at their bases but have free apical region, forming five distinct units.

  13. Floral homeotic proteins modulate the genetic program for leaf development to suppress trichome formation in flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid S; Stewart, Darragh; Zheng, Beibei; Coupland, George; Wellmer, Frank

    2018-02-13

    As originally proposed by Goethe in 1790, floral organs are derived from leaf-like structures. The conversion of leaves into different types of floral organ is mediated by floral homeotic proteins, which, as described by the ABCE model of flower development, act in a combinatorial manner. However, how these transcription factors bring about this transformation process is not well understood. We have previously shown that floral homeotic proteins are involved in suppressing the formation of branched trichomes, a hallmark of leaf development, on reproductive floral organs of Arabidopsis Here, we present evidence that the activities of the C function gene AGAMOUS ( AG ) and the related SHATTERPROOF1 / 2 genes are superimposed onto the regulatory network that controls the distribution of trichome formation in an age-dependent manner. We show that AG regulates cytokinin responses and genetically interacts with the organ polarity gene KANADI1 to suppress trichome initiation on gynoecia. Thus, our results show that parts of the genetic program for leaf development remain active during flower formation but have been partially rewired through the activities of the floral homeotic proteins. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Abnormal General Ledger Account Balances for Other Defense Organizations Reported by DFAS Cleveland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... and other Government agencies to prepare annual audited financial statements. This report is the second in a series of reports supporting our audit of the FY 2000 financial statements for "Other Defense Organizations-General Funds...

  15. A 4-year study of the proportional distribution of male reproductive organ abnormalities in cattle slaughtered at Nyagatare abattoir, Eastern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiwa, Erick; Nyirakunzimana, Leoncie; Habarugira, Gervais; Mushonga, Borden; Samkange, Alaster

    2017-11-01

    Male reproductive performance has more impact on overall herd productivity than in the female. In order to assess herd productivity in cattle in Nyagatare, Eastern Rwanda, the proportional distribution of male reproductive organ abnormalities was investigated in 3087 bulls slaughtered over a 4-year period. The aim of the study was to investigate the proportional distribution of male reproductive organ abnormalities in exotic and indigenous bulls slaughtered over a 4-year period at Nyagatare abattoir in Eastern Rwanda. Positioning of the testicles was observed and recorded as the animals were assembled before slaughter. After slaughter, the internal and external reproductive organs of all bulls were removed, labelled and analysed for pathology. Significantly more indigenous (79.01%) than exotic (20.99%) animals were slaughtered ( P  < 0.05; N  = 3 087). Overall occurrence of abnormalities was significantly higher in exotic (20.83%) than in indigenous (10.33%) animals ( P  < 0.05). Overall, abnormal location of testicles was the most common abnormality (4.08%) followed by abnormal prepuce and penis (2.33%), orchitis (1.94%), enlarged vesicular gland (0.91%), scrotal hernia (0.87%), unilateral cryptorchidism (0.81%), testicular hypoplasia (0.81%) and hydrocoele (0.78%). Abnormal location of testicles, abnormal prepuce and penis, orchitis, testicular hypoplasia and enlarged vesicular glands had significantly higher prevalence in exotic animals than in indigenous animals ( P  < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of unilateral cryptorchidism, hydrocoele and scrotal hernia between the exotic and indigenous breeds. The encountered reproductive abnormalities result in poor herd fertility manifesting as low first-service conception rates, prolonged breeding seasons and reduced weaning weights accompanied by inevitable financial losses in beef production. The observed high proportion of male reproductive abnormalities in exotic breeds might

  16. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, John L.; Sakai, Hajime; Jack, Thomas; Weigel, Detlef; Mayer, Ulrike; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially a...

  17. Cytokinins and coconut water promoted abnormalities in zygotic embryo culture of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimine Chaemalee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction of adventitious shoot formation from mature zygotic embryo of oil palm was carried out in liquid MS mediumsupplemented with various types of cytokinins. Kinetin (KN alone at concentration of 0.5 mg/l gave the highest adventitiousshoot formation at 13.4%. However, abnormal shoots in form of inflorescence-like structure (ILS were obtained in 5mg/l KN containing medium. For coconut water a big ILSs were formed at 10.6%. Histological studied revealed that thoseinflorescences had no clear floral organs.

  18. Inherited phenotype instability of inflorescence and floral organ development in homeotic barley double mutants and its specific modification by auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Kaselytė, Greta; Okockytė, Vaiva; Žukauskaitė, Justina; Žvingila, Donatas; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Barley (Hordeum vulgare) double mutants Hv-Hd/tw2, formed by hybridization, are characterized by inherited phenotypic instability and by several new features, such as bract/leaf-like structures, long naked gaps in the spike, and a wide spectrum of variations in the basic and ectopic flowers, which are absent in single mutants. Several of these features resemble those of mutations in auxin distribution, and thus the aim of this study was to determine whether auxin imbalances are related to phenotypic variations and instability. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on variation in basic and ectopic flowers were therefore examined, together with the effects of 2,4-D on spike structure. Methods The character of phenotypic instability and the effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D were compared in callus cultures and intact plants of single homeotic Hv-tw2 and Hv-Hooded/Kap (in the BKn3 gene) mutants and alternative double mutant lines: offspring from individual plants in distal hybrid generations (F9–F10) that all had the same BKn3 allele as determined by DNA sequencing. For intact plants, two auxin inhibitors, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA) and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), were used. Key Results Callus growth and flower/spike structures of the Hv-tw2 mutant differed in their responses to HFCA and PCIB. An increase in normal basic flowers after exposure to auxin inhibitors and a decrease in their frequencies caused by 2,4-D were observed, and there were also modifications in the spectra of ectopic flowers, especially those with sexual organs, but the effects depended on the genotype. Exposure to 2,4-D decreased the frequency of short gaps and lodicule transformations in Hv-tw2 and of long naked gaps in double mutants. Conclusions The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D suggest that ectopic auxin maxima or deficiencies arise in various regions of the inflorescence/flower primordia. Based

  19. Inherited phenotype instability of inflorescence and floral organ development in homeotic barley double mutants and its specific modification by auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiukšta, Raimondas; Vaitkūnienė, Virginija; Kaselytė, Greta; Okockytė, Vaiva; Žukauskaitė, Justina; Žvingila, Donatas; Rančelis, Vytautas

    2015-03-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) double mutants Hv-Hd/tw2, formed by hybridization, are characterized by inherited phenotypic instability and by several new features, such as bract/leaf-like structures, long naked gaps in the spike, and a wide spectrum of variations in the basic and ectopic flowers, which are absent in single mutants. Several of these features resemble those of mutations in auxin distribution, and thus the aim of this study was to determine whether auxin imbalances are related to phenotypic variations and instability. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) on variation in basic and ectopic flowers were therefore examined, together with the effects of 2,4-D on spike structure. The character of phenotypic instability and the effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D were compared in callus cultures and intact plants of single homeotic Hv-tw2 and Hv-Hooded/Kap (in the BKn3 gene) mutants and alternative double mutant lines: offspring from individual plants in distal hybrid generations (F9-F10) that all had the same BKn3 allele as determined by DNA sequencing. For intact plants, two auxin inhibitors, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA) and p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), were used. Callus growth and flower/spike structures of the Hv-tw2 mutant differed in their responses to HFCA and PCIB. An increase in normal basic flowers after exposure to auxin inhibitors and a decrease in their frequencies caused by 2,4-D were observed, and there were also modifications in the spectra of ectopic flowers, especially those with sexual organs, but the effects depended on the genotype. Exposure to 2,4-D decreased the frequency of short gaps and lodicule transformations in Hv-tw2 and of long naked gaps in double mutants. The effects of auxin inhibitors and 2,4-D suggest that ectopic auxin maxima or deficiencies arise in various regions of the inflorescence/flower primordia. Based on the phenotypic instability observed, definite

  20. Critical Roles of Vacuolar Invertase in Floral Organ Development and Male and Female Fertilities Are Revealed through Characterization of GhVIN1-RNAi Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Seed number and quality are key traits determining plant fitness and crop yield and rely on combined competence in male and female fertilities. Sucrose metabolism is central to reproductive success. It remains elusive, though, how individual sucrose metabolic enzymes may regulate the complex reproductive processes. Here, by silencing vacuolar invertase (VIN) genes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) reproductive organs, we revealed diverse roles that VIN plays in multiple reproductive processes. A set of phenotypic and genetic studies showed significant reductions of viable seeds in GhVIN1-RNAi plants, attributed to pollination failure and impaired male and female fertilities. The former was largely owing to the spatial mismatch between style and stamen and delayed pollen release from the anthers, whereas male defects came from poor pollen viability. The transgenic stamen exhibited altered expression of the genes responsible for starch metabolism and auxin and jasmonic acid signaling. Further analyses identified the reduction of GhVIN expression in the seed coat as the major cause for the reduced female fertility, which appeared to disrupt the expression of some key genes involved in trehalose and auxin metabolism and signaling, leading to programmed cell death or growth repression in the filial tissues. Together, the data provide an unprecedented example of how VIN is required to synchronize style and stamen development and the formation of male and female fertilities for seed development in a crop species, cotton. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Severe abnormalities in the reproductive organs of mice caused by chemical substances contained in heavy oil

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIMOTO, Sogo; YAMAWAKI, Manami; AKIYAMA, Koichi; KAKINUMA, Yoshimi; KITAMURA, Shin-Ichi; SUGAHARA, Takuya

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that heavy oil pollution results in various negative impacts on the marine environment. Although there is a low possibility of direct exposure to heavy oil, the chemical substances contained in heavy oil may be released into the environment and accumulated by marine organisms which in turn can be taken by humans via the food chain. In this study, we examined the biological risk of heavy oil extract using the common mouse, whose genetic backgrounds and immune system are well k...

  2. Abnormal Peri-Organ or Intra-organ Fat (APIFat) Deposition: An Underestimated Predictor of Vascular Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiki, Niki; Athyros, Vasilios G; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fat may play a beneficial role in cardiometabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat. Apart from these fat depots, there are other adipose tissues that are either systemically (i.e. in the liver, muscle or neck) or mainly locally acting (i.e. pericardial/epicardial, perivascular and perirenal). These fat depots can affect the nearby anatomic organs via lipid accumulation and cytokine secretion. In the present narrative review, the associations of excessive peri-organ adipose tissue, namely intrahepatic, epicardial/ pericardial, perivascular, intramuscular, peripancreatic and perirenal fat, with cardiometabolic and CVD risk factors are discussed. The effects of drugs that target vascular risk and/or different fat depots are also considered.

  3. Floral heterochrony promotes flexibility of reproductive strategies in the morphologically homogeneous genus Eugenia (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Lucas, Eve J; Faria, Jair E Q; Prenner, Gerhard

    2018-01-25

    Comparative floral ontogeny represents a valuable tool to understand angiosperm evolution. Such an approach may elucidate subtle changes in development that discretely modify floral architecture and underlie reproductive lability in groups with superficial homogeneous morphology. This study presents a comparative survey of floral development in Eugenia (Myrtaceae), one of the largest genera of angiosperms, and shows how previously undocumented ontogenetic trends help to explain the evolution of its megadiversity in contrast to its apparent flower uniformity. Using scanning electron microscopy, selected steps of the floral ontogeny of a model species (Eugenia punicifolia) are described and compared with 20 further species representing all ten major clades in the Eugenia phylogenetic tree. Additional floral trait data are contrasted for correlation analysis and character reconstructions performed against the Myrtaceae phylogenetic tree. Eugenia flowers show similar organ arrangement patterns: radially symmetrical, (most commonly) tetramerous flowers with variable numbers of stamens and ovules. Despite a similar general organization, heterochrony is evident from size differences between tissues and structures at similar developmental stages. These differences underlie variable levels of investment in protection, subtle modifications to symmetry, herkogamic effects and independent androecium and gynoecium variation, producing a wide spectrum of floral display and contributing to fluctuations in fitness. During Eugenia's bud development, the hypanthium (as defined here) is completely covered by stamen primordia, unusual in other Myrtaceae. This is the likely plesiomorphic state for Myrteae and may have represented a key evolutionary novelty in the tribe. Floral evolution in Eugenia depends on heterochronic patterns rather than changes in complexity to promote flexibility in floral strategies. The successful early establishment of Myrteae, previously mainly linked to the

  4. The relationship between nectaries and floral architecture: a case study in Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeiter, Julius; Hilger, Hartmut H; Smets, Erik F; Weigend, Maximilian

    2017-11-10

    Flowers of Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae are generally considered as morphologically simple. However, previous studies indicated complex diversity in floral architecture including tendencies towards synorganization. Most of the species have nectar-rewarding flowers which makes the nectaries a key component of floral organization and architecture. Here, the development of the floral nectaries is studied and placed into the context of floral architecture. Seven species from Geraniaceae and one from Hypseocharitaceae were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Samples were prepared and processed using standard protocols. The development of the nectary glands follows the same trajectory in all species studied. Minor differences occur in the onset of nectarostomata development. The most striking finding is the discovery that a short anthophore develops via intercalary growth at the level of the nectary glands. This anthophore lifts up the entire flower apart from the nectary gland itself and thus plays an important role in floral architecture, especially in the flowers of Pelargonium. Here, the zygomorphic flowers show a particularly extensive receptacular growth, resulting in the formation of a spur-like receptacular cavity ('inner spur'). The nectary gland is hidden at the base of the cavity. Various forms of compartmentalization, culminating in the 'revolver flower' of Geranium maderense, are described. Despite the superficial similarity of the flowers in Geraniaceae and Hypseocharitaceae, there is broad diversity in floral organization and floral architecture. While the receptacular origin of the spur-like cavity in Pelargonium had already been described, anthophore formation via intercalary growth of the receptacle in the other genera had not been previously documented. In the context of the most recent phylogenies of the families, an evolutionary series for the floral architecture is proposed, underscoring the importance of

  5. Abnormal organization of white matter network in patients with no dementia after ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    Full Text Available Structural changes after ischemic stroke could affect information communication extensively in the brain network. It is likely that the defects in the white matter (WM network play a key role in information interchange. In this study, we used graph theoretical analysis to examine potential organization alteration in the WM network architecture derived from diffusion tensor images from subjects with no dementia and experienced stroke in the past 5.4-14.8 months (N = 47, Mini-Mental Screening Examination, MMSE range 18-30, compared with a normal control group with 44 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers (MMSE range 26-30. Region-wise connectivity was derived from fiber connection density of 90 different cortical and subcortical parcellations across the whole brain. Both normal controls and patients with chronic stroke exhibited efficient small-world properties in their WM structural networks. Compared with normal controls, topological efficiency was basically unaltered in the patients with chronic stroke, as reflected by unchanged local and global clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, and regional efficiency. No significant difference in hub distribution was found between normal control and patient groups. Patients with chronic stroke, however, were found to have reduced betweenness centrality and predominantly located in the orbitofrontal cortex, whereas increased betweenness centrality and vulnerability were observed in parietal-occipital cortex. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score of patient is correlated with the betweenness centrality of right pallidum and local clustering coefficient of left superior occipital gyrus. Our findings suggest that patients with chronic stroke still exhibit efficient small-world organization and unaltered topological efficiency, with altered topology at orbitofrontal cortex and parietal-occipital cortex in the overall structural network. Findings from this study could

  6. Abnormal positioning of multiple abdominal organs with anomalous direct drainage of hepatic vein into the right atrium in a post operative omphalocele patient: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Su Jeong; Cho, Bum Sang; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Seung Young; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik [Chungbuk National Univ. Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    An omphalocele is a rare congenital anomaly in which the infant's intestines protrude through the navel. Additional anomalies that are associated with omphalocele remain present in as many as 50% of cases, and these anomalies vary greatly from patient to patient. However, the persistent anomalies or abnormal position of the abdominal organs in post operative omphalocele patients have not reported previously. Herein, we report the case of an omphalocele patient with abnormal positioning of the liver, spleen and both kidneys, as well as abnormal drainage of the hepatic vein into the right atrium, which was found during a routine, postoperative follow-up computed tomography scan.

  7. Extreme divergence in floral scent among woodland star species (Lithophragma spp.) pollinated by floral parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Magne; Schwind, Christopher; Raguso, Robert A; Thompson, John N

    2013-04-01

    A current challenge in coevolutionary biology is to understand how suites of traits vary as coevolving lineages diverge. Floral scent is often a complex, variable trait that attracts a suite of generalized pollinators, but may be highly specific in plants specialized on attracting coevolved pollinating floral parasites. In this study, floral scent variation was investigated in four species of woodland stars (Lithophragma spp.) that share the same major pollinator (the moth Greya politella, a floral parasite). Three specific hypotheses were tested: (1) sharing the same specific major pollinator favours conservation of floral scent among close relatives; (2) selection favours 'private channels' of rare compounds particularly aimed at the specialist pollinator; or (3) selection from rare, less-specialized co-pollinators mitigates the conservation of floral scent and occurrence of private channels. Dynamic headspace sampling and solid-phase microextraction were applied to greenhouse-grown plants from a common garden as well as to field samples from natural populations in a series of experiments aiming to disentangle the genetic and environmental basis of floral scent variation. Striking floral scent divergence was discovered among species. Only one of 69 compounds was shared among all four species. Scent variation was largely genetically based, because it was consistent across field and greenhouse treatments, and was not affected by visits from the pollinating floral parasite. The strong divergence in floral scents among Lithophragma species contrasts with the pattern of conserved floral scent composition found in other plant genera involved in mutualisms with pollinating floral parasites. Unlike some of these other obligate pollination mutualisms, Lithophragma plants in some populations are occasionally visited by generalist pollinators from other insect taxa. This additional complexity may contribute to the diversification in floral scent found among the Lithophragma

  8. Aromas florales y su interacción con los insectos polinizadores Floral scents and their interaction with insect pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Grajales-Conesa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas emplean diversas señales visuales y olfativas con la finalidad de atraer a los polinizadores que en su mayoría son insectos. Algunas plantas han desarrollado mecanismos, basándose en mensajes olfativos que los hacen únicos para sus polinizadores específicos. Estos mecanismos, así como las variaciones intra- e interespecíficas en el perfil de los aromas florales han evolucionado para determinadas especies. Los aromas florales son un conjunto de compuestos volátiles orgánicos y para su estudio hay varios métodos que requieren de técnicas que cada vez son más eficientes. El uso de estos aromas podría ser una opción en determinados sistemas de polinización, utilizándolos como atrayente de polinizadores o de depredadores y/o herbívoro para incrementar la producción y disminuir los daños por plagas. En este trabajo se revisan las distintas interacciones de los insectos y los aromas florales, los sistemas específicos planta-polinizador, los métodos de análisis, así como algunos patrones o tendencias de estas interacciones y su aplicación e importancia.Plants use visual and olfactory cues to attract pollinators and to allow them to detect the presence of flowers, which most of them are insects. Some plants have evolved with their pollinators, based on the olfactory messages, which make them unique for their specific pollinators. These mechanisms have evolved in certain plants in relation to their pollinators, and there are also inter and intra-specific variation in fragrance cues which show specific chemical profile for each plant species, so insects attracted are specific to them. Most of the floral scents are organic compounds identified with techniques and methodologies which become more specific and efficient along the time. The application of floral scent could be used as a tool in pollination and pest management. In these studies, insect interaction with floral scent is reviewed and specificity of plant

  9. The 2016 revised World Health Organization definition of 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)'; prognostic implications of single versus double cytogenetic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Mark; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Hanson, Curtis A; Litzow, Mark R; Al-Kali, Aref; Ketterling, Rhett P; Tefferi, Ayalew; Gangat, Naseema

    2017-07-01

    The definition of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtype 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' was expanded to include cases with one additional non-chromosome 7 based cytogenetic abnormality in the 2016 revised World Health Organization classification. This study applied the revised definition to a large primary MDS cohort, and evaluated the prognostic impact of the additional cytogenetic abnormality. Seventy-two of 1067 patients (7%) met the 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' criteria, 11 (1%) of whom had an additional cytogenetic abnormality. There was no survival difference between patients in whom del(5q) occurred alone, compared to those with one additional cytogenetic abnormality (P = 0·52). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Accessibility, constraint, and repetition in adaptive floral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Hileman, Lena C

    2016-11-01

    Adaptive phenotypic evolution is shaped by natural selection on multiple organismal traits as well as by genetic correlations among traits. Genetic correlations can arise through pleiotropy and can bias the production of phenotypic variation to certain combinations of traits. This phenomenon is referred to as developmental bias or constraint. Developmental bias may accelerate or constrain phenotypic evolution, depending on whether selection acts parallel or in opposition to genetic correlations among traits. We discuss examples from floral evolution where genetic correlations among floral traits contribute to rapid, coordinated evolution in multiple floral organ phenotypes and suggest future research directions that will explore the relationship between the genetic basis of adaptation and the pre-existing structure of genetic correlations. On the other hand, natural selection may act perpendicular to a strong genetic correlation, for example when two traits are encoded by a subset of the same genes and natural selection favors change in one trait and stability in the second trait. In such cases, adaptation is constrained by the availability of genetic variation that can influence the focal trait with minimal pleiotropic effects. Examples from plant diversification suggest that the origin of certain adaptations depends on the prior evolution of a gene copy with reduced pleiotropic effects, generated through the process of gene duplication followed by subfunctionalization or neofunctionalization. A history of gene duplication in some developmental pathways appears to have allowed particular flowering plant linages to have repeatedly evolved adaptations that might otherwise have been developmentally constrained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia.

  12. Multimodal floral signals and moth foraging decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Riffell

    Full Text Available Combinations of floral traits - which operate as attractive signals to pollinators - act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear.Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition - a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers - a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths - showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however - a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths - did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays.These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as combinatorial signals and use the integrated floral traits from their memory

  13. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  14. Annual research review: Growth connectomics--the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-03-01

    We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Annual Research Review: Growth connectomics – the organization and reorganization of brain networks during normal and abnormal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, Petra E; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-01-01

    Background We first give a brief introduction to graph theoretical analysis and its application to the study of brain network topology or connectomics. Within this framework, we review the existing empirical data on developmental changes in brain network organization across a range of experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans). Synthesis We discuss preliminary evidence and current hypotheses for how the emergence of network properties correlates with concomitant cognitive and behavioural changes associated with development. We highlight some of the technical and conceptual challenges to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field. Given the parallels previously discovered between neural systems across species and over a range of spatial scales, we also review some recent advances in developmental network studies at the cellular scale. We highlight the opportunities presented by such studies and how they may complement neuroimaging in advancing our understanding of brain development. Finally, we note that many brain and mind disorders are thought to be neurodevelopmental in origin and that charting the trajectory of brain network changes associated with healthy development also sets the stage for understanding abnormal network development. Conclusions We therefore briefly review the clinical relevance of network metrics as potential diagnostic markers and some recent efforts in computational modelling of brain networks which might contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in future. PMID:25441756

  16. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  17. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Ages and Stages Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School ... Categories of Congenital Abnormalities Chromosome Abnormalities Chromosomes are structures that carry genetic material inherited from one generation ...

  18. Constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography and tract-based spatial statistics show abnormal microstructural organization in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roine, Ulrika; Salmi, Juha; Roine, Timo; Wendt, Taina Nieminen-von; Leppämäki, Sami; Rintahaka, Pertti; Tani, Pekka; Leemans, Alexander; Sams, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in neural structure in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS), high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The main symptoms of AS are severe impairments in social interactions and restricted or repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests or activities. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired for 14 adult males with AS and 19 age, sex and IQ-matched controls. Voxelwise group differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) were studied with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Based on the results of TBSS, a tract-level comparison was performed with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography, which is able to detect complex (for example, crossing) fiber configurations. In addition, to investigate the relationship between the microstructural changes and the severity of symptoms, we looked for correlations between FA and the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient. TBSS revealed widely distributed local increases in FA bilaterally in individuals with AS, most prominent in the temporal part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, splenium of corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), posterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). CSD-based tractography also showed increases in the FA in multiple tracts. However, only the difference in the left ILF was significant after a Bonferroni correction. These results were not explained by the complexity of microstructural organization, measured using the planar diffusion coefficient. In addition, we found a correlation between AQ and FA in the right IFO in the whole group. Our results suggest that there are local and tract-level abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructure in our homogenous and carefully characterized group of adults with AS, most

  19. High prevalence of chronic pituitary and target-organ hormone abnormalities after blast-related mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Wilkinson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of traumatic brain injury from all causes have found evidence of chronic hypopituitarism, defined by deficient production of one or more pituitary hormones at least one year after injury, in 25-50% of cases. Most studies found the occurrence of posttraumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP to be unrelated to injury severity. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD and hypogonadism were reported most frequently. Hypopituitarism, and in particular adult GHD, is associated with symptoms that resemble those of PTSD, including fatigue, anxiety, depression, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, cognitive deficiencies, and decreased quality of life. However, the prevalence of PTHP after blast-related mild TBI (mTBI, an extremely common injury in modern military operations, has not been characterized. We measured concentrations of 12 pituitary and target-organ hormones in two groups of male US Veterans of combat in Iraq or Afghanistan. One group consisted of participants with blast-related mTBI whose last blast exposure was at least one year prior to the study. The other consisted of Veterans with similar military deployment histories but without blast exposure. Eleven of 26, or 42% of participants with blast concussions were found to have abnormal hormone levels in one or more pituitary axes, a prevalence similar to that found in other forms of TBI. Five members of the mTBI group were found with markedly low age-adjusted insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I levels indicative of probable GHD, and three had testosterone and gonadotropin concentrations consistent with hypogonadism. If symptoms characteristic of both PTHP and PTSD can be linked to pituitary dysfunction, they may be amenable to treatment with hormone replacement. Routine screening for chronic hypopituitarism after blast concussion shows promise for appropriately directing diagnostic and therapeutic decisions that otherwise may remain unconsidered and for markedly facilitating recovery and

  20. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eMaeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER. Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying

  1. Effects of Floral Scents and Their Dietary Experiences on the Feeding Preference in the Blowfly, Phormia regina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toru; Tamotsu, Miwako; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying mechanisms associated with

  2. Floral morphology of Gonocaryum with emphasis on the gynoecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the floral development of Gonocaryum, a genus of Cardiopteridaceae that was segregated from Icacinaceae s.l., using scanning electron microscopy to clarify its gynoecial structure and facilitate morphological comparisons of Cardiopteridaceae. The key floral developmental characters i...

  3. Floral development in the tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies.

  4. Floral Development in the Tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, Sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877

  5. Floral Scent Chemistry of Luculia yunnanensis (Rubiaceae), a Species Endemic to China with Sweetly Fragrant Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuying; Wan, Youming; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiongfang; Ma, Hong; Liu, Xiuxian; He, Rui; Ma, Yan; Li, Zhenghong

    2017-05-25

    Luculia plants are famed ornamentals with sweetly fragrant flowers. Luculia yunnanensis Hu is an endemic plant from Yunnan Province, China. Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of L. yunnanensis for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. The results showed that a total of 40 compounds were identified at four different stages. The main aroma-active compounds were 3-carene, α-cubebene, α-copaene, δ-cadinene, and isoledene. Floral scent emission had the tendency to ascend first and descend in succession, reaching its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatiles was detected at the full-flowering stage. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed at the whole flower development stage. In comparison with the other two species of Luculia ( L. pinceana and L. gratissima ), the composition and its relative content of floral scent were also different among the tree species.

  6. Organic trace minerals and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol affect performance characteristics, leg abnormalities, and biomechanical properties of leg bones of turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferket, P R; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Mente, P L; Bohórquez, D V; Santos, A A; Grimes, J L; Richards, J D; Dibner, J J; Felts, V

    2009-01-01

    Leg problems and resulting mortality can exceed 1% per week in turkey toms starting at approximately 15 wk of age. Dietary supplementation of organic trace minerals (MIN) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (HyD) may improve performance, decrease incidence of leg abnormalities, and increase bone strength. Nicholas 85X700 toms were assigned to 4 treatments consisting of a factorial arrangement of 2 concentrations of MIN (0 and 0.1% of Mintrex P(Se), which adds 40, 40, 20, and 0.3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se, respectively) and 2 concentrations of HyD (0 and 92 microg/kg of HyD). Diets were formulated to be equal in nutrient content and fed ad libitum as 8 feed phases. Feed intake and BW were measured at 6, 12, 15, 17, and 20 wk of age. Valgus, varus, and shaky leg defects were determined at 12, 15, 17, and 20 wk of age. Tibia and femur biomechanical properties were evaluated by torsion and bending tests at 17 wk of age. There were no treatment effects on BW. Only MIN significantly improved feed conversion ratio through to 20 wk of age. Cumulative mortality at 3 wk of age was greater among the MIN birds, but it was lower by 20 wk (P = 0.085). The MIN decreased the incidence of varus defects at 17 wk of age; shaky leg at 12, 15, and 17 wk of age; and valgus defects at 15, 17, and 20 wk of age. There were no MIN x HyD interaction effects on individual gait problems. Maximum load and the bending stress required for tibias to break in a 4-point assay were increased with MIN supplementation, especially when HyD was also added. Maximum shear stress at failure of femoral bones in a torsion assay was increased by supplementation with both MIN and HyD together. Dietary supplementation of MIN and HyD may improve biomechanical properties of bones. Dietary MIN supplementation may improve feed conversion of turkeys, likely by decreasing leg problems.

  7. Specialist Osmia bees forage indiscriminately among hybridizing Balsamorhiza floral hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Pollinators, even floral generalists (=polyleges), typically specialize during individual foraging bouts, infrequently switching between floral hosts. Such transient floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, to conspecific flowers in mixed plant communities. Where incipient flowering species meet, however, weak cross-fertility and often similar...

  8. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  9. Floral development in three species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris, P.L.; Geuten, K.P.; Janssens, S.B.; Smets, E.

    2006-01-01

    The floral morphological and developmental patterns in three species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae), namely I. columbaria, I. hawkeri, and I. niamniamensis, were studied to contribute to a better understanding of floral evolution in the genus. Strangely enough, the highly diverse floral morphology and

  10. The smell of environmental change: Using floral scent to explain shifts in pollinator attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. Burkle; Justin B. Runyon

    2017-01-01

    As diverse environmental changes continue to influence the structure and function of plant-pollinator interactions across spatial and temporal scales, we will need to enlist numerous approaches to understand these changes. Quantitative examination of floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one approach that is gaining popularity, and recent work suggests that...

  11. The potential role of B-function gene involved in floral development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camellia changii Ye, a rare and endangered species, has a phenotype that sepals frequently transform into petals. We assumed that this change would cause single C. changii Ye turned double flowers and this was confirmed by the double flowers we found in grafted C. changii Ye. The microstructure of floral organs ...

  12. A novel role of BELL1-like homeobox genes, PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH, in floral patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lifeng; Patibanda, Varun; Smith, Harley M S

    2009-02-01

    Flowers are determinate shoots comprised of perianth and reproductive organs displayed in a whorled phyllotactic pattern. Floral organ identity genes display region-specific expression patterns in the developing flower. In Arabidopsis, floral organ identity genes are activated by LEAFY (LFY), which functions with region-specific co-regulators, UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) and WUSCHEL (WUS), to up-regulate homeotic genes in specific whorls of the flower. PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUND-FOOLISH (PNF) are redundant functioning BELL1-like homeodomain proteins that are expressed in shoot and floral meristems. During flower development, PNY functions with a co-repressor complex to down-regulate the homeotic gene, AGAMOUS (AG), in the outer whorls of the flower. However, the function of PNY as well as PNF in regulating floral organ identity in the central whorls of the flower is not known. In this report, we show that combining mutations in PNY and PNF enhance the floral patterning phenotypes of weak and strong alleles of lfy, indicating that these BELL1-like homeodomain proteins play a role in the specification of petals, stamens and carpels during flower development. Expression studies show that PNY and PNF positively regulate the homeotic genes, APETALA3 and AG, in the inner whorls of the flower. Moreover, PNY and PNF function in parallel with LFY, UFO and WUS to regulate homeotic gene expression. Since PNY and PNF interact with the KNOTTED1-like homeodomain proteins, SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM) and KNOTTED-LIKE from ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA2 (KNAT2) that regulate floral development, we propose that PNY/PNF-STM and PNY/PNF-KNAT2 complexes function in the inner whorls to regulate flower patterning events.

  13. Dosage-dependent impacts of a floral volatile compound on pollinators, larcenists, and the potential for floral evolution in the alpine skypilot Polemonium viscosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Candace; Kaczorowski, Rainee; Todd, Sadie L; Geib, Jennifer; Raguso, Robert A

    2011-02-01

    All volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vary quantitatively, yet how such variation affects their ecological roles is unknown. Because floral VOCs are cues for both pollinators and floral antagonists, variation in emission may have major consequences for costs and benefits in plant-pollinator interactions. In Polemonium viscosum, the emission rate for the floral VOC 2-phenylethanol (2PE) spans more than two orders of magnitude. We investigated the ecological and evolutionary impacts of this immense phenotypic variation. The emission rate of 2PE varies independently of nectar rewards and thus is uninformative of profitability. Emission is elevated in flowers that are morphologically vulnerable to ant larcenists, suggesting that chemical deterrence may compensate for weak physical barriers. In nature, plants emitting more 2PE than their neighbors escape ant damage. Flower-damaging ants die when exposed to 2PE in the laboratory, and they avoid high 2PE emitters in the field. High 2PE also reduces bumblebee visitation and pollination, suggesting an ecological cost of defense in pollinator service. However, at more moderate emission rates, 2PE enhances the amount of nectar left in flowers, at no pollination cost. In conclusion, repellency of 2PE is highly sensitive to dosage, giving it a key role in shaping ecological interactions between skypilot plants and their floral visitors.

  14. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J L; Sakai, H; Jack, T; Weigel, D; Mayer, U; Meyerowitz, E M

    1992-03-01

    We describe a locus, SUPERMAN, mutations in which result in extra stamens developing at the expense of the central carpels in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower. The development of superman flowers, from initial primordium to mature flower, is described by scanning electron microscopy. The development of doubly and triply mutant strains, constructed with superman alleles and previously identified homeotic mutations that cause alterations in floral organ identity, is also described. Essentially additive phenotypes are observed in superman agamous and superman apetala2 double mutants. The epistatic relationships observed between either apetala3 or pistillata and superman alleles suggest that the SUPERMAN gene product could be a regulator of these floral homeotic genes. To test this, the expression patterns of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 were examined in superman flowers. In wild-type flowers, APETALA3 expression is restricted to the second and third whorls where it is required for the specification of petals and stamens. In contrast, in superman flowers, APETALA3 expression expands to include most of the cells that would normally constitute the fourth whorl. This ectopic APETALA3 expression is proposed to be one of the causes of the development of the extra stamens in superman flowers. The spatial pattern of AGAMOUS expression remains unaltered in superman flowers as compared to wild-type flowers. Taken together these data indicate that one of the functions of the wild-type SUPERMAN gene product is to negatively regulate APETALA3 in the fourth whorl of the flower. In addition, superman mutants exhibit a loss of determinacy of the floral meristem, an effect that appears to be mediated by the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene products.

  15. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Risseeuw

    Full Text Available Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  16. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  17. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Wellmer, F.; Muino, J.M.; Ferrier, T.; Wuest, S.E.; Kumar, V.; Serrano-Mislata, A.; Madueno, F.; Krajweski, P.; Meyerowitz, E.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Riechmann, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis flower development. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AP1 function, we identified its target genes during floral initiation using a combination of gene expression profiling and genome-wide binding

  18. Orchestration of Floral Initiation by APETALA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Muino Acuna, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The MADS-domain transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis flower development. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AP1 function, we identified its target genes during floral initiation using a combination of gene expression profiling and genome-wide binding

  19. Meiotic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Lilium floral fragrance: A biochemical and genetic resource for aroma and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy S; Schwieterman, Michael L; Kim, Joo Young; Cho, Keun H; Clark, David G; Colquhoun, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid Lilium (common name lily) cultivars are among the top produced domestic fresh cut flowers and potted plants in the US today. Many hybrid Lilium cultivars produce large and showy flowers that emit copious amounts of volatile molecules, which can negatively affect a consumer's appreciation or limit use of the plant product. There are few publications focused on the biochemistry, genetics, and/or molecular regulation of floral volatile biosynthesis for Lilium cultivars. In an initial pursuit to provide breeders with molecular markers for floral volatile biosynthesis, a total of five commercially available oriental and oriental-trumpet hybrid Lilium cultivars were selected for analytical characterization of floral volatile emission. In total, 66 volatile molecules were qualified and quantitated among all cultivars. Chemical classes of identified volatiles include monoterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes, phenylpropanoids, benzenoids, fatty-acid-derived, nitrogen-containing, and amino-acid-derived compounds. In general, the floral volatile profiles of the three oriental-trumpet hybrids were dominated by monoterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes, while the two oriental hybrids were dominated by monoterpene alcohols and aldehydes and phenylpropanoids, respectively. Tepal tissues (two petal whirls) emitted the vast majority of total volatile molecules compared to the reproductive organs of the flowers. Tepal volatile profiles were cultivar specific with a high degree of distinction, which indicates the five cultivars chosen will provide an excellent differential genetic environment for gene discovery through comparative transcriptomics in the future. Cloning and assaying transcript accumulation from four floral volatile biosynthetic candidates provided few immediate or obvious trends with floral volatile emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal topological organization in white matter structural networks revealed by diffusion tensor tractography in unmedicated patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhaoxi; Zhao, Tengda; Luo, Jia; Guo, Zhihua; Guo, Meng; Li, Ping; Sun, Jing; He, Yong; Li, Zhanjiang

    2014-06-03

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder defined by recurrent thoughts, intrusive and distressing impulses, or images and ritualistic behaviors. Although focal diverse regional abnormalities white matter integrity in specific brain regions have been widely studied in populations with OCD, alterations in the structural connectivities among them remain poorly understood. The aim was to investigate the abnormalities in the topological efficiency of the white matter networks and the correlation between the network metrics and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores in unmedicated OCD patients, using diffusion tensor tractography and graph theoretical approaches. This study used diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography to map the white matter structural networks in 26 OCD patients and 39 age- and gender-matched healthy controls; and then applied graph theoretical methods to investigate abnormalities in the global and regional properties of the white matter network in these patients. The patients and control participants both showed small-world organization of the white matter networks. However, the OCD patients exhibited significant abnormal global topology, including decreases in global efficiency (t = -2.32, p = 0.02) and increases in shortest path length, Lp (t = 2.30, p = 0.02), the normalized weighted shortest path length, λ (t = 2.08, p=0.04), and the normalized clustering coefficient, γ (t = 2.26, p = 0.03), of their white matter structural networks compared with healthy controls. Further, the OCD patients showed a reduction in nodal efficiency predominately in the frontal regions, the parietal regions and caudate nucleus. The normalized weighted shortest path length of the network metrics was significantly negatively correlated with obsessive subscale of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (r = -0.57, p = 0.0058). These findings demonstrate the abnormal topological efficiency in the white matter networks

  2. Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Medrano, L J; Meyerowitz, E M

    1995-11-09

    The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP) is necessary for the proper spatial development of reproductive floral tissues. Recessive mutations cause extra stamens to form interior to the normal third whorl stamens, at the expense of fourth whorl carpel development. The mutant phenotype is associated with the ectopic expression of the B function genes, AP3 and PI, in the altered floral region, closer to the centre of the flower than in the wild type, and ap3 sup and pi sup double mutants exhibit a phenotype similar to ap3 and pi single mutants. These findings led to SUP being interpreted as an upstream negative regulator of the B function organ-identity genes, acting in the fourth whorl, to establish a boundary between stamen and carpel whorls. Here we show, using molecular cloning and analysis, that it is expressed in the third whorl and acts to maintain this boundary in developing flowers. The putative SUPERMAN protein contains one zinc-finger and a region resembling a basic leucine zipper motif, suggesting a function in transcriptional regulation.

  3. Floral induction in tissue culture: a system for the analysis of LEAFY-dependent gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Doris; Wellmer, Frank; Dilks, Kieran; William, Dilusha; Smith, Michael R; Kumar, Prakash P; Riechmann, José Luis; Greenland, Andrew J; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2004-07-01

    We have developed a versatile floral induction system that is based on ectopic overexpression of the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) in callus. During shoot regeneration, flowers or floral organs are formed directly from root explants without prior formation of rosette leaves. Morphological and reporter gene analyses show that leaf-like structures are converted to floral organs in response to LFY activity. Thus, increased levels of LFY activity are sufficient to bypass normal vegetative development and to direct formation of flowers in tissue culture. We found that about half of the cultured cells respond to inducible LFY activity with a rapid upregulation of the known direct target gene of LFY, APETALA1 (AP1). This dramatic increase in the number of LFY-responsive cells compared to whole plants suggested that the tissue culture system could greatly facilitate the analysis of LFY-dependent gene regulation by genomic approaches. To test this, we monitored the gene expression changes that occur in tissue culture after activation of LFY using a flower-specific cDNA microarray. Induction of known LFY target genes was readily detected in these experiments. In addition, several other genes were identified that had not been implicated in signaling downstream of LFY before. Thus, the floral induction system is suitable for the detection of low abundance transcripts whose expression is controlled in an LFY-dependent manner.

  4. Walking abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a mental disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  5. FENOLOGÍA FLORAL Y VISITANTES FLORALES EN Drimys granadensis (WINTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Marquínez-Casas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue caracterizar las fases fenológicas florales y determinar los visitantes florales en una población natural de Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae ubicada en Altos de Yerbabuena (2850 m, cerros orientales de la Sabana de Bogotá, (Colombia. El desarrollo fenológico floral duró 9.5 días cuando la floración ocurrió en época soleada, 12.5 días en época lluviosa y 16 días cuando se excluyeron a los visitantes florales mediante embolsado. Se realizaron observaciones del recurso utilizado, fase fenólogica de la flor visitada y cargas polínicas en los visitante florales, los cuales correspondieron a 6 órdenes, 21 familias y 29 morfoespecies de insectos. Cuatro especies de coleópteros y dos de dípteros fueron considerados posibles polinizadores por su abundancia y carga de polen. Los resultados obtenidos se discuten en relación con aquellos reportados en otras especies del género Drimys y de la familia Winteraceae.

  6. Dependency on floral resources determines the animals' responses to floral scents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Robert R; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-08-01

    Animal-pollinated angiosperms either depend on cross-pollination or may also reproduce after self-pollination - the former are thus obligately, the latter facultatively dependent on the service of animal-pollinators. Analogously, flower visitors either solely feed on floral resources or complement their diet with these, and are hence dependent or not on the flowers they visit. We assume that obligate flower visitors evolved abilities that enable them to effectively forage on flowers including mechanisms to bypass or tolerate floral defences such as morphological barriers and repellent / deterrent secondary metabolites. Facultative flower visitors, in contrast, are supposed to lack these adaptations and are often prevented to consume floral resources by defence mechanisms. In cases where obligate flower visitors are mutualists and facultative ones are antagonists, this dichotomy provides a solution for the plants' dilemma to attract pollinators and simultaneously repel exploiters. In a meta-analysis, we recently supported this hypothesis: obligate flower visitors are attracted to floral scents, while facultative ones are repelled. Here, we add empirical evidence to these results: bumblebees and ants, obligate and facultative flower visitors, respectively, responded as predicted by the results of the meta-analysis to synthetic floral scent compounds.

  7. Floral Therapy in Occupational Stress Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Idalêncio Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to know the opinion of the nursing team that acts in motherhood on the therapeutic effects of floral control of occupational stress. This is a survey of qualitative and quantitative approach, the randomized clinical trial. Data analysis was performed by qualitative and quantitative data categorization was based on the evaluation results of the test stress levels proposed by Baccaro. Applied to interview and testing for stress in ten workers before and after use of the flower therapy. Results indicated that 100% of nursing staff were level with moderate to intense stress and 30% had a risk of developing heart disease. The survey results denote that 20% of nursing staff in the control group, with the use of floral, decreased stress levels and moderate to intense high risk of developing heart disease (type "A1", the risk for type "A2 ". From the results of the research suggest motivational strategies and improving quality of life at work.

  8. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  9. Semen-Like Floral Scents and Pollination Biology of a Sapromyophilous Plant Stemona japonica (Stemonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Jürgens, Andreas; Shao, Lidong; Liu, Yang; Sun, Weibang; Xia, Chengfeng

    2015-03-01

    By emitting scent resembling that of organic material suitable for oviposition and/or consumption by flies, sapromyophilous flowers use these flies as pollinators. To date, intensive scent analyses of such flowers have been restricted to Apocynaceae, Annonaceae, and Araceae. Recent studies have suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from sapromyophilous flowers play an important role in attracting saprophagous flies by mimicking different types of decomposing substrates (herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and the fruiting bodies of fungi, etc.). In this study, we report the flower visitors and the floral VOCs of Stemona japonica (Blume) Miquel, a species native to China. The flowers do not produce rewards, and pollinators were not observed consuming pollen, thus suggesting a deceptive pollination system. Headspace samples of the floral scent were collected via solid-phase micro-extraction and analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Main floral scent compounds were 1-pyrroline (59.2%), 2-methyl-1-butanol (27.2%), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (8.8%), and resulted in a semen-like odor of blooming flowers. The floral constituents of S. japonica were significantly different from those found in previous sapromyophilous plants. An olfaction test indicated that 1-pyrroline is responsible for the semen-like odor in S. japonica flowers. Main flower visitors were shoot flies of the genus Atherigona (Muscidae). Bioassays using a mixture of all identified floral volatiles revealed that the synthetic volatiles can attract Atherigona flies in natural habitats. Our results suggest that the foul-smelling flowers of S. japonica may represent a new type of sapromyophily through scent mimicry.

  10. Disentangling the role of floral sensory stimuli in pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsa, Aphrodite; Raguso, Robert A.; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2018-01-01

    Despite progress in understanding pollination network structure, the functional roles of floral sensory stimuli (visual, olfactory) have never been addressed comprehensively in a community context, even though such traits are known to mediate plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we use...... a comprehensive dataset of floral traits and a novel dynamic data-pooling methodology to explore the impacts of floral sensory diversity on the structure of a pollination network in a Mediterranean scrubland. Our approach tracks transitions in the network behaviour of each plant species throughout its flowering...... period and, despite dynamism in visitor composition, reveals significant links to floral scent, and/or colour as perceived by pollinators. Having accounted for floral phenology, abundance and phylogeny, the persistent association between floral sensory traits and visitor guilds supports a deeper role...

  11. The emergence of core eudicots: new floral evidence from the earliest Late Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Else Marie; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Crane, Peter R

    2016-12-28

    Eudicots, the most diverse of the three major clades of living angiosperms, are first recognized in the latest Barremian-earliest Aptian. All Early Cretaceous forms appear to be related to species-poor lineages that diverged before the rise of core eudicots, which today comprise more than 70% of angiosperm species. Here, we report the discovery of a well-preserved flower, Caliciflora mauldinensis, from the earliest Late Cretaceous, with unequivocal core eudicot features, including five sepals, five petals and two whorls of stamens borne on the rim of a floral cup containing three free carpels. Pollen is tricolporate. Carpels mature into follicular fruitlets. This character combination suggests a phylogenetic position among rosids, but more specific assignment is precluded by complex patterns of character evolution among the very large number of potentially relevant extant taxa. The whorled floral organization is consistent with ideas that this stable pattern evolved early and was a prerequisite for more integrated patterns of floral architecture that evolved later. However, limited floral synorganization in Caliciflora and all earlier eudicot flowers recognized so far, calls into question hypotheses that substantial diversification of core eudicots had already occurred by the end of the Early Cretaceous. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Floral development in three species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Caris, Pieter; Geuten, Koen; Janssens, Steven; Smets, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The floral morphological and developmental patterns in three species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae), namely I. columbaria, I. hawkeri, and I. niamniamensis, were studied to contribute to a better understanding of floral evolution in the genus. Strangely enough, the highly diverse floral morphology and ontogeny of this horticulturally important genus have never been studied thoroughly (e.g., using scanning electron microscopic techniques). We discuss the position and the developmental sequence o...

  13. Floral scent emitted by white and coloured morphs in orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B

    2014-04-01

    Polymorphism of floral signals, such as colour and odour, is widespread in flowering plants and often considered to be adaptive, reflecting various pollinator preferences for particular floral traits. Several authors have recently hypothesized that particular associations exist between floral colour and scent, which would result from shared biochemistry between these two floral traits. In this study, we compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of three different orchid species, including two food-deceptive species (Orchis mascula and Orchis simia) and a food-rewarding species (Anacamptis coriophora fragrans). We found clear interspecific differences in floral odours. As expected from their pollination strategy, the two deceptive orchids showed high inter-individual variation of floral volatiles, whereas the food-rewarding A. c. fragrans showed low variation of floral scent. Floral volatiles did not differ overall between white- and coloured-flowered morphs in O. mascula and A. c. fragrans, while O. simia exhibited different volatile profiles between the two colour morphs. However, a detailed analysis restricted to benzenoid compounds (which are associated with the production of floral anthocyanin pigments) showed that white inflorescences emitted more volatiles of the shikimic pathway than coloured ones, both for O. mascula and O. simia. These results are consistent with the current hypothesis that shared biochemistry creates pleiotropic links between floral colour and scent. Whether intraspecific variation of floral signals actually affects pollinator attraction and influences the reproductive success of these orchids remains to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Action plan for responses to abnormal conditions in Hanford Site radioactive waste tanks with high organic content. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-07-01

    This action plan describes the criteria and the organizational responsibilities required for ensuring that waste storage tanks with high organic contents are maintained in a safe condition at the Hanford Site. In addition, response actions are outlined for (1) prevention or mitigation of excessive temperatures; or (2) a material release from any waste tank with high organic content. Other response actions may be defined by Westinghouse Hanford Company Systems Engineering if a waste tank parameter goes out of specification. Trend analysis indicates the waste tank parameters have seasonal variations, but are otherwise stable.

  15. More than euglossines: the diverse pollinators and floral scents of Zygopetalinae orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Carlos E P; Wolowski, Marina; Pansarin, Emerson Ricardo; Gerlach, Günter; Aximoff, Izar; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Salvador, Marcos José; Sazima, Marlies

    2017-10-13

    Floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. We investigated the reproductive ecology and floral VOCs of Zygopetalinae orchids to understand the relationship between floral scents and pollinators. We performed focal observations, phenological censuses and breeding system experiments in eight species in southeast Brazil. Floral scents were collected and analysed using SPME/GC-MS. We performed multivariate analyses to group species according to affinities of their VOCs and define compounds associated to each plant. Dichaea cogniauxiana was pollinated by weevils which use their developing ovules, while D. pendula was pollinated by the same weevils and perfume-collecting male euglossine bees. The other species were deceit-pollinated by bees. Zygopetalum crinitum was pollinated by carpenter bees, while W. warreana, Z. mackayi and Z. maxillare were bumblebee-pollinated. The latter was also pollinated by Centris confusa. Breeding system varied widely with no association to any pollinator group. Most VOCs are common to other floral scents. Zygopetalum crinitum presented an exclusive blend of VOCs, mainly composed of benzenoids. The scents of Pabstia jugosa, Promenaea xanthina and the Zygopetalum spp. were similar. The bumblebee-pollinated species have flowering periods partially overlapped, thus neither phenology nor pollinators constitute hybridization barriers among these species. Euglossines are not the only pollinators of Zygopetalinae. Different VOCs, size and lifespan of flowers are associated with distinct pollinators. A distinctive VOC bouquet may determine specialisation in carpenter bees or male euglossines within bee-pollinated flowers. Finally, visitation of deceit-pollinated flowers by perfume-collecting euglossines allows us to hypothesise how pollination by this group of bees had evolved.

  16. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M Cano

    Full Text Available Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  17. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  18. Floral bud distortion in soybean and incidence in Central India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floral bud distortion in soybean and incidence in Central India. V Jadhav Pravin, SS Mane, RS Nandanwar, PB Kale, MS Dudhare, MP Moharil, RG Dani. Abstract. We describe a peculiar and often harmful budding disorder in soybean, leading to huge yield loss in India. To determine the prevalence of floral distortion in ...

  19. Auto-regressive processes explained by self-organized maps. Application to the detection of abnormal behavior in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Chiara; Sanz-Bobi, Miguel Á

    2011-12-01

    This paper analyzes the expected time evolution of an auto-regressive (AR) process using self-organized maps (SOM). It investigates how a SOM captures the time information given by the AR input process and how the transitions from one neuron to another one can be understood under a probabilistic perspective. In particular, regions of the map into which the AR process is expected to move are identified. This characterization allows detecting anomalous changes in the AR process structure or parameters. On the basis of the theoretical results, an anomaly detection method is proposed and applied to a real industrial process.

  20. Resting-state EEG oscillatory dynamics in fragile X syndrome: abnormal functional connectivity and brain network organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melle J W van der Molen

    Full Text Available Disruptions in functional connectivity and dysfunctional brain networks are considered to be a neurological hallmark of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite the vast literature on functional brain connectivity in typical brain development, surprisingly few attempts have been made to characterize brain network integrity in neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we used resting-state EEG to characterize functional brain connectivity and brain network organization in eight males with fragile X syndrome (FXS and 12 healthy male controls. Functional connectivity was calculated based on the phase lag index (PLI, a non-linear synchronization index that is less sensitive to the effects of volume conduction. Brain network organization was assessed with graph theoretical analysis. A decrease in global functional connectivity was observed in FXS males for upper alpha and beta frequency bands. For theta oscillations, we found increased connectivity in long-range (fronto-posterior and short-range (frontal-frontal and posterior-posterior clusters. Graph theoretical analysis yielded evidence of increased path length in the theta band, suggesting that information transfer between brain regions is particularly impaired for theta oscillations in FXS. These findings are discussed in terms of aberrant maturation of neuronal oscillatory dynamics, resulting in an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neuronal circuit activity.

  1. Natural selection on floral volatile production in Penstemon digitalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.; Burdon, Rosalie C. F.; Raguso, Robert A.; Kessler, André

    2013-01-01

    Natural selection is thought to have shaped the evolution of floral scent; however, unlike other floral characters, we have a rudimentary knowledge of how phenotypic selection acts on scent. We found that floral scent was under stronger selection than corolla traits such as flower size and flower color in weakly scented Penstemon digitalis. Our results suggest that to understand evolution in floral phenotypes, including scent in floral selection, studies are crucial. For P. digitalis, linalool was the direct target of selection in the scent bouquet. Therefore, we determined the enantiomeric configuration of linalool because interacting insects may perceive the enantiomers differentially. We found that P. digitalis produces only (S)-(+)-linalool and, more interestingly, it is also taken up into the nectar. Because the nectar is scented and flavored with (S)-(+)-linalool, it may be an important cue for pollinators visiting P. digitalis flowers. PMID:23221753

  2. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eTóth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae, are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae.

  3. Floral Volatiles in Parasitic Plants of the Orobanchaceae. Ecological and Taxonomic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Peter; Undas, Anna K.; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2016-01-01

    The holoparasitic broomrapes, Orobanche spp. and Phelipanche spp. (Orobanchaceae), are root parasites that completely depend on a host plant for survival and reproduction. There is considerable controversy on the taxonomy of this biologically and agronomically important family. Flowers of over 25 parasitic Orobanchaceae and a number of close, parasitic and non-parasitic, relatives emitted a complex blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), consisting of over 130 VOCs per species. Floral VOC blend-based phylogeny supported the known taxonomy in internal taxonomic grouping of genus and eliminated the uncertainty in some taxonomical groups. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis suggested separation of the broomrapes into two main groups parasitizing annual and perennial hosts, and for the annual hosts, into weedy and non-weedy broomrapes. We conclude that floral VOCs are a significant tool in species identification and possibly even in defining new species and can help to improve controversial taxonomy in the Orobanchaceae. PMID:27014329

  4. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Boland, Wilhelm; Heil, Martin

    2010-02-19

    Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA) endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants.

  5. Disentangling the role of floral sensory stimuli in pollination networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsa, Aphrodite; Raguso, Robert A; Dyer, Adrian G; Olesen, Jens M; Tscheulin, Thomas; Petanidou, Theodora

    2018-03-12

    Despite progress in understanding pollination network structure, the functional roles of floral sensory stimuli (visual, olfactory) have never been addressed comprehensively in a community context, even though such traits are known to mediate plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we use a comprehensive dataset of floral traits and a novel dynamic data-pooling methodology to explore the impacts of floral sensory diversity on the structure of a pollination network in a Mediterranean scrubland. Our approach tracks transitions in the network behaviour of each plant species throughout its flowering period and, despite dynamism in visitor composition, reveals significant links to floral scent, and/or colour as perceived by pollinators. Having accounted for floral phenology, abundance and phylogeny, the persistent association between floral sensory traits and visitor guilds supports a deeper role for sensory bias and diffuse coevolution in structuring plant-pollinator networks. This knowledge of floral sensory diversity, by identifying the most influential phenotypes, could help prioritize efforts for plant-pollinator community restoration.

  6. Darwin's beautiful contrivances: evolutionary and functional evidence for floral adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-08-01

    Although not 'a professed botanist', Charles Darwin made seminal contributions to understanding of floral and inflorescence function while seeking evidence of adaptation by natural selection. This review considers the legacy of Darwin's ideas from three perspectives. First, we examine the process of floral and inflorescence adaptation by surveying studies of phenotypic selection, heritability and selection responses. Despite widespread phenotypic and genetic capacity for natural selection, only one-third of estimates indicate phenotypic selection. Second, we evaluate experimental studies of floral and inflorescence function and find that they usually demonstrate that reproductive traits represent adaptations. Finally, we consider the role of adaptation in floral diversification. Despite different diversification modes (coevolution, divergent use of the same pollen vector, pollinator shifts), evidence of pollination ecotypes and phylogenetic patterns suggests that adaptation commonly contributes to floral diversity. Thus, this review reveals a contrast between the inconsistent occurrence of phenotypic selection and convincing experimental and comparative evidence that floral traits are adaptations. Rather than rejecting Darwin's hypotheses about floral evolution, this contrast suggests that the tempo of creative selection varies, with strong, consistent selection during episodes of diversification, but relatively weak and inconsistent selection during longer, 'normal' periods of relative phenotypic stasis.

  7. The role of jasmonates in floral nectar secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Radhika

    Full Text Available Plants produce nectar in their flowers as a reward for their pollinators and most of our crops depend on insect pollination, but little is known on the physiological control of nectar secretion. Jasmonates are well-known for their effects on senescence, the development and opening of flowers and on plant defences such as extrafloral nectar. Their role in floral nectar secretion has, however, not been explored so far. We investigated whether jasmonates have an influence on floral nectar secretion in oil-seed rape, Brassica napus. The floral tissues of this plant produced jasmonic acid (JA endogenously, and JA concentrations peaked shortly before nectar secretion was highest. Exogenous application of JA to flowers induced nectar secretion, which was suppressed by treatment with phenidone, an inhibitor of JA synthesis. This effect could be reversed by additional application of JA. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine and its structural mimic coronalon also increased nectar secretion. Herbivory or addition of JA to the leaves did not have an effect on floral nectar secretion, demonstrating a functional separation of systemic defence signalling from reproductive nectar secretion. Jasmonates, which have been intensively studied in the context of herbivore defences and flower development, have a profound effect on floral nectar secretion and, thus, pollination efficiency in B. napus. Our results link floral nectar secretion to jasmonate signalling and thereby integrate the floral nectar secretion into the complex network of oxylipid-mediated developmental processes of plants.

  8. Dependency on floral resources determines the animals' responses to floral scents

    OpenAIRE

    Junker, Robert R; Blüthgen, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Animal-pollinated angiosperms either depend on cross-pollination or may also reproduce after self-pollination—the former are thus obligately, the latter facultatively dependent on the service of animal-pollinators. Analogously, flower visitors either solely feed on floral resources or complement their diet with these, and are hence dependent or not on the flowers they visit. We assume that obligate flower visitors evolved abilities that enable them to effectively forage on flowers including m...

  9. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Sun, Ming; Du, Dongliang; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum. The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated) were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated) were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT) as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum. This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of flower

  10. Floral adaptation to local pollinator guilds in a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mimi; Gross, Karin; Schiestl, Florian P

    2014-01-01

    Studies of local floral adaptation in response to geographically divergent pollinators are essential for understanding floral evolution. This study investigated local pollinator adaptation and variation in floral traits in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima, which spans a large altitudinal gradient and thus may depend on different pollinator guilds along this gradient. Pollinator communities were assessed and reciprocal transfer experiments were performed between lowland and mountain populations. Differences in floral traits were characterized by measuring floral morphology traits, scent composition, colour and nectar sugar content in lowland and mountain populations. The composition of pollinator communities differed considerably between lowland and mountain populations; flies were only found as pollinators in mountain populations. The reciprocal transfer experiments showed that when lowland plants were transferred to mountain habitats, their reproductive success did not change significantly. However, when mountain plants were moved to the lowlands, their reproductive success decreased significantly. Transfers between populations of the same altitude did not lead to significant changes in reproductive success, disproving the potential for population-specific adaptations. Flower size of lowland plants was greater than for mountain flowers. Lowland plants also had significantly higher relative amounts of aromatic floral volatiles, while the mountain plants had higher relative amounts of other floral volatiles. The floral colour of mountain flowers was significantly lighter compared with the lowland flowers. Local pollinator adaptation through pollinator attraction was shown in the mountain populations, possibly due to adaptation to pollinating flies. The mountain plants were also observed to receive pollination from a greater diversity of pollinators than the lowland plants. The different floral phenotypes of the altitudinal regions are likely to be the

  11. Why Do Floral Perfumes Become Different? Region-Specific Selection on Floral Scent in a Terrestrial Orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karin; Sun, Mimi; Schiestl, Florian P

    2016-01-01

    Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. However, in flowering plants, such divergent selection has rarely been shown, and selection on floral signals is generally little understood. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima in two years. We also quantified population differences in these traits and pollinator community composition. Our results show positive selection on display size and positive, negative, or absence of selection on different scent compounds and floral color. Selection on the main scent compounds was consistently stronger in the lowlands than in the mountains, and lowland plants emitted higher amounts of most of these compounds. Pollinator community composition also differed between regions, suggesting different pollinators select for differences in floral volatiles. Overall, our study is the first to document consistent regional differences in selection on floral scent, suggesting this pattern of selection is one of the evolutionary forces contributing to regional divergence in floral chemical signaling.

  12. Why Do Floral Perfumes Become Different? Region-Specific Selection on Floral Scent in a Terrestrial Orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karin; Sun, Mimi; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    Geographically structured phenotypic selection can lead to adaptive divergence. However, in flowering plants, such divergent selection has rarely been shown, and selection on floral signals is generally little understood. In this study, we measured phenotypic selection on display size, floral color, and floral scent in four lowland and four mountain populations of the nectar-rewarding terrestrial orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima in two years. We also quantified population differences in these traits and pollinator community composition. Our results show positive selection on display size and positive, negative, or absence of selection on different scent compounds and floral color. Selection on the main scent compounds was consistently stronger in the lowlands than in the mountains, and lowland plants emitted higher amounts of most of these compounds. Pollinator community composition also differed between regions, suggesting different pollinators select for differences in floral volatiles. Overall, our study is the first to document consistent regional differences in selection on floral scent, suggesting this pattern of selection is one of the evolutionary forces contributing to regional divergence in floral chemical signaling. PMID:26886766

  13. Floral Evolution of Philodendron Subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface. PMID:24586972

  14. Floral evolution of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Letícia Loss; Calazans, Luana Silva Braucks; de Morais, Érica Barroso; Mayo, Simon Joseph; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sakuragui, Cassia Mônica

    2014-01-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK) and two nuclear (ETS and 18S) markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface.

  15. Floral evolution of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma (Araceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Loss de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Elucidating the evolutionary patterns of flower and inflorescence structure is pivotal to understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Angiosperms as a whole. The inflorescence morphology and anatomy of Philodendron subgenus Meconostigma, belonging to the monocot family Araceae, has been widely studied but the evolutionary relationships of subgenus Meconostigma and the evolution of its flower characters have hitherto remained unclear. This study examines gynoecium evolution in subgenus Meconostigma in the context of an estimated molecular phylogeny for all extant species of subgenus Meconostigma and analysis of ancestral character reconstructions of some gynoecial structures. The phylogenetic reconstructions of all extant Meconostigma species were conducted under a maximum likelihood approach based on the sequences of two chloroplast (trnk and matK and two nuclear (ETS and 18S markers. This topology was used to reconstruct the ancestral states of seven floral characters and to elucidate their evolutionary pattern in the Meconostigma lineage. Our phylogeny shows that Meconostigma is composed of two major clades, one comprising two Amazonian species and the other all the species from the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes with one Amazonian species. The common ancestor of the species of subgenus Meconostigma probably possessed short stylar lobes, long stylar canals, a stylar body, a vascular plexus in the gynoecium and druses in the stylar parenchyma but it is uncertain whether raphide inclusions were present in the parenchyma. The ancestral lineage also probably possessed up to 10 ovary locules. The evolution of these characters seems to have occurred independently in some lineages. We propose that the morphological and anatomical diversity observed in the gynoecial structures of subgenus Meconostigma is the result of an ongoing process of fusion of floral structures leading to a reduction of energy wastage and increase in stigmatic surface.

  16. Molecular evolution and patterns of duplication in the SEP/AGL6-like lineage of the Zingiberales: a proposed mechanism for floral diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M R; Morioka, Kelsie; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Specht, Chelsea D

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of floral forms in the plant order Zingiberales has evolved through alterations in floral organ morphology. One striking alteration is the shift from fertile, filamentous stamens to sterile, laminar (petaloid) organs in the stamen whorls, attributed to specific pollination syndromes. Here, we examine the role of the SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, known to be important in regulatory networks underlying floral development and organ identity, in the evolution of development of the diverse floral organs phenotypes in the Zingiberales. Phylogenetic analyses show that the SEP-like genes have undergone several duplication events giving rise to multiple copies. Selection tests on the SEP-like genes indicate that the two copies of SEP3 have mostly evolved under balancing selection, probably due to strong functional restrictions as a result of their critical role in floral organ specification. In contrast, the two LOFSEP copies have undergone differential positive selection, indicating neofunctionalization. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gene expression from RNA-seq data, and in situ hybridization analyses show that the recovered genes have differential expression patterns across the various whorls and organ types found in the Zingiberales. Our data also suggest that AGL6, sister to the SEP-like genes, may play an important role in stamen morphology in the Zingiberales. Thus, the SEP-like genes are likely to be involved in some of the unique morphogenetic patterns of floral organ development found among this diverse order of tropical monocots. This work contributes to a growing body of knowledge focused on understanding the role of gene duplications and the evolution of entire gene networks in the evolution of flower development.

  17. The evolution of floral scent and olfactory preferences in pollinators: coevolution or pre-existing bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Florian P; Dötterl, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Coevolution is thought to be a major factor in shaping plant-pollinator interactions. Alternatively, plants may have evolved traits that fitted pre-existing preferences or morphologies in the pollinators. Here, we test these two scenarios in the plant family of Araceae and scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) as pollinators. We focused on floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production/detection of VOCs by scarab beetles. We found phylogenetic structure in the production/detection of methoxylated aromatics in scarabs, but not plants. Within the plants, most of the compounds showed a well-supported pattern of correlated evolution with scarab-beetle pollination. In contrast, the scarabs showed no correlation between VOC production/detection and visitation to Araceae flowers, with the exception of the VOC skatole. Moreover, many VOCs were found in nonpollinating beetle groups (e.g., Melolonthinae) that are ancestors of pollinating scarabs. Importantly, none of the tested VOCs were found to have originated in pollinating taxa. Our analysis indicates a Jurassic origin of VOC production/detection in scarabs, but a Cretaceous/Paleocene origin of floral VOCs in plants. Therefore, we argue against coevolution, instead supporting the scenario of sequential evolution of floral VOCs in Araceae driven by pre-existing bias of pollinators. © 2012 The Author(s).

  18. Floral reward, advertisement and attractiveness to honey bees in dioecious Salix caprea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dötterl

    Full Text Available In dioecious, zoophilous plants potential pollinators have to be attracted to both sexes and switch between individuals of both sexes for pollination to occur. It often has been suggested that males and females require different numbers of visits for maximum reproductive success because male fertility is more likely limited by access to mates, whereas female fertility is rather limited by resource availability. According to sexual selection theory, males therefore should invest more in pollinator attraction (advertisement, reward than females. However, our knowledge on the sex specific investment in floral rewards and advertisement, and its effects on pollinator behaviour is limited. Here, we use an approach that includes chemical, spectrophotometric, and behavioural studies i to elucidate differences in floral nectar reward and advertisement (visual, olfactory cues in dioecious sallow, Salix caprea, ii to determine the relative importance of visual and olfactory floral cues in attracting honey bee pollinators, and iii to test for differential attractiveness of female and male inflorescence cues to honey bees. Nectar amount and sugar concentration are comparable, but sugar composition varies between the sexes. Olfactory sallow cues are more attractive to honey bees than visual cues; however, a combination of both cues elicits the strongest behavioural responses in bees. Male flowers are due to the yellow pollen more colourful and emit a higher amount of scent than females. Honey bees prefer the visual but not the olfactory display of males over those of females. In all, the data of our multifaceted study are consistent with the sexual selection theory and provide novel insights on how the model organism honey bee uses visual and olfactory floral cues for locating host plants.

  19. Floral scent and pollinators of the holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedonia D Sipes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Floral scent is likely important to the pollination of parasitic plants, despite that it has not been well-studied. We studied the pollination ecology of the North American stem holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae at two field sites in Texas. To identify effective pollinators, we collected floral visitors to P. thurberi flowers, observed their foraging behavior, and looked for P. thurberi pollen on their bodies. Augochloropsis metallica bees (Halictidae and eumenine potter wasps (Vespidae were pollinators. P. thurberi flowers are visually inconspicuous but produce a strong fruity fragrance. GC/MS analysis of whole floral extracts and dynamic headspace samples revealed the fragrance to be an unusually simple bouquet of raspberry ketone and several eugenols. Comparison of scent profiles to those from uninfected host plants (Dalea formosa allowed putative separation of parasite and host volatiles. This is the first report of the constituents of floral fragrance in Apodanthaceae.

  20. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae

  1. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae

  2. Floral vasculature and trichomes of common Indian Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The floral anatomy of 24 species of Scrophulariaceae was studied. The results show that although, clear anatomical bases to differentiate taxa are absent, the Pennell classification of subfamilies is strongly supported.

  3. Floral scent and pollinators of the holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sedonia D Sipes; Kara E. Huff Hartz; Hardik Amin; Daniel L. Nickrent

    2014-01-01

    Floral scent is likely important to the pollination of parasitic plants, despite that it has not been well-studied. We studied the pollination ecology of the North American stem holoparasite Pilostyles thurberi (Apodanthaceae) at two field sites in Texas. To identify effective pollinators, we collected floral visitors to P. thurberi flowers, observed their foraging behavior, and looked for P. thurberi pollen on their bodies. Augochloropsis metallica bees (Halictidae) and eumenine potter wasps...

  4. Floral and insect-induced volatile formation in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea, a perennial, outcrossing relative of A. thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Christian; Clauss, Maria; Schaub, Andrea; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Tholl, Dorothea

    2009-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds have been reported to serve some important roles in plant communication with other organisms, but little is known about the biological functions of most of these substances. To gain insight into this problem, we have compared differences in floral and vegetative volatiles between two closely related plant species with different life histories. The self-pollinating annual, Arabidopsis thaliana, and its relative, the outcrossing perennial, Arabidopsis lyrata, have mar...

  5. Similar genetic mechanisms underlie the parallel evolution of floral phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The repeated origin of similar phenotypes is invaluable for studying the underlying genetics of adaptive traits; molecular evidence, however, is lacking for most examples of such similarity. The floral morphology of neotropical Malpighiaceae is distinctive and highly conserved, especially with regard to symmetry, and is thought to result from specialization on oil-bee pollinators. We recently demonstrated that CYCLOIDEA2-like genes (CYC2A and CYC2B are associated with the development of the stereotypical floral zygomorphy that is critical to this plant-pollinator mutualism. Here, we build on this developmental framework to characterize floral symmetry in three clades of Malpighiaceae that have independently lost their oil bee association and experienced parallel shifts in their floral morphology, especially in regard to symmetry. We show that in each case these species exhibit a loss of CYC2B function, and a strikingly similar shift in the expression of CYC2A that is coincident with their shift in floral symmetry. These results indicate that similar floral phenotypes in this large angiosperm clade have evolved via parallel genetic changes from an otherwise highly conserved developmental program.

  6. Biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae floral biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Gonçalves Jardim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são apresentadas informações sobre a biologia floral de Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, espécie florestal dióica de relevante importância econômica na região amazônica. O estudo foi realizado em uma área de várzea próximo à bacia do igarapé Murutucum, lado direito do rio Guamá, localizada no Campus da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias do Pará, na cidade de Belém, Estado do Pará, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2001. Avaliou-se a biologia floral desde o aparecimento dos botões florais até a senescência das flores estaminadas, bem como a formação de frutos nas flores pistiladas. Testes bioquímicos foram aplicados para verificação de odor, pigmentos, osmóforos e receptividade do estigma. A observação no comportamento dos visitantes florais foi realizada durante o período diurno, registrando-se os horários de visitas, tempo de permanência na flor e freqüência; alguns indivíduos foram coletados com rede entomológica e identificados no Departamento de Zoologia do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. A antese ocorreu entre 6 e 16 h nas flores estaminadas e entre 8 e 16 h nas flores pistiladas; a presença de odor foi constatada apenas nas flores estaminadas, enquanto os pigmentos e osmóforos foram encontrados em ambas as flores; o estigma mostrou-se receptivo no período entre 12 e 14 h. Os insetos da ordem diptera foram os visitantes mais freqüentes nas flores estaminadas e pistiladas e as espécies Copestylum sp. e Erystalys sp., as responsáveis pela polinização.Information was obtained on the floral biology of Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb. (Myristicaceae, a dioecious arboreal species of great importance for the Amazon region economy. The study was carried out in the floodplain area near the Murucutu stream, on the right side of the Guamá River, at the Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia-UFRA, Belém-Pará , from January to December 2001. Floral biology was assessed from

  7. Disorder in convergent floral nanostructures enhances signalling to bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyroud, Edwige; Wenzel, Tobias; Middleton, Rox; Rudall, Paula J.; Banks, Hannah; Reed, Alison; Mellers, Greg; Killoran, Patrick; Westwood, M. Murphy; Steiner, Ullrich; Vignolini, Silvia; Glover, Beverley J.

    2017-10-01

    Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees. These disordered nanostructures (identified in most major lineages of angiosperms) have distinct anatomies but convergent optical properties; they all produce angle-dependent scattered light, predominantly at short wavelengths (ultraviolet and blue). We manufactured artificial flowers with nanoscale structures that possessed tailored levels of disorder in order to investigate how foraging bumblebees respond to this optical effect. We conclude that floral nanostructures have evolved, on multiple independent occasions, an effective degree of relative spatial disorder that generates a photonic signature that is highly salient to insect pollinators.

  8. Changing MADS-Box Transcription Factor Protein-Protein Interactions as a Mechanism for Generating Floral Morphological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Madelaine E

    2017-12-01

    Flowers display fantastic morphological diversity. Despite extreme variability in form, floral organ identity is specified by a core set of deeply conserved proteins-the floral MADS-box transcription factors. This indicates that while core gene function has been maintained, MADS-box transcription factors have evolved to regulate different downstream genes. Thus, the evolution of gene regulation downstream of the MADS-box transcription factors is likely central to the evolution of floral form. Gene regulation is determined by the combination of transcriptional regulators present at a particular cis-regulatory element at a particular time. Therefore, the interactions between transcription factors can be of profound importance in determining patterns of gene regulation. Here, after a short primer on flowers and floral morphology, I discuss the centrality of protein-protein interactions to MADS-box transcription factor function, and review the evidence that the evolution of MADS-box protein-protein interactions is a key driver in the evolution of gene regulation downstream of the MADS-box genes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Floral development of Berberidopsis beckleri - can an additional species of the Berberidopsidaceae add evidence to floral evolution in the core eudicots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronse De Craene, Louis P

    2017-03-01

    Berberidopsis beckleri is one of three species of the family Berberidopsidaceae. The flower of Berberidopsis is unusual for core eudicots in being spiral with an undifferentiated perianth. In a previous study of the sister species B. corallina , it was suggested that Berberidopsidaceae represent a prototype for the origin of the bipartite perianth and pentamery in core eudicots. The floral development of B. beckleri was investigated with a scanning electron microscope and compared with previous studies on B. corallina and Aextoxicon punctatum of Berberidopsidales. Flowers are inserted at the end of short shoots, which are not distinguishable from a pedicel. The initiation of perianth parts is highly predictable and spiral with a divergence angle of 137·5°, in a progression of a variable number of bracts to weakly differentiated sepaloid and petaloid tepals. The androecium most often consists 11 stamens arising in a rapid sequence. Compared with B. corallina , the number of perianth parts and stamens is more variable and there is no evidence of an alternation of shorter and longer plastochrons leading to a whorled arrangement. However, the gynoecium is generally pentamerous and arises from five primordia. The carpels are laterally connected into massive intercarpellary ridges on which ovules are initiated. The position of Streptothamnus within Berberidopsidaceae is questioned. It is demonstrated that the floral development of Berberidopsis beckleri lies within a gradient from spiral flowers without perianth differentiation leading to flowers with differentiated sepals and petals. The arrangement of flowers in compact inflorescences in B. corallina and Aextoxicon leads to a more stabilized arrangement of organs in whorls. The inherent variability of the flower of Berberidopsis is well correlated with the limited canalization of flowers in taxa at the base of the core eudicots and could act as a prototype for the current eudicot floral Bauplan. © The Author 2017

  10. Reconstruction of floral changes during deposition of the Miocene Embalut coal from Kutai Basin, Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia by use of aromatic hydrocarbon composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, S.; Bechtel, A.; Anggayana, K.; Puttmann, W. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    The distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons and stable carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in a series of nine Miocene Embalut coal samples obtained from nine coal seams of Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia were studied. The rank of the Embalut coals ranged from lignites to low rank sub-bituminous coals (0.36-0.50% Rr), based on measurements of huminite reflectance. The aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of all coal samples were dominated by cadalene in the lower boiling point range and picene derivatives in the higher boiling point range of the gas chromatograms. Cadalene can be attributed to the contribution of Dipterocarpaceae and various hydrated picenes to the contribution of additional angiosperms to the coal forming vegetation. The picenes originate from {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin. However, in some coal samples minor amounts of simonellite and retene were also detected which argues for an additional contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) to coal forming vegetation preferentially in the Middle Miocene and at the beginning of the Late Miocene. The results of stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C in most of the coal samples are consistent with their origin from angiosperms {delta}{sup 13}C between -27.09, and -28.0%). During the Miocene the climate of Mahakam Delta was not uniformly moist and cooler than the present day climate. This would have been favourable for the growth of conifers, especially in the montane forests. The contribution of conifers to the Embalut coals might be a result of the cool Middle/Late Miocene climate during peat accumulation in the Kutai Basin.

  11. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SUBSTITUENTS AND OF SOLVENT ON THE REACTIVITY OF THE NORMAL AND ABNORMAL POSITIONS OF UNSYMMETRICAL ORGANIC EPOXIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    alpha -methyl group reduces the rate of normal attack slightly and that of abnormal attack considerably, and the o-methyl group has surprisingly little effect of the rate of attack at either position. ( Author )...supported the similarity between the mechanisms for the normal and abnormal reactions. A kinetic study of the reactions of alpha -methyl-, trans-beta-methyl...reactions of 6 substituted styrene oxides with benzylamine were made in ethanol

  12. Bioinformatics and expressional analysis of cDNA clones from floral buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena Ewa; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Cebula, Justyna; Hincha, Dirck; ZiÄ bska, Karolina; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2017-08-01

    The application of genomic approaches may serve as an initial step in understanding the complexity of biochemical network and cellular processes responsible for regulation and execution of many developmental tasks. The molecular mechanism of sex expression in cucumber is still not elucidated. A study of differential expression was conducted to identify genes involved in sex determination and floral organ morphogenesis. Herein, we present generation of expression sequence tags (EST) obtained by differential hybridization (DH) and subtraction technique (cDNA-DSC) and their characteristic features such as molecular function, involvement in biology processes, expression and mapping position on the genome.

  13. MEMORIA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA ESCOGENCIA FLORAL DE LAS ABEJAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL AMAYA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los polinizadores altamente especializados en su dieta, no hacen escogencias florales, ellos visitan un recurso específico siguiendo el dictado de la información almacenada en sus genes. En contraste, para la abeja social Apis mellifera una escogencia floral implica, la toma de una decisión, usualmente con criterio económico, basada en información aprendida y almacenada en alguna forma de memoria. Aunque existen numerosos estudios y modelos sobre la escogencia floral en abejas, la gran mayoría de éstos, han derivado sus conclusiones a partir de condiciones temporalmente fijas de la interacción. Muy pocos estudios han abordado la dinámica propia del contexto ecológico, en el cual el mercado floral de las abejas cambia con las estaciones del año y con los patrones diarios de antesis floral. Este cambio en la disponibilidad de especies florales enfrenta a los polinizadores, a realizar escogencias secuenciales acerca del alimento a explotar. En este trabajo abordo el tema del forrajeo secuencial en parches florales heterospecíficos, enfocándome en el uso que la abeja melífera hace de la información previamente aprendida en un contexto, cuando se enfrenta a la explotación de alimento en un contexto ecológicamente diferente. He realizado experimentos sobre escogencia floral simulando las condiciones de cambio del paisaje floral, exponiendo abejas individuales de A. mellifera a decidir sobre cuales especies forrajear en cada parche. Los resultados indican que la abeja invierte en procesos de aprendizaje en un muestreo inicial, pero una vez almacenada la información, utiliza una pieza de la información previamente aprendida (color para explotar parches florales heteroespecíficos siguiendo una imagen de búsqueda de color. En esta revisión discuto situaciones biológicas de la interacción planta-abeja, las cuales apoyan la idea que en la naturaleza el uso de imágenes de búsqueda de color por parte de abejas sociales puede

  14. Floral visitors of Ananas comosus in Ghana: A preliminary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kwapong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ananas comosus var comosus (L. Merr. is the third most important tropical fruit in the world production and the leading foreign exchange earner among fresh fruits exported from Ghana. A survey was conducted in pineapple farms in the Central region of Ghana to identify floral visitors and their activities on the flowers. Nectar concentration and energetics and effect of floral visitors on fruit production were determined. Fourteen species of butterflies and one ant species were the main insect floral visitors as well as four species of sunbirds. The mean nectar concentration was 23.3% (± 0.39, SE and pollination limitation did not significantly affect fruit yield (weight: p = 0.285; length: p = 0.056; width: p= 0.268. The study showed that butterflies, ants and sunbirds are the main floral visitors on A. comosus. However their visits did not results in pollination and fruit production was not affected in any way by floral visitation. Still, it was found that A. comosus provides an important nectar resource for its foragers. Even if pollination is not crucial in pineapple cultivation, it is still essential in pineapple breeding programs to promote genetic diversity and conservation.

  15. Abnormal Head Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Abnormal Head Position En Español Read in Chinese What is an abnormal head posture? An abnormal or compensatory head posture occurs ...

  16. Mutation scanning of peach floral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde H Dayton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutation scanning technology has been used to develop crop species with improved traits. Modifications that improve screening throughput and sensitivity would facilitate the targeted mutation breeding of crops. Technical innovations for high-resolution melting (HRM analysis are enabling the clinic-based screening for human disease gene polymorphism. We examined the application of two HRM modifications, COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR, to the mutation scanning of genes in peach, Prunus persica. The targeted genes were the putative floral regulators PpAGAMOUS and PpTERMINAL FLOWER I. Results HRM analysis of PpAG and PpTFL1 coding regions in 36 peach cultivars found one polymorphic site in each gene. PpTFL1 and PpAG SNPs were used to examine approaches to increase HRM throughput. Cultivars with SNPs could be reliably detected in pools of twelve genotypes. COLD-PCR was found to increase the sensitivity of HRM analysis of pooled samples, but worked best with small amplicons. Examination of QMC-PCR demonstrated that primary PCR products for further analysis could be produced from variable levels of genomic DNA. Conclusions Natural SNPs in exons of target peach genes were discovered by HRM analysis of cultivars from a southeastern US breeding program. For detecting natural or induced SNPs in larger populations, HRM efficiency can be improved by increasing sample pooling and template production through approaches such as COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR. Technical advances developed to improve clinical diagnostics can play a role in the targeted mutation breeding of crops.

  17. Cytological behaviour of floral organs and in silico characterization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annotation of characterized sequences showed presence of genes, namely auxin response factor 9. (ARF9) and forkhead-associated ... During successful plant development, there are numerous molecular events regulated by ... dehydration, the flowers were subjected to critical point dry- ing (CPD) using liquid carbon ...

  18. Cytological behaviour of floral organs and in silico characterization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Department of Agricultural Botany,Post Graduate Institute, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 444 104, India; Department of Plant Pathology, Post Graduate Institute, Dr Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola 444 104, India; Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research ...

  19. Composition of the Floral Essential Oil of Brugmansia suaveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William N. Setzer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The floral essential oils of Brugmansia suaveolens, from Monteverde, Costa Rica, were collected atthree different times of the day by hydrodistillation and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography-massspectrometry (GC-MS. The floral essential oil showed a dramatic change in composition between the freshlyopened night (white blossoms and the rose-colored senescent blossoms the following day. The white blossomswere dominated by 1,8-cineole (72.1%, (E-nerolidol (11.7%, a-terpineol (5.3%, and phenethyl alcohol(3.2%, notably different from headspace analyses of B. suaveolens reported previously. The floral essential oilfrom “rose-colored” senescent blossoms of B. suaveolens showed dramatic decreases in 1,8-cineole (2.0%, (E-nerolidol (1.9%, and phenethyl alcohol (not detected, with concomitant increases in heptanal (10.2%, nonanal(17.4%, terpinen-4-ol (10.5%, and megastigmatrienones (35.5%.

  20. Non-volatile floral oils of Diascia spp. (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumri, Kanchana; Seipold, Lars; Schmidt, Jürgen; Gerlach, Günter; Dötterl, Stefan; Ellis, Allan G; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2008-04-01

    The floral oils of Diascia purpurea, Diascia vigilis, Diascia cordata, Diascia megathura, Diascia integerrima and Diascia barberae (Scrophulariaceae) were selectively collected from trichome elaiophores. The derivatized floral oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whilst the underivatized samples were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The most common constituents of the floral oils investigated are partially acetylated acylglycerols of (3R)-acetoxy fatty acids (C(14), C(16), and C(18)), as was proven with non-racemic synthetic reference samples. The importance of these oils for Rediviva bees is discussed in a co-evolutionary context.

  1. Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrom, L; Munné-Bosch, S

    2012-08-01

    Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium.

  2. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas strains isolated from floral nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Belgacem, Z; Bijttebier, S; Verreth, C; Voorspoels, S; Van de Voorde, I; Aerts, G; Willems, K A; Jacquemyn, H; Ruyters, S; Lievens, B

    2015-06-01

    To screen and identify biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas strains isolated from floral nectar; to characterize the produced biosurfactants; and to investigate the effect of different carbon sources on biosurfactant production. Four of eight nectar Pseudomonas isolates were found to produce biosurfactants. Phylogenetic analysis based on three housekeeping genes (16S rRNA gene, rpoB and gyrB) classified the isolates into two groups, including one group closely related to Pseudomonas fluorescens and another group closely related to Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas jessenii. Although our nectar pseudomonads were able to grow on a variety of water-soluble and water-immiscible carbon sources, surface active agents were only produced when using vegetable oil as sole carbon source, including olive oil, sunflower oil or waste frying sunflower oil. Structural characterization based on thin layer chromatography (TLC) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-accurate mass mass spectrometry (UHPLC-amMS) revealed that biosurfactant activity was most probably due to the production of fatty acids (C16:0; C18:0; C18:1 and C18:2), and mono- and diglycerides thereof. Four biosurfactant-producing nectar pseudomonads were identified. The active compounds were identified as fatty acids (C16:0; C18:0; C18:1 and C18:2), and mono- and diglycerides thereof, produced by hydrolysis of triglycerides of the feedstock. Studies on biosurfactant-producing micro-organisms have mainly focused on microbes isolated from soils and aquatic environments. Here, for the first time, nectar environments were screened as a novel source for biosurfactant producers. As nectars represent harsh environments with high osmotic pressure and varying pH levels, further screening of nectar habitats for biosurfactant-producing microbes may lead to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with broad tolerance towards different environmental conditions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Identification of Genes Associated with Lemon Floral Transition and Flower Development during Floral Inductive Water Deficits: A Hypothetical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Xue; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Zhu, Jiao; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Huang, Hua-Bin; Yue, Jian-Qiang; Gao, Jun-Yan; Du, Yu-Xia; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is a key factor to induce flowering in many woody plants, but reports on the molecular mechanisms of floral induction and flowering by water deficit are scarce. Here, we analyzed the morphology, cytology, and different hormone levels of lemon buds during floral inductive water deficits. Higher levels of ABA were observed, and the initiation of floral bud differentiation was examined by paraffin sections analysis. A total of 1638 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing. DEGs were related to flowering, hormone biosynthesis, or metabolism. The expression of some DEGs was associated with floral induction by real-time PCR analysis. However, some DEGs may not have anything to do with flowering induction/flower development; they may be involved in general stress/drought response. Four genes from the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family were further investigated. Ectopic expression of these genes in Arabidopsis changed the flowering time of transgenic plants. Furthermore, the 5' flanking region of these genes was also isolated and sequence analysis revealed the presence of several putative cis -regulatory elements, including basic elements and hormone regulation elements. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these promoters were investigated under water deficit treatment. Based on these findings, we propose a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions, which will enable us to further understand the molecular mechanism of water deficit-regulated flowering in citrus. Based on gene activity during floral inductive water deficits identified by RNA sequencing and genes associated with lemon floral transition, a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions is proposed.

  4. Management of floral waste generated from temples of Jaipur city through vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Tiwari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at management of floral waste generated from temples of Jaipur city through vermicomposting. In this study, flower waste consisted of variety of flowers out of which marigold was chosen as it was found in maximum amount. The vermibeds were prepared by mixing the marigold with cow dung in different proportions viz., 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10 and they were filled in the earthen pots, individually. Simultaneously, a control (without worms for each of these concentrations was prepared and maintained. Eisenia foetida was introduced into each of these trays except the control. The bioconversion ratio i.e., waste into vermicompost was found to be high in 60:40 proportion than the others. Vermicompost obtained was analysed for various parameters like organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The amount of organic carbon, potassium and phosphorus was more in vermicompost samples for all the groups as compared to compost samples. It was concluded that floral waste with cow dung at 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 ratios could be converted into a nutrient rich vermicompost. International Journal of Environment Vol. 5 (1 2016,  pp: 1-13

  5. Identification of floral scent in chrysanthemum cultivars and wild relatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hainan; Zhang, Ting; Fan, Qingqing; Qi, Xiangyu; Zhang, Fei; Fang, Weimin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Chen, Sumei

    2015-03-25

    The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%-99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  6. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  7. Floral closure induced by pollination in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae): effects of pollen load and type, floral morph and fitness consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yang; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2011-11-01

    Pollination-induced floral changes, which have been widely documented in flowering plants, have been assumed to enhance the plant's reproductive success. However, our understanding of the causes and consequences of these changes is still limited. Using an alpine gynodioecious species, Cyananthus delavayi, we investigated the factors affecting floral closure and estimated the fitness consequences of floral closure. The timings of floral closure and fertilization were determined. The effects of pollen load, pollen type (cross- or self-pollen) and floral morph (female or perfect flower) on the occurrence of floral closure were examined. Ovule fertilization and seed production were examined to investigate the causes and consequences of floral closure. Flowers were manipulated to prevent closing to detect potential benefits for female fitness. Floral closure, which could be induced by a very low pollen load, occurred within 4-7 h after pollination, immediately following fertilization. The proportion of closed flowers was influenced by pollen load and floral morph, but not by pollen type. Floral closure was more likely to occur in flowers with a higher proportion of fertilized ovules, but there was no significant difference in seed production between closed and open flowers. Those flowers in which closure was induced by natural pollination had low fruit set and seed production. Additionally, seed production was not influenced by closing-prevented manipulation when sufficient pollen deposition was received. The occurrence of floral closure may be determined by the proportion of fertilized ovules, but this response can be too sensitive to ensure sufficient pollen deposition and can, to some extent, lead to a cost in female fitness. These results implied that the control of floral receptivity by the recipient flowers does not lead to an optimal fitness gain in C. delavayi.

  8. A conserved function for Arabidopsis SUPERMAN in regulating floral-whorl cell proliferation in rice, a monocotyledonous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, A K; Kushalappa, K; Prasad, K; Vijayraghavan, U

    2000-02-24

    Studies of floral organ development in two dicotyledonous plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus, have shown that three sets of genes (A, B and C) can pattern sepals, petals, stamens and carpels [1] [2]. Mechanisms that define boundaries between these floral whorls are unclear, however. The Arabidopsis gene SUPERMAN (SUP), which encodes a putative transcription factor, maintains the boundary between stamens and carpels [3] [4] [5], possibly by regulating cell proliferation. By overexpressing SUP cDNA in rice, we examined whether its effects on whorl boundaries are conserved in a divergent monocotyledonous species. High-level ectopic SUP expression in transgenic rice resulted in juvenile death or dwarf plants with decreased axillary growth. Plants with lower levels of SUP RNA were vegetatively normal, but the flowers showed ubiquitous ventral carpel expansion. This was often coupled with reduced stamen number, or occurrence of third-whorl stamen-carpel mosaic organs. Additionally, proliferation of second-whorl ventral cells produced adventitious lodicules, and flowers lost the asymmetry that is normally inherent to this whorl. We predict that SUP is a conserved regulator of floral whorl boundaries and that it affects cell proliferation.

  9. Effect of floral display on reproductive success in terrestrial orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 47-60 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6141302; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/1124 Keywords : deceptivity * floral display * orchid * reproductive success * reward Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2005

  10. Floral syndrome and breeding system of Senna (Cassia) corymbosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Senna (Cassia) corymbosa is an ornamental plant with asymmetric flower in which petals and stamens are also involved in floral asymmetry. The pollen number of abaxial lateral stamen (AL), abaxial median stamen (AM) and middle stamen (MI) are descended in sequence. In field, the insects of visiting ...

  11. Research on floral timing by ambient temperature comes into blossom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhage, D.S.L.; Angenent, G.C.; Immink, R.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    The floral transition is an essential process in the life cycle of flower-bearing plants, because their reproductive success depends on it. To determine the right moment of flowering, plants respond to many environmental signals, including day length, light quality, and temperature. Small changes in

  12. Effects of soil moisture stress on floral and pods abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted at Ilorin, Nigeria to evaluate the effects of soil moisture stress at different growth stages (vegetative, flowering and pod filling) on floral and pods abortion, reproductive efficiency and grain yields of ten soybean genotypes (TGX 923-2E, TGX 1440-1E, Samsoy- 2, TGX 536 02D, TGX 1019-2E, TGX ...

  13. 36 CFR 12.10 - Floral and commemorative tributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floral and commemorative tributes. 12.10 Section 12.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... of fresh cut or artificial flowers in or on a metal or other non-breakable rod or container...

  14. Aspects of the floral and fruit biology of Allanblackia stuhlmannii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit crop was strongly rela ted to tree size, with mean seed number per fruit being 38. Seed quantity per fruit showed a trend to increase with fruit mass, but this relationship was not significant. General physical resemblance of female flowers to male flowers, the latter of which offer multiple floral cues to attract pollinators, ...

  15. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained from the Musa field germplasm bank at the Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources Management farm, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. Palynological investigation was carried ...

  16. The co-optimization of floral display and nectar reward

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-10

    Dec 10, 2009 ... selective force in the evolution of nectarless flowers. Previous models as well as empirical studies have addressed the problem of optimizing the proportion of nectarless and nectarful flowers. However, there has been no attempt to optimize the investment in nectar production along with that in floral display.

  17. Chemical profiles of honeys originating from different floral sources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical profiles of honeys originating from different floral sources and geographic locations examined by a combination of three extraction and analysis techniques. ... The chemical profiles of Tasmanian Leatherwood and Manuka honeys from Tasmania and New Zealand have been compared by a combination of GC-MS ...

  18. Related allopolyploids display distinct floral pigment profiles and transgressive pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D; Litt, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4.5 million years old; and five lines of first-generation synthetic N. tabacum) as well as their diploid progenitors. Allopolyploid floral pigment profiles tend not to overlap with their progenitors or related allopolyploids, and allopolyploids produce transgressive pigments that are not present in either progenitor. Differences in floral color among N. tabacum accessions seems mainly to be due to variation in cyanidin concentration, but changes in flavonol concentrations among accessions are also present. Competition for substrates within the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to make either flavonols or anthocyanins may drive the differences seen among related allopolyploids. Some of the pigment differences observed in allopolyploids may be associated with making flowers more visible to nocturnal pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  19. Floral morphology of the Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) in Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the floral morphology of the 32 Polystachya Hook. species in Nigeria, all occurring in the wild, was undertaken in search of simple, non-technical characters for their identification. The study has revealed that each lip is distinctive and can be recognized on the basis of their macroscopical and microscopical ...

  20. Kyllinga mbitheana (Cyperaceae)—description, floral ontogeny and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spikelet has an indeterminate rachilla with distichously arranged glumes, and the floral ontogenetic pattern is similar to that of other Cyperoideae. The diagnostic laterally compressed nutlets can be observed in the ontogenetic phase, where the dorsiventrally orientated stigma primordia give rise to a laterally flattened ...

  1. Flavonoids patterns of French honeys with different floral origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, C.; Gil, M.I.; Garcia-Viguera, C.; Tomás-Barberán, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    The flavonoid profiles of 12 different unifloral French honey samples were analysed by HPLC to evaluate if these substances could be used as markers of the floral origin of honey. In this analysis, the characteristic flavonoids from propolis and/or beeswax (chrysin, galangin, tectochrysin,

  2. Lilium longiflorum and molecular floral development: the ABCDE model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedito, V.A.; Angenent, G.C.; Tuyl, van J.M.; Krens, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is an important cut-flower crop, molecular characterisation of genes that are involved in flower morphology could help breeders to develop novel floral architectures in this species. The early ABC model for flower development emerged more than 10 years ago

  3. Polimorfismo floral em Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae Floral polymorphism in Valeriana scandens L. (Valerianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Duarte-Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram encontrados três morfos florais em Valeriana scandens L.: flor perfeita, flor pistilada 1 e flor pistilada 2. A perfeita possui corola maior que a dos demais morfos, com lobos reflexos na antese, giba proeminente e localizada na porção proximal do tubo floral; anteras maiores que as dos demais morfos, com pólen viável; estilete curto e estigma incluso, o menor ovário e saco embrionário estruturalmente normal, semelhante ao dos demais morfos. A pistilada 1 possui a giba menos proeminente, corola de tamanho intermediário em relação aos demais morfos, lobos radiais na antese; anteras pequenas, sem pólen e estilete longo e estigma exserto. A pistilada 2 possui lobos radiais na antese, anteras de comprimento semelhante às da perfeita, mas de menor largura, com pólen inviável; estilete mais curto, tal como o da flor perfeita, e estigma exserto, tal como o da flor pistilada 1. Nos três morfos, o nectário é formado por tricomas secretores unicelulares situados na epiderme da face interna da giba, e suas sementes são viáveis. As flores pistilada 2 e perfeita apresentam um septo que isola a giba do restante do tubo floral, formando uma câmara nectarífera. V. scandens L. é ginomonóica-ginodióica, expressão sexual inédita em Valerianaceae.Three floral morphs were found in Valeriana scandens L.: perfect, pistillate 1, and pistillate 2. In perfect flowers, the corolla is longer than in the other morphs, with reflexed lobes at anthesis and a prominent gibbus at the tube base; anthers are longer and contain viable pollen grains; the pistil has a short included style/stigma and the smallest ovary, but a structurally normal embryo sac similar to that of the other morphs. In pistillate 1 flowers, the corolla is intermediate in size, and has radially displayed lobes at anthesis, and a softly prominent gibbus; anthers are small and devoid of pollen; the pistil shows a long exerted style/stigma. In pistillate 2 flowers, the corolla

  4. Characterizing Floral Symmetry in the Core Goodeniaceae with Geometric Morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew G; Fitz Gerald, Jonathan N; Menz, John; Shepherd, Kelly A; Howarth, Dianella G; Jabaily, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Core Goodeniaceae is a clade of ~330 species primarily distributed in Australia. Considerable variation in flower morphology exists within this group and we aim to use geometric morphometrics to characterize this variation across the two major subclades: Scaevola sensu lato (s.l.) and Goodenia s.l., the latter of which was hypothesized to exhibit greater variability in floral symmetry form. We test the hypothesis that floral morphological variation can be adequately characterized by our morphometric approach, and that discrete groups of floral symmetry morphologies exist, which broadly correlate with subjectively determined groups. From 335 images of 44 species in the Core Goodeniaceae, two principal components were computed that describe >98% of variation in all datasets. Increasing values of PC1 ventralize the dorsal petals (increasing the angle between them), whereas increasing values of PC2 primarily ventralize the lateral petals (decreasing the angle between them). Manipulation of these two morphological "axes" alone was sufficient to recreate any of the general floral symmetry patterns in the Core Goodeniaceae. Goodenia s.l. exhibits greater variance than Scaevola s.l. in PC1 and PC2, and has a significantly lower mean value for PC1. Clustering clearly separates fan-flowers (with dorsal petals at least 120° separated) from the others, whereas the distinction between pseudo-radial and bilabiate clusters is less clear and may form a continuum rather than two distinct groups. Transitioning from the average fan-flower to the average non-fan-flower is described almost exclusively by PC1, whereas PC2 partially describes the transition between bilabiate and pseudo-radial morphologies. Our geometric morphometric method accurately models Core Goodeniaceae floral symmetry diversity.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis for Abnormal Spike Development of the Wheat Mutant dms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xin Zhu

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. spike development is the foundation for grain yield. We obtained a novel wheat mutant, dms, characterized as dwarf, multi-pistil and sterility. Although the genetic changes are not clear, the heredity of traits suggests that a recessive gene locus controls the two traits of multi-pistil and sterility in self-pollinating populations of the medium plants (M, such that the dwarf genotype (D and tall genotype (T in the progeny of the mutant are ideal lines for studies regarding wheat spike development. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular basis for spike abnormalities of dwarf genotype.Four unigene libraries were assembled by sequencing the mRNAs of the super-bulked differentiating spikes and stem tips of the D and T plants. Using integrative analysis, we identified 419 genes highly expressed in spikes, including nine typical homeotic genes of the MADS-box family and the genes TaAP2, TaFL and TaDL. We also identified 143 genes that were significantly different between young spikes of T and D, and 26 genes that were putatively involved in spike differentiation. The result showed that the expression levels of TaAP1-2, TaAP2, and other genes involved in the majority of biological processes such as transcription, translation, cell division, photosynthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion were significantly lower in D than in T.We identified a set of genes related to wheat floral organ differentiation, including typical homeotic genes. Our results showed that the major causal factors resulting in the spike abnormalities of dms were the lower expression homeotic genes, hormonal imbalance, repressed biological processes, and deficiency of construction materials and energy. We performed a series of studies on the homeotic genes, however the other three causal factors for spike abnormal phenotype of dms need further study.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis for Abnormal Spike Development of the Wheat Mutant dms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Xin; Li, Qiao-Yun; Shen, Chun-Cai; Duan, Zong-Biao; Yu, Dong-Yan; Niu, Ji-Shan; Ni, Yong-Jing; Jiang, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) spike development is the foundation for grain yield. We obtained a novel wheat mutant, dms, characterized as dwarf, multi-pistil and sterility. Although the genetic changes are not clear, the heredity of traits suggests that a recessive gene locus controls the two traits of multi-pistil and sterility in self-pollinating populations of the medium plants (M), such that the dwarf genotype (D) and tall genotype (T) in the progeny of the mutant are ideal lines for studies regarding wheat spike development. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular basis for spike abnormalities of dwarf genotype. Four unigene libraries were assembled by sequencing the mRNAs of the super-bulked differentiating spikes and stem tips of the D and T plants. Using integrative analysis, we identified 419 genes highly expressed in spikes, including nine typical homeotic genes of the MADS-box family and the genes TaAP2, TaFL and TaDL. We also identified 143 genes that were significantly different between young spikes of T and D, and 26 genes that were putatively involved in spike differentiation. The result showed that the expression levels of TaAP1-2, TaAP2, and other genes involved in the majority of biological processes such as transcription, translation, cell division, photosynthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion were significantly lower in D than in T. We identified a set of genes related to wheat floral organ differentiation, including typical homeotic genes. Our results showed that the major causal factors resulting in the spike abnormalities of dms were the lower expression homeotic genes, hormonal imbalance, repressed biological processes, and deficiency of construction materials and energy. We performed a series of studies on the homeotic genes, however the other three causal factors for spike abnormal phenotype of dms need further study.

  7. Developmental robustness by obligate interaction of class B floral homeotic genes and proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Lenser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available DEF-like and GLO-like class B floral homeotic genes encode closely related MADS-domain transcription factors that act as developmental switches involved in specifying the identity of petals and stamens during flower development. Class B gene function requires transcriptional upregulation by an autoregulatory loop that depends on obligate heterodimerization of DEF-like and GLO-like proteins. Because switch-like behavior of gene expression can be displayed by single genes already, the functional relevance of this complex circuitry has remained enigmatic. On the basis of a stochastic in silico model of class B gene and protein interactions, we suggest that obligate heterodimerization of class B floral homeotic proteins is not simply the result of neutral drift but enhanced the robustness of cell-fate organ identity decisions in the presence of stochastic noise. This finding strongly corroborates the view that the appearance of this regulatory mechanism during angiosperm phylogeny led to a canalization of flower development and evolution.

  8. Development of the gametophytes, flower, and floral vasculature in Dichorisandra thyrsiflora (Commelinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, C R; Stevenson, D W; Kiss, H G

    2000-09-01

    The flowers of Dichorisandra thyrsiflora (Commelinaceae) are monosymmetric and composed of three sepals, three petals, six stamens, and three connate carpels. The anthers are poricidal and possess a wall of five cell layers (tapetum included). This type of anther wall, not previously observed in the Commelinaceae, is developmentally derived from the monocotyledonous type via an additional periclinal division and the persistence of the middle layers through anther dehiscence. Secondary endothecial thickenings develop in the cells of the two middle layers only. The tapetum is periplasmodial and contains raphides. Microsporogenesis is successive and yields both decussate and isobilateral tetrads. Pollen is shed as single binucleate grains. The gynoecium is differentiated into a globose ovary, hollow elongate style, and trilobed papillate stigma. Each locule contains six to eight hemianatropous to slightly campylotropous crassinucellar ovules with axile (submarginal) placentation. The ovules are bitegmic with a slightly zig-zag micropyle. Megagametophyte development is of the Polygonum type. The mature megagametophyte consists of an egg apparatus and fusion nucleus; the antipodals having degenerated. The floral vasculature is organized into an outer and inner system of bundles in the pedicel. The outer system becomes ventral carpellary bundles. All other floral vascular traces originate from the inner system.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of thermogenic Arum concinnatum reveals the molecular components of floral scent production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seymour, Roger S; Umekawa, Yui; Pirintsos, Stergios Arg; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2015-03-04

    Several plant species can generate enough heat to increase their internal floral temperature above ambient temperature. Among thermogenic plants, Arum concinnatum shows the highest respiration activity during thermogenesis. However, an overall understanding of the genes related to plant thermogenesis has not yet been achieved. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of flower organs in A. concinnatum. The de novo transcriptome assembly represented, in total, 158,490 non-redundant transcripts, and 53,315 of those showed significant homology with known genes. To explore genes associated with thermogenesis, we filtered 1266 transcripts that showed a significant correlation between expression pattern and the temperature trend of each sample. We confirmed five putative alternative oxidase transcripts were included in filtered transcripts as expected. An enrichment analysis of the Gene Ontology terms for the filtered transcripts suggested over-representation of genes involved in 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) activity. The expression profiles of DXS transcripts in the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway were significantly correlated with thermogenic levels. Our results suggest that the MEP pathway is the main biosynthesis route for producing scent monoterpenes. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the candidate pathway and the key enzyme for floral scent production in thermogenic plants.

  10. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  11. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  12. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. ACOG. ...

  13. Floral flavonoids and ultraviolet patterns in Viguiera (Compositae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieseberg, L.H.; Schilling, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    Variation occurs among species of Viguiera series Viguiera for ultraviolet (UV) absorption/reflection patterns of ligules. Floral flavonoids that cause UV absorption occur in epidermal papillae. Flavonoids are further localized to the proximal portion of the ligule in the seven taxa that have only proximal UV absorption. Floral flavonoids involved in UV absorption consist of flavone, flavonol, and anthochlor (chalcone/aurone) glycosides. Quercetin 3-methyl ether glycosides characterize the ligules of 10 taxa occurring in Baja California, Mexico, and nearby areas, and these taxa appear to form one taxonomic group. The anthochlor pair, marein/maritimein, characterizes V. dentata, and the lack of ligule flavonoids distinguishes V. potosina from the remaining taxa. The presence of the anthochlor pair, marein/maritimein, only in V. dentata and the lack of ligule flavonoids in V. potosina concur with other data to indicate that these species are not correctly placed with each other or with the other species currently included in series Viguiera. (author)

  14. Floral glands in asclepiads: structure, diversity and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Demarco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Species of Apocynaceae stand out among angiosperms in having very complex flowers, especially those of asclepiads, which belong to the most derived subfamily (Asclepiadoideae. These flowers are known to represent the highest degree of floral synorganization of the eudicots, and are comparable only to orchids. This morphological complexity may also be understood by observing their glands. Asclepiads have several protective and nuptial secretory structures. Their highly specific and specialized pollination systems are associated with the great diversity of glands found in their flowers. This review gathers data regarding all types of floral glands described for asclepiads and adds three new types (glandular trichome, secretory idioblast and obturator, for a total of 13 types of glands. Some of the species reported here may have dozens of glands of up to 11 types on a single flower, corresponding to the largest diversity of glands recorded to date for a single structure.

  15. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator's memory of reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G A; Baker, D D; Palmer, M J; Stabler, D; Mustard, J A; Power, E F; Borland, A M; Stevenson, P C

    2013-03-08

    Plant defense compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well understood. We provide evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behavior by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times as likely to remember a learned floral scent as were honeybees rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar did not exceed the bees' bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success.

  16. Quantitative trait loci for floral morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    OpenAIRE

    Juenger, T; Purugganan, M; Mackay, T F

    2000-01-01

    A central question in biology is how genes control the expression of quantitative variation. We used statistical methods to estimate genetic variation in eight Arabidopsis thaliana floral characters (fresh flower mass, petal length, petal width, sepal length, sepal width, long stamen length, short stamen length, and pistil length) in a cosmopolitan sample of 15 ecotypes. In addition, we used genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to evaluate the genetic basis of variation in these...

  17. Anatomia floral de espécies de Cyperaceae (Poales)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Mariana Maciel [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Cyperaceae comprises about 5000 species with a worldwide distribution. The family is divided into two subfamilies: Mapanioideae (earlier divergent) and Cyperoideae that are distinguished from each other by the structure of their reproductive units. There is no consensus on whether these units are flowers or reduced inflorescences in Mapanioideae. In Cyperoideae, the reproductive units correspond to a spikelet whose structural variation difficults the understanding of the floral evolution in t...

  18. Pestalotioid fungi from Restionaceae in the Cape Floral Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seonju; Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Eight pestalotioid fungi were isolated from the Restionaceae growing in the Cape Floral Kingdom of South Africa. Sarcostroma restionis, Truncatella megaspora, T. restionacearum and T. spadicea are newly described. New records include Pestalotiopsis matildae, Sarcostroma lomatiae, Truncatella betulae and T. hartigii. To resolve generic affiliations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on ITS (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and part of 28S rDNA. DNA data support the original generic concept of Truncatella,...

  19. Study on the Development of Yunnan Floral E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Yulan; Li, Qifang; Ning, Wangyun

    2013-01-01

    Cut flower production in Yunnan accounts for 80% nationwide. In order to expand the Yunnan Flower sales channels, the promotion of the development of e-commerce is necessary. In 2012 China's online shopping users reached 247 million people, but e-commerce of fresh flowers lagged behind due to the constraints of preservation facilities and logistics cost. The analysis of the factors restricting the development of floral e-commerce and the proposition of solutions to this problem can promote fa...

  20. Morphology of floral papillae in Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K L; Turner, M P

    2004-01-01

    The labellar papillae and trichomes of Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. show great diversity. Although papillae also occur upon other parts of the flower (e.g. column and anther cap), these have not yet been studied. Labellar trichomes of Maxillaria are useful in taxonomy, but hitherto the taxonomic value of floral papillae has not been assessed. The aim of this paper is to describe the range of floral papillae found in Maxillaria and to determine whether papillae are useful as taxonomic characters. Light microscopy, histochemistry, low-vacuum scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A total of 75 taxa were studied. Conical papillae with rounded or pointed tips were the most common. The column and anther cap usually bear conical, obpyriform or villiform papillae, whereas those around the stigmatic surface and at the base of the anther are often larger and swollen. Labellar papillae show greater diversity, and may be conical, obpyriform, villiform, fusiform or clavate. Papillae may also occur on multiseriate trichomes that perhaps function as pseudostamens. Labellar papillae contain protein but most lack lipid. The occurrence of starch, however, is more variable. Many papillae contain pigment or act as osmophores, thereby attracting insects. Rewards such as nectar or a protein-rich, wax-like, lipoidal substance may be secreted by papillae onto the labellar surface. Some papillae may have a protective role in preventing desiccation. Species of diverse vegetative morphology may have identical floral papillae, whereas others of similar vegetative morphology may not. Generally, floral papillae in Maxillaria have little taxonomic value. Nevertheless, the absence of papillae from members of the M. cucullata alliance, the occurrence of clavate papillae with distended apices in the M. rufescens alliance and the presence of papillose trichomes in some species may yet prove to be useful.

  1. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; van Ruth, Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-11-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in transmittance mode in the visible/near infrared (VIS-NIR) range (400-1000 nm). Three different machine learning algorithms were implemented to predict honey floral origin using honey spectral images. These methods, included radial basis function (RBF) network, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also exploited for dimensionality reduction. According to the obtained results, the best classifier (RBF) achieved a precision of 94% in a fivefold cross validation experiment using only the first two PCs. Mapping of the classifier results to the test set images showed 90% accuracy for honey images. Three types of honey including buckwheat, rapeseed and heather were classified with 100% accuracy. The proposed approach has great potential for honey floral origin detection. As some other honey properties can also be predicted using image features, in addition to floral origin detection, this method may be applied to predict other honey characteristics.

  2. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology. PMID:20047868

  3. Floral polymorphism and the fitness implications of attracting pollinating and florivorous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Marinus L; Ellis, Allan G

    2014-01-01

    Floral polymorphism is frequently attributed to pollinator-mediated selection. Multiple studies, however, have revealed the importance of non-pollinating visitors in floral evolution. Using the polymorphic annual daisy Ursinia calenduliflora, this study investigated the importance of different insect visitors, and their effects on fitness, in the maintenance of floral polymorphism. The spatial structure of a discrete floral polymorphism was characterized based on the presence/absence of anthocyanin floret spots in U. calenduliflora. A 3-year observational study was then conducted in polymorphic populations to investigate differences in visitation rates of dominant visitors to floral morphs. Experiments were performed to explore the floral preference of male and female Megapalpus capensis (the dominant insect visitor) and their effectiveness as pollinators. Next, floral damage by antagonistic florivores and the reproductive success of the two floral morphs were surveyed in multiple populations and years. Floral polymorphism in U. calenduliflora was structured spatially, as were insect visitation patterns. Megapalpus capensis males were the dominant visitors and exhibited strong preference for the spotted morph in natural and experimental observations. While this may indicate potential fitness benefits for the spotted morph, female fitness did not differ between floral morphs. However, as M. capensis males are very efficient at exporting U. calenduliflora pollen, their preference may likely increase the reproductive fitness of the spotted morph through male fitness components. The spotted morph, however, also suffered significantly greater costs due to ovule predation by florivores than the spotless morph. The results suggest that pollinators and florivores may potentially exert antagonistic selection that could contribute to the maintenance of floral polymorphism across the range of U. calenduliflora. The relative strength of selection imposed by each agent is

  4. Comparison of Different Methods for RNA Extraction from Floral Buds of Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yan GAO; Guangqi ZHAO; Changhua JIANG; Yao SONG; Kang YE; Shucheng FENG

    2016-01-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.), a species native to China, is one of the most important ornamental and medicinal plants. Like other tree species in temperate and boreal zones, the dormancy-activity transition of floral buds is critical for blooming time and fruit production. However, floral buds contain high levels of secondary metabolites, making the isolation of high quality RNA difficult. To obtain a method suitable for extracting RNA from floral buds of tree peony, we evaluated f...

  5. Terrestrial floral change during the ETM2 hyperthermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S. L.; Currano, E. D.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperthermal events during the Eocene are defined by negative shifts in carbon isotope composition, global temperature increase and carbonate dissolution in marine settings. These features suggest repeated releases of large amounts of carbon followed by increasing concentration of CO2in the atmosphere and ocean, climate change, and biotic responses such as rapid evolution and changes in geographic range and trophic relationships. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56.0 Ma) is the largest Eocene hyperthermal in terms of carbon cycle, climate and biotic effects, including dwarfing of mammalian lineages. Terrestrial floral turnover at the PETM documented in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, is very high. Almost all late Paleocene species, most belonging to mesic, warm-temperate lineages, disappeared during the PETM. The PETM flora was composed of species belonging to dry tropical lineages present only during the body of the PETM. Most mesic, warm-temperate species returned to the area immediately after the PETM. Such extreme change in floral composition makes it difficult to assess how much floral turnover is associated with how much change in temperature. The ETM2 hyperthermal event ( 53.7 Ma) is characterized by a carbon isotope excursion and warming about half as great as during the PETM, and by half as much mammalian dwarfing. Here we report on a new fossil flora from ETM2 that demonstrates the magnitude of floral change was also less than during the PETM. Some characteristic PETM plant species reappeared in the Bighorn Basin during ETM2, including species of Fabaceae that dominate PETM assemblages but are less common during ETM2. Many stratigraphically long-ranging plant species that preferred mesic climates remain common in the ETM2 flora. We conclude that warm climate during ETM2 shifted ranges of plant species such that some PETM species returned to northern Wyoming, but was not so severe as to cause local extirpation of species preferring 'background

  6. Floral biology of Stachytarpheta maximiliani Scham. (Verbenaceae and its floral visitors Biologia floral de Stachytarpheta maximiliani Scham. (Verbenaceae e seus visitantes florais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana de Freitas Barbola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the reproductive system of Stachytarpheta maximiliani (Verbenaceae, including its floral biology, nectar and pollen availability and insect foraging patterns, identifying whose species act as pollinators. It was carried out in a Brazilian Atlantic rain forest site. Observations on the pollination biology of the Verbenaceae S. maximiliani indicate that their flowering period extends from September through May. Anthesis occurs from 5:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. and nectar and pollen are available during all the anthesis. Many species of beetles, hemipterans, flies, wasps, bees and butterflies visit their flowers, but bees and butterflies are the most frequent visitors. The flowers are generally small, gathered in dense showy inflorescences. A complex of floral characteristcs, such as violet-blue color of flowers, long floral tubes, without scents, nectar not exposed, high concentration of sugar in nectar (about 32%, allowed identification of floral syndromes (melittophily and psicophily and function for each visitor. The bees, Bombus morio, B. atratus, Trigonopedia ferruginea, Xylocopa brasilianorum and Apis mellifera and the butterflies Corticea mendica mendica, Corticea sp., Vehilius clavicula, Urbanus simplicius, U. teleus and Heraclides thoas brasiliensis, are the most important pollinators.Este estudo descreve alguns aspectos do sistema reprodutivo de Stachytarpheta maximiliani (Verbenaceae, incluindo características da flor, disponibilidade de néctar e pólen e o padrão de forrageio dos insetos visitantes florais, em uma área de Floresta Atlântica, no sul do Brasil. Observações sobre sua biologia floral indicam que esta espécie tem um período de floração que se estende de setembro a maio, antese diurna (das 5:30h às 17:00h e oferta de néctar e pólen praticamente durante todo o período de antese. Suas flores são visitadas por diferentes espécies de coleópteros, dípteros, hemípteros, himenópteros e lepid

  7. Floral variation and environmental heterogeneity in a tristylous clonal aquatic of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme da Cunha, Nicolay; Fischer, Erich; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P.; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The balance between stochastic forces and frequency-dependent mating largely governs style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations. In clonal species, deviations from equal morph ratios often result from founder events and unfavourable conditions for sexual reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different flooding regimes, because of their influence on sexual vs. clonal reproduction, are associated with regional variation in morph frequencies and floral trait differentiation in populations of the clonal, tristylous, aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil. Methods Style morph frequencies were sampled from 73 populations distributed across four flooding regimes differing in depth and duration. Measurements of flower size, sex-organ dimension, pollen size and pollen production were made in selected populations, and pollinator assemblages and their functional traits were recorded. Key Results Most populations of E. azurea were tristylous (78 %), but the majority exhibited uneven morph ratios. The frequency of the mid-styled morph was significantly lower than that of the long- and short-styled morphs. Morph evenness was positively associated with population size but not with flooding regime. There were significant phenotypic differences among flooding regimes for all floral traits, including populations with reduced flower size, sex-organ length and smaller pollen. Pollinator assemblages varied with flood duration. Conclusions The similar morph structure and evenness of populations, regardless of flooding regime, suggest that sexual reproduction and clonal dispersal are sufficiently common to prevent the signature of founder events from dominating in a region. However, the pervasive occurrence of biased morph ratios in most populations suggests that many are in a non-equilibrium state. The reduced frequency of the mid-styled morph in trimorphic and dimorphic populations may be

  8. The 1997 American Diabetes Association criteria versus the 1985 World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of abnormal glucose tolerance : poor agreement in the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, F; Dekker, J M; Stehouwer, C D; Nijpels, G; Bouter, L M; Heine, R J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) introduced new diagnostic criteria. These new criteria are based on fasting plasma glucose levels, avoiding the burdensome oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We compared the 1997 ADA criteria with the 1985 World Health Organization (WHO)

  9. Podocyte-specific deletion of NDST1, a key enzyme in the sulfation of heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans, leads to abnormalities in podocyte organization in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugar, T.; Wassenhove-McCarthy, D.J.; Esko, J.D.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Holzman, L.; McCarthy, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to modulate podocyte adhesion to--and pedicel organization on--the glomerular basement membrane. Recent studies showed that foot process effacement developed in a mutant mouse model whose podocytes were unable to assemble heparan sulfate

  10. Plasticity of floral longevity and floral display in the self-compatible biennial Sabatia angularis (Gentianaceae): untangling the role of multiple components of pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigler, Rachel B

    2017-01-01

    Plasticity of floral traits in response to pollination can enable plants to maximize opportunities for pollen import and export under poor pollination conditions, while minimizing costs under favourable ones. Both floral longevity and display are key traits influencing pollination. While pollination-induced flower wilting is widely documented, we lack an understanding of the multifactorial complexity of this response, including the influence of other pollination components, costs of extended longevity and subsequent impacts on floral display. Plasticity of floral longevity was experimentally evaluated in Sabatia angularis in response to multiple pollination factors: pollen addition, removal, and source (self, single-donor outcross, multiple-donor outcross) and timing of pollination. Effects of pollen quantity were further evaluated by exploiting variation in autonomous self-pollen deposition. Delayed pollination costs were tested comparing seed set from early versus late pollinations. Finally, I compared floral display metrics (peak floral display, time to peak flower, flowering duration, mean flowering rate) between experimentally pollinated and control plants. Floral longevity was highly plastic in response to pollen addition and its timing, and the response was dose-dependent but insensitive to pollen source. Pollen removal tended to extend floral longevity, but only insofar as it precluded pollination-induced wilting via autonomous self-pollination. Under delayed pollination, the wilting response was faster and no cost was detected. Pollination further led to reduced peak floral displays and condensed flowering periods. Floral longevity and display plasticity could optimize fitness in S. angularis, a species prone to pollen limitation and high inbreeding depression. Under pollinator scarcity, extended floral longevities offer greater opportunities for pollen receipt and export at no cost to seed set, reproductive assurance via autonomous self-pollination and

  11. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  12. Biología floral de Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T. Amela García

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento reproductivo muestra que Passiflora foetida es autocompatible. Observaciones de las características florales y de los visitantes durante la antesis, más el análisis del polen transportado, permitieron identificar el síndrome floral (melitofilia y las funciones de cada visitante. La antesis ocurre desde las 6 hasta las 11 hs. Se identificaron 3 fases florales: 1 estigmas por encima de las anteras, 2 estigmas a la altura de las anteras, 3 estigmas por encima de las anteras; los radii, los pétalos y los sépalos se incurvan. Los estigmas están receptivos durante toda la antesis. La concentración de azúcares del néctar es 34 %. El color predominante en el espectro visible es el blanco. En el espectro UV, los estambres y el gineceo contrastan con el limen y el androginóforo; pueden ser una guía de néctar. Tres especies de himenópteros fueron los visitantes más frecuentes y constantes: Ptiloglossa tarsata (Colletidae siempre contactan las anteras y los estigmas cuando liban, transportan un alto porcentaje de polen de P. foetida y visitan flores en fase 1 y 2; pueden ser considerados los principales polinizadores. Pseudaugochloropsis sp. (Halictidae raramente contactan las anteras o los estigmas cuando perforan el limen para acceder al néctar y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son ladrones de néctar que raramente polinizan. Augochlorella sp. (Halictidae recolectan polen sin tocar los estigmas y visitan flores en fase 2 y 3; son hurtadores de polen.A reproductive experiment shows that Passiflora foetida is autocompatible. Observations of floral characteristics and visitors during anthesis, plus the analysis of pollen allowed identification of floral syndrome (melittophily and functions for each visitor. Anthesis occurs from 6 to 11 AM. Three floral phases were identified: 1 stigmas above anthers, 2 stigmas at anther level, 3 stigmas above anthers; radii, petals and sepals become incurved. The stigmas are receptive during the

  13. Phenotype abnormality: 45 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 45 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u551i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named stamen during process named organ development ... stamen ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  14. Phenotype abnormality: 37 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 37 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u543i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named cotyledon during process named organ development ... cotyledon ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  15. Phenotype abnormality: 48 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 48 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u554i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named vascular leaf during process named organ development ... vascular leaf ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  16. Phenotype abnormality: 39 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 39 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u545i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named flower during process named organ development ... flower ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  17. Phenotype abnormality: 44 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 44 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u550i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named organ development ... root ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  18. Decision Support Methods for Supply Processes in the Floral Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutyba Agata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to show the application of the ABC and AHP (multi-criteria method for hierarchical analysis of decision processes as an important part of decision making in supply processes which are realized in the floral industry. The ABC analysis was performed in order to classify the product mix from the perspective of the demand values. This in consequence enabled us to identify the most important products which were then used as a variant in the AHP method.

  19. In vitro direct organogenesis in response to floral reversion in lily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our previous study indicated that the tiger lily (Lilium lancifolium var. Flore Pleno) has a great ability to produce inflorescence bulbils in nature as a form of natural phenomenon of floral reversion in plants. This present research was carried out to investigate the artificial floral reversion in in vitro culture of two lilies (Asiatic ...

  20. Plant abnormality diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention diagnose an abnormal event occurred in a large-scaled plant, such as a nuclear power plant. The device comprises the following four functions. (1) Abnormality candidates are estimated based on an intelligence base storing characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and physical amounts of the plant components, and detected abnormality and measured values. Among the candidates, one which coincidents with the measured value such as an actual process amount is judged as a first cause. (2) In addition, a real time plant behavior is estimated based on parameters determining a plant operation mode. The candidate for the abnormality cause is estimated by the comparison between the result of the estimation and the measured value such as a process amount. (3) Characteristics established between the characteristics/functions and the physical amount of the plant components are structured stepwise thereby identifying the first abnormality cause. (4) Inactuated or failed portions of the components for restoring the abnormality to normal state are identified based on the intelligence base simultaneously with the estimation for the first abnormality cause. (I.S.)

  1. Terapia floral: una alternativa de tratamiento para la mujer de edad mediana Floral therapy: an alternative treatment for the middle-age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margeris Yanes Calderón

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo dirigido a los Médicos de Familia sobre la aplicación de los remedios (esencias, elíxires florales de Bach durante la etapa climatérica. Se describen los 5 elíxires florales que han tenido mayor indicación en la consulta de climaterio del Policlínico Docente "Ana Betancourt," en el municipio Playa de la Ciudad de La Habana, así como su forma de preparación y administración. Se citan algunas esencias florales de nueva generación, que por su vibración y calidad podrían indicarse en esta etapa de la vida femenina. En aquellas mujeres de edad mediana (climatéricas, donde predominen los síntomas psicológicos sobre los circulatorios, genitourinarios y generales, la terapia floral se impone como una alternativa de tratamiento para mejorar su calidad de vida.A paper directed to the family physicians on the application of Bach's floral remedies (essence oils and elixirs during the climateric period was made. The 5 floral elixirs that have been prescribed the most at the climacteric office of "Ana Betancourt" Teaching Polyclinic, in Playa municipality, Havana City, as well as their mode of preparation and administration are described. Some new generation floral essences that due to their vibration and quality may be indicated at this stage of females' life, are mentioned. In those middle-aged women (climacteric among whom the psychological symptoms prevailed over the circulatory, genitourinary and general symptoms, the floral therapy constitutes an alternative treatment to improve their quality of life.

  2. Self-pollination rate and floral-display size in Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) with regard to floral-visitor taxa

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Aaron F; Barrows, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    Background Animals fertilize thousands of angiosperm species whose floral-display sizes can significantly influence pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success. Many studies have measured the interactions among pollinator behavior, floral-display size, and plant reproductive success, but few studies have been able to separate the effects of pollinator behavior and post-pollination processes on angiosperm sexual reproduction. In this study, we utilized the highly self-incompatible polli...

  3. Behavior and postharvest evaluation criteria of Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. (Bromeliaceae floral scapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Pulido

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Genus Vriesea of the Bromeliaceae family are highly appreciated to use as ornamental plant due to their floral morphological characteristics, color and the beauty of inflorescences. V. incurvata has been commercialized as a potted ornamental plant. The morphological features of its floral scape may also indicate it for use as a cut flower. However, there are no information available to use of this bromeliad as a cut flower. The aim of this study was to determine quantitative and qualitative criteria in order to evaluate the postharvest behavior of V. incurvata floral scapes. It was observed that V. incurvata floral scapes has great potential to use as cut flower, which has an average of vase-life of 14.9 ± 1.5 days. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics such as color (L*, C*, H°, brightness, turgidity, stiffness, presence of injuries, relative fresh weight, water uptake and loss can be indicated as postharvest evaluation criteria of V. incurvata floral scapes.

  4. A floral induction system for the study of early Arabidopsis flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid Seosamh; Wellmer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the molecular changes that occur over the course of flower development is hampered by difficulties in isolating sufficient amounts of floral tissue at specific developmental stages. This is especially problematic when investigating molecular events at very early stages of Arabidopsis flower development, as the floral buds are minute and are initiated sequentially such that a single flower on an inflorescence is at a given developmental stage. Moreover, young floral buds are hidden by older buds, which present an additional challenge for dissection. To circumvent these issues, a floral induction system that allows the simultaneous induction of a large number of flowers on the inflorescence of a single plant was generated. To allow the plant community to avail of the full benefits of this system, we address some common problems that can be encountered when growing these plants and collecting floral buds for analysis.

  5. Interactions between bee foraging and floral resource phenology shape bee populations and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jane E; Forrest, Jessica Rk

    2017-06-01

    Flowers are ephemeral, yet bees rely on them for food throughout their lives. Floral resource phenology - which can be altered by changes in climate and land-use - is therefore key to bee fitness and community composition. Here, we discuss the interactions between floral resource phenology, bee foraging behaviour, and traits such as diet breadth, sociality, and body size. Recent research on bumble bees has examined behavioural responses to local floral turnover and effects of landscape-scale floral resource phenology on fitness, abundance, and foraging distances. Comparable studies are needed on non-social, pollen-specialist species. We also encourage greater use of information contained in museum collections on bee phenologies and floral hosts to test how phenology has shaped the evolution of bee-plant associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. POWERDRESS and diversified expression of the MIR172 gene family bolster the floral stem cell network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rae Eden Yumul

    Full Text Available Termination of the stem cells in the floral meristem (also known as floral determinacy is critical for the reproductive success of plants, and the molecular activities regulating floral determinacy are precisely orchestrated during the course of floral development. In Arabidopsis thaliana, regulators of floral determinacy include several transcription factor genes, such as APETALA2 (AP2, AGAMOUS (AG, SUPERMAN (SUP, and CRABSCLAW (CRC, as well as a microRNA (miRNA, miR172, which targets AP2. How the transcription factor and miRNA genes are coordinately regulated to achieve floral determinacy is unknown. A mutation in POWERDRESS (PWR, a previously uncharacterized gene encoding a SANT-domain-containing protein, was isolated in this study as an enhancer of the weakly indeterminate ag-10 allele. PWR was found to promote the transcription of CRC, MIR172a, b, and c and/or enhance Pol II occupancy at their promoters, without affecting MIR172d or e. A mutation in mature miR172d was additionally found to enhance the determinacy defects of ag-10 in an AP2-dependent manner, providing direct evidence that miR172d is functional in repressing AP2 and thereby contributes to floral determinacy. Thus, while PWR promotes floral determinacy by enhancing the expression of three of the five MIR172 members as well as CRC, MIR172d, whose expression is PWR-independent, also functions in floral stem cell termination. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how transcriptional diversification and functional redundancy of a miRNA family along with PWR-mediated co-regulation of miRNA and transcription factor genes contribute to the robustness of the floral determinacy network.

  7. The effect of polyploidy and hybridization on the evolution of floral colour in Nicotiana (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Arnold, Sarah E J; Chittka, Lars; Le Comber, Steven C; Verity, Robert; Dodsworth, Steven; Knapp, Sandra; Kelly, Laura J; Chase, Mark W; Baldwin, Ian T; Kovařík, Aleš; Mhiri, Corinne; Taylor, Lin; Leitch, Andrew R

    2015-06-01

    Speciation in angiosperms can be accompanied by changes in floral colour that may influence pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. This study investigates whether changes in floral colour can accompany polyploid and homoploid hybridization, important processes in angiosperm evolution. Spectral reflectance of corolla tissue was examined for 60 Nicotiana (Solanaceae) accessions (41 taxa) based on spectral shape (corresponding to pigmentation) as well as bee and hummingbird colour perception in order to assess patterns of floral colour evolution. Polyploid and homoploid hybrid spectra were compared with those of their progenitors to evaluate whether hybridization has resulted in floral colour shifts. Floral colour categories in Nicotiana seem to have arisen multiple times independently during the evolution of the genus. Most younger polyploids displayed an unexpected floral colour, considering those of their progenitors, in the colour perception of at least one pollinator type, whereas older polyploids tended to resemble one or both of their progenitors. Floral colour evolution in Nicotiana is weakly constrained by phylogeny, and colour shifts do occur in association with both polyploid and homoploid hybrid divergence. Transgressive floral colour in N. tabacum has arisen by inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation from its paternal progenitor while having a plastid phenotype like its maternal progenitor. Potentially, floral colour evolution has been driven by, or resulted in, pollinator shifts. However, those polyploids that are not sympatric (on a regional scale) with their progenitor lineages are typically not divergent in floral colour from them, perhaps because of a lack of competition for pollinators. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Disruption of a belowground mutualism alters interactions between plants and their floral visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James F; Elle, Elizabeth; Smith, Glen R; Shore, Bryon H

    2008-07-01

    Plants engage in diverse and intimate interactions with unrelated taxa. For example, aboveground floral visitors provide pollination services, while belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance nutrient capture. Traditionally in ecology, these processes were studied in isolation, reinforcing the prevailing assumption that these above- and belowground processes were also functionally distinct. More recently, there has been a growing realization that the soil surface is not a barrier to many ecological interactions, particularly those involving plants (who live simultaneously above and below ground). Because of the potentially large impact that mycorrhizae and floral visitors can have on plant performance and community dynamics, we designed an experiment to test whether these multi-species mutualisms were interdependent under field conditions. Using benomyl, a widely used fungicide, we suppressed AMF in a native grassland, measuring plant, fungal, and floral-visitor responses after three years of fungal suppression. AMF suppression caused a shift in the community of floral visitors from large-bodied bees to small-bodied bees and flies, and reduced the total number of floral visits per flowering stem 67% across the 23 flowering species found in the plots. Fungal suppression has species-specific effects on floral visits for the six most common flowering plants in this experiment. Exploratory analyses suggest these results were due to changes in floral-visitor behavior due to altered patch-level floral display, rather than through direct effects of AMF suppression on floral morphology. Our findings indicate that AMF are an important, and overlooked, driver of floral-visitor community structure with the potential to affect pollination services. These results support the growing body of research indicating that interactions among ecological interactions can be of meaningful effect size under natural field conditions and may influence individual performance

  9. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  12. De novo sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis of white petals and red labella in Phalaenopsis for discovery of genes related to flower color and floral differentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis is one of the world’s most popular and important epiphytic monopodial orchids. The extraordinary floral diversity of Phalaenopsis is a reflection of its evolutionary success. As a consequence of this diversity, and of the complexity of flower color development in Phalaenopsis, this species is a valuable research material for developmental biology studies. Nevertheless, research on the molecular mechanisms underlying flower color and floral organ formation in Phalaenopsis is still in the early phases. In this study, we generated large amounts of data from Phalaenopsis flowers by combining Illumina sequencing with differentially expressed gene (DEG analysis. We obtained 37 723 and 34 020 unigenes from petals and labella, respectively. A total of 2736 DEGs were identified, and the functions of many DEGs were annotated by BLAST-searching against several public databases. We mapped 837 up-regulated DEGs (432 from petals and 405 from labella to 102 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Almost all pathways were represented in both petals (102 pathways and labella (99 pathways. DEGs involved in energy metabolism were significantly differentially distributed between labella and petals, and various DEGs related to flower color and floral differentiation were found in the two organs. Interestingly, we also identified genes encoding several key enzymes involved in carotenoid synthesis. These genes were differentially expressed between petals and labella, suggesting that carotenoids may influence Phalaenopsis flower color. We thus conclude that a combination of anthocyanins and/or carotenoids determine flower color formation in Phalaenopsis. These results broaden our understanding of the mechanisms controlling flower color and floral organ differentiation in Phalaenopsis and other orchids.

  13. Floral homeotic C function genes repress specific B function genes in the carpel whorl of the basal eudicot California poppy (Eschscholzia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yellina Aravinda L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral homeotic C function gene AGAMOUS (AG confers stamen and carpel identity and is involved in the regulation of floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis ag mutants show complete homeotic conversions of stamens into petals and carpels into sepals as well as indeterminacy of the floral meristem. Gene function analysis in model core eudicots and the monocots rice and maize suggest a conserved function for AG homologs in angiosperms. At the same time gene phylogenies reveal a complex history of gene duplications and repeated subfunctionalization of paralogs. Results EScaAG1 and EScaAG2, duplicate AG homologs in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica show a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression, although EScaAG2 expression is lower than EScaAG1 expression. Functional studies employing virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS demonstrate that knock down of EScaAG1 and 2 function leads to homeotic conversion of stamens into petaloid structures and defects in floral meristem termination. However, carpels are transformed into petaloid organs rather than sepaloid structures. We also show that a reduction of EScaAG1 and EScaAG2 expression leads to significantly increased expression of a subset of floral homeotic B genes. Conclusions This work presents expression and functional analysis of the two basal eudicot AG homologs. The reduction of EScaAG1 and 2 functions results in the change of stamen to petal identity and a transformation of the central whorl organ identity from carpel into petal identity. Petal identity requires the presence of the floral homeotic B function and our results show that the expression of a subset of B function genes extends into the central whorl when the C function is reduced. We propose a model for the evolution of B function regulation by C function suggesting that the mode of B function gene regulation found in Eschscholzia is ancestral and the C-independent regulation as

  14. Floral traits and pollination ecology of European Arum hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Marion; Liagre, Suzanne; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bozena; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Schönenberger, Jürg; Gibernau, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Hybridisation is common in plants and can affect the genetic diversity and ecology of sympatric parental populations. Hybrids may resemble the parental species in their ecology, leading to competition and/or gene introgression; alternatively, they may diverge from the parental phenotypes, possibly leading to the colonisation of new ecological niches and to speciation. Here, we describe inflorescence morphology, ploidy levels, pollinator attractive scents, and pollinator guilds of natural hybrids of Arum italicum and A. maculatum (Araceae) from a site with sympatric parental populations in southern France to determine how these traits affect the hybrid pollination ecology. Hybrids were characterised by inflorescences with a size and a number of flowers more similar to A. italicum than to A. maculatum. In most cases, hybrid stamens were purple, as in A. maculatum, and spadix appendices yellow, as in A. italicum. Hybrid floral scent was closer to that of A. italicum, but shared some compounds with A. maculatum and comprised unique compounds. Also, the pollinator guild of the hybrids was similar to that of A. italicum. Nevertheless, the hybrids attracted a high proportion of individuals of the main pollinator of A. maculatum. We discuss the effects of hybridisation in sympatric parental zones in which hybrids exhibit low levels of reproductive success, the establishment of reproductive barriers between parental species, the role of the composition of floral attractive scents in the differential attraction of pollinators and in the competition between hybrids and their parental species, and the potential of hybridisation to give rise to new independent lineages.

  15. Natural selection on floral morphology can be influenced by climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Diane R; Powers, John M

    2015-06-07

    Climate has the potential to influence evolution, but how it influences the strength or direction of natural selection is largely unknown. We quantified the strength of selection on four floral traits of the subalpine herb Ipomopsis sp. in 10 years that differed in precipitation, causing extreme temporal variation in the date of snowmelt in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The chosen floral traits were under selection by hummingbird and hawkmoth pollinators, with hawkmoth abundance highly variable across years. Selection for flower length showed environmental sensitivity, with stronger selection in years with later snowmelt, as higher water resources can allow translation of pollination success into fitness based on seed production. Selection on corolla width also varied across years, favouring narrower corolla tubes in two unusual years with hawkmoths, and wider corollas in another late snowmelt year. Our results illustrate how changes in climate could alter natural selection even when the primary selective agent is not directly influenced. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  17. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  18. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy. PMID:26440413

  19. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Orlando; Roa-Roco, Rosa Nair; Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy.

  20. Nectar robbery by a hermit hummingbird: association to floral phenotype and its influence on flowers and network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Dalsgaard, Bo; Sazima, Ivan; Sazima, Marlies

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between flowers and their visitors span the spectrum from mutualism to antagonism. The literature is rich in studies focusing on mutualism, but nectar robbery has mostly been investigated using phytocentric approaches focused on only a few plant species. To fill this gap, we studied the interactions between a nectar-robbing hermit hummingbird, Phaethornis ruber, and the array of flowers it visits. First, based on a literature review of the interactions involving P. ruber, we characterized the association of floral larceny to floral phenotype. We then experimentally examined the effects of nectar robbing on nectar standing crop and number of visits of the pollinators to the flowers of Canna paniculata. Finally, we asked whether the incorporation of illegitimate interactions into the analysis affects plant-hummingbird network structure. We identified 97 plant species visited by P. ruber and found that P. ruber engaged in floral larceny in almost 30% of these species. Nectar robbery was especially common in flowers with longer corolla. In terms of the effect on C. paniculata, the depletion of nectar due to robbery by P. ruber was associated with decreased visitation rates of legitimate pollinators. At the community level, the inclusion of the illegitimate visits of P. ruber resulted in modifications of how modules within the network were organized, notably giving rise to a new module consisting of P. ruber and mostly robbed flowers. However, although illegitimate visits constituted approximately 9% of all interactions in the network, changes in nestedness, modularity, and network-level specialization were minor. Our results indicate that although a flower robber may have a strong effect on the pollination of a particular plant species, the inclusion of its illegitimate interactions has limited capacity to change overall network structure.

  1. The role of short-tongued insects in floral variation across the range of a style-dimorphic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Gally, Rocío; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Simón, Violeta I; Arroyo, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Heterostyly and related style polymorphisms are suitable model systems to evaluate the importance of functional pollinators in the maintenance of population variability. In Narcissus papyraceus different functional pollinators, incompatibility system and flower morphology have been proposed to influence the maintenance of polymorphism through their effect on disassortative mating. Here a test is done to find out if the visitation rate of long- versus short-tongued pollinators correlates with the morph ratio and if the latter is related to other flower traits of the species across its main geographic range. Floral traits from 34 populations in the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula and in north-west Africa were measured, perianth variation was described and a comparison was made of allometric relationships between sex organs and floral tube. Correlations between pollinator guilds, stigma-anther separation of reciprocal morphs (our proxy for disassortative mating) and morph-ratio variation were analysed. Finally, the incompatibility system of the species in the northern and southern borders of its distribution are described. Flowers from southern populations were significantly larger than flowers from centre and northern populations. The abundance of short-styled plants decreased gradually with increasing distance from the core region (the Strait of Gibraltar), with these disappearing only in the northern range. Although there was a significant difference in stigma-anther separation among populations, morph ratio was not associated with reciprocity or floral tube length. Long-style morph frequency increased with short-tongued pollinator visitation rate. Populations from both edges of the distribution range were self-incompatible and within- and between-morph compatible. The style morph ratio changed gradually, whereas perianth trait variation showed abrupt changes with two morphotypes across the range. The positive relationship between the visitation rate of short

  2. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pareja

    Full Text Available There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  3. Convergent evolution of floral signals underlies the success of Neotropical orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Powell, Martyn P; Pupulin, Franco; Warner, Jorge; Hawkins, Julie A; Salamin, Nicolas; Chittka, Lars; Williams, Norris H; Whitten, W Mark; Loader, Deniz; Valente, Luis M; Chase, Mark W; Savolainen, Vincent

    2013-08-22

    The great majority of plant species in the tropics require animals to achieve pollination, but the exact role of floral signals in attraction of animal pollinators is often debated. Many plants provide a floral reward to attract a guild of pollinators, and it has been proposed that floral signals of non-rewarding species may converge on those of rewarding species to exploit the relationship of the latter with their pollinators. In the orchid family (Orchidaceae), pollination is almost universally animal-mediated, but a third of species provide no floral reward, which suggests that deceptive pollination mechanisms are prevalent. Here, we examine floral colour and shape convergence in Neotropical plant communities, focusing on certain food-deceptive Oncidiinae orchids (e.g. Trichocentrum ascendens and Oncidium nebulosum) and rewarding species of Malpighiaceae. We show that the species from these two distantly related families are often more similar in floral colour and shape than expected by chance and propose that a system of multifarious floral mimicry--a form of Batesian mimicry that involves multiple models and is more complex than a simple one model-one mimic system--operates in these orchids. The same mimetic pollination system has evolved at least 14 times within the species-rich Oncidiinae throughout the Neotropics. These results help explain the extraordinary diversification of Neotropical orchids and highlight the complexity of plant-animal interactions.

  4. Herbivory by a Phloem-feeding insect inhibits floral volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martin; Qvarfordt, Erika; Webster, Ben; Mayon, Patrick; Pickett, John; Birkett, Michael; Glinwood, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive knowledge on the effects of insect herbivory on volatile emission from vegetative tissue, but little is known about its impact on floral volatiles. We show that herbivory by phloem-feeding aphids inhibits floral volatile emission in white mustard Sinapis alba measured by gas chromatographic analysis of headspace volatiles. The effect of the Brassica specialist aphid Lipaphis erysimi was stronger than the generalist aphid Myzus persicae and feeding by chewing larvae of the moth Plutella xylostella caused no reduction in floral volatile emission. Field observations showed no effect of L. erysimi-mediated floral volatile emission on the total number of flower visits by pollinators. Olfactory bioassays suggested that although two aphid natural enemies could detect aphid inhibition of floral volatiles, their olfactory orientation to infested plants was not disrupted. This is the first demonstration that phloem-feeding herbivory can affect floral volatile emission, and that the outcome of interaction between herbivory and floral chemistry may differ depending on the herbivore's feeding mode and degree of specialisation. The findings provide new insights into interactions between insect herbivores and plant chemistry.

  5. Floral humidity as a reliable sensory cue for profitability assessment by nectar-foraging hawkmoths

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Goyret, Joaquín; Davidowitz, Goggy; Raguso, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on plant–pollinator communication has focused on sensory and behavioral responses to relatively static cues. Floral rewards such as nectar, however, are dynamic, and foraging animals will increase their energetic profit if they can make use of floral cues that more accurately indicate nectar availability. Here we document such a cue—transient humidity gradients—using the night blooming flowers of Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae). The headspace of newly opened flowers reaches levels of about 4% above ambient relative humidity due to additive evapotranspirational water loss through petals and water-saturated air from the nectar tube. Floral humidity plumes differ from ambient levels only during the first 30 min after anthesis (before nectar is depleted in wild populations), whereas other floral traits (scent, shape, and color) persist for 12–24 h. Manipulative experiments indicated that floral humidity gradients are mechanistically linked to nectar volume and therefore contain information about energy rewards to floral visitors. Behavioral assays with Hyles lineata (Sphingidae) and artificial flowers with appropriate humidity gradients suggest that these hawkmoth pollinators distinguish between subtle differences in relative humidity when other floral cues are held constant. Moths consistently approached and probed flowers with elevated humidity over those with ambient humidity levels. Because floral humidity gradients are largely produced by the evaporation of nectar itself, they represent condition-informative cues that facilitate remote sensing of floral profitability by discriminating foragers. In a xeric environment, this level of honest communication should be adaptive when plant reproductive success is pollinator limited, due to intense competition for the attention of a specialized pollinator. PMID:22645365

  6. Phenotype abnormality: 47 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 47 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u553i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named thylakoid membrane during process named thylakoid membrane organization ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  7. Phenotype abnormality: 32 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 32 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u538i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... during process named organ development ... abnormal ... organ development ... behavioral quality

  8. Floral diversity and pollination strategies of three rheophytic Schismatoglottideae (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, S L; Wong, S Y; Ooi, I H; Hesse, M; Städler, Y; Schönenberger, J; Boyce, P C

    2016-01-01

    Homoplastic evolution of 'unique' morphological characteristics in the Schismatoglottideae - many previously used to define genera - prompted this study to compare morphology and function in connection with pollination biology for Aridarum nicolsonii, Phymatarum borneense and Schottarum sarikeense. Aridarum nicolsonii and P. borneense extrude pollen through a pair of horned thecae while S. sarikeense sheds pollen through a pair of pores on the thecae. Floral traits of spathe constriction, presence and movement of sterile structures on the spadix, the comparable role of horned thecae and thecae pores, the presence of stamen-associated calcium oxalate packages, and the timing of odour emission are discussed in the context of their roles in pollinator management. Pollinators for all investigated species were determined to be species of Colocasiomyia (Diptera: Drosophilidae). © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Floral guidance of learning a preference for symmetry by bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowright, Catherine M S; Bridger, Jeremy J M; Xu, Vicki; Herlehy, Racheal A; Collin, Charles A

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the mechanism underlying one way in which bumblebees are known to develop a preference for symmetric patterns: through prior non-differential reinforcement on simple patterns (black discs and white discs). In three experiments, bees were given a choice among symmetric and asymmetric black-and-white non-rewarding patterns presented at the ends of corridors in a radial maze. Experimental groups had prior rewarded non-discrimination training on white patterns and black patterns, while control groups had no pre-test experience outside the colony. No preference for symmetry was obtained for any of the control groups. Prior training with circular patterns highlighting a horizontal axis of symmetry led to a specific subsequent preference for horizontal over vertical symmetry, while training with a vertical axis abolished this effect. Circles highlighting both axes created a general avoidance of asymmetry in favour of symmetric patterns with vertical, horizontal or both axes of symmetry. Training with plain circles, but not with deformed circles, led to a preference for symmetry: there was no evidence that the preference emerged just by virtue of having attention drawn away from irrelevant pattern differences. Our results point to a preference for symmetry developing gradually through first learning to extract an axis of symmetry from simple patterns and subsequently recognizing that axis in new patterns. They highlight the importance of continued learning through non-differential reinforcement by skilled foragers. Floral guides can function not only to guide pollinators to the source of reward but also to highlight an axis of symmetry for use in subsequent floral encounters.

  10. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Changes in cis-regulatory elements of a key floral regulator are associated with divergence of inflorescence architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Elske; Della Pina, Serena; Castel, Rob; Souer, Erik; Koes, Ronald

    2015-08-15

    Higher plant species diverged extensively with regard to the moment (flowering time) and position (inflorescence architecture) at which flowers are formed. This seems largely caused by variation in the expression patterns of conserved genes that specify floral meristem identity (FMI), rather than changes in the encoded proteins. Here, we report a functional comparison of the promoters of homologous FMI genes from Arabidopsis, petunia, tomato and Antirrhinum. Analysis of promoter-reporter constructs in petunia and Arabidopsis, as well as complementation experiments, showed that the divergent expression of leafy (LFY) and the petunia homolog aberrant leaf and flower (ALF) results from alterations in the upstream regulatory network rather than cis-regulatory changes. The divergent expression of unusual floral organs (UFO) from Arabidopsis, and the petunia homolog double top (DOT), however, is caused by the loss or gain of cis-regulatory promoter elements, which respond to trans-acting factors that are expressed in similar patterns in both species. Introduction of pUFO:UFO causes no obvious defects in Arabidopsis, but in petunia it causes the precocious and ectopic formation of flowers. This provides an example of how a change in a cis-regulatory region can account for a change in the plant body plan. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Floral markers of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey and its peroxide antibacterial activity for an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Pieper, Laura; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Gruner, Margit; Zeippert, Linda; Pieper, Bernd; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-11-28

    Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) honey can be characterized by a greenish yellow color and an intense flavor with a bitter aftertaste. Because cornflower honey contains only a limited amount of pollen for the verification of its floral origin, one objective was the characterization of its polyphenol and norisoprenoid contents to assign floral markers. Here, lumichrome (18.8-43.5 mg/kg), 7-carboxylumichrome, (Z/E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol, and 3-oxo-α-ionol appeared to be quite suitable for distinguishing cornflower honey from other unifloral honeys. Additionally, due to its comparably high hydrogen peroxide content (0.5-0.9 mM/h) and the associated antibacterial activity, cornflower honey was used as an alternative treatment of digital dermatitis on an organic dairy farm. Cows affected by this hoof disease often show severe lameness and a subsequent decline in milk yield and loss of body condition. The cows' hooves treated with cornflower honey showed significantly faster healing than the control group without any treatment.

  13. First evidence of putrescine involvement in mitigating the floral malformation in mangoes: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Archana; Ansari, Mohammad W; Rani, Varsha; Singh, C P; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh C; Tuteja, Narendra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2014-09-01

    Floral malformation is the most destructive disease in mangoes. To date, the etiology of this disease has not been resolved. There are indications that stress-stimulated ethylene production might be responsible for the disease. Putrescine mediates various physiological processes for normal functioning and cellular metabolism. Here, the effect of putrescine in concentration ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-3) M was evaluated on disease incidence during mango flowering seasons of 2012 and 2013. In a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study, putrescine (10(-2) M)-treated malformed floral buds bloomed into opened flowers with separated sepals and/or petals like healthy, whereas the untreated (control) malformed buds remained deformed. Further, malformed flowers recovered upon putrescine treatment, displaying clearly bilobed anthers, enclosing a large number of normal pollen grains and functional ovary with broad stigmatic surface as compared to control. The present findings provide the first report to demonstrate the role of putrescine in reducing various adverse effects of stress ethylene via decelerating the higher pace of its biosynthesis. It stabilizes the normal morphology, development, and functions of malformed reproductive organs to facilitate successful pollination, fertilization, and, thereby, fruit set in mango flowers. However, putrescine-ethylene-mediated cell signaling network, involving various genes to trigger the response, which regulates a wide range of developmental and physiological processes leading to normal cell physiology, needs to be investigated further.

  14. Nitrofurantoin and congenital abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study human teratogenic potential of oral nitrofurantoin treatment during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Pair analysis of cases with congenital abnormalities and matched population controls in the population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital...

  15. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  17. Loss of YABBY2-Like Gene Expression May Underlie the Evolution of the Laminar Style in Canna and Contribute to Floral Morphological Diversity in the Zingiberales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Kelsie; Yockteng, Roxana; Almeida, Ana M R; Specht, Chelsea D

    2015-01-01

    The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies.

  18. Loss of YABBY2-like gene expression may underlie the evolution of the laminar style in Canna and contribute to floral morphological diversity in the Zingiberales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsie eMorioka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zingiberales is an order of tropical monocots that exhibits diverse floral morphologies. The evolution of petaloid, laminar stamens, staminodes, and styles contributes to this diversity. The laminar style is a derived trait in the family Cannaceae and plays an important role in pollination as its surface is used for secondary pollen presentation. Previous work in the Zingiberales has implicated YABBY2-like genes, which function in promoting laminar outgrowth, in the evolution of stamen morphology. Here, we investigate the evolution and expression of Zingiberales YABBY2-like genes in order to understand the evolution of the laminar style in Canna. Phylogenetic analyses show that multiple duplication events have occurred in this gene lineage prior to the diversification of the Zingiberales. Reverse transcription-PCR in Canna, Costus, and Musa reveals differential expression across floral organs, taxa, and gene copies, and a role for YABBY2-like genes in the evolution of the laminar style is proposed. Selection tests indicate that almost all sites in conserved domains are under purifying selection, consistent with their functional relevance, and a motif unique to monocot YABBY2-like genes is identified. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of floral morphologies.

  19. Floral Induction in Arabidopsis by FLOWERING LOCUS T Requires Direct Repression of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE Genes by the Homeodomain Protein PENNYWISE1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Fernando; Romera-Branchat, Maida; Martínez-Gallegos, Rafael; Patel, Vipul; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Jang, Seonghoe; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Coupland, George

    2015-01-01

    Flowers form on the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in response to environmental and endogenous cues. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the photoperiodic pathway acts through FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) to promote floral induction in response to day length. A complex between FT and the basic leucine-zipper transcription factor FD is proposed to form in the SAM, leading to activation of APETALA1 and LEAFY and thereby promoting floral meristem identity. We identified mutations that suppress FT function and recovered a new allele of the homeodomain transcription factor PENNYWISE (PNY). Genetic and molecular analyses showed that ectopic expression of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) and BOP2, which encode transcriptional coactivators, in the SAM during vegetative development, confers the late flowering of pny mutants. In wild-type plants, BOP1 and BOP2 are expressed in lateral organs close to boundaries of the SAM, whereas in pny mutants, their expression occurs in the SAM. This ectopic expression lowers FD mRNA levels, reducing responsiveness to FT and impairing activation of APETALA1 and LEAFY. We show that PNY binds to the promoters of BOP1 and BOP2, repressing their transcription. These results demonstrate a direct role for PNY in defining the spatial expression patterns of boundary genes and the significance of this process for floral induction by FT. PMID:26417007

  20. Heterotopic expression of class B floral homeotic genes supports a modified ABC model for tulip (Tulipa gesneriana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Akira; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter

    2003-07-01

    In higher eudicotyledonous angiosperms the floral organs are typically arranged in four different whorls, containing sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. According to the ABC model, the identity of these organs is specified by floral homeotic genes of class A, A+B, B+C and C, respectively. In contrast to the sepal and petal whorls of eudicots, the perianths of many plants from the Liliaceae family have two outer whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, called tepals. To explain the Liliaceae flower morphology, van Tunen et al. (1993) proposed a modified ABC model, exemplified with tulip. According to this model, class B genes are not only expressed in whorls 2 and 3, but also in whorl 1. Thus the organs of both whorls 1 and 2 express class A plus class B genes and, therefore, get the same petaloid identity. To test this modified ABC model we have cloned and characterized putative class B genes from tulip. Two DEF- and one GLO-like gene were identified, named TGDEFA, TGDEFB and TGGLO. Northern hybridization analysis showed that all of these genes are expressed in whorls 1, 2 and 3 (outer and inner tepals and stamens), thus corroborating the modified ABC model. In addition, these experiments demonstrated that TGGLO is also weakly expressed in carpels, leaves, stems and bracts. Gel retardation assays revealed that TGGLO alone binds to DNA as a homodimer. In contrast, TGDEFA and TGDEFB cannot homodimerize, but make heterodimers with PI. Homodimerization of GLO-like protein has also been reported for lily, suggesting that this phenomenon is conserved within Liliaceae plants or even monocot species.

  1. Low dose endotoxin priming is accountable for coagulation abnormalities and organ damage observed in the Shwartzman reaction. A comparison between a single-dose endotoxemia model and a double-hit endotoxin-induced Shwartzman reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cate Hugo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The clinical response of sepsis to a systemic inflammatory infection may be complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation or DIC. In order to experimentally study the syndrome of DIC, we aimed for a severe sepsis model complicated by disseminated coagulation. Most -simplified- experimental models describing coagulation abnormalities as a consequence of sepsis are based on single dose endotoxemia. The so called-Shwartzman reaction contrarily, is elicited by a low dose endotoxin priming followed by an LPS challenge and is characterized by pathological manifestations that represent the syndrome of DIC. In order to investigate whether the Shwartzman reaction is superior to a single endotoxin challenge as a model for sepsis-induced DIC and to determine what the pathological effect is of an encounter of low endotoxin prior to an LPS challenge, we undertook the present study. In this study we demonstrate that low-dose endotoxin priming prior to an LPS challenge in the Shwartzman reaction is accountable for micro-vascular thrombosis in lung and liver and subsequent (multi- organ failure, not observed after a single-dose endotoxin challenge, which indicates that the Shwartzman reaction is well suited-model to study sepsis-induced DIC adversities. Remarkably, only minor differences in the innate immune response were established between the single-dose endotoxin challenge and the Shwartzman reaction.

  2. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L.) IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    KIILL,LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE; FEITOZA,EDSÂNGELA DE ARAÚJO; SIQUEIRA,KÁTIA MARIA MEDEIROS DE; RIBEIRO,MÁRCIA DE FÁTIMA; SILVA,EVA MÔNICA SARMENTO DA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE)/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA) and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), in areas with the f...

  3. Antagonistic effects of floral scent in an insect–plant interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Reisenman, Carolina E.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Bernays, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2010-01-01

    In southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator–plant and herbivore–plant association. Because the floral scent is probably important in mediating this interaction, we investigated the floral volatiles that might attract M. sexta for feeding and oviposition. We found that flower volatiles increase oviposition and include small amounts of both enantiomers of linalool, a common component of the scent of hawkmoth-pollinated flowers. Beca...

  4. Floral longevity and autonomous selfing are altered by pollination and water availability in Collinsia heterophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Rachael; Arathi, H S

    2013-09-01

    A plant investing in reproduction partitions resources between flowering and seed production. Under resource limitation, altered allocations may result in floral trait variations, leading to compromised fecundity. Floral longevity and timing of selfing are often the traits most likely to be affected. The duration of corolla retention determines whether fecundity results from outcrossing or by delayed selfing-mediated reproductive assurance. In this study, the role of pollination schedules and soil water availability on floral longevity and seed production is tested in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). Using three different watering regimes and pollination schedules, effects on floral longevity and seed production were studied in this protandrous, flowering annual. The results reveal that soil water status and pollination together influence floral longevity with low soil water and hand-pollinations early in the floral lifespan reducing longevity. However, early pollinations under excess water did not extend longevity, implying that resource surplus does not lengthen the outcrossing period. The results also indicate that pollen receipt, a reliable cue for fecundity, accelerates flower drop. Early corolla abscission under drought stress could potentially exacerbate sexual conflict in this protandrous, hermaphroditic species by ensuring self-pollen paternity and enabling male control of floral longevity. While pollination schedules did not affect fecundity, water stress reduced per-capita seed numbers. Unmanipulated flowers underwent delayed autonomous selfing, producing very few seeds, suggesting that inbreeding depression may limit benefits of selfing. In plants where herkogamy and dichogamy facilitate outcrossing, floral longevity determines reproductive success and mating system. Reduction in longevity under drought suggests a strong environmental effect that could potentially alter the preferred breeding mode in this mixed-mated species. Extrapolating the

  5. High embryogenic ability and regeneration from floral axis of Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Lin; Liu Erxi; Yang Chaozhu; Jin Surong; Diao Ying; Hu Zhongli

    2017-01-01

    Amorphophallus konjac (Araceae) a perennial herb, it has high medicinal and industrial value. In this study, a simple and efficient system for direct somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of Amorphophallus konjac was developed. The floral axis was used as the experimental material. The primary callus, developed from the floral axis grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different hormone combination at different concentrations. The highest rate of embryogenic cal...

  6. Floral scent composition predicts bee pollination system in five butterfly bush (Buddleja, Scrophulariaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W-C; Chen, G; Vereecken, N J; Dunn, B L; Ma, Y-P; Sun, W-B

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, plant-pollinator interactions have been interpreted as pollination syndrome. However, the validity of pollination syndrome has been widely doubted in modern studies of pollination ecology. The pollination ecology of five Asian Buddleja species, B. asiatica, B. crispa, B. forrestii, B. macrostachya and B. myriantha, in the Sino-Himalayan region in Asia, flowering in different local seasons, with scented inflorescences were investigated during 2011 and 2012. These five species exhibited diverse floral traits, with narrow and long corolla tubes and concealed nectar. According to their floral morphology, larger bees and Lepidoptera were expected to be the major pollinators. However, field observations showed that only larger bees (honeybee/bumblebee) were the primary pollinators, ranging from 77.95% to 97.90% of total visits. In this study, floral scents of each species were also analysed using coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Although the five Buddleja species emitted differentiated floral scent compositions, our results showed that floral scents of the five species are dominated by substances that can serve as attractive signals to bees, including species-specific scent compounds and principal compounds with larger relative amounts. This suggests that floral scent compositions are closely associated with the principal pollinator assemblages in these five species. Therefore, we conclude that floral scent compositions rather than floral morphology traits should be used to interpret plant-pollinator interactions in these Asian Buddleja species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Carbohydrate metabolism in floral structures of Lilium pumilum in different development stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Nayana de Sousa Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lilium pumilum is a species that stands out in floriculture for presenting orange inflorescences that attract the consumer. This study thus aimed at characterizing the carbohydrate metabolism of floral structures of L. pumilum in different development stages. For this purpose, carbohydrate levels (total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, and starch, at different floral stages (E0 - bud with no color; E1 - bud at early coloring; E2 - orange bud; E3 - open flower; E4 - senescent flower were quantified after extraction with ethanol. Lilium pumilum flowers showed high energy potential during floral opening and senescence; total soluble sugars were the main carbohydrates present in the species, reducing with the floral development, and the same occurred with the non-reducing sugar and starch contents. The reducing-sugar content increased with the floral stages. Therefore, this species presents great mobilization of compounds, which are utilized in the production of energy that is employed in floral opening.

  8. Multiple strong postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers isolate florally diverse species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Jamie L; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Divergence in phenotypic traits often contributes to premating isolation between lineages, but could also promote isolation at postmating stages. Phenotypic differences could directly result in mechanical isolation or hybrids with maladapted traits; alternatively, when alleles controlling these trait differences pleiotropically affect other components of development, differentiation could indirectly produce genetic incompatibilities in hybrids. Here, we determined the strength of nine postmating and intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers among 10 species of Jaltomata (Solanaceae), including species with highly divergent floral traits. To evaluate the relative importance of floral trait diversification for the strength of these postmating barriers, we assessed their relationship to floral divergence, genetic distance, geographical context, and ecological differences, using conventional tests and a new linear-mixed modeling approach. Despite close evolutionary relationships, all species pairs showed moderate to strong isolation. Nonetheless, floral trait divergence was not a consistent predictor of the strength of isolation; instead this was best explained by genetic distance, although we found evidence for mechanical isolation in one species, and a positive relationship between floral trait divergence and fruit set isolation across species pairs. Overall, our data indicate that intrinsic postzygotic isolation is more strongly associated with genome-wide genetic differentiation, rather than floral divergence. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Diversity and evolution of floral structure among early diverging lineages in the Ericales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönenberger, Jürg; von Balthazar, Maria; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2010-02-12

    This is a combination of review and original data on floral structure and diversity in the two earliest diverging lineages of the Ericales, i.e. the balsaminoids, comprising Balsaminaceae, Marcgraviaceae and Tetrameristaceae, and the polemonioids, comprising Fouquieriaceae and Polemoniaceae. Each clade is strongly supported in molecular studies, while structural synapomorphies have largely been lacking. For the balsaminoid families, we compare floral morphology, anatomy and histology among selected taxa and find that the entire clade is strongly supported by the shared presence of nectariferous tissue in the floral periphery, thread-like structures on anthers, truncate stigmas, secretion in the ovary, as well as mucilage cells, raphides and tannins in floral tissues. A possible sister group relationship between Balsaminaceae and Tetrameristaceae is supported by the shared presence of post-genital fusion of filaments and ovary and a star-shaped stylar canal. For polemonioids, we document unexpected diversity of floral features in Polemoniaceae, partly providing structural links to Fouquieriaceae. Features include cochlear and quincuncial corolla aestivation, connective protrusions, ventrifixed anthers and nectariferous tissue in the base of the ovary. In addition, we outline future directions for research on floral structure in the Ericales and briefly discuss the general importance of structural studies for our understanding of plant phylogeny and evolution.

  10. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  11. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  12. Effects of experimentally reduced snowpack and passive warming on montane meadow plant phenology and floral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, J.A.; Debinski, D.M.; Caragea, P.C.; Germino, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Climate change can have a broad range of effects on ecosystems and organisms, and early responses may include shifts in vegetation phenology and productivity that may not coincide with the energetics and forage timing of higher trophic levels. We evaluated phenology, annual height growth, and foliar frost responses of forbs to a factorial experiment of snow removal (SR) and warming in a high-elevation meadow over two years in the Rocky Mountains, United States. Species included arrowleaf balsamroot (Balsamorhiza sagittata, early-season emergence and flowering) and buckwheat (Eriogonum umbellatum, semi-woody and late-season flowering), key forbs for pollinator and nectar-using animal communities that are widely distributed and locally abundant in western North America. Snow removal exerted stronger effects than did warming, and advanced phenology differently for each species. Specifically, SR advanced green-up by a few days for B. sagittata to >2 wk in E. umbellatum, and led to 5- to 11-d advances in flowering of B. sagittata in one year and advances in bud break in 3 of 4 species/yr combinations. Snow removal increased height of E. umbellatum appreciably (~5 cm added to ~22.8 cm in control), but led to substantial increases in frost damage to flowers of B. sagittata. Whereas warming had no effects on E. umbellatum, it increased heights of B. sagittata by >6 cm (compared to 30.7 cm in control plots) and moreover led to appreciable reductions in frost damage to flowers. These data suggest that timing of snowmelt, which is highly variable from year to year but is advancing in recent decades, has a greater impact on these critical phenological, growth, and floral survival traits and floral/nectar resources than warming per se, although warming mitigated early effects of SR on frost kill of flowers. Given the short growing season of these species, the shifts could cause uncoupling in nectar availability and timing of foraging.

  13. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene improves floral development in cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, O Sarah; Chavarriaga, Paul; Tohme, Joe; Fregene, Martin; Davis, Seth J; Setter, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively. FT overexpression hastened flower initiation and associated fork-type branching, indicating that cassava has the necessary signaling factors to interact with and respond to the atFT gene product. In addition, overexpression stimulated lateral branching, increased the prolificacy of flower production and extended the longevity of flower development. While FT homologs in some plant species stimulate development of vegetative storage organs, atFT inhibited storage-root development and decreased root harvest index in cassava. These findings collectively contribute to our understanding of flower development in cassava and have the potential for applications in breeding.

  14. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  15. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  16. Abnormal glucose tolerance and lipid abnormalities in Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion. Regardless of varying diagnostic classification, abnormal glucose tolerance is a well-documented risk factor. 16 Abnormalities in. Because ofthe small number offemale MI survivors, the effect of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance on lipid levels was studied in the male patients only. There was no significant.

  17. Floral ecology and insect visitation in riparian Tamarix sp. (saltcedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D.C.; Nelson, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change projections for semiarid and arid North America include reductions in stream discharge that could adversely affect riparian plant species dependent on stream-derived ground water. In order to better understand this potential impact, we used a space-for-time substitution to test the hypotheses that increasing depth-to-groundwater (DGW) is inversely related to Tamarix sp. (saltcedar) flower abundance (F) and nectar production per flower (N). We also assessed whether DGW affected the richness or abundance of insects visiting flowers. We examined Tamarix floral attributes and insect visitation patterns during 2010 and 2011 at three locations along a deep DWG gradient (3.2–4.1 m) on a floodplain terrace adjacent to Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated Mojave Desert stream. Flower abundance and insect visitation patterns differed between years, but no effect from DGW on either F or N was detected. An eruption of a novel non-native herbivore, the splendid tamarisk weevil (Coniatus splendidulus), likely reduced flower production in 2011.

  18. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  19. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  20. Interspecific and Intersexual Differences in the Chemical Composition of Floral Scent in Glochidion Species (Phyllanthaceae in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Glochidion (Phyllanthaceae genus are pollinated exclusively by host-specific Epicephala (Gracillariidae moths. Floral scent has been thought to play key role in the obligate pollination mutualism between Glochidion plants and Epicephala moths, but few studies have been reported about chemical variation in floral volatiles of Glochidion species in China. Floral volatiles of male and female flowers of five Glochidion species in south China were collected by dynamic headspace absorption technique and then were chemically analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 69 compounds were identified from floral scents of five investigated species. Glochidion hirsutum and G. zeylanicum showed no qualitative differences in floral scent, whereas there were clear variations of floral scent among other species (G. eriocarpum, G. daltonii, and G. sphaerogynum and also they distinctly differed from these two species. Male flowers emitted significantly more scent than female flowers. Glochidion plants exhibited qualitative and quantitative differences in floral scent between two sexes of flowers. The findings suggest that the volatile variation of floral scent among Glochidion species reflects adaptations to specific pollinators. Sexual dimorphism in floral scent has evolved to signal alternative rewards provided by each sex to Epicephala moths.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of differentially expressed genes in floral buds and flowers of male sterile and fertile lines in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Seo, Minseok; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2015-11-09

    Male sterility is an important mechanism for the production of hybrid seeds in watermelon. Although fruit development has been studied extensively in watermelon, there are no reports on gene expression in floral organs. In this study, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed in two near-isogenic watermelon lines (genic male sterile [GMS] line, DAH3615-MS and male fertile line, DAH3615) to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to male sterility. DEG analysis showed that 1259 genes were significantly associated with male sterility at a FDR P-value of watermelon. This analysis revealed essential genes responsible for stamen development, including pollen development and pollen tube elongation, and allowed their functional classification. These results provided new information on global mechanisms related to male sterility in watermelon.

  2. Strong phylogenetic effects on floral scent variation of oil-secreting orchids in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Kim E; Kaiser, Roman; Dötterl, Stefan

    2011-10-01

    Evolution involves the interplay between natural selection and phylogenetic constraint. This is particularly evident among the flowering plants where form and diversity of flowers attest to the importance of both pollinator-mediated selection and phylogenetic constraint. Although this has been studied mostly using visible floral characters, invisible volatile chemicals emitted by the flowers should be subject to these same evolutionary forces. Unfortunately, most analyses of floral volatiles have over-emphasized the importance of natural selection and underplayed phylogenetic constraint without quantifying their respective roles in the evolution and composition of floral scents. We used multivariate analyses to test the relative importance of pollinators vs. phylogeny in determining the composition of floral scents among oil-secreting orchids in southern Africa. Floral scents of 42 oil-secreting taxa/ecotypes distributed among 12 subclades in the tribe Diseae were sampled using headspace adsorption and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We identified 257 scent compounds distributed over nine different compound classes, with the majority of scents dominated by aliphatic or benzenoid compounds. The only significant predictor of floral scent among these orchids above the species level was phylogeny. Nevertheless, in two of the clades there were differences in scent profiles at the species and ecotype level that corresponded to different pollinators and were thus suggestive of pollinator-mediated selection. Scent variation was greater than expected and phylogeny was more important than pollinator-mediated selection in predicting the composition of floral scents of oil-secreting orchids, despite the specialized nature of the pollinator reward system.

  3. Schizophrenia and abnormal brain network hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Ed

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder of unknown cause or characteristic pathology. Clinical neuroscientists increasingly postulate that schizophrenia is a disorder of brain network organization. In this article we discuss the conceptual framework of this dysconnection hypothesis, describe the predominant methodological paradigm for testing this hypothesis, and review recent evidence for disruption of central/hub brain regions, as a promising example of this hypothesis. We summarize studies of brain hubs in large-scale structural and functional brain networks and find strong evidence for network abnormalities of prefrontal hubs, and moderate evidence for network abnormalities of limbic, temporal, and parietal hubs. Future studies are needed to differentiate network dysfunction from previously observed gray- and white-matter abnormalities of these hubs, and to link endogenous network dysfunction phenotypes with perceptual, behavioral, and cognitive clinical phenotypes of schizophrenia.

  4. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National...... the "before" to the "after" period. This increase was significantly higher for exposed than non-exposed women regarding contacts to GP, admissions to hospitals, and drug use. CONCLUSION: Women with abnormal cytology results constitute a selected group with a higher health care use than other women even before...

  5. [Penile congenital abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, B; Teklali, Y; Moog, R; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the penis are usually diagnosed at birth and pose aesthetic and functional problems sometimes requiring surgical management. A literature review was conducted on Medline considering the articles listed until January 2012. Hypospadias is the most common malformation (1 in 250 boys. Familial forms: 7%). The causes remain hypothetical but the doubling of the incidence in 30 years could be linked to fetal exposure to endocrine disruptors "estrogen-like" used in the food industry in particular. Surgical treatment is usually intended to improve the aesthetic appearance but sometimes, in case of significant curvature or posterior meatus, necessary for normal sexual life and fertility. Other malformations (epispades, buried penis, transpositions, twists and preputial abnormalities) as well as management for functional or aesthetic consequences of these malformations in adulthood require complex surgical care in a specialized environment. The improvement of surgical techniques and pediatric anesthesia allows an early and effective specialized surgical approach of penile malformations. Management of sequelae in adulthood must be discussed and requires experience of surgical techniques on pediatric and adult penis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenotype abnormality: 49 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 49 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u555i abnormal for trait of behavioral... quality in organ named whole plant during process named cell growth ... whole plant ... abnormal ... cell growth ... behavioral quality

  7. Phenotype abnormality: 43 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 43 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u549i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named growth ... root ... abnormal ... growth ... behavioral quality

  8. Phenotype abnormality: 40 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u546i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named hypocotyl during process named gravitropism ... hypocotyl ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  9. Phenotype abnormality: 50 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 50 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u556i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named whole plant during process named photomorphogenesis ... whole plant ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  10. Phenotype abnormality: 42 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 42 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u1ria224u548i abnormal for trait of behavioral quality... in organ named root during process named gravitropism ... root ... abnormal ... behavioral quality

  11. Floral Meristem Identity Genes Are Expressed during Tendril Development in Grapevine1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonje, Myriam; Cubas, Pilar; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Carmona, María José

    2004-01-01

    To study the early steps of flower initiation and development in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), we have isolated two MADS-box genes, VFUL-L and VAP1, the putative FUL-like and AP1 grapevine orthologs, and analyzed their expression patterns during vegetative and reproductive development. Both genes are expressed in lateral meristems that, in grapevine, can give rise to either inflorescences or tendrils. They are also coexpressed in inflorescence and flower meristems. During flower development, VFUL-L transcripts are restricted to the central part of young flower meristems and, later, to the prospective carpel-forming region, which is consistent with a role of this gene in floral transition and carpel and fruit development. Expression pattern of VAP1 suggests that it may play a role in flowering transition and flower development. However, its lack of expression in sepal primordia, does not support its role as an A-function gene in grapevine. Neither VFUL-L nor VAP1 expression was detected in vegetative organs such as leaves or roots. In contrast, they are expressed throughout tendril development. Transcription of both genes in tendrils of very young plants that have not undergone flowering transition indicates that this expression is independent of the flowering process. These unique expression patterns of genes typically involved in reproductive development have implications on our understanding of flower induction and initiation in grapevine, on the origin of grapevine tendrils and on the functional roles of AP1-and FUL-like genes in plant development. These results also provide molecular support to the hypothesis that Vitis tendrils are modified reproductive organs adapted to climb. PMID:15247405

  12. Pollination systems and floral traits in cerrado woody species of the Upper Taquari region (central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Q. Martins

    Full Text Available Plant species present flowers with varied morphological and functional features, which may be associated to pollination systems, including species pollinated by wind, beetles, moths, bees, small insects, birds, or bats. We calculated the frequencies of the pollination systems among woody species in five cerrado fragments in central-western Brazil and tested whether the pollination systems were indeed related to floral traits. We sampled 2,280 individuals, belonging to 121 species, ninety-nine of which were described in relation to all floral traits. Most species had diurnal anthesis, pale colors, and open flowers. The most frequent groups were those composed by the species pollinated by bees, small insects, and moths. A Principal Component Analysis of the species and floral traits showed that there was a grouping among species with some pollination systems, such as those pollinated mainly by beetles, moths, birds, and bats, for which inferences based on the floral traits are recommended in cerrado sites. For the species pollinated mainly by bees or small insects, inferences based on the floral traits are not recommended, due to the large dispersion of the species scores and overlapping between these two groups, which probably occurred due to the specificity absence in plant-pollinator relationships.

  13. Is floral specialization an evolutionary dead-end? Pollination system transitions in Ruellia (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Erin A; Manos, Paul S

    2008-07-01

    Pollination systems frequently reflect adaptations to particular groups of pollinators. Such systems are indicative of evolutionary specialization and have been important in angiosperm diversification. We studied the evolution of pollination systems in the large genus Ruellia. Phylogenetic analyses, morphological ordinations, ancestral state reconstructions, and a character mapping simulation were conducted to reveal key patterns in the direction and lability of floral characters associated with pollination. We found significant floral morphological differences among species that were generally associated with different groups of floral visitors. Floral evolution has been highly labile and also directional. Some specialized systems such as hawkmoth or bat pollination are likely evolutionary dead-ends. In contrast, specialized pollination by hummingbirds is clearly not a dead-end. We found evidence for multiple reverse transitions from presumed ancestral hummingbird pollination to more derived bee or insect pollination. These repeated origins of insect pollination from hummingbird-pollinated ancestors have not evolved without historical baggage. Flowers of insect-pollinated species derived from hummingbird-pollinated ancestors are morphologically more similar to hummingbird flowers than they are to other more distantly related insect-pollinated flowers. Finally, some pollinator switches were concomitant with changes in floral morphology that are associated with those pollinators. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that some transitions have been adaptive in the evolution of Ruellia.

  14. BIOLOGÍA FLORAL Y REPRODUCTIVA DE LA GULUPA PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS F. EDULIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel-Coca Catalina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biología floral y reproductiva de Passiflora edulis f. edulis en cultivos ubicados en la Cordillera Oriental en los Andes colombianos (Buenavista, Boyacá. La flor presentó antesis entre las 6 y las 8 hrs, la longevidad floral promedio fue de 25 hrs. Se reconocieron cuatro fases fenológicas: (1 Femenina con hercogamia (2 Homógama con hercogamia (3 Homógama sin hercogamia y (4 Senescente. Aunque el estigma está receptivo durante todas las fases florales, se obtuvo mayor producción de frutos en las fases segunda y tercera. La donación del polen, en su mayoría ocurrió en la fase dos con una viabilidad del 96%. El néctar mostró una tendencia ascendente durante la vida floral. Los experimentos de polinización indican que la gulupa es una variedad altamente autocompatible, pero requiere de los polinizadores para producir una buena cosecha, pues sólo el 33% de los frutos se forma sin el acceso de éstos. Los resultados sugieren que la gulupa tiene una estrategia floral mixta con el potencial para promover endogamia y entrecruzamiento genético, y que la conservación de las abejas polinizadoras es crucial en la productividad de este frutal.

  15. Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae

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    Mariela Nuñez Florentin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genus Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae has a conflicting generic delimitation, with representatives that show different floral syndromes. Oldenlandia salzmannii is a marshy herb that is widespread in South America. It is heterostylous, specifically distylous, and self-compatible. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies found that this species forms a clade that is isolated from the remaining described taxa of Oldenlandia. Information about the floral anatomy and reproductive biology of genera in the Spermacoceae tribe, particularly Oldenlandia, is insufficient, especially among the neotropical species. Accordingly, the present study aimed at contributing information on the reproductive biology of Oldenlandia salzmannii by analyzing its floral morpho-anatomy, morphometrics and phenology of both floral morphs. These analyses were conducted with natural, cultivated and fixed material using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Morphologically, the species is typically heterostylous with two floral morphs, long-styled and short-styled, the main difference being the indument of the corolla. The short-styled flowers have larger anthers and pollen grains. Morphometrics show a high degree of herkogamic reciprocity. The mature ovules have a hemitropous position, which is the first record of this position for the Spermacoceae tribe. This study represents the first comprehensive morphological study of Oldenlandia salzmannii.

  16. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  17. Pollen sensitivity to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) suggests floral structure evolution in alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2014-03-31

    Various biotic and abiotic factors are known to exert selection pressures on floral traits, but the influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on the evolution of flower structure remains relatively unexplored. We have examined the effectiveness of flower structure in blocking radiation and the effects of UV-B on pollen viability in 42 species of alpine plants in the Hengduan Mountains, China. Floral forms were categorized as either protecting or exposing pollen grains to UV-B. The floral materials of plants with exposed and protected pollen grains were able to block UV-B at similar levels. Exposure to UV-B radiation in vitro resulted in a significantly greater loss of viability in pollen from plant species with protective floral structures. The pronounced sensitivity of protected pollen to UV-B radiation was associated with the type of flower structure. These findings demonstrate that UV-B plays an important role in the evolution of protective floral forms in alpine plants.

  18. Dynamics of DNA methylation and Histone H4 acetylation during floral bud differentiation in azalea

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    Valledor Luis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to control the timing of flowering is a key strategy for planning production in ornamental species such as azalea, however it requires a thorough understanding of floral transition. Floral transition is achieved through a complex genetic network and regulated by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Dynamic changes between chromatin states facilitating or inhibiting DNA transcription regulate the expression of floral induction pathways in response to environmental and developmental signals. DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in controlling the functional state of chromatin and gene expression. Results The results of this work indicate that epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation have opposite and particular dynamics during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the apical shoots of azalea. Global levels of DNA methylation and histone H4 acetylation as well as immunodetection of 5-mdC and acetylated H4, in addition to a morphological study have permitted the delimitation of four basic phases in the development of the azalea bud and allowed the identification of a stage of epigenetic reprogramming which showed a sharp decrease of whole DNA methylation similar to that is defined in other developmental processes in plants and in mammals. Conclusion The epigenetic control and reorganization of chromatin seem to be decisive for coordinating floral development in azalea. DNA methylation and H4 deacetylation act simultaneously and co-ordinately, restructuring the chromatin and regulating the gene expression during soot apical meristem development and floral differentiation.

  19. Floral neighborhood influences pollinator assemblages and effective pollination in a native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Daniela; Campbell, Diane R

    2014-10-01

    Pollinators represent an important intermediary by which different plant species can influence each other's reproductive fitness. Floral neighbors can modify the quantity of pollinator visits to a focal species but may also influence the composition of visitor assemblages that plants receive leading to potential changes in the average effectiveness of floral visits. We explored how the heterospecific floral neighborhood (abundance of native and non-native heterospecific plants within 2 m × 2 m) affects pollinator visitation and composition of pollinator assemblages for a native plant, Phacelia parryi. The relative effectiveness of different insect visitors was also assessed to interpret the potential effects on plant fitness of shifts in pollinator assemblage composition. Although the common non-native Brassica nigra did not have a significant effect on overall pollinator visitation rate to P. parryi, the proportion of flower visits that were made by native pollinators increased with increasing abundance of heterospecific plant species in the floral neighborhood other than B. nigra. Furthermore, native pollinators deposited twice as many P. parryi pollen grains per visit as did the nonnative Apis mellifera, and visits by native bees also resulted in more seeds than visits by A. mellifera. These results indicate that the floral neighborhood can influence the composition of pollinator assemblages that visit a native plant and that changes in local flower communities have the potential to affect plant reproductive success through shifts in these assemblages towards less effective pollinators.

  20. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

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    Hala Kanona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively.

  1. Floral markers of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cottiglia, Filippo; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

    2010-01-13

    Strawberry tree honey, due to its characteristic bitter taste, is one of the most typical Mediterranean honeys, with Sardinia being one of the largest producers. According to specific chemical studies, homogentisic acid was identified as a possible marker of this honey. This work, based on HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honeys, previously selected by sensory evaluation and melissopalynological analysis, showed that, in addition to the above-mentioned acid, there were other high levels of substances useful for the botanical classification of this unifloral honey. Two of these compounds were isolated and identified as (+/-)-2-cis,4-trans-abscisic acid (c,t-ABA) and (+/-)-2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid (t,t-ABA). A third compound, a new natural product named unedone, was characterized as an epoxidic derivative of the above-mentioned acids. Structures of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as HPLC-MS/MS and Q-TOF analysis. In selected honeys the average amounts of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were 176.2+/-25.4, 162.3+/-21.1, and 32.9+/-7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the A. unedo nectar confirmed the floral origin of these compounds found in the honey. Abscisic acids were found in other unifloral honeys but not in such high amount and with a constant ratio of about 1:1. For this reason, besides homogentisic acid, these compounds could be used as complementary markers of strawberry tree honey.

  2. Studies on floral biology of passion fruit (passiflora spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Pathak, K.A.; Shukla, R.; Bharali, R.

    2010-01-01

    Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida. (author)

  3. Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

  4. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  6. A quantitative review of pollination syndromes: do floral traits predict effective pollinators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Guerrero, Víctor; Aguilar, Ramiro; Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Ashworth, Lorena; Lopezaraiza-Mikel, Martha; Bastida, Jesús M; Quesada, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    The idea of pollination syndromes has been largely discussed but no formal quantitative evaluation has yet been conducted across angiosperms. We present the first systematic review of pollination syndromes that quantitatively tests whether the most effective pollinators for a species can be inferred from suites of floral traits for 417 plant species. Our results support the syndrome concept, indicating that convergent floral evolution is driven by adaptation to the most effective pollinator group. The predictability of pollination syndromes is greater in pollinator-dependent species and in plants from tropical regions. Many plant species also have secondary pollinators that generally correspond to the ancestral pollinators documented in evolutionary studies. We discuss the utility and limitations of pollination syndromes and the role of secondary pollinators to understand floral ecology and evolution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace

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    DANIEL A.V. MONTERO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.. Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC, São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata, geraniol (P. quadrangularis, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis, benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea.

  8. More lessons from linalool: insights gained from a ubiquitous floral volatile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguso, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Linalool (3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol) is a common floral volatile with two distinct enantiomers and related metabolites involved in the full spectrum of plant-pollinator interactions. Recent studies reveal a complex interplay between pollinator attraction and plant defense mediated by linalool and its derivatives, from the smallest (Arabidopsis, Mitella) to the largest (Datura) flowers studied. Accordingly, fig wasps, fungus gnats and moths of all sizes show remarkable electrophysiological, neural and behavioral sensitivity to different enantiomers and quantitative ratios of linalool in floral bouquets. The diverse functions of linalool, ranging from toxin to long distance pollinator attractant are discussed in the broader context of floral volatile ecology and evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Floral scent of brazilian Passiflora: five species analised by dynamic headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Daniel A V; Marques, Marcia Ortiz M; Meletti, Laura M M; Kampen, Maria H VAN; Polozzi, Sandra C

    2016-09-01

    This study describes for the first time the chemical composition and olfactive description of floral scent from Brazilian Passiflora (Passiflora edulis Sim, Passiflora alata Curtis, Passiflora cincinnata Mast., Passiflora coccinea Aubl. and Passiflora quadrangularis L.). Five species were grown in greenhouse at the Agronomic Institute (IAC), São Paulo, Brazil. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace. Analyses of scent composition were performed by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Identification of chemical constituents was conducted through of retention index followed by comparative analysis of mass spectra with specialized databases. The olfactive descriptions of floral scent from each species was evaluated for a professional perfumer. High interspecific diversity was found between chemical compositions of floral scent within Passiflora and different bouquets were observed amount the studied species. Mayor constituents were linalool (P. alata), geraniol (P. quadrangularis), 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (P. edulis), benzaldehyde (P. cincinnata) and 2-methyl-3-pentanone (P. coccinea).

  10. Speciation via floral heterochrony and presumed mycorrhizal host switching of endemic butterfly orchids on the Azorean archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Richard M; Rudall, Paula J; Bidartondo, Martin I; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Tranchida-Lombardo, Valentina; Carine, Mark A; Moura, Mónica

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Most orchid species native to the Macaronesian islands reflect immigration from western Europe or North Africa followed by anagenesis. The only putative exception is the butterfly orchids (Platanthera) of the Azores, where three species apparently reflect at least one cladogenetic speciation event. This multidisciplinary study explores the origin, speciation, phenotypic, and genotypic cohesion of these Azorean species and their mainland relatives.• Methods: Plants of Platanthera from 30 localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were compared with those of four continental European relatives for 38 morphometric characters; substantial subsets were also analyzed for plastid microsatellites, and for nrITS of both the orchids and their mycorrhizae.• Key results: Although the three Azorean and four mainland species are all readily distinguished morphometrically using several floral characters, and hybridization appears rare, divergence in ITS and especially plastid sequences is small. Despite occupying similar laurisilva habitats, the Azorean species differ radically in the identities and diversity of their mycorrhizal partners; specialism apparently increases rarity.• Conclusions: Although morphological evidence suggests two invasions of the islands from NW Africa and/or SW Europe, ITS data imply only one. As the molecular data are unable to distinguish among the potential mainland ancestors, two scenarios of relationship are explored that imply different ancestors. Both scenarios require both anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation events, involving homoplastic shifts in overall flower size and (often substantial) changes in the relative dimensions of individual floral organs. Limited genotypic divergence among the three species compared with greater phenotypic divergence suggests comparatively recent speciation. Mycorrhizae may be the most critical factor dictating the respective ecological tolerances, and thus the relative

  11. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

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    Anastasia Stefanaki

    Full Text Available The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk. Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species

  12. Microbial diversity in the floral nectar of Linaria vulgaris along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewicz, Jacek; Lievens, Bart; Honnay, Olivier; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-03-30

    Microbes are common inhabitants of floral nectar and are capable of influencing plant-pollinator interactions. All studies so far investigated microbial communities in floral nectar in plant populations that were located in natural environments, but nothing is known about these communities in nectar of plants inhabiting urban environments. However, at least some microbes are vectored into floral nectar by pollinators, and because urbanization can have a profound impact on pollinator communities and plant-pollinator interactions, it can be expected that it affects nectar microbes as well. To test this hypothesis, we related microbial diversity in floral nectar to the degree of urbanization in the late-flowering plant Linaria vulgaris. Floral nectar was collected from twenty populations along an urbanization gradient and culturable bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the genes coding for small and large ribosome subunits, respectively. A total of seven yeast and 13 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found at 3 and 1% sequence dissimilarity cut-offs, respectively. In agreement with previous studies, Metschnikowia reukaufii and M. gruessi were the main yeast constituents of nectar yeast communities, whereas Acinetobacter nectaris and Rosenbergiella epipactidis were the most frequently found bacterial species. Microbial incidence was high and did not change along the investigated urbanization gradient. However, microbial communities showed a nested subset structure, indicating that species-poor communities were a subset of species-rich communities. The level of urbanization was putatively identified as an important driver of nestedness, suggesting that environmental changes related to urbanization may impact microbial communities in floral nectar of plants growing in urban environments.

  13. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly at

  14. Hybrid floral scent novelty drives pollinator shift in sexually deceptive orchids

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    Cozzolino Salvatore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys attract their pollinators, male insects, on a highly specific basis through the emission of odour blends that mimic the female sex pheromone of the targeted species. In this study, we have investigated a contact site between Ophrys arachnitiformis and O. lupercalis, two sympatric orchid species that are usually reproductively isolated via the exploitation of different pollinator "niches", but occasionally hybridise despite their apparent combination of ethological and mechanical isolation barriers. In particular, we have investigated the extent to which these Ophrys hybrids generate "emergent" combinations (i.e. novel and unpredictable from the parents' phenotypes of floral traits, and how these phenotypic novelties, particularly the odour blends emitted by the flower, could facilitate the invasion of a novel pollinator "niche" and induce the rapid formation of reproductive isolation, a prerequisite for adaptive evolutionary divergence. Results Our chemical analyses of floral scents show that the Ophrys F1 hybrids investigated here produce more compounds, significantly different ratios (% of odour compounds in the total blend, as well as new compounds in their floral odour compared to their progenitors. When tested for their attractiveness to the pollinator of each parent orchid species, we found that floral scent extracts of the hybrids triggered less inspecting flights and contacts by the male bees with the scented dummy than those of the parental orchid species. However, a series of additional behavioural bioassays revealed that the novel floral scent of the hybrids was significantly more attractive than either of the two parents to a pollinator species not initially involved in the pollination of any of the parent Ophrys species. Conclusions Collectively, our results illustrate that the process of hybridisation can lead to the generation of evolutionary novelties, and that

  15. EVALUATION OF FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MELON HYBRIDS (Cucumis melo L. IN POLLINATOR ATTRACTIVENESS

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    LÚCIA HELENA PIEDADE KIILL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Floral morphology and biology are important characteristics for plant-pollinator interactions and may influence the behavior of these agents. This study aimed to determine which floral attributes of different melon hybrids influence this interaction and, consequently, their attractiveness in simultaneous crops. The study was conducted in the region of Petrolina, State of Pernambuco (PE/Juazeiro, State of Bahia (BA and Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, in areas with the following melon hybrids: Yellow type, Piel de Sapo, Cantaloupe and Galia. For studies on floral morphology and biology, hermaphrodites and male flowers of each hybrid were analyzed for their size and nectar chamber size, pollen and nectar production, anthesis time and flower lifespan. Floral visitors were observed simultaneously in hybrids of three types of melon, from 5:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m., in the two study sites. Evaluations of the corolla diameter and flower height indicated that the hermaphrodite flowers were larger in size than male flowers in all types of melon investigated, in both study sites. As for nectar chamber, male flowers are larger in width, but smaller in height, compared to hermaphrodite flowers. Regarding the volume of nectar, differences were found between floral types for the hybrids evaluated, in the two study sites; the hermaphrodite flowers produced 2-7 times more nectar than male flowers in all studied hybrids. Observations of visits of Apis mellifera to areas with simultaneous flowering of the three types of melon demonstrated differences in the frequency of visits between hybrids, floral type and foraged resource. Flowers of the hybrids Piel de Sapo and Cantaloupe exhibited larger corolla diameter, larger dimensions of the nectar chamber and greater supply of resources for foraging, which could explain the higher number of visits of bees to their flowers in the sites studied.

  16. Floral symmetry genes and the origin and maintenance of zygomorphy in a plant-pollinator mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenheng; Kramer, Elena M; Davis, Charles C

    2010-04-06

    The evolution of floral zygomorphy is an important innovation in flowering plants and is thought to arise principally from specialization on various insect pollinators. Floral morphology of neotropical Malpighiaceae is distinctive and highly conserved, especially with regard to symmetry, and is thought to be caused by selection by its oil-bee pollinators. We sought to characterize the genetic basis of floral zygomorphy in Malpighiaceae by investigating CYCLOIDEA2-like (CYC2-like) genes, which are required for establishing symmetry in diverse core eudicots. We identified two copies of CYC2-like genes in Malpighiaceae, which resulted from a gene duplication in the common ancestor of the family. A likely role for these loci in the development of floral zygomorphy in Malpighiaceae is demonstrated by the conserved pattern of dorsal gene expression in two distantly related neotropical species, Byrsonima crassifolia and Janusia guaranitica. Further evidence for this function is observed in a Malpighiaceae species that has moved to the paleotropics and experienced coincident shifts in pollinators, floral symmetry, and CYC2-like gene expression. The dorsal expression pat-tern observed in Malpighiaceae contrasts dramatically with their actinomorphic-flowered relatives, Centroplacaceae (Bhesa paniculata) and Elatinaceae (Bergia texana). In particular, B. texana exhibits a previously undescribed pattern of uniform CYC2 expression, suggesting that CYC2 expression among the actinomorphic ancestors of zygomorphic lineages may be much more complex than previously thought. We consider three evolutionary models that may have given rise to this patterning, including the hypothesis that floral zygomorphy in Malpighiaceae arose earlier than standard morphology-based character reconstructions suggest.

  17. Floral traits driving reproductive isolation of two co-flowering taxa that share vertebrate pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Joel A.; Quirino, Zelma G. M.; Machado, Isabel C.

    2015-01-01

    Floral attributes evolve in response to frequent and efficient pollinators, which are potentially important drivers of floral diversification and reproductive isolation. In this context, we asked, how do flowers evolve in a bat–hummingbird pollination system? Hence, we investigated the pollination ecology of two co-flowering Ipomoea taxa (I. marcellia and I. aff. marcellia) pollinated by bats and hummingbirds, and factors favouring reproductive isolation and pollinator sharing in these plants. To identify the most important drivers of reproductive isolation, we compared the flowers of the two Ipomoea taxa in terms of morphometry, anthesis and nectar production. Pollinator services were assessed using frequency of visits, fruit set and the number of seeds per fruit after visits. The studied Ipomoea taxa differed in corolla size and width, beginning and duration of anthesis, and nectar attributes. However, they shared the same diurnal and nocturnal visitors. The hummingbird Heliomaster squamosus was more frequent in I. marcellia (1.90 visits h−1) than in I. aff. marcellia (0.57 visits h−1), whereas glossophagine bats showed similar visit rates in both taxa (I. marcellia: 0.57 visits h−1 and I. aff. marcellia: 0.64 visits h−1). Bat pollination was more efficient in I. aff. marcellia, whereas pollination by hummingbirds was more efficient in I. marcellia. Differences in floral attributes between Ipomoea taxa, especially related to the anthesis period, length of floral parts and floral arrangement in the inflorescence, favour reproductive isolation from congeners through differential pollen placement on pollinators. This bat–hummingbird pollination system seems to be advantageous in the study area, where the availability of pollinators and floral resources changes considerably throughout the year, mainly as a result of rainfall seasonality. This interaction is beneficial for both sides, as it maximizes the number of potential pollen vectors for plants and

  18. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  19. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  20. High floral bud abscission and lack of open flower abscission in Dendrobium cv. Miss Teen: rapid reduction of ethylene sensitivity in the abscission zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunya-atichart, K.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the abscission of floral buds and open flowers in cut Dendrobium inflorescences. Abscission of floral buds was high and sensitive to ethylene in all cultivars studied. Many open flowers abscised in most cultivars, but cv. Willie exhibited only small amount of floral fall and cv. Miss Teen

  1. Comparative GC analyses of ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds essential oils of Tunisian Myrtus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Snoussi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Tunisian wild growing myrtle ripe fruits, leaves and floral buds was examined by GC and GC-MS. The yields of hydrodistilled oils obtained from different plant parts were: leaves 0.5%, floral buds 0.2% and ripe fruits 0.02%. Significant differences were found in the concentration of main constituents of the oils: α-pinene [48.9% (floral buds, 34.3% (fruits, 23.7% (leaves], 1,8-cineole [15.3% (floral buds, 26.6% (fruits, 61.0% (leaves]. The leaves oil contained less linalool than floral buds and ripe fruits oils. Tunisian myrtle is characterized by the absence of myrtenyl acetate.

  2. Aspectos de biologia floral de cajueiros anão precoce e comum

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Larissa Barbosa de; Feitoza,Lidiane de Lima; Gomes,Regina Lucia Ferreira; Lopes,Ângela Celis de Almeida; Soares,Edson Basílio; Silva,Eduardo Magno Pereira da

    2007-01-01

    O conhecimento da biologia floral é de suma importância para o desenvolvimento da cultura do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.). Com relação aos aspectos botânicos, as características morfológicas das flores contribuíram efetivamente para a determinação das espécies do gênero Anacarduim conhecidas. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a biologia floral dos cajueiros anão precoce e comum. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências...

  3. Evidence that a herbivore tolerance response affects selection on floral traits and inflorescence architecture in purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Christina J M; Sargent, Risa D

    2017-06-01

    The study of the evolution of floral traits has generally focused on pollination as the primary driver of selection. However, herbivores can also impose selection on floral traits through a variety of mechanisms, including florivory and parasitism. Less well understood is whether floral and inflorescence architecture traits that influence a plant's tolerance to herbivory, such as compensatory regrowth, alter pollinator-mediated selection. Because herbivore damage to Lythrum salicaria meristems typically leads to an increase in the number of inflorescences and the size of the floral display, an experiment was conducted to test whether simulated herbivory (i.e. clipping the developing meristem) could alter the magnitude or direction of pollinator-mediated selection on a suite of floral and inflorescence architecture traits. Using a pollen supplementation protocol, pollen limitation was compared in the presence and absence of meristem damage in order to quantify any interaction between pollinator and herbivore-mediated selection on floral traits. Surprisingly, in spite of an obvious impact on floral display and architecture, with clipped plants producing more inflorescences and more flowers, there was no difference in pollen limitation between clipped and unclipped plants. Correspondingly, there was no evidence that imposing herbivore damage altered pollinator-mediated selection in this system. Rather, the herbivory treatment alone was found to alter direct selection on floral display, with clipped plants experiencing greater selection for earlier flowering and weaker selection for number of inflorescences when compared with unclipped plants. These findings imply that herbivory on its own can drive selection on plant floral traits and inflorescence architecture in this species, even more so than pollinators. Specifically, herbivory can impose selection on floral traits if such traits influence a plant's tolerance to herbivory, such as through the timing of flowering

  4. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbos, I.; Veuskens, J.; Vyskot, B.; Oliveira, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Aghmir, A.; Mouras, A.; Negrutiu, I.

    1999-01-01

    White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for ''male dimorphism'' (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state

  5. Self-pollination rate and floral-display size in Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) with regard to floral-visitor taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Aaron F; Barrows, Edward M

    2014-06-23

    Animals fertilize thousands of angiosperm species whose floral-display sizes can significantly influence pollinator behavior and plant reproductive success. Many studies have measured the interactions among pollinator behavior, floral-display size, and plant reproductive success, but few studies have been able to separate the effects of pollinator behavior and post-pollination processes on angiosperm sexual reproduction. In this study, we utilized the highly self-incompatible pollinium-pollination system of Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) to quantify how insect visitors influenced male reproductive success measured as pollen removal, female reproductive success measured as pollen deposition, and self-pollination rate. We also determined how floral-display size impacts both visitor behavior and self-pollination rate. Four insect taxonomic orders visited A. syriaca: Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera. We focused on three groups of visitor taxa within two orders (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) with sample sizes large enough for quantitative analysis: Apis mellifera (Western Honey Bee), Bombus spp. (bumble bees) and lepidopterans (butterflies and moths). Qualitatively, lepidopterans had the highest pollinator importance values, but the large variability in the lepidopteran data precluded meaningful interpretation of much of their behavior. The introduced A. mellifera was the most effective and most important diurnal pollinator with regard to both pollen removal and pollen deposition. However, when considering the self-incompatibility of A. syriaca, A. mellifera was not the most important pollinator because of its high self-pollination rate as compared to Bombus spp. Additionally, the rate of self-pollination increased more rapidly with the number of flowers per inflorescence in A. mellifera than in the native Bombus spp. Apis mellifera's high rate of self-pollination may have significant negative effects on both male and female reproductive successes

  6. Floral biology and breeding system of three Ipomoea weeds Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de três espécies daninhas de Ipomoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Maimoni-Rodella

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The floral biology of three weeds, Ipomoea cairica, I. grandifolia and I. nil (Convolvulaceae, was studied in Botucatu and Jaboticabal, São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. The three species are melittophilous, with a varied set of floral visitors, but with some overlapping. Cluster analysis using Jacquard similarity index indicated a greater similarity among different plant species in the same locality than among the populations at different places, in relation to floral visitor sets. The promiscuous and opportunistic features of the flowers were shown, with such type of adaptation to pollination being advantageous to weeds since pollinator availability is unpredictable at ruderal environments.A biologia floral de Ipomoea cairica, I. grandifolia e I. nil - plantas daninhas da família Convolvulaceae - foi estudada em Botucatu e Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As três espécies são melitófilas, apresentando conjuntos de visitantes florais bastante diversificados, embora haja alguma sobreposição entre eles. Com relação aos visitantes florais, a análise de agrupamento, empregando-se o índice de similaridade de Jaccard, indicou maior similaridade entre diferentes espécies de Ipomoea ocorrentes no mesmo local do que entre populações da mesma espécie em diferentes localidades. O caráter promíscuo e oportunista da adaptação à polinização, presente nessas espécies, foi demonstrado, sendo essa adaptação vantajosa para plantas daninhas, uma vez que em ambientes ruderais a disponibilidade de polinizadores é imprevisível.

  7. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, A. O.; Kuiper, G. G.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; van Rooij, H. C.; Romalo, G.; Trifiro, M.; Mulder, E.; Pinsky, L.; Schweikert, H. U.; Trapman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of the genomic organization of the

  8. Biochemical abnormalities in Pearson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Beatrice Letizia; Leon, Eyby; Calhoun, Amy; Lowichik, Amy; Pasquali, Marzia; Longo, Nicola

    2015-03-01

    Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome is a multisystem mitochondrial disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and pancreatic insufficiency. Children who survive the severe bone marrow dysfunction in childhood develop Kearns-Sayre syndrome later in life. Here we report on four new cases with this condition and define their biochemical abnormalities. Three out of four patients presented with failure to thrive, with most of them having normal development and head size. All patients had evidence of bone marrow involvement that spontaneously improved in three out of four patients. Unique findings in our patients were acute pancreatitis (one out of four), renal Fanconi syndrome (present in all patients, but symptomatic only in one), and an unusual organic aciduria with 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria in one patient. Biochemical analysis indicated low levels of plasma citrulline and arginine, despite low-normal ammonia levels. Regression analysis indicated a significant correlation between each intermediate of the urea cycle and the next, except between ornithine and citrulline. This suggested that the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase (that converts ornithine to citrulline) might not be very efficient in patients with Pearson syndrome. In view of low-normal ammonia levels, we hypothesize that ammonia and carbamylphosphate could be diverted from the urea cycle to the synthesis of nucleotides in patients with Pearson syndrome and possibly other mitochondrial disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Structural and molecular hair abnormalities in trichothiodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christine; Morris, Andrea; Schlücker, Sebastian; Imoto, Kyoko; Price, Vera H; Menefee, Emory; Wincovitch, Stephen M; Levin, Ira W; Tamura, Deborah; Strehle, Katrin R; Kraemer, Kenneth H; DiGiovanna, John J

    2006-10-01

    We examined hair from 15 patients with trichothiodystrophy (TTD), a rare inherited disorder with brittle, cystine-deficient hair. They had a wide variety of phenotypes, from brittle hair only to severe intellectual impairment and developmental delay. Polarizing light microscopic examination showed alternating light and dark (tiger tail) bands under polarizing microscopy. Confocal microscopy captured structural features of breaks in intact TTD hairs. The autofluorescent appearance was regular and smooth in normal donors and markedly irregular in sections of TTD hairs possibly reflecting abnormalities in melanin distribution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed numerous surface irregularities. All TTD hair samples had reduced sulfur content. We observed an inverse correlation (R(val)=0.9) between sulfur content and percent of hairs with shaft abnormalities (trichoschisis, trichorrhexis nodosa, or ribbon/twist). There was no association between clinical disease severity and percent of abnormal hairs. Raman spectra of hairs from TTD patients and normal donors revealed a larger contribution of energetically less favored disulfide conformers in TTD hairs. Our data indicate that the brittleness of the TTD hair is dependent upon abnormalities at several levels of organization. These changes make TTD hairs excessively prone to breakage and weathering.

  10. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  11. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Torretta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfoespecies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an important oilseed crop in Argentina. During three agricultural years, the diversity and abundance of diurnal floral visitors of sunflower heads were determined in eight sites spanning much of this crop's cultivation area in Argentina. Seventysix morpho-species of floral visitors, belonging to eight orders, were captured on sunflower. The principal order was Hymenoptera, with 37 species or morpho-species, of which 32 were bees (Apoidea. The most represented bee families were Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 and Halictidae (7. The domestic bee (Apis mellifera L. accounted for 93% of the visits. Floral visitor composition did not show an identifiable variation pattern either throughout the day or

  12. How to be sweet? Extra floral nectar allocation by Gossypium hirsutum fits optimal defense theory predictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Bonifay, C.

    2004-01-01

    Plants employ nectar for two distinct functions. Floral nectar has traditionally been viewed in the context of pollination. Extrafloral nectar on the other hand, can act as an indirect defense, allowing the plant to recruit predators and parasitoids. Whereas this makes for a clear-cut

  13. Assessing risks and benefits of floral supplements in conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Wackers, F.L.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of flowering field margins is often proposed as a method to support biological control in agro-ecosystems. In addition to beneficial insects, many herbivores depend on floral food as well. The indiscriminate use of flowering species in field margins can therefore lead to higher pest numbers.

  14. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5–2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  15. Access, labor, and wild floral greens management in western Washington's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn A. Lynch; Rebecca J. McLain

    2003-01-01

    This report compares the changes that took place between 1994 and 2002 in the nontimber forest product (NTFP) management regime that governed access to floral greens and other NTFPs in western coastal Washington. A rapid rural appraisal approach was used to gather data from 24 NTFP stakeholders during phase I (1994) and from 37 NTFP stakeholders during phase II (2002...

  16. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and. Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried.

  17. Study of the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition of essential oils and floral waters of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae) from Senegal. The plants were collected in two different localities, Dakar and Kaolack. The extracts were obtained by steam distillation from both fresh and dried plants and analyses carried ...

  18. How to be an attractive male: floral dimorphism and attractiveness to pollinators in a dioecious plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waelti Marc O

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual selection theory predicts that males are limited in their reproductive success by access to mates, whereas females are more limited by resources. In animal-pollinated plants, attraction of pollinators and successful pollination is crucial for reproductive success. In dioecious plant species, males should thus be selected to increase their attractiveness to pollinators by investing more than females in floral traits that enhance pollinator visitation. We tested the prediction of higher attractiveness of male flowers in the dioecious, moth-pollinated herb Silene latifolia, by investigating floral signals (floral display and fragrance and conducting behavioral experiments with the pollinator-moth, Hadena bicruris. Results As found in previous studies, male plants produced more but smaller flowers. Male flowers, however, emitted significantly larger amounts of scent than female flowers, especially of the pollinator-attracting compounds. In behavioral tests we showed that naïve pollinator-moths preferred male over female flowers, but this preference was only significant for male moths. Conclusion Our data suggest the evolution of dimorphic floral signals is shaped by sexual selection and pollinator preferences, causing sexual conflict in both plants and pollinators.

  19. Teaching Flower Structure & Floral Formulae--A Mix of the Real & Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    The study of flower structure is essential in plant identification and in understanding sexual reproduction in plants, pollination syndromes, plant breeding, and fruit structure. Thus, study of flower structure and construction of floral formulae are standard parts of first-year university botany and biology courses. These activities involve…

  20. Phénologie florale et production fruitière de Syzygium guineense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 85% of trees and shrubs having bloomed during the dry season despite fire stress. These individuals in the state of reproduction have diameters between 2.07 and 42.04 cm and heights ranging from 1.50 to 11.50 m. Four stages of flowering (floral initiation, developed bud, open flower and senescent flowers) and ...

  1. Floral Biology of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Stephen FAYEUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of floral biology is essential to crop improvement. Ten genotypes of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis were observed for floral morphology, phenology and insect visitation for two consecutive years. Functional dioecy of fluted pumpkin was confirmed, whereas none of the studied genotypes was monoecious. Floral structures differed significantly among the genotypes. Both male and female flowers were symmetrical, pentasepalous, fimbriate and non-bright pentapetalous, but male flowers were more numerous. Male inflorescences emerged from 11 to 14 weeks after planting and the female flower buds appeared about 4 weeks later. The flowering period of the male flowers was longer than that of female flowers and both gender flowering periods coincided for a specific interval. It took between 11 to 14 days from bud initiation to anthesis and flowering ceased when there were occurrences of successful fruits set. In both gender flowers petals started unfurling at around 6.00 pm and full bloom was achieved by dawn, while petal shrivelled at sun set (between 6.30 pm to 7.30 pm. The anthers dehisced at anthesis of the male flowers; the pollen grains were whitish and sticky. Only the male flowers have nectar and pollen and this may explain infrequent female flowers visitation. Hover flies (Cheilosia species were the major floral visitors observed.

  2. What shapes amino acid and sugar composition in Mediterranean floral nectars?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petanidou, T.; Van Laere, A.; Ellis, W.; Smets, E.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the amino acid (AA) composition of the floral nectars of 73 plant species occurring in a phryganic (East Mediterranean garrigue) community and investigated whether AA and sugar composition is shaped by evolutionary (plant phylogeny), ecological (flowering time as a direct effect of summer

  3. Floral diversity in the wetlands of Ibeju-Lekki Area, Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Site A has the highest number of species (35), Simpson's, Shannon-Wienners and Margalef index values of 0.9385, 3.057 and 5.225 respectively. The sites ... The high floral diversity found in the undisturbed site (site C) indicates that the wetlands are correlated with their functions in biodiversity and other indirect benefits.

  4. Genetic control of floral morph in tristylous Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S

    2008-01-01

    Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16) tristylous aquatic perennial. Populations usually contain 3 floral morphs that differ reciprocally in style length and anther height (referred to as the long-, mid-, and short-styled morphs, hereafter L-, M-, and S-morphs). The floral polymorphism promotes disassortative mating among the 3 floral morphs and is maintained in populations by negative frequency-dependent selection. The objective of this study was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling floral morph in pickerelweed. Three parental lines (one each of the L-, M-, and S-morph) were used to create S1 and F1 populations. F2 populations were produced through self-pollination of F1 plants. Progeny ratios of S1, F1, and F2 generations revealed that tristyly is controlled by 2 diallelic loci (S and M) with dominant gene action. The S locus is epistatic to the M locus, with the S-morph produced by plants with the dominant S allele (genotype S _ _ _). Plants with recessive alleles at the S locus were either L-morph (ssmm) or M-morph (ssM_). The results of this experiment demonstrate that the inheritance of tristyly in pickerelweed is the same as previously reported for several tristylous species in the Lythraceae and Oxalidaceae.

  5. Selection by pollinators on floral traits in generalized Trollius ranunculoides (Ranunculaceae along altitudinal gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Zhao

    Full Text Available Abundance and visitation of pollinator assemblages tend to decrease with altitude, leading to an increase in pollen limitation. Thus increased competition for pollinators may generate stronger selection on attractive traits of flowers at high elevations and cause floral adaptive evolution. Few studies have related geographically variable selection from pollinators and intraspecific floral differentiation. We investigated the variation of Trollius ranunculoides flowers and its pollinators along an altitudinal gradient on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and measured phenotypic selection by pollinators on floral traits across populations. The results showed significant decline of visitation rate of bees along altitudinal gradients, while flies was unchanged. When fitness is estimated by the visitation rate rather than the seed number per plant, phenotypic selection on the sepal length and width shows a significant correlation between the selection strength and the altitude, with stronger selection at higher altitudes. However, significant decreases in the sepal length and width of T. ranunculoides along the altitudinal gradient did not correspond to stronger selection of pollinators. In contrast to the pollinator visitation, mean annual precipitation negatively affected the sepal length and width, and contributed more to geographical variation in measured floral traits than the visitation rate of pollinators. Therefore, the sepal size may have been influenced by conflicting selection pressures from biotic and abiotic selective agents. This study supports the hypothesis that lower pollinator availability at high altitude can intensify selection on flower attractive traits, but abiotic selection is preventing a response to selection from pollinators.

  6. Abiotic conditions affect floral antagonists and mutualists of Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper Gorden, Nicole L; Adler, Lynn S

    2013-04-01

    While the effect of abiotic factors on leaf herbivory is well known, the relative importance of abiotic conditions influencing both mutualists and antagonists is less well understood. Species interactions could enhance or reduce the direct effects of abiotic factors, depending on how mutualists and antagonists respond to abiotic conditions. We manipulated soil nutrients and shade in a factorial design and measured soil moisture in the annual Impatiens capensis. We then measured interactions with mutualists (two pollinating species) and antagonists (herbivores, florivores, nectar thieves, and flower bud gallers), as well as plant growth, floral rewards, and plant reproduction. Fertilizer increased plant growth, floral attractiveness, mutualist and antagonist interactions, and plant reproduction. Shade had no effects, and soil moisture was negatively associated with plant growth and reproduction. All effects were additive. Mutualist and antagonist floral interactions both increased on fertilized plants, but antagonists increased at a greater rate, leading to a larger ratio of antagonist to mutualist interactions on fertilized plants. Despite having more antagonists, fertilized plants still had significantly higher reproduction, suggesting higher tolerance to antagonists. Abiotic effects can have consistent effects on antagonists and mutualists, and on both floral and leaf antagonists. However, tolerance to antagonisms increased in favorable conditions. Thus, the direct positive effects of favorable abiotic conditions on plants outweighed negative indirect effects via increased antagonisms, which may lead to selection to grow in high-nutrient microsites in spite of increased herbivory.

  7. Regulation of Floral Terpenoid Emission and Biosynthesis in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifan; Ye, Jiayan; Li, Shuai; Niinemets, Ülo

    2018-01-01

    Past studies have focused on the composition of essential oil of Ocimum basilicum leaves, but data on composition and regulation of its aerial emissions, especially floral volatile emissions are scarce. We studied the chemical profile, within-flower spatial distribution (sepals, petals, pistils with stamina and pedicels), diurnal emission kinetics and effects of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) application on the emission of floral volatiles by dynamic headspace collection and identification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). We observed more abundant floral emissions from flowers compared with leaves. Sepals were the main emitters of floral volatiles among the flower parts studied. The emissions of lipoxygenase compounds (LOX) and monoterpenoids, but not sesquiterpene emissions, displayed a diurnal variation driven by light. Response to exogenous MeJA treatment of flowers consisted of a rapid stress response and a longer-term acclimation response. The initial response was associated with enhanced emissions of fatty acid derivatives, monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoids without variation of the composition of individual compounds. The longer-term response was associated with enhanced monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid emissions with profound changes in the emission spectrum. According to correlated patterns of terpenoid emission changes upon stress, highlighted by a hierarchical cluster analysis, candidate terpenoid synthases responsible for observed diversity and complexity of released terpenoid blends were postulated. We conclude that flower volatile emissions differ quantitatively and qualitatively from leaf emissions, and overall contribute importantly to O. basilicum flavor, especially under stress conditions. PMID:29367803

  8. Genetic variation of inbreeding depression among floral and fitness traits in Silene nutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude and variation of inbreeding depression (ID) within populations is important for the evolution and maintenance of mixed mating systems. We studied ID and its genetic variation in a range of floral and fitness traits in a small and large population of the perennial herb Silene nutans,...

  9. Aphid Sex Pheromone Compounds Interfere with Attraction of Common Green Lacewings to Floral Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Tóth, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Common green lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea complex) form a group of generalist predators important for biological control. Several reports show attraction of these insects to plant volatiles, and a highly attractive ternary compound floral bait has been developed. With aphids being a preferred prey of larvae, one might expect these lacewings to be attracted to aphid semiochemicals, for instance, to aphid sex pheromones, as found for several other green lacewing species. However, in a previous study, we found that traps containing aphid sex pheromone compounds (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol (NEPOH), (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone (NEPONE), and a ternary floral bait attracted fewer individuals than those containing the ternary floral bait alone. In the present study, possible causes for this effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on trap capture were studied. We established that C. carnea complex catches in traps with a ternary floral lure were not influenced by the presence of Chrysopa formosa individuals in traps (attracted by NEPOH and NEPONE) or by synthetic skatole (a characteristic component of Chrysopa defense secretion). A direct negative effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on attraction of C. carnea complex was found, suggesting active avoidance of these aphid sex pheromone components. This finding is surprising as the larvae of these lacewings prey preferentially on aphids. Possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed.

  10. Minor modifications in agricultural landscapes for promoting biodiversity through floral provisioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing interest in IPM programs and habitat management to combat the decline in diversity of beneficial arthropods in agricultural landscapes caused by habitat simplification and intensive management practices. Addition of floral resources to the landscape can help offset these effects. We...

  11. Extraction optimization and characterization of water soluble red purple pigment from floral bracts of Bougainvillea glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Narayan Amit Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, natural dyes and pigments gain more importance in food and textile industries because of their non toxic and eco friendly characteristics. Bougainvillea glabra floral bracts are rich in betalain pigments which can be used as a dye in sensitized solar cells, medicinal and food applications. The aim of this study was to optimize the natural pigment extraction from the floral bracts by response surface methodology. Central composite design (CCD of response surface methodology (RSM was applied to evaluate the optimal conditions of three process variables namely mass of floral bracts (g, extraction time (h and temperature (°C studied at five levels. Mass of bracts and extraction time were found statistically significant in the process and correlation coefficient (R2 value of 0.96 showed that model was well fitted with the experimental values. The optimum process conditions were found to be mass of floral bracts: 3 g, contact time: 6 h and extraction temperature: 22.5 °C with maximum absorbance of 9.18. Response surface methodology was performed well to identify the optimal levels of extraction process variables and the validation of predicted model was fitted 99.76% with the experimental results conducted at the optimum conditions. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was also confirmed the presence of betalain pigment by identifying the major functional groups.

  12. Evolution of resistance to single and combined floral phytochemicals by a bumble bee parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Young, E C; Sadd, B M; Adler, L S

    2017-02-01

    Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defence against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multicompound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over 6 weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure. Resistance of C. bombi increased under single and combined phytochemical exposure, without any associated costs of reduced growth under phytochemical-free conditions. After 6 weeks' exposure, phytochemical concentrations that initially inhibited growth by > 50%, and exceeded concentrations in floral nectar, had minimal effects on evolved parasite lines. Unexpectedly, the phytochemical combination did not impede resistance evolution compared to single compounds. These results demonstrate that repeated phytochemical exposure, which could occur in homogeneous floral landscapes or with therapeutic phytochemical treatment of managed hives, can cause rapid evolution of resistance in pollinator parasites. We discuss possible explanations for submaximal phytochemical resistance in natural populations. Evolved resistance could diminish the antiparasitic value of phytochemical ingestion, weakening an important natural defence against infection. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Effect of floral bud reduction on flower longevity in Asiatic hybrids lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Muisers, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Floral bud abortion was found to be an undesirable source of non-genetic variation in breeding trials directed on the improvement of individual flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies. It increased the longevity of the remaining flowers of the inflorescence. A similar response was found after

  14. Floral biology and the effects of plant-pollinator interaction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology and patterns of plant-pollinator interaction are fundamental to gene flow, diversity and evolutionary success of plants. Consequently, we examined the magnitude of insect-plant interaction based on the dynamics of breeding systems and floral biology and their effects on pollination intensity, fruit and ...

  15. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  16. Floral resources and habitat affect the composition of hummingbirds at the local scale in tropical mountaintops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbird communities tend to respond to variation in resources, having a positive relationship between abundance and diversity of food resources and the abundance and/or diversity of hummingbirds. Here we examined the influence of floral resource availability, as well as seasonality and type of habitat on the composition of hummingbird species. The study was carried out in two habitats of eastern Brazilian mountaintops. A gradient representative of the structure of hummingbird community, based on species composition, was obtained by the ordination of samples using the method of non-metric multidimensional scaling. The composition of hummingbird species was influenced by the type of habitat and floral resource availability, but not by seasonality. Hummingbird communities differ between habitats mainly due to the relative abundance of hummingbird species. The variation in composition of hummingbird species with the variation in floral resource availability may be related to differences in feeding habits of hummingbirds. Hummingbird species with the longest bills visited higher proportions of ornithophilous species, while hummingbirds with shorter bills visited higher proportions of non-ornithophilous species. The results demonstrate that at local-scale the composition of hummingbird species is affected by the type of habitat and floral resources availability, but not by seasonality.

  17. Supporting crop pollinators with floral resources: network-based phenological matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura; Debarros, Nelson; Yang, Suann; Shea, Katriona; Mortensen, David

    2013-09-01

    The production of diverse and affordable agricultural crop species depends on pollination services provided by bees. Indeed, the proportion of pollinator-dependent crops is increasing globally. Agriculture relies heavily on the domesticated honeybee; the services provided by this single species are under threat and becoming increasingly costly. Importantly, the free pollination services provided by diverse wild bee communities have been shown to be sufficient for high agricultural yields in some systems. However, stable, functional wild bee communities require floral resources, such as pollen and nectar, throughout their active season, not just when crop species are in flower. To target floral provisioning efforts to conserve and support native and managed bee species, we apply network theoretical methods incorporating plant and pollinator phenologies. Using a two-year dataset comprising interactions between bees (superfamily Apoidea, Anthophila) and 25 native perennial plant species in floral provisioning habitat, we identify plant and bee species that provide a key and central role to the stability of the structure of this community. We also examine three specific case studies: how provisioning habitat can provide temporally continuous support for honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus impatiens), and how resource supplementation strategies might be designed for a single genus of important orchard pollinators (Osmia). This framework could be used to provide native bee communities with additional, well-targeted floral resources to ensure that they not only survive, but also thrive.

  18. Expression of heterosis in floral traits and fruit size in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A modified three way cross between the advanced generation of the tomato hybrids and an exotic variety with giant fruit size was initiated. The resulting hybrids were evaluated to determine the magnitude of heterosis in floral traits and fruit size. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes in all the ...

  19. Temporal stability of pollinator preference in an alpine plant community and its implications for the evolution of floral traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yan-Bing; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2011-07-01

    A traditional view of diverse floral traits is that they reflect differences in foraging preferences of pollinators. The role of pollinators in the evolution of floral traits has been questioned recently by broad community surveys, especially studies concerning variation in pollinator assemblages and visitation frequency, which suggest a diminished role of pollinators in floral evolution. Here, we investigate the relationships between six categories of floral traits of 29 species and 10 pollinator functional groups in an alpine meadow in the Hengduan Mountains of China, over three consecutive years. Simpson's diversity index was used to estimate the level of pollinator generalization of each plant species by considering both pollinator groups and their relative visitation frequencies. Multivariate analyses indicated that eight of the ten pollinator groups showed constant preferences for at least two floral traits, leading to a relatively stable level of ecological generalization for most floral traits (two out of three categories), despite the fact that the level of generalization of the entire community varied across years. Shape preferences of butterflies, honeybees and beeflies varied such that open flowers exhibited a lower level of ecological generalization in 2007 than closed flowers, in contrast with the other 2 years. These results suggest that temporally stabilized preferences of diverse pollinators may contribute to the evolution of specialized versus generalized floral traits; however, their role may be moderated by variation in community structure, including both the composition and abundance of plants and pollinators.

  20. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  1. Positive selection and ancient duplications in the evolution of class B floral homeotic genes of orchids and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana; Hiese, Luisa; Härter, Andrea; Koch, Marcus A; Theißen, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Background Positive selection is recognized as the prevalence of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions in a gene. Models of the functional evolution of duplicated genes consider neofunctionalization as key to the retention of paralogues. For instance, duplicate transcription factors are specifically retained in plant and animal genomes and both positive selection and transcriptional divergence appear to have played a role in their diversification. However, the relative impact of these two factors has not been systematically evaluated. Class B MADS-box genes, comprising DEF-like and GLO-like genes, encode developmental transcription factors essential for establishment of perianth and male organ identity in the flowers of angiosperms. Here, we contrast the role of positive selection and the known divergence in expression patterns of genes encoding class B-like MADS-box transcription factors from monocots, with emphasis on the family Orchidaceae and the order Poales. Although in the monocots these two groups are highly diverse and have a strongly canalized floral morphology, there is no information on the role of positive selection in the evolution of their distinctive flower morphologies. Published research shows that in Poales, class B-like genes are expressed in stamens and in lodicules, the perianth organs whose identity might also be specified by class B-like genes, like the identity of the inner tepals of their lily-like relatives. In orchids, however, the number and pattern of expression of class B-like genes have greatly diverged. Results The DEF-like genes from Orchidaceae form four well-supported, ancient clades of orthologues. In contrast, orchid GLO-like genes form a single clade of ancient orthologues and recent paralogues. DEF-like genes from orchid clade 2 (OMADS3-like genes) are under less stringent purifying selection than the other orchid DEF-like and GLO-like genes. In comparison with orchids, purifying selection was less stringent in DEF

  2. Genetic architecture of male floral traits required for hybrid wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeven, Philipp H G; Longin, C Friedrich H; Leiser, Willmar L; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Würschum, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    This study revealed a complex genetic architecture of male floral traits in wheat, and Rht-D1 was identified as the only major QTL. Genome-wide prediction approaches but also phenotypic recurrent selection appear promising to increase outcrossing ability required for hybrid wheat seed production. Hybrid wheat breeding is a promising approach to increase grain yield and yield stability. However, the identification of lines with favorable male floral characteristics required for hybrid seed production currently poses a severe bottleneck for hybrid wheat breeding. This study therefore aimed to unravel the genetic architecture of floral traits and to assess the potential of genomic approaches to accelerate their improvement. To this end, we employed a panel of 209 diverse winter wheat lines assessed for male floral traits and genotyped with genome-wide markers as well as for Rht-B1 and Rht-D1. We found the highest proportion of explained genotypic variance for the Rht-D1 locus (11-24 %), for which the dwarfing allele Rht-D1b had a negative effect on anther extrusion, visual anther extrusion and pollen mass. The genome-wide scan detected only few QTL with small or medium effects, indicating a complex genetic architecture. Consequently, marker-assisted selection yielded only moderate prediction abilities (0.44-0.63), mainly relying on Rht-D1. Genomic selection based on weighted ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction achieved higher prediction abilities of up to 0.70 for anther extrusion. In conclusion, recurrent phenotypic selection appears most cost-effective for the initial improvement of floral traits in wheat, while genome-wide prediction approaches may be worthwhile when complete marker profiles are already available in a hybrid wheat breeding program.

  3. Evolution of pollination niches and floral divergence in the generalist plant Erysimum mediohispanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J M; Muñoz-Pajares, A J; Abdelaziz, M; Lorite, J; Perfectti, F

    2014-01-01

    How generalist plants diverge in response to pollinator selection without becoming specialized is still unknown. This study explores this question, focusing on the evolution of the pollination system in the pollination generalist Erysimum mediohispanicum (Brassicaceae). Pollinator assemblages were surveyed from 2001 to 2010 in 48 geo-referenced populations covering the entire geographic distribution of E. mediohispanicum. Bipartite modularity, a complex network tool, was used to find the pollination niche of each population. Evolution of the pollination niches and the correlated evolution of floral traits and pollination niches were explored using within-species comparative analyses. Despite being generalists, the E. mediohispanicum populations studied can be classified into five pollination niches. The boundaries between niches were not sharp, the niches differing among them in the relative frequencies of the floral visitor functional groups. The absence of spatial autocorrelation and phylogenetic signal indicates that the niches were distributed in a phylogeographic mosaic. The ancestral E. mediohispanicum populations presumably belonged to the niche defined by a high number of beetle and ant visits. A correlated evolution was found between pollination niches and some floral traits, suggesting the existence of generalist pollination ecotypes. It is conjectured that the geographic variation in pollination niches has contributed to the observed floral divergence in E. mediohispanicum. The process mediating this floral divergence presumably has been adaptive wandering, but the adaptation to the local pollinator faunas has been not universal. The outcome is a landscape where a few populations locally adapted to their pollination environment (generalist pollination ecotypes) coexist with many populations where this local adaptation has failed and where the plant phenotype is not primarily shaped by pollinators.

  4. Floral scent and species divergence in a pair of sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Daniel D L; Selosse, Marc-Andre; Sauve, Mathieu; Francke, Wittko; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P

    2017-08-01

    Speciation is typically accompanied by the formation of isolation barriers between lineages. Commonly, reproductive barriers are separated into pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms that can evolve with different speed. In this study, we measured the strength of different reproductive barriers in two closely related, sympatric orchids of the Ophrys insectifera group, namely Ophrys insectifera and Ophrys aymoninii to infer possible mechanisms of speciation. We quantified pre- and post-pollination barriers through observation of pollen flow, by performing artificial inter- and intraspecific crosses and analyzing scent bouquets. Additionally, we investigated differences in mycorrhizal fungi as a potential extrinsic factor of post-zygotic isolation. Our results show that floral isolation mediated by the attraction of different pollinators acts apparently as the sole reproductive barrier between the two orchid species, with later-acting intrinsic barriers seemingly absent. Also, the two orchids share most of their fungal mycorrhizal partners in sympatry, suggesting little or no importance of mycorrhizal symbiosis in reproductive isolation. Key traits underlying floral isolation were two alkenes and wax ester, present predominantly in the floral scent of O. aymoninii . These compounds, when applied to flowers of O. insectifera , triggered attraction and a copulation attempt of the bee pollinator of O. aymoninii and thus led to the (partial) breakdown of floral isolation. Based on our results, we suggest that adaptation to different pollinators, mediated by floral scent, underlies species isolation in this plant group. Pollinator switches may be promoted by low pollination success of individuals in dense patches of plants, an assumption that we also confirmed in our study.

  5. Historical nectar assessment reveals the fall and rise of floral resources in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, Mathilde; Kunin, William E.; Boatman, Nigel D.; Conyers, Simon; Davies, Nancy; Gillespie, Mark A. K.; Morton, R. Daniel; Smart, Simon M.; Memmott, Jane

    2016-02-01

    There is considerable concern over declines in insect pollinator communities and potential impacts on the pollination of crops and wildflowers. Among the multiple pressures facing pollinators, decreasing floral resources due to habitat loss and degradation has been suggested as a key contributing factor. However, a lack of quantitative data has hampered testing for historical changes in floral resources. Here we show that overall floral rewards can be estimated at a national scale by combining vegetation surveys and direct nectar measurements. We find evidence for substantial losses in nectar resources in England and Wales between the 1930s and 1970s; however, total nectar provision in Great Britain as a whole had stabilized by 1978, and increased from 1998 to 2007. These findings concur with trends in pollinator diversity, which declined in the mid-twentieth century but stabilized more recently. The diversity of nectar sources declined from 1978 to 1990 and thereafter in some habitats, with four plant species accounting for over 50% of national nectar provision in 2007. Calcareous grassland, broadleaved woodland and neutral grassland are the habitats that produce the greatest amount of nectar per unit area from the most diverse sources, whereas arable land is the poorest with respect to amount of nectar per unit area and diversity of nectar sources. Although agri-environment schemes add resources to arable landscapes, their national contribution is low. Owing to their large area, improved grasslands could add substantially to national nectar provision if they were managed to increase floral resource provision. This national-scale assessment of floral resource provision affords new insights into the links between plant and pollinator declines, and offers considerable opportunities for conservation.

  6. Transitions from distyly to homostyly are associated with floral evolution in the buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-Yun; Wang, Bo; Schoen, Daniel J; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2017-08-08

    Documenting trait transitions among species with dimorphic flowers can help to test whether similar patterns of selection are responsible for divergence in floral traits among different species. Heterostyly is thought to promote outcrossing. Theory suggests that the evolutionary transition from heterostylous to homostylous flowers should be accompanied by a reduction in floral size in which pollen size and style length are expected to covary. Patterns of such correlated floral trait evolution have not, however, been widely examined. The evolutionary history of heterostyly and homostyly was reconstructed from a molecular phylogeny of 13 species of Fagopyrum and two outgroups, based on one nuclear gene (nrITS) and three chloroplast regions ( matK , atpB-rbcL , and psbA-trnH spacer). Floral traits of nine Fagopyrum species including pollen number and size, as well as stigma depth (length of the capitate stigma), were measured and ancestral characters of the herkogamic condition were reconstructed. Three transitions from distyly to homostyly were observed. In two transitions, flower size (corolla diameter, pedicel length), herkogamy (stigma-anther distance) and pollen production decreased, but stigma depth and pollen size did not. Changes of anther height and style length were inconsistent. The predicted positive relationship between style length and pollen size in the two transitions to homostyly was not observed. Floral evolution accompanying transitions to homostyly in Fagopyrum were found to be consistent with predictions of mating system evolution theory, and the correlation of traits in distylous vs. homostylous species revealed that pollen size generally correlates with stigma depth rather than style length. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Pollinator Competition as a Driver of Floral Divergence: An Experimental Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan J Temeles

    Full Text Available Optimal foraging models of floral divergence predict that competition between two different types of pollinators will result in partitioning, increased assortative mating, and divergence of two floral phenotypes. We tested these predictions in a tropical plant-pollinator system using sexes of purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Anthracothorax jugularis as the pollinators, red and yellow inflorescence morphs of Heliconia caribaea as the plants, and fluorescent dyes as pollen analogs in an enclosed outdoor garden. When foraging alone, males exhibited a significant preference for the yellow morph of H. caribaea, whereas females exhibited no preference. In competition, males maintained their preference for the yellow morph and through aggression caused females to over-visit the red morph, resulting in resource partitioning. Competition significantly increased within-morph dye transfer (assortative mating relative to non-competitive environments. Competition and partitioning of color morphs by sexes of purple-throated caribs also resulted in selection for floral divergence as measured by dye deposition on stigmas. Red and yellow morphs did not differ significantly in dye deposition in the competition trials, but differences in dye deposition and preferences for morphs when sexes of purple-throated caribs foraged alone implied fixation of one or the other color morph in the absence of competition. Competition also resulted in selection for divergence in corolla length, with the red morph experiencing directional selection for longer corollas and the yellow morph experiencing stabilizing selection on corolla length. Our results thus support predictions of foraging models of floral divergence and indicate that pollinator competition is a viable mechanism for divergence in floral traits of plants.

  8. Selective mutism and abnormal electroencephalography (EEG) tracings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Keren; Kivity, Sara; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Halevi, Ayelet; Shuper, Avinoam

    2011-11-01

    Epileptic discharges are not considered a part of the clinical picture of selective mutism, and electroencephalography is generally not recommended in its work-up. This report describes 6 children with selective mutism who were found to have a history of epilepsy and abnormal interictal or subclinical electroencephalography recordings. Two of them had benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes. The mutism was not related in time to the presence of active seizures. While seizures could be controlled in all children by medications, the mutism resolved only in 1. Although the discharges could be coincidental, they might represent a co-morbidity of selective mutism or even play a role in its pathogenesis. Selective mutism should be listed among the psychiatric disorders that may be associated with electroencephalographic abnormalities. It can probably be regarded as a symptom of a more complicated organic brain disorder.

  9. Haematological abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, Aamer; Al Arfaj, Abdurahman Saud; khalil, Najma; Alarfaj, Husain

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency and pattern of haematological abnormalities (HA) in SLE patients at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, and their relationship with organ involvement. This retrospective study included patients who were diagnosed and treated for SLE from 1982 to 2008 at King Khalid University hospital, Riyadh. Demographic and haematological parameters at diagnosis and the last follow-up, disease manifestations, organ involvement and clinical hematological complications were recorded. Association of HA with organ involvement was explored by multivariate analysis. A total of 624 patients (90.7% females, mean age 34.3±11.9 years) were studied. HA were present in 516 (82.7 %) patients at the time of diagnosis. Anemia was the most frequent HA in 63.0% patients followed by lymphopenia in 40.3%, leukopenia in 30.0%, thrombocytopenia in 10.9% and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in 4.6% patients. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were diagnosed in 7.4% and 2.6% patients respectively. After a mean follow-up of 9.3±5.3 years, 329/491 (67%) patients still had some HA present. Anemia remained the most common abnormality (51.7% patients) followed by lymphopenia in 33.1%, and thrombocytopenia in 4.8% patients. Leucopenia was associated with oral ulcers (p=0.021) and alopecia (p=0.031), anemia with renal disease (p=0.017), AIHA with neurological involvement (p=0.003), elevated IgG with malar rash (p=0.027), and low C3 with serositis (p=0.026). HA are very common at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up in SLE, and some of these abnormalities are associated with organ damage. This information may help in better management planning of SLE patients.

  10. EL ÁCIDO ABSCÍSICO ACELERA EL DESARROLLO FLORAL DE SOLIDAGO EN DÍAS CORTOS ABSCISIC ACID SPEED UP FLORAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOLIDAGO UNDER SHORT DAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Julio Flórez Roncancio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus (M. L. Greene Broulliet y Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus es una planta que responde a días cortos (DC para el desarrollo floral. En este proceso se ha establecido la participación de varias fitohormonas, entre éstas, la presencia del ácido abscísico (ABA en zonas y periodos específicos durante el desarrollo de la flor lo cual sugiere su acción promotora en la velocidad de antesis floral de esta especie en DC. En este trabajo se buscaron nuevos indicios de la participación de fitohormonas presentes en la fracción ácida con el proceso de floración. En una primera etapa, extractos foliares provenientes de hojas de plantas en días largos (caracterizadas por menor velocidad de antesis floral se aplicaron en botones florales de plantas en días cortos (caracterizadas por una mayor velocidad de antesis floral. Se realizaron ocho aplicaciones con diferentes frecuencias totalizando un periodo de tratamiento de 25 días. Los resultados mostraron que las sustancias presentes en los extractos de la fracción ácida, no alteran la velocidad promedio de antesis floral en los botones florales de plantas en DC. En la segunda etapa del experimento, la cuantificación de los extractos por ELISA, permitió establecer una mayor concentración de ABA en los extractos de hojas y de botones florales de plantas en DC y de botones florales en el inicio del tratamiento. Estos resultados confirman la relación del ABA con la mayor velocidad de antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus en condiciones de DC.Solidago x luteus (M.L. Greene Broulliet & Semple (= x Solidaster hybridus, x S. luteus is a plant that respond to short days (SD for flower development. In this process, there has been established the involvement of many phytohormones, between these, the presence of the abscisic acid (ABA in zones and specific periods during flower development, suggests its promoter roll on the floral anthesis period of this species under

  11. Somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Palmer, Shea; Learmonth, Ian D; Dieppe, Paul

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to explore the range and prevalence of somatosensory abnormalities demonstrated by patients with advanced knee OA. One hundred and seven knee OA patients and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy participants attended a 1-h QST session. Testing was performed on the medial side of the knee and the pain-free forearm. Light-touch thresholds were assessed using von Frey filaments, pressure pain thresholds using a digital pressure algometer, and thermal sensation and pain thresholds using a Thermotest MSA. Significant differences in median threshold values from knee OA patients and healthy participants were identified using Mann-Whitney U-tests. The z-score transformations were used to determine the prevalence of the different somatosensory abnormalities in knee OA patients. Testing identified 70% of knee OA patients as having at least one somatosensory abnormality. Comparison of median threshold values between knee OA patients and healthy participants revealed that patients had localized thermal and tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia at the osteoarthritic knee. Tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia were also present at the pain-free forearm. The most prevalent somatosensory abnormalities were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia, evident in between 20 and 34% of patients. This study found that OA patients demonstrate an array of somatosensory abnormalities, of which the most prevalent were tactile hypoaesthesia and pressure hyperalgesia. Further research is now needed to establish the clinical implications of these somatosensory abnormalities.

  12. Aspectos de biologia floral de cajueiros anão precoce e comum Floral biology aspects of the early dwarf and common cashew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Barbosa de Sousa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da biologia floral é de suma importância para o desenvolvimento da cultura do cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.. Com relação aos aspectos botânicos, as características morfológicas das flores contribuíram efetivamente para a determinação das espécies do gênero Anacarduim conhecidas. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar a biologia floral dos cajueiros anão precoce e comum. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Piauí, em Teresina, PI, avaliando-se nove clones de cajueiro anão ("CAP 14", "Embrapa 09", "Embrapa 50", "Embrapa 51", "Embrapa 76", "Embrapa 183", "Embrapa 189", "FAGA 01", "FAGA 11" e um clone de cajueiro comum ("CCA", utilizando-se quatro panículas por planta, cada uma com orientação norte, sul, leste e oeste. Os tipos varietais, cajueiro comum e anão precoce, apresentam pouca variação para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados. A proporção entre flores hermafroditas e o total de flores, em cajueiro comum, pode levá-lo a uma maior produção de frutos por panícula do que nos clones de cajueiro anão precoce analisados. O número de frutos desenvolvidos é bastante reduzido nos dois tipos varietais. As panículas situadas em diferentes orientações cardeais são semelhantes em todos os clones estudados quanto aos aspectos relacionados à biologia floral do cajueiro.The knowledge of the floral biology is very important for the development of the cashew's culture (Anacardium occidentale L.. In relation to botanical aspects, the morphological characteristics of flowers contributed effective to determination of the well-known species of Anacardium. It was aimed at studing the floral biology of the early dwarf and common cashew. The research was developed in the experimental area of the Department of Fitotecnia, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal do Piauí, in Teresina, PI, and nine

  13. Influence of genotype, floral stage, and water stress on floral nectar yield and composition of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Michael J; Revell, Maria; Noe, Stevie; Manley-Harris, Merilyn

    2018-03-05

    Floral nectar can be variable in composition, influencing pollinator behaviour and the composition of honey derived from it. The non-peroxide antibacterial activity of mānuka (Leptospermum scoparium, Myrtaceae) honey results from the chemical conversion of the triose sugar dihydroxyacetone (DHA), after DHA accumulates for an unknown reason in the nectar. This study examined variation in nectar DHA, glucose, fructose and sucrose content with floral stage of development, between mānuka genotypes with differing flower morphology, and in response to water stress. Six mānuka genotypes were grown without nectar-feeding insects. Stages of flower development were defined, nectar was harvested and its composition was compared between stages and genotypes, and with floral morphology. Water stress was imposed and its effect on nectar composition was examined. Nectar was present from soon after flower opening until the end of petal abscission, with the quantity of accumulated nectar sugars rising, then stabilizing or falling, indicating nectar secretion followed by reabsorption in some genotypes. The quantity of DHA, the ratio of DHA to other nectar sugars and the fructose to glucose ratio also varied with stage of development, indicating differences in rates of production and reabsorption between nectar components. Nectar composition and yield per flower also differed between genotypes, although neither was positively related to nectary area or stomatal density. Drying soil had no effect on nectar composition or yield, but variation in nectar yield was correlated with temperature prior to nectar sampling. Mānuka nectar yield and composition are strongly influenced by plant genotype, flower age and the environment. There were clear stoichiometric relationships between glucose, fructose and sucrose per flower, but DHA per flower was only weakly correlated with the amount of other sugars, suggesting that accumulation of the triose sugar is indirectly coupled to secretion of

  14. Floral Initiation in Response to Planting Date Reveals the Key Role of Floral Meristem Differentiation Prior to Budding in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaofeng; Zhang, Dongqing; Yu, Huasheng; Lin, Baogang; Fu, Ying; Hua, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus, floral development is a decisive factor in silique formation, and it is influenced by many cultivation practices including planting date. However, the effect of planting date on floral initiation in canola is poorly understood at present. A field experiment was conducted using a split plot design, in which three planting dates (early, 15 September, middle, 1 October, and late, 15 October) served as main plot and five varieties differing in maturity (1358, J22, Zhongshuang 11, Zheshuang 8, and Zheyou 50) employed as subplot. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the process of floral meristem (FM) differentiation, the influence of planting date on growth period (GP) and floral initiation, and silique formation. The main stages of FM developments can be divided into four stages: first, the transition from shoot apical meristem to FM; second, flower initiation; third, gynoecium and androecium differentiation; and fourth, bud formation. Our results showed that all genotypes had increased GPs from sowing to FM differentiation as planting date was delayed while the GPs from FM differentiation to budding varied year by year except the very early variety, 1358. Based on the number of flowers present at the different reproductive stages, the flowers produced from FM differentiation to budding closely approximated the final silique even though the FM differentiated continuously after budding and peaked generally at the middle flowering stage. The ratio of siliques to maximum flower number ranged from 48 to 80%. These results suggest that (1) the period from FM differentiation to budding is vital for effective flower and silique formation although there was no significant correlation between the length of the period and effective flowers and siliques, and (2) the increased number of flowers from budding were generally ineffective. Therefore, maximizing flower numbers prior to budding will improve silique numbers, and reducing FM degeneration should

  15. Floral development of Berberidopsis corallina: a crucial link in the evolution of flowers in the core Eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronse DE Craene, Louis P

    2004-11-01

    On the basis of molecular evidence Berberidopsidaceae have been linked with Aextoxicaceae in an order Berberidopsidales at the base of the core Eudicots. The floral development of Berberidopsis is central to the understanding of the evolution of floral configurations at the transition of the basal Eudicots to the core Eudicots. It lies at the transition of trimerous or dimerous, simplified apetalous forms into pentamerous, petaliferous flowers. The floral ontogeny of Berberidopsis was studied with a scanning electron microscope. Flowers are grouped in terminal racemes with variable development. The relationship between the number of tepals, stamens and carpels is more or less fixed and floral initiation follows a strict 2/5 phyllotaxis. Two bracteoles, 12 tepals, eight stamens and three carpels are initiated in a regular sequence. The number of stamens can be increased by a doubling of stamen positions. The floral ontogeny of Berberidopsis provides support for the shift in floral bauplan from the basal Eudicots to the core Eudicots as a transition of a spiral flower with a 2/5 phyllotaxis to pentamerous flowers with two perianth whorls, two stamen whorls and a single carpel whorl. The differentiation of sepals and petals from bracteotepals is discussed and a comparison is made with other Eudicots with a similar configuration and development. Depending on the resolution of the relationships among the basalmost core Eudicots it is suggested that Berberidopsis either represents a critical stage in the evolution of pentamerous flowers of major clades of Eudicots, or has a floral prototype that may be at the base of evolution of flowers of other core Eudicots. The distribution of a floral Bauplan in other clades of Eudicots similar to Berberidopsidales is discussed.

  16. Floral development at multiple spatial scales in Polygonum jucundum (Polygonaceae), a distylous species with broadly open flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lan-Jie; Fu, Wen-Long; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Distyly, a special polymorph, has evolved in many groups of angiosperms and has attracted attention since Darwin's time. Development studies on distylous taxa have helped us to understand the evolutionary process of this polymorph, but most of these studies focus on species with narrowly tubular corolla. Here, we studied the floral development of Polygonum jucundum, a distylous species with broadly open flowers, at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the difference in stigma height between flowers of the two morphs was caused by differences in style growth throughout the entire floral development process. The observed difference in anther heights between the two morphs was because the filaments grew faster in short-styled (SS) than in long-styled (LS) flowers in the later stages of floral development. In addition, the longer styles in LS flowers than in SS flowers was because of faster cell division in the early stages of floral development. However, SS flowers had longer filaments than LS flowers primarily because of greater cell elongation. These results indicate that floral development in P. jucundum differs from that of distylous taxa with floral tubes shown in previous studies. Further, we conclude that the presence of distyly in species with open flowers is a result of convergent evolution.

  17. Diversification in Monkeyflowers: An Investigation of the Effects of Elevation and Floral Color in the Genus Mimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Ogutcen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast diversity of floral colours in many flowering plant families, paired with the observation of preferences among pollinators, suggests that floral colour may be involved in the process of speciation in flowering plants. While transitions in floral colour have been examined in numerous genera, we have very little information on the consequences of floral colour transitions to the evolutionary success of a clade. Overlaid upon these patterns is the possibility that certain floral colours are more prevalent in certain environments, with the causes of differential diversification being more directly determined by geographical distribution. Here we examine transition rates to anthocyanin + carotenoid rich (red/orange/fuschia flowers and examine whether red/orange flowers are associated with differences in speciation and/or extinction rates in Mimulus. Because it has been suggested that reddish flowers are more prevalent at high elevation, we also examine the macroevolutionary evidence for this association and determine if there is evidence for differential diversification at high elevations. We find that, while red/orange clades have equivalent speciation rates, the trait state of reddish flowers reverts more rapidly to the nonreddish trait state. Moreover, there is evidence for high speciation rates at high elevation and no evidence for transition rates in floral colour to differ depending on elevation.

  18. Local bumble bee decline linked to recovery of honey bees, drought effects on floral resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Diane M

    2016-10-01

    Time series of abundances are critical for understanding how abiotic factors and species interactions affect population dynamics, but are rarely linked with experiments and also scarce for bee pollinators. This gap is important given concerns about declines in some bee species. I monitored honey bee (Apis mellifera) and bumble bee (Bombus spp.) foragers in coastal California from 1999, when feral A. mellifera populations were low due to Varroa destructor, until 2014. Apis mellifera increased substantially, except between 2006 and 2011, coinciding with declines in managed populations. Increases in A. mellifera strongly correlated with declines in Bombus and reduced diet overlap between them, suggesting resource competition consistent with past experimental results. Lower Bombus numbers also correlated with diminished floral resources. Declines in floral abundances were associated with drought and reduced spring rainfall. These results illustrate how competition with an introduced species may interact with climate to drive local decline of native pollinators. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Caffeine in floral nectar enhances a pollinator’s memory of reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, G. A.; Baker, D. D.; Palmer, M. J.; Stabler, D.; Mustard, J. A.; Power, E. F.; Borland, A. M.; Stevenson, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant defence compounds occur in floral nectar, but their ecological role is not well-understood. We provide the first evidence that plant compounds pharmacologically alter pollinator behaviour by enhancing their memory of reward. Honeybees rewarded with caffeine, which occurs naturally in nectar of Coffea and Citrus species, were three times more likely to remember a learned floral scent than those rewarded with sucrose alone. Caffeine potentiated responses of mushroom body neurons involved in olfactory learning and memory by acting as an adenosine receptor antagonist. Caffeine concentrations in nectar never exceeded the bees’ bitter taste threshold, implying that pollinators impose selection for nectar that is pharmacologically active but not repellent. By using a drug to enhance memories of reward, plants secure pollinator fidelity and improve reproductive success. PMID:23471406

  20. Floral trait associations in hawkmoth-specialized and mixed pollination systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Ruben; Abrell, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Variation in floral traits including odor, color and morphology, demonstrate the selective pressures imposed by specific pollinator taxa, such as insects and birds. In southern Arizona, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) hawkmoths are associated with Datura wrightii (Solanaceae) at both the larval (herbivore) and adult (nectar feeding) stages. However during most of the summer Manduca feeds on “bat-adapted” Agave spp. (Agaveacea) flowers, and only use Datura when it is at peak bloom. Manduca's nectar-host use appears to be mediated through innate odor preferences and olfactory learning; they prefer Datura's “hawkmoth-adapted” traits, which facilitate the maintenance of their coevolutionary relationship, yet they are flexible enough to explore and learn to utilize novel resources, such as agave. This behavioral flexibility is likely responsible for the frequent observation of generalized, or mixed, pollination systems. Given that Manduca visit agave species in southern Arizona, we hypothesize that the differences in flower phenotype between two closely related agave species may be associated with the importance of hawkmoths relative to bats. The southernmost agave, Agave palmeri (Agavacea), exhibits floral traits typical of bat pollination, whereas the northernmost species, Agave chrysantha (Agavacea), exhibits mixed floral traits which appear to be adapted to insects, and to a lesser extent, bats. The differences between these agaves are likely correlated with the geographic overlap in migratory bats from Mexico and resident hawkmoth populations. Thus D. wrightii, A. palmeri and A. chrysantha populations represent a unique system in which to examine the evolution of floral traits in both specialized and mixed pollination systems associated with spatially variable pollinator assemblages. PMID:19704447

  1. Effects of floral display and plant abundance on fruit production of Ryncholaelia glauca (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Flores-Palacios; José G. García-Franco

    2003-01-01

    Flowering plant density can increase number of visits and fruit set in multi-flowering plants, however this aspect has not been studied on few flower species. We studied the effects of individual floral display and plant density on the fruit production of the epiphytic, moth-pollinated orchid, Ryncholaelia glauca, in an oak forest of Chavarrillo, Veracruz, Mexico. Species is nonautogamous, and produced one flower per flowering shoot each flowering season. We hypothesized that orchids with mor...

  2. A sexually dimorphic corolla appendage affects pollen removal and floral longevity in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Chang-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection.

  3. A sexually dimorphic corolla appendage affects pollen removal and floral longevity in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Niu

    Full Text Available The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection.

  4. Pollination syndromes in a specialised plant-pollinator interaction: does floral morphology predict pollinators in Calceolaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murúa, M; Espíndola, A

    2015-03-01

    Pollination syndromes are defined as suites of floral traits evolved in response to selection imposed by a particular group of pollinators (e.g., butterflies, hummingbirds, bats). Although numerous studies demonstrated their occurrence in plants pollinated by radically different pollinators, it is less known whether it is possible to identify them within species pollinated by one functional pollinator group. In such a framework, we expect floral traits to evolve also in response to pollinator subgroups (e.g., species, genera) within that unique functional group. On this, specialised pollination systems represent appropriate case studies to test such expectations. Calceolaria is a highly diversified plant genus pollinated by oil-collecting bees in genera Centris and Chalepogenus. Variation in floral traits in Calceolaria has recently been suggested to reflect adaptations to pollinator types. However, to date no study has explicitly tested that observation. In this paper, we quantitatively test that hypothesis by evaluating the presence of pollination syndromes within the specialised pollination system formed by several Calceolaria and their insect pollinators. To do so, we use multivariate approaches and explore the structural matching between the morphology of 10 Calceolaria taxa and that of their principal pollinators. Our results identify morphological matching between floral traits related to access to the reward and insect traits involved in oil collection, confirming the presence of pollinator syndromes in Calceolaria. From a general perspective, our findings indicate that the pollination syndrome concept can be also extended to the intra-pollinator group level. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Floral resource availability from groundcover promotes bee abundance in coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kaleigh; Gonthier, David J; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-09-01

    Patterns of bee abundance and diversity across different spatial scales have received thorough research consideration. However, the impact of short- and long-term temporal resource availability on biodiversity has been less explored. This is highly relevant in tropical agricultural systems for pollinators, as many foraging periods of pollinators extend beyond flowering of any single crop species. In this study, we sought to understand how bee communities in tropical agroecosystems changed between seasons, and if short- and long-term floral resource availability influenced their diversity and abundance. We used a threshold analysis approach in order to explore this relationship at two time scales. This study took place in a region dominated by coffee agroecosystems in Southern Mexico. This was an ideal system because the landscape offers a range of coffee management regimes that maintain heterogeneity in floral resource availability spatially and temporally. We found that the bee community varies significantly between seasons. There were higher abundances of native social, solitary and managed honey bees during the dry season when coffee flowers. Additionally, we found that floral resources from groundcover, but not trees, were associated with bee abundance. Further, the temporal scale of the availability of these resources is important, whereby short-term floral resource availability appears particularly important in maintaining high bee abundance at sites with lower seasonal complementarity. We argue that in addition to spatial resource heterogeneity, temporal resource heterogeneity is critical in explaining bee community patterns, and should thus be considered to promote pollinator conservation. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Floral transmission of Erwinia tracheiphila by cucumber beetles in a wild Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasu, M A; Seidl-Adams, I; Wall, K; Winsor, J A; Stephenson, A G

    2010-02-01

    Cucumber beetles, Acalymma vittatum (F.) and Diabrotica undecipunctata howardi (Barber), are specialist herbivores of cucurbits and the vector of Erwinia tracheiphila (E.F. Smith) Holland, the causative agent of wilt disease. Cucumber beetles transmit E. tracheiphila when infected frass falls onto leaf wounds at the site of beetle feeding. We show that E. tracheiphila also can be transmitted via the floral nectaries of Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana L. Andres (Texas gourd). Under field conditions, we found that beetles aggregate in flowers in the late morning, that these beetles chew the anther filaments that cover the nectaries in male flowers thereby exposing the nectary, and that beetle frass accumulates on the nectary. We use real-time polymerase chain reaction to show that most of the flowers produced during the late summer possess beetle frass containing E. tracheiphila. Greenhouse experiments, in which cultures of E. tracheiphila are deposited onto floral nectaries, show that Texas gourds can contract wilt disease through the floral nectaries. Finally, we use green fluorescent protein-transformed E. tracheiphila to document the movement of E. tracheiphila through the nectary into the xylem of the pedicel before the abscission of the flower. Together, these data show that E. tracheiphila can be transmitted through infected frass that falls on or near the floral nectaries. We hypothesize that the concentration of frass from many beetles in the flowers increases both exposure to and the concentration of E. tracheiphila and plays a major role in the dynamics of wilt disease in both wild populations and cultivated squash fields.

  7. Development of TGMS lines with improved floral traits through mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, K.; Abirami, S.; Robin, S.; Manonmani, S.; Jambhulkar, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Mutation breeding is now accepted as an useful means of adding valuable attributes to a variety. Plant breeders have used this tool for the improvement of some cultivated crop varieties. The current investigation is aimed to develop mutants with respect to temperature sensitivity and good floral traits for use in two line breeding. The putative Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile lines viz,, TS 6 and CBTS 0282 were subjected to induce mutagenesis with gamma rays (300 and 350 Gy) and EMS (0.5 and 0.6%) for developing new TGMS lines with desirable floral traits. The seeds treated with gamma ray and EMS were raised in M1 generation and seeds collected from this population were raised in M2 generation as plant to progeny rows for screening the best TGMS lines with desirable floral traits. In the M2 generation a total of 469 progeny rows of CBTS 0282 and 854 progeny rows of TS 6 were raised. A population of 128, 975 plants in CBTS 0282 and 1,28,100 plants in TS 6 were raised. In M2 generation 361 sterile, uniform stable individual plants with good stigma exertion percentage and wide angle of glume opening were selected and stubble planted at HREC, Gudalur, a low temperature region. At HREC, again the same screening process was carried out and 13 stubbles with excellent stigma exertion percentage were selected and their progenies were raised in M3 generation along with control and check IR 58025 A. A total of 63 sterile and stable M3 plants with good stigma exertion percentage wider angle of glume opening excelling over the check and control were identified and raised in M4 generation along with control and check IR 58025 A. In the M4 generation a total of 16 progeny rows were found to be uniform and homozygous with good floral traits. These lines can be utilized for developing new two line hybrids

  8. Floral micromorphology of the Australian carnivorous bladderwort Utricularia dunlopii, a putative pseudocopulatory species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Stpiczyńska, Małgorzata; Świątek, Piotr; Davies, Kevin L

    2016-11-01

    Flowers of sexually deceptive taxa generally possess a set of morphological and physiological characters that mimic their insect pollinators. These characters often include a specific insect-like floral configuration, together with scent glands (osmophores) that produce fragrances which chemically resemble insect sex pheromones. Furthermore, these flowers tend not to produce pollinator food rewards. According to some authors, flowers of the Australian bladderwort Utricularia dunlopii (and species of the Utricularia capilliflora complex) resemble insects, and pollination perhaps occurs by pseudocopulation. The aims of this paper are to compare the structure and distribution of floral glandular trichomes in the Australian carnivorous plant U. dunlopii with those of closely related species assigned to the same section and to discuss their putative function. Floral tissues of U. dunlopii P. Taylor, Utricularia paulinae Lowrie, Utricularia dichotoma Labill. and Utricularia uniflora R.Br. (section Pleiochasia) were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. In U. dunlopii, two long, erect, filiform appendages arising from the upper lip of the corolla, together with three arising from the lower lip, bear numerous glandular trichomes that may function as osmophores. In other species, such as U. uniflora and U. paulinae, glandular papillae on the corolla palate may also function as osmophores. The floral anatomical and morphological organisation of U. dunlopii differs from that of the other investigated species, indicating that its insect pollinators are also likely to differ. Morphological and ultrastructural observations, while generally contributing to our understanding of the flower of U. dunlopii, do not refute the possibility that pollination here may occur by pseudocopulation. Further field-based investigations, however, are now necessary to test this hypothesis.

  9. Pollination effectiveness of different strawberry floral visitors in Ribatejo, Portugal : selection of potential pollinators : Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Albano, Sílvia; Salvado, Eva; Duarte, Sónia; Mexia, António; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2009-01-01

    Copyright © 2009 Universita degli Studi di Firenze. This study was carried out in a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) field located in Ribatejo, Portugal, and aims to describe the qualitative component of the visits for three strawberry floral visitors, attaining the best results in a previous work. The main objectives were: (1) to assess the pollination rate (PR) resulting from a single visit of Apis mellifera L., Syrphidae and native bees, and (2) to characterize the foraging behavi...

  10. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakagawa, H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Angenent, G.C.; Kobayashi, A.; Takatsuji, H.

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SUPERMAN (SUP) plays a role in establishing a boundary between whorls 3 and 4 of flowers and in ovule development. We characterized a Petunia hybrida (petunia) homolog of SUP, designated PhSUP1, to compare with SUP. Genomic DNA of the PhSUP1 partially restored the

  11. Distribution of calcium oxalate crystals in floral organs of Araceae in relation to pollination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Gary G; Gibernau, Marc

    2012-07-01

    Many flowers are pollinated by potentially hungry insects, yet flowers also contain gametes and embryos which must be protected from predation. Microscopic calcium oxalate crystals in plant tissues have been proposed to protect against herbivory. Aroids, which have an unusual diversity of such crystals, also exhibit diverse pollination strategies. Many species have pollinators that do not feed while visiting the flowers, while other species, especially those pollinated by beetles, offer sterile staminodia as food rewards. We examined flowers of 21 aroid species with various pollination strategies to test the hypothesis that crystals protect vital gametes and embryos while allowing consumption of food bribes. Aroid inflorescences collected from the field or from greenhouse material were sectioned, cleared, and examined by bright field and polarization microscopy. All species examined, regardless of pollination strategy, arrayed crystals around unshed pollen and ovules. Less vital tissues, such as odoriferous appendages, had few crystals. Staminodia offered as food to beetle pollinators, however, differed greatly between species in their crystal contents. Some had minimal crystals; some had crystals in patterns suggesting they limit beetle feeding; still others had abundant crystals in no obvious pattern. The results are consistent with crystals protecting against insect predation of gametes and embryos. However, the role of crystals in food-bribe staminodia is unclear. They may limit and direct feeding by beetles in some species, while in others they might have no protective role.

  12. Neuroimaging abnormalities in Griscelli's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarper, Nazan; Akansel, Guer; Aydogan, Metin; Gedikbasi, Demet; Babaoglu, Kadir; Goekalp, Ayse Sevim

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli's disease is a rare autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a 7-1/2-month-old white girl who presented with this syndrome, but initially without neurological abnormalities. Initial CT of the brain was normal. Despite haematological remission with chemotherapy, she developed neurological symptoms, progressing to coma. At this time, CT showed areas of coarse calcification in the globi pallidi, left parietal white matter and left brachium pontis. Hypodense areas were present in the genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule on the right side, as well as posterior aspects of both thalami, together with minimal generalised atrophy. MRI revealed areas of increased T2 signal and a focal area of abnormal enhancement in the subcortical white matter. Griscelli's disease should be added to the list of acquired neuroimaging abnormalities in infants. (orig.)

  13. The floral morphospace--a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they--with few exceptions--have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science.

  14. Herbivore-Induced DNA Demethylation Changes Floral Signalling and Attractiveness to Pollinators in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellenberger, Roman T; Schlüter, Philipp M; Schiestl, Florian P

    2016-01-01

    Plants have to fine-tune their signals to optimise the trade-off between herbivore deterrence and pollinator attraction. An important mechanism in mediating plant-insect interactions is the regulation of gene expression via DNA methylation. However, the effect of herbivore-induced DNA methylation changes on pollinator-relevant plant signalling has not been systematically investigated. Here, we assessed the impact of foliar herbivory on DNA methylation and floral traits in the model crop plant Brassica rapa. Methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) analysis showed that leaf damage by the caterpillar Pieris brassicae was associated with genome-wide methylation changes in both leaves and flowers of B. rapa as well as a downturn in flower number, morphology and scent. A comparison to plants with jasmonic acid-induced defence showed similar demethylation patterns in leaves, but both the floral methylome and phenotype differed significantly from P. brassicae infested plants. Standardised genome-wide demethylation with 5-azacytidine in five different B. rapa full-sib groups further resulted in a genotype-specific downturn of floral morphology and scent, which significantly reduced the attractiveness of the plants to the pollinator bee Bombus terrestris. These results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in adjusting plant signalling in response to changing insect communities.

  15. Sex expression and floral diversity in Jatropha curcas: a population study in its center of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano-Anaya, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Castillo, Edilma; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ruiz-González, Sonia; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Grajales-Conesa, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Sex expression and floral morphology studies are central to understand breeding behavior and to define the productive potential of plant genotypes. In particular, the new bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. has been classified as a monoecious species. Nonetheless, there is no information about its reproductive diversity in the Mesoamerican region, which is considered its center of origin and diversification. Thus, we determined sex expression and floral morphology in J. curcas populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala. Our results showed that most of J. curcas specimens had typical inflorescences with separate sexes (monoecious); meanwhile, the rest were atypical (gynoecious, androecious, andromonoecious, androgynomonoecious). The most important variables to group these populations, based on a discriminant analysis, were: male flower diameter, female petal length and male nectary length. From southern Mexico “Guerrero” was the most diverse population, and “Centro” had the highest variability among the populations from Chiapas. A cluster analysis showed that the accessions from southern Mexico were grouped without showing any correlation with the geographical origin, while those accessions with atypical sexuality were grouped together. To answer the question of how informative are floral morphological traits compared to molecular markers, we perform a Mantel correlation test between the distance matrix generated in this study and the genetic distance matrix (AFLP) previously reported for the same accessions. We found significant correlation between data at the level of accessions. Our results contribute to design genetic improvement programs by using sexually and morphologically contrasting plants from the center of origin. PMID:27257548

  16. Floral development and morphology of Vochysiaceae. I. The structure of the gynoecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Amy; Stevenson, Dennis W

    2003-11-01

    Vochysiaceae are divided into two tribes on the basis of ovary structure (superior trilocular or inferior unilocular). The superior trilocular ovary has been considered basal in the family, and the term "pseudomonomerous" was used to indicate the presumed evolutionary derivation of the unilocular condition from the trilocular. However, recent evidence that Vochysiaceae are Myrtalean suggests that the superior ovary may be secondarily derived. In addition, published figures cast doubt on the interpretation of the putatively unilocular ovaries. To understand these features, floral ontogeny and anatomy were examined using scanning electron microscopy and serial sectioning. In all taxa examined, the ovary develops in an epigynous fashion, on a concave floral apex, supporting the hypothesis that the superior ovary is secondarily derived. Subsequent to initiation of the ovary, differential growth results in ovaries that are superior, inferior, or partly inferior in different genera. Sections of floral buds of the two unilocular genera, Erisma and Erismadelphus, show aborted locules in the latter but not in the former. The application of the term "pseudomonomerous" to both genera obscures this significant difference. The position of the placenta in the truly unilocular genus varies among species, suggesting a character transformation series from multilocular through intermediates to truly unilocular.

  17. Floral ontogeny of two Jatropha species (Euphorbiaceae s.s) and its systematic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Liao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Floral ontogeny of Jatropha multifida L. and Jatropha integerrima Jacq. (Euphorbiaceae) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These two species possess unisexual male flowers and bisexual (with unfunctional staminodes) female flowers. In both male and female flowers, five sepal primordia arise in a 2/5 sequence on the periphery of the floral apex and initiate anticlockwise or clockwise in different floral buds. Five petal primordia initiate simultaneously alternate to sepals. Dicyclic stamens (obdiplostemony) arise in both male and female flowers. In J. multifida, five outer stamen primordia arise first simultaneously and then three inner stamens initiate simultaneously. However, in J. integerrima, ten stamen primordia arranged in two whorls initiate simultaneously. While the ovary is absent in the male flowers, in the female flowers, three carpel primordia appear simultaneously. With further development of the ovary the stamens degenerate in the female flowers, whereas in the male flowers, the stamens grow normally. Ancestral state reconstruction using MacClade indicates that stamen simultaneous vs. non-simultaneous initiation supports the phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequence. (author)

  18. Floral and reproductive biology of Alcantarea nahoumii (Bromeliaceae, a vulnerable endemic species of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Josirene Souza Moreira Bastos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alcantarea nahoumii occurs exclusively in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is classified as vulnerable due to deforestation and frequent fires in the region. Knowledge of floral and reproductive biology is fundamental to understanding ecological interactions, as well as the reproductive success of plant species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the floral and reproductive biology of A. nahoumii in an Atlantic Forest fragment with regard to phenology, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, pollination ecology and reproductive systems, all of which are important parameters for of the development of conservation strategies for the species. Anthesis is diurnal and heterogeneous, starting at 6:30 a.m. and lasting until 8:00 a.m. Highest germination percentages and greatest pollen tube lengths were obtained in BK culture medium. Histochemical tests revealed high pollen viability (89.71 %. Stigma receptivity occurred during anthesis and lasted for up to 24 hours after floral opening. Alcantarea nahoumii exhibited preferential allogamy and self-compatibility, and required a pollinator to production of viable seeds. Sixteen species of pollinators were observed visiting A. nahoumii, among which were five hummingbird species. Even though its reproductive system is efficient, this bromeliad remains threatened mainly due to habitat fragmentation caused by deforestation, burning and predatory extractivism.

  19. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-03-01

    Abstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the flower-visiting wasps. The collected specimens were deposited at the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. 1.483 specimens were captured belonging to 73 wasp species, whose 78.9% were Polistinae (30 species and 21.1% Eumeninae (43 species, visiting the flowers of 33 plant species classified in 16 botanical families; the families with the larger number of plant species were Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 and Apiaceae (3. The plant species with the largest number of wasps collected was Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, followed by Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 and Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. The analysis of the trophic niche overlap of 26 species with four or more visited plant species, showed an overlap equal or higher than 50% in six cases.

  20. Floral specialization and angiosperm diversity: phenotypic divergence, fitness trade-offs and realized pollination accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, W. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms. It remains unclear, however, how this success has come about. Do flowers, and their capacity to have specialized functions, increase speciation rates or decrease extinction rates? Is floral specialization fundamental or incidental to the diversification? Some studies suggest that the conclusions we draw about the role of flowers in the diversification and increased phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) of angiosperms depends on the system. For orchids, for example, specialized pollination may have increased speciation rates, in part because in most orchids pollen is packed in discrete units so that pollination is precise enough to contribute to reproductive isolation. In most plants, however, granular pollen results in low realized pollination precision, and thus key innovations involving flowers more likely reflect reduced extinction rates combined with opportunities for evolution of greater phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) and occupation of new niches. Understanding the causes and consequences of the evolution of specialized flowers requires knowledge of both the selective regimes and the potential fitness trade-offs in using more than one pollinator functional group. The study of floral function and flowering-plant diversification remains a vibrant evolutionary field. Application of new methods, from measuring natural selection to estimating speciation rates, holds much promise for improving our understanding of the relationship between floral specialization and evolutionary success. PMID:24790124

  1. Multiple Plantago species (Plantaginaceae) modify floral reflectance and color in response to thermal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erin R; Lovin, Mary E; Richter, Scott J; Lacey, Elizabeth P

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how plant reproduction responds to temperature has become increasingly important because of global climate change. Temperature-sensitive plasticity in floral reflectance is likely involved in some of these responses. Such plasticity, which underlies thermoregulatory ability, affects reproductive success in Plantago lanceolata. To see whether other Plantago species also show thermal plasticity in reflectance, we measured plasticity in P. lagopus, P. coronopus, P. major, P. subulata, P. albicans, P. tomentosa, P. maritima, and P. weldenii. We induced plants to flower at two temperatures in growth chambers and recorded floral reflectance (362-800 nm). All species were thermally plastic in visible and near-IR regions. Species and populations differed in response. Some showed greater variation in reflectance at warm temperature, while the reverse was true for others. Plasticity was greatest in the P. lanceolata clade. Cosmopolitan species were not more plastic than were geographically restricted species. The data suggest that (1) thermal plasticity is an ancestral trait for Plantago, (2) plasticities in visible and near-IR regions have evolved along different pathways within the genus, and (3) phylogenetic history partially explains this evolutionary divergence. Our data combined with those of previous studies suggest that global climate change will modify floral reflectance and color in many plant species. These modifications are likely to affect plant reproductive success.

  2. Antagonistic effects of floral scent in an insect–plant interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenman, Carolina E.; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Bernays, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2010-01-01

    In southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator–plant and herbivore–plant association. Because the floral scent is probably important in mediating this interaction, we investigated the floral volatiles that might attract M. sexta for feeding and oviposition. We found that flower volatiles increase oviposition and include small amounts of both enantiomers of linalool, a common component of the scent of hawkmoth-pollinated flowers. Because (+)-linalool is processed in a female-specific glomerulus in the primary olfactory centre of M. sexta, we hypothesized that the enantiomers of linalool differentially modulate feeding and oviposition. Using a synthetic mixture that mimics the D. wrightii floral scent, we found that the presence of linalool was not necessary to evoke feeding and that mixtures containing (+)- and/or (−)-linalool were equally effective in mediating this behaviour. By contrast, females oviposited more on plants emitting (+)-linalool (alone or in mixtures) over control plants, while plants emitting (−)-linalool (alone or in mixtures) were less preferred than control plants. Together with our previous investigations, these results show that linalool has differential effects in feeding and oviposition through two neural pathways: one that is sexually isomorphic and non-enantioselective, and another that is female-specific and enantioselective. PMID:20335210

  3. Floral specialization and angiosperm diversity: phenotypic divergence, fitness trade-offs and realized pollination accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, W Scott

    2014-01-01

    Plant reproduction by means of flowers has long been thought to promote the success and diversification of angiosperms. It remains unclear, however, how this success has come about. Do flowers, and their capacity to have specialized functions, increase speciation rates or decrease extinction rates? Is floral specialization fundamental or incidental to the diversification? Some studies suggest that the conclusions we draw about the role of flowers in the diversification and increased phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) of angiosperms depends on the system. For orchids, for example, specialized pollination may have increased speciation rates, in part because in most orchids pollen is packed in discrete units so that pollination is precise enough to contribute to reproductive isolation. In most plants, however, granular pollen results in low realized pollination precision, and thus key innovations involving flowers more likely reflect reduced extinction rates combined with opportunities for evolution of greater phenotypic disparity (phenotypic diversity) and occupation of new niches. Understanding the causes and consequences of the evolution of specialized flowers requires knowledge of both the selective regimes and the potential fitness trade-offs in using more than one pollinator functional group. The study of floral function and flowering-plant diversification remains a vibrant evolutionary field. Application of new methods, from measuring natural selection to estimating speciation rates, holds much promise for improving our understanding of the relationship between floral specialization and evolutionary success.

  4. The floral morphospace – a modern comparative approach to study angiosperm evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Marion; Jabbour, Florian; Gerber, Sylvain; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Staedler, Yannick; Crane, Peter R.; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Summary Morphospaces are mathematical representations used for studying the evolution of morphological diversity and for the evaluation of evolved shapes among theoretically possible ones. Although widely used in zoology, they – with few exceptions – have been disregarded in plant science and in particular in the study of broad-scale patterns of floral structure and evolution. Here we provide basic information on the morphospace approach; we review earlier morphospace applications in plant science; and as a practical example, we construct and analyze a floral morphospace. Morphospaces are usually visualized with the help of ordination methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) or nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). The results of these analyses are then coupled with disparity indices that describe the spread of taxa in the space. We discuss these methods and apply modern statistical tools to the first and only angiosperm-wide floral morphospace published by Stebbins in 1951. Despite the incompleteness of Stebbins’ original dataset, our analyses highlight major, angiosperm-wide trends in the diversity of flower morphology and thereby demonstrate the power of this previously neglected approach in plant science. PMID:25539005

  5. The effects of ingested aqueous aluminum on floral fidelity and foraging strategy in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas-Mosier, Ana M; Cooper, Bree A; Melendez, Alexander M; Pérez, Melina; Oskay, Devrim; Abramson, Charles I

    2017-09-01

    Pollinator decline is of international concern because of the economic services these organisms provide. Commonly cited sources of decline are toxicants, habitat fragmentation, and parasites. Toxicant exposure can occur through uptake and distribution from plant tissues and resources such as pollen and nectar. Metals such as aluminum can be distributed to pollinators and other herbivores through this route especially in acidified or mined areas. A free-flying artificial flower patch apparatus was used to understand how two concentrations of aluminum (2mg/L and 20mg/L) may affect the learning, orientation, and foraging behaviors of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Turkey. The results show that a single dose of aluminum immediately affects the floral decision making of honey bees potentially by altering sucrose perception, increasing activity level, or reducing the likelihood of foraging on safer or uncontaminated resource patches. We conclude that aluminum exposure may be detrimental to foraging behaviors and potentially to other ecologically relevant behaviors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Biologia floral e polinização de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae Floral and pollination biology of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Rodrigues Correia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho aborda a biologia floral, a atividade forrageira dos visitantes florais (polinizadores e pilhadores, os eventos fenológicos e o sistema de reprodução de Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae, em área de vegetação de restinga, município de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, no período 1997 a 2000. A espécie estudada tem flores com antese diurna, lilases, tubulosas, hermafroditas, odoríferas e oferecem néctar como recurso floral. O néctar é secretado por um disco localizado na base do gineceu e é acumulado em câmara nectarífera. Os grãos de pólen são liberados gradativamente, prolongando-se a fase de doação de pólen. As abelhas Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius e C. tarsata Smith são os polinizadores da espécie. Destaca-se pilhagem primária de néctar, por abelhas, e secundária, por borboletas e beija-flor. A espécie é auto-incompatível, apresentando baixos índices de formação de frutos em condições naturais (Frutos/Flores = 12,2%. Foi registrado padrão de floração "cornucópia", entre os meses de dezembro a março (estação quente/chuvosa, com pico em janeiro. As sementes são anemocóricas e liberadas gradativamente na estação fria e seca.This work deals with the floral biology, the foraging activities of floral visitors (pollinators and robbers, phenology and reproductive system of Arrabidaea conjugata (Vell. Mart. (Bignoniaceae in the "restinga" of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2000. The flowers display daytime anthesis and last only one day. These attractive pink flowers are tubular, hermaphroditic, odoriferous and produce nectar as the floral reward. The nectar is secreted by a nectariferous disk concealed within a chamber. The pollen grains are gradually released throughout anthesis, extending the pollen presentation phase. The bees Euglossa cordata Linnaeus, Centris analis Fabricius and C. tarsata Smith are the pollinator species. Primary and secondary

  7. Functional aspects of floral nectar secretion of Ananas ananassoides, an ornithophilous bromeliad from the Brazilian savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Juliana Marin; Nepi, Massimo; Galetto, Leonardo; Guimarães, Elza; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Several members of Bromeliaceae show adaptations for hummingbird pollination in the Neotropics; however, the relationships between floral structure, nectar production, pollination and pollinators are poorly understood. The main goal of this study was to analyse the functional aspects of nectar secretion related to interaction with pollinators by evaluating floral biology, cellular and sub-cellular anatomy of the septal nectary and nectar composition of Ananas ananassoides, including an experimental approach to nectar dynamics. Methods Observations on floral anthesis and visitors were conducted in a population of A. ananassoides in the Brazilian savanna. Nectary samples were processed using standard methods for light and transmission electron microscopy. The main metabolites in nectary tissue were detected via histochemistry. Sugar composition was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The accumulated nectar was determined from bagged flowers (‘unvisited’), and floral response to repeated nectar removal was evaluated in an experimental design simulating multiple visits by pollinators to the same flowers (‘visited’) over the course of anthesis. Key Results The hummingbirds Hylocharis chrysura and Thalurania glaucopis were the most frequent pollinators. The interlocular septal nectary, composed of three lenticular canals, extends from the ovary base to the style base. It consists of a secretory epithelium and nectary parenchyma rich in starch grains, which are hydrolysed during nectar secretion. The median volume of nectar in recently opened ‘unvisited’ flowers was 27·0 µL, with a mean (sucrose-dominated) sugar concentration of 30·5 %. Anthesis lasts approx. 11 h, and nectar secretion begins before sunrise. In ‘visited’ flowers (experimentally emptied every hour) the nectar total production per flower was significantly higher than in the ‘unvisited’ flowers (control) in terms of volume (t = 4·94, P = 0

  8. Genetic and anatomical analysis of normal and abnormal flowers of date palm cultivar barhy derived from offshoot and tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shair, O.H.

    2016-01-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis between 6 normal flower producing offshoot derived and 6 abnormal multiple carpel, flower producing tissue culture (TC) derived trees of cultivar (cv.) Barhy, was performed with the objective to check genetic variation if any at DNA level. DNA samples were extracted from pollinated and un-pollinated flowers from both sets of plants. Amplified RAPD products were clearly detected with 30 primers used in this experiment but only 3 gave a few polymorphic bands which shows low level of genetic variation among the offshoot and TC derived plants. Cluster analysis by the unweighted paired group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA) showed close genomic similarity among the 12 DNA samples with the range of 0.486-0.904 Nei and Li's coefficient in the similarity matrix. The average similarity among the 12 DNA samples was more than 50%. Floral abnormalities in TC derived plants were also studied microscopically. Abnormalities like more than three carpel development, abnormal ovule development and deformities of style and stigma were observed. The results show that the composition and the abnormalities of flowers in TC derived plants of cultivar Barhy may be attributed to epigenetic changes that takes place at different stages of tissue culture and not due to major changes at DNA level. (author)

  9. Triorchidism: A Rare Genitourinary Abnormality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During early adulthood it will be carried out by palpation, ultrasonography, semen analysis, serum testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone levels and during late adulthood follow up will be done by ultrasonography for malignancy every 2 years. CONCLUSION. Polyorchidism is a rare genitourinary abnormality and its.

  10. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping

    2007-03-01

    Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup (3q), dup (11p), inv (11), dup (1q), del (1q), dup (4q), dup (5p), dup (6q), del (9p), dup (15q), dup(17q), Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD) such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  11. Chromosomal Abnormalities Associated With Omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fetuses with omphalocele have an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities. The risk varies with maternal age, gestational age at diagnosis, association with umbilical cord cysts, complexity of associated anomalies, and the contents of omphalocele. There is considerable evidence that genetics contributes to the etiology of omphalocele. This article provides an overview of chromosomal abnormalities associated with omphalocele and a comprehensive review of associated full aneuploidy such as trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy, trisomy 21, 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XXX, partial aneuploidy such as dup(3q, dup(11p, inv(11, dup(1q, del(1q, dup(4q, dup(5p, dup(6q, del(9p, dup(15q, dup(17q, Pallister-Killian syndrome with mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome with deletion of 17p13.3, and uniparental disomy (UPD such as UPD 11 and UPD 14. Omphalocele is a prominent marker for chromosomal abnormalities. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert chromosomal abnormalities and familial unbalanced translocations, and prompt thorough cytogenetic investigations and genetic counseling.

  12. Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admission haematological abnormalities and postoperative outcomes in neonates with acute surgical conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HL Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  13. Transcriptome sequencing and identification of cold tolerance genes in hardy Corylus species (C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The genus Corylus is an important woody species in Northeast China. Its products, hazelnuts, constitute one of the most important raw materials for the pastry and chocolate industry. However, limited genetic research has focused on Corylus because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides a turning point for Corylus research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive database for the Corylus heterophylla Fisch floral buds. RESULTS: The C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 28,930,890 raw reads and assembled them into 82,684 contigs. A total of 40,941 unigenes were identified, among which 30,549 were annotated in the NCBI Non-redundant (Nr protein database and 18,581 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Of these annotated unigenes, 25,311 and 10,514 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. We could map 17,207 unigenes onto 128 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG database. Additionally, based on the transcriptome, we constructed a candidate cold tolerance gene set of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds. The expression patterns of selected genes during four stages of cold acclimation suggested that these genes might be involved in different cold responsive stages in C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds. CONCLUSION: The transcriptome of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds transcriptome. Candidate genes potentially involved in cold tolerance were identified, providing a material basis for future molecular mechanism analysis of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds tolerant to cold stress.

  14. Visual targeting of components of floral colour patterns in flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris; Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Fieselmann, Gabriele; Heuschen, Britta; van de Loo, Antje

    2006-07-01

    Floral colour patterns are contrasting colour patches on flowers, a part of the signalling apparatus that was considered to display shape and colour signals used by flower-visitors to detect flowers and locate the site of floral reward. Here, we show that flower-naïve bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris) spontaneously direct their approach towards the outside margin of artificial flowers, which provides contrast between these dummy flowers and the background. If no floral guides are present, the bumblebees continue to approach the margin and finally touch the marginal area of the dummy flower with the tips of their antennae. Whilst approaching dummy flowers that also have a central floral guide, the bumblebees change their direction of flight: Initially, they approach the margin, later they switch to approaching the colour guide, and finally they precisely touch the floral guide with their antennae. Variation of the shape of equally sized dummy flowers did not alter the bumblebees’ preferential orientation towards the guide. Using reciprocal combinations of guide colour and surrounding colour, we showed that the approach from a distance towards the corolla and the antennal contact with the guide are elicited by the same colour parameter: spectral purity. As a consequence, the dummy flowers eliciting the greatest frequency of antennal reactions at the guide are those that combine a floral guide of high spectral purity with a corolla of less spectral purity. Our results support the hypothesis that floral guides direct bumblebees’ approaches to the site of first contact with the flower, which is achieved by the tips of the antennae.

  15. Visual and Olfactory Floral Cues of Campanula (Campanulaceae and Their Significance for Host Recognition by an Oligolectic Bee Pollinator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Milet-Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Oligolectic bees collect pollen from a few plants within a genus or family to rear their offspring, and are known to rely on visual and olfactory floral cues to recognize host plants. However, studies investigating whether oligolectic bees recognize distinct host plants by using shared floral cues are scarce. In the present study, we investigated in a comparative approach the visual and olfactory floral cues of six Campanula species, of which only Campanula lactiflora has never been reported as a pollen source of the oligolectic bee Ch. rapunculi. We hypothesized that the flowers of Campanula species visited by Ch. rapunculi share visual (i.e. color and/or olfactory cues (scents that give them a host-specific signature. To test this hypothesis, floral color and scent were studied by spectrophotometric and chemical analyses, respectively. Additionally, we performed bioassays within a flight cage to test the innate color preference of Ch. rapunculi. Our results show that Campanula flowers reflect the light predominantly in the UV-blue/blue bee-color space and that Ch. rapunculi displays a strong innate preference for these two colors. Furthermore, we recorded spiroacetals in the floral scent of all Campanula species, but Ca. lactiflora. Spiroacetals, rarely found as floral scent constituents but quite common among Campanula species, were recently shown to play a key function for host-flower recognition by Ch. rapunculi. We conclude that Campanula species share some visual and olfactory floral cues, and that neurological adaptations (i.e. vision and olfaction of Ch. rapunculi innately drive their foraging flights toward host flowers. The significance of our findings for the evolution of pollen diet breadth in bees is discussed.

  16. A DEF/GLO-like MADS-box gene from a gymnosperm: Pinus radiata contains an ortholog of angiosperm B class floral homeotic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouradov, A; Hamdorf, B; Teasdale, R D; Kim, J T; Winter, K U; Theissen, G

    1999-09-01

    The specification of floral organ identity during development depends on the function of a limited number of homeotic genes grouped into three classes: A, B, and C. Pairs of paralogous B class genes, such as DEF and GLO in Antirrhinum, and AP3 and PI in Arabidopsis, are required for establishing petal and stamen identity. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of petals and stamens, we have looked for orthologs of B class genes in conifers. Here we report cDNA cloning of PrDGL (Pinus radiata DEF/GLO-like gene) from radiata pine. We provide phylogenetic evidence that PrDGL is closely related to both DEF- and GLO-like genes of angiosperms, and is thus among the first putative orthologs of floral homeotic B function genes ever reported from a gymnosperm. Expression of PrDGL is restricted to the pollen strobili (male cones) and was not detected in female cones. PrDGL expression was first detected in emergent male cone primordia and persisted through the early stages of pollen cone bud differentiation. Based on the results of our phylogeny reconstructions and expression studies, we suggest that PrDGL could play a role in distinguishing between male (where expression is on) and female reproductive structures (where expression is off) in radiata pine. We speculate that this could be the general function of DEF/GLO-like genes in gymnosperms that may have been recruited for the distinction between stamens and carpels, the male and female reproductive organs of flowering plants, during the evolution of angiosperms out of gymnosperm-like ancestors. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Echocardiographic abnormalities in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodulfo Garcia, Maikel; Tornes Perez, Victor Manuel; Castellanos Tardo, Juan Ramon

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 120 hypertensive patients with a course of 5 or more years, who went to the emergency room of 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Teaching Hospital from November 2010 to November 2011 in order to determine the presence or absence of echocardiographic abnormalities typical of hypertension. Of these, 78,3 % was affected, most of whom reported not to continue with regular previous medical treatment, and 21,7 % had not these abnormalities. Age group of 50-60 years, males and blacks prevailed in the case material. The most significant echocardiographic findings were left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure with ejection fraction of left ventricle preserved

  18. Glial abnormalities in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glial cells may be important in the pathogenesis of mood disorders and may be possible targets for the development of new treatments. In this article we review the evidence for glial abnormalities in mood disorders, and we discuss glial cell biology and evidence from postmortem studies of mood disorders. The goal is not to carry out a comprehensive review but to selectively discuss existing evidence in support of an argument for the role of glial cells in mood disorders.

  19. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    0.01 0.12 81 A.A. 51 M 0 ɘ.01 0.09 Schizophrenia 85a W.G. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.21 Proteins & Ketones in Urine b 0 ɘ.01 0.11 86a W.H. 67 M 0 ɘ.01 0.15 b 0...AD-AS 90 TOTTS GAP MEDICAL RESEARCH LABS INC BANGOR PA F/G 6/5 ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS, U) 1982 R L BEECH, M E FELVER, M R...LAKSCHMANAN NOOBIN 70 C 0233 UNJCLASSIFIED NL I ,I/ ABNORMAL METABOLITE IN ALCOHOLIC SUBJECTS Richard L . Veech, Michael E. Felver, M.R. Lakschmanan, Stewart

  20. CsTFL1, a constitutive local repressor of flowering, modulates floral initiation by antagonising florigen complex activity in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yohei; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2015-08-01

    Chrysanthemums require repeated cycles of short-day (SD) photoperiod for successful anthesis, but their vegetative state is strictly maintained under long-day (LD) or night-break (NB) conditions. We have previously demonstrated that photoperiodic flowering of a wild diploid chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe f. boreale) is controlled by a pair of systemic floral regulators, florigen (CsFTL3) and anti-florigen (CsAFT), produced in the leaves. Here, we report the functional characterisation of a local floral regulator, CsTFL1, a chrysanthemum orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene in Arabidopsis. Constitutive expression of CsTFL1 in C. seticuspe (CsTFL1-ox) resulted in extremely late flowering under SD and prevented up-regulation of floral meristem identity genes in shoot tips and leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that both CsTFL1 and CsFTL3 interacted with CsFDL1, a bZIP transcription factor FD homologue, in the nucleus. The transient gene expression assay indicated that CsTFL1 suppresses flowering by directly antagonising the flower inductive activity of the CsFTL3-CsFDL1 complex. Our results suggest that strict maintenance of vegetative state under non-inductive photoperiod is achieved by the coordinated action of both the systemic floral inhibitor and local floral inhibitor CsTFL1, which is constitutively expressed in shoot tips. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekka S Brodie

    Full Text Available The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1 young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red except for ultraviolet (UV; (2 the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3 moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

  2. Preponderance of Bioactive Medicinal Compounds and ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy of Coriander and Mustard Floral Honey from Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishan Ullah Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical, total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated for biochemical characterization of coriander and mustard floral honey. The total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity were analyzed using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was used to evaluate the chemical characteristic of coriander and mustard floral honey. The total phenolics content was ranged from 294 to 462 mg gallic acid equivalent kg-1 of honey. The total flavonoid content was ranged from 43 to 53 mg quercetin equivalent kg-1 of honey. Antioxidant activity results were expressed as inhibitory concentration (IC50 value ranged from 4.58 to 5.54 mg mL-1. FT-IR spectra showed the presence of alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, phenols, and amines in both floral honey samples. This study discovered that coriander floral honey is more affluent than mustard floral honey in nutritional as well as medicinal aspects. At a glance the processing of honey by heating did not affect the phenolics, flavonoid, and antioxidants of honey; even processed honey contains higher phenols and antioxidants. The FT-IR spectra showed the similarity in both kinds of honey refers to chemical constituents. This study will help the researcher and honey consumer to find out the higher bioactive medicinal compounds containing honey.

  3. Byrsonic acid--the clue to floral mimicry involving oil-producing flowers and oil-collecting bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Mariza G; de Faria, D Aparecida; dos Santos, Isabel Alves; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2007-07-01

    Tetrapedia diversipes and other Apidae (Anthophoridae) may be deceived by floral similarities between Malpighiaceae and Orchidaceae of the Oncidiinae subtribe. The latter do not usually exudate floral oils. Thus, visitors may pollinate the flowers in a deceit/food/pollination syndrome. We studied the chemical compositions of Byrsonima intermedia (Malpighiaceae) floral oil and T. diversipes (Anthophoridae) cell provisions. From B. intermedia floral oil, we isolated a novel fatty acid (3R, 7R)-3,7-diacetoxy-docosanoic acid, here named byrsonic acid, and from T diversipes cell provisions we isolated two novel fatty acid derivatives 3,7-dihydroxy-eicosanoic acid and 3,7-dihydroxy-docosanoic acid, here named tetrapedic acids A and B, respectively. The three fatty acid derivatives have common features: possess long chains (20 or 22 carbon atoms) with no double bond and either hydroxy or acetoxy groups at carbons 3 and 7. This characteristic was also encountered in the fatty acid moiety of oncidinol (2S, 3'R, 7'R)-l-acetyl-2-[3', 7'-diacetoxyeicosanyl)-glycerol, a major floral oil constituent of several Oncidiinae species (Orchidaceae). Thus, both tetrapedic A (C20) and B (C22) could be the biotransformation products of oncidinol and byrsonic acid by T. diversipes hydrolases. These are the chemical clues for bee visitation and oil collecting from both plant species. The results indicate that the deceit/pollination syndrome should not be applied to all Oncidiinae flowers.

  4. Abnormal Bleeding during Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Freitas De Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman's characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT, it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies.

  5. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in increasing pollination of flowers.

  6. Computed tomography abnormalities in hanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F.; Floris, R.

    1987-01-01

    The CT pattern of bilateral and symmetrical round low density areas in the globi pallidi has been observed in a young man who attempted suicide by hanging. These CT abnormalities are similar to those described in other conditions such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, cyanide and methanol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, drowning and acute global central nervous system hypoperfusion.The findings appear to be correlated with acute cerebral hypoxia. (orig.)

  7. GLIAL ABNORMALITIES IN MOOD DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Öngür, Dost; Bechtholt, Anita J.; Carlezon, William A.; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that mood disorders are associated with abnormalities in the brain's cellular composition, especially in glial cells. Considered inert support cells in the past, glial cells are now known to be important for brain function. Treatments for mood disorders enhance glial cell proliferation, and experimental stimulation of cell growth has antidepressant effects in animal models of mood disorders. These findings suggest that the proliferation and survival of glia...

  8. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development. (orig.)

  9. Mastoid abnormalities in Down syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, R.B.J.; Yousefzadeh, D.K.; Roizen, N.J.

    1989-06-01

    Hearing loss and otitis media are commonly associated with Down syndrome. Hypoplasia of the mastoids is seen in many affected children and sclerosis of mastoid bones is not uncommon in Down syndrome. Awareness and early recognition of mastoid abnormality may lead to appropriate and timely therapy, thereby preserving the child's hearing or compensating for hearing loss; factors which are important for learning and maximum development.

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  11. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  12. The influence of floral symmetry, dependence on pollinators and pollination generalization on flower size variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, A; Totland, O

    2014-07-01

    The pollinator-mediated stabilizing selection hypothesis suggests that the specialized pollination system of zygomorphic flowers might cause stabilizing selection, reducing their flower size variation compared with actinomorphic flowers. However, the degree of ecological generalization and of dependence on pollinators varies greatly among species of both flower symmetry types and this may also affect flower size variation. Data on 43 species from two contrasting communities (one alpine and one lowland community) were used to test the relationships and interactions between flower size phenotypic variation, floral symmetry, ecological pollination generalization and species' dependence on pollinators. Contrary to what was expected, higher flower size variation was found in zygomorphic than in actinomorphic species in the lowland community, and no difference in flower size variation was found between symmetry types in the alpine community. The relationship between floral symmetry and flower size variation depended on ecological generalization and species' dependence on pollinators, although the influence of ecological generalization was only detected in the alpine community. Zygomorphic species that were highly dependent on pollinators and that were ecologically specialized were less variable in flower size than ecologically generalist and selfing zygomorphic species, supporting the pollinator-mediated stabilizing selection hypothesis. However, these relationships were not found in actinomorphic species, probably because they are not dependent on any particular pollinator for efficient pollination and therefore their flower size always shows moderate levels of variation. The study suggests that the relationship between flower size variation and floral symmetry may be influenced by population-dependent factors, such as ecological generalization and species' dependence on pollinators. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of

  13. Decoupled evolution of floral traits and climatic preferences in a clade of Neotropical Gesneriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha Liliana; Perret, Mathieu; Guignard, Maïté; Chautems, Alain; Silvestro, Daniele; Salamin, Nicolas

    2015-11-10

    Major factors influencing the phenotypic diversity of a lineage can be recognized by characterizing the extent and mode of trait evolution between related species. Here, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of traits associated with floral morphology and climatic preferences in a clade composed of the genera Codonanthopsis, Codonanthe and Nematanthus (Gesneriaceae). To test the mode and specific components that lead to phenotypic diversity in this group, we performed a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of combined nuclear and plastid DNA sequences and modeled the evolution of quantitative traits related to flower shape and size and to climatic preferences. We propose an alternative approach to display graphically the complex dynamics of trait evolution along a phylogenetic tree using a wide range of evolutionary scenarios. Our results demonstrated heterogeneous trait evolution. Floral shapes displaced into separate regimes selected by the different pollinator types (hummingbirds versus insects), while floral size underwent a clade-specific evolution. Rates of evolution were higher for the clade that is hummingbird pollinated and experienced flower resupination, compared with species pollinated by bees, suggesting a relevant role of plant-pollinator interactions in lowland rainforest. The evolution of temperature preferences is best explained by a model with distinct selective regimes between the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and the other biomes, whereas differentiation along the precipitation axis was characterized by higher rates, compared with temperature, and no regime or clade-specific patterns. Our study shows different selective regimes and clade-specific patterns in the evolution of morphological and climatic components during the diversification of Neotropical species. Our new graphical visualization tool allows the representation of trait trajectories under parameter-rich models, thus contributing to a better understanding of complex evolutionary dynamics.

  14. Environmental and molecular analysis of the floral transition in the lower eudicot Aquilegia formosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballerini Evangeline S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flowering is a critical transition in plant development, the timing of which can have considerable fitness consequences. Until recently, research into the genetic control of flowering time and its associated developmental changes was focused on core eudicots (for example, Arabidopsis or monocots (for example, Oryza. Here we examine the flowering response of Aquilegia formosa, a member of the eudicot order Ranunculales that is emerging as an important model for the investigation of plant ecology and evolution. Results We have determined that A. formosa has a strong vernalization requirement but little or no photoperiod response, making it a day neutral (DN plant. Consistent with this, the Aquilegia homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (AqFT is expressed in both long and short days but surprisingly, the locus is expressed before the transition to flowering. In situ hybridizations with homologs of several Arabidopsis Floral Pathway Integrators (FPIs do not suggest conserved functions relative to Arabidopsis, the potential exceptions being AqLFY and AqAGL24.2. Conclusions In Aquilegia, vernalization is critical to flowering but this signal is not strictly required for the transcriptional activation of AqFT. The expression patterns of AqLFY and AqAGL24.2 suggest a hypothesis for the development of Aquilegia's determinate inflorescence whereby their differential expression controls the progression of each meristem from inflorescence to floral identity. Interestingly, none of the Aquilegia expression patterns are consistent with a function in floral repression which, combined with the lack of a FLC homolog, means that new candidate genes must be identified for the control of vernalization response in Aquilegia.

  15. Mimics and magnets: the importance of color and ecological facilitation in floral deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Craig I; Johnson, Steven D

    2008-06-01

    Plants that lack floral rewards can attract pollinators if they share attractive floral signals with rewarding plants. These deceptive plants should benefit from flowering in close proximity to such rewarding plants, because pollinators are locally conditioned on floral signals of the rewarding plants (mimic effect) and because pollinators are more abundant close to rewarding plants (magnet effect). We tested these ideas using the non-rewarding South African plant Eulophia zeyheriana (Orchidaceae) as a study system. Field observations revealed that E. zeyheriana is pollinated solely by solitary bees belonging to a single species of Lipotriches (Halictidae) that appears to be closely associated with the flowers of Wahlenbergia cuspidata (Campanulaceae), a rewarding plant with which the orchid is often sympatric. The pale blue color of the flowers of E. zeyheriana differs strongly from flowers of its congeners, but is very similar to that of flowers of W. cuspidata. Analysis of spectral reflectance patterns using a bee vision model showed that bees are unlikely to be able to distinguish the two species in terms of flower color. A UV-absorbing sunscreen was applied to the flowers of the orchid in order to alter their color, and this resulted in a significant decline in pollinator visits, thus indicating the importance of flower color for attraction of Lipotriches bees. Pollination success in the orchid was strongly affected by proximity to patches of W. cuspidata. This was evident from one of two surveys of natural populations of the orchid, as well as experiments in which we translocated inflorescences of the orchid either into patches of W. cuspidata or 40 m outside such patches. Flower color and location of E. zeyheriana plants relative to rewarding magnet patches are therefore key components of the exploitation by this orchid of the relationship between W. cuspidata and Lipotriches bee pollinators.

  16. The Influence of Garden Size and Floral Cover on Pollen Deposition in Urban Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Matteson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can

  17. Implicación de los genes de la familia RAV en el desarrollo floral

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Jaramillo, Andrea Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    La floración es probablemente el proceso más importante en el desarrollo de la planta, ya que la perpetuación de las especies vegetales depende de ella. En Arabidopsis thaliana, la inducción floral está controlada por varias rutas genéticas que responden a estímulos ambientales y endógenos. En nuestro laboratorio se han identificado los genes TEMPRANILLO (TEM) como represores de la floración tanto en condiciones inductivas de día largo (LD, 16 horas de luz) como no inductivas de día corto (SD...

  18. Mutagen-induced variation in flowering and floral morphology in plants of Turnera ulmifolia Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarar, J.L.; Dnyansagar, V.R.

    1980-01-01

    The plants raised from seeds irradiated with gamma rays flowered 4 to 5 days earlier in comparison with the control at 10 krad and 20 krad exposures. At higher exposures of gamma rays and in all concentrations of EMS treatment except 0.5% for 8 hours flowering was delayed. There was decrease in the production of flowers. The flowers produced were smaller in size. In a few plants they showed an increase or decrease in the number of floral parts. The colour change from yellow to whitish yellow was also in plants obtained with gamma rays. (author)

  19. Floral vasculature and its variation for carpellary supply inAnthurium(Araceae, Alismatales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Letícia P; Temponi, Lívia G; Coan, Alessandra I

    2017-01-01

    Anthurium is the largest genus of Araceae, with 950 species distributed in the neotropics. Despite the great diversity of the genus, the knowledge of its floral vasculature is based on observations in only two species, viz. A. denudatum and A. lhotzkyanum , with remarkable variation in vascular carpellary supply: carpels are either vascularized by ventral bundles alone or by reduced dorsal bundles in addition to the ventral ones. Our main objective is to test this peculiar variation through a detailed anatomical study of the floral vasculature in taxa belonging to some sections of Anthurium designated as monophyletic groups in recent phylogenies. We compare the floral vasculature of 20 neotropical species belonging to distinct sections of Anthurium , using both light and confocal laser scanning microscopies. The number and position of vascular bundles are constant within the tepals and stamens, regardless of the species and sections studied. However, the gynoecium vasculature exhibits variation between species belonging to the same or different sections. Our results reveal two patterns of vasculature: carpels vascularized by synlateral bundles alone (Pattern A) and carpels vascularized by both dorsal and synlateral bundles (Pattern B). Pattern A is shared by the majority of species studied here and corroborates the previous data in the literature. Pattern B occurs in three species: A. affine ( Anthurium sect . Pachyneurium series Pachyneurium ), A. obtusum and A. scandens ( Anthurium sect. Tetraspermium ), described here for the first time for the genus. The variation in the supply to the carpels in Anthurium is corroborated here. However, our results in addition to those from the available literature suggest the existence of three patterns (A, B and C) of carpellary vasculature. Based on the recent phylogeny of Anthurium it is possible to notice that the three patterns of carpellary vasculature occur in representatives of Clade B and deserve to be investigated in

  20. Floral Developmental Pattern Changes on Neoregelia‘Flandria’(BROMELIACEAE Analysed by Markov Chain methodologyADRIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pico

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoregelia 'Flandria'and N. 'Van Durme'are ornamental cultivars of Bromelia.Propagation by seeds is not viable and prunes constitutes the only way to propagateavoiding alterations. In this article the developmental floral pattern of 72 Bromeliastreated with ANA 190 ppm (T1, Ethrel: ANA + ETHREL,(T2 y ETHREL, (T3 anddivided into two age groups: E1 y E2 are shown. The treatments studied generated moreelongated plants and six new patterns. Using the Markov chain methodology theprobability to evolve to any pattern and the percentage of each were studied.

  1. Mapping floral resources for honey bees in New Zealand at the catchment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausseil, A-G E; Dymond, J R; Newstrom, L

    2018-03-12

    Honey bees require nectar and pollen from flowers: nectar for energy and pollen for growth. The demand for nectar and pollen varies during the year, with more pollen needed in spring for colony population growth, and more nectar needed in summer to sustain the maximum colony size and collect surplus nectar stores for winter. Sufficient bee forage is therefore necessary to ensure a healthy bee colony. Land-use changes can reduce the availability of floral resources suitable for bees, thereby increasing the susceptibility of bees to other stressors such as disease and pesticides. In contrast, land-based management decisions to protect or plant bee forage can enhance pollen and nectar supply to bees while meeting other goals such as riparian planting for water-quality improvement. Commercial demand for honey can also put pressure on floral resources through over-crowding of hives. To help understand and manage floral resources for bees, we developed a spatial model for mapping monthly nectar and pollen production from maps of land cover. Based on monthly estimated production data we mapped potential monthly supply of nectar and pollen to a given apiary location in the landscape. This is done by summing the total production within the foraging range of the apiary while subtracting the estimated nectar converted to energy for collection. Ratios of estimated supply over theoretical hive demand may then be used to infer a potential landscape carrying capacity to sustain hives. This model framework is quantitative and spatial, utilising estimated flight energy costs for nectar foraging. It can contribute to management decisions such as where apiaries could be placed in the landscape depending on floral resources and where nectar limited areas may be located. It can contribute to planning areas for bee protection or planting such as in riparian vegetation. This would aid managed bee health, wild pollinator protection and honey production. We demonstrate the methods in a

  2. Biología floral, sistema reproductivo y éxito reproductivo de Macroptilium fraternum (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia S. Hoc

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron observaciones de la biología floral y el sistema reproductivo de Macroptilium fraternum en dos poblaciones de la Argentina, con diferentes condiciones edáficas, localizadas en el extremo Sur del área de distribución de esta especie. En ambas poblaciones y en material de herbario de distintas procedencias se determinó la coexistencia en una misma planta de dos tipos florales: a flores cleistógamas preantesis y b flores pseudocleistógamas. Las flores cleistógamas preantesis con alas mayores de 5 mm, dispuestas en racimos pubescentes, erectos, expuestos sobre el nivel del follaje. La antesis duraba aproximadamente 5 horas en los días soleados y 9 horas en los días lluviosos, el ala derecha cubría al ala izquierda, adquiriendo la corola aspecto bilabiado, ofreciendo el ala izquierda como plataforma de aterrizaje; producían escasa cantidad de néctar (0.18 ± 0.13 µl y no recibieron visitas de polinizadores; aproximadamente cuatro horas después del inicio de la antesis en días soleados el ovario comenzaba a crecer; en el capullo, el estigma receptivo se encontraba cubierto con granos de polen de la misma unidad floral germinando. Las flores pseudocleistógamas con alas menores de 5 mm, dispuestas en racimos breves, hirsutos y postrados, no subterráneos como en otras especies de Macroptilium. El estandarte comenzaba a desplegarse exponiendo parcialmente las alas, el limbo del ala izquierda rodeaba la quilla y nunca se desplegaba; el ala derecha comenzaba a desplegarse y a los 2 segundos se replegaba y marchitaba, inmediatamente el ovario comenzaba a crecer; la flor no ofrecía ninguna superficie donde algún visitante pudiera posarse; en los capullos el estigma estaba receptivo y con los granos de polen de la misma unidad floral emitiendo sus tubos polínicos. El éxito reproductivo relativo fue bajo (polinización natural = 8%, autopolinización espontánea = 3%, debido probablemente a la baja viabilidad polínica, el

  3. Evolution of floral meristem identity genes. Analysis of Lolium temulentum genes related to APETALA1 and LEAFY of Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gocal, G.F.W.; King, R.W.; Blundell, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Flowering (inflorescence formation) of the grass Lolium temulentum is strictly regulated, occurring rapidly on exposure to a single long day (LD). During floral induction, L. temulentum differs significantly from dicot species such as Arabidopsis in the expression, at the shoot apex, of two APETALA......1 (AP1)-like genes, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2, and of L. temulentum LEAFY (LtLFY). As shown by in situ hybridization, LtMADS1 and LtMADS2 are expressed in the vegetative shoot apical meristem, but expression increases strongly within 30 h of LD floral induction. Later in floral development, LtMADS1 and Lt......MADS2 are expressed within spikelet and floret meristems and in the glume and lemma primordia. It is interesting that LtLFY is detected quite late (about 12 d after LD induction) within the spikelet meristems, glumes, and lemma primordia. These patterns contrast with Arabidopsis, where LFY and AP1...

  4. Are there pollination syndromes in the Australian epacrids (Ericaceae: Styphelioideae)? A novel statistical method to identify key floral traits per syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen A

    2013-07-01

    Convergent floral traits hypothesized as attracting particular pollinators are known as pollination syndromes. Floral diversity suggests that the Australian epacrid flora may be adapted to pollinator type. Currently there are empirical data on the pollination systems for 87 species (approx. 15 % of Australian epacrids). This provides an opportunity to test for pollination syndromes and their important morphological traits in an iconic element of the Australian flora. Data on epacrid-pollinator relationships were obtained from published literature and field observation. A multivariate approach was used to test whether epacrid floral attributes related to pollinator profiles. Statistical classification was then used to rank floral attributes according to their predictive value. Data sets excluding mixed pollination systems were used to test the predictive power of statistical classification to identify pollination models. Floral attributes are correlated with bird, fly and bee pollination. Using floral attributes identified as correlating with pollinator type, bird pollination is classified with 86 % accuracy, red flowers being the most important predictor. Fly and bee pollination are classified with 78 and 69 % accuracy, but have a lack of individually important floral predictors. Excluding mixed pollination systems improved the accuracy of the prediction of both bee and fly pollination systems. Although most epacrids have generalized pollination systems, a correlation between bird pollination and red, long-tubed epacrids is found. Statistical classification highlights the relative importance of each floral attribute in relation to pollinator type and proves useful in classifying epacrids to bird, fly and bee pollination systems.

  5. Microbial Ecology of the Hive and Pollination Landscape: Bacterial Associates from Floral Nectar, the Alimentary Tract and Stored Food of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Brendon M.; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R.; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M.; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or “beebread”). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  6. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk E Anderson

    Full Text Available Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread". We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop, midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota

  7. Microbial ecology of the hive and pollination landscape: bacterial associates from floral nectar, the alimentary tract and stored food of honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirk E; Sheehan, Timothy H; Mott, Brendon M; Maes, Patrick; Snyder, Lucy; Schwan, Melissa R; Walton, Alexander; Jones, Beryl M; Corby-Harris, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all eukaryotes are host to beneficial or benign bacteria in their gut lumen, either vertically inherited, or acquired from the environment. While bacteria core to the honey bee gut are becoming evident, the influence of the hive and pollination environment on honey bee microbial health is largely unexplored. Here we compare bacteria from floral nectar in the immediate pollination environment, different segments of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) alimentary tract, and food stored in the hive (honey and packed pollen or "beebread"). We used cultivation and sequencing to explore bacterial communities in all sample types, coupled with culture-independent analysis of beebread. We compare our results from the alimentary tract with both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses from previous studies. Culturing the foregut (crop), midgut and hindgut with standard media produced many identical or highly similar 16S rDNA sequences found with 16S rDNA clone libraries and next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons. Despite extensive culturing with identical media, our results do not support the core crop bacterial community hypothesized by recent studies. We cultured a wide variety of bacterial strains from 6 of 7 phylogenetic groups considered core to the honey bee hindgut. Our results reveal that many bacteria prevalent in beebread and the crop are also found in floral nectar, suggesting frequent horizontal transmission. From beebread we uncovered a variety of bacterial phylotypes, including many possible pathogens and food spoilage organisms, and potentially beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus kunkeei, Acetobacteraceae and many different groups of Actinobacteria. Contributions of these bacteria to colony health may include general hygiene, fungal and pathogen inhibition and beebread preservation. Our results are important for understanding the contribution to pollinator health of both environmentally vectored and core microbiota, and the

  8. Deep roots delay flowering and relax the impact of floral traits and associated pollinators in steppe plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrached, Rachda; Kadik, Leila; Ait Mouheb, Hocine; Prinzing, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Strong seasonality in abiotic harshness and pollinator availability shape the reproductive success of plants. Plant species can avoid or can tolerate harsh abiotic conditions and can attract different pollinators, but it remains unknown (i) which of these capacities is most important for flowering phenology, (ii) whether tolerance/avoidance of abiotic harshness reinforces or relaxes the phenological differentiation of species attracting different pollinators. We assembled possibly the first functional trait database for a North African steppe covering 104 species. We inferred avoidance of harshness (drought) from dormancy, i.e. annual life-span and seed size. We inferred tolerance or resistance to harshness from small specific leaf area, small stature, deep roots and high dry matter content. We inferred the type of pollinators attracted from floral colour, shape and depth. We found that avoidance traits did not affect flowering phenology, and among tolerance traits only deep roots had an effect by delaying flowering. Flower colour (red or purple), and occasionally flower depth, delayed flowering. Dish, gullet and flag shape accelerated flowering. Interactive effects however were at least as important, inversing the mentioned relationship between floral characters and flowering phenology. Specifically, among drought-tolerant deep-rooted species, flowering phenologies converged among floral types attracting different pollinators, without becoming less variable overall. Direct and interactive effects of root depth and floral traits explained at least 45% of the variance in flowering phenology. Also, conclusions on interactive effects were highly consistent with and without including information on family identity or outliers. Overall, roots and floral syndromes strongly control flowering phenology, while many other traits do not. Surprisingly, floral syndromes and the related pollinators appear to constrain phenology mainly in shallow-rooted, abiotically little

  9. Insect-flower interaction network structure is resilient to a temporary pulse of floral resources from invasive Rhododendron ponticum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jo Tiedeken

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering, yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H'2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure

  10. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  12. Concentraciones opuestas de AIA-ABA aceleran el desarrollo floral de Solidago x luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez Víctor Julio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    El desarrollo floral es una secuencia de numerosos pasos, cada uno con requerimientos específicos afectados directamente por las condiciones químicas y ambientales. La luz desempeña un papel central en la iniciación del desarrollo floral. Solidago × luteus (M. L. Greene Brouillet y Semple (= ×Solidaster hybridus, × S. luteus responde a los días largos (DL para la inducción floral y a los días cortos (DC para el desarrollo de la flor. En este trabajo se recolectaron muestras de hojas y botones florales de plantas de S. × luteus crecidas en diferentes condiciones fotoperiódicas: DC (8 h y DL (18 h. A través de diferentes bioensayos, se detectó la actividad promotora e inhibidora de sustancias presentes en la fracción ácida de los extractos vegetales. Posteriormente, las concentraciones de AIA y de ABA presentes en los extractos se determinaron a través de cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia. Los resultados mostraron la ausencia de actividad giberelínica en los tratamientos estudiados; entretanto, se constató una mayor concentración de AIA en hojas y botones florales en plantas en condiciones de DL, en comparación con plantas de DC, lo que podría estar relacionado con la mayor velocidad de antesis floral en plantas en DC. Las mayores concentraciones de ABA, con relación al inicio de los tratamientos fotoperiódicos, ocurrieron en hojas y botones florales de plantas en DC; así, en el balance AIA:ABA, éstos se encontrarían en concentraciones opuestas, principalmente en el botón floral en DC, en el que se observó la mayor cantidad de ABA y la ausencia de AIA.

  13. Pollination biology in the dioecious orchid Catasetum uncatum: How does floral scent influence the behaviour of pollinators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Dötterl, Stefan; Carvalho, Airton Torres; Pinto, Carlos Eduardo; Ayasse, Manfred; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2015-08-01

    Catasetum is a neotropical orchid genus that comprises about 160 dioecious species with a remarkable sexual dimorphism in floral morphology. Flowers of Catasetum produce perfumes as rewards, which are collected only by male euglossine bees. Currently, floral scents are known to be involved in the selective attraction of specific euglossine species. However, sexual dimorphism in floral scent and its eventual role in the pollination of Catasetum species have never been investigated. Here, we have investigated the pollination of Catasetum uncatum and asked: (1) Is floral scent a sexual dimorphic trait? (2) Does pollinarium removal/deposition affect scent emission? (3) Does sexual dimorphism in floral scent and changed scent emission have implications with regard to the behaviour of the pollinators? The frequency and behaviour of floral visitors were observed in non-manipulated flowers (both flower sexes) and in manipulated flowers (pistillate only) in which pollinaria were deposited. Scents of staminate and pistillate flowers (both manipulated and non-manipulated) were collected by using dynamic headspace methods and analysed chemically. Electrophysiological analyses were performed to detect compounds triggering antennal depolarisation in the euglossine species. C. uncatum is pollinated mainly by males of Euglossa nanomelanotricha. Pollinators were more frequent in pistillate than in staminate inflorescences. Bees approaching staminate flowers frequently flew away without visiting them, a behavioural pattern not observed in pistillate flowers. In the chemical analyses, we recorded 99 compounds, 31 of which triggered antennal depolarisation in pollinators. Multivariate analyses with the electrophysiological-active compounds did not detect differences between the scent composition of staminate and pistillate flowers. Pollinarium removal or deposition resulted in diminished scent emission within 24h in staminate and pistillate flowers, respectively. Surprisingly, bees

  14. Influencia del fotoperiodo en el desarrollo floral de plantas de Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' y Solidago x luteus Influenee of photoperiod on floral development in plants of Solidago chilensis, Aster ericoides ev. 'Monteeasino' and Solidago x tuteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórez Roncancio Victor J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Solidago x luteus es un híbrido interespecífico entre Solidago ptarmicoides y Solidago canadensis. Este híbrido, Solidago chilensis y Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' son las especies objeto del presente estudio. Son plantas típicas de días largos, las cuales crecen como rosetas en días cortos y son explotadas para flor de corte. Se observaron características vegetativas y reproductivas de estas especies en condiciones fotoperiódicas de 8h y 20h y, en Solidago x luteus, por su mejor performance en cuanto a la inducción floral, se realizaron estudios de comportamiento fotoperiódico del desarrollo desde el botón floral hasta antesis. En forma general, en las tres especies estudiadas, los fotoperíodos largos promueven inducción floral y aumento en el número de ramificaciones laterales y de hojas. En días cortos, las
    plantas de Solidago chilensis permanecieron en roseta, en las de Solidago x luteus hubo inducción y antesis floral, en tanto que, en Aster ericoides, había plantas en roseta y plantas inducidas. La evidencia de que los días cortos aceleraban la antesis floral en plantas de Solidago x luteus, inducidas en
    días largos, se fortaleció con el experimento de diferente duración en días cortos (5; 10 y 15 días; lo cual se confirmó en experimentos subsecuentes, en donde se comprobó que la planta responde a los fotoperíodos cortos (8h; 10h y 12h, acelerando la antesis y a los fotoperíodos largos (16h y 20h, retardándola y los fotoperiódos entre 12h y 16h (14h  estarían en una situación de transición entre días cortos y días largos, caracterizando, así, una respuesta cuantitativa con el aumento del fotoperíodo.
    Solidago x luteus is a hybrid between Solidago ptarmicoides and Solidago canadensis. This hybrid, Solidago chilensis and Aster ericoides cv. 'Montecasino' are the subject of the present work. They are typically long-day plants which grow as rosettes in short days and are exploited as cut

  15. MR imaging of abnormal synovial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Sanchez, R.; Murray, W.T.; Silbiger, M.L.; Ogden, J.; Cochran, C.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging can directly image abnormal synovium. The authors reviewed over 50 cases with abnormal synovial processes. The abnormalities include Baker cysts, semimembranous bursitis, chronic shoulder bursitis, peroneal tendon ganglion cyst, periarticular abscesses, thickened synovium from rheumatoid and septic arthritis, and synovial hypertrophy secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. MR imaging has proved invaluable in identifying abnormal synovium, defining the extent and, to a limited degree, characterizing its makeup

  16. ANALYSIS OF ABNORMALITIES IN COMMON CAROTID ARTERY IMAGES USING MULTIWAVELETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nandakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the report given by World Health Organization, by 2030 almost 23.6 million people will die from cardiovascular diseases (CVD, mostly from heart disease and stroke. The main objective of this work is to develop a classifier for the diagnosis of abnormal Common Carotid Arteries (CCA. This paper proposes a new approach for the analysis of abnormalities in longitudinal B-mode ultrasound CCA images using multiwavelets. Analysis is done using HM and GHM multiwavelets at various levels of decomposition. Energy values of the coefficients of approximation, horizontal, vertical and diagonal details are calculated and plotted for different levels. Plots of energy values show high correlation with the abnormalities of CCA and offer the possibility of improved diagnosis of CVD. It is clear that the energy values can be used as an index of individual atherosclerosis and to develop a cost effective system for cardiovascular risk assessment at an early stage.

  17. Abnormal mitochondria in Rett syndrome: one