WorldWideScience

Sample records for ablative treatment options

  1. Treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Dalbir S; Tharayil, Vivek S; Lai, Jin-Ping; Roberts, Lewis R

    2008-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages and has a high mortality rate. With improved survival of patients with cirrhotic liver disease and increased prevalence of chronic hepatitis C viral infections, a rise in the number of HCC cases is being reported worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis of patients with HCC. Although surgical resection is an important potentially curative therapy for liver tumors, in appropriately selected patients, liver transplantation has been shown to achieve excellent survival rates for a solid tumor. Locally ablative and locoregional therapies in the form of percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and transcatheter arterial radioembolization (TheraSphere) are viable options in patients with unresectable HCC. Unfortunately, the role of systemic therapy has been very limited in the treatment of these patients. Novel treatment options based on an improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC are being explored. These targeted molecular therapies are aimed at growth factors and their receptors, intracellular signal transduction and cell cycle control. A substantial improvement in outcomes of intermediate and advanced stage HCC is expected with the advent of these targeted therapies, used in combination with surgical or locoregional therapies. Recent positive results from a large Phase III study of the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, hold great promise in the treatment of HCC.

  2. Long-wave plasma radiofrequency ablation for treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Adone

    2018-03-01

    Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common type of xanthoma affecting the eyelids. It is characterized by asymptomatic soft yellowish macules, papules, or plaques over the upper and lower eyelids. Many treatments are available for management of xanthelasma palpebrarum, the most commonly used include surgical excision, ablative CO 2 or erbium lasers, nonablative Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, trichloroacetic acid peeling, and radiofrequency ablation. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of RF ablation in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum, with D.A.S. Medical portable device (Technolux, Italia), a radiofrequency tool working with long-wave plasma energy and without anesthesia. Twenty patients, 15 female and 5 male, affected by xanthelasma palpebrarum, were enrolled for long-wave plasma radiofrequency ablation treatment. The treatment consisted of 3/4 sessions that were carried out at intervals of 30 days. Treatments were well tolerated by all patients with no adverse effects and optimal aesthetic results. The procedure is very fast and can be performed without anesthesia because of the low and tolerable pain stimulation. Long-wave plasma radiofrequency ablation is an effective option for treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum and adds an additional tool to the increasing list of medical devices for aesthetic treatments. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Transepidermal drug delivery: a new treatment option for areata alopecia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Maria Claudia Almeida; Pires, Marianna; Silveira, Priscilla; Xavier de Brito, Esther; Sasajima, Cristiane

    2015-02-01

    Transepidermal drug delivery (TED) is a new potential method in dermatology. Permeability alterations induced by ablative fractional resurfacing have been described with the aim to increasing the delivery of different substances into the skin. To evaluate clinical response and side effects of TED in areata alopecia (AA) treatment using ablative fractional methods associated with acoustic pressure ultrasound (US) to deliver triamcinolone solution into the skin. Five cases of AA underwent treatment which comprised of 3 steps: 1) Ablative fractioned RF or CO2 laser 2) topical application of triamcinolone 3) acoustic pressure wave US. The number of sessions varied according to the clinical response, ranging from one to six sessions. All patients had complete recovery of the area treated. Two of them treated with ablative fractional RF + triamcinolone + US had complete response after three and six sessions. The other two treated with ablative fractional CO2 + triamcinolone + US had complete response after one session. Fractioned ablative resurfacing associated with acoustic pressure wave US is a new option to areata alopecia treatment with good clinical result and low incidence of side effects.

  4. Radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocetti, Laura, E-mail: l.crocetti@med.unipi.i [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Liver Transplants, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Pisa University School of Medicine (Italy); Lencioni, Riccardo [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention, Department of Liver Transplants, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Pisa University School of Medicine (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    The development of image-guided percutaneous techniques for local tumor ablation has been one of the major advances in the treatment of solid tumors. Among these methods, radiofrequency (RF) ablation is currently established as the primary ablative modality at most institutions. RF ablation is accepted as the best therapeutic choice for patients with early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma when liver transplantation or surgical resection are not suitable options and is considered as a viable alternate to surgery for inoperable patients with limited hepatic metastatic disease, especially from colorectal cancer. Recently, RF ablation has been demonstrated to be a safe and valuable treatment option for patients with unresectable or medically inoperable lung malignancies. Resection should remain the standard therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but RF ablation may be better than conventional external-beam radiation for the treatment of the high-risk individual with NSCLC. Initial favourable outcomes encourage combining radiotherapy and RF ablation, especially for treating larger tumors. In the setting of colorectal cancer lung metastases, survival rates provided by RF ablation in selected patients, are substantially higher than those obtained with any chemotherapy regimens and provide indirect evidence that RF ablation therapy improves survival in patients with limited lung metastatic disease.

  5. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment of Recurrent Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, Sebastian; Bruners, Philipp; Brehmer, Bernhard; Mahnken, Andreas Horst

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is becoming more and more established in the treatment of various neoplasms, including retroperitoneal tumors of the kidneys and the adrenal glands. We report the case of RFA in a patient suffering from the third relapse of a retroperitoneal liposarcoma in the left psoas muscle. After repeated surgical resection and supportive radiation therapy of a primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma and two surgically treated recurrences, including replacement of the ureter by a fraction of the ileum, there was no option for further surgery. Thus, we considered RFA as the most suitable treatment option. Monopolar RFA was performed in a single session with a 2-cm umbrella-shaped LeVeen probe. During a 27-month follow-up period the patient remained free of tumor.

  6. Pulmonary ablation: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberton, Benjamin J; Liu, David; Power, Mark; Wan, John M C; Stuart, Sam; Klass, Darren; Yee, John

    2014-05-01

    Percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation is safe and efficacious in achieving local control and improving outcome in the treatment of both early stage non-small-cell lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic disease, in which surgical treatment is precluded by comorbidity, poor cardiorespiratory reserve, or unfavorable disease distribution. Radiofrequency ablation is the most established technology, but new thermal ablation technologies such as microwave ablation and cryoablation may offer some advantages. The use of advanced techniques, such as induced pneumothorax and the popsicle stick technique, or combining thermal ablation with radiotherapy, widens the treatment options available to the multidisciplinary team. The intent of this article is to provide the reader with a practical knowledge base of pulmonary ablation by concentrating on indications, techniques, and follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Current options for the treatment of pathological scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Scarring is the consequence of surgery, trauma or different skin diseases. Apart from fresh, immature scars,that transform into mature scars over the course of would healing and that do not require further treatment,linear hypertrophic scars, widespread hypertrophic scars, keloids and atrophic scars exist. Symptoms like pruritusand pain, stigmatization as well as functional and aesthetic impairments that are very disturbing for the affected patients can bethe basis for the desire for treatment. Today, a multitude of options for the treatment and prevention of scars exists. Topical agents based on silicone or onion extract, intralesional injections of cristalline glucocorticoids (oftentimes in combinationwith cryotherapy) or 5-Fluorouracil as well as ablative and nonablative laser treatment are used. Current guidelines summarize the multitude of available treatment options and the currently available datafor the treating physicians, allowing them to make clear therapy recommendations for every single scar type. Relieving patients of their discomfort and doing their aesthetic demands justice is thus possible. Apart from scar prevention becoming more and more important, the increased use of modernlaser treatment options constitutes a key point in clinical scar treatment. At the same time the attention is turned to evaluating current therapeutic options with the help of contemporary study designs so as to graduallyimprove the level of evidence in scar treatment. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of gastric antral vascular ectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dray, X.; Repici, A.; Gonzalez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: The traditional endoscopic treatment for gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is argon plasma coagulation, but results are not always positive. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new endoscopic therapy that may be an attractive option for the treatment of GAVE. The aim...... of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of RFA for the treatment of GAVE. Patients and methods: This was an open-label, retrospective, case series study. The main outcome measures were number of red blood cell (RBC) packs transfused (transfusion requirement) and hemoglobin concentrations (g...

  9. Systematic review of innovative ablative therapies for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, S. J. E.; Vogel, J. A.; van Santvoort, H. C.; van Lienden, K. P.; van Hillegersberg, R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Besselink, M. G. H.; Molenaar, I. Q.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundLocally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is associated with a very poor prognosis. Current palliative (radio)chemotherapy provides only a marginal survival benefit of 2-3 months. Several innovative local ablative therapies have been explored as new treatment options. This systematic

  10. An image-guided system for optimized volumetric treatment planning and execution for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovac, F.; Popa, T.; Cheng, P.; Cleary, K. [Computer Aided Interventions and Medical Robotics (CAIMR), Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Abeledo, H.; Campos-Nanez, E. [Dept. of Engineering Management and System Engineering, George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Wood, B.J. [Diagnostic Radiology Dept., NIH Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors is becoming an increasingly popular option for the treatment of cancer. However, the procedure has several technical challenges, mostly associated with precision targeting of the tumor and ensuring complete ablation coverage. In this paper we describe an image-guided system that we are developing for improved visualization and probe placement during these procedures. The system will include a pre-procedure optimization module and an intra-procedure guidance component. The system concept is explained and some preliminary results are given. While this system is designed for radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors, the methods are applicable to other organs and treatment methods. (orig.)

  11. Ablative skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nidhi; Smith, Greg; Heffelfinger, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    Ablative laser resurfacing has evolved as a safe and effective treatment for skin rejuvenation. Although traditional lasers were associated with significant thermal damage and lengthy recovery, advances in laser technology have improved safety profiles and reduced social downtime. CO2 lasers remain the gold standard of treatment, and fractional ablative devices capable of achieving remarkable clinical improvement with fewer side effects and shorter recovery times have made it a more practical option for patients. Although ablative resurfacing has become safer, careful patient selection and choice of suitable laser parameters are essential to minimize complications and optimize outcomes. This article describes the current modalities used in ablative laser skin resurfacing and examines their efficacy, indications, and possible side effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. [Radiofrequency ablation in the multimodal treatment of liver metastases--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcoveanu, C; Dogaru, C; Diaconu, C; Grecu, F; Dragomir, Cr; Pricop, Adriana; Balan, G; Drug, V L

    2007-01-01

    Although the "gold standard" in the multimodal treatment of liver primary and secondary tumors is the surgical ablation, the rate of resection, despite the last decades advances, remains still low (10 - 20%). In addition, the interest for non-surgical ablation therapies is increasing. Among them, regional or systemic chemotherapy, intra-arterial radiotherapy as well as locally targeted therapies--cryotherapy, alcohol instillation and radiofrequency (RF) are the most valuable options as alternative to the surgical approach. Between February 2005 - January 2007, 9 patients with liver metastases underwent open RF ablation of their secondaries in the III-rd Surgical Unit, "St. Spiridon" Hospital. An Elektrotom 106 HiTT Berchtold device with a 60W power generator and a 15 mm monopolar active electrode was used. Destruction of the tumors was certified with intraoperative ultrasound examination. Pre- and postoperative CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen (CEA) together with imaging follow-up was carried out, in order to determine local or systemic recurrencies. Six patients died between 6 month - 4 years after the RF ablation. Median survival is 29.2 months. RF ablation is a challenge alternative in non-resectable liver tumors.

  13. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by topical sodium stibogluconate application: A treatment option for pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilerowicz, Yuval; Koren, Amir; Mashiah, Jacob; Katz, Oren; Sprecher, Eli; Artzi, Ofir

    2018-05-01

    Leishmaniasis is a protozoan zoonotic parasitic infection with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral manifestations. Israel is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a self-limited disease but is associated with scarring, which is often a source of psychological and social burden for patients. Scars can be especially devastating for children and teenagers. A wide range of physical and medical approaches is used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, among which intralesional injections of sodium stibogluconate rank among the most frequently used. Unfortunately, despite being effective, this therapeutic modality can be very painful. Fractional ablative laser creates a controlled mesh-like pattern of tissue ablation in the skin that promotes dermal remodeling and collagen production while at the same time facilitating enhanced delivery of topically applied medications. Patients were treated with fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by immediate topical application of sodium stibogluconate. All children were diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis prior to treatment initiation.. Ten children were treated. One leishmania tropica-positive girl failed to respond. The other nine patients achieved clinical cure and demonstrated good to excellent final cosmesis. Self-rated patient satisfaction and tolerance were high No adverse effects were observed or reported during treatment. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser followed by topical sodium stibogluconate application appears to be a safe and promising treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis infection in children. Future controlled studies are required to validate these findings and compare this technique with traditional approaches. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Initial Results of Image-Guided Percutaneous Ablation as Second-Line Treatment for Symptomatic Vascular Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Scott M.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; McKusick, Michael A.; Woodrum, David A.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and early effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line treatment for symptomatic soft-tissue vascular anomalies (VA).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective review was undertaken of all patients who underwent percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line therapy for treatment of symptomatic soft-tissue VA during the period from 1/1/2008 to 5/20/2014. US/CT- or MRI-guided and monitored cryoablation or MRI-guided and monitored laser ablation was performed. Clinical follow-up began at one-month post-ablation.ResultsEight patients with nine torso or lower extremity VA were treated with US/CT (N = 4) or MRI-guided (N = 2) cryoablation or MRI-guided laser ablation (N = 5) for moderate to severe pain (N = 7) or diffuse bleeding secondary to hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome (N = 1). The median maximal diameter was 9.0 cm (6.5–11.1 cm) and 2.5 cm (2.3–5.3 cm) for VA undergoing cryoablation and laser ablation, respectively. Seven VA were ablated in one session, one VA initially treated with MRI-guided cryoablation for severe pain was re-treated with MRI-guided laser ablation due to persistent moderate pain, and one VA was treated in a planned two-stage session due to large VA size. At an average follow-up of 19.8 months (range 2–62 months), 7 of 7 patients with painful VA reported symptomatic pain relief. There was no recurrence of bleeding at five-year post-ablation in the patient with hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome. There were two minor complications and no major complications.ConclusionImage-guided percutaneous ablation is a feasible, safe, and effective second-line treatment option for symptomatic VA

  15. Initial Results of Image-Guided Percutaneous Ablation as Second-Line Treatment for Symptomatic Vascular Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Scott M., E-mail: Thompson.scott@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Medical School and the Mayo Clinic Medical Scientist Training Program, College of Medicine (United States); Callstrom, Matthew R., E-mail: callstrom.matthew@mayo.edu; McKusick, Michael A., E-mail: mckusick.michael@mayo.edu; Woodrum, David A., E-mail: woodrum.david@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and early effectiveness of percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line treatment for symptomatic soft-tissue vascular anomalies (VA).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective review was undertaken of all patients who underwent percutaneous image-guided ablation as second-line therapy for treatment of symptomatic soft-tissue VA during the period from 1/1/2008 to 5/20/2014. US/CT- or MRI-guided and monitored cryoablation or MRI-guided and monitored laser ablation was performed. Clinical follow-up began at one-month post-ablation.ResultsEight patients with nine torso or lower extremity VA were treated with US/CT (N = 4) or MRI-guided (N = 2) cryoablation or MRI-guided laser ablation (N = 5) for moderate to severe pain (N = 7) or diffuse bleeding secondary to hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome (N = 1). The median maximal diameter was 9.0 cm (6.5–11.1 cm) and 2.5 cm (2.3–5.3 cm) for VA undergoing cryoablation and laser ablation, respectively. Seven VA were ablated in one session, one VA initially treated with MRI-guided cryoablation for severe pain was re-treated with MRI-guided laser ablation due to persistent moderate pain, and one VA was treated in a planned two-stage session due to large VA size. At an average follow-up of 19.8 months (range 2–62 months), 7 of 7 patients with painful VA reported symptomatic pain relief. There was no recurrence of bleeding at five-year post-ablation in the patient with hemangioma–thrombocytopenia syndrome. There were two minor complications and no major complications.ConclusionImage-guided percutaneous ablation is a feasible, safe, and effective second-line treatment option for symptomatic VA.

  16. Microwave Tissue Ablation: Biophysics, Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an emerging treatment option for many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. During treatment, microwaves are applied directly to tissues to produce rapid temperature elevations sufficient to produce immediate coagulative necrosis. The engineering design criteria for each application differ, with individual consideration for factors such as desired ablation zone size, treatment duration, and procedural invasiveness. Recent technological developments in applicator cooling, power control and system optimization for specific applications promise to increase the utilization of microwave ablation in the future. This article will review the basic biophysics of microwave tissue heating, provide an overview of the design and operation of current equipment, and outline areas for future research for microwave ablation. PMID:21175404

  17. Advances in Imaging for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Silva, A.; Wright, M.; Wright, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years, our understanding of the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF) has paved the way for ablation to be utilized as an effective treatment option. With the aim of gaining more detailed anatomical representation, advances have been made using various imaging modalities, both before and during the ablation procedure, in planning and execution. Options have flourished from procedural fluoroscopy, electro anatomic mapping systems, pre procedural computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and combinations of these technologies. Exciting work is underway in an effort to allow the electro physiologist to assess scar formation in real time. One advantage would be to lessen the learning curve for what are very complex procedures. The hope of these developments is to improve the likelihood of a successful ablation procedure and to allow more patients access to this treatment

  18. Perioral Rejuvenation With Ablative Erbium Resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the scanning full-field erbium laser, misconceptions regarding ablative erbium resurfacing have resulted in its being largely overshadowed by ablative fractional resurfacing. This case report illustrates the appropriateness of full-field erbium ablation for perioral resurfacing. A patient with profoundly severe perioral photodamage etched-in lines underwent full-field ablative perioral resurfacing with an erbium laser (Contour TRL, Sciton Inc., Palo Alto, CA) that allows separate control of ablation and coagulation. The pre-procedure consultations included evaluation of the severity of etched-in lines, and discussion of patient goals, expectations, and appropriate treatment options, as well as a review of patient photos and post-treatment care required. The author generally avoids full-field erbium ablation in patients with Fitzpatrick type IV and above. For each of 2 treatment sessions (separated by approximately 4 months), the patient received (12 cc plain 2% lidodaine) sulcus blocks before undergoing 4 passes with the erbium laser at 150 μ ablation, no coagulation, and then some very focal 30 μ ablation to areas of residual lines still visualized through the pinpoint bleeding. Similarly, full-field ablative resurfacing can be very reliable for significant wrinkles and creping in the lower eyelid skin--where often a single treatment of 80 μ ablation, 50 μ coagulation can lead to a nice improvement. Standardized digital imaging revealed significant improvement in deeply etched rhytides without significant adverse events. For appropriately selected patients requiring perioral (or periorbital) rejuvenation, full-field ablative erbium resurfacing is safe, efficacious and merits consideration.

  19. Microwave ablation devices for interventional oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert C; Healey, Terrance T; Dupuy, Damian E

    2013-03-01

    Microwave ablation is one of the several options in the ablation armamentarium for the treatment of malignancy, offering several potential benefits when compared with other ablation, radiation, surgical and medical treatment modalities. The basic microwave system consists of the generator, power distribution system and antennas. Often under image (computed tomography or ultrasound) guidance, a needle-like antenna is inserted percutaneously into the tumor, where local microwave electromagnetic radiation is emitted from the probe's active tip, producing frictional tissue heating, capable of causing cell death by coagulation necrosis. Half of the microwave ablation systems use a 915 MHz generator and the other half use a 2450 MHz generator. To date, there are no completed clinical trials comparing microwave devices head-to-head. Prospective comparisons of microwave technology with other treatment alternatives, as well as head-to-head comparison with each microwave device, is needed if this promising field will garner more widespread support and use in the oncology community.

  20. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Use of bipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation in treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Filip; Starek, Zdenek

    2018-05-23

    Background Arrhythmia management is a complex process involving both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. Radiofrequency ablation is the pillar of non-pharmacological arrhythmia treatment. Unipolar ablation is considered to be the gold standard in the treatment of the majority of arrhythmias; however, its efficacy is limited to specific cases. In particular, the creation of deep or transmural lesions to eliminate intramurally originating arrhythmias remains inadequate. Bipolar ablation is proposed as an alternative to overcome unipolar ablation boundaries. Results Despite promising results gained from in vitro and animal studies showing that bipolar ablation is superior in creating transmural lesions, the use of bipolar ablation in daily clinical practice is limited. Several studies have been published showing that bipolar ablation is effective in the treatment of clinical arrhythmias after failed unipolar ablation, however there is inconsistency regarding safety of bipolar ablation within the available research papers. According to research evidence the most common indications for bipolar ablation use are ventricular originating rhythmic disorders in patients with structural heart disease resistant to standard radiofrequency ablation. Conclusions To allow wider clinical application the efficiency and safety of bipolar ablation need to be verified in future studies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. A review of treatment options for Graves' disease: why total thyroidectomy is a viable option in selected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vinuta; Lind, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. If left untreated, patients may have multiple systemic complications such as cardiac, reproductive, and skeletal disease. Thionamides, such as methimazole and propylthiouracil, and I(131) iodine ablation are the most commonly prescribed treatment for Graves' disease. Total thyroidectomy is often overlooked for treatment and is usually only offered if the other options have failed. In our case, we discuss a patient who was admitted to our medical center with symptomatic hyperthyroidism secondary to long-standing Graves' disease. She had a history of non-compliance with medications and medical clinic follow-up. The risks and benefits of total thyroidectomy were explained and she consented to surgery. A few months after the procedure, she was biochemically and clinically euthyroid on levothyroxine. She had no further emergency room visits or admissions for uncontrolled thyroid disease. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of the more typically prescribed treatments, thionamides and I(131)iodine ablation. We also review the importance of shared decision making and the benefits of total thyroidectomy for the management of Graves' disease. Given the improvement in surgical techniques over the past decade and a significant reduction of complications, we suggest total thyroidectomy be recommended more often for patients with Graves' disease.

  3. Use of radiofrequency ablation in benign thyroid nodules: a literature review and updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kai-Pun; Lang, Brian Hung-Hin

    2013-01-01

    Successful thermal ablation using radiofrequency has been reported in various tumors including liver or kidney tumors. Nonsurgical minimally invasive ablative therapy such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been reported to be a safe and efficient treatment option in managing symptomatic cold thyroid nodules or hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Pressure and cosmetic symptoms have been shown to be significantly improved both in the short and long terms after RFA. For hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, RFA is indicated for whom surgery or radioiodine are not indicated or ineffective or for those who refuse surgery or radio-iodine. Improvement of thyroid function with decreased need for antithyroid medications has been reported. Complication rate is relatively low. By reviewing the current literature, we reported its efficacy and complications and compared the efficacy of RFA relative to other ablative options such as ethanol ablation and laser ablation.

  4. Use of Radiofrequency Ablation in Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Literature Review and Updates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Pun Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful thermal ablation using radiofrequency has been reported in various tumors including liver or kidney tumors. Nonsurgical minimally invasive ablative therapy such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA has been reported to be a safe and efficient treatment option in managing symptomatic cold thyroid nodules or hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Pressure and cosmetic symptoms have been shown to be significantly improved both in the short and long terms after RFA. For hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, RFA is indicated for whom surgery or radioiodine are not indicated or ineffective or for those who refuse surgery or radio-iodine. Improvement of thyroid function with decreased need for antithyroid medications has been reported. Complication rate is relatively low. By reviewing the current literature, we reported its efficacy and complications and compared the efficacy of RFA relative to other ablative options such as ethanol ablation and laser ablation.

  5. A prospective development study of software-guided radio-frequency ablation of primary and secondary liver tumors: Clinical intervention modelling, planning and proof for ablation cancer treatment (ClinicIMPPACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Martin; Brandmaier, Philipp; Seider, Daniel; Kolesnik, Marina; Jenniskens, Sjoerd; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Eibisberger, Martin; Voglreiter, Philip; Flanagan, Ronan; Mariappan, Panchatcharam; Busse, Harald; Moche, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Radio-frequency ablation (RFA) is a promising minimal-invasive treatment option for early liver cancer, however monitoring or predicting the size of the resulting tissue necrosis during the RFA-procedure is a challenging task, potentially resulting in a significant rate of under- or over treatments. Currently there is no reliable lesion size prediction method commercially available. ClinicIMPPACT is designed as multicenter-, prospective-, non-randomized clinical trial to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of innovative planning and simulation software. 60 patients with early liver cancer will be included at four European clinical institutions and treated with the same RFA system. The preinterventional imaging datasets will be used for computational planning of the RFA treatment. All ablations will be simulated simultaneously to the actual RFA procedure, using the software environment developed in this project. The primary outcome measure is the comparison of the simulated ablation zones with the true lesions shown in follow-up imaging after one month, to assess accuracy of the lesion prediction. This unique multicenter clinical trial aims at the clinical integration of a dedicated software solution to accurately predict lesion size and shape after radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors. Accelerated and optimized workflow integration, and real-time intraoperative image processing, as well as inclusion of patient specific information, e.g. organ perfusion and registration of the real RFA needle position might make the introduced software a powerful tool for interventional radiologists to optimize patient outcomes.

  6. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Early Clinical Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kim, Su Yeon; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Sung, Gyung Tak [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43 73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow- up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1 5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17 33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs.

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Early Clinical Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hoon; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Young; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Hee Jin; Kim, Su Yeon; Kang, Myong Jin; Choi, Sun Seob; Sung, Gyung Tak

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the early clinical experience associated with radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The RF ablation treatment was performed on 17 tumors from 16 patients (mean age, 60.5 years; range, 43 73 years) with RCC. The treatment indications were localized, solid renal mass, comorbidities, high operation risk, and refusal to perform surgery. All tumors were treated by a percutaneous CT (n = 10), followed by an US-guided (n = 2), laparoscopy-assisted US (n = 2), and an open (n = 2) RF ablation. Furthermore, patients underwent a follow- up CT at one day, one week, one month, three and six months, and then every six months from the onset of treatment. We evaluated the technical success, technical effectiveness, ablation zone, benign periablation enhancement, irregular peripheral enhancement, and complications. All 17 exophytic tumors (mean size, 2.2 cm; range, 1.1 5.0 cm) were completely ablated. Technical success and effectiveness was achieved in all cases and the mean follow-up period was 23.8 months (range, 17 33 months). A local recurrence was not detected in any of the cases; however, five patients developed complications as a result of treatment, including hematuria (n = 2), mild thermal injury of the psoas muscle (n = 1), mild hydronephrosis (n = 1), and fistula formation (n = 1). The RF ablation is an alternative treatment for exophytic RCCs and represents a promising treatment for some patients with small RCCs

  8. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic metastasis: Results of treatment in forty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the local control of hepatic metastasis with radiofrequency ablation treatment. Materials and Methods: We did a retrospective analysis in 40 patients treated with radiofrequency ablation for hepatic metastasis. The tumors ablated included up to two metastatic liver lesions, with primaries in breast, gastrointestinal tract, cervix, etc. Radiofrequency ablation was performed under general anesthesia in all cases, using ultrasound guidance. Radionics Cool-Tip RF System was used to deliver the treatment. Results: The median age of patients treated was 49 years. There were 13 female and 27 male patients. The median tumor size ablated was 1.5 cm (0.75-4.0 cm. A total of 52 radiofrequency ablation cycles were delivered. Successful ablation was achieved in all patients with hepatic metastasis less than 3 cm in size. Pain was the most common complication seen (75%. One patients developed skin burns. At 2-year follow-up 7.5% of patients had locally recurrent disease. Conclusions: Radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive treatment modality. It can be useful in a select group of patients with solitary liver metastasis of less than 3 cm size.

  9. Treatment of Benign Thyroid Nodules: Comparison of Surgery with Radiofrequency Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Y; Jin, S; Shi, C; Wang, L; Zhang, X; Li, Y; Baek, J H

    2015-07-01

    Nodular goiter is one of the most common benign lesions in thyroid nodule. The main treatment of the disease is still the traditional surgical resection, however there are many problems such as general anesthesia, surgical scar, postoperative thyroid or parathyroid function abnormalities, and high nodules recurrence rate in residual gland. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of 2 treatment methods, surgery and radiofrequency ablation, for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. From May 2012 to September 2013, 200 patients with nodular goiters who underwent surgery (group A) and 200 patients treated by radiofrequency ablation (group B) were enrolled in this study. Inclusion criteria were the following: 1) cosmetic problem, 2) nodule-related symptoms, 3) hyperfunctioning nodules related to thyrotoxicosis, and 4) refusal of surgery (for group B). An internally cooled radiofrequency ablation system and an 18-ga internally cooled electrode were used. We compared the 2 groups in terms of efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness during a 1-year follow-up. After radiofrequency ablation, the nodule volume decreased significantly from 5.4 to 0.4 mL (P = .002) at the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of complications was significantly higher from surgery than from radiofrequency ablation (6.0% versus 1.0%, P = .002). Hypothyroidism was detected in 71.5% of patients after surgery but in none following radiofrequency ablation. The rate of residual nodules (11.9% versus 2.9%, P = .004) and hospitalization days was significantly greater after surgery (6.6 versus 2.1 days, P radiofrequency ablation are both effective treatments of nodular goiter. Compared with surgery, the advantages of radiofrequency ablation include fewer complications, preservation of thyroid function, and fewer hospitalization days. Therefore, radiofrequency ablation should be considered a first-line treatment for benign thyroid nodules. © 2015 by American

  10. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  11. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

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    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

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    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

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    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the brain where it was first found. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. The contemporary role of ablative treatment approaches in the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC): focus on radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Tobias; Kroeger, Nils; Zimmermann, Uwe; Burchardt, Martin; Belldegrun, Arie S; Pantuck, Allan J

    2014-06-01

    Currently, most of renal tumors are small, low grade, with a slow growth rate, a low metastatic potential, and with up to 30 % of these tumors being benign on the final pathology. Moreover, they are often diagnosed in elderly patients with preexisting medical comorbidities in whom the underlying medical conditions may pose a greater risk of death than the small renal mass. Concerns regarding overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients with indolent small renal tumors have led to an increasing interest in minimally invasive, ablative as an alternative to extirpative interventions for selected patients. To provide an overview about the state of the art in radiofrequency ablation (RFA), high-intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation in the clinical management of renal cell carcinoma. A PubMed wide the literature search of was conducted. International consensus panels recommend ablative techniques in patients who are unfit for surgery, who are not considered candidates for or elect against elective surveillance, and who have small renal masses. The most often used techniques are cryoablation and RFA. These ablative techniques offer potentially curative outcomes while conferring several advantages over extirpative surgery, including improved patient procedural tolerance, faster recovery, preservation of renal function, and reduction in the risk of intraoperative and postsurgical complications. While it is likely that outcomes associated with ablative modalities will improve with further advances in technology, their application will expand to more elective indications as longer-term efficacy data become available. Ablative techniques pose a valid treatment option in selected patients.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ...

  6. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  7. Use of Radiofrequency Ablation in Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Literature Review and Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, KP; Lang, HHB

    2013-01-01

    Successful thermal ablation using radiofrequency has been reported in various tumors including liver or kidney tumors. Nonsurgical minimally invasive ablative therapy such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been reported to be a safe and efficient treatment option in managing symptomatic cold thyroid nodules or hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Pressure and cosmetic symptoms have been shown to be significantly improved both in the short and long terms after RFA. For hyperfunctioning thyroid...

  8. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Using Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Alexandre Visconti; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2015-01-01

    Surgical ablation, concomitant with other operations, is an option for treatment in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study is to present a literature review on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, considering energy sources and return to sinus rhythm. A comprehensive survey was performed in the literature on surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation considering energy sources, sample size, study type, outcome (early and late), and return to sinus rhythm. Analyzing studies with immediate results (n=5), the percentage of return to sinus rhythm ranged from 73% to 96%, while those with long-term results (n=20) (from 12 months on) ranged from 62% to 97.7%. In both of them, there was subsequent clinical improvement of patients who underwent ablation, regardless of the energy source used. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation is essential for the treatment of this arrhythmia. With current technology, it may be minimally invasive, making it mandatory to perform a procedure in an attempt to revert to sinus rhythm in patients requiring heart surgery.

  9. Hair regrowth through wound healing process after ablative fractional laser treatment in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Min; Jung, Han Mi; Goo, Boncheol; Park, Young Min

    2015-07-01

    Alopecia is one of the most common dermatological problems in the elderly; however, current therapies for it are limited by low efficacy and undesirable side effects. Although clinical reports on fractional laser treatment for various alopecia types are increasing, the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the effect of ablative fractional laser treatment on hair follicle regrowth in vivo and investigate the molecular mechanism after laser treatment. Ablative CO2 fractional laser was applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice whose hair was in the telogen stage. After 12 mice were treated at various energy (10-40 mJ/spot) and density (100-400 spots/cm(2) ) settings to determine the proper dosage for maximal effect. Six mice were then treated at the decided dosage and skin specimens were sequentially obtained by excision biopsy from the dorsal aspect of each mouse. Tissue samples were used for the immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to examine hair follicle status and their related molecules. The most effective dosage was the 10 mJ/spot and 300 spots/cm(2) setting. The anagen conversion of hair was observed in the histopathological examination, while Wnt/β-catenin expression was associated with hair regrowth in the immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Ablative fractional lasers appear to be effective for inducing hair regrowth via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vivo. Our findings indicate that fractional laser treatment can potentially be developed as new treatment options for stimulating hair regrowth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of spleen for the treatment of hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuxuan; Zhang Yanfang; Zheng Xuefen; Zhang Yuanhua; Kong Jian; Shen Xinying; Dou Yongchong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the clinical effect and experience of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes in the treatment of hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Methods: CT-guided RFA of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes was performed in 15 patients with hypersplenism associated with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The routine blood count was studied both before and after the procedure. Enhanced CT or MR scanning was reexamined after the treatment to determine the ablated volume of the spleen. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: The ablated volume of the spleen accounted for (31.0 ± 4.6)% of the whole spleen. Before the treatment the platelet count was (62 ± 9.8) x 10 9 /L. One month after the treatment, the platelet count was increased to (96 ± 11) x 10 9 /L, which was significantly higher than that before the treatment (P<0.05). One patient developed portal thrombosis four months after RFA, and no other serious complications occurred. Conclusion: CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of spleen by using cool-tip electrodes is an effective and safe treatment for hypersplenism in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. (authors)

  11. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Ablative and Non-Ablative Fractional Laser Treatments for Early Stage Thyroidectomy Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Uk Jang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOpen thyroidectomy is conventionally performed at the anterior side of neck, which is a body part with a comparatively great degree of open exposure; due to this, postoperative scarring may cause distress in patients. We aimed to compare the effects of ablative and nonablative fractional laser treatments on thyroidectomy scars. We examined medical records in a retrospective manner and analyzed scars based on their digital images by using the modified Manchester Scar Scale (mMSS.MethodsBetween February 2012 and May 2013, 55 patients with thyroidectomy scars were treated with ablative (34 patients or nonablative (21 patients fractional laser. Each patient underwent 4 laser treatment sessions in 3–4 week intervals, 1–2 months postoperatively. Scar improvement was assessed using patient images and the mMSS scale.ResultsThe mean decrease in scar score was 3.91 and 3.47 in the ablative and nonablative groups, respectively; the reduction between 2 groups did not exhibit any significant difference (P=0.16. We used the scale once again to individually evaluate scar attributes. The nonablative group accounted for a considerably higher color score value (P=0.03; the ablative group accounted for a considerably higher contour score value (P<0.01. Patient satisfaction was high and no complications occurred.ConclusionsBoth types of fractional laser treatments can be used successfully for thyroidectomy scar treatment with minimal complications; however, results indicate that higher effectiveness may be obtained from the use of ablative and nonablative lasers for hypertrophic scars and early erythematous scars, respectively. Therefore, the appropriate laser for scar treatment should be selected according to its specific characteristics.

  12. Percutaneous Renal Tumor Ablation: Radiation Exposure During Cryoablation and Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEachen, James C., E-mail: james.mceachen2@gmail.com [Mayo Clinic, Division of Preventive, Occupational, and Aerospace Medicine (United States); Leng, Shuai; Atwell, Thomas D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Tollefson, Matthew K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Urology (United States); Friese, Jeremy L. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States); Wang, Zhen; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Division of Preventive, Occupational, and Aerospace Medicine (United States); Schmit, Grant D. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-02-15

    IntroductionOnce reserved solely for non-surgical cases, percutaneous ablation is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option for a wider array of patients with small renal masses and the radiation risk needs to be better defined as this transition continues.Materials and MethodsRetrospective review of our renal tumor ablation database revealed 425 patients who underwent percutaneous ablation for treatment of 455 renal tumors over a 5-year time period. Imparted radiation dose information was reviewed for each procedure and converted to effective patient dose and skin dose using established techniques. Statistical analysis was performed with each ablative technique.ResultsFor the 331 cryoablation procedures, the mean DLP was 6987 mGycm (SD = 2861) resulting in a mean effective dose of 104.7 mSv (SD = 43.5) and the mean CTDI{sub vol} was 558 mGy (SD = 439) resulting in a mean skin dose of 563.2 mGy (SD = 344.1). For the 124 RFA procedures, the mean DLP was 3485 mGycm (SD = 1630) resulting in a mean effective dose of 50.3 mSv (SD = 24.0) and the mean CTDI{sub vol} was 232 mGy (SD = 149) resulting in a mean skin dose of 233.2 mGy (SD = 117.4). The difference in patient radiation exposure between the two renal ablation techniques was statistically significant (p < 0.001).ConclusionBoth cryoablation and RFA imparted an average skin dose that was well below the 2 Gy deterministic threshold for appreciable sequela. Renal tumor cryoablation resulted in a mean skin and effective radiation dose more than twice that for RFA. The radiation exposure for both renal tumor ablation techniques was at the high end of the medical imaging radiation dose spectrum.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examination under a microscope. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). Treatment options depend ... that does not get better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a swollen spleen. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... cell leukemia has not responded to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... body. Has not gotten better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Malignancies: Where Do We Stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lencioni, Riccardo; Crocetti, Laura; Cioni, Roberto; Mussi, Alfredo; Fontanini, Gabriella; Ambrogi, Marcello; Franchini, Chiara; Cioni, Dania; Fanucchi, Olivia; Gemignani, Raffaello; Baldassarri, Rubia; Angeletti, Carlo Alberto; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation is a minimally invasive technique used to treat solid tumors. Because of its ability to produce large volumes of coagulation necrosis in a controlled fashion, this technique has gained acceptance as a viable therapeutic option for unresectable liver malignancies. Recently, investigation has been focused on the clinical application of RF ablation in the treatment of lung malignancies. In theory, lung tumors are well suited to RF ablation because the surrounding air in adjacent normal parenchyma provides an insulating effect, thus facilitating energy concentration within the tumor tissue. Experimental studies in rabbits have confirmed that lung RF ablation can be safely and effectively performed via a percutaneous, transthoracic approach, and have prompted the start of clinical investigation. Pilot clinical studies have shown that RF ablation enables successful treatment of relatively small lung malignancies with a high rate of complete response and acceptable morbidity, and have suggested that the technique could represent a viable alternate or complementary treatment method for patients with non-small cell lung cancer or lung metastases of favorable histotypes who are not candidates for surgical resection. This article gives an overview of lung RF ablation, discussing experimental animal findings, rationale for clinical application, technique and methodology, clinical results, and complications

  17. Management of stage IV rectal cancer: Palliative options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnekleiv-Kelly, Sean M; Kennedy, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with rectal cancer present with metastatic disease. Many of these patients have symptoms of bleeding or obstruction. Several treatment options are available to deal with the various complications that may afflict these patients. Endorectal stenting, laser ablation, and operative resection are a few of the options available to the patient with a malignant large bowel obstruction. A thorough understanding of treatment options will ensure the patient is offered the most effective therapy with the least amount of associated morbidity. In this review, we describe various options for palliation of symptoms in patients with metastatic rectal cancer. Additionally, we briefly discuss treatment for asymptomatic patients with metastatic disease. PMID:21412493

  18. Automated planning of ablation targets in atrial fibrillation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keustermans, Johannes; De Buck, Stijn; Heidbüchel, Hein; Suetens, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Catheter based radio-frequency ablation is used as an invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation. This procedure is often guided by the use of 3D anatomical models obtained from CT, MRI or rotational angiography. During the intervention the operator accurately guides the catheter to prespecified target ablation lines. The planning stage, however, can be time consuming and operator dependent which is suboptimal both from a cost and health perspective. Therefore, we present a novel statistical model-based algorithm for locating ablation targets from 3D rotational angiography images. Based on a training data set of 20 patients, consisting of 3D rotational angiography images with 30 manually indicated ablation points, a statistical local appearance and shape model is built. The local appearance model is based on local image descriptors to capture the intensity patterns around each ablation point. The local shape model is constructed by embedding the ablation points in an undirected graph and imposing that each ablation point only interacts with its neighbors. Identifying the ablation points on a new 3D rotational angiography image is performed by proposing a set of possible candidate locations for each ablation point, as such, converting the problem into a labeling problem. The algorithm is validated using a leave-one-out-approach on the training data set, by computing the distance between the ablation lines obtained by the algorithm and the manually identified ablation points. The distance error is equal to 3.8+/-2.9 mm. As ablation lesion size is around 5-7 mm, automated planning of ablation targets by the presented approach is sufficiently accurate.

  19. Image-Guided Spinal Ablation: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: julien.garnon@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: roberto-luigi.cazzato@chru-strasbourg.fr; Edalat, Faramarz, E-mail: faramarz.edalat@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital (France)

    2016-09-15

    The image-guided thermal ablation procedures can be used to treat a variety of benign and malignant spinal tumours. Small size osteoid osteoma can be treated with laser or radiofrequency. Larger tumours (osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst and metastasis) can be addressed with radiofrequency or cryoablation. Results on the literature of spinal microwave ablation are scarce, and thus it should be used with caution. A distinct advantage of cryoablation is the ability to monitor the ice-ball by intermittent CT or MRI. The different thermal insulation, temperature and electrophysiological monitoring techniques should be applied. Cautious pre-procedural planning and intermittent intra-procedural monitoring of the ablation zone can help reduce neural complications. Tumour histology, patient clinical-functional status and life-expectancy should define the most efficient and least disabling treatment option.

  20. Efficacy of ablation at the anteroseptal line for the treatment of perimitral flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Abi-Saleh, MD, FACP, FACC, FHRS

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Ablation at the left atrial anteroseptal line is safe and efficacious for the treatment of PMF. Unlike ablation at the traditional mitral isthmus line, ablation at the left atrial anteroseptal line does not require ablation in the coronary sinus.

  1. Non-ablative fractional resurfacing in combination with topical tretinoin cream as a field treatment modality for multiple actinic keratosis: a pilot study and a review of other field treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prens, Sebastiaan P; de Vries, Karin; Neumann, H A Martino; Prens, Errol P

    2013-06-01

    Actinic keratoses (AK) are premalignant lesions occurring mainly in sun-damaged skin. Current topical treatment options for AK and photo-damaged skin such as liquid nitrogen and electrosurgery are not suitable for field treatment. Otherwise, therapies suitable for field treatment bring along considerable patient discomfort. Non-ablative fractional resurfacing has emerged as a logical treatment option especially for field treatment of AK. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of fractional laser therapy for clearing AK and improving skin quality. To compare patient friendliness of the "fractional" therapy with those reported for other field treatment modalities. Ten patients with Fitzpatrick skin type I to III with multiple AK and extensive sun-damaged skin, received 5-10 sessions with a 4-week interval using a 1550 nm Erbium-Glass Fractionated laser (Sellas, Korea). Four weeks and 24 weeks after the last treatment the clinical results were evaluated by an independent physician. The mean degree of improvement, in terms of reduction in the number of AK and improvement of skin texture, was 54% on a 4 point PGA scale, and persisted for approximately 6 months. The biggest advantage of fractional laser treatment, besides the eradication of AK and a clear rejuvenation effect, is the absence of "downtime". Fractional non-ablative resurfacing induces significant reduction in the number of AK and improves the skin quality. Also all patients preferred fractional laser therapy above other AK treatment modalities.

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Pancreatic Cancer)

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    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

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    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Vulvar Cancer)

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    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

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    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Options for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... lymphoma may come back as indolent lymphoma. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Options for Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the lungs , liver , bones, or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the lungs , liver , bones, or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... nervous system is not primary CNS lymphoma. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... such as the liver or lymph nodes . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. Treatment Options for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... of blast cells increases after a remission . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  20. The case against endometrial ablation for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Michelle; Wright, Kelly; Siedhoff, Matthew

    2018-04-27

    Endometrial ablation is a common treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding, but serious limitations and long-term complications exist. Our purpose is to summarize the use of endometrial ablation devices, potential short-term and long-term complications, cost effectiveness, and quality of life in relation to alternative treatments. There is insufficient evidence to strongly recommend one endometrial ablation device over another. Providers should consider and discuss with their patients, complications including risk of future pregnancy, endometrial cancer, and hysterectomy for continued bleeding or pain. Patient selection is key to reducing postablation pain and failure; patients with a history of tubal ligation and dysmenorrhea should consider alternative treatments. All patients should also be counseled that the levonorgestrel intrauterine device is a cost-effective alternative with higher quality of life and fewer complications. Hysterectomy is definitive treatment with higher quality of life and fewer complications. Although endometrial ablation can offer adequate symptom control for patients who have failed medical therapy, desire uterine preservation, or who are high-risk surgical candidates, patients should be appropriately selected and counseled regarding the potential for treatment failure and long-term complications.

  1. Laser tattoo removal with preceding ablative fractional treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencič, Boris; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2013-06-01

    A combined laser tattoo removal treatment, first the ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) with an Er:YAG laser and then the q-switched (QSW) Nd:YAG laser treatment, was studied. Experiments show that significantly higher fluences can be used for the same tissue damage levels.

  2. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly on ... helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Meta-analysis of bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation versus thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yan; Zhang, Zihan; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Tingping; Zhang, Huili

    2018-01-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding is a common problem that can severely affect quality of life. To compare bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation and thermal balloon ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding in terms of efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Online registries were systematically searched using relevant terms without language restriction from inception to November 24, 2016. Randomized control trials or cohort studies of women with heavy menstrual bleeding comparing the efficacy of two treatments were eligible. Data were extracted. Results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Six studies involving 901 patients were included. Amenorrhea rate at 12 months was significantly higher after bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation than after thermal balloon ablation (RR 2.73, 95% CI 2.00-3.73). However, no difference at 12 months was noted for dysmenorrhea (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68-1.58) or treatment failure (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.38-1.60). The only significant difference for HRQoL outcomes was for change in SAQ pleasure score (12 months: WMD -3.51, 95% CI -5.42 to -1.60). Bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation and thermal balloon ablation reduce menstrual loss and improve quality of life. However, bipolar radiofrequency endometrial ablation is more effective in terms of amenorrhea rate and SAQ pleasure. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examination under a microscope. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). Treatment options depend ... that does not get better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of small hepatocellular carcinoma : early experience of efficacy and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Seung Hoon; And Others

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Forty-four patients with 51 HCCs underwent ultrasound guided RF ablation using expandable needle electrodes and monopolar RF generator. The patients were not considered suitable candidates for surgery or declined this option, and had no history of previous treatment. Mean tumor diameter was 2.5 cm (range, 1.0-4.0 cm). Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by means of three-phase helical computed tomography (CT) performed at least one month after the completion of ablation. The recurrence rate was also evaluated by follow-up CT at least four months after treatment. Using RF ablation, complete necrosis was achieved in 48 of 51 tumors (94%). Among 20 patients in whom follow-up CT was performed at least four months after ablation, one (5%) showed marginal recurrence and in another (5%) there was recurrence in remote liver parenchyma. We experienced neither procedure-related mortality nor major complications which required specific treatment. Three minor complications (one small pneumothorax and two cases of intraperitoneal bleeding) occurred, but these disappeared without specific treatment. RF ablation using an expandable needle electrode showed a high rate of complete necrosis and a low rate of complications. The technique is therefore considered effective and safe for the local control of small HCCs. (author)

  8. Radiofrequency Ablation Effectively Treated Focal Recurrence of Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Takuwa, Teruhisa; Hashimoto, Masaki; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Takaki, Haruyuki; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2018-02-01

    A 55-year-old man with malignant pleural mesothelioma underwent multimodality treatment comprising induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy and radiation therapy. After 2.5 years, focal recurrence occurred, with computed tomography revealing a tumor in the left cardiophrenic angle. Surgery was considered a problem for the patient because of the previous extrapleural pneumonectomy and difficult tumor location. Radiofrequency ablation was thus performed; the course was uneventful, and there was no recurrence. Radiofrequency ablation should be considered an option to treat recurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  10. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Options for Hodgkin Lymphoma during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... lymphoma may come back as indolent lymphoma. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... marrow , or other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... marrow , or other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... back in the blood or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. Endovenous Laser Ablation as a Treatment for Postsurgical Recurrent Saphenous Insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anchala, Praveen R.; Wickman, Christopher; Chen, Richard; Faundeen, Tonya; Pearce, William; Narducy, Lisa; Resnick, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of endovenous laser ablation as a treatment for recurrent symptomatic saphenous insufficiency occurring after saphenous vein ligation and stripping. A single-center retrospective review of patients who received endovenous laser ablation as a treatment for recurrent symptomatic saphenous insufficiency after ligation and stripping between November 2003 and October 2006 was performed. Fifty-six insufficient saphenous systems were identified in 38 patients. Follow-up consisted of a clinical examination in all patients as well as selective lower-extremity duplex ultrasound as clinically indicated. All 38 patients demonstrated complete closure of the insufficient saphenous vein by clinical examination and/or duplex ultrasound evaluation. Preoperative symptoms resolved after treatment in all 38 patients. No major complications were identified. Endovenous laser ablation of recurrent symptomatic saphenous venous insufficiency is a safe and effective treatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms after saphenous vein ligation and stripping.

  20. Efficacy of microwave ablation versus radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic liver disease: a randomised controlled phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietti Violi, Naïk; Duran, Rafael; Guiu, Boris; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre; Aubé, Christophe; Digklia, Antonia; Pache, Isabelle; Deltenre, Pierre; Knebel, Jean-François; Denys, Alban

    2018-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is the recommended treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have lesions smaller than 3 cm and are therefore not candidates for surgery. Microwave ablation is a more recent technique with certain theoretical advantages that have not yet been confirmed clinically. We aimed to compare the efficacy of both techniques in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma lesions of 4 cm or smaller. We did a randomised controlled, single-blinded phase 2 trial at four tertiary university centres in France and Switzerland. Patients with chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma with up to three lesions of 4 cm or smaller who were not eligible for surgery were randomised to receive microwave ablation (experimental group) or radiofrequency ablation (control group). Randomisation was centralised and done by use of a fixed block method (block size 4). Patients were randomly assigned by a co-investigator by use of the sealed opaque envelope method and were masked to the treatment; physicians were not masked to treatment, since the devices used were different. The primary outcome was the proportion of lesions with local tumour progression at 2 years of follow-up. Local tumour progression was defined as the appearance of a new nodule with features typical of hepatocellular carcinoma in the edge of the ablation zone. All analyses were done in the per-protocol population. The study is completed, but patients will continue to be followed up for 5 years. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02859753. Between Nov 15, 2011, and Feb 27, 2015, 152 patients were randomly assigned: 76 patients to receive microwave ablation and 76 patients to receive radiofrequency ablation. For the per-protocol analysis, five patients were excluded from the microwave ablation group as were three patients from the radiofrequency ablation group. Median follow-up was 26 months (IQR 18-29) in the microwave ablation group and 25 months (18-34) in

  1. Treatment of Osteoid Osteomas Using a Navigational Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Adam N., E-mail: wallacea@mir.wustl.edu; Tomasian, Anderanik, E-mail: tomasiana@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States); Chang, Randy O., E-mail: changr@wusm.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine (United States); Jennings, Jack W., E-mail: jenningsj@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (United States)

    2016-05-15

    BackgroundPercutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for osteoid osteomas. This technical case series describes the use of a recently introduced ablation system with a probe that can be curved in multiple directions, embedded thermocouples for real-time monitoring of the ablation volume, and a bipolar design that obviates the need for a grounding pad.MethodsMedical records of all patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation of an osteoid osteoma with the STAR Tumor Ablation System (DFINE; San Jose, CA) were reviewed. The location of each osteoid osteoma, nidus volume, and procedural details were recorded. Treatment efficacy and long-term complications were assessed at clinical follow-up.ResultsDuring the study period, 18 osteoid osteomas were radiofrequency ablated with the multidirectional bipolar system. Lesion locations included the femur (50 %; 9/18), tibia (22 %; 4/18), cervical spine (11 %; 2/18), calcaneus (5.5 %; 1/18), iliac bone (5.5 %; 1/18), and fibula (5.5 %; 1/18). The median nidus volume of these cases was 0.33 mL (range 0.12–2.0 mL). All tumors were accessed via a single osseous channel. Median cumulative ablation time was 5 min and 0 s (range 1 min and 32 s–8 min and 50 s). All patients with clinical follow-up reported complete symptom resolution. No complications occurred.ConclusionSafe and effective CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas can be performed in a variety of locations using a multidirectional bipolar system.

  2. Treatment of Osteoid Osteomas Using a Navigational Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Adam N.; Tomasian, Anderanik; Chang, Randy O.; Jennings, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPercutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for osteoid osteomas. This technical case series describes the use of a recently introduced ablation system with a probe that can be curved in multiple directions, embedded thermocouples for real-time monitoring of the ablation volume, and a bipolar design that obviates the need for a grounding pad.MethodsMedical records of all patients who underwent radiofrequency ablation of an osteoid osteoma with the STAR Tumor Ablation System (DFINE; San Jose, CA) were reviewed. The location of each osteoid osteoma, nidus volume, and procedural details were recorded. Treatment efficacy and long-term complications were assessed at clinical follow-up.ResultsDuring the study period, 18 osteoid osteomas were radiofrequency ablated with the multidirectional bipolar system. Lesion locations included the femur (50 %; 9/18), tibia (22 %; 4/18), cervical spine (11 %; 2/18), calcaneus (5.5 %; 1/18), iliac bone (5.5 %; 1/18), and fibula (5.5 %; 1/18). The median nidus volume of these cases was 0.33 mL (range 0.12–2.0 mL). All tumors were accessed via a single osseous channel. Median cumulative ablation time was 5 min and 0 s (range 1 min and 32 s–8 min and 50 s). All patients with clinical follow-up reported complete symptom resolution. No complications occurred.ConclusionSafe and effective CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas can be performed in a variety of locations using a multidirectional bipolar system.

  3. Treatment options for renal cell carcinoma in renal allografts: a case series from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Darden C; Al-Geizawi, Samer M; Farney, Alan C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Burkart, John M; Assimos, Dean G; Stratta, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is more common in renal transplant and dialysis patients than the general population. However, RCC in transplanted kidneys is rare, and treatment has previously consisted of nephrectomy with a return to dialysis. There has been recent interest in nephron-sparing procedures as a treatment option for RCC in allograft kidneys in an effort to retain allograft function. Four patients with RCC in allograft kidneys were treated with nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, or radiofrequency ablation. All of the patients are without evidence of recurrence of RCC after treatment. We found nephron-sparing procedures to be reasonable initial options in managing incidental RCCs diagnosed in functioning allografts to maintain an improved quality of life and avoid immediate dialysis compared with radical nephrectomy of a functioning allograft. However, in non-functioning renal allografts, radical nephrectomy may allow for a higher chance of cure without the loss of transplant function. Consequently, radical nephrectomy should be utilized whenever the allograft is non-functioning and the patient's surgical risk is not prohibitive. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in the Spleen for Treatment of Hypersplenism in Cirrhosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, XiangWu; Gao, Fei; Ma, Yan; Feng, ShuFen; Liu, XueLian; Zhou, HongKe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the feasibility and therapeutic effectiveness of percutaneous microwave ablation in the treatment of hypersplenism in cirrhosis. Forty-one cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism were treated with ultrasonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation between February 2007 and August 2011. Peripheral blood cell counts, portal vein diameter, splenic vein diameter, and blood flow of splenic vein were evaluated before and after the operation, and complications of the treatment were also investigated. All patients were followed up for 24 months. The levels of platelets and white blood cells were increased, while the splenic vein diameter narrowed gradually after the therapy and 24 months later. Moreover, patients received percutaneous microwave ablation had much lower splenic venous flow velocity. The portal vein diameter did not change significantly 6 months after the treatment, although it narrowed gradually within 3 months after the treatment. Furthermore, no complications such as uncontrollable bleeding, splenic abscess, spleen rupture, and damage in surrounding organ happened after the therapy. Graded percutaneous microwave ablation, as a minimally invasive therapy, could damage the spleen, increase the levels of platelets and white blood cells, and reduce portal hypertension effectively without serious complications. Percutaneous microwave ablation is an effective, safe, and feasible method for cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism.

  5. Image-guided ablation of painful metastatic bone tumors: a new and effective approach to a difficult problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Charboneau, J. William; Atwell, Thomas D.; Farrell, Michael A.; Welch, Timothy J.; Maus, Timothy P.; Goetz, Matthew P.; Rubin, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Painful skeletal metastases are a common problem in cancer patients. Although external beam radiation therapy is the current standard of care for cancer patients who present with localized bone pain, 20-30% of patients treated with this modality do not experience pain relief, and few further options exist for these patients. For many patients with painful metastatic skeletal disease, analgesics remain the only alternative treatment option. Recently, image-guided percutaneous methods of tumor destruction have proven effective for treatment of this difficult problem. This review describes the application, limitations, and effectiveness of percutaneous ablative methods including ethanol, methyl methacrylate, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT), cryoablation, and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for palliation of painful skeletal metastases. (orig.)

  6. Radiofrequency ablation of neuroendocrine liver metastases: the Middlesex experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillams, A; Cassoni, A; Conway, G; Lees, W

    2005-01-01

    Current treatment options for neuroendocrine liver metastases are not widely applicable or not that effective. Image-guided thermal ablation offers the possibility of a minimally invasive, albeit palliative, treatment that decreases tumor volume, preserves most of the normal liver, and can be repeated several times. We report our experience with image-guided thermal ablation in 25 patients with unresectable liver metastases. Since 1990 we have treated 189 tumors at 66 treatment sessions in 25 patients (12 female, 13 male; median age, 56 years; age range, 26--78 years). Thirty treatments were performed with a solid-state laser, and 36 treatments were performed with radiofrequency ablation. All but one treatment was performed percutaneously under image guidance. Sixteen patients had metastases from carcinoid primaries, three from gastrinoma, two from insulinoma, and four from miscellaneous causes. Fourteen of 25 had symptoms from hormone secretion. Imaging follow-up was available in 19 patients at a median of 21 months (range, 4--75 months). There was a complete response in six patients, a partial response in seven, and stable disease in one; hence, tumor load was controlled in 14 of 19 patients (74%). Relief of hormone-related symptoms was achieved in nine of 14 patients (69%). The median survival period from the diagnosis of liver metastases was 53 months. One patient with end-stage cardiac disease died after a carcinoid crisis. There were eight (12%) complications: five local and three distant, four major and four minor. As a minimally invasive, readily repeatable procedure that can be used to ablate small tumors, preferably before patients become severely symptomatic, radiofrequency ablation can provide effective control of liver tumor volume in most patients over many years.

  7. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms; Perkutane Thermoablation von Nierentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Passau (Germany); Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  8. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  9. 78 FR 11207 - Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...] Clinical Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation; Guidance for... devices intended for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. DATES: Submit either electronic or written... Study Designs for Surgical Ablation Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation'' to the Division of...

  10. Cryotherapy is preferable to ablative CO2 laser for the treatment of isolated actinic keratoses of the face and scalp: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, C; Facchinetti, E; Rossi, M T; Specchia, C; Ortel, B; Calzavara-Pinton, P

    2014-05-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. In the case of normal or mildly photodamaged skin, lesion-directed treatments are considered valuable options despite poor published evidence of their therapeutic activity. The aim of this single-centre, open-label, prospective, nonsponsored, randomized, controlled clinical trial was to compare CO2 laser ablation with cryotherapy in the treatment of isolated AKs of the face and scalp. Patients with isolated (≤ 4) AKs of the face and scalp were randomized to receive CO2 laser ablation or cryotherapy. After 90 days, the overall complete remission (CR) rates of patients and lesions were assessed and correlated with thickness grade. Two hundred patients with a total number of 543 AKs were enrolled. The CR rates of lesions after 3 months were 78·2% with cryotherapy and 72·4% with CO2 laser ablation. Thicker lesions were significantly more responsive to cryotherapy (P = 0·034). Seventy-three patients (71·6%) had CR of all lesions 3 months after cryotherapy and 64 (65·3%) after laser ablation. At 12 months after treatment the number of patients with CR was reduced to 53 with cryotherapy and 14 with laser ablation. The rate of patients and lesions with CR is similar after 3 months, but more patients remain in stable remission for 12 months after cryotherapy. Cryotherapy is more effective for thick lesions. The cosmetic outcome was good or excellent in almost all patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for primary myelofibrosis. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for essential thrombocythemia. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) and ...

  13. Treatment Options for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly on ... helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for primary myelofibrosis. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options for essential thrombocythemia. Prognosis (chance of recovery ) and ...

  15. Similarities and differences in ablative and non-ablative iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, Alicia A.; Misra, Adwiteeya; Kastner, Elliot J.; Mazur, Courtney M.; Petryk, James D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    The use of hyperthermia to treat cancer is well studied and has utilized numerous delivery techniques, including microwaves, radio frequency, focused ultrasound, induction heating, infrared radiation, warmed perfusion liquids (combined with chemotherapy), and recently, metallic nanoparticles (NP) activated by near infrared radiation (NIR) and alternating magnetic field (AMF) based platforms. It has been demonstrated by many research groups that ablative temperatures and cytotoxicity can be produced with locally NP-based hyperthermia. Such ablative NP techniques have demonstrated the potential for success. Much attention has also been given to the fact that NP may be administered systemically, resulting in a broader cancer therapy approach, a lower level of tumor NP content and a different type of NP cancer therapy (most likely in the adjuvant setting). To use NP based hyperthermia successfully as a cancer treatment, the technique and its goal must be understood and utilized in the appropriate clinical context. The parameters include, but are not limited to, NP access to the tumor (large vs. small quantity), cancer cell-specific targeting, drug carrying capacity, potential as an ionizing radiation sensitizer, and the material properties (magnetic characteristics, size and charge). In addition to their potential for cytotoxicity, the material properties of the NP must also be optimized for imaging, detection and direction. In this paper we will discuss the differences between, and potential applications for, ablative and non-ablative magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  16. The safety and efficacy of irreversible electroporation for the ablation of prostate cancer: a multicentre prospective human in vivo pilot study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, W.; de Bruin, D. M.; Muller, B. G.; Varkarakis, I. M.; Karagiannis, A. A.; Zondervan, P. J.; Laguna Pes, M. P.; Veelo, D. P.; Savci Heijink, C. D.; Engelbrecht, M. R. W.; Wijkstra, H.; de Reijke, T. M.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Current surgical and ablative treatment options for prostate cancer have a relatively high incidence of side effects, which may diminish the quality of life. The side effects are a consequence of procedure-related damage of the blood vessels, bowel, urethra or neurovascular bundle. Ablation with

  17. The Successful Treatment of Elephantiasis Nostras Verrucosa With Ablative Carbon Dioxide Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Caitlin G; Lee, Kory R; Thomas, Valencia D

    2018-03-01

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) is a disfiguring skin condition that is difficult to treat. Existing treatment modalities serve to improve cosmesis or treat symptoms. Herein, we report a case of ENV with lymphocutaneous fistula successfully treated with ablative carbon dioxide laser. A 57-year-old woman with biopsy-proven ENV with lymphocutaneous fistula was treated with ablative carbon dioxide laser to the symptomatic area of her right thigh in 3 treatment sessions over 6 months. The patient had resolution of lymphocutaneous drainage as well as 90% improvement in the appearance of ENV lesions at the 1-month follow-up visit. Ablative carbon dioxide laser may provide cosmetic, symptomatic, and medical benefit for patients with localized ENV.

  18. Lung Tumor Radiofrequency Ablation: Where Do We Stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baère, Thierry de

    2011-01-01

    Today, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of primary and metastatic lung tumor is increasingly used. Because RFA is most often used with curative intent, preablation workup must be a preoperative workup. General anesthesia provides higher feasibility than conscious sedation. The electrode positioning must be performed under computed tomography for sake of accuracy. The delivery of RFA must be adapted to tumor location, with different impedances used when treating tumors with or without pleural contact. The estimated rate of incomplete local treatment at 18 months was 7% (95% confidence interval, 3–14) per tumor, with incomplete treatment depicted at 4 months (n = 1), 6 months (n = 2), 9 months (n = 2), and 12 months (n = 2). Overall survival and lung disease-free survival at 18 months were, respectively, 71 and 34%. Size is a key point for tumor selection because large size is predictive of incomplete local treatment and poor survival. The ratio of ablation volume relative to tumor volume is predictive of complete ablation. Follow-up computed tomography that relies on the size of the ablation zone demonstrates the presence of incomplete ablation. Positron emission tomography might be an interesting option. Chest tube placement for pneumothorax is reported in 8 to 12%. Alveolar hemorrhage and postprocedure hemoptysis occurred in approximately 10% of procedures and rarely required specific treatment. Death was mostly related to single-lung patients and hilar tumors. No modification of forced expiratory volume in the first second between pre- and post-RFA at 2 months was found. RFA in the lung provides a high local efficacy rate. The use of RFA as a palliative tool in combination with chemotherapy remains to be explored.

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  20. Topography-guided custom ablation treatment for treatment of keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a progressive ectatic disorder of the cornea which often presents with fluctuating refraction and high irregular astigmatism. Correcting the vision of these patients is often a challenge because glasses are unable to correct the irregular astigmatism and regular contact lenses may not fit them very well. Topography-guided custom ablation treatment (T-CAT is a procedure of limited ablation of the cornea using excimer laser with the aim of regularizing the cornea, improving the quality of vision and possibly contact lens fit. The aim of the procedure is not to give a complete refractive correction. It has been tried with a lot of success by various groups of refractive surgeons around the world but a meticulous and methodical planning of the procedure is essential to ensure optimum results. In this paper, we attempt to elucidate the planning for a T-CAT procedure for various types of cones and asphericities.

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on: How ... cancer that does not respond to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Microwave ablation of renal tumors: state of the art and development trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Chiara; De Bernardi, Irene; Fontana, Federico; Muollo, Alessandra; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Agostini, Andrea; Fonio, Paolo; Squillaci, Ettore; Brunese, Luca; Fugazzola, Carlo; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades an increased incidence of new renal tumor cases has been for clinically localized, small tumors elderly patients, with medical comorbidities whom the risk of surgical complications may pose a greater risk of death than that due to the tumor itself. In these patients, unsuitable for surgical approach, thermal ablation represents a valid alternative to traditional surgery. Thermal ablation is a less invasive, less morbid treatment option thanks to reduced blood loss, lower incidence of complications during the procedure and a less long convalescence. At present, the most widely used thermal ablative techniques are cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation (MWA). MWA offers many benefits of other ablation techniques and offers several other advantages: higher intratumoral temperatures, larger tumor ablation volumes, faster ablation times, the ability to use multiple applicators simultaneously, optimal heating of cystic masses and tumors close to the vessels and less procedural pain. This review aims to provide the reader with an overview about the state of the art of microwave ablation for renal tumors and to cast a glance on the new development trends of this technique.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ... and restore) the body’s blood cells. New treatment options Combination chemotherapy (the use of more than one ...

  6. Treatment options for Primary CNS Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Altaf Ali; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Jabbar, Adnan; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad

    2018-03-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive brain tumour that is uniformly fatal. The rarity of the disease and the poor response to treatment makes it difficult to reach a consensus with regards to treatment options. In this review, the authors have discussed different treatment modalities used in the management of PCNSL including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, as well as the results of recent clinical trials on treatment options for PCNSL.

  7. Microwave Ablation and Immune Activation in the Treatment of Recurrent Colorectal Lung Metastases: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bäcklund

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with colorectal metastases confined to the lungs and treated with multiple resections until this was not an option anymore, followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy until this option was drained. Then, the patient was successfully treated with multiple microwave ablations combined with immunological activation targeting the programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1, possibly instigating a powerful abscopal effect. Techniques, doses, and radiological findings are presented.

  8. Microwave Ablation (MWA) for the Treatment of a Solitary, Chemorefractory Testicular Cancer Liver Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Violari, Elena G., E-mail: eviolari@live.com; Petre, Elena N., E-mail: petree@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Interventional Radiology Service (United States); Feldman, Darren R., E-mail: feldmand@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, Genitourinary Service (United States); Erinjeri, Joseph P., E-mail: erinjerij@mskcc.org; Brown, Karen T., E-mail: brown6@mskcc.org; Solomon, Stephen B., E-mail: solomons@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Interventional Radiology Service (United States); D’Angelica, Michael I., E-mail: dangelim@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Surgery, Hepatopancreatobiliary Service (United States); Sofocleous, Constantinos T., E-mail: sofoclec@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Weill-Cornell Medical College, Interventional Radiology Service (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We present a case of a patient with stage IIIC metastatic seminoma with a persistent chemorefractory liver lesion. The patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate due to the tumor’s aggressive biology with numerous other liver lesions treated with chemotherapy and a relatively high probability for additional recurrences. Further chemotherapy with curative intent was not a feasible option due to the fact that the patient had already received second-line high-dose chemotherapy and four cycles of third-line treatment complicated by renal failure, refractory thrombocytopenia, and debilitating neuropathy. After initial failure of laser, microwave ablation of the chemorefractory liver metastasis resulted in prolonged local tumor control and rendered the patient disease-free for more than 35 months, allowing him to regain an improved quality of life.

  9. Percutaneous osteoid osteoma treatment with combination of radiofrequency and alcohol ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghpoor, S. [Noor Medical Imaging Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: akhlaghpoor@nmri-ir.com; Tomasian, A. [Noor Medical Imaging Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arjmand Shabestari, A. [Noor Medical Imaging Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, M. [Noor Medical Imaging Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alinaghizadeh, M.R. [Noor Medical Imaging Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To assess the efficacy of percutaneous osteoid osteoma treatment using a combination of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and alcohol ablation with regard to technical and long-term clinical success. Materials and methods: From December 2001 to November 2004, RFA and subsequent alcohol ablation was performed on 54 patients with osteoid osteoma, diagnosed clinically using radiography, computed tomography (CT) and symptoms. Under general anaesthesia, treatment was performed via percutaneous access under thin section (2 mm) spiral CT guidance in all cases with an 11 G radiofrequency-compatible coaxial needle and 2 mm coaxial drill system and 1.0 cm active tip 17 G non-cooled radiofrequency needle. RFA was performed at 90 {sup o}C for a period of 6 min. After needle removal, 0.5-1.0 ml absolute alcohol (99.8% concentration) was injected directly into the nidus using a 20 G needle. Patients were discharged within 24 h and followed up clinically (at 1 week, 1 month and every 3 months thereafter). Results: The technical success rate was 100%. Complications occurred in two patients consisting of local mild cellulitis in entry site and peripheral small zone paresthesia on the anterior part of leg. The follow-up period range was 13-48 months (mean {+-} SD, 28.2 {+-} 7.4 months). Prompt pain relief and return to normal activities were observed in 52 of 54 patients. Recurrent pain occurred in two patients after a 1 and 3 months period of being pain free, respectively; a second RFA and alcohol ablation was performed achieving successful results. Primary and secondary clinical success rates were 96.3% (52/54 patients) and 100% (2/2 patients), respectively. Conclusion: Percutaneous osteoid osteoma treatment with combination of radiofrequency and alcohol ablation is safe, effective and minimally invasive with high primary and secondary success rates. Persistent or recurrent lesions can be effectively re-treated.

  10. Percutaneous osteoid osteoma treatment with combination of radiofrequency and alcohol ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaghpoor, S.; Tomasian, A.; Arjmand Shabestari, A.; Ebrahimi, M.; Alinaghizadeh, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess the efficacy of percutaneous osteoid osteoma treatment using a combination of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and alcohol ablation with regard to technical and long-term clinical success. Materials and methods: From December 2001 to November 2004, RFA and subsequent alcohol ablation was performed on 54 patients with osteoid osteoma, diagnosed clinically using radiography, computed tomography (CT) and symptoms. Under general anaesthesia, treatment was performed via percutaneous access under thin section (2 mm) spiral CT guidance in all cases with an 11 G radiofrequency-compatible coaxial needle and 2 mm coaxial drill system and 1.0 cm active tip 17 G non-cooled radiofrequency needle. RFA was performed at 90 o C for a period of 6 min. After needle removal, 0.5-1.0 ml absolute alcohol (99.8% concentration) was injected directly into the nidus using a 20 G needle. Patients were discharged within 24 h and followed up clinically (at 1 week, 1 month and every 3 months thereafter). Results: The technical success rate was 100%. Complications occurred in two patients consisting of local mild cellulitis in entry site and peripheral small zone paresthesia on the anterior part of leg. The follow-up period range was 13-48 months (mean ± SD, 28.2 ± 7.4 months). Prompt pain relief and return to normal activities were observed in 52 of 54 patients. Recurrent pain occurred in two patients after a 1 and 3 months period of being pain free, respectively; a second RFA and alcohol ablation was performed achieving successful results. Primary and secondary clinical success rates were 96.3% (52/54 patients) and 100% (2/2 patients), respectively. Conclusion: Percutaneous osteoid osteoma treatment with combination of radiofrequency and alcohol ablation is safe, effective and minimally invasive with high primary and secondary success rates. Persistent or recurrent lesions can be effectively re-treated

  11. Nail Psoriasis: A Review of Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marcel C

    2016-04-01

    Nail involvement affects 80-90 % of patients with plaque psoriasis, and is even more prevalent in patients with psoriatic arthritis. This review is the result of a systemic approach to the literature and covers topical, intralesional, conventional systemic, and biologic systemic treatments, as well as non-pharmacological treatment options for nail psoriasis. The available evidence suggests that all anti-tumor necrosis factor-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-17, and anti-IL-12/23 antibodies which are available for plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are highly effective treatments for nail psoriasis. Conventional systemic treatments, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin, and apremilast, as well as intralesional corticosteroids, can also be effective treatments for nail psoriasis. Topical treatments, including corticosteroids, calcipotriol, tacrolimus, and tazarotene, have also been shown to have a position in the treatment of nail psoriasis, particularly in mild cases. Finally, non-pharmacological treatment options, including phototherapy, photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, and several radiotherapeutic options, are also reviewed but cannot be advised as first-line treatment options. Another conclusion of this review is that the lack of a reliable core set of outcomes measures for trials in nail psoriasis hinders the interpretation of results, and is urgently needed.

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Mycosis Fungoides and the Sezary Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Prognostic factors for the success of thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, M. Y.; Mol, B. W. J.; Brölmann, H. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictive factors that will ensure successful menorrhagia treatment using hot fluid balloon endometrial ablation. METHODS: This is a prospective study on patients referred for menorrhagia and treated with hot fluid thermal balloon ablation. Potential prognostic factors for

  14. MR-guided HIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids using novel feedback-regulated volumetric ablation: effectiveness and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, H; Eckey, T; Bohlmann, M K; Beldoch, M P; Neumann, A; Agic, A; Hägele, J; Diedrich, K; Barkhausen, J; Hunold, P

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate a novel feedback-regulated volumetric sonication method in MR-guided HIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. 27 fibroids with an average volume of 124.9 ± 139.8 cc in 18 women with symptomatic uterine fibroids were ablated using the new HIFU system Sonalleve (1.5 T MR system Achieva, Philips). 21 myomas in 13 women were reevaluated 6 months later. Standard (treatment) cells (TC) and feedback-regulated (feedback) cells (FC) with a diameter of 4, 8, 12, and 16 mm were used and compared concerning sonication success, diameter of induced necrosis, and maximum achieved temperature. The non-perfused volume ratio (NPV related to myoma volume) was quantified. The fibroid volume was measured before, 1 month, and 6 months after therapy. Symptoms were quantified using a specific questionnaire (UFS-QoL). In total, 205 TC and 227 FC were applied. The NPV ratio was 23 ± 15 % (2 - 55). The TC were slightly smaller than intended (-3.9 ± 52 %; range, -100 - 81), while the FC were 20.1 ± 25.3 % bigger (p = 0.02). Feedback mechanism is less diversifying in diameter (p feedback cells leads to more contiguous necrosis in diameter and a less diversifying temperature. ▶ MR-guided HIFU ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids is a valuable treatment option. ▶ By non-invasive HIFU fibroid volumes can be reduced and symptoms improved. ▶ The novel feedback-regulated treatment cells offer advantages over standard treatment cells. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Treatment Options By Stage (Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ... and restore) the body’s blood cells. New treatment options Combination chemotherapy (the use of more than one ...

  16. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguo Yao

    Full Text Available Irreversible electroporation (IRE produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  17. Irreversible electroporation ablation area enhanced by synergistic high- and low-voltage pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenguo; Lv, Yanpeng; Dong, Shoulong; Zhao, Yajun; Liu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) produced by a pulsed electric field can ablate tissue. In this study, we achieved an enhancement in ablation area by using a combination of short high-voltage pulses (HVPs) to create a large electroporated area and long low-voltage pulses (LVPs) to ablate the electroporated area. The experiments were conducted in potato tuber slices. Slices were ablated with an array of four pairs of parallel steel electrodes using one of the following four electric pulse protocols: HVP, LVP, synergistic HVP+LVP (SHLVP) or LVP+HVP. Our results showed that the SHLVPs more effectively necrotized tissue than either the HVPs or LVPs, even when the SHLVP dose was the same as or lower than the HVP or LVP doses. The HVP and LVP order mattered and only HVPs+LVPs (SHLVPs) treatments increased the size of the ablation zone because the HVPs created a large electroporated area that was more susceptible to the subsequent LVPs. Real-time temperature change monitoring confirmed that the tissue was non-thermally ablated by the electric pulses. Theoretical calculations of the synergistic effects of the SHLVPs on tissue ablation were performed. Our proposed SHLVP protocol provides options for tissue ablation and may be applied to optimize the current clinical IRE protocols.

  18. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylona, Sophia, E-mail: mylonasophia@yahoo.com; Karagiannis, Georgios, E-mail: gekaragiannis@yahoo.gr; Patsoura, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.patsoura@yahoo.gr [Hellenic Red Cross Hospital ' Korgialenio-Benakio' (Greece); Galani, Panagiota, E-mail: gioulagalani@yahoo.com [Amalia Fleming Hospital (Greece); Pomoni, Maria, E-mail: marypomoni@gmail.com [Evgenidion Hospital (Greece); Thanos, Loukas, E-mail: loutharad@yahoo.com [Sotiria Hospital (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  19. Fractional ablative CO2 laser treatment versus scar subcision and autologous fat transfer in the treatment of atrophic acne scars: New technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are different modalities for management of atrophic acne scars which include lasers. Ablative fractional CO2 laser was developed to address the shortcomings of traditional ablative lasers, with superior results to non-ablative fractional lasers. Autologous fat transfer has been utilized for nearly a decade in tissue augmentation and reconstruction.Present studies were designed to compare ablative fractional CO2 laser treatment with scar subcision and autologous fat transfer in the treatment of atrophic acne scars. 20 patients with atrophic acne scars were recruited: 10 patients were treated by three sessions of ablative fractional CO2 laser therapy, and 10 patients treated by subcision and autologous fat transfer. All patients were followed up for three months, and were assessed by digital photograph before and after treatment through the application of Goodman and Baron quantitative and qualitative grading systems, in addition to reports by three physicians committees and reports of patients’ satisfaction. Analysis of both groups showed significant improvements in all types of atrophic acne scars. The mean percentage of total quantitative improvement was more significant in the case of autologous fat transfer with regard to ice-pick and total number of scars. Therefore, scar subcision with autologous fat transfer proved to be as effective as, or even more effective than, ablative fractional CO2 laser in the treatment of atrophic acne scars with regard to the total number of scars as well as ice-pick type.

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the cancer does not respond to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Cost effectiveness of day stay versus inpatient radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasooriya, H.R.; Harris, A.H.; Davis, M.J.E.

    1996-01-01

    It is well established that radiofrequency (RF) ablation is the most cost effective treatment strategy for patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Previous cost estimates assumed at least an overnight stay following RF ablation. Day stay RF ablation however appears to be a safe alternative. The aim of this study was to compare day stay and inpatient catheter ablation in terms of cost, efficacy and safety. This was a retrospective cost effectiveness analysis. The study population consisted of 25 consecutive patients who underwent impatient RF ablation (historical controls). Economic analysis was based upon a detailed clinical costing. The mean overall cost per patient of inpatient RF ablation in 1994 Australian dollar values is $2354 (SD, $642) compared with $1876 (SD, $595) for day stay RF ablation (p<0.01). Day stay RF ablation is a cost effective alternative to inpatient RF ablation. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Is radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins a valuable option? A systematic review of the literature with a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; Fisette, Jean-François; Bédard, Suzanne K; Despatis, Marc-Antoine

    2018-04-01

    Since the 1990s, new techniques for the treatment of varicose veins have emerged, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and laser treatment. We performed a study to compare the safety, efficacy and outcomes of RFA compared to those of open surgery and laser ablation for the treatment of varicose veins. We also carried out a cost analysis of RFA compared to open surgery to assess whether RFA could help free up operating room time by being performed in an outpatient context. We conducted a systematic literature review (publication date May 2010-September 2013 for articles in English, January 1991-September 2013 for those in French). We used several checklists to measure the quality of the studies. We also collected data on costing. The literature search identified 924 publications, of which 38 were retained for analysis: 15 literature reviews, 1 good-practice guideline and 22 new primary studies. The overall level of evidence was low to moderate owing to the limited sample sizes, lack of information on patient characteristics and lack of standardization of the outcome measures. However, the results obtained are consistent from study to study. In the short and medium term, RFA is considered as effective as open surgery or laser treatment (moderate level of evidence) and presents fewer major and minor complications than open surgery (low level of evidence). Radiofrequency ablation can be performed on an outpatient basis. We calculated that RFA would be about $110-$220 more expensive per patient than open surgery. Radiofrequency ablation is a valuable alternative to open surgery and would free up operating room time in a context of low accessibility.

  3. Is radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins a valuable option? A systematic review of the literature with a cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisette, Jean-François; Bédard, Suzanne K.; Despatis, Marc-Antoine

    2018-01-01

    Background Since the 1990s, new techniques for the treatment of varicose veins have emerged, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and laser treatment. We performed a study to compare the safety, efficacy and outcomes of RFA compared to those of open surgery and laser ablation for the treatment of varicose veins. We also carried out a cost analysis of RFA compared to open surgery to assess whether RFA could help free up operating room time by being performed in an outpatient context. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review (publication date May 2010–September 2013 for articles in English, January 1991–September 2013 for those in French). We used several checklists to measure the quality of the studies. We also collected data on costing. Results The literature search identified 924 publications, of which 38 were retained for analysis: 15 literature reviews, 1 good-practice guideline and 22 new primary studies. The overall level of evidence was low to moderate owing to the limited sample sizes, lack of information on patient characteristics and lack of standardization of the outcome measures. However, the results obtained are consistent from study to study. In the short and medium term, RFA is considered as effective as open surgery or laser treatment (moderate level of evidence) and presents fewer major and minor complications than open surgery (low level of evidence). Radiofrequency ablation can be performed on an outpatient basis. We calculated that RFA would be about $110–$220 more expensive per patient than open surgery. Conclusion Radiofrequency ablation is a valuable alternative to open surgery and would free up operating room time in a context of low accessibility. PMID:29582749

  4. Percutaneous radiofrequency and microwave ablation in the treatment of renal tumors - 10 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Petr; Hoffmann, Petr; Brodak, Milos; Kosina, Josef; Pacovsky, Jaroslav; Raupach, Jan; Krajina, Antonin

    2017-12-01

    The standard radical treatment of renal cell carcinoma is surgical resection, but it is not suitable for patients with serious medical comorbidities and solitary kidney tumors. Minimally invasive ablation techniques could be an appropriate therapeutic alternative. To retrospectively evaluate the technical success, mid-term and long-term efficacy and safety of radiofrequency and microwave ablation in patients with small renal tumors. Over the course of 10 years, 91 ablation procedures in 64 patients for 68 tumors, of size 12-60 mm, were performed using only conscious sedation. These ablations were done under the guidance of computed tomography. We treated 41 males and 23 females with solitary kidney tumors (14 cases) and tumors in non-surgical candidates (54 cases). In 50 (73.5%) tumors single treatment was successful; in 13 (19.1%) cases a second procedure was used successfully, and in the 5 largest tumors (sizes 45-60 mm, 7.4%) a third treatment was necessary. Within the follow-up 10 (15.6%) patients died, but none due to metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Only 1 serious complication was observed - retroperitoneal and psoatic hematoma. Early recurrence occurred in 18 (26.5%) tumors. Late recurrence was detected in 5 (7.4%) cases. In all cases complete local control of the renal tumors was reached. Percutaneous ablation is a very effective treatment for patients with small renal tumors of the T1a group with a minimal complication rate.

  5. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mylona, Sophia; Karagiannis, Georgios; Patsoura, Sofia; Galani, Panagiota; Pomoni, Maria; Thanos, Loukas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8–10 min at 80–110°C and a power of 90–110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n − 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. A new apatinib microcrystal formulation enhances the effect of radiofrequency ablation treatment on hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hui Xie,1,2 Shengtao Tian,2 Haipeng Yu,1 Xueling Yang,1 Jia Liu,3 Huaming Wang,2 Fan Feng,2 Zhi Guo1 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Interventional Therapy, 302nd Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Blood Transfusion, 302nd Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is the foremost treatment option for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, however, rapid and aggressive recurrence of HCC often occurs after RFA due to epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Although combination of RFA with sorafenib, a molecular targeted agent, could attenuate the recurrence of HCC, application of this molecular targeted agent poses a heavy medical burden and oral administration of sorafenib also brings severe side effects. Materials and methods: In this study, we prepared an apatinib microcrystal formulation (Apa-MS that sustainably releases apatinib, a novel molecular targeted agent, for advanced HCC treatment. We injected apatinib solution or Apa-MS into subcutaneous HCC tumors. Results: It was found that Apa-MS exhibited slow apatinib release in vivo and in turn inhibited the epithelial–mesenchymal transition of HCC cells for extended time. Moreover, in rodent HCC model, Apa-MS enhanced the antitumor effect of RFA treatment. Conclusion: Based on these results, we conclude that Apa-MS, a slow releasing system of apatinib, allows apatinib to remain effective in tumor tissues for a long time and could enhance the antitumor effect of RFA on HCC. Keywords: apatinib microcrystals, radiofrequency ablation, sustained releasing behavior, long-acting efficiency

  8. Radiation dermatitis due to catheter ablation used in the treatment of arrhythmia. A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tohru; Kosaka, Hiroshi; Shimoura, Shinichi; Tsuru, Kenta; Yamagami, Nao; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Nishigori, Chikako; Yoshida, Akihiro

    2004-01-01

    We report 2 cases of radiation dermatitis caused by catheter ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation resisitant to conventional therapies. Case 1, 50-year-old male underwent pulmonary veins ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Cumulative fluoroscopic imaging time of 370 min was required. Case 2, 74-year-old female also underwent pulmonary veins ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Cumulative fluoroscopic imaging time of 550 min was required. Since dose rate used for imaging is 20∼80 mGy/min, accumulated skin doses were estimated as 7.4∼29.6 Gy and 5.6∼22.4 Gy, respectively. Two weeks after their last ablation, brown, painful macule and plaque appeared on the outer side of their right upper arms. To our knowledge, the risk of overexposure to X-ray in cases of PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) for ischemic heart diseases has been well known, but little is known about the risk of catheter ablation. The location of radiation dermatitis caused by catheter ablation (CA) is rather different from that of PTCA. It is critical for cardiologists and dermatologists to observe and find the symptoms of acute radiation dermatitis in order to avoid repeated overexposure to X-ray. (author)

  9. Ablation of hypertrophic septum using radiofrequency energy: an alternative for gradient reduction in patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlbauchová, Lucie; Janoušek, Jan; Veselka, Josef

    2013-06-01

    Alcohol septal ablation and surgical myectomy represent accepted therapeutic options for treatment of symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Long-term experience with radiofrequency ablation of arrhythmogenic substrates raised a question if this technique might be effective for left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient reduction. We report on a 63-year-old patient with recurrence of symptoms 1 year after alcohol septal ablation (ASA) leading originally to a significant reduction of both symptoms and gradient. Due to a new increase of gradient in the LVOT up to 200 mm Hg with corresponding worsening of symptoms and due to refusal of surgical myectomy by the patient, endocardial radiofrequency ablation of the septal hypertrophy (ERASH) was indicated. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in the LVOT using irrigated-tip ablation catheter; the target site was identified using intracardiac echocardiography and electroanatomical CARTO mapping. ERASH caused an immediate gradient reduction due to hypokinesis of the ablated septum. At 2-month follow-up exam, significant clinical improvement was observed, together with persistent gradient reduction assessed with Doppler echocardiography. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance revealed persistent septal hypokinesis and slight thinning of the ablated region. Septal ablation using radiofrequency energy may be a promising alternative or adjunct to the treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Intracardiac echocardiography and electroanatomical CARTO mapping enable exact lesion placement and preservation of atrioventricular conduction.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... going up even though treatment is given. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Ultrasound-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in 435 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jiang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liu, Dong; Zhao, Jun-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided microwave ablation in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. A total of 474 benign thyroid nodules in 435 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided microwave ablation from September 2012 to August 2015 were included. Nodule volume and thyroid function were measured before treatment and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and subsequently after every 6 months. The nodule volume reduction rate and changes of thyroid function were evaluated. The volume of all thyroid nodules significantly decreased after ultrasound-guided microwave ablation. The average volume was 13.07 ± 0.95 ml before treatment, and 1.14 ± 0.26 ml at 12-months follow-up. The mean volume reduction rate was 90% and the final volume reduction rate was 94%. The volume reduction rate of mainly cystic nodules was significantly higher than that of simple solid and mainly solid nodules (all P microwave ablation is an effective and safe technique for treatment of benign thyroid nodules, and has the potential for clinical applications. Impact statement Ultrasound-guided MWA is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. It can significantly reduce the nodule volume, improve the patients' clinical symptoms, has less complication, guarantees quick recovery, meets patients' aesthetic needs, and shows less interference on the physiological and psychological aspects of the body. MWA should be a good complement to traditional open surgery and has potentials in clinical applications.

  12. Additive Effects of Mechanical Marrow Ablation and PTH Treatment on de Novo Bone Formation in Mature Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi A. Carlson Scholz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ablation of bone marrow in young rats induces rapid but transient bone growth, which can be enhanced and maintained for three weeks by the administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Additionally, marrow ablation, followed by PTH treatment for three months leads to increased cortical thickness. In this study, we sought to determine whether PTH enhances bone formation after marrow ablation in aged rats. Aged rats underwent unilateral femoral marrow ablation and treatment with PTH or vehicle for four weeks. Both femurs from each rat were analyzed by X-ray and pQCT, then analyzed either by microCT, histology or biomechanical testing. Marrow ablation alone induced transient bone formation of low abundance that persisted over four weeks, while marrow ablation followed by PTH induced bone formation of high abundance that also persisted over four weeks. Our data confirms that the osteo-inducive effect of marrow ablation and the additive effect of marrow ablation, followed by PTH, occurs in aged rats. Our observations open new avenues of investigations in the field of tissue regeneration. Local marrow ablation, in conjunction with an anabolic agent, might provide a new platform for rapid site-directed bone growth in areas of high bone loss, such as in the hip and wrist, which are subject to fracture.

  13. Treatment of osteoid osteoma using CT-guided radiofrequency ablation versus MR-guided laser ablation: A cost comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, M.H.; Gebauer, B.; Wieners, G.; De Bucourt, M.; Renz, D.M.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the costs of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and MR-guided laser ablation (LA) for minimally invasive percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteoma. Materials and methods: Between November 2005 and October 2011, 20 patients (14 males, 6 females, mean age 20.3 ± 9.1 years) underwent CT-guided RFA and 24 patients (18 males, 6 females; mean age, 23.8 ± 13.8 years) MR-guided LA (open 1.0 Tesla, Panorama HFO, Philips, Best, Netherlands) for osteoid osteoma diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and imaging findings. Prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, and maintenance), staff costs, and expenditure for disposables were identified for CT-guided RFA and MR-guided LA procedures. Results: The average total costs per patient were EUR 1762 for CT-guided RFA and EUR 1417 for MR-guided LA. These were (RFA/LA) EUR 92/260 for equipment use, EUR 149/208 for staff, and EUR 870/300 for disposables. Conclusion: MR-guided LA is less expensive than CT-guided RFA for minimally invasive percutaneous ablation of osteoid osteoma. The higher costs of RFA are primarily due to the higher price of the disposable RFA probes.

  14. Fibromyalgia Pathogenesis and Treatment Options Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steven; Caldwell, William; Gritsenko, Karina

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents and summarizes up-to-date literature on the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment options for fibromyalgia patients. First, the most recent diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia, as put forth by the American College of Rheumatology will be summarized. Clinical features, including chronic widespread pain, hyperalgesia, mood disorders, anxiety, and disturbed sleep patterns will be explored in-depth. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of fibromyalgia involves alterations in multiple ascending and descending central nervous system pathways, as well as peripheral pathways, leading to heightened pain sensitivity. Risk factors have been studied extensively, and the most recent research focuses on various genetic influences and the contributions of stress and poor sleep. Lastly, the discussion in this article focuses on treatment options for fibromyalgia; some have been mainstay options for many years. Pharmacological agents include tricyclic antidepressants, anti-epileptic drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as well as some investigational agents. The evidence behind non-pharmacologic treatments, including massage therapy, exercise, and acupuncture, are discussed.

  15. Thermal Ablation of T1c Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Assessment of Technical Performance, Procedural Outcome, and Safety of Microwave Ablation, Radiofrequency Ablation, and Cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Arellano, Ronald S

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate perioperative outcomes of thermal ablation with microwave (MW), radiofrequency (RF), and cryoablation for stage T1c renal cell carcinoma (RCC). A retrospective analysis of 384 patients (mean age, 71 y; range, 22-88 y) was performed between October 2006 and October 2016. Mean radius, exophytic/endophytic, nearness to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, and location relative to polar lines; preoperative aspects and dimensions used for anatomic classification; and centrality index scores were 6.3, 7.9, and 2.7, respectively. Assessment of pre- and postablation serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and estimated glomerular filtration rate was performed to assess functional outcomes. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare sedation medication dosages among the three treatment cohorts. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to compare rates of residual disease and complications among treatment modalities. A total of 437 clinical stage T1N0M0 biopsy-proven RCCs measuring 1.2-6.9 cm were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided MW ablation (n = 44; 10%), RF ablation (n = 347; 79%), or cryoablation (n = 46; 11%). There were no significant differences in patient demographic or tumor characteristics among cohorts. Complication rates and immediate renal function changes were similar among the three ablation modalities (P = .46 and P = .08, respectively). MW ablation was associated with significantly decreased ablation time (P < .05), procedural time (P < .05), and dosage of sedative medication (P < .05) compared with RF ablation and cryoablation. CT-guided percutaneous MW ablation is comparable to RF ablation or cryoablation for the treatment of stage T1N0M0 RCC with regard to treatment response and is associated with shorter treatment times and less sedation than RF ablation or cryoablation. In addition, the safety profile of CT-guided MW ablation is noninferior to those of RF ablation or

  16. Treatment planning for prostate focal laser ablation in the face of needle placement uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepek, Jeremy, E-mail: jcepek@robarts.ca; Fenster, Aaron [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8, Canada and Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Lindner, Uri; Trachtenberg, John [Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Urology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada); Davidson, Sean R. H. [Ontario Cancer Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7 (Canada); Ghai, Sangeet [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of needle placement uncertainty on the expected probability of achieving complete focal target destruction in focal laser ablation (FLA) of prostate cancer. Methods: Using a simplified model of prostate cancer focal target, and focal laser ablation region shapes, Monte Carlo simulations of needle placement error were performed to estimate the probability of completely ablating a region of target tissue. Results: Graphs of the probability of complete focal target ablation are presented over clinically relevant ranges of focal target sizes and shapes, ablation region sizes, and levels of needle placement uncertainty. In addition, a table is provided for estimating the maximum target size that is treatable. The results predict that targets whose length is at least 5 mm smaller than the diameter of each ablation region can be confidently ablated using, at most, four laser fibers if the standard deviation in each component of needle placement error is less than 3 mm. However, targets larger than this (i.e., near to or exceeding the diameter of each ablation region) require more careful planning. This process is facilitated by using the table provided. Conclusions: The probability of completely ablating a focal target using FLA is sensitive to the level of needle placement uncertainty, especially as the target length approaches and becomes greater than the diameter of ablated tissue that each individual laser fiber can achieve. The results of this work can be used to help determine individual patient eligibility for prostate FLA, to guide the planning of prostate FLA, and to quantify the clinical benefit of using advanced systems for accurate needle delivery for this treatment modality.

  17. Microwave treatment of BPH: still an option?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Surgery, the gold standard in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is presently performed in the majority of patients who receive treatment. An increasing number of alternative options recently became available for treatment of BPH and especially minimal invasive treatment

  18. Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of liver cancer in adults depends on the stage. Treatment options include hepatectomy, liver transplant, ablation, electroporation therapy (EPT), embolization therapy, targeted therapy, and/or radiation therapy. Learn more about treatment for the different stages of liver cancer.

  19. Local absolute alcohol ablation for the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Mingyi; Wang Peijun; Lu Ying; Ma Jun; Tang Junjun; Xi Qian; Huang Zongliang; Gao Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to assess the clinical value of local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance in treating recurrent pheochromocytoma. Methods: Five patients with benign recurrent pheochromocytoma were enrolled in this study. Of the five cases, the lesions were located on the right side in three, on the left in one and on both sides in one. All the lesions were pathologically proved to be benign ones. Under CT guidance the ablation therapy with local injection of absolute alcohol was performed. The therapeutic results were observed and evaluated. Results: Thirty days after the treatment, different degrees of decrease in tumor size was observed on follow-up CT scans. All the patients were followed up for 9-42 months. During the follow-up period, both the blood pressure and the vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) level in urine remained normal and no paroxysmal dizziness, headache or syncope occurred in all patients. Conclusion: For the treatment of recurrent pheochromocytoma the ablation therapy by using local injection of absolute alcohol under CT guidance is a safe and practical therapeutic means with definite and reliable effectiveness. (authors)

  20. Value of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai; Ma, Kuan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant disease that substantially affects public health worldwide. It is especially prevalent in east Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where the main etiology is the endemic status of chronic hepatitis B. Effective treatments with curative intent for early HCC include liver transplantation, liver resection (LR), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). RFA has become the most widely used local thermal ablation method in recent years because of its technical ease, safety, satisfactory local tumor control, and minimally invasive nature. This technique has also emerged as an important treatment strategy for HCC in recent years. RFA, liver transplantation, and hepatectomy can be complementary to one another in the treatment of HCC, and the outcome benefits have been demonstrated by numerous clinical studies. As a pretransplantation bridge therapy, RFA extends the average waiting time without increasing the risk of dropout or death. In contrast to LR, RFA causes almost no intra-abdominal adhesion, thus producing favorable conditions for subsequent liver transplantation. Many studies have demonstrated mutual interactions between RFA and hepatectomy, effectively expanding the operative indications for patients with HCC and enhancing the efficacy of these approaches. However, treated tumor tissue remains within the body after RFA, and residual tumors or satellite nodules can limit the effectiveness of this treatment. Therefore, future research should focus on this issue. PMID:24876721

  1. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 10 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative cancer treatments: 10 options to consider Alternative cancer treatments can't cure your cancer, but they may provide some ... that may help them, including complementary and alternative cancer treatments. If cancer makes you feel as if you ...

  2. Percutaneous treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis: A comparison of the safety of cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Ruth M.; Shyn, Paul B.; Sung, Jeffrey C.; Tatli, Servet; Morrison, Paul R.; Catalano, Paul J.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the safety of image-guided percutaneous cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Materials and methods: This retrospective HIPAA-compliant study received institutional review board approval. Forty-two adult patients with cirrhosis underwent image-guided percutaneous ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma from 2003 to 2011. Twenty-five patients underwent 33 cryoablation procedures to treat 39 tumors, and 22 underwent 30 radiofrequency ablation procedures to treat 39 tumors. Five patients underwent both cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation procedures. Complication rates and severity per procedure were compared between the ablation groups. Potential confounding patient, procedure, and tumor-related variables were also compared. Statistical analyses included Kruskal–Wallis, Wilcoxon rank sum, and Fisher's exact tests. Two-sided P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results: The overall complication rates, 13 (39.4%) of 33 cryoablation procedures versus eight (26.7%) of 30 radiofrequency ablation procedures and severe/fatal complication rates, two (6.1%) of 33 cryoablation procedures versus one (3.3%) of 30 radiofrequency ablation procedures, were not significantly different between the ablation groups (both P = 0.26). Severe complications included pneumothoraces requiring chest tube insertion during two cryoablation procedures. One death occurred within 90 days of a radiofrequency ablation procedure; all other complications were managed successfully. Conclusion: No significant difference was seen in the overall safety of image-guided percutaneous cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis

  3. Osteoid Osteoma: Experience with Laser- and Radiofrequency-Induced Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebauer, Bernhard; Tunn, Per-Ulf; Gaffke, Gunnar; Melcher, Ingo; Felix, Roland; Stroszczynski, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome of osteoid osteoma treated by thermal ablation after drill opening. A total of 17 patients and 20 procedures were included. All patients had typical clinical features (age, pain) and a typical radiograph showing a nidus. In 5 cases, additional histological specimens were acquired. After drill opening of the osteoid osteoma nidus, 12 thermal ablations were induced by laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) (9F Power-Laser-Set; Somatex, Germany) and 8 ablations by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (RITA; StarBurst, USA). Initial clinical success with pain relief has been achieved in all patients after the first ablation. Three patients had an osteoid osteoma recurrence after 3, 9, and 10 months and were successfully re-treated by thermal ablation. No major complication and one minor complication (sensible defect) were recorded. Thermal ablation is a safe and minimally invasive therapy option for osteoid osteoma. Although the groups are too small for a comparative analysis, we determined no difference between laser- and radiofrequency-induced ablation in clinical outcome after ablation

  4. Targeted Treatment With Radio Frequency Ablation for Lingual Tonsil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Renkonen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benign enlargement of the lingual tonsils due to various causes may cause symptoms that warrant treatment. Conventional lingual tonsillectomy remains a challenging procedure, and there is no established standard procedure. We aimed to review the patients receiving different methods of lingual tonsil surgery for various indications at our institute. Methods: Retrospective clinical data on all patients with an ablative operation of the tongue base during the 8-year period between 2007 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, were reviewed. The larger cohort comprised 35 patients, of whom 26 were men (74%. Ten patients had undergone solely lingual tonsil radio frequency ablation (LTRFA. The minimum follow-up time for all patients was 2 years. Results: Of the 10 patients, 5 patients with LTRFA had been operated on because of symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy and 5 because of periodic fever associated with possible lingual tonsil involvement. In 2 of the 5 patients with periodic fever, the fever cycles ended after the operation. Of the 5 patients, 3 patients with symptomatic lingual tonsil hypertrophy have been non-symptomatic after 1 to 3 treatment sessions. The last 2 patients continue to have persistent symptoms. There were no major complications. Conclusions: Development of new approaches for the management of various lingual tonsil conditions is warranted. Lingual tonsil volume reduction by LTRFA seems to be a treatment alternative with low morbidity but with limited curative effect only.

  5. Review of Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option in IBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivananthan, Kavitha; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: Review of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option for the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVE: IBD is caused by an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota. Treatment options could therefore be prebiotics, probiotics......, antibiotics and/or fecal transplant. In this review, we have looked at the evidence for the yeast S. boulardii as a treatment option. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library with the MeSH words 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND IBD', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Inflammatory Bowel Disease....... Saccharomyces boulardii is, however, a plausible treatment option in the future, but more placebo-controlled clinical studies on both patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are needed....

  6. Prognostic factors for the success of endometrial ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia with special reference to previous cesarean section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Jos A. H.; Penninx, Josien P. M.; Mol, Ben Willem; Bongers, Marlies Y.

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether, among other prognostic factors, a history of Cesarean section is associated with endometrial ablation failure in the treatment of menorrhagia. Study design We compared women who had failed ablation to women who had successful ablation for menorrhagia in a case-control study.

  7. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  8. Image-guided Tumor Ablation: Standardization of Terminology and Reporting Criteria—A 10-Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbiati, Luigi; Brace, Christopher L.; Breen, David J.; Callstrom, Matthew R.; Charboneau, J. William; Chen, Min-Hua; Choi, Byung Ihn; de Baère, Thierry; Dodd, Gerald D.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Gervais, Debra A.; Gianfelice, David; Gillams, Alice R.; Lee, Fred T.; Leen, Edward; Lencioni, Riccardo; Littrup, Peter J.; Livraghi, Tito; Lu, David S.; McGahan, John P.; Meloni, Maria Franca; Nikolic, Boris; Pereira, Philippe L.; Liang, Ping; Rhim, Hyunchul; Rose, Steven C.; Salem, Riad; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Solomon, Stephen B.; Soulen, Michael C.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wood, Bradford J.; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided tumor ablation has become a well-established hallmark of local cancer therapy. The breadth of options available in this growing field increases the need for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria to facilitate effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison among treatments that use different technologies, such as chemical (eg, ethanol or acetic acid) ablation, thermal therapies (eg, radiofrequency, laser, microwave, focused ultrasound, and cryoablation) and newer ablative modalities such as irreversible electroporation. This updated consensus document provides a framework that will facilitate the clearest communication among investigators regarding ablative technologies. An appropriate vehicle is proposed for reporting the various aspects of image-guided ablation therapy including classification of therapies, procedure terms, descriptors of imaging guidance, and terminology for imaging and pathologic findings. Methods are addressed for standardizing reporting of technique, follow-up, complications, and clinical results. As noted in the original document from 2003, adherence to the recommendations will improve the precision of communications in this field, leading to more accurate comparison of technologies and results, and ultimately to improved patient outcomes. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24927329

  9. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood liver cancer treatment options include surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ablation therapy, and antiviral therapy. Learn more about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. Treatment room length-of-stay and patient throughput with radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison of thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo Casas, Juan Antonio; Mena Bares, Luisa M; Gálvez, María Angeles; Marlowe, Robert J; Latre Romero, José M; Martínez-Paredes, María

    2011-09-01

    We sought to empirically compare treatment room length-of-stay and patient throughput for recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH)-aided thyroid remnant ablation with thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW)-aided ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We retrospectively reviewed charts of all eligible (near) totally thyroidectomized patients with DTC undergoing ablation and 1-year ablation success evaluation at our tertiary referral centre from January 2003 to February 2009 (N=274). M1 disease caused exclusion unless discovered by a postablation scan or present when rhTSH was the only tolerable stimulation method. We extracted data on the length-of-stay, defined as the time between treatment room admission and discharge, and patient throughput, defined as patients ablated per treatment room per week. The treatment room discharge criterion was a whole-body dose rate of less than 60 μSv/h at 50 cm. The treatment groups (rhTSH, n=187; THW, n=87) had mostly statistically similar characteristics, but differed in primary tumour status distribution. In addition, at ablation, the rhTSH patients had a greater prevalence of prior diagnostic scintigraphy, higher mean serum TSH, and shorter interval since surgery, and received a 5.6% larger mean ablation activity. On average, rhTSH patients had a significantly lower peak whole-body dose rate (57.1 vs. 83.4 μSv/h at 50 cm; P<0.0001) and a significantly shorter treatment room stay than did the THW patients (1.41 vs. 2.02 days; P<0.001). rhTSH use allowed significantly more patients to be ablated per room per week (2.7 vs. 1.2; P<0.001). Relative to THW, rhTSH use to aid ablation reduced mean treatment room length-of-stay by almost one-third and more than doubled the average weekly patient throughput, both of which were significant differences.

  11. Resolution of a life-threatening complication after lung radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreetti, Claudio; Maurizi, Giulio; Cassiano, Francesco; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2014-10-01

    Lung radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an option for the treatment of unresectable lung cancer. Clinical investigators have previously warned against severe complications associated with this procedure. We report a case of life-threatening complication after lung RFA for non-operable non-small-cell lung cancer consisting of pulmonary abscess evolving into a bronchopleural fistula, severe pneumothorax and septic pleuritis, which was successfully treated with a multimodal conservative approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical fiber biocompatible sensors for monitoring selective treatment of tumors via thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele; Poeggel, Sven; Dinesh, Duraibabu B.; Macchi, Edoardo G.; Gallati, Mario; Braschi, Giovanni; Leen, Gabriel; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-09-01

    Thermal ablation (TA) is an interventional procedure for selective treatment of tumors, that results in low-invasive outpatient care. The lack of real-time control of TA is one of its main weaknesses. Miniature and biocompatible optical fiber sensors are applied to achieve a dense, multi-parameter monitoring, that can substantially improve the control of TA. Ex vivo measurements are reported performed on porcine liver tissue, to reproduce radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Our measurement campaign has a two-fold focus: (1) dual pressure-temperature measurement with a single probe; (2) distributed thermal measurement to estimate point-by-point cells mortality.

  13. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for a recurrent metastasis after resection of liver metastases from an ileal clear-cell sarcoma: Long-term local tumor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jung Wook

    2017-12-01

    Clear-cell sarcomas (CCSs) in the gastrointestinal tract are extremely rare and aggressive tumors. We present the first case of a CCS arising in the ileum and metastasizing to the liver; our patient was a 60-year-old man. After the resection of the CCS and the liver metastases, a new liver metastasis developed, which was treated via percutaneous radiofrequency ablation only. At the 5-year follow-up, the ablated region was stable without local tumor progression. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation is a viable local treatment option for recurrent metastases from an ileal CCS if they are detected when small and at an early stage in follow-up studies.

  14. Patient knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Thommessen, Bente; Rønning, Ole Morten

    2018-01-01

    Public campaigns focus primarily on stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge, but patients who correctly recognize stroke symptoms do not necessarily know the reason for urgent hospitalization. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options among acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients. This prospective study included patients admitted to the stroke unit at the Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Patients with previous cerebrovascular disease, patients receiving thrombolytic treatment and patients who were not able to answer the questions in the questionnaire were excluded. Patients were asked two closed-ended questions: "Do you believe that stroke is a serious disorder?" and "Do you believe that time is of importance for stroke treatment?". In addition, patients were asked three open-ended questions where they were asked to list as many stroke risk factors, stroke symptoms and stroke treatment options as they could. A total of 173 patients were included, of whom 158 (91.3%) confirmed that they regarded stroke as a serious disorder and 148 patients (85.5%) considered time being of importance. In all, 102 patients (59.0%) could not name any treatment option. Forty-one patients (23.7%) named one or more adequate treatment options, and they were younger ( p options, which may contribute to reduce prehospital delay and onset-to-treatment-time.

  15. Treatment Option Overview (AIDS Related-Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and treatment options. AIDS-related lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... cord. The sample may also be checked for Epstein-Barr virus . This procedure is also called an LP ...

  16. Novel treatment options in depression and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceskova E

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic Abstract: In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets. In depression, treatment resistance to antidepressive pharmacotherapy represents one of the most important clinical challenges. Switching to monotherapy with new multimodal/multifunctional antidepressants and augmentation with new atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole and brexpiprazole may be promising options. Further, current evidence supports utility and safety of adjunctive treatment of nutraceuticals. Novel approaches being studied include ketamine and opioids. Recent advances in technology and emerging knowledge about dysfunctional brain circuits and neuroplasticity have led to the development of different new neuromodulation techniques usually used as add-on therapy. Antipsychotics are still the cornerstone of the current treatment of schizophrenia. Two new partial dopamine agonists, brexpiprazole and cariprazine, are now available in addition to aripiprazole. Although the mechanisms of action are similar, the two agents differ in terms of their pharmacodynamic profiles. Further, two new formulations of long-acting injections of second-generation antipsychotics (aripiprazole lauroxil and 3-month paliperidone palmitate were introduced into

  17. Three Cycles of Radiofrequency Ablation Are More Efficacious Than Two in the Management of Morton's Neuroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David; Parr, Adam; Bryceson, William

    2018-04-01

    Morton's neuroma is a common cause of forefoot pain. Outcomes of conservative therapy are mixed and many patients undergo operative intervention. Radiofrequency ablation has recently gained favor as a treatment option, although the optimal regime is unknown. This study investigates the effectiveness of 2 versus 3 cycles of radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of Morton's neuroma. We surveyed a cohort of patients with Morton's neuroma who had progressed to radiofrequency ablation after failed conservative treatment. Patients received either 2 or 3 cycles of radiofrequency ablation by a single surgeon. We assessed patients based on their change in numerical pain rating scale, symptom improvement, complications, and progression to surgical excision through a series of telephone interviews. Outcomes between the 2 treatment arms were compared by parametric tests. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study. Eighteen patients with 21 neuromas received 2 cycles and 10 patients with 11 neuromas received 3 cycles. Mean time of follow-up was 12.9 months. Overall, 88% of patients were either very or moderately satisfied with their outcome. In patients who received 2 cycles mean numerical pain scores decreased from 7.9 ± 1.1 to 3.4 ± 2.4 postprocedure. Three patients progressed to operative excision. In patients who received 3 cycles, numerical pain scores decreased from 8.0 ± 1.0 to 1.5 ± 2.0 postprocedure. One patient progressed to operative excision. Patients who received 3 cycles had reduced medium-term pain postoperatively compared with 2 cycles (3.4 ± 2.4 vs 1.5 ± 2.0, P = .011). Radiofrequency ablation provides a high rate of patient satisfaction in the treatment of Morton's neuroma with few side effects. It appears that 3 cycles may be superior to 2 cycles but a randomized controlled trial will be required to confirm these results. Intervention, Level III: Comparative study without concurrent controls.

  18. Catheter ablation of epicardial ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Yamada, MD, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular tachycardias (VTs can usually be treated by endocardial catheter ablation. However, some VTs can arise from the epicardial surface, and their substrate can be altered only by epicardial catheter ablation. There are two approaches to epicardial catheter ablation: transvenous and transthoracic. The transvenous approach through the coronary venous system (CVS has been commonly used because it is easily accessible. However, this approach may be limited by the distribution of the CVS and insufficient radiofrequency energy delivery. Transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation has been developed to overcome these limitations of the transvenous approach. It is a useful supplemental or even preferred strategy to eliminate epicardial VTs in the electrophysiology laboratory. This technique has been applied for scar-related VTs secondary to often non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and sometimes ischemic cardiomyopathy, and idiopathic VTs as the epicardial substrates of these VTs have become increasingly recognized. When endocardial ablation and epicardial ablation through the CVS are unsuccessful, transthoracic epicardial ablation should be the next option. Intrapericardial access is usually obtained through a subxiphoidal pericardial puncture. This approach might not be possible in patients with pericardial adhesions caused by prior cardiac surgery or pericarditis. In such cases, a hybrid procedure involving surgical access with a subxiphoid pericardial window and a limited anterior or lateral thoracotomy might be a feasible and safe method of performing an epicardial catheter ablation in the electrophysiology laboratory. Potential complications associated with this technique include bleeding and collateral damage to the coronary arteries and phrenic nerve. Although the risk of these complications is low, electrophysiologists who attempt epicardial catheter ablation should know the complications associated with this technique, how to minimize their

  19. Percutaneous Image-guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Tumors in Inoperable Patients - Immediate Complications and Overall Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Anubha; Sahay, Nishant; Kapoor, Ashok; Kapoor, Jyoti; Chatterjee, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous destruction of cancer cells using a radiofrequency energy source has become an accepted part of the modern armamentarium for managing malignancies. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively novel procedure for treating recurrent and metastatic tumors. It is used for debulking tumors and as adjuvant therapy for palliative care apart from its role as a pain management tool. Its use in the third world countries is limited by various factors such as cost and expertise. In the remotest parts of India, where economic development has been slow, abject poverty with poor health care facilities advanced malignancies present a challenge to health care providers. We undertook this study to assess the safety of the percutaneous RFA tumor ablation as a therapeutic or palliative measure in patients where surgery was not possible. We observed that RFA may be an effective, alternative therapeutic modality for some inoperable tumors where other therapeutic modalities cannot be considered. Palliative and therapeutic image-guided RFAs of tumors may be the only treatment option in patients who are inoperable for a variety of reasons. To assess the safety and complications of RFA in such a patient population is important before embarking upon any interventions given their physically, mentally, and socially compromised status in a country such as India. To assess the safety of percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency tumor ablation and to note the various immediate and early complications of the intervention. This was a prospective, observational study conducted in Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. After approval by the Hospital Approval Committee all patients who consented for percutaneous RFA of their tumor admitted in the hospital were included after taking fully informed consent from patient/close relative keeping the following criteria in view. Patients who were likely to derive a direct benefit in the survival or as a palliative measure for relief

  20. Cyanobacterial Treatment Options: Permanganate and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will begin with a brief overview of drinking water treatment options for cyanobacteria and their toxins. The treatment discussion will focus on the impacts of permanganate addition to suspensions of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition. Results will be presented that show changes in toxin concentrations, chlorophyll-a concentrations and cell membrane integrity. The EPA Small Systems Webinar Presentations allow the dissemination of the latest Agency guidance and research to a large geographically dispersed audience while minimizing taxpayer expense

  1. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma using microwave and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, H.-X.; Xie, X.-Y.; Lu, M.-D. E-mail: lumd@21cn.com; Chen, J.-W.; Yin, X.-Y.; Xu, Z.-F.; Liu, G.-J

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of thermal ablation for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using microwave and radiofrequency (RF) energy application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 190 nodules in 97 patients (84 male, 13 female; mean age 53.4 years, range 24-74 years) with HCC were treated with microwave or RF ablation in the last 4 years. The applicators were introduced into the tumours under conscious analgesic sedation by intravenous administration of fentanyl citrate and droperidol and local anaesthesia in both thermal ablation procedures. The patients were then followed up with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate treatment response. Survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Complete ablation was obtained in 92.6% (176/190) nodules. The complete ablation rates were 94.6% (106/112) in microwave ablation and 89.7% (70/78) in RF ablation. The complete ablation rates in tumours{<=}2.0, 2.1-3.9 and {>=}4.0 cm were 93.1, 93.8 and 86.4%, respectively. Local recurrence was found in 9.5% nodules and the rates in tumours{<=}2.0, 2.1-3.9 and {>=}4.0 cm in diameter were 3.4, 9.9 and 31.8%, respectively. In the follow-up period, 7.1% nodules ablated by microwave and 12.8% by RF presented local recurrence. The 1, 2 and 3-year distant recurrence-free survivals were 47.2, 34.9 and 31.0%, respectively. Estimated mean survival was 32 months, and 1, 2 and 3-year cumulative survivals were 75.6, 58.5, and 50.0%, respectively. One and 2 years survivals of Child-Pugh class A, B and C patients were 83.8 and 70.4%, 78.2 and 53.2%, 36.3 and 27.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Thermal ablation therapy by means of microwave and RF energy application is an effective and safe therapeutic technique for hepatocellular carcinoma. Large tumours can be completely ablated, but have a significantly higher risk of local recurrence at follow-up.

  2. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous thermal ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma using microwave and radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.-X.; Xie, X.-Y.; Lu, M.-D.; Chen, J.-W.; Yin, X.-Y.; Xu, Z.-F.; Liu, G.-J.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of thermal ablation for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using microwave and radiofrequency (RF) energy application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 190 nodules in 97 patients (84 male, 13 female; mean age 53.4 years, range 24-74 years) with HCC were treated with microwave or RF ablation in the last 4 years. The applicators were introduced into the tumours under conscious analgesic sedation by intravenous administration of fentanyl citrate and droperidol and local anaesthesia in both thermal ablation procedures. The patients were then followed up with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate treatment response. Survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Complete ablation was obtained in 92.6% (176/190) nodules. The complete ablation rates were 94.6% (106/112) in microwave ablation and 89.7% (70/78) in RF ablation. The complete ablation rates in tumours≤2.0, 2.1-3.9 and ≥4.0 cm were 93.1, 93.8 and 86.4%, respectively. Local recurrence was found in 9.5% nodules and the rates in tumours≤2.0, 2.1-3.9 and ≥4.0 cm in diameter were 3.4, 9.9 and 31.8%, respectively. In the follow-up period, 7.1% nodules ablated by microwave and 12.8% by RF presented local recurrence. The 1, 2 and 3-year distant recurrence-free survivals were 47.2, 34.9 and 31.0%, respectively. Estimated mean survival was 32 months, and 1, 2 and 3-year cumulative survivals were 75.6, 58.5, and 50.0%, respectively. One and 2 years survivals of Child-Pugh class A, B and C patients were 83.8 and 70.4%, 78.2 and 53.2%, 36.3 and 27.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Thermal ablation therapy by means of microwave and RF energy application is an effective and safe therapeutic technique for hepatocellular carcinoma. Large tumours can be completely ablated, but have a significantly higher risk of local recurrence at follow-up

  3. Identifying MRI markers to evaluate early treatment-related changes post-laser ablation for cancer pain management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Danish, Shabbar; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) has recently emerged as a new treatment modality for cancer pain management that targets the cingulum (pain center in the brain), and has shown promise over radio-frequency (RF) based ablation which is reported to provide temporary relief. One of the major advantages enjoyed by LITT is its compatibility with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing for high resolution in vivo imaging to be used in LITT procedures. Since laser ablation for pain management is currently exploratory and is only performed at a few centers worldwide, its short-, and long-term effects on the cingulum are currently unknown. Traditionally treatment effects are evaluated by monitoring changes in volume of the ablation zone post-treatment. However, this is sub-optimal since it involves evaluating a single global parameter (volume) to detect changes pre-, and post-MRI. Additionally, the qualitative observations of LITT-related changes on multi-parametric MRI (MPMRI) do not specifically address differentiation between the appearance of treatment related changes (edema, necrosis) from recurrence of the disease (pain recurrence). In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on MP-MRI to capture early treatment related changes on a per-voxel basis by extracting quantitative relationships that may allow for an in-depth understanding of tissue response to LITT on MRI, subtle changes that may not be appreciable on original MR intensities. The second objective of this work is to investigate the efficacy of different MRI protocols in accurately capturing treatment related changes within and outside the ablation zone post-LITT. A retrospective cohort of studies comprising pre- and 24-hour post-LITT 3 Tesla T1-weighted (T1w), T2w, T2-GRE, and T2-FLAIR acquisitions was considered. Our scheme involved (1) inter-protocol as well as inter-acquisition affine registration of pre- and post-LITT MRI, (2) quantitation of MRI parameters

  4. Role of contact force-guided radiofrequency catheter ablation for treatment of atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Chen, Yi-He; Hou, Jian-Wen; Lu, Zhao-Yang; Xiang, Yin; Li, Yi-Gang

    2017-09-01

    CF-sensing catheter emerged as a novel ablation technology and was increasingly used in clinical practice. Nonetheless, available evidence of efficacy and safety comparison between CF-guided RF catheter ablation and non-CF-guided ablation for treatment of AF was still lacking. Twenty-two eligible studies were included after systematic review through the MEDLINE, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library and PubMed databases. AF/atrial tachycardia-free survival was markedly improved in CF-guided catheter ablation compared with non-CF-guided ablation at a median 12-month follow-up (RR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.06-1.19, P = 0.000, fixed). Notably, CF-guided catheter ablation presented a robust survival benefit for treatment of paroxysmal AF (RR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18, P = 0.005, fixed), but not persistent AF (RR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.89-1.28, P = 0.466, fixed). Moreover, procedure time (WMD: -23.87, 95% CI: -33.83 to -13.91, P = 0.000, random), fluoroscopy time (WMD: -7.78, 95% CI: -13.93 to -1.63, P = 0.013, random) and RF time (WMD: -3.98, 95% CI: -7.78 to -0.17, P = 0.040, random) were significantly reduced in CF-guided catheter ablation. The incidence of procedure-related complications did not differ between these two technologies (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59 to 1.16, P = 0.271, fixed). CF-guided RF catheter ablation was associated with a significant AF/atrial tachycardia-free survival benefit compared with non-CF-guided ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF rather than persistent AF. In addition, CF-guided ablation strategy also reduced the procedure time, fluoroscopy time, as well as RF time despite no distinct effect on the alleviation of procedure-related complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Schullian, Peter; Bale, Reto

    2013-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is well established in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to its curative potential, it is the method of choice for non resectable BCLC (Barcelona Liver Clinic) 0 and A. RFA challenges surgical resection for small HCC and is the method of choice in bridging for transplantation and recurrence after resection or transplantation. The technical feasibility of RFA depends on the size and location of the HCC and the availability of ablation techniques (one needle techniques, multi-needle techniques). More recently, stereotactic multi-needle techniques with 3D trajectory planning and guided needle placement substantially improve the spectrum of treatable lesions including large volume tumors. Treatment success depends on the realization of ablations with large intentional margins of tumor free tissue (A0 ablation in analogy to R0 resection), which has to be documented by fusion of post- with pre-ablation images, and confirmed during follow-up imaging.

  6. Treatment options for carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M S; Gundgaard, M.G.; Daugaard, G

    2011-01-01

    countries only offer this to high-risk patients. The treatment options range from orchidectomy and chemotherapy to radiotherapy and in rare cases surveillance. Results of the different treatment strategies are presented in this review. The optimal radiation dose is still not clarified. Most patients have...

  7. Combined Fractional Treatment of Acne Scars Involving Non-ablative 1,550-nm Erbium-glass Laser and Micro-needling Radiofrequency: A 16-week Prospective, Randomized Split-face Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck Hoon Kwon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimized therapeutic regimen involving a non-ablative fractionated laser or radiofrequency therapy for acne scars has not yet been established. To evaluate whether the combination of a non-ablative fractional laser (NAF and fractional micro-needling radiofrequency (FMR has clinical advantages for the treatment of atrophic acne scars compared with NAF alone, a 16-week prospective, randomized split-face study was performed. Each facial side of a patient was treated with 3 sessions of either NAF with FMR or NAF alone, with a 4-week interval between each session. Although both sides demonstrated significant decreases in the échelle d’évaluation clinique des cicatrices d’acné (ECCA score, the facial side treated using the combination regimen demonstrated greater improvement in ECCA score regarding degree and onset time than the NAF-treated side. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results confirmed the clinical findings. This study demonstrated that a combination regimen involving NAF and FMR could be a viable option with satisfactory efficacy.

  8. A new catheter design for combined radiofrequency ablation and optoacoustic treatment monitoring using copper-coated light-guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebling, Johannes; Oyaga Landa, Francisco Javier; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luis; Razansky, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Electrosurgery, i.e. the application of radiofrequency current for tissue ablation, is a frequently used treatment for many cardiac arrhythmias. Electrophysiological and anatomic mapping, as well as careful radiofrequency power control typically guide the radiofrequency ablation procedure. Despite its widespread application, accurate monitoring of the lesion formation with sufficient spatio-temporal resolution remains challenging with the existing imaging techniques. We present a novel integrated catheter for simultaneous radiofrequency ablation and optoacoustic monitoring of the lesion formation in real time and 3D. The design combines the delivery of both electric current and optoacoustic excitation beam in a single catheter consisting of copper-coated multimode light-guides and its manufacturing is described in detail. The electrical current causes coagulation and desiccation while the excitation light is locally absorbed, generating OA responses from the entire treated volume. The combined ablation-monitoring capabilities were verified using ex-vivo bovine tissue. The formed ablation lesions showed a homogenous coagulation while the ablation was monitored in realtime with a volumetric frame rate of 10 Hz over 150 seconds.

  9. The efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and its effects on serum IL-6 and hs-CRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Libo; Wang, Zhenzhou; Niu, Ling; An, Xinjiang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of pediatric arrhythmia and to assess the changes in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hs-CRP levels after treatment. Hundred and six children with tachyarrhythmia who were admitted to Xuzhou Children's Hospital from November, 2014 to December, 2015 were recruited for study. The efficacies of radiofrequency in the treatment of different types of arrhythmia were analyzed. Successful ablation was found in 104 cases (98.11%) and recurrence was found in 7 cases (6.73%). Among 62 cases of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), successful ablation was found in 60 cases (96.77%) and recurrence was found in 3 cases (4.84%). Among 33 cases of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), successful ablation was found in 33 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 2 cases (6.06%). Among 5 cases of ventricular tachycardia (VT), successful ablation was found in 5 cases (100%) and no recurrence was found. Among 4 cases of atrial tachycardia (AT), successful ablation was found in 4 cases (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (25%). Among 2 cases of atrial flutter (AFL), successful ablation was found in both (100%) and recurrence was found in 1 case (50%). After operation, the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP were increased and were continually increased within 6 h after operation. The levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP at 24 h after operation were reduced but still higher than preoperative levels. The duration of radiofrequency and ablation energy were positively correlated with the levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP, while the number of discharges was not significantly correlated with either. In conclusion, radiofrequency ablation is a safe and effective treatment for pediatric arrhythmia. Postoperative monitoring of IL-6 and hs-CRP levels is conducive to understanding postoperative myocardial injury and inflammatory response.

  10. [Necessary and unnecessary treatment options for hemorrhoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Joel; Inglin, Roman; Brügger, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Up to one third of the general population suffers from symptoms caused by hemorrhoids. Conservative treatment comes first unless the patient presents with an acute hemorrhoidal prolapse or a thrombosis. A fiber enriched diet is the primary treatment option, recommended in the perioperative period as well as a long-term prophylaxis. A timely limited application of topical ointments or suppositories and/or flavonoids are further treatment options. When symptoms persist interventional procedures for grade I-II hemorrhoids, and surgery for grade III-IV hemorrhoids should be considered. Rubber band ligation is the interventional treatment of choice. A comparable efficacy using sclerosing or infrared therapy has not yet been demonstrated. We therefore do not recommend these treatment options for the cure of hemorrhoids. Self-treatment by anal insertion of bougies is of lowrisk and may be successful, particularly in the setting of an elevated sphincter pressure. Anal dilation, sphincterotomy, cryosurgery, bipolar diathermy, galvanic electrotherapy, and heat therapy should be regarded as obsolete given the poor or missing data reported for these methods. For a long time, the classic excisional hemorrhoidectomy was considered to be the gold standard as far as surgical procedures are concerned. Primary closure (Ferguson) seems to be superior compared to the "open" version (Milligan Morgan) with respect to postoperative pain and wound healing. The more recently proposed stapled hemorrhoidopexy (Longo) is particularly advisable for circular hemorrhoids. Compared to excisional hemorrhoidectomy the Longo-operation is associated with reduced postoperative pain, shorter operation time and hospital stay as well as a faster recovery, with the disadvantage though of a higher recurrence rate. Data from Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation (HAL)-, if appropriate in combination with a Recto-Anal Repair (HAL/RAR)-, demonstrates a similar trend towards a better tolerance of the procedure at the

  11. Treatment options in otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Ila; Datar, J

    2014-01-01

    Secretary Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the accumulation of mucus in the middle ear and sometimes in the mastoid air cell system. The main etiological factor is alteration in mucociliary system of middle ear secondary to ET malfunction which may be primary or secondary. OME is the cause of concern due to its occurance in paediatric age group, highest at 2 years of age, presenting as impairment of hearing leading to delayed speech and language development, poor academic performance and behavioral problems. In spite of this there are no confirmed guidelines of treatment to overcome. Many treatment options are available medical as well as surgical. Prospective study conducted to evaluate various treatment options revealed that auto inflation of ET is the main stay of treatment. If the ET malfunction is due to any reasons like adenoids, deviated nasal septum, hypertrophied turbinates or any other cause surgical intervention of the same gives 100% results. Medical management gives good results but recurrence is equally common.

  12. [Treatment options for patellar tendinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthon, V B; Borloz, S; Ziltener, J-L

    2012-07-25

    Patellar tendinopathy is also called jumper's knee because of its high incidence in athletes with jumping or cutting activities as soccer, basketball, volleyball. Many different treatment methods have been described. However, no consensus exists regarding the optimal treatment for this condition. According to the literature, eccentric exercise-based physical therapy should be proposed first because of its strong scientific evidence. Shockwave therapy and injections may be useful but their real efficacy still has to be proven by randomized controlled study. For patients recalcitrant to more conservative options, operative management may be indicated.

  13. Novel Approaches for the Treatment of the Patient with Resistant Hypertension: Renal Nerve Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Vinay; White, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic innervation of the kidneys plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension through modulation of renin secretion, glomerular filtration rate and renal absorption of sodium. Targeted interventions for renal nerve ablation are being developed for treatment of drug resistant hypertension in the USA and rest of the world. Early studies with the use of radiofrequency based renal denervation systems have shown encouraging results with significant reduction of blood pressure in patients inadequately controlled despite nearly maximal drug therapy regimens. Thus far, the renal denervation procedure has been associated with minimal side effects. Long term efficacy and safety beyond 3 years needs to be determined for renal nerve ablation. This review focuses on the physiology of the renal sympathetic system, the rationale for renal nerve ablation and current evidence in support of the available therapeutic renal denervation systems. PMID:24244757

  14. Radiofrequency catheter ablation in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias (first of two parts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, W.H; Morady, F.

    1997-01-01

    The intravenous radiofrequency catheter inside cardiac s chambers, for inspect signals intracardiac s and to encourage, has been developed as diagnostic tool with the purpose to search arrhythmias physiology and physiopathology.Many energy sources has been used: direct energy, radiofrequency 11-15, laser 6,17, and microwave 18,19. A comparison between radiofrequency and electric energy shock has been described in cardiac arrhythmias treatment, in the present article. It has been tested the radiation biological effects and risk in Wolff Parkinson White patients as well as doctors who handling the fluoroscopy for image during the radiofrequency ablation. Has been described the following techniques: Catheter ablation radiofrequency slow way and fast way

  15. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of malignant hepatic tumors: post-ablation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Bin; Rhim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsoo; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Lee, Seung Ro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate post-ablation syndrome after radiofrequency thermal ablation of malignant hepatic tumors. Forty-two patients with primary (n=3D29) or secondary (n=3D13) hepatic tumors underwent radiofrequency thermal ablation. A total of 65 nodules ranging in size from 1.1 to 5.0 (mean, 3.1) cm were treated percutaneously using a 50W RF generator with 15G expandable needle electrodes. We retrospectively evaluated the spectrum of post-ablation syndrome including pain, fever (≥3D 38 deg C), nausea, vomiting, right shoulder pain, and chest discomfort according to frequency, intensity and duration, and the findings were correlated with tumor location and number of ablations. We also evaluated changes in pre-/post-ablation serum aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and prothrombin time, and correlated these findings with the number of ablations. Post-ablation syndrome was noted in 29 of 42 patients (69.0%), and most symptoms improved with conservative treatment. The most important of these were abdominal plan (n=3D20, 47.6%), fever (n=3D8, 19.0%), and nausea (n=3D7, 16.7%), and four of 42 (9.5%) patients complained of severe pain. The abdominal pain lasted from 3 hours to 5.5 days (mean; 20.4 hours), the fever from 6 hours to 5 days (mean; 63.0 hours). And the nausea from 1 hours to 4 days (mean; 21.0 hours). Other symptoms were right shoulder pain (n=3D6, 14.3%), chest discomfort (n=3D3, 7.1%), and headache (n=3D3, 7.1%). Seventeen of 20 patients (85%) with abdominal pain had subcapsular tumor of the liver. There was significant correlation between pain, location of the tumor, and a number of ablations. After ablation, ALT/AST was elevated more than two-fold in 52.6%/73.7% of patients, respectively but there was no significant correlation with the number of ablation. Post-ablation syndrome is a frequent and tolerable post-procedural process after radiofrequency thermal ablation. The spectrum of this syndrome provides a useful guideline for the post-ablation management. (author)

  16. Tumor lysis syndrome following endoscopic radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, B D

    2012-02-03

    Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (RITA) provides a palliative option for patients suffering from metastatic liver disease. This procedure can be performed using a laparoscopic approach with laparoscopic ultrasound used to position the RITA probe. We describe a case of laparoscopic RITA performed for colorectal liver metastasis that was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) following treatment. We consider RITA to be a safe procedure, as supported by the literature, but where intracorporal tumor lysis is the treatment goal we believe that the systemic release of tumor products can overwhelm the excretory capacity; therefore, TLS is an inevitable consequence in some patients.

  17. Image-guided radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Andreas; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L.; Kuczyk, Markus; Schick, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma is rising with the increased number of incidental detection of small tumours. During the past few years, percutaneous imaging-guided radiofrequency ablation has evolved as a minimally invasive treatment of small unresectable renal tumours offering reduced patient morbidity and overall health care costs. In radiofrequency ablation, thermal energy is deposited into a targeted tumour by means of a radiofrequency applicator. In recent studies, radiofrequency ablation was shown to be an effective and safe modality for local destruction of renal cell carcinoma. Radiofrequency applicator navigation can be performed via ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance guidance; however, ultrasound seems less favourable because of the absence of monitoring capabilities during ablation. On-line monitoring of treatment outcome can only be performed with magnetic resonance imaging giving the possibility of eventual applicator repositioning to ablate visible residual tumour tissue. Long-term follow-up is crucial to assess completeness of tumour ablation. New developments in ablation technology and radiological equipment will further increase the indication field for radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma. Altogether, radiofrequency ablation seems to be a promising new modality for the minimally invasive treatment of renal cell carcinoma, which was demonstrated to exhibit high short-term effectiveness. (orig.)

  18. The cost-effectiveness of radiofrequency catheter ablation as first-line treatment for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, Mattias; Walfridsson, Håkan; Janzon, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this prospective substudy was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) compared with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) as first-line treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A decision-analytic Markov model......, based on MANTRA-PAF (Medical Antiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation) study data, was developed to study long-term effects and costs of RFA compared with AADs as first-line treatment. Positive clinical effects were found in the overall population, a gain...... of an average 0.06 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to an incremental cost of €3033, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €50 570/QALY. However, the result of the subgroup analyses showed that RFA was less costly and more effective in younger patients. This implied an incremental cost-effectiveness...

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Radiofrequency Ablation for Focal Hepatic Lesions Adjacent to Gallbladder: Reconfiguration of the Ablation Zone through Probe Relocation and Ablation Time Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Sung Gu; Won, Hyung Jin; Shin, Yong Moon

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treatment of focal hepatic lesions adjacent to the gallbladder with electrode relocation and ablation time reduction. Thirty-nine patients who underwent RF ablation for focal hepatic lesions adjacent to the gallbladder (≤ 10 mm) were evaluated retrospectively from January 2011 to December 2014 (30 men and 9 women; age range, 51-85 y; mean age, 65 y). Of 36 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 3 had a second treatment for recurrence (mean tumor size, 15 mm ± 6). Patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on lesion distance from the gallbladder: nonabutting (> 5 mm; n = 19) and abutting (≤ 5 mm; n = 20). Electrodes were inserted parallel to the gallbladder through the center of a tumor in the nonabutting group and through the center of the expected ablation zone between a 5-mm safety zone on the liver side and the gallbladder in the abutting group. Ablation time was decreased in proportion to the transverse diameter of the expected ablation zone. Technical success and technical effectiveness rates were 89.7% and 97.4%, respectively, with no significant differences between groups (P = 1.00). Local tumor progression was observed in 3 patients (1 in the nonabutting group and 2 in the abutting group; P = 1.00). There were no major complications. The gallbladder was thickened in 10 patients, with no significant difference between groups (P = .72). Biloma occurred in 1 patient in the nonabutting group. RF ablation with electrode relocation and reduction of ablation time can be a safe and effective treatment for focal hepatic lesions adjacent to the gallbladder. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CBCT-Guided Rapid Arc for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) in lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Silva, M. C.; Izquierdo, P.; Candal, A.; Diaz, I.; Fernandez, C.; Gesto, C.; Poncet, M.; Soto, M.; Triana, G.; Losada, C.; Marino, A.

    2013-07-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy has emerged as a standard treatment option for stage I non-small cell lung cancer in patients unfit for surgery, or who refuse surgery. An increasing number of prospective phase I/II trials, as well as large single and multicenter studies have reported local control rates to be in excess of 85% for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Volumetric arc therapy RapidArc with tumor-based image guidance technique will be presented as well as our preliminary observations. (Author)

  1. The safety and efficacy of microwave ablation for the treatment of CRC pulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gui; Shi, Liangrong; Qiang, Weiguang; Wu, Jun; Ji, Mei; Lu, Qicheng; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Bin; Jiang, Jingting; Wu, Changping

    2017-11-16

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is a recently developed thermal ablation technique that has been used for the treatment of different types of tumours. In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous MWA for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) pulmonary metastases. From June 2010 to June 2015, 48 unresectable lesions in 32 patients with CRC pulmonary metastases were subjected to CT-guided MWA. Imaging follow-up was with contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT. Oncologic imaging showed that 42 (87.5%) of the 48 lesions in the 32 patients were completely ablated. Needle track metastatic seeding was not found, and no patient deaths occurred within 30 d after ablation. The mean hospital stay was 3 d (range, 2-7 d). Pneumothorax was the most frequent complication and occurred in 6 (12.5%) of the 48 lesions. The median survival time was 31 months (95% CI: 15.4-46.6). The 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rates were 79.5%, 63.1% and 44.4%, respectively. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that tumour size, disease-free interval (DFI) and number of tumours were significantly related to the overall survival time (p = .007, p = .022 and p = .030, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that tumour size was an independent prognostic factor for survival (p = .017). CT-guided percutaneous MWA is a safe and effective minimally invasive method for treating CRC pulmonary metastases.

  2. "Rescue" ablation of electrical storm in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, Sebastian; Krynski, Tomasz; Baran, Jakub; Kulakowski, Piotr

    2013-08-13

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFCA) became a treatment of choice in patients with recurrent ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and appropriate interventions of implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), however, electrical storm (ES) ablation in a pregnant woman has not yet been reported. We describe a case of a successful rescue ablation of recurrent ES in a 26-year-old Caucasian woman during her first pregnancy (23rd week). The arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) was diagnosed 3 years earlier and several drugs as well as 2 ablations failed to control recurrences of ventricular tachycardia. RFCA was performed on the day of the third electric storm. The use of electroanatomic mapping allowed very low X-ray exposure, and after applications in the right ventricular outflow tract, arrhythmia disappeared. Three months after ablation, a healthy girl was delivered without any complications. During twelve-month follow-up there was no recurrence of ventricular tachycardia or ICD interventions. This case documents the first successful RFCA during ES due to recurrent unstable ventricular arrhythmias in a patient with ARVD/C in pregnancy. Current guidelines recommend metoprolol, sotalol and intravenous amiodarone for prevention of recurrent ventricular tachycardia in pregnancy, however, RFCA should be considered as a therapeutic option in selected cases. The use of 3D navigating system and near zero X-ray approach is associated with minimal radiation exposure for mother and fetus as well as low risk of procedural complication.

  3. Treatment of pathologic spinal fractures with combined radiofrequency ablation and balloon kyphoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanakakis George

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In oncologic patients with metastatic spinal disease, the ideal treatment should be well tolerated, relieve the pain, and preserve or restore the neurological function. The combination of fluoroscopic guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA and kyphoplasty may fulfill these criteria. Methods We describe three pathological vertebral fractures treated with a combination of fluoroscopic guided RFA and kyphoplasty in one session: a 62-year-old man suffering from a painful L4 pathological fracture due to a plasmocytoma, a 68-year-old man with a T12 pathological fracture from metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and a 71-year-old man with a Th12 and L1 pathological fracture from multiple myeloma. Results The choice of patients was carried out according to the classification of Tomita. Visual analog score (VAS and Oswestry disability index (ODI were used for the evaluation of the functional outcomes. The treatment was successful in all patients and no complications were reported. The mean follow-up was 6 months. Marked pain relief and functional restoration was observed. Conclusion In our experience the treatment of pathologic spinal fractures with combined radiofrequency ablation and balloon kyphoplasty is safe and effective for immediate pain relief in painful spinal lesions in neurologically intact patients.

  4. An update on adjunctive treatment options for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Olivia M; Gliddon, Emma; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Giorlando, Francesco; Davidson, Sandra K; Kaur, Manreena; Ngo, Trung T; Williams, Lana J

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a complex illness often requiring combinations of therapies to successfully treat symptoms. In recent years, there have been significant advancements in a number of therapies for bipolar disorder. It is therefore timely to provide an overview of current adjunctive therapeutic options to help treating clinicians to inform their patients and work towards optimal outcomes. Publications were identified from PubMed searches on bipolar disorder and pharmacotherapy, nutraceuticals, hormone therapy, psychoeducation, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, cognitive remediation, mindfulness, e-Health and brain stimulation techniques. Relevant articles in these areas were selected for further review. This paper provides a narrative review of adjunctive treatment options and is not a systematic review of the literature. A number of pharmacotherapeutic, psychological and neuromodulation treatment options are available. These have varying efficacy but all have shown benefit to people with bipolar disorder. Due to the complex nature of treating the disorder, combination treatments are often required. Adjunctive treatments to traditional pharmacological and psychological therapies are proving useful in closing the gap between initial symptom remission and full functional recovery. Given that response to monotherapy is often inadequate, combination regimens for bipolar disorder are typical. Correspondingly, psychiatric research is working towards a better understanding of the disorder's underlying biology. Therefore, treatment options are changing and adjunctive therapies are being increasingly recognized as providing significant tools to improve patient outcomes. Towards this end, this paper provides an overview of novel treatments that may improve clinical outcomes for people with bipolar disorder. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderschueren, Geert Maria Joris Michael

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of spinal and non-spinal osteoid osteomas. Furthermore, the technical requirements needed for safe radiofrequency ablation and the clinical outcome after radiofrequency

  6. CT-guided radiofrequency tumor ablation in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsa, Evanthia; Poulou, Loukia S.; Koundouraki, Antonia; Thanos, Loukas; Koutsogiannis, Ioannis; Ziakas, Panayiotis D.; Alexopoulou, Efthimia

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided radiofrequency ablation is a well-accepted technique of interventional oncology in adults. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation as a minimally invasive treatment for metastatic neoplasms in children. A total of 15 radiofrequency ablation sessions were performed in 12 children and young adults (median age 9.5; range 5-18 years) with metastatic malignancies. Seven children and young adults had secondary hepatic lesions, three had pulmonary and two had bone lesions. Radiofrequency ablation was performed under conscious sedation. The median lesion size was 1.7 cm (range 1.3-2.8 cm). The median time for ablation was 8 min (range 7-10 min). Radiofrequency procedures were technically successful in all tumors. Postablation imaging immediately after, and 1 month and 3 months after radiofrequency ablation showed total necrosis in all patients. At 6-month follow-up, three patients (all with lesion size >2 cm) had local recurrence and underwent a second radiofrequency ablation session. At 2-year follow-up no patient had recurrence of the treated tumor. Post-ablation syndrome occurred in four children. No major complication occurred. CT-guided radiofrequency tumor ablation was safe and efficient for palliative treatment in our cohort of patients. (orig.)

  7. CT-guided radiofrequency tumor ablation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsa, Evanthia [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, First Pediatric Clinic, Agia Sofia Children' s Hospital, Athens (Greece); Poulou, Loukia S.; Koundouraki, Antonia; Thanos, Loukas [Sotiria General Hospital for Chest Diseases, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Athens (Greece); Koutsogiannis, Ioannis [General Military Hospital NIMTS, Department of Medical Imaging, Athens (Greece); Ziakas, Panayiotis D. [Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University Rhode Island Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases, Providence, RI (United States); Alexopoulou, Efthimia [Attikon University Hospital, Second Department of Radiology, Athens University School of Medicine, Athens (Greece)

    2014-11-15

    Image-guided radiofrequency ablation is a well-accepted technique of interventional oncology in adults. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation as a minimally invasive treatment for metastatic neoplasms in children. A total of 15 radiofrequency ablation sessions were performed in 12 children and young adults (median age 9.5; range 5-18 years) with metastatic malignancies. Seven children and young adults had secondary hepatic lesions, three had pulmonary and two had bone lesions. Radiofrequency ablation was performed under conscious sedation. The median lesion size was 1.7 cm (range 1.3-2.8 cm). The median time for ablation was 8 min (range 7-10 min). Radiofrequency procedures were technically successful in all tumors. Postablation imaging immediately after, and 1 month and 3 months after radiofrequency ablation showed total necrosis in all patients. At 6-month follow-up, three patients (all with lesion size >2 cm) had local recurrence and underwent a second radiofrequency ablation session. At 2-year follow-up no patient had recurrence of the treated tumor. Post-ablation syndrome occurred in four children. No major complication occurred. CT-guided radiofrequency tumor ablation was safe and efficient for palliative treatment in our cohort of patients. (orig.)

  8. Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qiao, Xiaoming YanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration, Ministry of Education, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics; it influences a great number of people, and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Given the increased recognition of the importance of MGD, a great amount of attention has been paid to therapies targeting this condition. The traditional treatments of MGD consist of warm compresses and lid hygiene for removing an obstructed meibum, as well as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents to improve the quality of the meibum. However, each of these treatments has a different shortcoming and the treatment of MGD remains challenging. Despite the numerous possible treatment options for MGD, it is still difficult to obtain complete relief of signs and symptoms. This review focuses on current emerging treatment options for MGD including intraductal meibomian gland probing, emulsion eye drops containing lipids, the LipiFlow® thermal pulsation system, N-acetyl-cysteine, azithromycin, oral supplementation with omega-3 essential fatty acids, and cyclosporine A.Keywords: meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye, emerging treatment

  9. Percutaneous laser ablation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Enrico; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Pacella, Claudio M

    2008-10-01

    Percutaneous image-guided procedures, largely based on thermal ablation, are at present under investigation for achieving a nonsurgical targeted cytoreduction in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. In several uncontrolled clinical trials and in two randomized clinical trials, laser ablation has demonstrated a good efficacy and safety for the shrinkage of benign cold thyroid nodules. In hyperfunctioning nodules, laser ablation induced a nearly 50% volume reduction with a variable frequency of normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Laser ablation has been tested for the palliative treatment of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, local recurrences or distant metastases. Laser ablation therapy is indicated for the shrinkage of benign cold nodules in patients with local pressure symptoms who are at high surgical risk. The treatment should be performed only by well trained operators and after a careful cytological evaluation. Laser ablation does not seem to be consistently effective in the long-term control of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and is not an alternative treatment to 131I therapy. Laser ablation may be considered for the cytoreduction of tumor tissue prior to external radiation therapy or chemotherapy of local or distant recurrences of thyroid malignancy that are not amenable to surgical or radioiodine treatment.

  10. Cyanobacterial Treatment Options: Permanganate and Powdered Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will begin with a brief overview of drinking water treatment options for cyanobacteria and their toxins. The treatment discussion will focus on the impacts of permanganate addition to suspensions of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by powdered ac...

  11. The option value of innovative treatments in the context of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Yuri; Penrod, John R; Qiu, Xiaoli Lily; Romley, John; Thornton Snider, Julia; Philipson, Tomas

    2012-11-01

    To quantify in the context of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) the additional value patients receive when innovative treatments enable them to survive until the advent of even more effective future treatments (ie, the "option value"). Observational study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry comprising all US patients with CML diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 (N = 9,760). We quantified the option value of recent breakthroughs in CML treatment by first conducting retrospective survival analyses on SEER data to assess the effectiveness of TKI treatments, and then forecasting survival from CML and other causes to measure expected future medical progress. We then developed an analytical framework to calculate option value of innovative CML therapies, and used an economic model to value these gains. We calculated the option value created both by future innovations in CML treatment and by medical progress in reducing background mortality. For a recently diagnosed CML patient, the option value of innovative therapies from future medical innovation amounts to 0.76 life-years. This option value is worth $63,000, equivalent to 9% of the average survival gains from existing treatments. Future innovations in CML treatment jointly account for 96% of this benefit. The option value of innovative treatments has significance in the context of CML and, more broadly, in disease areas with rapid innovation. Incorporating option value into traditional valuations of medical innovations is both a feasible and a necessary practice in health technology assessment.

  12. US-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation for the treatment of solid benign hyperfunctioning or compressive thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deandrea, Maurilio; Limone, Paolo; Basso, Edoardo; Mormile, Alberto; Ragazzoni, Federico; Gamarra, Elena; Spiezia, Stefano; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the study was to define the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) thermal ablation in the treatment of compressive solid benign thyroid nodules. Thirty-one patients not eligible for surgery or radioiodine (131I) treatment underwent RF ablation for benign nodules; a total of 33 nodules were treated (2 patients had 2 nodules treated in the same session): 10 cold nodules and 23 hyperfunctioning. Fourteen patients complained of compressive symptoms. Nodule volume, thyroid function and compressive symptoms were evaluated before treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 mo. Ultrasound-guided RF ablation was performed using a Starbust RITA needle, with nine expandable prongs; total exposure time was 6 to 10 min at 95 degrees C in one area or more of the nodule. Baseline volume (measured at the time of RF ablation) was 27.7 +/- 21.5 mL (mean +/- SD), but significantly decreased during follow-up: 19.2 +/- 16.2 at 1 mo (-32.7%; p nodules remained euthyroid: five patients with hot nodules normalized thyroid function, and the remaining sixteen showed a partial remission of hyperthyroidism. Besides a sensation of heat and mild swelling of the neck, no major complications were observed. Improvement in compressive symptoms was reported by 13 patients, with a reduction on severity scale from 6.1 +/- 1.4 to 2.2 +/- 1.9 (p nodules. Hyperfunction was fully controlled in 24% of patients and partially reduced in the others.

  13. Targeted Vessel Ablation for More Efficient Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voogt, Marianne J., E-mail: m.voogt@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Stralen, Marijn van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Ikink, Marlijne E. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Deckers, Roel; Vincken, Koen L.; Bartels, Lambertus W. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To report the first clinical experience with targeted vessel ablation during magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Pretreatment T1-weighted contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography was used to create a detailed map of the uterine arteries and feeding branches to the fibroids. A three-dimensional overlay of the magnetic resonance angiography images was registered on 3D T2-weighted pretreatment imaging data. Treatment was focused primarily on locations where supplying vessels entered the fibroid. Patients were followed 6 months after treatment with a questionnaire to assess symptoms and quality of life (Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life) and magnetic resonance imaging to quantify shrinkage of fibroid volumes. Results: In two patients, three fibroids were treated with targeted vessel ablation during MR-HIFU. The treatments resulted in almost total fibroid devascularization with nonperfused volume to total fibroid volume ratios of 84, 68, and 86%, respectively, of treated fibroids. The predicted ablated volumes during MR-HIFU in patients 1 and 2 were 45, 40, and 82 ml, respectively, while the nonperfused volumes determined immediately after treatment were 195, 92, and 190 ml respectively, which is 4.3 (patient 1) and 2.3 (patient 2) times higher than expected based on the thermal dose distribution. Fibroid-related symptoms reduced after treatment, and quality of life improved. Fibroid volume reduction ranged 31-59% at 6 months after treatment. Conclusion: Targeted vessel ablation during MR-HIFU allowed nearly complete fibroid ablation in both patients. This technique may enhance the use of MR-HIFU for fibroid treatment in clinical practice.

  14. Long-term Results after CT-Guided Percutaneous Ethanol Ablation for the Treatment of Hyperfunctioning Adrenal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Elie Frenk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation for benign primary and secondary hyperfunctioning adrenal disorders. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated the long-term results of nine patients treated with computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation: eight subjects who presented with primary adrenal disorders, such as pheochromocytoma, primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and aldosterone-producing adenoma, and one subject with Cushing disease refractory to conventional treatment. Eleven sessions were performed for the nine patients. The patient data were reviewed for the clinical outcome and procedure-related complications over ten years. RESULTS: Patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had clinical improvement: symptoms recurred in one case 96 months after ethanol ablation, and the other patient was still in remission 110 months later. All patients with pheochromocytoma had clinical improvement but were eventually submitted to surgery for complete remission. No significant clinical improvement was seen in patients with hypercortisolism due to primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia or Cushing disease. Major complications were seen in five of the eleven procedures and included cardiovascular instability and myocardial infarction. Minor complications attributed to sedation were seen in two patients. CONCLUSION: Computed tomography-guided ethanol ablation does not appear to be suitable for the long-term treatment of hyperfunctioning adrenal disorders and is not without risks.

  15. Transarterial ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Status and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeleff, B.A.; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.M.; Bellemann, N.; Kauczor, H.U.; Hoffmann, K.; Ganten, T.; Ehehalt, R.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and represents the main cause of death among European patients with liver cirrhosis. Only 30-40% of patients diagnosed with HCC are candidates for curative treatment options (e.g. surgical resection, liver transplantation or ablation). The remaining majority of patients must undergo local regional and palliative therapies. Transvascular ablation of HCC takes advantage of the fact that the hypervascularized HCC receives most of its blood supply from the hepatic artery. In this context transvascular ablation describes different therapy regimens which can be assigned to four groups: cTACE (conventional transarterial chemoembolization), bland embolization (transarterial embolization TAE), DEB-TACE (TACE with drug-eluting beads, DEB) and SIRT (selective internal radiation therapy, radioembolization). Conventional TACE is the most common type of transvascular ablation and represents a combination of intra-arterial chemotherapy and embolization with occlusion of the arterial blood supply. However, there is no standardized regimen with respect to the chemotherapeutic drug, the embolic agent, the usage of lipiodol and the interval between the TACE procedures. Even the exact course of a cTACE procedure (order of chemotherapy or embolization) is not standardized. It remains unclear whether or not intra-arterial chemotherapy is definitely required as bland embolization using very small, tightly calibrated spherical particles (without intra-arterial administration of a chemotherapeutic drug) shows tumor necrosis comparable to cTACE. For DEB-TACE microparticles loaded with a chemotherapeutic drug combine the advantages of cTACE and bland embolization. Thereby, a continuing chemotherapeutic effect within the tumor might cause a further increase in intratumoral cytotoxicity and at the same time a decrease in systemic toxicity. (orig.) [de

  16. Tooth wear : a systematic review of treatment options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muts, Erik-Jan; van Pelt, Hans; Edelhoff, Daniel; Krejci, Ivo; Cune, Marco

    2014-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Treatment of tooth wear is increasing. Because no evidence-based guidelines are available, the clinician may have difficulties deciding which treatment option to choose to resolve complex situations. PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify similarities

  17. Treatment response assessment of radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: Usefulness of virtual CT sonography with magnetic navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yasunori; Kitai, Satoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Virtual CT sonography using magnetic navigation provides cross sectional images of CT volume data corresponding to the angle of the transducer in the magnetic field in real-time. The purpose of this study was to clarify the value of this virtual CT sonography for treatment response of radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients and methods: Sixty-one patients with 88 HCCs measuring 0.5–1.3 cm (mean ± SD, 1.0 ± 0.3 cm) were treated by radiofrequency ablation. For early treatment response, dynamic CT was performed 1–5 days (median, 2 days). We compared early treatment response between axial CT images and multi-angle CT images using virtual CT sonography. Results: Residual tumor stains on axial CT images and multi-angle CT images were detected in 11.4% (10/88) and 13.6% (12/88) after the first session of RFA, respectively (P = 0.65). Two patients were diagnosed as showing hyperemia enhancement after the initial radiofrequency ablation on axial CT images and showed local tumor progression shortly because of unnoticed residual tumors. Only virtual CT sonography with magnetic navigation retrospectively showed the residual tumor as circular enhancement. In safety margin analysis, 10 patients were excluded because of residual tumors. The safety margin more than 5 mm by virtual CT sonographic images and transverse CT images were determined in 71.8% (56/78) and 82.1% (64/78), respectively (P = 0.13). The safety margin should be overestimated on axial CT images in 8 nodules. Conclusion: Virtual CT sonography with magnetic navigation was useful in evaluating the treatment response of radiofrequency ablation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Stereotactic Neurosurgical Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eTrippel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngioma are the most common non glial tumors in childhood. The results of different studies indicate that radical excision surgery is not an appropriate treatment strategy for childhood craniopharyngioma with hypothalamic involvement. Stereotactic neurosurgery provides save, minimal invasive and cost efficient options in the treatment of childhood craniopharyngioma. In this review a summary of the contribution of the stereotactic neurosurgery in the interdisciplinary treatment regime of childhood craniopharyngioma will be given and discussed in detail.

  19. Study of ablation efficiency of 3600 MBq of I-131 in the treatment of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takavar, A.; Eftekhari, M.; Fard-Esfahani, A.; Beiki, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The basic question of threshold for the ablation of thyroid remnant after surgery remains unanswered. However, radioiodine therapy is still being used as a standard method of treatment. In present investigation treatment responses of 100 patients with thyroid cancer treated with 3600 MBq of 131 I is studied. Response to treatment of 100 patients (33 males and 67 females) was evaluated by serum TSH, Tg levels and areas of thyroid remnant as measured by whole body scan with 131 I performed 6 months after therapy. Treatment response was evident by decreased or lack of 131 I uptake in the thyroid bed and Tg 5 ng/ml. Remnant area was decreased about 74.5% in females and 75.5% in males. No significant difference between sex groups was observed. Because of radiation protection concerns and socioeconomic reasons, lower ablations doses of 131 I ( 1110 MBq) might be as effective, and should be evaluated. (author)

  20. Lack of tolerable treatment options for patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citrome L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leslie Citrome,1 Anna Eramo,2 Clement Francois,2 Ruth Duffy,3 Susan N Legacy,3 Steve J Offord,3 Holly B Krasa,3 Stephen S Johnston,4 Alice Guiraud-Diawara,5 Siddhesh A Kamat,3 Patricia Rohman3 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 2Lundbeck, Deerfield, IL, 3Otsuka America Pharmaceuticals, Princeton, NJ, 4Truven Health Analytics, Bethesda, MD, USA; 5Lundbeck SAS, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France Purpose: Atypical antipsychotics (AAs, an effective treatment for schizophrenia, have a range of pharmacologic properties leading to differences in tolerability as well as heterogeneity in treatment response. Individual patient characteristics must be considered when making treatment choices, especially from an adverse event (AE or tolerability perspective. Despite the availability of numerous AAs, after appraising patient characteristics at the time of treatment selection, physicians may quickly run out of tolerable treatment options. Patients and methods: AE risk factors, defined as having either a prior history of an AE or a risk factor for that AE, were determined for Medicaid-insured and Commercially insured patients using database analysis. Patients receiving AA treatment between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 defined the index date of first observed AA prescription during this period. Nine AAs were evaluated for association with AE risk factors as informed by drug prescribing information from the different manufacturers and published meta-analyses. The proportion of patients with pre-index AE risk factors prescribed an AA associated with that risk factor was then determined. Results: A high proportion of patients (>80% were prescribed an AA associated with extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia despite experiencing extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia prior to AA treatment initiation. Similar trends were observed among patients with diabetes (>60% and obesity (>40%. From the nine treatment

  1. Burn, freeze, or photo-ablate?: comparative symptom profile in Barrett's dysplasia patients undergoing endoscopic ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Gross, Seth A.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Hemminger, Lois L.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2009-06-01

    Background: There are few data available comparing endoscopic ablation methods for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (BE-HGD). Objective: To determine differences in symptoms and complications associated with endoscopic ablation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Two tertiary care centers in USA. Patients: Consecutive patients with BE-HGD Interventions: In this pilot study, symptoms profile data were collected for BE-HGD patients among 3 endoscopic ablation methods: porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy, radiofrequency ablation and low-pressure liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy. Main Outcome Measurements: Symptom profiles and complications from the procedures were assessed 1-8 weeks after treatment. Results: Ten BE-HGD patients were treated with each ablation modality (30 patients total; 25 men, median age: 69 years (range 53-81). All procedures were performed in the clinic setting and none required subsequent hospitalization. The most common symptoms among all therapies were chest pain, dysphagia and odynophagia. More patients (n=8) in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group reported weight loss compared to radio-frequency ablactation (n=2) and cryotherapy (n=0). Four patients in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group developed phototoxicity requiring medical treatment. Strictures, each requiring a single dilation, were found in radiofrequency ablactation (n=1) and porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (n=2) patients. Limitations: Small sample size, non-randomized study. Conclusions: These three endoscopic therapies are associated with different types and severity of post-ablation symptoms and complications.

  2. Requirements and prototype for supporting the planning of patient specific thermal ablation interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Thermal ablation is the process of destroying pathological tissue by either high temperatures of approximately 105 o C as achieved in radiofrequency ablation or low temperatures of approximately - 40 o C as used in cryotherapy. Ablations are widely used in clinical practice and provide a safe and generally well tolerated minimal invasive treatment if surgery is not an option. Thermal ablations are usually performed under image guidance, either by ultrasound, CT or MR. Even though ablations are widely used, very little textbook knowledge is available. Because of the treatment complexity there is a need for a well defined process which can be followed by an experienced radiologist as well as an inexperienced one. There is also a need for a planning platform which is capable of supporting the physician in planning the intervention on the basis of the patient's anatomy. For additional benefit this platform should also provide the means for estimating the final coagulation zone by simulations based on the patient's anatomy. The most widely used method to simulate the extend of a coagulation zone is by the usage of finite element analysis (FEA). FEA uses a defined geometry with the physical properties of the tissue and the ablation modality to create a model which can then be solved to make estimations about the extend of the final coagulation zone. Method and Results To deal with the problem of ablation knowledge being only available in distributed form, a workflow was abstracted and translated into diagrams. These workflow diagrams visualize the required steps and decisions when performing thermal ablations. The workflow is split into a planning, applicator placement, ablation and result evaluation phase. The information gained from this knowledge is then used to define the requirements for a platform which is capable of helping the physician when performing the ablation. In the next step I examined the possibility to increase an ablation's coagulation zone

  3. Laser Ablation for Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Fong, Yuman

    2017-01-01

    Laser ablation (LA) is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments. Promising technical solutions and a better knowledge of laser-tissue interaction should allow LA to be used in a safe and effective manner as a cancer treatment. PMID:28613248

  4. Laser Ablation for Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Schena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation (LA is gaining acceptance for the treatment of tumors as an alternative to surgical resection. This paper reviews the use of lasers for ablative and surgical applications. Also reviewed are solutions aimed at improving LA outcomes: hyperthermal treatment planning tools and thermometric techniques during LA, used to guide the surgeon in the choice and adjustment of the optimal laser settings, and the potential use of nanoparticles to allow biologic selectivity of ablative treatments. Promising technical solutions and a better knowledge of laser-tissue interaction should allow LA to be used in a safe and effective manner as a cancer treatment.

  5. Treatment options for patellofemoral instability in sports traumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe M. Tscholl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral instability not only involves lateral patellar dislocation, patellar mal-tracking or subluxation but can also cause a limiting disability for sports activities. Its underlying causes are known as morphological anomalies of the patellofemoral joint or the mechanical axis, femorotibial malrotation, variants of the knee extensor apparatus, and ligamentous insufficiencies often accompanied by poor proprioception. Athletes with such predisposing factors are either suffering from unspecific anterior knee pain or from slightly traumatic or recurrent lateral patellar dislocation Treatment options of patellar instability are vast, and need to be tailored individually depending on the athlete’s history, age, complaints and physical demands. Different conservative and surgical treatment options are reviewed and discussed, especially limited expectations after surgery.

  6. Radiofrequency ablation vs. surgery for perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma: Propensity score analyses of long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; Kang, Tae Wook; Cha, Dong Ik; Song, Kyoung Doo; Lee, Min Woo; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Kyunga

    2018-07-01

    The therapeutic outcomes of surgical resection (SR) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been compared. The aim of this study was to compare SR with RFA as first-line treatment in patients with perivascular HCC and to evaluate the long-term outcomes of both therapies. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement for informed consent was waived. Between January 2006 and December 2010, a total of 283 consecutive patients with small perivascular HCCs (≤3 cm, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A) underwent SR (n = 182) or RFA (n = 101) as a first-line treatment. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were compared by propensity score matching. Subgroup analysis of these outcomes was conducted according to the type of hepatic vessels. The median follow-up was 7.8 years. Matching yielded 62 pairs of patients. In the two matched groups, the PFS rates at 5 and 10 years were 58.0% and 17.8%, respectively, in the SR group, and 25.4% and 14.1%, respectively, in the RFA group (p radiofrequency ablation are both treatment options for perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma. We compared outcomes in patients treated with either method. Surgical resection provided better long-term tumor control and overall survival than radiofrequency ablation for patients with a small perivascular hepatocellular carcinoma (≤3 cm) as a first-line treatment, particularly for periportal tumors. The location of the tumor and the type of peritumoral hepatic vessels need to be considered when choosing between surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation for small HCCs. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using a navigational radiofrequency ablation device and ultrahigh viscosity cement: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Adam N; Huang, Ambrose J; Vaswani, Devin; Chang, Randy O; Jennings, Jack W

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty is an alternative palliative therapy for painful metastases involving axial load-bearing bones. This technical report describes the use of a navigational radiofrequency probe to ablate acetabular metastases from an anterior approach followed by instillation of ultrahigh viscosity cement under CT-fluoroscopic guidance. The tumor ablation databases of two institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who underwent combination acetabular radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty using the STAR Tumor Ablation and StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation Systems (DFINE; San Jose, CA). Pre-procedure acetabular tumor volume was measured on cross-sectional imaging. Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were measured using the Numeric Rating Scale (10-point scale) and compared. Partial pain improvement was categorically defined as ≥ 2-point pain score reduction. Patients were evaluated for evidence of immediate complications. Electronic medical records were reviewed for evidence of delayed complications. During the study period, 12 patients with acetabular metastases were treated. The median tumor volume was 54.3 mL (range, 28.3-109.8 mL). Pre- and post-procedure pain scores were obtained from 92% (11/12) of the cohort. The median pre-procedure pain score was 8 (range, 3-10). Post-procedure pain scores were obtained 7 days (82%; 9/11), 11 days (9.1%; 1/11) or 21 days (9.1%; 1/11) after treatment. The median post-treatment pain score was 3 (range, 1-8), a statistically significant difference compared with pre-treatment (P = 0.002). Categorically, 73% (8/11) of patients reported partial pain relief after treatment. No immediate symptomatic complications occurred. Three patients (25%; 3/12) were discharged to hospice within 1 week of treatment. No delayed complications occurred in the remaining 75% (9/12) of patients during median clinical follow-up of 62 days (range, 14-178 days). Palliative percutaneous

  8. Long-term results after CT-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation for the treatment of hyper functioning adrenal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenk, Nathan Elie; Sebastianes, Fernando; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation for benign primary and secondary hyper functioning adrenal disorders. Method: We retrospectively evaluated the long-term results of nine patients treated with computed tomography guided percutaneous ethanol ablation: eight subjects who presented with primary adrenal disorders, such as pheochromocytoma, primary macro nodular adrenal hyperplasia and aldosterone-producing adenoma, and one subject with Cushing disease refractory to conventional treatment. Eleven sessions were performed for the nine patients. The patient data were reviewed for the clinical outcome and procedure-related complications over ten years. Results: Patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had clinical improvement: symptoms recurred in one case 96 months after ethanol ablation, and the other patient was still in remission 110 months later. All patients with pheochromocytoma had clinical improvement but were eventually submitted to surgery for complete remission. No significant clinical improvement was seen in patients with hypercortisolism due to primary macro nodular adrenal hyperplasia or Cushing disease. Major complications were seen in five of the eleven procedures and included cardiovascular instability and myocardial infarction. Minor complications attributed to sedation were seen in two patients. Conclusion: Computed tomography-guided ethanol ablation does not appear to be suitable for the long-term treatment of hyper functioning adrenal disorders and is not without risks. (author)

  9. Long-term results after CT-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation for the treatment of hyper functioning adrenal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, Nathan Elie; Sebastianes, Fernando; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Villares; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Menezes, Marcos Roberto de, E-mail: menezesmr@gmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation for benign primary and secondary hyper functioning adrenal disorders. Method: We retrospectively evaluated the long-term results of nine patients treated with computed tomography guided percutaneous ethanol ablation: eight subjects who presented with primary adrenal disorders, such as pheochromocytoma, primary macro nodular adrenal hyperplasia and aldosterone-producing adenoma, and one subject with Cushing disease refractory to conventional treatment. Eleven sessions were performed for the nine patients. The patient data were reviewed for the clinical outcome and procedure-related complications over ten years. Results: Patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma had clinical improvement: symptoms recurred in one case 96 months after ethanol ablation, and the other patient was still in remission 110 months later. All patients with pheochromocytoma had clinical improvement but were eventually submitted to surgery for complete remission. No significant clinical improvement was seen in patients with hypercortisolism due to primary macro nodular adrenal hyperplasia or Cushing disease. Major complications were seen in five of the eleven procedures and included cardiovascular instability and myocardial infarction. Minor complications attributed to sedation were seen in two patients. Conclusion: Computed tomography-guided ethanol ablation does not appear to be suitable for the long-term treatment of hyper functioning adrenal disorders and is not without risks. (author)

  10. Catheter Ablation versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (CASA-AF): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Rehman; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Haldar, Shouvik; Bahrami, Toufan; Clague, Jonathan; De Souza, Anthony; Francis, Darrel; Hussain, Wajid; Jarman, Julian; Jones, David Gareth; Mediratta, Neeraj; Mohiaddin, Raad; Salukhe, Tushar; Jones, Simon; Lord, Joanne; Murphy, Caroline; Kelly, Joanna; Markides, Vias; Gupta, Dhiraj; Wong, Tom

    2018-02-20

    Atrial fibrillation is the commonest arrhythmia which raises the risk of heart failure, thromboembolic stroke, morbidity and death. Pharmacological treatments of this condition are focused on heart rate control, rhythm control and reduction in risk of stroke. Selective ablation of cardiac tissues resulting in isolation of areas causing atrial fibrillation is another treatment strategy which can be delivered by two minimally invasive interventions: percutaneous catheter ablation and thoracoscopic surgical ablation. The main purpose of this trial is to compare the effectiveness and safety of these two interventions. Catheter Ablation versus Thoracoscopic Surgical Ablation in Long Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation (CASA-AF) is a prospective, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial within three NHS tertiary cardiovascular centres specialising in treatment of atrial fibrillation. Eligible adults (n = 120) with symptomatic, long-standing, persistent atrial fibrillation will be randomly allocated to either catheter ablation or thoracoscopic ablation in a 1:1 ratio. Pre-determined lesion sets will be delivered in each treatment arm with confirmation of appropriate conduction block. All patients will have an implantable loop recorder (ILR) inserted subcutaneously immediately following ablation to enable continuous heart rhythm monitoring for at least 12 months. The devices will be programmed to detect episodes of atrial fibrillation and atrial tachycardia ≥ 30 s in duration. The patients will be followed for 12 months, completing appropriate clinical assessments and questionnaires every 3 months. The ILR data will be wirelessly transmitted daily and evaluated every month for the duration of the follow-up. The primary endpoint in the study is freedom from atrial fibrillation and atrial tachycardia at the end of the follow-up period. The CASA-AF Trial is a National Institute for Health Research-funded study that will provide first-class evidence on the

  11. Laser ablation of a biliary duct for treatment of a persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, Chad A; Adelson, Anthony B; Himmelberg, Jeffrey A; Chintalapudi, Udaya

    2008-02-01

    A persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula detected after biliary drainage catheter removal could not be resolved with diversionary techniques and Gelfoam and fibrin glue administration in the fistulous tract. As an alternative approach for treatment of the fistula, obliteration of the contributing bile duct with laser ablation was performed.

  12. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  13. The advent of ultrasound-guided ablation techniques in nodular thyroid disease: towards a patient-tailored approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Enrico; Pacella, Claudio M; Misischi, Irene; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Døssing, Helle; Hegedus, Laszlo

    2014-08-01

    Surgery is the long-established therapeutic option for benign thyroid nodules, which steadily grow and become symptomatic. The cost of thyroid surgery, the risk of temporary or permanent complications, and the effect on quality of life, however, remain relevant concerns. Therefore, various minimally invasive treatments, directed towards office-based management of symptomatic nodules, without requiring general anaesthesia, and with negligible damage to the skin and cervical tissues, have been proposed during the past two decades. Today, ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection and thermal ablation with laser or radiofrequency have been thoroughly evaluated, and are accessible procedures in specialized centres. In clinical practice, relapsing thyroid cysts are effectively managed with percutaneous ethanol injection treatment, which should be considered therapy of choice. In solid non-functioning thyroid nodules that grow or become symptomatic, trained operators may safely induce, with a single session of laser ablation treatment or radiofrequency ablation, a 50% volume decrease and, in parallel, improve local symptoms. In contrast, hyperfunctioning nodules remain best treated with radioactive iodine, which results in a better control of hyperthyroidism, also in the long-term, and fewer side-effects. Currently, minimally invasive treatment is also investigated for achieving local control of small size neck recurrences of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients who are poor candidates for repeat cervical lymph node dissection. This particular use should still be considered experimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Catheter ablation as a treatment of atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Stephen; Saliba, Walid; Pai, Manjunath; Tchou, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Symptomatic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is typically treated by implantation of a pacemaker. An otherwise healthy AV conduction system can nevertheless develop AV block due to interference from junctional extrasystoles. When present with a high burden, these can produce debilitating symptoms from AV block despite an underlying normal AV node and His-Purkinje system properties. The purpose of this study was to describe a catheter ablation approach for alleviating symptomatic AV block due to a ventricular nodal pathway interfering with AV conduction. Common clinical monitoring techniques such as Holter and event recorders were used. Standard electrophysiological study techniques using multipolar recording and ablation catheters were utilized during procedures. A 55-year-old woman presented with highly symptomatic, high-burden second-degree AV block due to concealed and manifest junctional premature beats. Electrophysiological characteristics indicated interference of AV conduction due to a concealed ventricular nodal pathway as the cause of the AV block. The patient's AV nodal and His-Purkinje system conduction characteristics were otherwise normal. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the pathway was successful in restoring normal AV conduction and eliminating her clinical symptoms. Pathways inserting into the AV junction can interfere with AV conduction. When present at a high burden, this type of AV block can be highly symptomatic. Catheter ablation techniques can be used to alleviate this type of AV block and restore normal AV conduction. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  16. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  17. Innovative techniques for image-guided ablation of benign thyroid nodules: Combined ethanol and radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Sun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In the treatment of benign thyroid nodules, ethanol ablation (EA), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been suggested for cystic and solid thyroid nodules, respectively. Although combining these ablation techniques may be effective, no guidelines for or reviews of the combination have been published. Currently, there are three ways of combining EA and RFA: additional RFA is effective for treatment of incompletely resolved symptoms and solid residual portions of a thyroid nodule after EA. Additional EA can be performed for the residual unablated solid portion of a nodule after RFA if it is adjacent to critical structures (e.g., trachea, esophagus, and recurrent laryngeal nerve). In the concomitant procedure, ethanol is injected to control venous oozing after aspiration of cystic fluid prior to RFA of the remaining solid nodule.

  18. Sensitivity of microwave ablation models to tissue biophysical properties: A first step toward probabilistic modeling and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Jan; Albin, Nathan; Bortel, Radoslav; Natarajan, Bala; Prakash, Punit

    2016-05-01

    Computational models of microwave ablation (MWA) are widely used during the design optimization of novel devices and are under consideration for patient-specific treatment planning. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of computational models of MWA to tissue biophysical properties. The Morris method was employed to assess the global sensitivity of the coupled electromagnetic-thermal model, which was implemented with the finite element method (FEM). The FEM model incorporated temperature dependencies of tissue physical properties. The variability of the model was studied using six different outputs to characterize the size and shape of the ablation zone, as well as impedance matching of the ablation antenna. Furthermore, the sensitivity results were statistically analyzed and absolute influence of each input parameter was quantified. A framework for systematically incorporating model uncertainties for treatment planning was suggested. A total of 1221 simulations, incorporating 111 randomly sampled starting points, were performed. Tissue dielectric parameters, specifically relative permittivity, effective conductivity, and the threshold temperature at which they transitioned to lower values (i.e., signifying desiccation), were identified as the most influential parameters for the shape of the ablation zone and antenna impedance matching. Of the thermal parameters considered in this study, the nominal blood perfusion rate and the temperature interval across which the tissue changes phase were identified as the most influential. The latent heat of tissue water vaporization and the volumetric heat capacity of the vaporized tissue were recognized as the least influential parameters. Based on the evaluation of absolute changes, the most important parameter (perfusion) had approximately 40.23 times greater influence on ablation area than the least important parameter (volumetric heat capacity of vaporized tissue). Another significant input parameter

  19. Second-generation endometrial ablation technologies: the hot liquid balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilos, George A; Edris, Fawaz

    2007-12-01

    Hysteroscopic endometrial ablation (HEA) was introduced in the 1980s to treat menorrhagia. Its use required additional training, surgical expertise and specialized equipment to minimize emergent complications such as uterine perforations, thermal injuries and excessive fluid absorption. To overcome these difficulties and concerns, thermal balloon endometrial ablation (TBEA) was introduced in the 1990s. Four hot liquid balloons have been introduced into clinical practice. All systems consist of a catheter (4-10mm diameter), a silicone balloon and a control unit. Liquids used to inflate the balloons include internally heated dextrose in water (ThermaChoice, 87 degrees C), and externally heated glycine (Cavaterm, 78 degrees C), saline (Menotreat, 85 degrees ) and glycerine (Thermablate, 173 degrees C). All balloons require pressurization from 160 to 240 mmHg for treatment cycles of 2 to 10 minutes. Prior to TBEA, preoperative endometrial thinning, including suction curettage, is optional. Several RCTs and cohort studies indicate that the advantages of TBEA include portability, ease of use and short learning curve. In addition, small diameter catheters requiring minimal cervical dilatation (5-7 mm) and short duration of treatment cycles (2-8 min) allow treatment under minimal analgesia/anesthesia requirements in a clinic setting. Following TBEA serious adverse events, including thermal injuries to viscera have been experienced. To minimize such injuries some surgeons advocate the use of routine post-dilatation hysteroscopy and/or ultrasonography to confirm correct intrauterine placement of the balloon prior to initiating the treatment cycle. After 10 years of clinical practice, TBEA is thought to be the preferred first-line surgical treatment of menorrhagia in appropriately selected candidates. Economic modeling also suggested that TBEA may be more cost-effective than HEA.

  20. Capsule physics comparison of different ablators for NIF implosion designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel; Kritcher, Andrea; Yi, Austin; Zylstra, Alex; Haan, Steven; Ralph, Joseph; Weber, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the Naitonal Ignition Facility (NIF) have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer (GDP) plastic, high density carbon (HDC), and beryllium. How do these different ablator choices compare in current and future implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This talk compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and proposed future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Ablation of liver metastases by radiofrequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baere, T. de

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency is a thermal ablative technique that is most often used percuteanously under image guidance. Thermal damage is obtained through frictional heating of a high frequency current. The maximal volume of destruction obtained in one radiofrequency delivery is around 4 cm and consequently, best indication for treatment are tumours below 3 cm. When compared, radiofrequency and surgical removal for tumours below 25 mm in diameter demonstrated a rate of incomplete resection/ablation of 6% and 7.3% respectively. Median survival after the first radiofrequency of a liver metastasis of CRC is reported to be 24 to 52 months with a 5 years overall survival of 18 to 44%. The median overall survival increases from 22 to 48 months depending on the use of radiofrequency ablation as rescue treatment after failure of others, or as a first line treatment. For patients with a single tumour, less than 4 cm, the survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years are respectively 97%, 84% and 40%, with a median survival of 50 months. Follow-up imaging requires to use contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, looking for local recurrences evidenced by local foci of enhancement at the periphery of the ablation zone. (author)

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Cysts : Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Pyo Nyun

    2005-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation has been frequently performed on intra-hepatic solid tumor, namely, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic tumor and cholangio carcinoma, for take the cure. But, the reports of radiofrequency ablation for intrahepatic simple cysts are few. In vitro experiment of animal and in vivo treatment for intrahepatic cysts of human had been reported in rare cases. We report 4 cases of radiofrequency ablation for symptomatic intrahepatic cysts

  3. Cryoballoon Catheter Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevher Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vein isolation with catheter ablation is an effective treatment in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation refractory or intolerant to antiarrhythmic medications. The cryoballoon catheter was recently approved for this procedure. In this paper, the basics of cryothermal energy ablation are reviewed including its ability of creating homogenous lesion formation, minimal destruction to surrounding vasculature, preserved tissue integrity, and lower risk of thrombus formation. Also summarized here are the publications describing the clinical experience with the cryoballoon catheter ablation in both paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation, its safety and efficacy, and discussions on the technical aspect of the cryoballoon ablation procedure.

  4. Percutaneous Microwave Ablation of Renal Angiomyolipomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Mircea, E-mail: mcristescu@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Abel, E. Jason, E-mail: abel@urology.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Wells, Shane, E-mail: swells@uwhealth.org; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J., E-mail: tziemlewicz@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States); Hedican, Sean P., E-mail: hedican@surgery.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Department of Urology (United States); Lubner, Megan G., E-mail: mlubner@uwhealth.org; Hinshaw, J. Louis, E-mail: jhinshaw@uwhealth.org; Brace, Christopher L., E-mail: cbrace@uwhealth.org; Lee, Fred T., E-mail: flee@uwhealth.org [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of US-guided percutaneous microwave (MW) ablation in the treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (AML).Materials and MethodsFrom January 2011 to April 2014, seven patients (5 females and 2 males; mean age 51.4) with 11 renal AMLs (9 sporadic type and 2 tuberous sclerosis associated) with a mean size of 3.4 ± 0.7 cm (range 2.4–4.9 cm) were treated with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation under US guidance. Tumoral diameter, volume, and CT/MR enhancement were measured on pre-treatment, immediate post-ablation, and delayed post-ablation imaging. Clinical symptoms and creatinine were assessed on follow-up visits.ResultsAll ablations were technically successful and no major complications were encountered. Mean ablation parameters were ablation power of 65 W (range 60–70 W), using 456 mL of hydrodissection fluid per patient, over 4.7 min (range 3–8 min). Immediate post-ablation imaging demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 1.8 % (3.4–3.3 cm) and 1.7 % (27.5–26.3 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Delayed imaging follow-up obtained at a mean interval of 23.1 months (median 17.6; range 9–47) demonstrated mean tumor diameter and volume decreases of 29 % (3.4–2.4 cm) and 47 % (27.5–12.1 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Tumoral enhancement decreased on immediate post-procedure and delayed imaging by CT/MR parameters, indicating decreased tumor vascularity. No patients required additional intervention and no patients experienced spontaneous bleeding post-ablation.ConclusionOur early experience with high-powered, gas-cooled percutaneous MW ablation demonstrates it to be a safe and effective modality to devascularize and decrease the size of renal AMLs.

  5. Disease volume and distribution as drivers of treatment decisions in metastatic prostate cancer: From chemohormonal therapy to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of oligometastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Ronak; Cheung, Patrick; Zukotynski, Katherine; Emmenegger, Urban

    2016-05-01

    The prognosis of men with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC) depends on both the distribution and extent of metastases, among other things. Patients with low-volume or oligometastatic disease have improved survival compared with those with high-volume metastases. While chemohormonal therapy is the new standard of care for men with high-volume metastatic CSPC, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is emerging as a promising treatment option with low toxicity for the management of oligometastatic CSPC. Our review summarizes the current evidence on the role of SABR in oligometastatic prostate cancer. SABR shows control rates of metastases ranging from 88% to 100% at 6 months to 3 years, and progression-free survival commonly reported as >50% for the first 12 months. In addition, SABR may allow androgen-deprivation therapy to be delayed by more than 2 years in selected patients, minimizing the chronic side effects associated with such therapy. However, much still needs to be learned before SABR can be implemented as standard treatment for oligometastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas: five years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, Zafiria G; Petsas, Theodore; Papachristou, Dionysios; Megas, Panagiotis

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation as a curative treatment method for benign bone tumours. Twenty-nine osteoid osteomas were treated with radiofrequency ablation. Primary success rate was 89.6% and total secondary success rate was 93.1%. Mean clinical follow-up period was 26.7 months (range: 6-63 months). Statistical analysis of 25 cases of osteoid osteomas with CT follow-up revealed that post-treatment re-ossification does not correlate with clinical outcome (p = 0.14) but is strongly correlated with long-term (> or = 12 months) CT follow-up (p = 0.014). Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation was found to be an effective and safe treatment for osteoid osteomas. CT findings cannot solely differentiate between treatment successes and failures.

  7. Nephron-sparing percutaneous ablation of a 5 cm renal cell carcinoma by superselective embolization and percutaneous RF-ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.; Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W.; Rohde, D.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To report on the nephron-sparing, percutaneous ablation of a large renal cell carcinoma by combined superselective embolization and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. Materials and Methods: A 5 cm renal cell carcinoma of a 43-year-old drug abusing male with serologically proven HIV, hepatitis B and C infection, who refused surgery, was superselectively embolized using microspheres (size: 500 - 700 μm) and a platinum coil under local anesthesia. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation using a 7F LeVeen probe (size of expanded probe tip: 40 mm) and a 200 Watt generator was performed one day after transcatheter embolization under general anesthesia. Results: The combined treatment resulted in complete destruction of the tumor without relevant damage of the surrounding healthy renal tissue. The patient was discharged 24 hours after RF ablation. No complications like urinary leaks or fistulas were observed and follow up CT one day and 4 weeks after the radiofrequency intervention revealed no signs of residual tumor growth. Conclusion: The combined transcatheter embolization and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma has proved technically feasible, effective, and safe in this patient. It may be offered as an alternative treatment to partial or radical nephrectomy under certain circumstances. Abbreviations: RF = radiofrequency ablation; CT = computed tomography; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus. (orig.) [de

  8. Efficacy evaluation of laparoscopy assisted ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma beneath the diaphragm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the feasibility, safety and efficacy of laparoscopy assisted ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC beneath the diaphragm. Methods Twenty- three consecutive patients with solitary HCC beneath the diaphragm were treated by laparoscopy assisted ultrasound guided RFA in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 2013 to March 2016. We observed the perioperative complications and followed- up long-term effect. Results All the 23 patients successfully underwent laparoscopy assisted ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. No serious complications such as massive hemorrhage, biliary fistula and severe pleural effusion, hemopneumothorax occurred in the patients during perioperative period. CT examination 2-3 days after the operation revealed that the tumor was completely covered by the ablation area. Besides, the survival condition was satisfactory during follow-up period of 9-38 months. Conclusion Laparoscopy-assisted ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation is effective and safe for HCC beneath the diaphragm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.16

  9. Review of Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivananthan, Kavitha; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2018-05-17

    Review of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option for the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. IBD is caused by an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota. Treatment options could therefore be prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and/or fecal transplant. In this review, we have looked at the evidence for the yeast S. boulardii as a treatment option. Searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library with the MeSH words 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND IBD', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Inflammatory Bowel Disease', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND ulcerative colitis' and 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Crohn's disease' gave total a total of 80 articles. After exclusions because of irrelevance, articles in other languages and some articles that were not available, 16 articles were included in this review. Three of the clinical trials showed a positive effect of S. boulardii in IBD patients (two Crohn's disease, one ulcerative colitis), while there was one trial that didn't prove any effect (Crohn's disease). Included Animal trials and cell assays describes different anti-inflammatory mechanisms of S. boulardii supporting a possible effect when treating IBD patients. The number of studies of S. boulardii as treatment for IBD is limited. Furthermore, the existing trials have small populations and short duration. We do not have enough evidence to prove the effect of S. boulardii in IBD. Saccharomyces boulardii is, however, a plausible treatment option in the future, but more placebo-controlled clinical studies on both patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are needed.

  10. Detection of the Single-Session Complete Ablation Rate by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound during Ultrasound-Guided Laser Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the single-session complete ablation rate of ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser ablation (LA for benign thyroid nodules. LA was performed in 90 patients with 118 benign thyroid nodules. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS was used to evaluate complete nodule ablation one day after ablation. Thyroid nodule volumes, thyroid functions, clinical symptoms and complications were evaluated 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after ablation. Results showed that all benign thyroid nodules successfully underwent LA. The single-session complete ablation rates for nodules with maximum diameters ≤2 cm, 2-3 cm and ≥3 cm were 93.4%, 70.3% and 61.1%, respectively. All nodule volumes significantly decreased than that one day after ablation (P0.05. Three patients had obvious pain during ablation; one (1.1% had recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, but the voice returned to normal within 6 months after treatment. Thus, ultrasound-guided LA can effectively inactivate benign thyroid nodules. LA is a potentially viable minimally invasive treatment that offers good cosmetic effects.

  11. ROLE OF RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION IN ADENOMA SEBACEUM

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    Ch. Madh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenoma sebaceum, pathognomonic of tuberous sclerosis, are tiny angiofibromas which commonly occur over central part of face. Recurrence after treatment is common and hence a need for inexpensive, safe and efficient treatment is required. Radiofrequency ablation is a safe and an economical procedure and has been known to cause less scarring with good aesthetic results compared to other ablative methods such as electrocautery.

  12. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnostic dilemma and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Deep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP presents with diverse group of symptoms making its early diagnosis difficult. Delaying diagnosis and treatment of AIP can be fatal or can cause long term or permanent neurological damage. We present here a case report of AIP where the diagnosis was missed. The diversity of symptoms and details concerning the treatment options for AIP are discussed.

  13. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnostic dilemma and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mohan Deep; Hazarika, Nita; Saraswat, Namita; Sood, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) presents with diverse group of symptoms making its early diagnosis difficult. Delaying diagnosis and treatment of AIP can be fatal or can cause long term or permanent neurological damage. We present here a case report of AIP where the diagnosis was missed. The diversity of symptoms and details concerning the treatment options for AIP are discussed. PMID:26330726

  14. Activity-based cost analysis of hepatic tumor ablation using CT-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy or CT-guided radiofrequency ablation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnapauff, D; Collettini, F; Steffen, I; Wieners, G; Hamm, B; Gebauer, B; Maurer, M H

    2016-02-25

    To analyse and compare the costs of hepatic tumor ablation with computed tomography (CT)-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) and CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (CT-RFA) as two alternative minimally invasive treatment options of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An activity based process model was created determining working steps and required staff of CT-RFA and CT-HDRBT. Prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, and maintenance), costs of staff, and expenditure for disposables were identified in a sample of 20 patients (10 treated by CT-RFA and 10 by CT-HDRBT) and compared. A sensitivity and break even analysis was performed to analyse the dependence of costs on the number of patients treated annually with both methods. Costs of CT-RFA were nearly stable with mean overall costs of approximately 1909 €, 1847 €, 1816 € and 1801 € per patient when treating 25, 50, 100 or 200 patients annually, as the main factor influencing the costs of this procedure was the single-use RFA probe. Mean costs of CT-HDRBT decreased significantly per patient ablation with a rising number of patients treated annually, with prorated costs of 3442 €, 1962 €, 1222 € and 852 € when treating 25, 50, 100 or 200 patients, due to low costs of single-use disposables compared to high annual fix-costs which proportionally decreased per patient with a higher number of patients treated annually. A break-even between both methods was reached when treating at least 55 patients annually. Although CT-HDRBT is a more complex procedure with more staff involved, it can be performed at lower costs per patient from the perspective of the medical provider when treating more than 55 patients compared to CT-RFA, mainly due to lower costs for disposables and a decreasing percentage of fixed costs with an increasing number of treatments.

  15. Numerical Response Surfaces of Volume of Ablation and Retropulsion Amplitude by Settings of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian J. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis due to shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate, the optimal laser settings for URS (ureteroscopic lithotripsy for less operation time remain unclear. The aim of this study was to look for quantitative responses of calculus ablation and retropulsion by performing operator-independent experiments to determine the best fit versus the pulse energy, pulse width, and the number of pulses. Methods. A lab-built Ho:YAG laser was used as the laser pulse source, with a pulse energy from 0.2 J up to 3.0 J and a pulse width of 150 μs up to 1000 μs. The retropulsion was monitored using a high-speed camera, and the laser-induced craters were evaluated with a 3-D digital microscope. The best fit to the experimental data is done by a design of experiment software. Results. The numerical formulas for the response surfaces of ablation speed and retropulsion amplitude are generated. Conclusions. The longer the pulse, the less the ablation or retropulsion, while the longer pulse makes the ablation decrease faster than the retropulsion. The best quadratic fit of the response surface for the volume of ablation varied nonlinearly with pulse duration and pulse number.

  16. Numerical Response Surfaces of Volume of Ablation and Retropulsion Amplitude by Settings of Ho:YAG Laser Lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Jonathan; Solomon, Metasebya; Cheng, Brian; Xuan, Jason R.; Gong, Jason; Yu, Honggang; Xia, Michael L. D.; Yang, Xirong; Hasenberg, Thomas; Curran, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis due to shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate, the optimal laser settings for URS (ureteroscopic lithotripsy) for less operation time remain unclear. The aim of this study was to look for quantitative responses of calculus ablation and retropulsion by performing operator-independent experiments to determine the best fit versus the pulse energy, pulse width, and the number of pulses. Methods A lab-built Ho:YAG laser was used as the laser pulse source, with a pulse energy from 0.2 J up to 3.0 J and a pulse width of 150 μs up to 1000 μs. The retropulsion was monitored using a high-speed camera, and the laser-induced craters were evaluated with a 3-D digital microscope. The best fit to the experimental data is done by a design of experiment software. Results The numerical formulas for the response surfaces of ablation speed and retropulsion amplitude are generated. Conclusions The longer the pulse, the less the ablation or retropulsion, while the longer pulse makes the ablation decrease faster than the retropulsion. The best quadratic fit of the response surface for the volume of ablation varied nonlinearly with pulse duration and pulse number. PMID:29707187

  17. Cryoballoon Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G. Andrade, MD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Focal point-by-point radiofrequency catheter ablation has shown considerable success in the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. However, it is not without limitations. Recent clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that cryothermal ablation using a balloon catheter (Artic Front©, Medtronic CryoCath LP provides an effective alternative strategy to treating atrial fibrillation. The objective of this article is to review efficacy and safety data surrounding cryoballoon ablation for paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. In addition, a practical step-by-step approach to cryoballoon ablation is presented, while highlighting relevant literature regarding: 1 the rationale for adjunctive imaging, 2 selection of an appropriate cryoballoon size, 3 predictors of efficacy, 4 advanced trouble-shooting techniques, and 5 strategies to reduce procedural complications, such as phrenic nerve palsy.

  18. Chemothermal Therapy for Localized Heating and Ablation of Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shan Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemothermal therapy is a new hyperthermia treatment on tumor using heat released from exothermic chemical reaction between the injected reactants and the diseased tissues. With the highly minimally invasive feature and localized heating performance, this method is expected to overcome the ubiquitous shortcomings encountered by many existing hyperthermia approaches in ablating irregular tumor. This review provides a relatively comprehensive review on the latest advancements and state of the art in chemothermal therapy. The basic principles and features of two typical chemothermal ablation strategies (acid-base neutralization-reaction-enabled thermal ablation and alkali-metal-enabled thermal/chemical ablation are illustrated. The prospects and possible challenges facing chemothermal ablation are analyzed. The chemothermal therapy is expected to open many clinical possibilities for precise tumor treatment in a minimally invasive way.

  19. Radiofrequency ablation in primary non-small cell lung cancer: What a radiologist needs to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shivank; Pereira, Keith; Mohan, Prasoon; Narayanan, Govindarajan; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Savaraj, Niramol

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In advanced cases of lung cancer, a multimodality approach is often applied, however with poor local control rates. In early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), surgery is the standard of care. Only 15-30% of patients are eligible for surgical resection. Improvements in imaging and treatment delivery systems have provided new tools to better target these tumors. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has evolved as the next best option. The role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is also growing. Currently, it is a third-line option in stage 1 NSCLC, when SBRT cannot be performed. More recent studies have demonstrated usefulness in recurrent tumors and some authors have also suggested combination of RFA with other modalities in larger tumors. Following the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening by low-dose computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated high rates of early-stage lung cancer detection in high-risk populations. Hence, even considering the current role of RFA as a third-line option, in view of increasing numbers of occurrences detected, the number of potential RFA candidates may see a steep uptrend. In view of all this, it is imperative that interventional radiologists be familiar with the techniques of lung ablation. The aim of this article is to discuss the procedural technique of RFA in the lung and review the current evidence regarding RFA for NSCLC. PMID:27081229

  20. Radiofrequency ablation in primary non-small cell lung cancer: What a radiologist needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Shivank; Pereira, Keith; Mohan, Prasoon; Narayanan, Govindarajan; Wangpaichitr, Medhi; Savaraj, Niramol

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the leading causes of death worldwide. In advanced cases of lung cancer, a multimodality approach is often applied, however with poor local control rates. In early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), surgery is the standard of care. Only 15-30% of patients are eligible for surgical resection. Improvements in imaging and treatment delivery systems have provided new tools to better target these tumors. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has evolved as the next best option. The role of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is also growing. Currently, it is a third-line option in stage 1 NSCLC, when SBRT cannot be performed. More recent studies have demonstrated usefulness in recurrent tumors and some authors have also suggested combination of RFA with other modalities in larger tumors. Following the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), screening by low-dose computed tomography (CT) has demonstrated high rates of early-stage lung cancer detection in high-risk populations. Hence, even considering the current role of RFA as a third-line option, in view of increasing numbers of occurrences detected, the number of potential RFA candidates may see a steep uptrend. In view of all this, it is imperative that interventional radiologists be familiar with the techniques of lung ablation. The aim of this article is to discuss the procedural technique of RFA in the lung and review the current evidence regarding RFA for NSCLC

  1. The role of external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of hepatocellular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Fumiko; Stephens, Sarah Jo; Choi, Steve S; Marin, Daniele; Kim, Charles Y; Morse, Michael A; Godfrey, Devon J; Czito, Brian G; Willett, Christopher G; Palta, Manisha

    2018-04-12

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in incidence and mortality. Although the prognosis remains poor, long-term survival has improved from 3% in 1970 to an 18% 5-year survival rate today. This is likely because of the introduction of well tolerated, oral antiviral therapies for hepatitis C. Curative options for patients with HCC are often limited by underlying liver dysfunction/cirrhosis and medical comorbidities. Less than one-third of patients are candidates for surgery, which is the current gold standard for cure. Nonsurgical treatments include embolotherapies, percutaneous ablation, and ablative radiation. Technological advances in radiation delivery in the past several decades now allow for safe and effective ablative doses to the liver. Conformal techniques allow for both dose escalation to target volumes and normal tissue sparing. Multiple retrospective and prospective studies have demonstrated that hypofractionated image-guided radiation therapy, used as monotherapy or in combination with other liver-directed therapies, can provide excellent local control that is cost effective. Therefore, as the HCC treatment paradigm continues to evolve, ablative radiation treatment has moved from a palliative treatment to both a "bridge to transplant" and a definitive treatment. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  2. Pellet ablation and ablation model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    A broad survey of pellet ablation is given, based primarily on information presented at this meeting. The implications of various experimental observations for ablation theory are derived from qualitative arguments of the physics involved. The major elements of a more complete ablation theory are then outlined in terms of these observations. This is followed by a few suggestions on improving the connections between theory and experimental results through examination of ablation data. Although this is a rather aggressive undertaking for such a brief (and undoubtedly incomplete) assessment, some of the discussion may help us advance the understanding of pellet ablation. 17 refs

  3. A comparative review of the options for treatment of erectile dysfunction: which treatment for which patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzimouratidis, Konstantinos; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios G

    2005-01-01

    The field of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been revolutionised over the last two decades. Several treatment options are available today, most of which are associated with high efficacy rates and favourable safety profiles. A MEDLINE search was undertaken in order to evaluate all currently available data on treatment modalities for ED. Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) are currently the first-choice of most physicians and patients for the treatment of ED. PDE5 inhibitors have differences in their pharmacological profiles, the most obvious being the long duration of action of tadalafil, but there are no data supporting superiority for any one of them in terms of efficacy or safety. Sublingual apomorphine has limited efficacy compared with the PDE5 inhibitors, and its use is limited to patients with mild ED. Treatment failures with oral drugs may be due to medication, clinician and patient issues. The physician needs to address all of these issues in order to identify true treatment failures. Patients who are truly unresponsive to oral drugs may be offered other treatment options.Intracavernous injections of alprostadil alone, or in combination with other vasoactive agents (papaverine and phentolamine), remain an excellent treatment option, with proven efficacy and safety over time. Topical pharmacotherapy is appealing in nature, but currently available formulations have limited efficacy. Vacuum constriction devices may be offered mainly to elderly patients with occasional intercourse attempts, as younger patients show limited preference because of the unnatural erection that is associated with this treatment modality. Penile prostheses are generally the last treatment option offered, because of invasiveness, cost and non-reversibility; however, they are associated with high satisfaction rates in properly selected patients. All treatment options are associated with particular strengths and weaknesses. A patient

  4. Percutaneous microwave ablation for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the elderly: a promising outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acksteiner, Christian; Steinke, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) is a relatively new minimally invasive treatment option for lung cancer with substantially lower morbidity and mortality than surgery. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the safety, effectiveness and follow-up imaging of MWA in the elderly aged 75 years and above. Eleven percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided MWA of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were performed in 10 patients aged 75 years and older. All but one patient were treated with a high-powered MWA system delivering maximally 140 W. Follow-up with CT and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was carried out over a maximum period of 30 months and a median period of 12 months. There were no peri-procedural deaths or major complications. Seven patients were disease free at the time of manuscript submission. Three patients showed growth of the treated lesions, one patient aged 90 years deceased due to unknown cause after approximately 18 months. One patient presented with local progression and disseminated metastatic disease at 12 months; he is still alive. One patient showed increasing soft tissue at the ablation site 15 months post-treatment. Three consecutive core biopsies over 2 months failed to confirm tumour recurrence. MWA therapy is a promising option of treating early-stage NSCLC in the elderly with good treatment outcome and negligible morbidity. Determining successful treatment outcome may be challenging at times as local tissue increase and PET-CT positivity do not seem to necessarily correlate with recurrence of malignancy.

  5. A preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic guided microwave ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guo-Bao; Xiang, Zhan-Wang; Yang, Bin; Xue, Jing-Bing; Mo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Fan, Wei-Jun

    2016-05-03

    This study sought to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of a preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic(CT) guided microwave(MW) ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. This mathematic model was a regular cylinder quantifying appropriate puncture routes from the bottom up. A total of 103 patients with hepatic dome tumors were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups based on whether this model was used or not: Group A (using the model; n = 43) versus Group B (not using the model; n = 60). All tumors were treated by CT-guided MW ablation and follow-up contrast CT were reviewed. The average number of times for successful puncture, average ablation time, and incidence of right shoulder pain were less in Group A than Group B (1.4 vs. 2.5, P = 0.001; 8.8 vs. 11.1 minutes, P = 0.003; and 4.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.039). The technical success rate was higher in Group A than Group B (97.7% vs. 85.0%, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary and secondary technique efficacy rates (97.7% vs. 88.3%, P = 0.081; 90.0% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.314). No major complications occurred in both groups. The mathematic model of regular cylinder is feasible and safe for CT-guided MW ablation in treating hepatic dome tumors.

  6. The effectiveness of external beam radiotherapy for acromegaly is not affected by previous pituitary ablative treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, P.I.; Joplin, G.F.; Speirs, C.J.; Morrison, R.; Aber, V.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three acromegalic patients were treated with radiotherapy and followed up for at least 3 years (mean 6 years, range 3 to 12). Seventeen had not had previous pituitary ablative therapy and 16 had. The mean GH level for these two groups before radiotherapy was comparable at 98 and 119 mlU/l. The observed frequency of reaching <10 mlU/L was 53% and 75% of patients in the two groups, respectively, the mean observed falls in growth hormone level were 81 and 85% of the initial level, and the calculated exponential decline rate of GH level was 72 and 52% per fyear. Considering all 35 patients, requirement for pituitary hormone replacement therapy increased from 15 patients before radiotherapy to 20 after radiotherapy, being mostly those who had had prior ablative therapies. There were no complications attributable to the radiotherapy treatment. It appears that radiotherapy is equally efficacious whether a prior unsuccessful ablative procedure had been used or not. (author)

  7. The effectiveness of external beam radiotherapy for acromegaly is not affected by previous pituitary ablative treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, P.I.; Joplin, G.F. (Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Speirs, C.J. (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Morrison, R. (Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK)); Aber, V. (Department of Medical Physics, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-three acromegalic patients were treated with radiotherapy and followed up for at least 3 years (mean 6 years, range 3 to 12). Seventeen had not had previous pituitary ablative therapy and 16 had. The mean GH level for these two groups before radiotherapy was comparable at 98 and 119 mlU/l. The observed frequency of reaching <10 mlU/L was 53% and 75% of patients in the two groups, respectively, the mean observed falls in growth hormone level were 81 and 85% of the initial level, and the calculated exponential decline rate of GH level was 72 and 52% per fyear. Considering all 35 patients, requirement for pituitary hormone replacement therapy increased from 15 patients before radiotherapy to 20 after radiotherapy, being mostly those who had had prior ablative therapies. There were no complications attributable to the radiotherapy treatment. It appears that radiotherapy is equally efficacious whether a prior unsuccessful ablative procedure had been used or not. (author).

  8. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del; Guzman Alvarez, Luis; Martinez Montes, Jose Luis; Ruiz Garcia, Manuel; Tristan Fernandez, Juan MIguel

    2011-01-01

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean (±SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0 ± 0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  9. Percutaneous treatment of bone tumors by radiofrequency thermal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferusan@ono.com [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Mar Castellano Garcia, Maria del; Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Martinez Montes, Jose Luis [Department of Traumatology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Garcia, Manuel; Tristan Fernandez, Juan MIguel [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18013 Granada (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We present our experience of the treatment of bone tumors with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFTA). Over the past 4 years, we have treated 26 cases (22 benign and 4 malignant) using CT-guided RFTA. RFTA was the sole treatment in 19 cases and was combined with percutaneous cementation during the same session in the remaining seven cases. Our approach to the tumors was simplified, using a single point of entrance for both RFTA and percutaneous osteoplasty. In the benign cases, clinical success was defined as resolution of pain within 1 month of the procedure and no recurrence during the follow-up period. It was achieved in 19 out of the 21 patients in which curative treatment was attempted. The two non-resolved cases were a patient with osteoid osteoma who developed a symptomatic bone infarct after a symptom-free period of 2 months and another with femoral diaphysis osteoblastoma who suffered a pathological fracture after 8 months without symptoms. The procedure was considered clinically successful in the five cases (4 malign and 1 benign) in which palliative treatment was attempted, because there was a mean ({+-}SD) reduction in visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score from 9.0 {+-} 0.4 before the procedure to <4 during the follow-up period.

  10. Computed Tomography Assessment of Ablation Zone Enhancement in Patients With Early-Stage Lung Cancer After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William; Chaya, Yair; Chaudhry, Ammar; Depasquale, Britney; Glass, Samantha; Lee, Susan; Shin, James; Mikhail, George; Bhattacharji, Priya; Kim, Bong; Bilfinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) offers a curative treatment for lung cancer in patients who are marginal surgical candidates. However, unlike traditional surgery the lung cancer remains in place after treatment. Thus, imaging follow-up for evaluation of recurrence is of paramount importance. In this retrospective designed Institutional Review Board-approved study, follow-up contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) exams were performed on sixty one patients to evaluate enhancement pattern in the ablation zone at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after SABR. Eleven patients had recurrence within the ablation zone after SABR. The postcontrast enhancement in the recurrence group showed a washin and washout phenomenon, whereas the radiation-induced lung injury group showed continuous enhancement suggesting an inflammatory process. The textural feature of the ablation zone of enhancement and perfusion as demonstrated in computed tomography nodule enhancement may allow early differentiation of recurrence from radiation-induced lung injury in patients' status after SABR or primary lung cancer.

  11. Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, S; Vilar, R; Oliveira, V

    2012-01-01

    The surface morphology, structure and composition of human dentin treated with a femtosecond infrared laser (pulse duration 500 fs, wavelength 1030 nm, fluences ranging from 1 to 3 J cm -2 ) was studied by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average dentin ablation threshold under these conditions was 0.6 ± 0.2 J cm -2 and the ablation rate achieved in the range 1 to 2 µm/pulse for an average fluence of 3 J cm -2 . The ablation surfaces present an irregular and rugged appearance, with no significant traces of melting, deformation, cracking or carbonization. The smear layer was entirely removed by the laser treatment. For fluences only slightly higher than the ablation threshold the morphology of the laser-treated surfaces was very similar to the dentin fracture surfaces and the dentinal tubules remained open. For higher fluences, the surface was more porous and the dentin structure was partially concealed by ablation debris and a few resolidified droplets. Independently on the laser processing parameters and laser processing method used no sub-superficial cracking was observed. The dentin constitution and chemical composition was not significantly modified by the laser treatment in the processing parameter range used. In particular, the organic matter is not preferentially removed from the surface and no traces of high temperature phosphates, such as the β-tricalcium phosphate, were observed. The achieved results are compatible with an electrostatic ablation mechanism. In conclusion, the high beam quality and short pulse duration of the ultrafast laser used should allow the accurate preparation of cavities, with negligible damage of the underlying material. (paper)

  12. Effects of endocardial microwave energy ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Climent

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF consisted primarily of palliation, mostly in the form of pharmacological intervention. However because of recent advances in nonpharmacologic therapies, the current expectation of patients and referring physicians is that AF will be cured, rather than palliated. In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the availability and variety of energy sources and devices for ablation. One of these energies, microwave, has been applied clinically only in the last few years, and may be a promising technique that is potentially capable of treating a wide range of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to review microwave energy ablation in surgical treatment of AF with special interest in histology and ultrastructure of lesions produced by this endocardial ablation procedure.

  13. Transcervical, intrauterine ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of uterine fibroids with the VizAblate? System: three- and six-month endpoint results from the FAST-EU study

    OpenAIRE

    Bongers, Marlies; Br?lmann, Hans; Gupta, Janesh; Garza-Leal, Jos? Gerardo; Toub, David

    2014-01-01

    This was a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter, single-arm controlled trial, using independent core laboratory validation of MRI results, to establish the effectiveness and confirm the safety of the VizAblate? System in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. The VizAblate System is a transcervical device that ablates fibroids with radiofrequency energy, guided by a built-in intrauterine ultrasound probe. Fifty consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids received treatment w...

  14. A randomized prospective long-term (>1 year) clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation to 980 nm laser ablation of the great saphenous vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, Malcolm; Mavropoulos, John; Slobodnik, Natalia; Wolfe, Luke; Strife, Brian; Komorowski, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Purpose To compare the short- and long-term (>1 year) efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (ClosureFAST™) versus endovenous laser ablation (980 nm diode laser) for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency of the great saphenous vein. Materials and methods Two hundred patients with superficial venous insufficiency of the great saphenous vein were randomized to receive either radiofrequency ablation or endovenous laser ablation (and simultaneous adjunctive therapies for surface varicosities when appropriate). Post-treatment sonographic and clinical assessment was conducted at one week, six weeks, and six months for closure, complications, and patient satisfaction. Clinical assessment of each patient was conducted at one year and then at yearly intervals for patient satisfaction. Results Post-procedure pain ( p radiofrequency ablation group. Improvements in venous clinical severity score were noted through six months in both groups (endovenous laser ablation 6.6 to 1; radiofrequency ablation 6.2 to 1) with no significant difference in venous clinical severity score ( p = 0.4066) or measured adverse effects; 89 endovenous laser ablation and 87 radiofrequency patients were interviewed at least 12 months out with a mean long-term follow-up of 44 and 42 months ( p = 0.1096), respectively. There were four treatment failures in each group, and every case was correctable with further treatment. Overall, there were no significant differences with regard to patient satisfaction between radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser ablation ( p = 0.3009). There were no cases of deep venous thrombosis in either group at any time during this study. Conclusions Radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser ablation are highly effective and safe from both anatomic and clinical standpoints over a multi-year period and neither modality achieved superiority over the other.

  15. Non-ablative fractionated laser skin resurfacing for the treatment of aged neck skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencini, Pier Luca; Tourlaki, Athanasia; Galimberti, Michela; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Aging of the neck skin includes poikiloderma of Civatte, skin laxity and wrinkles. While the vascular alterations of poikiloderma of Civatte can be effectively treated with lasers or intense pulsed light, a successful treatment of dyschromia, skin laxity and wrinkles is still difficult to achieve. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser for the treatment of aged neck skin, also by means of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). A prospective study for neck resurfacing in 18 women with aged neck skin. Six laser treatments were performed in 4-week intervals with a 1540-nm erbium-glass fiber laser. By using a 6-point grading scale, the mean score (±SD; range) at baseline was 3.6 (±1.5; 1-6) for skin dyschromia, 2.9 (±1.4; 1-6) for laxity and 3.3 (±1.3; 1-5) for wrinkles. Three months after the last laser session, we found a significant clinical improvement of dyschromia (p = 0.0002; Wilcoxon test), and wrinkles (p = 0.0004; Wilcoxon test), with a mean (±SD) reduction of 2.5 (±1.0) and 1.9 (±1.1) points in the 6-point grading scale, respectively. No change was observed in laxity. These results were also supported by structural changes documented by RCM. Non-ablative fractional 1540 erbium glass laser was both safe and effective for the treatment of dyschromia and wrinkles, but not effective for the laxity of the neck skin.

  16. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  17. [Current situation and thoughts on radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of thyroid cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Dong, W W

    2017-08-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was originally used primarily for the treatment of regional metastatic lymph nodes from recurrent thyroid cancers in the field of thyroid surgery. In recent years it is gradually used to treat a part of benign thyroid nodules. However, the domestic issues resulting from indiscriminately enlarged RFA indication and lack of standardization of therapy become more and more prominent, including initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers by RFA, which is against by the current consensus about RFA for patients with thyroid nodules and management guidelines for patients with thyroid cancers. Therefore, RFA should be avoided for initial treatment of operable thyroid cancers before the introduction of guidelines based on evidence-based medicine.

  18. Cost effectiveness of endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® system versus other global ablation modalities and hysterectomy for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller JD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey D Miller,1 Gregory M Lenhart,1 Machaon M Bonafede,1 Cindy M Basinski,2 Andrea S Lukes,3 Kathleen A Troeger4 1Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, 2Basinski, LLC, Newburgh, IN, 3Carolina Women’s Research and Wellness Center, Durham, NC, 4Hologic, Inc, Marlborough, MA, USA Objectives: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB interferes with physical, emotional, and social well-being, impacting the quality of life of more than 10 million women in the USA. Hysterectomy, the most common surgical treatment of AUB, has significant morbidity, low mortality, long recovery, and high associated health care costs. Global endometrial ablation (GEA provides a surgical alternative with reduced morbidity, cost, and recovery time. The NovaSure® system utilizes unique radiofrequency impedance-based GEA technology. This study evaluated cost effectiveness of AUB treatment with NovaSure ablation versus other GEA modalities and versus hysterectomy from the US commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. Methods: A health state transition (semi-Markov model was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from commercial and Medicaid claims database analyses, supplemented by published literature. Three hypothetical cohorts of women receiving AUB interventions were simulated over 1-, 3-, and 5-year horizons to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes for NovaSure, other GEA modalities, and hysterectomy. Results: Model analyses show lower costs for NovaSure-treated patients than for those treated with other GEA modalities or hysterectomy over all time frames under commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. By Year 3, cost savings versus other GEA were $930 (commercial and $3,000 (Medicaid; cost savings versus hysterectomy were $6,500 (commercial and $8,900 (Medicaid. Coinciding with a 43%–71% reduction in need for re-ablation, there were 69%–88% fewer intervention/reintervention complications for NovaSure-treated patients versus other GEA modalities

  19. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Valcavi, Roberto [Endocrinology Division and Thyroid Disease Center, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pacella, Claudio M. [Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum, Albano Laziale-Rome (IT); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Kyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  20. The atrial fibrillation ablation pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbelo, Elena; Brugada, Josep; Hindricks, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Pilot Study is a prospective registry designed to describe the clinical epidemiology of patients undergoing an atrial fibrillation (AFib) ablation, and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across Europe. The aims of the 1-year follow-up were to analyse...... was achieved in 40.7% of patients (43.7% in paroxysmal AF; 30.2% in persistent AF; 36.7% in long-lasting persistent AF). A second ablation was required in 18% of the cases and 43.4% were under antiarrhythmic treatment. Thirty-three patients (2.5%) suffered an adverse event, 272 (21%) experienced a left atrial...... tachycardia, and 4 patients died (1 haemorrhagic stroke, 1 ventricular fibrillation in a patient with ischaemic heart disease, 1 cancer, and 1 of unknown cause). CONCLUSION: The AFib Ablation Pilot Study provided crucial information on the epidemiology, management, and outcomes of catheter ablation of AFib...

  1. Differentiated thyroid cancer. New concept of radioiodine ablation; Differenziertes Schilddruesenkarzinom. Fortschritte bei der Radioiodablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Kobe, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany), Zentrum fuer Integrierte Onkologie Koeln-Bonn; Luster, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2010-12-15

    Ablative radioiodine therapy is the treatment of choice in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, the only exception being the unifocal, very small papillary thyroid cancer. The TSH-stimulation can be achieved by a waiting period for 2-3 weeks after thyroidectomy without medication or by the use of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). Both options lead to high success rates. 'Single dose cure' using activities between 1.85 and 3.7 GBq {sup 131}I is standard. Since 2010 rhTSH is approved by the EMA for the indications pT1-4, N0-1, cM0. Survey studies did not find any inferiority of ablation with rhTSH or iatrogenic hypothyroidism in the high-risk patient group. Renal clearance is not reduced after rhTSH administration, thus the {sup 131}I blood dose and the whole body doses are lower in patients under rhTSH. Comparing identical {sup 131}I activities after endogeneous or exogeneous stimulation, rhTSH will minimize the acute adverse effects of {sup 131}I. A short-term withdrawal of levothyroxine some days before rhTSH-injection lowers the iodine plasma level, which may be advantageous for the ablation success if lower 131I activities are used. A rhTSH-based diagnostic {sup 131}I whole-body scintigraphy 3-6 months after ablation is standard for therapy control. At this time, the rhTSH-stimulated thyroglobulin-level is essential for a personalized risk stratification. Tg-measurements by a second generation assay should be used for follow-up care. Metaanalyses have shown that radioiodine ablation lowers the mortality rate, the risk of locoregional recurrences and the risk of late metastasizing. Therefore, ablation has shown a clear benefit. (orig.)

  2. Desmoid tumors: clinical features and treatment options: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumors: clinical features and treatment options: a case report and a review of literature. Amel Achour Jenayah, Hajer Bettaieb, Sarra Saoudi, Anissa Gharsa, Ezzeddine Sfar, Fethia Boudaya, Dalenda Chelli ...

  3. Treatment of cosmetic tattoos using carbon dioxide ablative fractional resurfacing in an animal model: a novel method confirmed histopathologically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chen; Huang, Chuen-Lin; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Lee, Shao-Chen; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2013-04-01

    Treating cosmetic tattoos using quality-switched lasers is difficult. We used carbon dioxide ablative fractional resurfacing (CO2 AFR) to remove cosmetic tattoos and examined the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in this technique in an animal model. Twelve rats were tattooed on their backs with white and flesh-colored pigments. Half of each tattoo was treated with CO2 AFR (5 sessions at 1-month intervals), and the other half was the untreated control. An independent observer reviewed photographic documentation of clinical response. Serial skin samples obtained at baseline and at various times after laser treatment were evaluated using histologic and immunohistochemical methods. Four rats had excellent responses to laser treatment and eight had good responses. White and flesh-colored tattoos had similar clearance rates and tissue reactions. Histologic analysis showed immediate ablation of tattoo pigments in the microscopic ablation zones. Tattoo pigments in the microscopic coagulation zones migrated to the epidermis and became part of the microscopic exudative necrotic debris appearing on day 2 that was exfoliated after 5 days. Increased fibronectin expression around the microscopic treatment zones during the extrusion of tattoo pigments indicated that wound healing facilitates this action. CO2 AFR successfully removes cosmetic tattoos. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tumor Seeding Following Lung Radiofrequency Ablation: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Akeboshi, Masao; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Takao, Motoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroyasu; Taguchi, Osamu; Takeda, Kan

    2005-01-01

    Lung radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed for the treatment of a primary lung cancer measuring 2.5 cm in maximum diameter in a 78-year-old man. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) study performed 3 months after RF ablation showed incomplete ablation of the lung tumor and the appearance of a chest wall tumor 4.0 cm in maximum diameter that was considered to be the result of needle-tract seeding. RF ablation was performed for the treatment of both the lung and the chest wall tumors. Although tumor enhancement was eradicated in both of the treated tumors, follow-up CT studies revealed diffuse intra-pulmonary metastases in both lungs 2 months after the second RF session. He is currently receiving systemic chemotherapy

  5. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    SABR) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W Loo Jr, MD PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Leland Stanford Junior University...Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Billy W Loo Jr, MD...for early stage lung cancer in patients who are not candidates for surgery because of excessive surgical risk, and will be an important treatment option

  6. Engineered Option Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts: Surrogate Batch-Blending Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from batch-blending test work for remediated nitrate salt (RNS) treatment. Batch blending was identified as a preferred option for blending RNS and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) material with zeolite to effectively safe the salt/Swheat material identified as ignitable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency code D001). Blending with zeolite was the preferred remediation option identified in the Options Assessment Report and was originally proposed as the best option for remediation by Clark and Funk in their report, Chemical Reactivity and Recommended Remediation Strategy for Los Alamos Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Wastes, and also found to be a preferred option in the Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing. This test work evaluated equipment and recipe alternatives to achieve effective blending of surrogate waste with zeolite.

  7. The quest for durable lesions in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation - technological advances in radiofrequency catheters and balloon devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Tilman; Kuck, Karl-Heinz

    2017-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and represents a growing clinical, social and economic challenge. Catheter ablation for symptomatic atrial fibrillation has evolved from an experimental procedure into a widespread therapy and offers a safe and effective treatment option. A prerequisite for durable PVI are transmural and contiguous circumferential lesions around the pulmonary veins. However, electrical reconnection of initially isolated pulmonary veins remains a primary concern and is a dominant factor for arrhythmia recurrence during long-term follow up. Areas covered: This article discusses the physiology of lesion formation using radiofrequency-, cryo- or laser- energy for pulmonary vein isolation and provides a detailed review of recent technological advancements in the field of radiofrequency catheters and balloon devices. Finally, future directions and upcoming developments for the interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation are discussed. Expert commentary: Durable conduction block across deployed myocardial lesions is mandatory not only for PVI but for any other cardiac ablation strategy as well. A major improvement urgently expected is the intraprocedural real-time distinction of durable lesions from interposed gaps with only transiently impaired electrical conduction. Furthermore, a simplification of ablation tools used for PVI is required to reduce the high technical complexity of the procedure.

  8. Current status in the treatment options for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Jyong-Hong; Lu, Hung-I; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Wu, Keng-Liang

    2013-09-07

    Recent advances in the treatment of achalasia include the use of high-resolution manometry to predict the outcome of patients and the introduction of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The first multicenter randomized, controlled, 2-year follow-up study conducted by the European Achalasia Trial group indicated that laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) was not superior to pneumatic dilations (PD). Publications on the long-term success of laparoscopic surgery continue to emerge. In addition, laparoscopic single-site surgery is applicable to advanced laparoscopic operations such as LHM and anterior fundoplication. The optimal treatment option is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review, we provide an update of the current progress in the treatment of esophageal achalasia. Unless new conclusive data prove otherwise, LHM is considered the most durable treatment for achalasia at the expense of increased reflux-associated complications. However, PD is the first choice for non-surgical treatment and is more cost-effective. Repeated PD according to an "on-demand" strategy based on symptom recurrence can achieve long-term remission. Decision making should be based on clinical evidence that identifies a subcategory of patients who would benefit from specific treatment options. POEM has shown promise but its long-term efficacy and safety need to be assessed further.

  9. Angina pectoris: current therapy and future treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Raj; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2014-02-01

    Angina pectoris is the consequence of an inequality between the demand and supply of blood to the heart. Angina manifests itself as chest pain or discomfort and is a common complaint of patients in the hospital and in the clinic. There are, in fact, roughly half a million new cases of angina per year. Chest pain, while having many etiologies, is generally considered to be most lethal when related to a cardiac cause. In this review, the authors outline the current medical and surgical therapies that are used in the management of angina. Highlights of the various clinical trials that have assisted in the investigation of these therapies are summarized also. Then, the authors provide a focused review of the novel therapy options for angina that are currently being explored. From new medical treatments to revised surgical techniques to the discovery of stem cell therapy, many innovative options are being investigated for the treatment of angina.

  10. Primary lung sarcoma treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo SG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seung-Gu Yeo Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Primary lung sarcoma (PLS is an extremely rare, very aggressive malignancy. Surgical removal is considered the treatment of choice, and patients who have been given conventional radiotherapy have had inferior outcomes. This study is the first describing a case of PLS treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR, which precisely targets a small tumor with a markedly higher biologically effective dose than conventional radiotherapy. The patient was an 82-year-old man who was diagnosed with primary lung leiomyosarcoma based on radiology, pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations. The PLS was located in the right lower lobe and measured 2.5 cm. No regional nodal or distant organ metastasis was observed. He was inoperable medically. The SABR was performed using volumetric modulated arc therapy and a dose of 56 Gy in four fractions. Follow-up computed tomography 2 months after SABR revealed a complete tumor response. The toxicity was limited to mild respiratory symptoms. The patient is alive and has had no evidence of disease for 2 years. This study suggests that SABR can be a safe and effective treatment option for PLS. Keywords: primary lung sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, radiation therapy, sarcoma 

  11. Current treatment options for vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D; Sobel, R

    2018-06-22

    Clinicians are increasingly challenged by patients with refractory vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by azole-resistant Candida species. Fluconazole resistant C.albicans is a growing and perplexing problem following years of indiscriminate drug prescription and unnecessary drug exposure and for which there are few therapeutic alternatives. Regrettably, although the azole class of drugs has expanded, new classes of antifungal drugs have not been forthcoming, limiting effective treatment options in patients with azole resistant Candida vaginitis. Areas covered: This review covers published data on epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment options for women with azole-resistant refractory VVC. Expert opinion: Fluconazole resistant C.albicans adds to the challenge of azole resistant non-albicans Candida spp. Both issues follow years of indiscriminate drug prescription and unnecessary fluconazole exposure. Although an understanding of azole resistance in yeast has been established, this knowledge has not translated into useful therapeutic advantage. Treatment options for such women with refractory symptoms are extremely limited. New therapeutic options and strategies are urgently needed to meet this challenge of azole drug resistance.

  12. Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jonathan K.; Al-Tariq, Quazi Z.; Zaw, Taryar M.; Raman, Steven S.; Lu, David S.K.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo assess radiofrequency (RF) ablation efficacy, as well as the patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Materials and MethodsRetrospective database review of patients with pre-existing TIPS undergoing RF ablation of HCC was conducted over a 159-month period ending in November 2013. TIPS patency pre- and post-RF ablation was assessed by ultrasound, angiography, and/or contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Patient demographics and immediate post-RF ablation outcomes and complications were also reviewed.Results19 patients with 21 lesions undergoing 25 RF ablation sessions were included. Child-Pugh class A, B, and C scores were seen in 1, 13, and 5 patients, respectively. Eleven patients (58 %) ultimately underwent liver transplantation. Immediate technical success was seen in all ablation sessions without residual tumor enhancement (100 %). No patients (0 %) suffered liver failure within 1 month of ablation. Pre-ablation TIPS patency was demonstrated in 22/25 sessions (88 %). Of 22 cases with patent TIPS prior to ablation, post-ablation patency was demonstrated in 22/22 (100 %) at immediate post-ablation imaging and in 21/22 (95 %) at last follow-up (1 patient was incidentally noted to have occlusion 31 months later). No immediate complications were observed.ConclusionAblation efficacy was similar to the cited literature values for patients without TIPS. Furthermore, TIPS patency was preserved in the majority of cases. Patients with both portal hypertension and HCC are not uncommonly encountered, and a pre-existing TIPS does not appear to be a definite contraindication for RF ablation

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jonathan K., E-mail: jonathan.park09@gmail.com [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States); Al-Tariq, Quazi Z., E-mail: qat200@gmail.com [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); Zaw, Taryar M., E-mail: taryar.zaw@gmail.com; Raman, Steven S., E-mail: sraman@mednet.ucla.edu; Lu, David S.K., E-mail: dlu@mednet.ucla.edu [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo assess radiofrequency (RF) ablation efficacy, as well as the patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Materials and MethodsRetrospective database review of patients with pre-existing TIPS undergoing RF ablation of HCC was conducted over a 159-month period ending in November 2013. TIPS patency pre- and post-RF ablation was assessed by ultrasound, angiography, and/or contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Patient demographics and immediate post-RF ablation outcomes and complications were also reviewed.Results19 patients with 21 lesions undergoing 25 RF ablation sessions were included. Child-Pugh class A, B, and C scores were seen in 1, 13, and 5 patients, respectively. Eleven patients (58 %) ultimately underwent liver transplantation. Immediate technical success was seen in all ablation sessions without residual tumor enhancement (100 %). No patients (0 %) suffered liver failure within 1 month of ablation. Pre-ablation TIPS patency was demonstrated in 22/25 sessions (88 %). Of 22 cases with patent TIPS prior to ablation, post-ablation patency was demonstrated in 22/22 (100 %) at immediate post-ablation imaging and in 21/22 (95 %) at last follow-up (1 patient was incidentally noted to have occlusion 31 months later). No immediate complications were observed.ConclusionAblation efficacy was similar to the cited literature values for patients without TIPS. Furthermore, TIPS patency was preserved in the majority of cases. Patients with both portal hypertension and HCC are not uncommonly encountered, and a pre-existing TIPS does not appear to be a definite contraindication for RF ablation.

  14. [Application of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Zhai, Y; Zhang, Z H; Li, Y; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and promotion value of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Fourty three patients who had received TB type endometrial ablation system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding from January, 2015 to January, 2016 in theDepartment of gynecology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were enrolled in this study. The intra-operative and post-operative complications and improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea were observed. Results: There were nointra-operative complication occurred, such as uterine perforation, massive hemorrhage or surrounding organ damage. At 6 months after operation, 32 patients developed amenorrhea, 6 developed menstrual spotting, 3 developed menstruation with a small volume and 1 had a normal menstruation. No menstruation with an increased volume occurred. The occurrence of amenorrhea was 76.19% and the response rate was 97.62%.At 6 months after operation, 1 case had no response, 2 cases had partial response and 11 cases had complete response among the 14 cases of pre-operative dysmenorrhea; only 3 cases still had anemia among the 23 cases of pre-operative anemia. Compared with before treatment, patients with dysmenorrhea and anemia both significantly reduced with a statistically significant difference( P abnormal uterine bleeding, which could have clinical promotion practice.

  15. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of a metastatic lung nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highland, Adrian M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Mack, Paul [Diana Princess of Wales Hospital, Scartho Road, Grimsby, DN33 2BA (United Kingdom); Breen, David J. [Department of Radiology, Southampton University Hospitals, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Pulmonary metastases are a common finding in patients with colonic adenocarcinoma. We report the treatment of a metastatic lung nodule with radiofrequency (RF) ablation under CT guidance. This case illustrates the use of RF ablation in a patient in whom surgical resection was no longer possible and where chemotherapy was unlikely to produce benefit. This technique may offer a viable method of cytoreduction when other treatments have not succeeded. (orig.)

  16. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of a metastatic lung nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, Adrian M.; Mack, Paul; Breen, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary metastases are a common finding in patients with colonic adenocarcinoma. We report the treatment of a metastatic lung nodule with radiofrequency (RF) ablation under CT guidance. This case illustrates the use of RF ablation in a patient in whom surgical resection was no longer possible and where chemotherapy was unlikely to produce benefit. This technique may offer a viable method of cytoreduction when other treatments have not succeeded. (orig.)

  17. Cryospray ablation (CSA in the palliative treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Mark H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal carcinoma is the ninth most prevalent cancer worldwide with squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA and adenocarcinoma accounting for the vast majority of new cases (13,900 in 2003. Cure rates in the U.S. are less than 10%, similar to lung cancer. More than 50% of patients with esophageal carcinoma present with unresectable or metastatic disease, are not surgical candidates, or display disease progression despite the addition of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy to surgery. Need for improved palliation exits. Case presentation This case describes a 73-year-old African American male who presented with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA of the esophagus who has a achieved complete remission for 24 months via endoscopic cryospray ablation. Conclusion Endoscopic cryo spray ablation warrants further investigation as a palliative treatment modality for esophageal cancer. This is the first reported case in the medical literature.

  18. New Fathers' Perinatal Depression and Anxiety-Treatment Options: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Anthony P; McNeil, Karen A; Fletcher, Richard; Conrad, Agatha; Wilson, Amanda J; Jones, Donovan; Chan, Sally W

    2017-07-01

    More than 10% of fathers experience depression and anxiety during the perinatal period, but paternal perinatal depression (PPND) and anxiety have received less attention than maternal perinatal mental health problems. Few mainstream treatment options are available for men with PPND and anxiety. The aim of this literature review was to summarize the current understanding of PPND and the treatment programs specifically designed for fathers with perinatal depression. Eight electronic databases were searched using a predefined strategy, and reference lists were also hand searched. PPND and anxiety were identified to have a negative impact on family relationships, as well as the health of mothers and children. Evidence suggests a lack of support and tailored treatment options for men having trouble adjusting to the transition to fatherhood. Of the limited options available, cognitive behavioral therapy, group work, and blended delivery programs, including e-support approaches appear to be most effective in helping fathers with perinatal depression and anxiety. The review findings have important implications for the understanding of PPND and anxiety. Future research is needed to address the adoption of father-inclusive and father-specific models of care to encourage fathers' help-seeking behavior. Inclusion of male-specific requirements into support and treatment options can improve the ability of services to engage new fathers. Psychotherapeutic intervention could assist to address the cognitive differences and dissonance for men adjusting to the role of father, including male identity and role expectations.

  19. Current treatment options for meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apra, Caroline; Peyre, Matthieu; Kalamarides, Michel

    2018-03-01

    With an annual incidence of 5/100,000, meningioma is the most frequent primary tumor of the central nervous system. Risk factors are radiotherapy and hormone intake. Most meningiomas are grade I benign tumors, but up to 15% are atypical and 2% anaplastic according to the WHO 2016 histological criteria. Areas covered: This review details the current standard therapy based on international guidelines and recent literature, and describes new approaches developed to treat refractory cases. First-line treatments are observation and surgery, but adjuvant radiotherapy/radiosurgery is discussed for atypical and indicated for anaplastic meningiomas. The most problematic cases include skull base meningiomas that enclose vasculo-nervous structures and surgery- and radiation-refractory tumors that present with significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment of recurrent tumors is based on radiotherapy and repeated surgery. Systematic therapies are not effective in general but several clinical trials are ongoing. Expert commentary: Molecular characterization of the tumors, based on genetic mutations such as NF2, SMO, TERT, TRAF7, and on the methylation profile are developing, completing the histological classification and giving new insights into prognosis and treatment options.

  20. Transcatheter radiofrequency ablation under the guidance of three-dimensional mapping for the treatment of complex cardiac arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Lang; Wang Hong; Lai Hengli; Ying Qiulin; Chen Zhangqiang; Lu Linxiang; Qiu Yun; Xiao Chengwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter radiofrequency ablation guided by a three-dimensional mapping system (Ensite or Carto) for the treatment of complex cardiac arrhythmias. Methods: A cohort of 123 consecutive hospitalized inpatients during the period from February 2006 to December 2008 were selected for this study. These patients suffered from various arrhythmias, including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (n = 58), persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation (n = 10), atrial flutter (n = 13), atrial tachycardia (n = 12) and ventricular tachycardia or frequent ventricular premature beats (n = 30). Transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for arrhythmias was performed under the guidance of an EnSite3000 / NavX or Array mapping system in 80 cases, and under the guidance of a CARTO mapping system in the remaining 43 cases. Results: Successful ablation of arrhythmias was obtained by single operation in 106 cases (86.18%), including 59 cases with atrial fibrillation, 11 cases with atrial flutter, 10 cases with atrial tachycardia, and 26 cases with ventricular tachycardia or premature ventricular beat.Ablation procedure was carried out and was successful in 10 cases with a successful rate of 94.31%, including 5 cases with atrial fibrillation, 1 case with recurred atrial flutter, 1 case with recurrent atrial tachycardia, and 3 cases with ventricular tachycardia or premature ventricular beat.After operation, complications occurred in 6 cases, including cardiac tamponade in 4 cases, distal embolism of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 1 case, and pulmonary embolism in 1 case. Conclusion: Three-dimensional mapping system can clearly and stereoscopically display the cardiac structures. Therefore, this technique is of great value in guiding the transcatheter radiofrequency ablation for complex arrhythmias, in improving the success rate of ablation and in increasing the safety of the procedure. (authors)

  1. Characterization of tracked radiofrequency ablation in phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chun-Cheng R.; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    In radiofrequency ablation (RFA), successful therapy requires accurate, image-guided placement of the ablation device in a location selected by a predictive treatment plan. Current planning methods rely on geometric models of ablations that are not sensitive to underlying physical processes in RFA. Implementing plans based on computational models of RFA with image-guided techniques, however, has not been well characterized. To study the use of computational models of RFA in planning needle placement, this work compared ablations performed with an optically tracked RFA device with corresponding models of the ablations. The calibration of the tracked device allowed the positions of distal features of the device, particularly the tips of the needle electrodes, to be determined to within 1.4±0.6 mm of uncertainty. Ablations were then performed using the tracked device in a phantom system based on an agarose-albumin mixture. Images of the sliced phantom obtained from the ablation experiments were then compared with the predictions of a bioheat transfer model of RFA, which used the positional data of the tracked device obtained during ablation. The model was demonstrated to predict 90% of imaged pixels classified as being ablated. The discrepancies between model predictions and observations were analyzed and attributed to needle tracking inaccuracy as well as to uncertainties in model parameters. The results suggest the feasibility of using finite element modeling to plan ablations with predictable outcomes when implemented using tracked RFA

  2. Unusual tumour ablations: report of difficult and interesting cases

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, Giovanni; Nicosia, Luca; Varano, Gianluca Maria; Shyn, Paul; Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Orsi, Franco; Solbiati, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Image-guided ablations are nowadays applied in the treatment of a wide group of diseases and in different organs and regions, and every day interventional radiologists have to face more difficult and unusual cases of tumour ablation. In the present case review, we report four difficult and unusual cases, reporting some tips and tricks for a successful image-guided treatment.

  3. Bipolar radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases during laparotomy. First clinical experiences with a new multipolar ablation concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Joerg-Peter; Lehmann, Kai S; Reissfelder, Christoph; Albrecht, Thomas; Frericks, Bernd; Zurbuchen, Urte; Buhr, Heinz J

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising method for local treatment of liver malignancies. Currently available systems for radiofrequency ablation use monopolar current, which carries the risk of uncontrolled electrical current paths, collateral damages and limited effectiveness. To overcome this problem, we used a newly developed internally cooled bipolar application system in patients with irresectable liver metastases undergoing laparotomy. The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of this new system with a novel multipolar application concept. Patients with a maximum of five liver metastases having a maximum diameter of 5 cm underwent laparotomy and abdominal exploration to control resectability. In cases of irresectability, RFA with the newly developed bipolar application system was performed. Treatment was carried out under ultrasound guidance. Depending on tumour size, shape and location, up to three applicators were simultaneously inserted in or closely around the tumour, never exceeding a maximum probe distance of 3 cm. In the multipolar ablation concept, the current runs alternating between all possible pairs of consecutively activated electrodes with up to 15 possible electrode combinations. Post-operative follow-up was evaluated by CT or MRI controls 24-48 h after RFA and every 3 months. In a total of six patients (four male, two female; 61-68 years), ten metastases (1.0-5.5 cm) were treated with a total of 14 RF applications. In four metastases three probes were used, and in another four and two metastases, two and one probes were used, respectively. During a mean ablation time of 18.8 min (10-31), a mean energy of 48.8 kJ (12-116) for each metastases was applied. No procedure-related complications occurred. The patients were released from the hospital between 7 and 12 days post-intervention (median 9 days). The post-interventional control showed complete tumour ablation in all cases. Bipolar

  4. Ablative fractional laser alters biodistribution of ingenol mebutate in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, A M; Taudorf, E H; Eriksson, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) is approved for field-treatment of actinic keratosis and is currently being investigated for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Ablative fractional lasers (AFXLs) generate microscopic ablation zones (MAZs) in the skin, which may help induce...

  5. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation using stent-type electrode for varicose veins: an experimental study in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Je Hwan; Han, Jae Ho; Oh, Chang Kwon [Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Young Lan [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Il [Ulsan University GangNeung Asan Hospital, Gangeung (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the optimal conditions of radiofrequency (RF) ablation by using the stent-type electrode upon the saphenous vein of goats for the endovenous treatment of varicose veins. A self-expandable nitinol stent electrode (6 mm diameter, 2 cm length, cell size; 1.3 x 2 mm) was designed to expose the distal 1 cm segment to allow for contact with the venous wall. The proximal part of the electrode was connected to the RF generator by insulated copper wires located within the stent electrode introducer. Initially, to optimize the power setting, ablation of 6 saphenous veins in 3 goats was performed with power settings of 10, 20 and 30 W. Pull back rate of the electrode was 2 and 4 cm/min for each power level, respectively. The goats were sacrificed 4-6 weeks later and histologic examinations of the saphenous veins were done. For the second part of the experiment, RF ablation of 4 saphenous veins from 2 goats was done by applying the optimal power, based upon the first examination; these procedure was performed with variable pull back rates. Again, the goats were sacrificed 1-6 weeks later and histologic examinations were done. Endovenous ablation of the goat saphenous veins at 20 W caused complete obliteration without complication. There was incomplete occlusion at 10 W, and there were vessel perforation, extravasation, and adjacent tissue injury at 30 W. In second part of the study, the complete circumferential obliteration of the vein was demonstrated at a pull back rate of 1 cm/min and 3 cm/min with the power of 20 W. The stent-type electrode may be useful in endovenous RF ablation for treatment of varicose veins. For stents with a diameter of 6 mm, the optional combination of 20 W of power with a pull back rate of 1-3 cm/min produced the most favorable results. Further study and clinical investigations are warranted.

  6. Endovenous radiofrequency ablation using stent-type electrode for varicose veins: an experimental study in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Je Hwan; Han, Jae Ho; Oh, Chang Kwon; Kwak, Young Lan; Park, Sung Il

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and the optimal conditions of radiofrequency (RF) ablation by using the stent-type electrode upon the saphenous vein of goats for the endovenous treatment of varicose veins. A self-expandable nitinol stent electrode (6 mm diameter, 2 cm length, cell size; 1.3 x 2 mm) was designed to expose the distal 1 cm segment to allow for contact with the venous wall. The proximal part of the electrode was connected to the RF generator by insulated copper wires located within the stent electrode introducer. Initially, to optimize the power setting, ablation of 6 saphenous veins in 3 goats was performed with power settings of 10, 20 and 30 W. Pull back rate of the electrode was 2 and 4 cm/min for each power level, respectively. The goats were sacrificed 4-6 weeks later and histologic examinations of the saphenous veins were done. For the second part of the experiment, RF ablation of 4 saphenous veins from 2 goats was done by applying the optimal power, based upon the first examination; these procedure was performed with variable pull back rates. Again, the goats were sacrificed 1-6 weeks later and histologic examinations were done. Endovenous ablation of the goat saphenous veins at 20 W caused complete obliteration without complication. There was incomplete occlusion at 10 W, and there were vessel perforation, extravasation, and adjacent tissue injury at 30 W. In second part of the study, the complete circumferential obliteration of the vein was demonstrated at a pull back rate of 1 cm/min and 3 cm/min with the power of 20 W. The stent-type electrode may be useful in endovenous RF ablation for treatment of varicose veins. For stents with a diameter of 6 mm, the optional combination of 20 W of power with a pull back rate of 1-3 cm/min produced the most favorable results. Further study and clinical investigations are warranted

  7. Paying attention to radiofrequency ablation therapy for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongming; Li Linsun

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is an effective treatment for malignant tumors. With the development of imaging technique, it has been widely used in treating different kinds of malignant tumors, such as liver cancer, lung cancer, kidney carcinoma, etc. Radiofrequency ablation has a lot of advantages. As a minimally-invasive, safe and effective treatment with less sufferings and fewer complications, this technique has attracted more and more attention of the experts both at home and abroad. (authors)

  8. Clinical effects of non-ablative and ablative fractional lasers on various hair disorders: a case series of 17 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suhyun; Choi, Min Ju; Zheng, Zhenlong; Goo, Boncheol; Kim, Do-Young; Cho, Sung Bin

    2013-04-01

    Both ablative and non-ablative fractional lasers have been applied to various uncommon hair disorders. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the clinical effects of fractional laser therapy on the course of primary follicular and perifollicular pathologies and subsequent hair regrowth. A retrospective review of 17 patients with uncommon hair disorders - including ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, various secondary cicatricial alopecias, pubic hypotrichosis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens - was conducted. All patients had been treated with non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser therapies. The mean clinical improvement score in these 17 patients was 2.2, while the mean patient satisfaction score was 2.5. Of the 17 subjects, 12 (70.6%) demonstrated a clinical response to non-ablative and/or ablative fractional laser treatments, including individuals with ophiasis, autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis, secondary cicatricial alopecia (scleroderma and pressure-induced alopecia), frontal fibrosing alopecia, and perifolliculitis abscedens et suffodiens. Conversely, patients with long-standing ophiasis, surgical scar-induced secondary cicatricial alopecia, and pubic hypotrichosis did not respond to fractional laser therapy. Our findings demonstrate that the use of non-ablative and/or ablative fractional lasers promoted hair growth in certain cases of uncommon hair disorders without any remarkable side effects.

  9. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 radioactive seed implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Chen, Jin, E-mail: snow8968851@163.com [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Deng, Xiu-Fen, E-mail: dxf197286@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: The objective is to study the technology associated with and feasibility of the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 (I-125) radioactive seed implantation. Methods: Sixteen patients with a total of 24 HCC lesions (average maximum diameter: 2.35 {+-} 1.03 cm) were pathologically confirmed by biopsy or clinically diagnosed received 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment. Each patient had one lesion adjacent to large blood vessels ({>=}3 mm); after the ablation, I-125 radioactive seeds were implanted in the portions of the lesions that were adjacent to the blood vessels. Results: All the ablations and I-125 radioactive seed implantations were successful; a total of 118 seeds were implanted. The ablated lesions exhibited hypointense signals on the T2WI sequence with a thin rim of hyperintense signals; they also exhibited significant hyperintense signals on the T1WI sequence with clear boundaries. The average follow-up period was 11.1 {+-} 6.2 months. There were 23 complete responses and one partial response in the 24 lesions. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of the patients significantly decreased. Conclusion: The 1.5T MRI-guided RFA combined with I-125 radioactive seed implantation for the treatment of HCC adjacent to large blood vessels is an effective technology.

  10. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for comprehensive treatment of oligometastatic tumors (SABR-COMET): Study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, David A; Griffioen, GwendolynHMJ; Gaede, Stewart; Slotman, Ben; Senan, Suresh; Haasbeek, Cornelis J A; Rodrigues, George B; Dahele, Max; Lock, Michael; Yaremko, Brian; Olson, Robert; Liu, Mitchell; Panarotto, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has emerged as a new treatment option for patients with oligometastatic disease. SABR delivers precise, high-dose, hypofractionated radiotherapy, and achieves excellent rates of local control. Survival outcomes for patients with oligometastatic disease treated with SABR appear promising, but conclusions are limited by patient selection, and the lack of adequate controls in most studies. The goal of this multicenter randomized phase II trial is to assess the impact of a comprehensive oligometastatic SABR treatment program on overall survival and quality of life in patients with up to 5 metastatic cancer lesions, compared to patients who receive standard of care treatment alone. After stratification by the number of metastases (1-3 vs. 4-5), patients will be randomized between Arm 1: current standard of care treatment, and Arm 2: standard of care treatment + SABR to all sites of known disease. Patients will be randomized in a 1:2 ratio to Arm 1:Arm 2, respectively. For patients receiving SABR, radiotherapy dose and fractionation depends on the site of metastasis and the proximity to critical normal structures. This study aims to accrue a total of 99 patients within four years. The primary endpoint is overall survival, and secondary endpoints include quality of life, toxicity, progression-free survival, lesion control rate, and number of cycles of further chemotherapy/systemic therapy. This study will provide an assessment of the impact of SABR on clinical outcomes and quality of life, to determine if long-term survival can be achieved for selected patients with oligometastatic disease, and will inform the design of a possible phase III study. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01446744

  11. Successful treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia with CT-guided percutaneous ethanol and cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, Sean; Olson, Erik; King, David; Shaker, Joseph L

    2012-10-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare condition usually caused by benign mesenchymal tumors. When the tumor can be found, patients are usually managed by wide excision of the tumor. We report a 51-yr-old male with clinical and biochemical evidence of tumor-induced osteomalacia caused by a mesenchymal tumor in the right iliac bone. He declined surgery and appears to have been successfully managed by computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation and percutaneous cryoablation. Our patient appears to have had an excellent clinical and biochemical response to computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation and percutaneous cryoablation. We found one prior case of image-guided ablation using radiofrequency ablation for tumor-induced osteomalacia. Although the standard treatment for tumor-induced osteomalacia is wide excision of the tumor, image-guided ablation may be an option in patients who cannot have appropriate surgery or who decline surgery.

  12. Neonatal hepatic haemangioendothelioma: treatment options and dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijs, Bram B. van der; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Haan, Timo R. de; Tabbers, Merit M.; Rijn, Rick R. van

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of rapidly progressive neonatal diffuse hepatic haemangioendotheliomas. The clinical picture was characterized by respiratory insufficiency due to gross abdominal enlargement, coagulopathy, and the development of cardiovascular insufficiency during the course of disease. Pharmacological, radiotherapeutic and endovascular treatment options all proved ineffective. We describe our own experience and the steps taken to treat this child. Unfortunately, the child died as a consequence of the disease. As cases like this are rare and are associated with severe morbidity and high mortality, more knowledge needs to be gained on infantile hepatic haemangioendotheliomas and their optimal treatment. The use of a web-based data registry could be beneficial. (orig.)

  13. A survey of pulse shape options for a revised plastic ablator ignition design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. S.; Milovich, J. L.; Hinkel, D. E.; Salmonson, J. D.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Recent experimental results using the “high foot” pulse shape for inertial confinement fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] have shown encouraging progress compared to earlier “low foot” experiments. These results strongly suggest that controlling ablation front instability growth can significantly improve implosion performance even in the presence of persistent, large, low-mode distortions. Simultaneously, hydrodynamic growth radiography experiments have confirmed that ablation front instability growth is being modeled fairly well in NIF experiments. It is timely then to combine these two results and ask how current ignition pulse shapes could be modified to improve one-dimensional implosion performance while maintaining the stability properties demonstrated with the high foot. This paper presents such a survey of pulse shapes intermediate between the low and high foot extremes in search of an intermediate foot optimum. Of the design space surveyed, it is found that a higher picket version of the low foot pulse shape shows the most promise for improved compression without loss of stability.

  14. Clinical application of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of metastatic bone neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ju; Lu Zhijun; Wang Zhongmin; Zhang Liyun; Zheng Yunfeng; Chen Kemin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of metastatic bone neoplasms. Methods: Under intravenous aneaesthesia, CT- guided RFA was performed in 20 patients with metastatic bone tumor. The degree of pain was evaluated at 24 hours, 3 and 6 months after the operation by brief pain inventory (BPI). Results: All patients were followed up for 6 months and survived so far. The average peak pain score before the operation was 8.1 (6-10), which decreased significantly to 6.1, 4.6, 3.3 and 3.0 at 24 hours, 1, 3 and 6 months after the operation respectively (P<0.001). The mean pain score before the operation was 6.3, which decreased significantly to 4.0, 2.3, 2.13 and 1.9 at 24 hours, 1, 3 and 6 months after the operation respectively (P<0.001). After RFA treatment, the KPS scores of all patients increased while the CT values of the bone lesions decreased. No major complications occurred both during and after the operation. One patient with vertebral lamina destruction suffered from lower limb hypoesthesia after RFA procedure, and the lower limb sensation was restored within 48 hours after the injection of prednisone was employed. Conclusion: CT-guided radiofisequency ablation is a safe, effective, minimally-invasive and up-to-date technique for the treatment of metastatic bone neoplasms with excellent anti-pain effect, its short-term response is sure and reliable. (authors)

  15. Hyaluronic acid and other conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis of the ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Angelique G. H.; Hofstad, Cheriel J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The cause of ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is usually trauma. Patients are relatively young, since ankle trauma occurs at a relatively young age. Several conservative treatment options are available, evidence of the benefits and harms of these options are lacking. Objectives To assess the

  16. Treatment of Metastatic Lymph Nodes in the Neck from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Percutaneous Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauri, Giovanni, E-mail: vanni.mauri@gmail.com [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Cova, Luca [General Hospital of Busto Arsizio, Unit of Interventional Oncology (Italy); Ierace, Tiziana [IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Baroli, Alberto; Di Mauro, Enzo [General Hospital of Busto Arsizio, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Pacella, Claudio Maurizio [Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Italy); Goldberg, Shraga Nahum [Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Image-guided Therapy and Interventional Oncology Unit (Israel); Solbiati, Luigi [IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    PurposeTo assess the effectiveness of percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) of cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma.Materials and Methods24 patients (62.3 ± 13.2 year; range 32–80) previously treated with thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and radioiodine ablation underwent ultrasound-guided PLA of 46 {sup 18}FDG-PET/CT—positive metachronous nodal metastases. All patients were at high surgical risk or refused surgery and were unsuitable for additional radioiodine ablation. A 300 µm quartz fiber and a continuous-wave Nd-YAG laser operating at 1.064 mm were used. Technical success, rate of complications, rate of serological conversion, and local control at follow-up were derived. Fisher’s exact test and Mann–Whitney U test were used and Kaplan–Meier curve calculated.ResultsTechnical success was obtained in all 46 lymph nodes (100 %). There were no major complications. Thyroglobulin levels decreased from 8.40 ± 9.25 ng/ml before treatment to 2.73 ± 4.0 ng/ml after treatment (p = 0.011), with serological conversion in 11/24 (45.8 %) patients. Overall, local control was obtained in 40/46 (86.9 %) lymph nodes over 30 ± 11 month follow-up, with no residual disease seen at imaging in 19/24 (79.1 %) patients. Local control was achieved in 40/46 (86.9 %) lymph nodes at 1 year and in all of the 25 nodes (100 %) followed for 3 years. Estimated mean time to progression was 38.6 ± 2.7 m.ConclusionUltrasound-guided PLA is a feasible, safe, and effective therapy for the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ann Thorp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy of renal denervation over a sham procedure, prompting widespread re-evaluation of the therapy’s efficacy. Disrupting renal afferent sympathetic signalling to the hypothalamus with renal denervation lowers central sympathetic tone, which has the potential to confer additional clinical benefits beyond blood pressure control. Specifically, there has been substantial interest in the use of renal denervation as either a primary or adjunct therapy in pathological conditions characterized by central sympathetic over-activity such as renal disease, heart failure and metabolic-associated disorders. Recent findings from pre-clinical and proof-of–concept studies appear promising with renal denervation shown to confer cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, largely independent of changes in blood pressure. This review explores the pathological rationale for targeting sympathetic renal nerves for blood pressure control. Latest developments in renal nerve ablation modalities designed to improve procedural success are discussed along with prospective findings on the efficacy of renal denervation to lower blood pressure in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Preliminary evidence in support of renal denervation as a possible therapeutic option in disease states characterized by central sympathetic over-activity is also presented.

  18. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A.; Schlaich, Markus P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy of renal denervation over a sham procedure, prompting widespread re-evaluation of the therapy's efficacy. Disrupting renal afferent sympathetic signaling to the hypothalamus with renal denervation lowers central sympathetic tone, which has the potential to confer additional clinical benefits beyond blood pressure control. Specifically, there has been substantial interest in the use of renal denervation as either a primary or adjunct therapy in pathological conditions characterized by central sympathetic overactivity such as renal disease, heart failure and metabolic-associated disorders. Recent findings from pre-clinical and proof-of-concept studies appear promising with renal denervation shown to confer cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, largely independent of changes in blood pressure. This review explores the pathological rationale for targeting sympathetic renal nerves for blood pressure control. Latest developments in renal nerve ablation modalities designed to improve procedural success are discussed along with prospective findings on the efficacy of renal denervation to lower blood pressure in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Preliminary evidence in support of renal denervation as a possible therapeutic option in disease states characterized by central sympathetic overactivity is also presented. PMID:26217232

  19. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; Schlaich, Markus P

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy of renal denervation over a sham procedure, prompting widespread re-evaluation of the therapy's efficacy. Disrupting renal afferent sympathetic signaling to the hypothalamus with renal denervation lowers central sympathetic tone, which has the potential to confer additional clinical benefits beyond blood pressure control. Specifically, there has been substantial interest in the use of renal denervation as either a primary or adjunct therapy in pathological conditions characterized by central sympathetic overactivity such as renal disease, heart failure and metabolic-associated disorders. Recent findings from pre-clinical and proof-of-concept studies appear promising with renal denervation shown to confer cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, largely independent of changes in blood pressure. This review explores the pathological rationale for targeting sympathetic renal nerves for blood pressure control. Latest developments in renal nerve ablation modalities designed to improve procedural success are discussed along with prospective findings on the efficacy of renal denervation to lower blood pressure in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Preliminary evidence in support of renal denervation as a possible therapeutic option in disease states characterized by central sympathetic overactivity is also presented.

  20. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Degeneration: Pathophysiology and Treatment Options

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Ruth; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Lees, Andrew J.; Morris, Huw R.

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and no approved pharmacological or therapeutic treatments that are effective in controlling their symptoms. The use of most pharmacological treatment options are based on experience in other disorders or from non-randomized historical controls, case series, or expert opinion. Levodopa may provide some improvement in symptoms of Parkinsonism (specif...

  1. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Degeneration: Pathophysiology and Treatment Options

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, R.; Rohrer, J. D.; Lees, A. J.; Morris, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no disease-modifying treatments for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and no approved pharmacological or therapeutic treatments that are effective in controlling their symptoms. The use of most pharmacological treatment options are based on experience in other disorders or from non-randomized historical controls, case series, or expert opinion. Levodopa may provide some improvement in symptoms of Parkinsonism (specifically bradykinesi...

  2. Ablative dual-phase Erbium:YAG laser treatment of atrophy-related vaginal symptoms in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors omitting hormonal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, A R; Runnebaum, M; Runnebaum, I B

    2018-05-01

    First evaluation of dual-phase vaginal Er:YAG laser to omit hormonal treatment for atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors following prolapse surgery. Patients with a history of breast cancer at the time of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse were offered non-hormonal vaginal Er:YAG laser treatment when complaining of atrophy-related genitourinary syndrome of menopause. A single 10-min course of dual-phase protocol of pulsed Er:YAG laser (2940 nm, fractional ablative and thermal mode, fluence according to tissue thickness). Follow-up included subjective satisfaction, vaginal pH, vaginal health index (VHI), and complications after 6 weeks. A total of 16 breast cancer survivors (age 71 years, SD 7) had been seeking treatment for pelvic floor symptoms related to vaginal atrophy at follow-up visits after prolapse surgery. All ablative vaginal Er:YAG laser outpatient procedures were successfully completed, all patients returned to daily activities without a need for analgetic medication. Evaluation was performed after 8.3 (SD 2.5) weeks. Pre-laser VHI scored 16 (SD 4.6) and post-laser VHI 20 (SD 3) with p = 0.01. Patients were satisfied in 94% (n = 15) regarding symptom relief. Breast cancer survivors with atrophy-related complaints after pelvic floor surgery may benefit from vaginal application of this innovative dual protocol of Er:YAG laser technology as a non-hormonal treatment approach.

  3. A Novel Method to Prevent Phrenic Nerve Injury During Catheter Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Eric; Vaseghi, Marmar; Cesario, David A; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2006-01-01

    Epicardial catheter ablation is increasingly important in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Collateral damage to adjacent structures like the phrenic nerve is an important concern with epicardial ablation. This report describes the use of a novel method to prevent phrenic nerve injury during epicardial ablation of ventricular tachycardia.

  4. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis.

  5. CT thermometry for cone-beam CT guided ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Zachary; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Li, Ming; Wood, Bradford J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring temperature during a cone-beam CT (CBCT) guided ablation procedure is important for prevention of over-treatment and under-treatment. In order to accomplish ideal temperature monitoring, a thermometry map must be generated. Previously, this was attempted using CBCT scans of a pig shoulder undergoing ablation.1 We are extending this work by using CBCT scans of real patients and incorporating more processing steps. We register the scans before comparing them due to the movement and deformation of organs. We then automatically locate the needle tip and the ablation zone. We employ a robust change metric due to image noise and artifacts. This change metric takes windows around each pixel and uses an equation inspired by Time Delay Analysis to calculate the error between windows with the assumption that there is an ideal spatial offset. Once the change map is generated, we correlate change data with measured temperature data at the key points in the region. This allows us to transform our change map into a thermal map. This thermal map is then able to provide an estimate as to the size and temperature of the ablation zone. We evaluated our procedure on a data set of 12 patients who had a total of 24 ablation procedures performed. We were able to generate reasonable thermal maps with varying degrees of accuracy. The average error ranged from 2.7 to 16.2 degrees Celsius. In addition to providing estimates of the size of the ablation zone for surgical guidance, 3D visualizations of the ablation zone and needle are also produced.

  6. Careful treatment planning enables safe ablation of liver tumors adjacent to major blood vessels by percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Bor; Voigt, Peter; Miklavcic, Damijan; Moche, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a tissue ablation method, which relies on the phenomenon of electroporation. When cells are exposed to a sufficiently electric field, the plasma membrane is disrupted and cells undergo an apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Although heating effects are known IRE is considered as non-thermal ablation technique and is currently applied to treat tumors in locations where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. The manufacturer of the only commercially available pulse generator for IRE recommends a voltage-to-distance ratio of 1500 to 1700 V/cm for treating tumors in the liver. However, major blood vessels can influence the electric field distribution. We present a method for treatment planning of IRE which takes the influence of blood vessels on the electric field into account; this is illustrated on a treatment of 48-year-old patient with a metastasis near the remaining hepatic vein after a right side hemi-hepatectomy. Output of the numerical treatment planning method shows that a 19.9 cm3 irreversible electroporation lesion was generated and the whole tumor was covered with at least 900 V/cm. This compares well with the volume of the hypodense lesion seen in contrast enhanced CT images taken after the IRE treatment. A significant temperature raise occurs near the electrodes. However, the hepatic vein remains open after the treatment without evidence of tumor recurrence after 6 months. Treatment planning using accurate computer models was recognized as important for electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. An important finding of this study was, that the surface of the electrodes heat up significantly. Therefore the clinical user should generally avoid placing the electrodes less than 4 mm away from risk structures when following recommendations of the manufacturer.

  7. Hard tissue ablation with a spray-assisted mid-IR laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H W; Rizoiu, I; Welch, A J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the dominant mechanism(s) for dental enamel ablation with the application of water spray. A free-running Er,Cr:YSGG (yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser was used to ablate human enamel tissue at various radiant exposures. During dental ablation, distilled water was sprayed on the sample surface, and these results were compared to ablation without a spray (dry ablation). In order to identify dominant ablation mechanisms, transient acoustic waves were compared to ablation thresholds and the volume of material removed. The ablation profile and depth were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Irregular surface modification, charring and peripheral cracks were associated with dry ablation, whereas craters for spray samples were relatively clean without thermal damage. In spite of a 60% higher ablation threshold for spray associated irradiations owing to water absorption, acoustic peak pressures were six times higher and ablation volume was up to a factor of 2 larger compared to dry ablation. The enhanced pressure and ablation performance of the spray-assisted process was the result of rapid water vaporization, material ejection with recoil stress, interstitial water explosion and possibly liquid-jet formation. With water cooling and abrasive/disruptive mechanical effects, the spray ablation can be a safe and efficient modality for dental treatment

  8. Hard tissue ablation with a spray-assisted mid-IR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H. W.; Rizoiu, I.; Welch, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the dominant mechanism(s) for dental enamel ablation with the application of water spray. A free-running Er,Cr:YSGG (yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser was used to ablate human enamel tissue at various radiant exposures. During dental ablation, distilled water was sprayed on the sample surface, and these results were compared to ablation without a spray (dry ablation). In order to identify dominant ablation mechanisms, transient acoustic waves were compared to ablation thresholds and the volume of material removed. The ablation profile and depth were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Irregular surface modification, charring and peripheral cracks were associated with dry ablation, whereas craters for spray samples were relatively clean without thermal damage. In spite of a 60% higher ablation threshold for spray associated irradiations owing to water absorption, acoustic peak pressures were six times higher and ablation volume was up to a factor of 2 larger compared to dry ablation. The enhanced pressure and ablation performance of the spray-assisted process was the result of rapid water vaporization, material ejection with recoil stress, interstitial water explosion and possibly liquid-jet formation. With water cooling and abrasive/disruptive mechanical effects, the spray ablation can be a safe and efficient modality for dental treatment.

  9. Effect of Hashimoto thyroiditis on low-dose radioactive-iodine remnant ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyungju; Choi, June Young; Moon, Jae Hoon; Park, Hyo Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Lee, Kyu Eun

    2016-04-01

    Radioactive-iodine remnant ablation is an integral part of the papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) treatment. Although a minimum dose is usually recommended, there is controversy as to whether the low-dose (1100 MBq) radioactive-iodine remnant ablation is adequate for selected patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 691 patients. Patients with no remnant thyroid on the follow-up whole body scan and low stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) level (Hashimoto thyroiditis based on histopathology diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.23; p Hashimoto thyroiditis and elevated sTg are negative predictive factors for successful low-dose radioactive-iodine remnant ablation treatment. An appropriate risk-adjusted approach may improve the efficacy of radioactive-iodine remnant ablation treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E730-E735, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pulsed radiofrequency ablation for treatment of severe pain after shoulder arthroplasty (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zabolotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of refractory neuropathic pain syndrome in patient who underwent monopolar shoulder replacement is presented. The patient had right lung tumor metastasis in the right humeral head. Severe neuropathic pain syndrome, not responding to 6-months conservative treatment, developed in post-operative period. Pulsed radiofrequency ablation of C4-C6 nerve roots via interscalene access was performed. The procedure allowed the patient to stop taking painkillers and improved his quality of life. The patient was monitored for 2 months.

  11. Treatment of acne scarring using a dual-spot-size ablative fractionated carbon dioxide laser: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Emily P

    2011-07-01

    Fractional photothermolysis has been reported in the literature to improve pigmentary and textural changes associated with acne scarring. To review the literature for the treatment of acne scarring using nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) and ablative fractional laser (AFL) resurfacing. Review of the Medline literature evaluating NAFL and AFL for acne scarring. NAFL and AFL are safe and effective treatments for acne scarring. It is likely that the controlled, limited dermal heating of fractional resurfacing initiates a cascade of events in which normalization of the collagenesis-collagenolysis cycle occurs. We present the results of a patient treated using a novel dual-spot-size AFL device. Three months after the final treatment, the patient reported 75% improvement in acne scarring and 63% overall improvement in photoaging. Fractionated resurfacing for the treatment of acne scarring is associated with lesser risks of side effects of prolonged erythema and risks of delayed-onset dyspigmentation and scarring which complicate traditional ablative laser resurfacing approaches. We present herein preliminary data suggesting that a dual-spot-size AFL device presents novel advantages of improving texture and pigmentation in acne scarring and photoaging. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  12. What to choose as radical local treatment for lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer: surgery or radiofrequency ablation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlijper, R.C.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Houben, R.; Dingemans, A.M.; Wildberger, J.E.; Raemdonck, D. Van; Cutsem, E. van; Haustermans, K.; Lammering, G.; Lambin, P.; Ruysscher, D. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term survival can be obtained with local treatment of lung metastases from colorectal cancer. However, it is unclear as to what the optimal local therapy is: surgery, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT). METHODS: A systematic review included 27 studies

  13. Enhanced Radiofrequency Ablation With Magnetically Directed Metallic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy T; Tzou, Wendy S; Zheng, Lijun; Barham, Waseem; Schuller, Joseph L; Shillinglaw, Benjamin; Quaife, Robert A; Sauer, William H

    2016-05-01

    Remote heating of metal located near a radiofrequency ablation source has been previously demonstrated. Therefore, ablation of cardiac tissue treated with metallic nanoparticles may improve local radiofrequency heating and lead to larger ablation lesions. We sought to evaluate the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tissue sensitivity to radiofrequency energy. Ablation was performed using an ablation catheter positioned with 10 g of force over prepared ex vivo specimens. Tissue temperatures were measured and lesion volumes were acquired. An in vivo porcine thigh model was used to study systemically delivered magnetically guided iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles during radiofrequency application. Magnetic resonance imaging and histological staining of ablated tissue were subsequently performed as a part of ablation lesion analysis. Ablation of ex vivo myocardial tissue treated with metallic nanoparticles resulted in significantly larger lesions with greater impedance changes and evidence of increased thermal conductivity within the tissue. Magnet-guided localization of FeO nanoparticles within porcine thigh preps was demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging and iron staining. Irrigated ablation in the regions with greater FeO, after FeO infusion and magnetic guidance, created larger lesions without a greater incidence of steam pops. Metal nanoparticle infiltration resulted in significantly larger ablation lesions with altered electric and thermal conductivity. In vivo magnetic guidance of FeO nanoparticles allowed for facilitated radiofrequency ablation without direct infiltration into the targeted tissue. Further research is needed to assess the clinical applicability of this ablation strategy using metallic nanoparticles for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Current options for the treatment of facial angiofibromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido-Vallejo, R; Garnacho-Saucedo, G; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-01-01

    Facial angiofibromas are hamartomatous growths that are closely associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and, in fact, they constitute one of the main diagnostic criteria for that disease. These lesions composed of blood vessels and fibrous tissue appear on the face at an early age. Since they have important physical and psychological repercussions for patients, several treatment options have been used to remove them or improve their appearance. However, the lack of treatment guidelines prevents us from developing a common protocol for patients with this condition. The present article aims to review the treatments for facial angiofibromas used to date and to propose a new evidence-based treatment protocol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Endometrial ablation in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Philippe; Leyland, Nicholas; Murji, Ally; Fortin, Claude; Martyn, Paul; Vilos, George; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Yeung, Grace

    2015-04-01

    , preoperative and postoperative care, operative set-up, anaesthesia, and practical considerations for practice. Implementation of the guideline recommendations will improve the provision of EA as an effective treatment of AUB. Following these recommendations would allow the surgical procedure to be performed safely and maximize success for patients. EA is a safe and effective minimally invasive option for the treatment of AUB of benign etiology. Summary Statements 1. Endometrial ablation is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgical procedure that has become a well-established alternative to medical treatment or hysterectomy to treat abnormal uterine bleeding in select cases. (I) 2. Endometrial preparation can be used to facilitate resectoscopic endometrial ablation (EA) and can be considered for some non-resectoscopic techniques. For resectoscopic EA, preoperative endometrial thinning results in higher short-term amenorrhea rates, decreased irrigant fluid absorption, and shorter operative time than no treatment. (I) 3. Non-resectoscopic techniques are technically easier to perform than resectoscopic techniques, have shorter operative times, and allow the use of local rather than general anaesthesia. However, both techniques have comparable patient satisfaction and reduction of heavy menstrual bleeding. (I) 4. Both resectoscopic and non-resectoscopic endometrial ablation (EA) have low complication rates. Uterine perforation, fluid overload, hematometra, and cervical lacerations are more common with resectoscopic EA; perioperative nausea/vomiting, uterine cramping, and pain are more common with non-resectoscopic EA. (I) 5. All non-resectoscopic endometrial ablation devices available in Canada have demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing menstrual flow and result in high patient satisfaction. The choice of which device to use depends primarily on surgical judgement and the availability of resources. (I) 6. The use of local anaesthetic and blocks, oral analgesia, and

  16. Iodine-131 saliva secretion in ablation treatment for thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ana C.H.; Brandao, Luis E.; Candeiro, Ricardo E.; Rebelo, Ana M.O.; Corbo, Rossana; Dutra, Janaina

    2008-01-01

    In general, well-differentiated thyroid cancer treatment consists in Na 131 I administration following total or a near total thyroidectomy. The activity of a single administration in the majority of nuclear centers ranges from 1 to 4 GBq for residual thyroid tissue elimination and ranges from 4 to 8 GBq for residual thyroid tissue as well as metastases elimination. The high magnitude of 131 I activities administered for thyroid cancer treatment can lead to side effects, where salivary gland dysfunctions are the most common observed. In the absence of thyroid gland, secondary tissues - iodide specific uptake, mainly the salivary glands, rise at the element body retention process. In addition, among nuclear medicine professionals, there is no consensus about suitable restrictions that must be observed by the hospital released patient to avoid 131 I contamination by saliva. The aim of this study is to evaluate qualitatively the secretion of 131 I by salivary glands after the administration of the radionuclide to thyroid cancer patients for ablation purposes. Well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients from Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (HUCFF) of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) followed-up in the present study are female, adult and without additional health diseases detected. After 131 I administration for ablation purposes, saliva samples were collected systematically and counting rate was assessed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator detector. As the study is at an early stage, the preliminary results concern the possibility of conducting an evaluation of 131 I secreted in saliva using the proposed protocol. It can be seen that many factors have potential to influence the behaviour of 1 31 I secretion in saliva, for example the use of Na 131 I in solution or in capsules. It was observed two standards that can be defined according to these variables. (author)

  17. Alternative pharmacological treatment options for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Panza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In patients with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS is a major concern in the management of these devastating diseases. Among NPS in AD, agitation and aggression are common with earlier institutionalization, increased morbidity and mortality, and greater caregiver burden. Pharmacological treatments for AD-related agitation, specifically off-label use of atypical antipsychotics, showed only modest improvements, with increased side-effect burden and risk of mortality. Non-pharmacological treatment approaches have become the preferred firstline option. However, when such treatments fail, pharmacological options are often used. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify effective and safe pharmacological treatments for agitation/aggression in AD and dementia. Unfortunately, progresses have been slow, with a small number of methodologically heterogeneous randomized controlled trials (RCTs, with disappointing results. However, evidence coming from recently completed RCTs on novel or repositioned drugs (mibampator, dextromethorphan/ quinidine, cannabinoids, and citalopram showed some promise in treating agitation in AD, but still with safety concerns. Further evidence will come from ongoing Phase II and III trials on promising novel drugs for treating these distressing symptoms in patients with AD and dementia.

  18. In vitro parameter optimization for spatial control of focused ultrasound ablation when using low boiling point phase-change nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puett, Connor; Phillips, Linsey C; Sheeran, Paul S; Dayton, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Phase-shift nanoemulsions (PSNEs) provide cavitation sites when the perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanodroplets (ND) are vaporized to microbubbles by acoustic energy. Their presence lowers the power required to ablate tissue by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), potentially making it a safer option for a broader range of treatment sites. However, spatial control over the ablation region can be problematic when cavitation is used to enhance heating. This study explored relationships between vaporization, ablation, and the PSNE concentration in vitro to optimize the acoustic intensity and insonation time required for spatially controlled ablation enhancement using a PSNE that included a volatile PFC component. HIFU (continuous wave at 1 MHz; insonation times of 5, 10, 15, and 20 s; cool-down times of 2, 4, and 6 s; peak negative pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa) was applied to albumin-acrylamide gels containing PFC agents (1:1 mix of volatile decafluorobutane and more stable dodecafluoropentane at 10(5) to 10(8) PFC ND per milliliter) or agent-free controls. Vaporization fields (microbubble clouds) were imaged by conventional ultrasound, and ablation lesions were measured directly by calipers. Controlled ablation was defined as the production of 'cigar'-shaped lesions corresponding with the acoustic focal zone. This control was considered to be lost when ablation occurred in prefocal vaporization fields having a predominantly 'tadpole' or oblong shape. Changes in the vaporization field shape and location occurred on a continuum with increasing PSNE concentration and acoustic intensity. Working with the maximum concentration-intensity combinations resulting in controlled ablation demonstrated a dose-responsive relationship between insonation time and volumes of both the vaporization fields (approximately 20 to 240 mm(3)) and the ablation lesions (1 to 135 mm(3)) within them. HIFU ablation was enhanced by this PSNE and could be achieved using intensities ≤650 W/cm(2

  19. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  20. Ultrasound-Guided Greater Occipital Nerve Blocks and Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation for Diagnosis and Treatment of Occipital Neuralgia

    OpenAIRE

    VanderHoek, Matthew David; Hoang, Hieu T; Goff, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a condition manifested by chronic occipital headaches and is thought to be caused by irritation or trauma to the greater occipital nerve (GON). Treatment for occipital neuralgia includes medications, nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency ablation (PRFA). Landmark-guided GON blocks are the mainstay in both the diagnosis and treatment of occipital neuralgia. Ultrasound is being utilized more and more in the chronic pain clinic to guide needle advancement when performing...

  1. The Electrode Modality Development in Pulsed Electric Field Treatment Facilitates Biocellular Mechanism Study and Improves Cancer Ablation Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Cen, Chao; Chen, Xinhua

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed electric field treatment is now widely used in diverse biological and medical applications: gene delivery, electrochemotherapy, and cancer therapy. This minimally invasive technique has several advantages over traditional ablation techniques, such as nonthermal elimination and blood vessel spare effect. Different electrodes are subsequently developed for a specific treatment purpose. Here, we provide a systematic review of electrode modality development in pulsed electric field treatme...

  2. Current Treatment Options for Auricular Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Catriona

    2016-07-01

    Ear disease, such as otitis externa, resulting in aggressive head shaking or ear scratching, is the most common cause of the development of aural hematomas in dogs and cats. An underlying immunologic cause has also been proposed to explain cartilage and blood vessel fragility. Numerous options exist for management of aural hematomas, from medical management alone with corticosteroids, to simple hematoma centesis, to surgical intervention. Because this condition is usually secondary to another disease process, regardless of mode of treatment, likelihood of recurrence is low if the underlying condition is managed properly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lesion size in relation to ablation site during radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, A

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of the convective cooling of the tip of the ablation electrode during temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation. In vivo two different application sites in the left ventricle of anaesthetised pigs were ablated and in vitro ablation was perfor......This study was designed to investigate the effect of the convective cooling of the tip of the ablation electrode during temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation. In vivo two different application sites in the left ventricle of anaesthetised pigs were ablated and in vitro ablation...... was performed during two different flow-velocities in a tissue bath, while electrode contact pressure and position were unchanged. Target temperature was 80 degrees C. Obtained tip temperature, power consumption and lesion dimensions were measured. In vivo lesion volume, depth and width were found significantly.......61 in vitro). We conclude that during temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation lesion size differs for septal and apical left ventricular applications. Differences in convective cooling might play an important role in this respect. This is supported by our in vitro experiments, where increased...

  4. Cryotherapy for renal-cell cancer: diagnosis, treatment, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, M. H.; Lagerveld, B. W.; Laguna, M. P.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.; Wijkstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a curative treatment option for patients with small ( <4 cm) renal-cell cancers. For the followup of ablated lesions, imaging is the only available method, but the best tool has not yet been determined. The method selected should be able to determine the presence or absence of

  5. Cardiac ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ratheal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac ablation is a procedure that uses either radiofrequency or cryothermal energy to destroy cells in the heart to terminate and/or prevent arrhythmias. The indications for cardiac catheter ablation include refractory, symptomatic arrhythmias, with more specific guidelines for atrial fibrillation in particular. The ablation procedure itself involves mapping the arrhythmia and destruction of the aberrant pathway in an effort to permanently prevent the arrhythmia. There are many types of arrhythmias, and they require individualized approaches to ablation based on their innately different electrical pathways. Ablation of arrhythmias, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, and atrial-fibrillation, is discussed in this review. Ablation has a high success rate overall and minimal complication rates, leading to improved quality of life in many patients.

  6. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Funk, David John; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  7. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  8. Radiofrequency ablation for oral and maxillofacial pathologies: A description of the technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rahul; Stevens, Timothy W.; Herford, Alan S.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) refers to a high-frequency current that heats and coagulates tissue. In the standard RFA setup, three components are used: a generator, an active electrode, and a dispersive electrode. RFA has garnered support in many of the surgical fields as an alternative to traditional procedures used in tumor removal. Other methods can prove to be more invasive and disfiguring to the patient, in addition to the unwarranted side effects; however, RFA provides a more localized treatment, resulting in decreased co-morbidity to the patient. Currently, its use in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery is limited, as its technology has not reached our field. By describing its limited use to the optics community, we hope to expand its uses and provide patients with one more alternative treatment option. Methods and Uses: We will describe the use of RFA on three types of pathology: lymphangioma, rhabdomyoscarcoma, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and neoplastic osseous metastasis. The majority of treatments geared towards these pathologies involve surgical resection, followed by reconstruction. However, damage to vital structures coupled with esthetic disfigurement makes RFA a more valuable alternative. In many of the cases, the tumors were successfully removed without recurrence. Conclusion: While the use of RFA has been scarce in our field, we believe that with more exposure it can gain momentum as an alternative to current treatment options. However, there are improvements that we feel can be made, helping to maximize its effectiveness.

  9. For Some Breast Cancers, New Drug May Be Treatment Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from an international clinical trial suggest that women with metastatic, HER2-positive breast cancer that is no longer responding to the targeted therapy trastuzumab (Herceptin) may soon have a new treatment option.

  10. A Novel Combination of Thermal Ablation and Heat-Inducible Gene therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    11. Khokhlova, V.A., et al., Effects of nonlinear propagation, cavitation , and boiling in lesion formation by high intensity focused ultrasound in...intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been developed as an emerging non-invasive strategy for cancer treatment by thermal ablation of tumor tissue. The...Concepts, Seattle, WA) operating at its fundamental frequency (1.1 MHz) or its third harmonics (3.3 MHz). The ultrasound imaging system was a 5/7

  11. Therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation versus microwave ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF ablation versus microwave (MW ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC measuring ≤ 5 cm in greatest diameter. From January 2006 to December 2006, 78 patients had undergone RF ablation whereas 77 had undergone MW ablation. Complete ablation (CA, local tumour progression (LTP and distant recurrence (DR were compared. The overall survival curves were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier technique and compared with the log-rank test. The CA rate was 83.4% (78/93 for RF ablation and 86.7%(91/105 for MW ablation. The LTP rate was 11.8% (11/93 for RF ablation and 10.5% (11/105 for MW ablation. DR was found in 51 (65.4% in the RF ablation and 62 (80.5% in the MW ablation. There was no significant difference in the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates (P = 0.780 and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates (P = 0.123 between RF and MW ablation. At subgroup analyses, for patients with tumors ≤ 3.0 cm, there was no significant difference in the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates (P = 0.067 and the corresponding disease-free survival rates(P = 0.849. For patients with tumor diameters of 3.1-5.0 cm, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 87.1%, 61.3%, and 40.1% for RF ablation and 85.4%, 36.6%, and 22% for MW ablation, with no significant difference (P = 0.068. The corresponding disease-free survival rates were 74.2%, 54.8%, and 45.2% for the RF ablation group and 53.3%, 26.8%, and 17.1% for the MW ablation group. The disease-free survival curve for the RF ablation group was significantly better than that for the MW ablation group (P = 0.018. RF ablation and MW ablation are both effective methods in treating hepatocellular carcinomas, with no significant differences in CA, LTP, DR, and overall survival.

  12. Outcomes for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of presumed functional parathyroid nodules: 27 cases (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttin, Talia; Knox, Van W; Diroff, Jeremy S

    2015-10-01

    To describe outcomes for dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of presumed functional parathyroid nodules. Retrospective case series. 24 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism that underwent 27 ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation procedures of presumed functional parathyroid nodules identified by cervical ultrasonography. Dogs were anesthetized for each procedure. For each nodule, 95% ethanol was injected into the center with ultrasound guidance (volume injected calculated on the basis of ultrasonographic measurements). The interval from treatment to resolution of hypercalcemia, complications, and follow-up clinicopathologic data were recorded. 5 procedures involved simultaneous treatment of 2 nodules. Three dogs underwent a second treatment because of initial treatment failure or development of another nodule. Hypercalcemia resolved after 23 of 27 (85%) procedures. In those 23 treatments, 22 (96%) had resolution of hypercalcemia within 72 hours after treatment. Hypocalcemia was detected in 6 different dogs at 2 (1 dog), 7 (3 dogs), 14 (1 dog), and 21 (1 dog) days after treatment; 5 of these dogs had mild transient hypocalcemia and 1 developed clinical signs requiring calcium supplementation. Although there were no periprocedural adverse effects, 2 dogs had delayed adverse effects; the overall rate of complications (including delayed adverse events and clinical hypocalcemia) was 11.1%. Long-term follow-up data indicated sustained normocalcemia in 17 of 19 dogs. Results suggested that percutaneous ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of functional parathyroid nodules may be an effective treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism of dogs, with short duration of anesthesia, minimal complications, and low risk for hypocalcemia.

  13. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  14. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  15. Radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: assistant techniques for difficult cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tatsuo; Minami, Yasunori; Chung, Hobyung; Hayaishi, Sousuke; Ueda, Taisuke; Tatsumi, Chie; Takita, Masahiro; Kitai, Satoshi; Hatanaka, Kinuyo; Ishikawa, Emi; Yada, Norihisa; Hagiwara, Satoru; Ueshima, Kazuomi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-07-01

    To confirm the safety and effectiveness of techniques to assist radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for difficult cases, we retrospectively evaluated successful treatment rates, early complications and local tumor progressions. Between June 1999 and April 2009, a total of 341 patients with 535 nodules were treated as difficult cases. Artificial pleural effusion assisted ablation was performed on 64 patients with 82 nodules. Artificial ascites-assisted ablation was performed on 11 patients with 13 nodules. Cooling by endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) tube-assisted ablation was performed on 6 patients with 8 nodules. When the tumors were not well visualized with conventional B-mode ultrasonography (US), contrast-enhanced US-assisted ablation with Levovist or Sonazoid or virtual CT sonography-assisted ablation was performed. Contrast-enhanced US-assisted ablation was performed on 139 patients with 224 nodules and virtual CT sonography-assisted ablation was performed on 121 patients with 209 nodules. In total, complete ablation was achieved in 514 of 535 (96%) nodules in difficult cases. For RFA with artificial pleural effusion, artificial ascites and ENBD, complete response was confirmed in all cases. For contrast-enhanced US- and CT sonography-assisted ablation, complete response was 95%. Early complications were recognized in 24 cases (4.5%). All cases recovered with no invasive treatment. Local tumor recurrence was investigated in 377 nodules of 245 patients, and 69 (18%) nodules were positive. Tumor recurrences in each assisted technique were 14.7% in artificial pleural effusion cases, 7% in artificial ascites, 12.5% in ENBD tube cases, 31% in virtual CT sonography, and 8.5% in contrast-enhanced US. Although local tumor progression needs to be carefully monitored, assisted techniques of RFA for difficult cases are well tolerated and expand the indications of RFA. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Radiofrequency Ablation versus Cryoablation in the Treatment of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Hachem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary vein isolation is commonly performed using radiofrequency energy with cryoablation gaining acceptance. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials which compared radiofrequency versus cryoablation for patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods. A systematic search strategy identified both published and unpublished articles from inception to November 10, 2016, in multiple databases. The primary outcomes for this meta-analysis were long-term freedom from atrial fibrillation at 12-month follow-up and overall postoperative complication rates. For all included studies, the methodological quality was assessed through the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for risk of bias. Results. A total of 247 articles were identified with eight being included in this review as they satisfied the prespecified inclusion criteria. Overall, there was no significant difference in freedom from atrial fibrillation at ≥12-month follow-up between those receiving cryoballoon and radiofrequency ablation, respectively (OR = 0.98, CI = 0.67–1.43, I2 = 56%, p=0.90. Additionally, the secondary outcomes of duration of ablation, fluoroscopy time, and ablation time failed to reach significance. Cryoballoon ablation had significantly greater odds of postoperative phrenic nerve injury at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that cryoballoon ablation provides comparable benefits with regard to freedom from atrial fibrillation at medium-term follow-up, fluoroscopy time, ablation time, operative duration, and overall complication rate in comparison to radiofrequency ablation.

  17. Municipal solid waste options : integrating organics management and residual disposal treatment : executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cant, M. (comp.) [Totten Sims Hubicki Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van der Werf, P. [2cg Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kelleher, M. [Kelleher Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada); Merriman, D. [MacViro Consultants, Markham, ON (Canada); Fitcher, K. [Gartner Lee Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); MacDonald, N. [CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Options Report explored different MSW management options for 3 community sizes: 20,000, 80,000 and 200,0000 people. It was released at a time when many communities were developing waste management plans to cost-effectively reduce environmental impacts and conserve landfill capacity. The purpose of this report was to provide a greater understanding on the environmental, social, economic, energy recovery/utilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) considerations of MSW management. The report also demonstrated the interrelationships between the management of organics and residuals. It was based on information from existing waste diversion and organics management options and emerging residual treatment technology options. The following organics management and residual treatment disposal options were evaluated: composting; anaerobic digestion; sanitary landfills; bioreactor landfills; and thermal treatment. Composting was examined with reference to both source separated organics (SSO) and mixed waste composting. SSO refers to the separation of materials suitable for composting solid waste from households, while mixed waste composting refers to the manual or mechanical removal of recyclable material from the waste, including compost. The composting process was reviewed along with available technologies such as non-reactor windrow; aerated static pile; reactor enclosed channel; and, container tunnel. An evaluation of SSO and mixed waste composting was then presented in terms of environmental, social, financial and GHG impacts. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Current options for the treatment of optic neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pula JH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available John H Pula,1 Christopher J MacDonald21Division of Neuro-ophthalmology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria; 2University of Illinois College of Medicine at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USAAbstract: Optic neuritis can be defined as typical (associated with multiple sclerosis, improving independent of steroid treatment, or atypical (not associated with multiple sclerosis, steroid-dependent improvement. Causes of atypical optic neuritis include connective tissue diseases (eg, lupus, vasculitis, sarcoidosis, or neuromyelitis optica. In this manuscript, updated treatment options for both typical and atypical optic neuritis are reviewed. Conventional treatments, such as corticosteroids, therapeutic plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are all discussed with commentary regarding evidence-based outcomes. Less commonly used treatments and novel purported therapies for optic neuritis are also reviewed. Special scenarios in the treatment of optic neuritis – pediatric optic neuritis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, and optic neuritis occurring during pregnancy – are specifically examined.Keywords: optic neuritis, optic neuropathy, treatment, neuroophthalmology

  19. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency thermal ablation of normal kidney in a rabbit model: correlation with CT and histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Kin, Chong Soo; Lee, Sang Hun [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-01-01

    the size of ablated tissue. Contrast-enhanced CT may therefore be used for serially monitoring the effect of radiofrequency ablation. In the future, RF ablation may offer an alternative treatment option for renal cancer.

  20. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency thermal ablation of normal kidney in a rabbit model: correlation with CT and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Kin, Chong Soo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2002-01-01

    the size of ablated tissue. Contrast-enhanced CT may therefore be used for serially monitoring the effect of radiofrequency ablation. In the future, RF ablation may offer an alternative treatment option for renal cancer

  1. Efficacy of percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation combined with biliary stenting in treatment of malignant biliary obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Kai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation (palliative therapy in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. MethodsThis study included 20 patients with unresectable malignant obstructive jaundice, who were treated in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2013 to March 2014. Nine of them (test group underwent percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation plus metallic biliary stent placement. The other 11 similar cases (control group underwent metallic biliary stent placement alone after successful percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Operative complications and remission of jaundice were observed, and the stent patency after at 3 and 6 months after operation was evaluated and compared between the two groups. ResultsAll patients were followed completely by outpatient or telephone. The stent patency rate at 3 months after operation was 9/9 in the test group and 8/11 in the control group (χ2=2.888, P=0.218, and the stent patency rates at 6 months were 7/8 and 3/11, respectively (χ2=6.739, P=0.02. During follow-up, one case in the test group died of gastrointestinal bleeding at 113 d after operation; one case in the control group died of liver failure at 57 d after operation and one case died of disseminated intravascular coagulation at 142 d. ConclusionPercutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation is safe and feasible in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction, and the preliminary efficacy in prolonging the patency of self-expanding metallic stent is satisfactory. However, this therapy needs to be further verified via large-sample randomized controlled studies.

  2. Current and emerging treatment options for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spratt DE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Spratt, Nancy LeeDepartment of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: In this article, we focus on the current and emerging treatments in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC. A detailed evolution of the current standard of care, and new techniques and treatment options will be reviewed. Intergroup 0099 established the role for chemoradiotherapy (chemo-RT in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Multiple randomized Phase III trials have shown the benefit of chemo-RT; however, none of these studies utilized modern radiotherapy (RT techniques of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. IMRT has the ability to deliver high doses of radiation to the target structures while sparing adjacent bystander healthy tissues, and has now become the preferred RT treatment modality. Chemotherapy also has had a shifting paradigm of induction and/or adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT alone, to the investigation with concurrent chemo-RT. New treatment options including targeted monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being studied in NPC. These new biologic therapies have promising in vitro activity for NPC, and emerging clinical studies are beginning to define their role. RT continues to expand its capabilities, and since IMRT and particle therapy, specifically intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT, has reports of impressive dosimetric efficacy in-silica. Adaptive RT is attempting to reduce toxicity while maintaining treatment efficacy, and the clinical results are still in their youth. Lastly, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV DNA has recently been studied for prediction of tumor response and its use as a biomarker is increasingly promising to aid in early detection as well as supplementing the current staging system. RT with or without chemotherapy remains the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Advances in RT technique, timing of chemotherapy, biologically

  3. Ablative Fractional 10 600 nm Carbon Dioxide Laser Versus Non-ablative Fractional 1540 nm Erbium-Glass Laser in Egyptian Post-acne Scar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L; Ibrahim, Shady M; Saudi, Wael

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Non-ablative fractional erbium-doped glass 1540 nm and fractional ablative 10600 nm carbon dioxide lasers are regarded as effective modalities for treating acne atrophic scars. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of fractional CO 2 laser and fractional nonablative 1540 nm erbium doped glass laser in treating post acne atrophic scars in Egyptian patients. Methods: Fifty-eight patients complaining of moderate and severe acne atrophic scars were randomly divided into 2 groups of 29 patients each. Both groups were subjected to 4 treatment sessions with 3 weeks interval and were followed up for 3 months. In group A, enrolled patient sreceived C2 laser, while in group B, patients were treated with 1540 nm erbium glass fractional laser. Results: Clinical assessment revealed that the mean grades of progress and improvement were higher with fractional 10600 nm CO2 laser but with non-significant difference between both treatments ( P = 0.1). The overall patients' satisfaction with both lasers were not significantly different ( P = 0.44). Conclusion: Both fractional ablative CO2 and fractional non-ablative erbium glass lasers are good modalities for treating acne scars with a high efficacy and safety profile and good patient satisfaction. The fractional ablative laser showed higher efficacy while non-ablative laser offered less pain and shorter downtime.

  4. Sixteen-row multislice computed tomography in the assessment of pulmonary veins prior to ablative treatment: validation vs conventional pulmonary venography and study of reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, R.; Cademartiri, F.; Pattynama, P.M.T. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Scholten, M; Jordaens, L.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Cardiology

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate multislice computed tomography (MSCT) venography measurements of pulmonary vein (PV) diameters vs conventional pulmonary venography (CPV), and to assess the reproducibility of MSCT data. The study included 21 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation who were planned for cryothermal ablation of PVs. One day before ablation, all patients underwent CPV and contrast-enhanced non-gated MSCT venography. The MSCT was repeated 3 months after ablation. The CPV images of the treated PVs (n=40) were analyzed and compared with the results of MSCT measurements. Reproducibility of MSCT venography-based data was assessed by interobserver (n=84 PVs) and interexamination (n=44 PVs) variability. Pre-treatment PV diameters on MSCT and CPV showed good correlation (r=0.87, p<0.01; 18.9{+-}2.3 mm, 188.5{+-}2.4 mm, respectively). Interobserver agreement and interexamination reproducibility were good (r=0.91, r=0.82, respectively, p<0.01), with narrow limits of agreement (Bland and Altman method). The MSCT venography allows accurate and reproducible assessment of PVs. It can be used both in non-invasive planning of treatment for ablative therapy and in the follow-up of patients.

  5. Laser ablation of tumors: current concepts and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroszczynski, C.; Gaffke, G.; Gnauck, M.; Ricke, J.; Felix, R.; Puls, R.; Speck, U.; Hosten, N.; Oettle, H.; Hohenberger, P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present technical innovations and clinical results of percutaneous interventional laser ablation of tumors using new techniques. Methods. Laser ablation was performed in 182 patients (liver tumors: 131, non hepatic tumors - bone, lung, others: 51) after interdisciplinary consensus was obtained. The procedure was done using a combination of imaging modalities (CT/MRI, CT/US) or only closed high field MRI (1.5 T). All patients received an MRI-scan immediately after laser ablation. Results. In 90.9% of the patients with liver tumors, a complete ablation was achieved. Major events occurred in 5.4%. The technical success rate of laser ablation in non-hepatic tumors was high, clinical results differed depending on the treated organ. Conclusions. The treatment of tumors of the liver and other organs up to 5 cm by laser ablation was a safe procedure with a low rate of complications and side effects. Image guidance by MRI is advantageous for precise tumor visualization in all dimensions, therapy monitoring, and control of laser ablation results. (orig.) [de

  6. Fractional CO2 laser is as effective as Q-switched ruby laser for the initial treatment of a traumatic tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Grunewald, Sonja; Wagner, Justinus A; Simon, Jan C; Paasch, Uwe

    2014-12-01

    Q-switched laser treatments are considered the standard method for removing both regular and traumatic tattoos. Recently, the removal of tattoo ink using ablative fractional lasers has been reported. Ablative fractional CO2 laser and q-switched ruby laser treatments were used in a split-face mode to compare the safety and efficacy of the two types of laser in removing a traumatic tattoo caused by the explosion of a firework. A male patient suffering from a traumatic tattoo due to explosive deposits in his entire face was subjected to therapy. A series of eleven treatments were performed. The right side of the face was always treated using an ablative fractional CO2 laser, whereas the left side was treated only using a q-switched ruby laser. After a series of eleven treatments, the patient demonstrated a significant lightening on both sides of his traumatic tattoo, with no clinical difference. After the first six treatments, the patient displayed greater lightening on the right side of his face, whereas after another five treatments, the left side of the patient's face appeared lighter. No side effects were reported. In the initial stage of removing the traumatic tattoo, the ablative fractional laser treatment appeared to be as effective as the standard ruby laser therapy. However, from the 6th treatment onward, the ruby laser therapy was more effective. Although ablative fractional CO2 lasers have the potential to remove traumatic tattoos, they remain a second-line treatment option.

  7. Treatment Options for Primary Nocturnal Enuresis by Parents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    common treatment option was waking up child at intervals during the night to void by 103 (45.2 ... patient/family education, simple behavioral ... nocturnal enuresis were employing in managing ..... Dental and Medical Sciences 2014;13:41 – 4.

  8. Current and emerging treatment options for myopic choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Matri L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leila El Matri, Ahmed Chebil, Fedra Kort Department B of Ophthalmology, Hedi Rais Institute of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University of El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia Abstract: Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is the main cause of visual impairment in highly myopic patients younger than 50 years of age. There are different treatments for myopic CNV (mCNV, with 5- to 10-year outcomes currently. Chorioretinal atrophy is still the most important determinant factor for visual outcome. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current treatments for mCNV, including laser, surgical management, verteporfin photodynamic therapy, and mainly anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Emerging treatment options are also discussed. Keywords: myopia, choroidal neovascularization, current treatment, emerging treatment

  9. RFA Guardian: Comprehensive Simulation of Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment of Liver Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglreiter, Philip; Mariappan, Panchatcharam; Pollari, Mika; Flanagan, Ronan; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto; Portugaller, Rupert Horst; Fütterer, Jurgen; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Kolesnik, Marina; Moche, Michael

    2018-01-15

    The RFA Guardian is a comprehensive application for high-performance patient-specific simulation of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors. We address a wide range of usage scenarios. These include pre-interventional planning, sampling of the parameter space for uncertainty estimation, treatment evaluation and, in the worst case, failure analysis. The RFA Guardian is the first of its kind that exhibits sufficient performance for simulating treatment outcomes during the intervention. We achieve this by combining a large number of high-performance image processing, biomechanical simulation and visualization techniques into a generalized technical workflow. Further, we wrap the feature set into a single, integrated application, which exploits all available resources of standard consumer hardware, including massively parallel computing on graphics processing units. This allows us to predict or reproduce treatment outcomes on a single personal computer with high computational performance and high accuracy. The resulting low demand for infrastructure enables easy and cost-efficient integration into the clinical routine. We present a number of evaluation cases from the clinical practice where users performed the whole technical workflow from patient-specific modeling to final validation and highlight the opportunities arising from our fast, accurate prediction techniques.

  10. Outcomes of Radiofrequency Ablation for Dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iabichino, Giuseppe; Arena, Monica; Consolo, Pierluigi; Morace, Carmela; Opocher, Enrico; Mangiavillano, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which the normal squamous lining of the esophagus has been replaced by columnar epithelium containing intestinal metaplasia induced by recurrent mucosal injury related to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition that can progress through a dysplasia-carcinoma sequence to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Multiple endoscopic ablative techniques have been developed with the goal of eradicating Barrett's esophagus and preventing neoplastic progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. For patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal neoplasia, radiofrequency ablation with or without endoscopic resection for visible lesions is currently the most effective and safe treatment available. Recent data demonstrate that, in patients with Barrett's esophagus and low-grade dysplasia confirmed by a second pathologist, ablative therapy results in a statistically significant reduction in progression to high-grade dysplasia and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Treatment of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus with radiofrequency ablation results in complete eradication of both dysplasia and of intestinal metaplasia in a high proportion of patients with a low incidence of adverse events. A high proportion of treated patients maintain the neosquamous epithelium after successful treatment without recurrence of intestinal metaplasia. Following successful endoscopic treatment, endoscopic surveillance should be continued to detect any recurrent intestinal metaplasia and/or dysplasia. This paper reviews all relevant publications on the endoscopic management of Barrett's esophagus using radiofrequency ablation. PMID:28070182

  11. Capsule physics comparison of National Ignition Facility implosion designs using plastic, high density carbon, and beryllium ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Haan, S. W.; Weber, C. R.

    2018-03-01

    Indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] have now tested three different ablator materials: glow discharge polymer plastic, high density carbon, and beryllium. How do these different ablators compare in current and proposed implosion experiments on NIF? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of each? This paper compares these different ablator options in capsule-only simulations of current NIF experiments and potential future designs. The simulations compare the impact of the capsule fill tube, support tent, and interface surface roughness for each case, as well as all perturbations in combination. According to the simulations, each ablator is impacted by the various perturbation sources differently, and each material poses unique challenges in the pursuit of ignition on NIF.

  12. Dynamics of tissue shrinkage during ablative temperature exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmann, Christian; Haemmerich, Dieter; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Rattay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of studies that examine the dynamics of heat-induced shrinkage of organ tissues. Clinical procedures such as radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation or high-intensity focused ultrasound, use heat to treat diseases such as cancer and cardiac arrhythmia. When heat is applied to tissues, shrinkage occurs due to protein denaturation, dehydration and contraction of collagen at temperatures greater 50 °C. This is particularly relevant for image-guided procedures such as tumor ablation, where pre- and post-treatment images are compared and any changes in dimensions must be considered to avoid misinterpretations of the treatment outcome. We present data from ex vivo, isothermal shrinkage tests in porcine liver tissue, where axial changes in tissue length were recorded during 15 min of heating to temperatures between 60 and 95 °C. A mathematical model was developed to accurately describe the time and temperature-dependent shrinkage behavior. The shrinkage dynamics had the same characteristics independent of temperature; the estimated relative shrinkage, adjusted for time since death, after 15 min heating to temperatures of 60, 65, 75, 85 and 95 °C, was 12.3, 13.8, 16.6, 19.2 and 21.7%, respectively. Our results demonstrate the shrinkage dynamics of organ tissues, and suggest the importance of considering tissue shrinkage for thermal ablative treatments. (paper)

  13. Mexametric and cutometric assessment of the signs of aging of the skin area around the eyes after the use of non-ablative fractional laser, non-ablative radiofrequency and intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczak, Anna Maria; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2017-03-01

    The assessment of the signs of aging within eyes area in cutometric (skin elasticity) and mexametric (discoloration and severity of erythema) examination after the treatment with: non-ablative fractional laser, non-ablative radiofrequency (RF) and intense light source (IPL). This study included 71 patients, aged 33-63 years (the average age was 45.81) with Fitzpatrick skin type II and III. 24 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with a 1,410-nm non-ablative fractional laser in two-week intervals, 23 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with a non-ablative RF in one-week intervals and 24 patients received 5 successive treatment sessions with an IPL in two-week intervals. The treatment was performed for the skin in the eye area. The Cutometer and Mexameter (Courage + Khazaka electronic) reference test was used as an objective method for the assessment of skin properties: elasticity, skin pigmentation and erythema. Measurements of skin elasticity were made in three or four sites within eye area. The results of cutometric measurements for R7 showed the improvement in skin elasticity in case of all treatment methods. The largest statistically significant improvement (p measurements and for all methods, the greatest improvement in skin elasticity was demonstrated between the first and second measurement (after 3rd procedures). The majority of the results of mexametric measurements-MEX (melanin level) and ERYT (the severity of erythema) are statistically insignificant. Fractional, non-ablative laser, non-ablation RF and intense light source can be considered as methods significantly affecting elasticity and to a lesser extent erythema and skin pigmentation around the eyes. Fractional non-ablative laser is a method which, in comparison to other methods, has the greatest impact on skin viscoelasticity. These procedures are well tolerated and are associated with a low risk of side effects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Current and future treatment options in osteoporosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, Linda

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures will increase substantially over the coming decades as the population ages globally. This has important economic and public health implications, contributing substantially to morbidity and excess mortality in this population. METHODS: When prescribing for older patients the effectiveness profile of drugs needs to be balanced against their tolerability in individual patients. RESULTS: Currently we have good anti-fracture data to support the use of many available anti-resorptive and anabolic drugs including bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate and recombinant human parathyroid hormone. We also have evidence to demonstrate the importance of calcium and vitamin D repletion in these patients. However, in recent years our understanding of normal bone physiology and the mechanisms underlying the development of osteoporosis has significantly advanced and this has led to the development of new therapies. Novel agents, particularly denosumab, but also inhibitors of cathepsin K and anabolic agents that act on Wnt signalling, will increase the therapeutic options for clinicians in the coming years. CONCLUSION: This review discusses the evidence supporting the use of currently available treatment options for osteoporosis and potential future advances in drug therapy. Particular consideration should be given when prescribing for certain older patients who have issues with compliance or tolerance and also in those with co-morbidities or levels of frailty that may restrict the choice of therapy. Understanding the evidence for the benefit and possible harm of osteoporosis treatments is critical to appropriate management of this patient population.

  15. Significant skin-tightening by closure of fractional ablative laser holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russe, Elisabeth; Purschke, Martin; Limpiangkanan, Wikunda; Farinelli, William A; Wang, Ying; Doukas, Apostolos G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Wechselberger, Gottfried; Anderson, Richard Rox

    2018-01-01

    Ablative fractional laser treatment uses thousands of very small laser beam wounds to damage a fraction of the skin, which stimulates tissue remodeling. Each open micro-wound heals without scarring, but the amount of skin tightening achieved is limited. This animal study was performed to test the hypothesis that immediate temporary closure of fractional laser wounds could increase skin tightening after fractional ablative laser treatment. Four adult swine were used for the study; 98 square test sites (3 × 3 cm) were tattooed on the abdomen and flanks of each pig. An ablative fractional Erbium:YAG laser (Sciton Profile, Sciton Inc, Palo Alto, CA) was used to treat the test areas. A laser micro-spot fluence of 375 J/cm 2 was delivered in 150-250 microseconds pulses, resulting in an array of ablation channels extending 1.5 mm deep into the skin, with a spot size of 250 µm, with 10% treatment density. Immediately following laser exposure the resulting holes were closed using a stretched elastic adhesive dressing, which, when applied, recoiled and compressed the diameter of the ablation holes. The compressive dressings were removed after 7 days. This procedure was compared to removing the same amount of skin (10%) mechanically by specially designed 19 gauge coring needles, as well as to the same laser and coring methods without compression closure. Area and shape of test sites were measured by digital photography before and 28 days after treatment. Data analysis included compensation for animal growth, as measured by increase in the area of the untreated control sites. All treated and control sites healed within a week, without scarring evident at 28 days. Laser treatment combined with compressive wound closure caused significant shrinkage at 28 days compared with untreated control sites. The treated skin area was reduced by 11.5% (P = 0.0001). Needle coring with wound closure produced similar, significant shrinkage (8%, P < 0.0021), whereas laser

  16. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  17. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  18. Actual role of radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Philippe L. [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The liver is, second only to lymph nodes, the most common site for metastatic disease irrespective of the primary tumour. More than 50% of all patients with malignant diseases will develop liver metastases with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although the surgical resection leads to an improved survival in patients with colorectal metastases, only approximately 20% of patients are eligible for surgery. Thermal ablation and especially radiofrequency ablation emerge as an important additional therapy modality for the treatment of liver metastases. RF ablation shows a benefit in life expectancy and may lead in a selected patient group to cure. Percutaneous RF ablation appears safer (versus cryotherapy), easier (versus laser), and more effective (versus ethanol instillation and transarterial chemoembolisation) compared with other minimally invasive procedures. RF ablation can be performed by a percutaneous, laparoscopical or laparotomic approach, and may be potentially combined with chemotherapy and surgery. At present ideal candidates have tumours with a maximum diameter less than 3.5 cm. An untreatable primary tumour or a systemic disease represents contraindications for performing local therapies. Permanent technical improvements of thermal ablation devices and a better integration of thermal ablation in the overall patient care may lead to prognosis improvement in patients with liver metastases. (orig.)

  19. Actual role of radiofrequency ablation of liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Philippe L.

    2007-01-01

    The liver is, second only to lymph nodes, the most common site for metastatic disease irrespective of the primary tumour. More than 50% of all patients with malignant diseases will develop liver metastases with a significant morbidity and mortality. Although the surgical resection leads to an improved survival in patients with colorectal metastases, only approximately 20% of patients are eligible for surgery. Thermal ablation and especially radiofrequency ablation emerge as an important additional therapy modality for the treatment of liver metastases. RF ablation shows a benefit in life expectancy and may lead in a selected patient group to cure. Percutaneous RF ablation appears safer (versus cryotherapy), easier (versus laser), and more effective (versus ethanol instillation and transarterial chemoembolisation) compared with other minimally invasive procedures. RF ablation can be performed by a percutaneous, laparoscopical or laparotomic approach, and may be potentially combined with chemotherapy and surgery. At present ideal candidates have tumours with a maximum diameter less than 3.5 cm. An untreatable primary tumour or a systemic disease represents contraindications for performing local therapies. Permanent technical improvements of thermal ablation devices and a better integration of thermal ablation in the overall patient care may lead to prognosis improvement in patients with liver metastases. (orig.)

  20. Ventricular tachycardia in ischemic cardiomyopathy; a combined endo-epicardial ablation as the first procedure versus a stepwise approach (EPILOGUE) - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Hendriks (Astrid A.); M. Khan (M.); L. Geller (Laszlo); A. Kardos (Attila); L.J. de Vries (Lennart); S-C. Yap (Sing-Chien); S.A. Wijchers (Sip A.); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The role of epicardial substrate ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) as a first-line approach in patients with ischemic heart disease is not clearly defined. Epicardial ablation as a first-line option is standard for patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and

  1. Ganglion Plexus Ablation in Advanced Atrial Fibrillation: The AFACT Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Antoine H. G.; Berger, Wouter R.; Krul, Sébastien P. J.; van den Berg, Nicoline W. E.; Neefs, Jolien; Piersma, Femke R.; Chan Pin Yin, Dean R. P. P.; de Jong, Jonas S. S. G.; van Boven, WimJan P.; de Groot, Joris R.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with long duration of atrial fibrillation (AF), enlarged atria, or failed catheter ablation have advanced AF and may require more extensive treatment than pulmonary vein isolation. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of additional ganglion plexus (GP) ablation

  2. Surgical resection versus radiofrequency ablation in treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Xiuting

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare clinical efficacy and recurrence between surgical resection and radiofrequency ablation (RFA in the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. MethodsThe clinical data of 97 patients with small HCC, who underwent surgical resection or RFA as the initial treatment in The First Hospital of Jilin University from January 2002 to December 2008, were collected. Sixty-three cases, who survived 2 years after treatment, were followed up; of the 63 cases, 34 underwent surgical resection, and 29 underwent RFA. The recurrence of these patients was analyzed retrospectively. The measurement data were analyzed by chi-square test. The Cox regression analysis was used for determining the risk factors for recurrence. The log-rank test was used for disease-free survival (DFS difference analysis. ResultsThe 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year intrahepatic recurrence rates for the patients who underwent surgical resection were 15%, 38%, and 64%, respectively, versus 21%, 35%, and 45% for those who underwent RFA, without significant differences between the two groups of patients. The intrahepatic recurrence after initial treatment was not significantly associated with treatment method, sex, age, Child-Pugh grade, tumor size, number of nodules, presence of cirrhosis, and alpha-fetoprotein level. There was no significant difference in DFS between the two groups of patients. ConclusionRFA produces a comparable outcome to that by surgical resection in the treatment of small HCC. RFA holds promise as a substitute for surgical resection.

  3. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K

    2010-09-01

    Among locoregional treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been accepted as the most popular alternative to curative transplantation or resection, and it shows an excellent local tumor control rate and acceptable morbidity. The benefits of RFA have been universally validated by the practice guidelines of international societies of hepatology. The main advantages of RFA include 1) it is minimally invasive with acceptable morbidity, 2) it enables excellent local tumor control, 3) it has promising long-term survival, and 4) it is a multimodal approach. Based on these pros, RFA will play an important role in managing the patient with early HCC (smaller than 3 cm with fewer than four tumors). The main limitations of current RFA technology in hepatic ablation include 1) limitation of ablation volume, 2) technically infeasible in some tumors due to conspicuity and dangerous location, and 3) the heat-sink effect. Many technical approaches have been introduced to overcome those limitations, including a novel guiding modality, use of artificial fluid or air, and combined treatment strategies. RFA will continue to play a role as a representative ablative modality in the management of HCC, even in the era of targeted agents.

  4. Surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking-based tissue saving treatment with the Technolas 217z excimer laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Athiya; Maity, Amrita

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes and expected benefits of Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking. This prospective, interventional case series comprised 122 eyes (70 patients). Pre- and postoperative assessment included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refraction, and higher order aberrations. All patients underwent Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking using the Technolas 217z 100-Hz excimer platform (Technolas Perfect Vision GmbH). Follow-up was performed up to 6 months postoperatively. Theoretical benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the algorithm's outcomes compared to others. Preoperative spherocylindrical power was sphere -3.62 ± 1.60 diopters (D) (range: 0 to -6.75 D), cylinder -1.15 ± 1.00 D (range: 0 to -3.50 D), and spherical equivalent -4.19 ± 1.60 D (range: -7.75 to -2.00 D). At 6 months, 91% (111/122) of eyes were within ± 0.50 D of attempted correction. Postoperative UDVA was comparable to preoperative CDVA at 1 month (P=.47) and progressively improved at 6 months (P=.004). Two eyes lost one line of CDVA at 6 months. Theoretical benefit analysis revealed that of 101 eyes with astigmatism, 29 would have had cyclotorsion-induced astigmatism of ≥ 10% if iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking were not used. Furthermore, the mean percentage decrease in maximum depth of ablation by using the Tissue Saving Treatment was 11.8 ± 2.9% over Aspheric, 17.8 ± 6.2% over Personalized, and 18.2 ± 2.8% over Planoscan algorithms. Tissue saving surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking was safe and effective in this series of eyes. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Planar strain analysis of liver undergoing microwave thermal ablation using x-ray CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Noam; Goldberg, S Nahum; Nissenbaum, Yitzhak; Sosna, Jacob; Azhari, Haim

    2015-01-01

    To study the planar strain effects in liver during microwave (MW) thermal ablation as a means for tracking tissue expansion and contraction as a method for improving ablation monitoring. 1.4 mm circular metallic markers were inserted into 16 ex-vivo bovine fresh liver specimens, that were subsequently ablated (with the markers inside the specimen) by 40 W of microwave energy, for 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 min. The markers were tracked during the ablation using an x-ray CT scanner. Images were acquired every 5-10 s enabling determination of the markers' coordinates over time. The 2D principal strains were calculated for triangles formed by subgroups of three markers, and their planar strain index, Ω, was plotted vs time. In addition, the radial distance of the markers from the antenna was measured at the end of each ablation. Subsequently, the tissue was sliced parallel to the imaged planes and the ablation zone was traced and digitized. The average ablation radius was then computed and compared to the radial distance. The planar strain, Ω(t), profile demonstrated an ascending pattern until reaching a maximum at about 180 s, with a mean peak value (Ω = 1.31 ± 0.04) indicating tissue expansion. Thereafter, Ω progressively declined over the remaining duration of the ablation treatment, indicating tissue contraction. Furthermore, when plotting the ablation size vs time and the markers' mean radial distance vs time, it was found that the two curves intercepted at a time corresponding to the time of peak planar strain. By detecting the point of maximal planar strain in tissues during MW application, it is possible to noninvasively identify the location of the ablation zone front. The fact that the liver tissue proximal to the ablated zone expands during the first part of the treatment and then contracts when the ablation front reaches it, may serve as an index for monitoring the thermal treatment.

  6. Gastroparesis: a review of current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enweluzo C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chijioke Enweluzo, Fahad AzizHospital Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Gastroparesis is a motility disorder of the stomach causing delay in food emptying from the stomach without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. The majority of cases are idiopathic. Patients need to be diagnosed properly by formal testing, and the evaluation of the severity of the gastroparesis may assist in guiding therapy. Initially, dietary modifications are encouraged, which include frequent and small semisolid-based meals. Promotility medications, like erythromycin, and antiemetics, like prochlorperazine, are offered for symptom relief. In patients who are refractory to pharmacologic treatment, more invasive options, such as intrapyloric botulinum toxin injections, placement of a jejunostomy tube, or implantation of a gastric stimulator, can be considered. Hemin therapy and gastric electric stimulation are emerging treatment options that are still at different stages of research. Regenerative medicine and stem cell-based therapies also hold promise for gastroparesis in the near future.Keywords: Gastroparesis, gastric emptying, gastric electrical stimulation, hemin

  7. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF HEMORRHOIDS: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE CURRENT OPTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERATO, Marlise Mello; CERATO, Nilo Luiz; PASSOS, Patrícia; TREIGUE, Alberto; DAMIN, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids is still a dilemma. New techniques have been developed leading to a lower rate of postoperative pain; however, they are associated with a greater likelihood of recurrence. Aim To review current indications as well as the results and complications of the main techniques currently used in the surgical treatment of hemorrhoidal disease. Methods A systematic search of the published data on the options for treatment of hemorrhoids up to December 2012 was conducted using Medline/PubMed, Cochrane, and UpToDate. Results Currently available surgical treatment options include procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH), transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD), and conventional hemorrhoidectomy techniques. Excisional techniques showed similar results regarding pain, time to return to normal activities, and complication rates. PPH and THD were associated with less postoperative pain and lower complication rates; however, both had higher postoperative recurrence rates. Conclusion Conventional surgical techniques yield better long-term results. Despite good results in the immediate postoperative period, PPH and THD have not shown consistent long-term favorable results. PMID:24676303

  8. Fractional ablative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Nicola P Y; Ho, Stephanie G Y; Yeung, Chi K; Shek, Samantha Y N; Chan, Henry H

    2010-11-01

    Ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) is a new modality for photorejuvenation and acne scars which combines carbon dioxide (CO₂) laser ablation with fractional photothermolysis. The objective is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of a new fractional CO₂ ablative device (Fraxel Re:pair) for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. Nine patients underwent one full-face treatment. The energy levels ranged from 30-70 mJ with coverage between 30% and 45%. Improvement in skin texture, laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, overall pigmentation irregularity, and adverse effects were assessed up to 6 months post-treatment. Standardized photographs using the Canfield Visia CR system® were assessed by two independent observers. Subjective improvement was assessed by patient questionnaires. Nine Chinese patients (skin types III and IV, mean age 44.8) were included. Statistically significant improvements were seen for skin texture, skin laxity, wrinkles, enlarged pores, and acne scars. The post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation rate was 55.5% and 11.1% at 1 and 6 months post-treatment, respectively. Eighty-six percent of patients were overall satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment. Ablative fractional CO₂ laser resurfacing was overall safe and effective for skin rejuvenation and acne scars in Asians. However, in view of the high post-inflammatory rate and the statistically significant but only mild to moderate improvement after a single treatment as observed in this study, there is a need to review the current role of fractional ablative CO₂ laser treatment as compared to fractional non-ablative for skin rejuvenation and acne scar treatment in Asians. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Direct quantitative comparison of molecular responses in photodamaged human skin to fractionated and fully ablative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orringer, Jeffrey S; Sachs, Dana L; Shao, Yuan; Hammerberg, Craig; Cui, Yilei; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2012-10-01

    Fractionated ablative laser resurfacing has become a widely used treatment modality. Its clinical results are often found to approach those of traditional fully ablative laser resurfacing. To directly compare the molecular changes that result from fractionated and fully ablative carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser resurfacing in photodamaged human skin. Photodamaged skin of 34 adult volunteers was focally treated at distinct sites with a fully ablative CO(2) laser and a fractionated CO(2) laser. Serial skin samples were obtained at baseline and several time points after treatment. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technology and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify molecular responses to each type of laser treatment. Fully ablative and fractionated CO(2) laser resurfacing induced significant dermal remodeling and collagen induction. After a single treatment, fractionated ablative laser resurfacing resulted in collagen induction that was approximately 40% to 50% as pronounced as that induced by fully ablative laser resurfacing. The fundamental cutaneous responses that result from fully ablative and fractionated carbon dioxide laser resurfacing are similar but differ in magnitude and duration, with the fully ablative procedure inducing relatively greater changes including more pronounced collagen induction. However, the molecular data reported here provide substantial support for fractionated ablative resurfacing as an effective treatment modality for improving skin texture. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Current options for palliative treatment in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwelski, K; Meyer, F

    2001-01-01

    Palliative treatment is often the only remaining option in the management of pancreatic carcinoma, but its efficacy is poor due to low tumor sensitivity and inadequate treatment protocols. There are several options of palliative treatment with antitumor or supportive intention. Classical end points of palliative treatment are survival, tumor response, and quality of life. A decade ago, palliative chemotherapy consisted mainly of 5-fluorouracil as the standard agent in combination with either other agents and/or radiotherapy. Only the new antineoplastic drug gemcitabine, which was introduced simultaneously with the definition of novel end points of chemotherapy such as clinical benefit, allowed to achieve some progress. However, while gemcitabine monotherapy appeared to be superior to 5-fluorouracil and improved important parameters of quality of life, it could not provide a significant improvement of survival. A novel concept, therefore, is to improve this beneficial cytostatic response in pancreatic carcinoma using a gemcitabine-based protocol by combining it with antineoplastic drugs such as taxanes or platin analogs. This strategy may have the potential to improve the outcome in palliative chemotherapy of pancreatic carcinoma patients with advanced tumor growth or metastases. Best supportive care in pancreatic cancer consists of the treatment of symptoms, such as pain, jaundice, duodenal obstruction, weight loss, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and tumor-associated depression. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Laparoscopic microwave thermosphere ablation of malignant liver tumors: an initial clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Eren

    2016-02-01

    Microwave ablation (MWA) has been recently recognized as a technology to overcome the limitations of radiofrequency ablation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new 2.45-GHz thermosphere MWA system in the treatment of malignant liver tumors. This was a prospective IRB-approved study of 18 patients with malignant liver tumors treated with MWA within a 3-month time period. Tumor sizes and response to MWA were obtained from triphasic liver CT scans done before and after MWA. The ablation zones were assessed for complete tumor response and spherical geometry. There were a total of 18 patients with an average of three tumors measuring 1.4 cm (range 0.2-4). Ablations were performed laparoscopically in all, but three patients who underwent combined liver resection. A single ablation was created in 72% and overlapping ablations in 28% of lesions. Total ablation time per patient was 15.6 ± 1.9 min. There was no morbidity or mortality. At 2-week CT scans, there was 100% tumor destruction, with no residual lesions. Roundness indices A, B and transverse were 1.1, 0.9 and 0.9, respectively, confirming the spherical nature of ablation zones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a new thermosphere MWA technology in the laparoscopic treatment of malignant liver tumors. The results demonstrate the safety of the technology, with satisfactory spherical ablation zones seen on post-procedural CT scans.

  12. Treatment of compounds and alloys in radiation hydrodynamics simulations of ablative laser loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Damian C.; Gammel, J. Tinka; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2004-01-01

    Different methods were compared for constructing models of the behavior of a prototype intermetallic compound, nickel aluminide, for use in radiation hydrodynamics simulations of shock wave generation by ablation induced by laser energy. The models included the equation of state, ionization, and radiation opacity. The methods of construction were evaluated by comparing the results of simulations of an ablatively generated shock wave in a sample of the alloy. The most accurate simulations were obtained using the 'constant number density' mixture model to calculate the equation of state and opacity, and Thomas-Fermi ionization. This model is consistent with that found to be most accurate for simulations of ablatively shocked elements

  13. Comparison of wet radiofrequency ablation with dry radiofrequency ablation and radiofrequency ablation using hypertonic saline preinjection: ex vivo bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Hee Sun; Hur, Hurn; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Kyung Sook

    2004-01-01

    We wished to compare the in-vitro efficiency of wet radiofrequency (RF) ablation with the efficiency of dry RF ablation and RF ablation with preinjection of NaCl solutions using excised bovine liver. Radiofrequency was applied to excised bovine livers in a monopolar mode for 10 minutes using a 200 W generator and a perfused-cooled electrode with or without injection or slow infusion of NaCl solutions. After placing the perfused-cooled electrode in the explanted liver, 50 ablation zones were created with five different regimens: group A; standard dry RF ablation, group B; RF ablation with 11 mL of 5% NaCl solution preinjection, group C; RF ablation with infusion of 11 mL of 5% NaCl solution at a rate of 1 mL/min, group D; RFA with 6 mL of 36% NaCl solution preinjection, group E; RF ablation with infusion of 6 mL of 36% NaCl solution at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. In groups C and E, infusion of the NaCl solutions was started 1 min before RF ablation and then maintained during RF ablation (wet RF ablation). During RF ablation, we measured the tissue temperature at 15 mm from the electrode. The dimensions of the ablation zones and changes in impedance, current and liver temperature during RF ablation were then compared between the groups. With injection or infusion of NaCl solutions, the mean initial tissue impedance prior to RF ablation was significantly less in groups B, C, D, and E (43-75 Ω) than for group A (80 Ω) (ρ 3 in group A; 12.4 ± 3.8 cm 3 in group B; 80.9 ± 9.9 cm 3 in group C; 45.3 ± 11.3 cm 3 in group D and 81.6 ± 8.6 cm 3 in group E. The tissue temperature measured at 15 mm from the electrode was higher in groups C, D and E than other groups (ρ < 0.05): 53 ± 12 .deg. C in group A, 42 ± 2 .deg. C in group B, 93 ± 8 .deg. C in group C; 79 ± 12 .deg. C in group D and 83 ± 8 .deg.C in group E. Wet RF ablation with 5% or 36% NaCl solutions shows better efficiency in creating a large ablation zone than does dry RF ablation or RF ablation with

  14. Managing AVN following internal fixation: treatment options and clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Simon; Morison, Zachary; Shahrokhi, Shahram; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2015-03-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) after internal fixation of intracapsular hip fractures is a progressive multifactorial disease that ultimately results in local ischemia with ensuing osteocyte necrosis and structural compromise. This disease can cause significant clinical morbidity and affects patients of any age, including young and active patients. Effective treatment of this condition among young adults is challenging due to their high functional demands. The aim of managing AVN is to relieve pain, preserve range of movement and improve function. Treatment methods vary depending on the stage of the disease and can be broadly categorised into two options, hip preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty. Although, hip preserving techniques are attractive in the young adult, they may alter the morphology of the proximal femur and make subsequent arthroplasty more challenging. Conversely, arthroplasty in the young adult may require repeat revision procedures throughout the patient's life. Current evidence suggests that modifications of prevailing treatments, in addition to new technologies, have led to the development of management strategies that may be able to alter the course of femoral head osteonecrosis. This review aims to summarise the options available for treatment of AVN in the young adult and review the clinical results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-ablative fractional laser provides long-term improvement of mature burn scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Danielsen, Patricia L; Paulsen, Ida F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-ablative fractional laser-treatment is evolving for burn scars. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological long-term outcome of 1,540 nm fractional Erbium: Glass laser, targeting superficial, and deep components of mature burn scars....... MATERIALS & METHODS: Side-by-side scar-areas were randomized to untreated control or three monthly non-ablative fractional laser-treatments using superficial and extra-deep handpieces. Patient follow-up were at 1, 3, and 6 months. Primary outcome was improvement in overall scar-appearance on a modified...... of scar-appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Combined superficial and deep non-ablative fractional laser-treatments induce long-term clinical and histological improvement of mature burn scars....

  16. Nephron-sparing percutaneous ablation of a 5 cm renal cell carcinoma by superselective embolization and percutaneous RF-ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.; Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Rohde, D. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Abt. Urologie

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: To report on the nephron-sparing, percutaneous ablation of a large renal cell carcinoma by combined superselective embolization and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation. Materials and Methods: A 5 cm renal cell carcinoma of a 43-year-old drug abusing male with serologically proven HIV, hepatitis B and C infection, who refused surgery, was superselectively embolized using microspheres (size: 500 - 700 {mu}m) and a platinum coil under local anesthesia. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation using a 7F LeVeen probe (size of expanded probe tip: 40 mm) and a 200 Watt generator was performed one day after transcatheter embolization under general anesthesia. Results: The combined treatment resulted in complete destruction of the tumor without relevant damage of the surrounding healthy renal tissue. The patient was discharged 24 hours after RF ablation. No complications like urinary leaks or fistulas were observed and follow up CT one day and 4 weeks after the radiofrequency intervention revealed no signs of residual tumor growth. Conclusion: The combined transcatheter embolization and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of renal cell carcinoma has proved technically feasible, effective, and safe in this patient. It may be offered as an alternative treatment to partial or radical nephrectomy under certain circumstances. Abbreviations: RF = radiofrequency ablation; CT = computed tomography; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bericht ueber eine nierenschonende, perkutane Ablation eines 5 cm grossen Nierenzellkarzinoms durch kombinierte Transkatheterembolisation und perkutane Radiofrequenzablation. Material und Methoden: Ein 5 cm grosses Nierenzellkarzinom eines 43 Jahre alten Drogenabhaengigen mit serologisch nachgewiesener HIV, Hepatitis B- und C-Infektion, der eine operative Therapie ablehnte, wurde superselektiv durch Embosphaeren (Partikelgroesse: 500 - 700 {mu}m) und einer Platinspirale unter Lokalanaesthesie embolisiert. Am Folgetag

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation for management of benign solid pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Seo, Dong-Wan; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2018-05-04

     Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been increasingly employed in experimental and clinical settings for the management of pancreatic lesions. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided RFA for benign solid pancreatic tumors.  In a single-center, prospective study, 10 patients with benign solid pancreatic tumors underwent EUS-RFA. After the RFA electrode had been inserted into the pancreatic mass, the radiofrequency generator was activated to deliver 50 W of ablation power.  Among the 10 patients, 16 sessions of EUS-RFA were successfully performed. Diagnoses included nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor (n = 7), solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (n = 2), and insulinoma (n = 1); the median largest diameter of the tumors was 20 mm (range 8 - 28 mm). During follow-up (median 13 months), radiologic complete response was achieved in seven patients. Two adverse events (12.4 %; 1 moderate and 1 mild) occurred.  EUS-RFA may be a safe and potentially effective treatment option in selected patients with benign solid pancreatic tumors. Multiple sessions may be required if there is a remnant tumor, and adverse events must be carefully monitored. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Radiofrequency catheter ablation for electrical storm in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolettis, Theofilos M; Naka, Katerina K; Katsouras, Christos S

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of successful radiofrequency catheter ablation in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, who presented with multiple, haemodynamically poorly tolerated episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, resistant to antiarrhythmic drug treatment. The ablation procedure consisted of focal ablation of three mapped left ventricular sites, using pace and activation mapping. Additional linear ablation lesions were created across these sites. After the procedure, the patient remained free of tachycardia episodes and seven days post-ablation he underwent implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator. During a twelve-month follow-up period, the patient has remained free of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia episodes. Radiofrequency catheter ablation is feasible in electrical storm, using conventional mapping techniques, even in haemodynamically unstable tachycardias.

  19. Grey water characteristics and treatment options for rural areas in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalsheh, M; Dalahmeh, S; Sayed, M; Suleiman, W; Shareef, M; Mansour, M; Safi, M

    2008-09-01

    Low water consumption in rural areas in Jordan had resulted in the production of concentrated grey water. Average COD, BOD and TSS values were 2568mg/l, 1056mg/l and 845mg/l, respectively. The average grey water generation was measured to be 14L/c.d. Three different treatment options were selected based on certain criterions, and discussed in this article. The examined treatment systems are septic tank followed by intermittent sand filter; septic tank followed by wetlands; and UASB-hybrid reactor. Advantages and disadvantages of each system are presented. It was concluded that UASB-hybrid reactor would be the most suitable treatment option in terms of compactness and simplicity in operation. The volume of UASB-hybrid reactor was calculated to be 0.268m(3) with a surface area of 0.138m(2) for each house having 10 inhabitants on average. Produced effluent is expected to meet Jordanian standards set for reclaimed water reuse in irrigating fruit trees.

  20. Accounting treatment of currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currency options are often used to mitigate currency risk resulting from corporate activities. Their implementation can be complex, and there could be problems if the essential elements and principles are not fully understood. Although they are not the simplest financial products, currency options are interesting and useful to those who are trying to make a step forward in the area of currency risk management. This paper aims to present the general principles and specifics of accounting records and valuation of currency options used for hedging against risk. It is a complex process which, in addition to numerous conditions, also involves the implementation of accounting rules that deviate from the generally accepted accounting principles.

  1. Imaging in percutaneous ablation for atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, Ruzica [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, GD Rotterdam (Netherlands); Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the University Medical Center, Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Dill, Thorsten [Kerckhoff-Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany); Ristic, Arsen D.; Seferovic, Petar M. [Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the University Medical Center, Belgrade (Czechoslovakia)

    2006-11-15

    Percutaneous ablation for electrical disconnection of the arrhythmogenic foci using various forms of energy has become a well-established technique for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Success rate in preventing recurrence of AF episodes is high although associated with a significant incidence of pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis and other rare complications. Clinical workup of AF patients includes imaging before and after ablative treatment using different noninvasive and invasive techniques such as conventional angiography, transoesophageal and intracardiac echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which offer different information with variable diagnostic accuracy. Evaluation before percutaneous ablation involves assessment of PVs (PV pattern, branching pattern, orientation and ostial size) to facilitate position and size of catheters and reduce procedure time as well as examining the left atrium (presence of thrombi, dimensions and volumes). Imaging after the percutaneous ablation is important for assessment of overall success of the procedure and revealing potential complications. Therefore, imaging methods enable depiction of PVs and the anatomy of surrounding structures essential for preprocedural management and early detection of PV stenosis and other ablation-related procedures, as well as long-term follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  2. Imaging in percutaneous ablation for atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovic, Ruzica; Dill, Thorsten; Ristic, Arsen D.; Seferovic, Petar M.

    2006-01-01

    Percutaneous ablation for electrical disconnection of the arrhythmogenic foci using various forms of energy has become a well-established technique for treating atrial fibrillation (AF). Success rate in preventing recurrence of AF episodes is high although associated with a significant incidence of pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis and other rare complications. Clinical workup of AF patients includes imaging before and after ablative treatment using different noninvasive and invasive techniques such as conventional angiography, transoesophageal and intracardiac echocardiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which offer different information with variable diagnostic accuracy. Evaluation before percutaneous ablation involves assessment of PVs (PV pattern, branching pattern, orientation and ostial size) to facilitate position and size of catheters and reduce procedure time as well as examining the left atrium (presence of thrombi, dimensions and volumes). Imaging after the percutaneous ablation is important for assessment of overall success of the procedure and revealing potential complications. Therefore, imaging methods enable depiction of PVs and the anatomy of surrounding structures essential for preprocedural management and early detection of PV stenosis and other ablation-related procedures, as well as long-term follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  3. Photodynamic therapy using upconversion nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, Tomohiro; Onodera, Yuji; Nunokawa, Takashi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hirano, Tomohisa; Ogura, Shun-ichiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Odawara, Osamu [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Wada, Hiroyuki, E-mail: wada.h.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline upconversion nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in liquid. • Highly transparent near-IR irradiation generated singlet oxygen. • Viability of cancer cells was significantly decreased by near-IR irradiation. - Abstract: Upconversion nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation in liquid, and the potential use of the nanoparticles for cancer treatment was investigated. A Nd:YAG/SHG laser (532 nm, 13 ns, 10 Hz) was used for ablation, and the cancer treatment studied was photodynamic therapy (PDT). Morphology and crystallinity of prepared nanoparticles were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Red and green emissions resulting from near-infrared excitation were observed by a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Generation of singlet oxygen was confirmed by a photochemical method using 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF). In vitro experiments using cultivated cancer cells were conducted to investigate PDT effects. Uptake of the photosensitizer by cancer cells and cytotoxicities of cancer cells were also examined. We conclude that the combination of PDT and highly crystalline nanoparticles, which were prepared by laser ablation in liquid, is an effective cancer treatment.

  4. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgen Erdoğan; Murat Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  5. Current Treatment Options in Challenging Oral Diseases: Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Erdoğan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by burning pain without any signs of an oral mucosal pathology, that usually affects postmenopausal women. Burning sensation is often accompanied by dysgeusia and xerostomia. The pathogenesis of the disease is unknown and an effective treatment option for most of the patients has not been defined yet. The aim of this review is to present current pharmacological and physicological treatments of burning mouth syndrome.

  6. Bimodal electric tissue ablation (BETA) - in-vivo evaluation of the effect of applying direct current before and during radiofrequency ablation of porcine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, J.F.; Maddern, G.J.; Wemyss-Holden, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effect of applying increasing amounts of direct current (DC) before and during alternating current radiofrequency ablation of porcine liver. Materials and methods: Using a Radiotherapeutics RF3000 generator, a 9 V AC/DC transformer and a 16 G plain aluminium tube as an electrode, a control group of 24 porcine hepatic radiofrequency ablation zones was compared with 24 zones created using a bimodal electric tissue ablation (BETA) technique in three pigs. All ablations were terminated when tissue impedance rose to greater than 999 Ω or radiofrequency energy input fell below 5 W on three successive measurements taken at 1 min intervals. BETA ablations were performed in two phases: an initial phase of variable duration DC followed by a second phase during which standard radiofrequency ablation was applied simultaneously with DC. During this second phase, radiofrequency power input was regulated by the feedback circuitry of the RF3000 generator according to changes in tissue impedance. The diameters (mm) of each ablation zone were measured by two observers in two planes perpendicular to the plane of needle insertion. The mean short axis diameter of each ablation zone was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: With increased duration of prior application of DC, there was a progressive increase in the diameter of the ablation zone (p < 0.001). This effect increased sharply up to 300 s of pre-treatment after which a further increase in diameter occurred, but at a much lesser rate. A maximum ablation zone diameter of 32 mm was produced (control diameters 10-13 mm). Conclusion: Applying a 9 V DC to porcine liver in vivo, and continuing this DC application during subsequent radiofrequency ablation, results in larger ablation zone diameters compared with radiofrequency ablation alone

  7. Catheter ablation in the treatment of electrical storm: Integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Teixeira Leal

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Catheter ablation is the initial therapy for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM and ES. The endocardial approach presents more relevant success rates than the other therapeutic methods presented.

  8. Radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours. New perspective in treatment of lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocijancic, K.; Kocijancic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive technique used to treat solid tumours. Because of its ability to produce large volume of coagulation necrosis in controlled fashion this technique has been progressively tested as a possible treatment of lung malignancies. Recent clinical studies have shown that RFA enables successful treatment of relatively small lung malignancies with high rate of complete response and acceptable morbidity and have suggested that the technique could represent a viable alternate or complementary method for patients with non-small cell lung cancer or lung metastases of favourable histotypes who are not candidates for surgical resection. Initial international studies as well as the clinical experience of Institute of Radiology in Clinical Center Ljubljana, although limited, indicated that RFA is mostly well tolerated by patients and also, that it can result in complete necrosis of targeted lesion. Pneumothorax is most common procedure related complication, occurring in up to 40% of cases, with approx. half of them requiring drainage. (author)

  9. Use of 177Lu-dotatate in the treatment of iodine refractory thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliván-Sasot, P; Falgás-Lacueva, M; García-Sánchez, J; Vera-Pinto, V; Olivas-Arroyo, C; Bello-Arques, P

    In a patient with a differentiated thyroid cancer the standard treatment protocol to be followed is surgery, ablation of thyroid remnants with 131 Iodine ( 131 I), and TSH suppression. However, the treatment with 131 I is not effective in some cases, and it no longer becomes a therapeutic option due to cell de-differentiation with loss of 131 I uptake. Systemic treatment can be used as other options, although patients are not always responsive; thus, the disease may progress and therapeutic options may run out. Endocrine tumours may express somatostatin receptors,and this characteristic has been used, not only for diagnosis, but also for their treatment through somatostatin analogue labelling with radioactive isotopes. This was the case of a patient suffering from iodine-refractory follicular thyroid carcinoma, with somatostatin receptors expression, treated with 177 Lu-DOTATATE, showing an excellent clinical and analytical response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. Endometriosis-associated infertility: aspects of pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanbo, Tom; Fedorcsak, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common condition in women of reproductive age. In addition to pain, endometriosis may also reduce fertility. The causes of infertility in women with endometriosis may range from anatomical distortions due to adhesions and fibrosis to endocrine abnormalities and immunological disturbances. In some cases, the various pathophysiological disturbances seem to interact through mechanisms so far not fully understood. Whether surgery should be offered as a treatment option in endometriosis-associated infertility has become controversial, partly due to its modest or undocumented effect. Medical or hormonal treatment alone has little or no effect and should only be used in conjunction with assisted reproductive technology (ART). Of the various methods of ART, intrauterine insemination, due to its simplicity, can be recommended in women with minimal or mild peritoneal endometriosis, even though insemination may yield a lower success rate than in women without endometriosis. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is an effective treatment option in less-advanced disease stages, and the success rates are similar to the results in other causes of infertility. However, women with more advanced stages of endometriosis have lower success rates with IVF. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Mono or multipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Victoire; Boursier, Jérôme; Lebigot, Jérôme; Oberti, Frédéric; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Aubé, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Thermo-ablation by radiofrequency is recognized as a curative treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. However, local recurrence may occur because of incomplete peripheral tumor destruction. Multipolar radiofrequency has been developed to increase the size of the maximal ablation zone. We aimed to compare the efficacy of monopolar and multipolar radiofrequency for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and determine factors predicting failure. A total of 171 consecutive patients with 214 hepatocellular carcinomas were retrospectively included. One hundred fifty-eight tumors were treated with an expandable monopolar electrode and 56 with a multipolar technique using several linear bipolar electrodes. Imaging studies at 6 weeks after treatment, then every 3 months, assessed local effectiveness. Radiofrequency failure was defined as persistent residual tumor after two sessions (primary radiofrequency failure) or local tumor recurrence during follow-up. This study received institutional review board approval (number 2014/77). Imaging showed complete tumor ablation in 207 of 214 lesions after the first session of radiofrequency. After a second session, only two cases of residual viable tumor were observed. During follow-up, there were 46 local tumor recurrences. Thus, radiofrequency failure occurred in 48/214 (22.4%) cases. By multivariate analysis, technique (P radiofrequency failure. Failure rate was lower with the multipolar technique for tumors radiofrequency, multipolar radiofrequency improves tumor ablation with a subsequent lower rate of local tumor recurrence. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Treatment options for permanent teeth with deep caries

    OpenAIRE

    Marending, Monika; Attin, Thomas; Zehnder, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this narrative review was to summarize and compare treatment options for permanent teeth carious lesions that are radiographically close to the pulp chamber. Thanks to adhesive restorative materials, minimally invasive approaches are possible. In this context, the old question arises as to whether caries must be excavated completely, i.e., down to hard dentin, or whether it could be advantageous to leave some soft dentin, or even merely seal the whole lesion. To answer this questi...

  13. Postoperative Biliary Leak Treated with Chemical Bile Duct Ablation Using Absolute Ethanol: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Maho; Hori, Tomohide; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Ito, Tatsuo; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichi; Kitano, Taku; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2017-08-08

    BACKGROUND Postoperative bile duct leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery can be intractable, and the postoperative course can be prolonged. However, if the site of the leak is in the distal bile duct in the main biliary tract, the therapeutic options may be limited. Injection of absolute ethanol into the bile duct requires correct identification of the bile duct, and balloon occlusion is useful to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak. CASE REPORT Two cases of non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak are presented; one case following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure), and one case following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both cases were successfully managed by chemical bile duct ablation with absolute ethanol. In the first case, the biliary leak occurred from a fistula of the right posterior biliary tract following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cannulation of the leaking bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a percutaneous route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. In the second case, perforation of the bile duct branch draining hepatic segment V occurred following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cannulation of the bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a transhepatic route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. CONCLUSIONS Chemical ablation of the bile duct using absolute ethanol is an effective treatment for biliary leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula. Identification of the bile duct leak is required before ethanol injection to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues.

  14. An experimental study of simultaneous ablation with dual probes in radiofrequency thermal ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Il Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Heo, Jeong Nam

    2003-01-01

    To determine the differences between sequential ablation with a single probe and simultaneous ablation with dual probes. Using two 14-gauge expandable probes (nine internal prongs with 4-cm deployment), radiofrequency was applied sequentially (n=8) or simultaneously (n=8) to ten ex-vivo cow livers. Before starting ablation, two RF probes with an inter-probe space of 2 cm (n=8) or 3 cm (n=8) were inserted. In the sequential group, switching the connecting cable to an RF generator permitted ablation with the second probe just after ablation with the first probe had finished. In the simultaneous group, single ablation was performed only after connecting the shafts of both RF probes using a connection device. Each ablation lasted 7 minutes at a target temperature of 105-110 .deg. C. The size and shape of the ablated area, and total ablation time were then compared between the two groups. With 2-cm spacing, the group, mean length and overlapping width of ablated lesions were, respectively, 5.20 and 5.05 cm in the sequential group (n=4), and 5.81 and 5.65 cm in the simultaneous group (n=4). With 3-cm spacing, the corresponding figures were 4.99 and 5.60 cm in the sequential group (n=4), and 6.04 and 6.78 cm in the simultaneous group (n=4). With 2-cm spacing, the mean depth of the proximal waist was 0.58 cm in the sequential (group and 0.28 cm in the simultaneous group, while with 3-cm spacing, the corresponding figures were 1.65 and 1.48 cm. In neither group was there a distal waist. Mean total ablation time was 23.4 minutes in the sequential group and 14 minutes in the simultaneous group. In terms of ablation size and ablation time, simultaneous radiofrequency ablation with dual probes is superior to sequential ablation with a single probe. A simultaneous approach will enable an operator to overcome difficulty in probe repositioning during overlapping ablation, resulting in complete ablation with a successful safety margin

  15. Radioiodine Remnant Ablation: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Chandra Sekhar; Padhy, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) is considered a safe and effective method for eliminating residual thyroid tissue, as well as microscopic disease if at all present in thyroid bed following thyroidectomy. The rationale of RRA is that in the absence of thyroid tissue, serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement can be used as an excellent tumor marker. Other considerations are like the presence of significant remnant thyroid tissue makes detection and treatment of nodal or distant metastases difficult. Rarely, microscopic disease in the thyroid bed if not ablated, in the future, could be a source of anaplastic transformation. On the other hand, microscopic tumor emboli in distant sites could be the cause of distant metastasis too. The ablation of remnant tissue would in all probability eliminate these theoretical risks. It may be noted that all these are unproven contentious issues except postablation serum Tg estimation that could be a good tumor marker for detecting early biochemical recurrence in long-term follow-up strategy. Radioactive iodine is administered as a form of “adjuvant therapy” for remnant ablation. There have been several reports with regard to the administered dose for remnant ablation. The first report of a prospective randomized clinical trial was published from India by a prospective randomized study conducted at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi in the year 1996. The study reported that increasing the empirical 131 I initial dose to more than 50 mCi results in plateauing of the dose-response curve and thus, conventional high-dose remnant ablation needs critical evaluation. Recently, two important studies were published: One from French group and the other from UK on a similar line. Interestingly, all three studies conducted in three different geographical regions of the world showed exactly similar conclusion. The new era of low-dose remnant ablation has taken a firm scientific footing across the continents

  16. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  17. Effects of intravenous ketamine in a patient with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna AF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ashraf F Hanna, Bishoy Abraham, Andrew Hanna, Adam J Smith Department of Pain Management, Florida Spine Institute, Clearwater, FL, USA Abstract: Post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS is a pain disorder for which there remains no gold standard treatment option. Here, we report a case of PTLDS in a female patient whose pain was refractory to treatment options such as radiofrequency ablation, vitamin infusion therapy, opioid analgesics, and other pharmacotherapies. The patient commenced an experimental intravenous ketamine infusion therapy at the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, FL, USA and achieved relief from her chronic pain, an improved quality of life, reduced depression and suicidal ideation, and reduced opioid consumption. Keywords: chronic Lyme, late Lyme, pain, analgesic, suicidality, depression

  18. Complete resolution of minocycline pigmentation following a single treatment with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional resurfacing in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangipuram, Ramya K; DeLozier, Whitney L; Geddes, Elizabeth; Friedman, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Pigmentation secondary to minocycline ingestion is an uncommon adverse event affecting 3.7-14.8% of treated individuals for which few effective therapies are available. Three patterns of minocycline pigmentation have a characteristic clinical and histological appearance. The pigment composition in each variety is different and occurs at varying skin depths. Accordingly, a tailored approach according to the type of minocycline pigmentation is crucial for treatment success. The purpose of this intervention was to evaluate the efficacy of non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the Q-switched alexandrite laser for the treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation on the face. A patient with type I minocycline pigmentation was treated with non-ablative 1550-nm fractional photothermolysis followed immediately by 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser and then observed clinically to determine the outcome of this modality. The patient was seen in clinic 1 month later following her single treatment session and 100% clearance of all blue facial pigment was observed. Non-ablative fractional photothermolysis in combination with the 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser should be considered for treatment of type I minocycline pigmentation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ablation mass features in multi-pulses femtosecond laser ablate molybdenum target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongye; Gierse, Niels; Wegner, Julian; Pretzler, Georg; Oelmann, Jannis; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Liang, Yunfeng; Neubauer, Olaf; Rasinski, Marcin; Linsmeier, Christian; Ding, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the ablation mass features related to reflectivity of bulk Molybdenum (Mo) were investigated by a Ti: Sa 6 fs laser pulse at central wavelength 790 nm. The ablated mass removal was determined using Confocal Microscopy (CM) technique. The surface reflectivity was calibrated and measured by a Lambda 950 spectrophotometer as well as a CCD camera during laser ablation. The ablation mass loss per pulse increase with the increasing of laser shots, meanwhile the surface reflectivity decrease. The multi-pulses (100 shots) ablation threshold of Mo was determined to be 0.15 J/cm2. The incubation coefficient was estimated as 0.835. The reflectivity change of the Mo target surface following multi-pulses laser ablation were studied as a function of laser ablation shots at various laser fluences from 1.07 J/cm2 to 36.23 J/cm2. The results of measured reflectivity indicate that surface reflectivity of Mo target has a significant decline in the first 3-laser pulses at the various fluences. These results are important for developing a quantitative analysis model for laser induced ablation and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the first wall diagnosis of EAST tokamak.

  20. Bronchiolitis obliterans after allo-SCT: clinical criteria and treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlving, H H; Buchvald, F; Heilmann, C J

    2012-01-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) following allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) is a serious complication affecting 1.7-26% of the patients, with a reported mortality rate of 21-100%. It is considered a manifestation of chronic graft-versus-host disease, but our knowledge of aetiology and pathogenes...... treatment options for BO and presents the treatment results with HDPM in a paediatric national HSCT-cohort.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 29 August 2011; doi:10.1038/bmt.2011.161....

  1. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Micro-fractional ablative skin resurfacing with two novel erbium laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Christine C; Khatri, Khalil A; Tannous, Zeina S; Childs, James J; Cohen, Richard H; Erofeev, Andrei; Tabatadze, David; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2008-02-01

    Fractional ablation offers the potential benefits of full-surface ablative skin resurfacing while minimizing adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, damage profile, and efficacy of erbium fractional lasers. Histology from animal and human skin as well as clinical evaluations were conducted with erbium YAG (2,940 nm) and erbium YSGG (2,790 nm) fractional lasers varying pulse width, microbeam (microb) energy, number of passes, and stacking of pulses. Single-pulse treatment parameters from 1 to 12 mJ per 50-70 microm diameter microbeam and 0.25-5 milliseconds pulse widths produced microcolumns of ablation with border coagulation of up to 100 microm width and 450 microm depth. Stacking of pulses generated deeper microcolumns. Clinical observations and in vivo histology demonstrate rapid re-epithelization and limited adverse side effects. Facial treatments were performed in the periorbital and perioral areas using 1-8 passes of single and stacked pulses. Treatments were well-tolerated and subjects could resume their normal routine in 4 days. A statistically significant reduction in wrinkle scores at 3 months was observed for both periorbital and perioral wrinkles using blinded grading. For periorbital treatments of four passes or more, over 90% had > or =1 score wrinkle reduction (0-9 scale) and 42% had > or =2. For perioral wrinkles, over 50% had substantial improvements (> or =2). The clinical observations and histology findings demonstrate that micro-fractional ablative treatment with 2,790 and 2,940 nm erbium lasers resulted in safe and effective wrinkle reduction with minimal patient downtime. The depth and width of the ablated microcolumns and varying extent of surrounding coagulation can be controlled and used to design new treatment procedures targeted for specific indications and areas such as moderate to severe rhytides and photodamaged skin.

  3. Oligometastases in prostate cancer: restaging stage IV cancers and new radiotherapy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Antonio José Conde; Albiach, Carlos Ferrer; Soria, Rodrigo Muelas; Vidal, Verónica González; Gómez, Raquel García; Antequera, María Albert

    2014-01-01

    There are various subgroups of patients with metastatic prostate cancer: polymetastatic, oligometastatic, or oligo-recurrent cancers whose progression follows different courses and for whom there are different treatment options. Knowledge of tumor dissemination pathways and different genetic and epigenetic tumor profiles, as well as their evolution during disease progression, along with new diagnostic and therapeutic advances has allowed us to address these situations with local ablative treatments such as stereotactic body radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery. These treatments provide high rates of local control with low toxicity in metastatic spread for primary cancers including those of pulmonary, digestive, and renal origin, while these types of treatments are still emerging for cancers of prostatic origin. There are several retrospective studies showing the effectiveness of such treatments in prostate cancer metastases, which has led to the emergence of prospective studies on the issue and even some phase II studies intended to prevent or delay systemic treatments such as chemotherapy. Here we collect together and review these past experiences and the studies currently underway. These types of radiotherapy treatments redefine how we approach extracranial metastatic disease and open up new possibilities for combination therapy with new systemic treatment agents

  4. Clinical application and developmental trend of radiofrequency ablation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dongfeng

    2009-01-01

    For recent two decades, radiofrequency ablation technology has made great progress in the field of the treatment for neoplasm. At the very beginning, radiofrequency ablation was adopted in treating the hepatic carcinoma, and since then it has been gradually practiced in treating malignancies of lung, bone, kidney, breast, prostate and other solid tumors. Statistical report of the year 2008 has indicated that in the aspect of similar therapeutic measures radiofrequency ablation therapy for tumors holds a 9% market share. Moreover, in the coming years the clinical use of this kind of therapy for tumors will be steadily increasing by 13% every year. (authors)

  5. [Long-term Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Chemotherapy 
in the Treatment of Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
--A Retrospective Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuhui; Qin, Da; Pang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Yeqing; Zhao, Siqi; Hu, Mu; Zhi, Xiuyi

    2017-10-20

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with chemotherapy has a certain short-term therapeutic effect for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but whether it can improve the long-term survival rate of patients is still controversy. This study retrospectively analyzed the difference of long-term efficacy between RFA combined with chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. A total of 77 patients with stage IIIb and stage IV NSCLC who underwent radiofrequency ablation and chemotherapy in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences from September 2009 to December 2015 were enrolled as the treatment group. Chemotherapy with no radiofrequency ablation was performed in 56 patients with stage IIIb and stage IV NSCLC as the control group. Two groups of patients were followed up by telephone about their living conditions. "Survival" package of R software version 3.4.1 was used for statistical analysis. Two sets of data baseline levels were tested by chi-square test. The bias was processed by Cox regression model and the survival curve was plotted using covariate mean substitution method. The first-year survival rate of the treatment group was 70.74%, the two-year survival rate was 39.31% and the median survival time was 22.1 months. The one-year survival rate was 54.54% in the control group, the two-year survival rate was 19.49%, the median survival for 18.1 months. The long-term survival rate of the treatment group was better than that of the control group (PRadiofrequency ablation of lung cancer combined with chemotherapy can significantly improve the 2-year survival rate of patients with stage IIIb and stage IV NSCLC.

  6. Ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser ablation of xanthelasma palpebrarum: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Pathania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Xanthelasma palpebrarum is the most common form of xanthomas. Albeit a benign entity, it is cosmetically disturbing and a frequently recurring dermatologic referral. Although the classical treatment option remains surgical excision, alternatively, chemical cauterization, cryosurgery and electrofulguration have all been tried in the past with mixed results. The use of laser systems such as carbon dioxide laser, Erb:YAG laser, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, diode laser, pulsed dye laser and KTP laser have become popular in the treatment of these lesions. Recent literature suggests minimal pigmentary changes and scarring with the use of ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser treatment of these lesions. Aim: To study and evaluate the effectiveness of ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser ablation for treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum. Materials and Methods: 10 patients presenting with bilateral xanthelasma palpebrarum, new and with recurrence were studied for results after a single treatment with ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser (10,600 nm; 100-200 Hz; 200-400 μsec. The follow-up time was 9 months. Results: All lesions were treatable with a single-laser treatment session. Two patients (20% developed recurrence during the follow-up period. Side effects included post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in two patients (20%, but no visible scarring was observed. Conclusions: The ultrapulse carbon dioxide laser is an effective and safe therapeutic alternative in treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum.

  7. Utility of unipolar recordings for complex Wolff–Parkinson–White ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Shunmuga Sundaram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for the management of symptomatic patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. It is supported by a success rate of 95% and a recurrence rate of less than 5%. However, ablation of accessory pathways can be challenging at times. The causes for failure can be grouped into three categories – unusual location of the pathway, technical difficulties in delivering the ablation and localization error [1]. In this case report we are reporting a case of a young male who presented to us with symptomatic Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome with two failed prior ablations at another institution. This case illustrates the importance of knowing accurate localization and course of the accessory pathway by utilizing the unipolar and bipolar electrograms simultaneously during radiofrequency ablation.

  8. Individualized laparoscopic B-ultrasound-guided microwave ablation for multifocal primary liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifeng; Yang, Zhangwei; Pan, Jianghua; Hu, Yiren

    2018-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the digestive system. Minimally invasive ablation procedures have become one of the major means for treating unresectable multifocal liver cancer and have been extensively applied in primary and metastatic liver cancer treatment. Laparoscopic B-ultrasound-guided microwave ablation is an example of the progress made in this field. To analyze and summarize the results of and experience with laparoscopic B-ultrasound-guided microwave ablation for multifocal primary liver cancer; moreover, the ablation effects were compared between tumors of different sizes. Laparoscope-guided needle ablation was conducted on 84 lesions from 32 patients with primary liver cancer based on tumor size, quantity, and location. Moreover, the perioperative data, ablation effects according to tumor size, and long-term follow-up results were analyzed. Among the 84 nodules treated via microwave ablation, tumors measuring ≤ 3 cm demonstrated complete ablation upon imaging analysis conducted 1 month after surgery. Moreover, 5 of the tumors measuring > 3 cm demonstrated incomplete ablation. In these cases, a second procedure was performed, until imaging studies confirmed that complete ablation was achieved. Laparoscopic microwave ablation allows for precise puncture positioning, an effective ablation range, and safe and feasible surgery, which is especially suitable for liver tumors located in sites difficult to access.

  9. Assessment of options for the treatment of Sizewell PWR liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornby, J.; Allam, J.; Knibbs, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the origins of PWR liquid waste streams, their composition and rates of arising. Data has been collected from operational PWRs and estimates obtained for Sizewell B PWR liquid waste streams. Current liquid waste treatment practices are reviewed and assessments made of established and novel treatment techniques which could be applicable to Sizewell B. A short list of treatment options is given and recommendations are made relating to established treatment technologies suitable for Sizewell B and also to development work on more novel treatments which could lead to a reduction in waste disposal volumes. (author)

  10. Evolution of nodule stiffness might predict response to local ablative therapy: A series of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Praktiknjo

    Full Text Available Early information on treatment response of HCC to local ablative therapy is crucial. Elastography as a non-invasive method has recently been shown to play a potential role in distinguishing between benign and malignant liver lesions. Elastography of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in early response to local ablative therapy has not been studied to date.We prospectively included a cohort of 14 patients with diagnosis of HCC who were treated with local ablative therapy (transarterial chemoembolization, TACE and/or radiofrequency ablation, RFA. We used 2D shear-wave elastography (RT 2D-SWE to examine stiffness of HCC lesion before and 3, 30 and 90 days after local ablative therapy. Contrast-enhanced imaging after 90 days was performed to evaluate treatment response. Primary endpoint was stiffness of HCC in response to local ablative therapy. Secondary end point was tumor recurrence.Stiffness of HCC nodules and liver showed no significant difference prior to local ablative therapy. As early as three days after treatment, stiffness of responding HCC was significantly higher compared to non-responding. Higher stiffness before treatment was significantly associated with tumor recurrence.Nodule stiffness in general and RT 2D-SWE in particular could provide a useful tool for early prediction of HCC response to local ablative therapy.

  11. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Ihler, Martin CanisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp. is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by

  12. Vaccines against drugs of abuse: a viable treatment option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Kathleen M

    2003-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing brain disorder. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for this disease because the relapse rate among drug abusers seeking treatment is quite high. During the past decade, many groups have explored the feasibility of using vaccines directed against drugs of abuse as a means of eliminating illicit drug use as well as drug overdose and neurotoxicity. Vaccines work by inducing drug-specific antibodies in the bloodstream that bind to the drug of abuse and prevent its entry into the brain. The majority of work in this area has been conducted with vaccines and antibodies directed against cocaine and nicotine. On the basis of preclinical work, vaccines for cocaine and nicotine are now in clinical trials because they can offer long-term protection with minimal treatment compliance. In addition, vaccines and antibodies for phencyclidine, methamphetamine and heroin abuse are currently under development. An underlying theme in this research is the need for high concentrations of circulating drug-specific antibodies to reduce drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour when the drug is repeatedly available, especially in high doses. Although vaccines against drugs of abuse may become a viable treatment option, there are several drawbacks that need to be considered. These include: a lack of protection against a structurally dissimilar drug that produces the same effects as the drug of choice;a lack of an effect on drug craving that predisposes an addict to relapse; and tremendous individual variability in antibody formation. Forced or coerced vaccination is not likely to work from a scientific perspective, and also carries serious legal and ethical concerns. All things considered, vaccination against a drug of abuse is likely to work best with individuals who are highly motivated to quit using drugs altogether and as part of a comprehensive treatment programme. As such, the medical treatment of drug abuse will not be radically

  13. Comparative study to evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation versus trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Shanmugam Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Xanthelasma palpebrarum (XP is a metabolic disorder involving the eyelids. Radiofrequency(RF surgery and trichloroacetic acid (TCA applications have been listed among the procedures for XP, but comparative studies are not available. Aim: To compare the efficacy of radiofrequency surgery versus trichloroacetic acid application in the treatment of XP. Settings and Design: 20 consecutive cases of XP attending dermatology, medicine and endocrinology out-patient departments of M.S.Ramaiah teaching hospital were enrolled for the study. It was an open-label clinical trial conducted in our hospital for a duration of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 20 consecutive patients conforming to inclusion criteria were selected for the study. For each patient, lesions were treated with radiofrequency ablation on one side and TCA application on the other side. Results: RF ablation was done for 12 patients over right eye lesions and 8 patients over the left eye lesions. TCA applications were done for 8 patients over right eye lesions and 12 patients over left eye lesions. 70% of lesions treated with RF ablation had a score of improvement of 4 and 70% of lesions treated with TCA application had a score of improvement of 4, at 4 weeks of follow-up. At four weeks of follow-up 40% in RF group and 15% in TCA group had scarring and 45% in RF group and 30% in TCA group had pigmentation. Conclusion: RF ablation as compared to TCA application, required fewer sessions for achieving more than 75% clearance of lesions. However, TCA applications were associated with fewer complications comparatively.

  14. 2D shear-wave ultrasound elastography (SWE) evaluation of ablation zone following radiofrequency ablation of liver lesions: is it more accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiao W; Li, Xiao L; Guo, Le H; Li, Dan D; Liu, Bo J; Wang, Dan; He, Ya P; Xu, Xiao H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of two-dimensional quantitative ultrasound shear-wave elastography (2D-SWE) [i.e. virtual touch imaging quantification (VTIQ)] in assessing the ablation zone after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for ex vivo swine livers. Methods: RFA was performed in 10 pieces of fresh ex vivo swine livers with a T20 electrode needle and 20-W output power. Conventional ultrasound, conventional strain elastography (SE) and VTIQ were performed to depict the ablation zone 0 min, 10 min, 30 min and 60 min after ablation. On VTIQ, the ablation zones were evaluated qualitatively by evaluating the shear-wave velocity (SWV) map and quantitatively by measuring the SWV. The ultrasound, SE and VTIQ results were compared against gross pathological and histopathological specimens. Results: VTIQ SWV maps gave more details about the ablation zone, the central necrotic zone appeared as red, lateral necrotic zone as green and transitional zone as light green, from inner to exterior, while the peripheral unablated liver appeared as blue. Conventional ultrasound and SE, however, only marginally depicted the whole ablation zone. The volumes of the whole ablation zone (central necrotic zone + lateral necrotic zone + transitional zone) and necrotic zone (central necrotic zone + lateral necrotic zone) measured by VTIQ showed excellent correlation (r = 0.915, p  0.05). Conclusion: The quantitative 2D-SWE of VTIQ is useful for the depiction of the ablation zone after RFA and it facilitates discrimination of different areas in the ablation zone qualitatively and quantitatively. This elastography technique might be useful for the therapeutic response evaluation instantly after RFA. Advances in knowledge: A new quantitative 2D-SWE (i.e. VTIQ) for evaluation treatment response after RFA is demonstrated. It facilitates discrimination of the different areas in the ablation zone qualitatively and quantitatively and may be useful for the therapeutic

  15. Transarterial embolization (TAE) as add-on to percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of renal tumors: Review of the literature, overview of state-of-the-art embolization materials and further perspective of advanced image-guided tumor ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C.M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Stuttgart, Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany); Pallwein-Prettner, L., E-mail: leo.pallwein-prettner@bhs.at [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Linz, Linz (Austria); Vollherbst, D.F., E-mail: dominik@vollherbst.de [Clinic for Radiology, Minimally-Invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Heilbronn (Germany); Seidel, R., E-mail: roland.seidel@uks.eu [Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rieder, C., E-mail: christian.rieder@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Institute for Medical Image Computing, Bremen (Germany); Radeleff, B.A., E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U., E-mail: hu.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Wacker, F., E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Richter, G.M., E-mail: g.richter@klinikum-stuttgart.de [Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Stuttgart, Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany); Bücker, A., E-mail: arno.buecker@uks.eu [Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rodt, T., E-mail: rodt.thomas@mh-hannover.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • TAE as add-on to percutaneous RFA is feasible, safe, and very effective. • State-of-the-art embolization materials include tightly-size-calibrated microspheres. • MWA, cryoablation and IRE are TA systems beyond RFA. • Visible beads rank among the most promising innovative embolization materials. • Software-based solutions will be increasingly important for treatment guidance. - Abstract: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of stage I renal cell carcinoma has recently gained significant attention as the now available long-term and controlled data demonstrate that RFA can result in disease-free and cancer-specific survival comparable with partial and/or radical nephrectomy. In the non-controlled single center trials, however, the rates of treatment failure vary. Operator experience and ablation technique may explain some of the different outcomes. In the controlled trials, a major limitation is the lack of adequate randomization. In case reports, original series and overview articles, transarterial embolization (TAE) before percutaneous RFA was promising to increase tumor control and to reduce complications. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on TAE as add-on to percutaneous RFA for renal tumors. Specific data regarding technique, tumor and patient characteristics as well as technical, clinical and oncologic outcomes have been analyzed. Additionally, an overview of state-of-the-art embolization materials and the radiological perspective of advanced image-guided tumor ablation (TA) will be discussed. In conclusion, TAE as add-on to percutaneous RFA is feasible and very effective and safe for the treatment of T1a tumors in difficult locations and T1b tumors. Advanced radiological techniques and technologies such as microwave ablation, innovative embolization materials and software-based solutions are now available, or will be available in the near future, to reduce the limitations of

  16. New treatment options for fibromyalgia: critical appraisal of duloxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Üçeyler

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nurcan Üçeyler1, Martin Offenbächer2, Frank Petzke3, Winfried Häuser4, Claudia Sommer11Department of Neurology, University of Würzburg, Germany; 2GRP – Generation Research Program, Human Science Center, University of Munich, Germany; 3Department of Anesthesiology, University of Cologne, Germany; 4Center of Pain Therapy, Klinikum Saarbrücken gGmbH, Winterberg 1, Saarbrücken, GermanyAbstract: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, tender points, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. FMS leads to high disability levels, poor quality of life, and extensive use of medical care. Effective pharmacological treatment options are rare, and treatment effects are often of limited duration. Duloxetine is a new selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that is licensed for the treatment of pain in diabetic neuropathy. So far two randomized, placebo-controlled trials have investigated the short-term safety and efficacy of duloxetine 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day in patients suffering from FMS over a period of 12 weeks. Both dosages were superior to placebo in pain relief, and improvement in quality of life and depressive symptoms. The analgesic effect was largely independent of the antidepressant action of duloxetine. The higher dose of 120 mg/day further reduced the tender point count and elevated the tender point pain thresholds. Only mild to moderate adverse effects were reported. Duloxetine 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day has proven to be beneficial in the treatment of FMS symptoms. As true for other antidepressants further studies are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of duloxetine as an additional pharmacological treatment option in FMS.Keywords: fibromyalgia syndrome, duloxetine, antidepressant, review, SNRI

  17. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  18. Pulsed Radiofrequency Ablation for Treating Sural Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa; Jackson, Markus; Plovanich, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Sural neuralgia is persistent pain in the distribution of the sural nerve that provides sensation to the lateral posterior corner of the leg, lateral foot, and fifth toe. Sural neuralgia is a rare condition but can be challenging to treat and can cause significant limitation. We present 2 cases of sural neuralgia resistant to conservative management that were effectively treated by pulsed radiofrequency ablation. A 65-year-old female developed sural neuralgia after a foot surgery and failed conservative management. She had successful sural nerve blocks, and pulsed radiofrequency ablation led to an 80% improvement in her pain. A 33-year-old female presented with sural neuralgia secondary to two falls. The patient had tried several conservative modalities with no success. We performed diagnostic blocks and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and the patient reported 80% improvement in her pain. Pulsed radiofrequency ablation may be a safe and effective treatment for patients with sural neuralgia that does not respond to conservative therapy. However, studies are needed to elucidate its effectiveness and safety profile.

  19. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  20. Photoactive dye enhanced tissue ablation for endoscopic laser prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Minwoo; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Nguyen, Van Phuc; Oh, Junghwan; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-02-01

    Laser light has been widely used as a surgical tool to treat benign prostate hyperplasia with high laser power. The purpose of this study was to validate the feasibility of photoactive dye injection to enhance light absorption and eventually to facilitate tissue ablation with low laser power. The experiment was implemented on chicken breast due to minimal optical absorption Amaranth (AR), black dye (BD), hemoglobin powder (HP), and endoscopic marker (EM), were selected and tested in vitro with a customized 532-nm laser system with radiant exposure ranging from 0.9 to 3.9 J/cm2. Light absorbance and ablation threshold were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer and Probit analysis, respectively, and compared to feature the function of the injected dyes. Ablation performance with dye-injection was evaluated in light of radiant exposure, dye concentration, and number of injection. Higher light absorption by injected dyes led to lower ablation threshold as well as more efficient tissue removal in the order of AR, BD, HP, and EM. Regardless of the injected dyes, ablation efficiency principally increased with input parameter. Among the dyes, AR created the highest ablation rate of 44.2+/-0.2 μm/pulse due to higher absorbance and lower ablation threshold. Preliminary tests on canine prostate with a hydraulic injection system demonstrated that 80 W with dye injection yielded comparable ablation efficiency to 120 W with no injection, indicating 33 % reduced laser power with almost equivalent performance. In-depth comprehension on photoactive dye-enhanced tissue ablation can help accomplish efficient and safe laser treatment for BPH with low power application.

  1. Therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation on children with supraventricular tachycardia and the risk factors for postoperative recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Libo; Wang, Zhenzhou; Niu, Ling; An, Xinjiang

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigated the therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation on children with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and explored the risk factors for postoperative recurrence. A total of 312 patients with pediatric SVT were selected in the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from April, 2011 to March, 2017. All the patients were subjected to radiofrequency ablation, and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Tilt table test was performed before and after treatment, and heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after treatment were compared. Plasma levels of D-dimer (D-D), platelet α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before treatment, immediately after radiofrequency oblation, and at 1, 3 and 7 days after treatment. Treatment outcomes were compared between the atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) groups. Risk factors for postoperative recurrence were analyzed. Supine position heart rate after treatment was not significantly different from that before treatment (P>0.05), while the upright position heart rate was significantly increased after treatment (P0.05). No significant difference in radiofrequency ablation rate, recurrence rate and incidence of complications were found between the AVRT and AVNRT groups (P>0.05). After radiofrequency, the levels of D-D, GMP-140 and TAT ablation showed an upward trend, but decreased at day 7 to reach preoperative levels. Logistic regression analysis revealed that residual slow pathway (OR=6.718, P=0.005) and inaccurate targeting (OR=2.815, P=0.007) were independent risk factors for postoperative recurrence (Pradiofrequency ablation can damage the cardiac vagal nerve, resulting in an increase in the heart rate after ablation during the course of the tilt table test and changed hemagglutination state

  2. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors: How we do it safety and completely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Heo, Suk Hee; Hong, Jun Hyung; Lim, Hyo Soon; Seon, Hyun Ju; Hur, Young Hoe; Park, Chang Hwan; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become one of the most promising local cancer therapies for both resectable and nonresectable hepatic tumors. Although RF ablation is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of liver tumors, the outcome of treatment can be closely related to the location and shape of the tumors. There may be difficulties with RF ablation of tumors that are adjacent to large vessels or extrahepatic heat-vulnerable organs and tumors in the caudate lobe, possibly resulting in major complications or treatment failure. Thus, a number of strategies have been developed to overcome these challenges, which include artificial ascites, needle track ablation, fusion imaging guidance, parallel targeting, bypass targeting, etc. Operators need to use the right strategy in the right situation to avoid the possibility of complications and incomplete thermal tissue destruction; with the right strategy, RF ablation can be performed successfully, even for hepatic tumors in high-risk locations. This article offers technical strategies that can be used to effectively perform RF ablation as well as to minimize possible complications related to the procedure with representative cases and schematic illustrations.

  3. Catheter based radiofrequency ablation of renal nerves for the treatment of resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Schlaich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Resistant hypertension is a common and growing clinical problem characterized by the failure to attain target blood pressure levels despite adequate use of at least three antihypertensive agents. Objectives The aim of this article is to emphasize the role of novel approaches to treat resistant hypertension. Materials and methods After an excursus on the physiological role of renal nerves on kidney function, volume homeostasis and blood pressure control, this article describes the radiofrequency ablation technology to obtain kidneys denervation. Results Activation of the sympathetic nervous system plays a prominent role as a major regulator of circulatory and metabolic control. The kidneys have a particularly dense afferent sensory and efferent sympathetic innervation and are thereby strategically positioned to be origin as well as target of sympathetic activation. In this context, recent evidence suggests that a novel catheter-based approach to functionally denervate the human kidneys using radiofrequency ablation technology may provide a safe and effective treatment alternative for resistant hypertension and its adverse consequences. Conclusions Despite the availability of numerous safe and effective pharmacological therapies to treat elevated blood pressure, novel therapeutic approaches are warranted to improve the management and prognosis of patients with refractory hypertension. Several clinical trials are currently conducted and planned to further substantiate the blood pressure lowering efficacy of this novel renal denervation procedure.

  4. Ablative fractional lasers (CO(2) and Er:YAG): a randomized controlled double-blind split-face trial of the treatment of peri-orbital rhytides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, Syrus; Czarnecka, Agnieszka; Jünger, Michael; Raulin, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Ablative fractional lasers were introduced for treating facial rhytides in an attempt to achieve results comparable to traditional ablative resurfacing but with fewer side effects. However, there is conflicting evidence on how well this goal has generally been achieved as well as on the comparative value of fractional CO(2) and Er:YAG lasers. The present study compares these modalities in a randomized controlled double-blind split-face study design. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and completed the entire study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a single treatment on each side of the peri-orbital region, one with a fractional CO(2) and one with a fractional Er:YAG laser. The evaluation included the profilometric measurement of wrinkle depth, the Fitzpatrick wrinkle score (both before and 3 months after treatment) as well as the assessment of side effects and patient satisfaction (1, 3, 6 days and 3 months after treatment). Both modalities showed a roughly equivalent effect. Wrinkle depth and Fitzpatrick score were reduced by approximately 20% and 10%, respectively, with no appreciable difference between lasers. Side effects and discomfort were slightly more pronounced after Er:YAG treatment in the first few days, but in the later course there were more complaints following CO(2) laser treatment. Patient satisfaction was fair and the majority of patients would have undergone the treatment again without a clear preference for either method. According to the present study, a single ablative fractional treatment session has an appreciable yet limited effect on peri-orbital rhytides. When fractional CO(2) and Er:YAG lasers are used in such a manner that there are comparable post-operative healing periods, comparable cosmetic improvement occurs. Multiple sessions may be required for full effect, which cancels out the proposed advantage of fractional methods, that is, fewer side effects and less down time.

  5. Length of Barrett's segment predicts failure of eradication in radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's esophagus: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Tyler; Allamneni, Chaitanya; Cowley, Kevin; Eick, John; Gullick, Allison; Peter, Shajan

    2018-05-21

    We aim to investigate factors that may contribute to failure of eradication of dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus among patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation treatment. A retrospective review of patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for treatment of Barrett's Esophagus was performed. Data analyzed included patient demographics, medical history, length of Barrett's Esophagus, number of radiofrequency ablation sessions, and histopathology. Subsets of patients achieving complete eradication were compared with those not achieving complete eradication. A total of 107 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's Esophagus, the majority white, overweight, and male. Before treatment, 63 patients had low-grade dysplasia, and 44 patients had high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma. Complete eradication was achieved in a majority of patients (57% for metaplasia, and 76.6% for dysplasia). Failure of eradication occurred in 15.7% of patients. The median number of radiofrequency ablation treatments in patients achieving complete eradication was 3 sessions, compared to 4 sessions for failure of eradication (p = 0.06). Barrett's esophagus length of more than 5 cm was predictive of failure of eradication (p Radiofrequency ablation for dysplastic Barrett's Esophagus is a proven and effective treatment modality, associated with a high rate of complete eradication. Our rates of eradication from a center starting an ablation program are comparable to previously published studies. Length of Barrett's segment > 5 cm was found to be predictive of failure of eradication in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation.

  6. Novel treatment options for portal hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleman, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Portal hypertension is most frequently associated with cirrhosis and is a major driver for associated complications, such as variceal bleeding, ascites or hepatic encephalopathy. As such, clinically significant portal hypertension forms the prelude to decompensation and impacts significantly on the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis. At present, non-selective β-blockers, vasopressin analogues and somatostatin analogues are the mainstay of treatment but these strategies are far from satisfactory and only target splanchnic hyperemia. In contrast, safe and reliable strategies to reduce the increased intrahepatic resistance in cirrhotic patients still represent a pending issue. In recent years, several preclinical and clinical trials have focused on this latter component and other therapeutic avenues. In this review, we highlight novel data in this context and address potentially interesting therapeutic options for the future. PMID:28533907

  7. Image and pathological changes after microwave ablation of breast cancer: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wenbin [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Yanni [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Chen, Lin; Ling, Lijun; Liang, Mengdi; Pan, Hong [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Siqi [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Ding, Qiang [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Xiaoan, E-mail: liuxiaoan@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang, Shui, E-mail: ws0801@hotmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We report successful experience of MWA in breast cancer under local anesthesia. • We report MR imaging evaluation of microwave ablation zone in breast cancer. • Pathological changes after microwave ablation in breast cancer was reported. • 2 min MWA caused an ablation zone with three diameters > 2 cm in breast cancer. - Abstract: Purpose: To prospectively assess MR imaging evaluation of the ablation zone and pathological changes after microwave ablation (MWA) in breast cancer. Materials and methods: Twelve enrolled patients, diagnosed with non-operable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), were treated by MWA and then neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgery. MR imaging was applied to evaluate the effect of MWA. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to analyze the ablated area. Results: All MWA procedures were performed successfully under local anesthesia. For a mean duration of 2.15 min, the mean largest, middle and smallest diameters in the ablated zone 24-h post-ablation in MR imaging were 2.98 cm ± 0.53, 2.51 cm ± 0.41 and 2.23 cm ± 0.41, respectively. The general shape of the ablation zone was close to a sphere. The ablated area became gradually smaller in MR imaging. No adverse effects related to MWA were noted in all 12 patients during and after MWA. HE staining could confirm the effect about 3 months after MWA, which was confirmed by TEM. Conclusions: 2 min MWA can cause an ablation zone with three diameters larger than 2 cm in breast cancer, which may be suitable for the local treatment of breast cancer up to 2 cm in largest diameter. However, the long-term effect of MWA in the treatment of small breast cancer should be determined in the future.

  8. Laser Ablation of Biological Tissue Using Pulsed CO2 Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashishin, Yuichi; Sano, Shu; Nakayama, Takeyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Laser scalpels are currently used as a form of laser treatment. However, their ablation mechanism has not been clarified because laser excision of biological tissue occurs over a short time scale. Biological tissue ablation generates sound (laser-induced sound). This study seeks to clarify the ablation mechanism. The state of the gelatin ablation was determined using a high-speed video camera and the power reduction of a He-Ne laser beam. The aim of this study was to clarify the laser ablation mechanism by observing laser excision using the high-speed video camera and monitoring the power reduction of the He-Ne laser beam. We simulated laser excision of a biological tissue by irradiating gelatin (10 wt%) with radiation from a pulsed CO 2 laser (wavelength: 10.6 μm; pulse width: 80 ns). In addition, a microphone was used to measure the laser-induced sound. The first pulse caused ablation particles to be emitted in all directions; these particles were subsequently damped so that they formed a mushroom cloud. Furthermore, water was initially evaporated by laser irradiation and then tissue was ejected.

  9. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer with a Dedicated Breast Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merckel, Laura G.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Köhler, Max O.; Bongard, H. J. G. Desirée van den; Deckers, Roel; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Binkert, Christoph A.; Moonen, Chrit T.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing the treatment of breast cancer remains a major topic of interest. In current clinical practice, breast-conserving therapy is the standard of care for patients with localized breast cancer. Technological developments have fueled interest in less invasive breast cancer treatment. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a completely noninvasive ablation technique. Focused beams of ultrasound are used for ablation of the target lesion without disrupting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the beam path. MRI is an excellent imaging method for tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and evaluation of treatment results. The combination of HIFU and MR imaging offers an opportunity for image-guided ablation of breast cancer. Previous studies of MR-HIFU in breast cancer patients reported a limited efficacy, which hampered the clinical translation of this technique. These prior studies were performed without an MR-HIFU system specifically developed for breast cancer treatment. In this article, a novel and dedicated MR-HIFU breast platform is presented. This system has been designed for safe and effective MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer. Furthermore, both clinical and technical challenges are discussed, which have to be solved before MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  10. Long-Term Results after Treatment of Very Low-, Low-, and High-Risk Thyroid Cancers in a Combined Setting of Thyroidectomy and Radio Ablation Therapy in Euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer treatment usually consists of thyroidectomy and radio ablation in hypothyroidism 4-6 weeks after surgery. Replacing hypothyroidism by recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can facilitate radio ablation in euthyroidism within one week after surgery. The outcome of this approach was investigated. Methods. This is a prospective randomized trial to compare thyroidectomy and radio ablation within a few days after preconditioning with recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone versus thyroidectomy and radio ablation separated by four weeks of L-T4 withdrawal. Tumors were graded into very low-, low- , or high-risk tumors. Recurrence-free survival was confirmed at follow-up controls by neck ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin. Suspected tumor recurrence was treated by additional radio ablation or surgery. Quality-of-life questionnaires with additional evaluation of job performance and sick-leave time were used in all patients. Results. Radio ablation in euthyroidism in quick succession after thyroidectomy did not lead to higher tumor recurrence rates of differentiated thyroid cancers in any risk category and was significantly advantageous with respect to quality-of-life (P<0.001, sick-leave time (P<0.001, and job performance (P=0.002. Conclusion. Recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone can be used safely and with good efficacy to allow radio ablation under sustained euthyroidism within one week after thyroidectomy.

  11. Treatment Options for Severe Obesity in the Pediatric Population: Current Limitations and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Justin R; Fox, Claudia K; Kelly, Aaron S

    2018-06-01

    Severe obesity is the only obesity classification increasing in prevalence among children and adolescents. Treatment options that produce meaningful and sustained weight loss and comorbidity resolution are urgently needed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of the current treatment options for pediatric severe obesity and offer suggestions regarding future opportunities for accelerating the development and evaluation of innovative treatment strategies. At present, there are three treatment options for youth with severe obesity: lifestyle modification therapy, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Lifestyle modification therapy can be useful for improving many chronic disease risk factors and comorbid conditions but often fails to achieve clinically meaningful and sustainable weight loss. Pharmacotherapy holds promise as an effective adjunctive treatment but remains in the primordial stages of development in the pediatric population. Bariatric surgery provides robust weight loss and risk factor/comorbidity improvements but is accompanied by higher risks and lower uptake compared to lifestyle modification therapy and pharmacotherapy. New areas worth pursuing include combination pharmacotherapy, device therapy, identification of predictors of response aimed at precision treatment, and interventions in the postbariatric surgical setting to improve long-term outcomes. Treating pediatric severe obesity effectively and safely is extremely challenging. Some progress has been made, but substantially more effort and innovation are needed in the future to combat this serious and ongoing medical and public health issue. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  12. Economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation compared with other ablation techniques in women with menorrhagia: a retrospective analysis with German health claims data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischoff-Everding C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Bischoff-Everding,1 Ruediger Soeder,2 Benno Neukirch3 1HGC GesundheitsConsult GmbH, Duesseldorf, Germany; 2Gynecological Joint Practice, Mainz, Germany; 3Faculty of Health Care, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Sciences, Krefeld, Germany Objective: To evaluate the economic and clinical benefits of endometrial radiofrequency ablation (RFA compared with other ablation techniques for the treatment of menorrhagia.Methods: Using German health claims data, women meeting defined inclusion criteria for the intervention group (RFA were selected. A comparable control group (other endometrial ablations was established using propensity score matching. These two groups were compared during the quarter of treatment (QoT and a follow-up of 2 years for the following outcomes: costs during QoT and during follow-up, repeated menorrhagia diagnoses during follow-up and necessary retreatments during follow-up. Results: After performing propensity score matching, 50 cases could be allocated to the intervention group, while 38 were identified as control cases. Patients in the RFA group had 5% fewer repeat menorrhagia diagnoses (40% vs 45%; not significant and 5% fewer treatments associated with recurrent menorrhagia (6% vs 11%; not significant than cases in the control group. During the QoT, the RFA group incurred €578 additional costs (€2,068 vs €1,490; ns. However, during follow-up, the control group incurred €1,254 additional costs (€4,561 vs €5,815; ns, with medication, outpatient physician consultations, and hospitals costs being the main cost drivers. However, none of the results were statistically significant. Conclusion: Although RFA was more cost-intensive in the QoT compared with other endometrial ablation techniques, an average total savings of €676 was generated during the follow-up period. While having evidence that RFA is clinically equivalent to other endometrial ablation procedures, we generated indications that

  13. Radiofrequency sensory ablation as a treatment for symptomatic unilateral lumbosacral junction pseudarticulation (Bertolotti's syndrome): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and successful treatment of a case of symptomatic unilateral lumbosacral junction pseudarticulation using a novel radiofrequency nerve ablation technique. A 56-year-old female patient who had suffered with low back and right upper buttock pain for 16 years experienced incomplete relief with L4/5 facet joint radiofrequency ablation. She was found to have an elongated right L5 transverse process that articulated with the sacral ala (Bertolotti's syndrome). Fluoroscopically guided local anesthetic/corticosteroid injection into the pseudarthrosis eliminated her residual right buttock pain for the duration of the local anesthetic only. Complete pain relief was achieved by injecting local anesthetic circumferentially around the posterior pseudarthrosis articular margin. Accordingly, bipolar radiofrequency strip thermal lesions were created at the same locations. Complete pain relief and full restoration of function was achieved for 16 months postprocedure. This case report describes a novel radiofrequency technique for treating symptomatic lumbosacral junction pseudarticulation that warrants further evaluation.

  14. Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nan; Lu, Shukuan; Qin, Dui; Xu, Tianqi; Han, Meng; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2018-07-01

    A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Ustekinumab as an Alternative Treatment Option for Chronic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Chowdhary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an exceptionally rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Patients classically present with small, follicular keratosis and salmon-colored plaques that begin at the head and neck and slowly progress to widespread erythroderma including the palms and soles. It is difficult to distinguish PRP from other inflammatory dermatoses; however, features that help aid in the diagnosis include ‘islands' of spared skin, orangish hue and typical findings on biopsy. There are no specific guidelines on therapy and treatment options include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Unfortunately options are limited for patients when these drugs do not work. We report a case of chronic PRP, refractory to conventional treatment, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy. The patient was treated with 90 mg subcutaneous ustekinumab injections and began to show improvement within only 8 weeks. Long-term control of the disease has been attained without any significant side effects. We report this case to show that ustekinumab can be used as an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic, unremitting PRP. Treatment response is remarkably rapid and the infrequent dosing leads to patient compliance and a significantly improved quality of life.

  16. Randomized, Split-Face/Décolleté Comparative Trial of Procedure Enhancement System for Fractional non-Ablative Laser Resurfacing Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deanne Mraz; Frulla, Ashton P

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: A topical proprietary procedural enhancement system (PES) containing a combination of active ingredients including a tripeptide and hexapeptide (TriHex Technology™, Alastin Procedure Enhancement Invasive System, ALASTIN Skincare™, Inc., Carlsbad, CA) has been used successfully to aid in healing and improve symptomatology following resurfacing procedures. METHODS: PES (Gentle Cleanser, Regenerating Skin Nectar with TriHex Technology™, Ultra Nourishing Moisturizer with TriHex Technology™, Soothe + Protect Recovery Balm, Broad Spectrum 30+ Sunscreen) was compared to a basic regimen (Aquaphor™, Cerave™ cleanser, Vanicream™, Alastin Broad Spectrum 30+ Sunscreen) in a split face/ décolleté trial following fractional non-ablative thulium-doped resurfacing treatment to the face or décolleté. The skin was pre-conditioned and treated during and after the procedure using the two regimens. RESULTS: A blinded investigator rated the PES statistically superior to the basic regimen on healing post-laser treatment on day 4 based on lentigines, texture, and Global Skin Quality. Subjects also reported 'better looking and feeling' skin on the PES side. CONCLUSION: PES appears to improve healing post-non ablative thulium-doped resurfacing treatment to the face/décolleté in comparison with standard of care. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(7):707-710..

  17. Hypertrophic Scarring of the Neck Following Ablative Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser Resurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Mathew M.; Tope, Whitney D.; Yu, Thomas; Szachowicz, Edward; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Background Ablative fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatments have gained popularity due to their efficacy, shortened downtime, and decreased potential for scarring in comparison to traditional ablative CO2 resurfacing. To date, scarring with fractional CO2 lasers has not been reported. Objective Five patients treated with the same fractional CO2 laser technology for photodamage of the neck were referred to our practices 1–3 months after treatment. Each patient developed scarring. Of the five cases, two are discussed in detail. The first was treated under general anesthesia on the face and anterior neck at a pulse energy of 30 mJ (859 μm depth) with 25% coverage. Eleven days after treatment, three non-healing areas along the horizontal skin folds of the anterior neck were noted. At 2 weeks after CO2 ablative fractional resurfacing, these areas had become thickened. These raised areas were treated with a non-ablative fractionated 1,550 nm laser to modify the wound healing milieu. One week later, distinct firm pale papules in linear arrays with mild hypopigmentation had developed along involved neck skin folds. Skin biopsy was performed. For the second patient, the neck was treated at a pulse energy of 20 mJ (630 μm depth) with 30% coverage of the exposed skin, with a total treatment energy of 5.0 kJ. Minimal crusting was noted on the neck throughout the initial healing phase of 2 weeks. She then experienced tightness on her neck. Approximately 3 weeks after treatment, she developed multiple vertical and horizontal hypertrophic scars (HS). Results Histopathology for the first case confirmed the presence of a hypertrophic scar. The papules in this case completely resolved with mild residual hypopigmentation after treatment with topical corticosteroids. HS failed to resolve in the second case to date after 1 month. Conclusion As with traditional ablative CO2 laser resurfacing, HS is a potential complication of ablative fractional CO2 laser resurfacing

  18. Fractional non-ablative laser-assisted drug delivery leads to improvement in male and female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Ana Carina Junqueira; Vilarinho, Adriana; Junqueira, Ana Lúcia Ariano

    2018-02-16

    Androgenetic alopecia, also known as male and female pattern hair loss, is a very prevalent condition; however, approved therapeutic options are limited. Fractionated laser has been proposed to assist in penetration of topical medications to the cutaneous tissue. We present four cases of androgenetic alopecia that underwent treatment with a non-ablative erbium glass fractional laser followed by the application of topical finasteride 0,05% and growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and copper peptide 1%. During all laser treatment sessions, eight passes were performed, at 7 mJ, 3-9% of coverage and density of 120 mzt/cm 2 . A positive response was observed in all of the four patients. Photographs taken 2 weeks after the last session showed improvement in hair regrowth and density. No significant side effects were observed.

  19. Radiofrequency ablation of lung and liver lesions using CT fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, A.; Glenn, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Tumour ablation with radiofrequency (RF) energy is a relatively new procedure for the treatment of focal malignant disease. At our institution this is currently being used in the treatment of certain liver and lung lesions with the patients involved being enrolled in clinical trials. The poster describes the technique used at our institution for the placement of the radiofrequency ablation electrode using CT fluoroscopy. Criteria for patient selection are included. Complications from the procedure are described, as well as follow up appearances and results. Our results from the treatment of primary and secondary lesions in the liver correlate well with published literature. Treatment is still not as successful as surgical resection but there is significantly less morbidity. Where this method may be appropriate is when the patient is not a candidate for surgical resection. The treatment of colorectal metastases in the lung shows early promise as a possible second line treatment (as for liver) where the patient is not a candidate for surgery. Preliminary results are soon to be published in conjunction with the Department of Surgery at our institution. RF Electrode placement using CT Fluoroscopy is performed at our institution. While still at its early stages, RF Ablation shows promise as a possible second line treatment (with other adjuvant therapy) for the management of focal malignant disease in the lung and liver. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Effect of ablatant composition on the ablation of a fuelling pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.T.; Thomsen, K.; Piret, S.

    1988-01-01

    The single species neutral-shielding model for the ablation of a hydrogenic pellet is extended by considering the ablatant as a mixture of four species: molecular and atomic hydrogen, protons and electrons. Compared with the results of the frozen flow, (i.e. the single species molecular hydrogen gas model), results of the analysis showed that the presence of dissociation and ionization effects caused a marked difference of the ablatant state. The attenuations of the incoming electron energy and energy flux, however, are very much similar irrespective of whether the ablated flow is in a frozen or an equilibrium state. The scaling law of the pellet ablation rate with respect to the plasma state of Te, ne and the pellet radius remains the same; the ablation rate is reduced by approximately 15%. To examine the possible existence of a spherical shell around the pellet where most of the incoming electron energy is absorbed, acodmparison is made between the local electron collisional mean free path and the electron Larmor radius. A critical field at the ionization radius is evaluated. An effective spherical energyabsorbing region exists when the local field strength is below the critical value. For a plasma state of low Te and ne, (where the ablatant is hardly ionized), and for one near the thermonuclear condition (where a highly dense ablatant exists near the pellet), the effective energy absorption region is nearly spherical. 20 refs. (author)

  1. Percutaneous laser ablation of unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacella, Claudio M. [Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Via San Francesco 50, Albano Laziale, Rome 00041 (Italy)], E-mail: claudiomaurizio.pacella@fastwebnet.it; Stasi, Roberto; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Pacella, Sara; Graziano, Filomena Maria; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Papini, Enrico [Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Via San Francesco 50, Albano Laziale, Rome 00041 (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical benefits of percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) in patients with unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Patients and methods: Four patients with hepatic metastases from ACC and a Cushing's syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided PLA. In one case the procedure was performed also on the primary tumor. Results: After three sessions of PLA, the primary tumor of 15 cm was ablated by 75%. After 1-4 (median 1) sessions of PLA, five liver metastases ranging from 2 to 5 cm were completely ablated, while the sixth tumor of 12 cm was ablated by 75%. There were no major complications. Treatment resulted in an improvement of performance status and a reduction of the daily dosage of mitotane in all patients. The three patients with liver metastases presented a marked decrease of 24-h urine cortisol levels, an improved control of hypertension and a mean weight loss of 2.8 kg. After a median follow-up after PLA of 27.0 months (range, 9-48 months), two patients have died of tumor progression, while two other patients remain alive and free of disease. Conclusions: Percutaneous laser ablation is a feasible, safe and well tolerated procedure for the palliative treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic ACC. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of PLA on survival.

  2. Percutaneous laser ablation of unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, Claudio M.; Stasi, Roberto; Bizzarri, Giancarlo; Pacella, Sara; Graziano, Filomena Maria; Guglielmi, Rinaldo; Papini, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical benefits of percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) in patients with unresectable primary and metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Patients and methods: Four patients with hepatic metastases from ACC and a Cushing's syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided PLA. In one case the procedure was performed also on the primary tumor. Results: After three sessions of PLA, the primary tumor of 15 cm was ablated by 75%. After 1-4 (median 1) sessions of PLA, five liver metastases ranging from 2 to 5 cm were completely ablated, while the sixth tumor of 12 cm was ablated by 75%. There were no major complications. Treatment resulted in an improvement of performance status and a reduction of the daily dosage of mitotane in all patients. The three patients with liver metastases presented a marked decrease of 24-h urine cortisol levels, an improved control of hypertension and a mean weight loss of 2.8 kg. After a median follow-up after PLA of 27.0 months (range, 9-48 months), two patients have died of tumor progression, while two other patients remain alive and free of disease. Conclusions: Percutaneous laser ablation is a feasible, safe and well tolerated procedure for the palliative treatment of unresectable primary and metastatic ACC. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of PLA on survival

  3. The advent of ultrasound-guided ablation techniques in nodular thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Enrico; Pacella, Claudio M; Misischi, Irene

    2014-01-01

    non-functioning thyroid nodules that grow or become symptomatic, trained operators may safely induce, with a single session of laser ablation treatment or radiofrequency ablation, a 50% volume decrease and, in parallel, improve local symptoms. In contrast, hyperfunctioning nodules remain best treated...... minimally invasive treatments, directed towards office-based management of symptomatic nodules, without requiring general anaesthesia, and with negligible damage to the skin and cervical tissues, have been proposed during the past two decades. Today, ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection...

  4. Atorvastatin can ameliorate left atrial stunning induced by radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ruiqin; Yang, Yingtao; Cui, Wei; Yin, Hongning; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhang, Jidong; You, Ling

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to study the functional changes of the left atrium after radiofrequency ablation treatment for atrial fibrillation and the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin. Fifty-eight patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation were randomly divided into non-atorvastatin group and atorvastatin group. Patients in the atorvastatin group were treated with atorvastatin 20 mg p.o. per night in addition to the conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation; patients in the non-atorvastatin group received conventional treatment of atrial fibrillation only. Echocardiography was performed before radiofrequency ablation operation and 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks after operation. Two-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking imaging system was used to measure the structural indexes of the left atrium. Results indicated that there was no significant change for indexes representing the structural status of the left atrium within a month after radiofrequency ablation (P > 0.05); however, there were significant changes for indexes representing the functional status of the left atrium. There were also significant changes in indexes reflecting left atrial strain status: the S and SRs of atorvastatin group were higher than those of non-atorvastatin group (P atorvastatin could improve left atrial function and shorten the duration of atrial stunning after radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation.

  5. Treatment options for polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Badawy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Badawy1 Abubaker Elnashar21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Benha University, Benha, EgyptAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women. The clinical manifestation of PCOS varies from a mild menstrual disorder to severe disturbance of reproductive and metabolic functions. Management of women with PCOS depends on the symptoms. These could be ovulatory dysfunction-related infertility, menstrual disorders, or androgen-related symptoms. Weight loss improves the endocrine profile and increases the likelihood of ovulation and pregnancy. Normalization of menstrual cycles and ovulation could occur with modest weight loss as little as 5% of the initial weight. The treatment of obesity includes modifications in lifestyle (diet and exercise and medical and surgical treatment. In PCOS, anovulation relates to low follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations and the arrest of antral follicle growth in the final stages of maturation. This can be treated with medications such as clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, glucocorticoids, or gonadotropins or surgically by laparoscopic ovarian drilling. In vitro fertilization will remain the last option to achieve pregnancy when others fail. Chronic anovulation over a long period of time is also associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma, which should be seriously investigated and treated. There are androgenic symptoms that will vary from patient to patient, such as hirsutism, acne, and/or alopecia. These are troublesome presentations to the patients and require adequate treatment. Alternative medicine has been emerging as one of the commonly practiced medicines for different health problems, including PCOS. This review underlines the contribution to the treatment of different symptoms.Keywords: treatment, polycystic ovary

  6. Sonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Mingan [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Liang Ping, E-mail: Liangping301@hotmail.com [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China); Yu Xiaoling; Cheng Zhigang; Han Zhiyu; Liu Fangyi; Yu Jie [Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sonography-guided percutaneous microwave ablation of intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma. Materials and methods: From May 2006 to March 2010, 15 patients (11 men, 4 women; mean age, 57.4 years) with 24 histologically proven intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma lesions (mean tumor size, 3.2 {+-} 1.9 cm; range, 1.3-9.9 cm) were treated with microwave ablation. Results: Thirty-eight sessions were performed for 24 nodules in 15 patients. The follow-up period was 4-31 months (mean, 12.8 {+-} 8.0 months). The ablation success rate, the technique effectiveness rate, and the local tumor progression rate were 91.7% (22/24), 87.5% (21/24), and 25% (6/24) respectively according to the results of follow-up. The cumulative overall 6, 12, 24 month survival rates were 78.8%, 60.0%, and 60.0%, respectively. Major complication occurred including liver abscess in two patients (13.3%) and needle seeding in one patient (6.7%). Both complications were cured satisfied with antibiotic treatment combined to catheter drainage for abscess and resection for needle seeding. The minor complications and side effects were experienced by most patients which subsided with supportive treatment. Conclusion: Microwave ablation can be used as a safe and effective technique to treat intrahepatic primary cholangiocarcinoma.

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation Combined with Renal Arterial Embolization for the Treatment of Unresectable Renal Cell Carcinoma Larger Than 3.5 cm: Initial Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Akeboshi, Masao; Takaki, Haruyuki; Kariya, Zentaro; Kinbara, Hiroyuki; Arima, Kiminobu; Yanagawa, Makoto; Hori, Yasuhide; Kato, Hiromi; Sugimura, Yoshiki; Takeda, Kan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and therapeutic effects of the combination of renal arterial embolization and radiofrequency (RF) ablation to reinforce the anticancer effect on renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) measuring 3.5 cm or larger. This study was undertaken to evaluate this combined therapy on large RCCs-based tumor geometry. Eleven patients with 12 RCCs 3.5 cm or larger in diameter (3.5-9.0 cm) underwent combined therapy. Two were exophytic tumors, and the remaining 10 tumors had components extending into the renal sinus fat. Tumor vessels were selectively embolized in nine patients and the renal artery was completely embolized in two patients with polyvinyl alcohol or ethanol mixed with iodized oil. RF ablation was percutaneously done under the computed tomographic (CT)-fluoroscopic guidance. Response to treatment was evaluated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Tumor enhancement was eliminated after a single RF session in nine tumors (75%), after two sessions in two tumors (17%), and after four sessions in one tumor (8%). Both exophytic tumors (100%) and 7 of 10 tumors having components in the renal sinus fat (70%) were completely ablated with a single RF session. All tumors remained controlled during a mean follow-up period of 13 months and showed significant reduction in tumor sizes (5.2 ± 1.7 cm to 3.6 ± 1.4 cm, p < 0.001). A delayed abscess developed in the ablated lesion in a patient, which was percutaneously drainaged. Combined therapy as described in this report is a feasible, relatively safe, and promising treatment method for large RCCs regardless of tumor geometry

  8. Laser ablation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Laser Ablation provides a broad picture of the current understanding of laser ablation and its many applications, from the views of key contributors to the field. Discussed are in detail the electronic processes in laser ablation of semiconductors and insulators, the post-ionization of laser-desorbed biomolecules, Fourier-transform mass spectroscopy, the interaction of laser radiation with organic polymers, laser ablation and optical surface damage, laser desorption/ablation with laser detection, and laser ablation of superconducting thin films.

  9. Momentum and velocity of the ablated material in laser machining of carbon fiber preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, P.; Speker, N.; Weber, R.; Graf, T.

    2013-11-01

    The automation in fabrication of CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) parts demands efficient and low-cost machining technologies. In conventional cutting technologies, tool-wear and low process speeds are some of the reasons for high costs. Thus, the use of lasers is an attractive option for cutting CF-preforms. A typical effect degrading the quality in laser cutting CF-preform is a bulged cutting edge. This effect is assumed to be caused by interaction of the fibers with the ablated material, which leaves the kerf at high velocity. Hence, a method for measuring the momentum and the velocity of the vapor is presented in this article. To measure the momentum of the ablated material, the CF-preform is mounted on a precision scale while cutting it with a laser. The direction of the momentum was determined by measuring the momentum parallel and orthogonal to the CF-preform surface. A change of the direction of the momentum with different cutting-speeds is assessed at constant laser-power. Averaged velocities of the ablation products of up to 300 m/s were determined by measuring the ablated mass and the momentum.

  10. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Westphal, Saskia; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till; Penzkofer, Tobias; Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 ± 0.14, 1.45 ± 0.13, and 1.74 ± 0.11 cm for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 ± 0.09 and 1.26 ± 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 ± 0.65, 2.85 ± 0.72, and 4.45 ± 0.47 cm 3 for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 ± 0.30 and 2.29 ± 0.55 cm 3 got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.

  11. Ablation characteristics of boding liver according to cool-tip temperature of RFA equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jae [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Koo [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This study confirmed the correlation between the change of the cooling water in internal cooling system and the size of the ablation site of bovine liver in RF heat treatment equipment. The bovine liver was resection with 4 x 4 x 4 cm{sup 3} in 2 cm cool-tip and with 6 x 6 x 6 cm{sup 3} in 3 cm cool-tip for the experiments. Area and perimeter of the ablation site for bovine liver were measured by Freehand techniques of MRI. It showed area and perimeter decreased during cool-tip temperature rises 6 and 12 minutes ablation using a 2 cm and 3 cm cool-tip. The correlation of cool-tip temperature and area and perimeter was statistically significant the result are shown (p=.000). The measurements of area and perimeter were more accurate with MRI in actual measurements and MRI for ablation range. The statistical results using Paired sample T-test was also significant (p=.038). The ablation range of bovine liver decreased according as cooling water temperature increases in RF heat treatment equipment for reason of carbonization occurred due to does not accurately pass the RF energy. Therefore, it is considered the effect of RF heat treatment would be increased if the temperature of the cooling water consistently maintain the low temperature in order to reduce the generation of carbide at RF heat treatment and RF energy is delivered accurately.

  12. Ablation characteristics of boding liver according to cool-tip temperature of RFA equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Jeong Koo

    2015-01-01

    This study confirmed the correlation between the change of the cooling water in internal cooling system and the size of the ablation site of bovine liver in RF heat treatment equipment. The bovine liver was resection with 4 x 4 x 4 cm"3 in 2 cm cool-tip and with 6 x 6 x 6 cm"3 in 3 cm cool-tip for the experiments. Area and perimeter of the ablation site for bovine liver were measured by Freehand techniques of MRI. It showed area and perimeter decreased during cool-tip temperature rises 6 and 12 minutes ablation using a 2 cm and 3 cm cool-tip. The correlation of cool-tip temperature and area and perimeter was statistically significant the result are shown (p=.000). The measurements of area and perimeter were more accurate with MRI in actual measurements and MRI for ablation range. The statistical results using Paired sample T-test was also significant (p=.038). The ablation range of bovine liver decreased according as cooling water temperature increases in RF heat treatment equipment for reason of carbonization occurred due to does not accurately pass the RF energy. Therefore, it is considered the effect of RF heat treatment would be increased if the temperature of the cooling water consistently maintain the low temperature in order to reduce the generation of carbide at RF heat treatment and RF energy is delivered accurately

  13. Benign thyroid nodule unresponsive to radiofrequency ablation treated with laser ablation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Silvia; Balestra, Margherita; Vera, Lara; Giusti, Massimo

    2018-05-11

    Radiofrequency ablation and laser ablation are safe and effective techniques for reducing thyroid nodule volume, neck symptoms, and cosmetic complaints. Therapeutic success is defined as a nodule reduction > 50% between 6 and 12 months after the procedure, but a percentage of nodules inexplicably do not respond to thermal ablation. We describe the case of a young Caucasian woman with a solid benign thyroid nodule who refused surgery and who had undergone radiofrequency ablation in 2013. The nodule did not respond in terms of either volume reduction or improvement in neck symptoms. After 2 years, given the patient's continued refusal of thyroidectomy, we proposed laser ablation. The nodule displayed a significant volume reduction (- 50% from radiofrequency ablation baseline volume, - 57% from laser ablation baseline), and the patient reported a significant improvement in neck symptoms (from 6/10 to 1/10 on a visual analogue scale). We conjecture that some benign thyroid nodules may be intrinsically resistant to necrosis when one specific ablation technique is used, but may respond to another technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the effect of performing a different percutaneous ablation technique in a nodule that does not respond to radiofrequency ablation.

  14. Radiofrequency ablation of the basivertebral nerve as potential treatment of back pain: pathologic assessment in an ovine model (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. J.; Eskey, Cliff J.; Attawia, Mohammed; Patel, Samit J.; Ryan, T. P.; Pellegrino, Richard; Bergeron, Jeffrey A.

    2005-04-01

    Pathological involvement of the basivertebral nerve (BVN), an intraosseous vertebral nerve, may play a significant role in some forms of back pain. This study was designed to assess the feasibility and effects of thermal ablation of the lumbar basivertebral nerve in mature sheep. Sixteen adult female sheep weighing 65-80 kg were anesthetized and positioned for ventral recumbent surgery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, two bilarterally oposed 5mm active length rediofrequency (RF) electrodes (1.65mm diameter were perfutaneously placed in select lumbar vertebrae at a relative angle of 70 degrees with a 5 mm tip separation. The elctrodes were advanced to the region of the vertebral bodies which contained the BVN. A thermal dose of 95° C/720 seconds was administered. Animals were survived for 2, 14, 90, or 180 days post-treatment. Clinical, radiologic and pathologic investigations were performed to determine the effect of the heat on the BVN and associated tissues. Thermal damage to the basivertebral neurovascular bundle was characterized by early hemorrhage and necrosis, followed by inflammation and fibrosis. Although there wasa significant revascularization of the treated bone marow regions, there was no evidence of basivertebral nerve survival or regeneration regeneration. In addition to ablation of teh basivertebral nerovascular bundle, the areas receiving the greatest treatment demonstrated initial mild local osteolysis and demineralization of the vertebral body bone and regional depopulation of the vertebral bone marrow cellular elements. Significant bone remodeling in the affected areas had begun by 14 days post-treatment. Bone remodeling was characterized by conventional osteoblast proliferation, osteoid deposition, and mineralization. This study demonstrated the ability to accurately, reproducibly, and safely ablate the basivertebral nerve and neurovascular bundle in mature sheep using a fluoroscopically guided percutaneously delivered radiofrequency technique.

  15. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of 80 patients treated with two consecutive sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.; Park, KoWoon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reasons for some patients requiring two consecutive sessions of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We reviewed our database of 1,179 patients (1,624 treatments) with HCCs treated by percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided RF ablation over 6 years. We retrospectively evaluated 80 patients who required a second session after the first session. The medical records and follow-up CTs were studied. We assessed the reasons for the second session and the patient outcomes. A second session was required in 80 (4.8%) out of 1,642 treatments of percutaneous RF ablation for HCC. The reason for the second session included technical failure related to the patient or the procedure (n=26), technical failure due to residual (n=40), newly detected (n=11) or missed (n=3) tumors found at the immediate follow-up CT. All patients were retreated with a second RFA session the next day. Seventy-five (93%) of 80 patients achieved complete ablation after the second session. The remaining five patients were treated by TACE (n=1), additional RFA (as second treatment at next admission) (n=3), or were lost to follow-up (n=1). After 1 month follow-up, 72 patients (96%) showed complete ablation after the second session. The interventional oncologist should understand the technical reasons for a patient requiring a second session of RF ablation when providing treatment for HCCs and perform careful pre-procedural planning to minimize the need for multi-session procedures. (orig.)

  16. Factors associated with initial incomplete ablation for benign thyroid nodules after radiofrequency ablation: First results of CEUS evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chong-Ke; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Lu, Feng; Sun, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Ping; Guo, Le-Hang; Li, Xiao-Long; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Yue, Wen-Wen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the factors associated with initial incomplete ablation (ICA) after radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules (BTNs). 69 BTNs (mean volume 6.35±5.66 ml, range 1.00-25.04 ml) confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in fifty-four patients were treated with ultrasound-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and the local treatment efficacy was immediately assessed by intra-procedural contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). The RFA was performed with a bipolar electrode (CelonProSurge 150-T20, output power: 20 W). CEUS was performed with a second generation contrast agent under low acoustic power (i.e. coded phase inversion, CPI). Characteristics of clinical factors, findings on conventional gray-scale ultrasound, color-Doppler ultrasound, and CEUS were evaluated preoperatively. Factors associated with initial ICA and initial ICA patterns on CEUS were assessed. Volume reduction ratios (VRRs) of ICA nodules were compared with those with complete ablation (CA). The RFA procedures were accomplished with a mean ablation time and mean total energy deposition of 11.13±3.39 min (range, 5.38-22.13 min) and 12612±4466 J (range, 6310-26130 J) respectively. CEUS detected initial ICA in 21 of 69 (30.8%) BTNs and 16 (76.2%) of the 21 BTNs with initial ICA achieved CA after additional RFA, leading to a final CA rate of 92.8% (64/69). The factors associated with initial ICA were predominantly solid nodule, nodule close to danger triangle area, nodule close to carotid artery, and peripheral blood flow on color-Doppler ultrasound (all P 50% at the 6-month follow-up, among which 7 nodules (10.1%) had VRRs of >90%. There were significant differences in VRRs between ICA nodules and CA nodules at the 3- and 6-month follow-up (all P ultrasound. CEUS assists quick treatment response evaluation and facilitates subsequent additional RFA and final CA of the nodules. Nodules with CA achieve a better outcome in terms of VRR in comparison with

  17. Increase in Volume of Ablation Zones during Follow-up Is Highly Suggestive of Ablation Site Recurrence in Colorectal Liver Metastases Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kele, Petra G.; de Jong, Koert P.; van der Jagt, Eric J.

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that volume changes of ablation zones (AZs) on successive computed tomography (CT) scans could predict ablation site recurrences (ASRs) in patients with colorectal liver metastases treated by radiofrequency (RF) ablation. Materials and Methods: RF ablation was

  18. Approved and Off-Label Uses of Obesity Medications, and Potential New Pharmacologic Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cordido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Available anti-obesity pharmacotherapy options remain very limited and development of more effective drugs has become a priority. The potential strategies to achieve weight loss are to reduce energy intake by stimulating anorexigenic signals or by blocking orexigenic signals, and to increase energy expenditure. This review will focus on approved obesity medications, as well as potential new pharmacologic treatment options.

  19. Simulation of radiofrequency ablation in real human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, George; Samaras, Theodoros

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the current work was to simulate radiofrequency ablation treatment in computational models with realistic human anatomy, in order to investigate the effect of realistic geometry in the treatment outcome. The body sites considered in the study were liver, lung and kidney. One numerical model for each body site was obtained from Duke, member of the IT'IS Virtual Family. A spherical tumour was embedded in each model and a single electrode was inserted into the tumour. The same excitation voltage was used in all cases to underline the differences in the resulting temperature rise, due to different anatomy at each body site investigated. The same numerical calculations were performed for a two-compartment model of the tissue geometry, as well as with the use of an analytical approximation for a single tissue compartment. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy appears efficient for tumours in liver and lung, but less efficient in kidney. Moreover, the time evolution of temperature for a realistic geometry differs from that for a two-compartment model, but even more for an infinite homogenous tissue model. However, it appears that the most critical parameters of computational models for RFA treatment planning are tissue properties rather than tissue geometry. Computational simulations of realistic anatomy models show that the conventional technique of a single electrode inside the tumour volume requires a careful choice of both the excitation voltage and treatment time in order to achieve effective treatment, since the ablation zone differs considerably for various body sites.

  20. Efficiency of ablative fractional Er: YAG (Erbium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet laser treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Koç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Er: YAG lasers are precise ablation systems used in the treatment epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. In this study, we restrospectively analysed efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy in the treatment of epidermal and dermal benign skin lesions. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated our clinical records of 116 patients treated with Er: YAG laser between April 2011 and April 2013. The clinical records of 103 patients (47 men, 56 women were included in our study. Of these 103 patients included in the study were xanthelasma, solar lentigo, epidermal nevus, seborrheic keratosis, nevus of ota, syringoma, cafe au lait macules (CALM and other than these. Treatment parameters, demographic features and before and after photographs of the lesions were investigated from patients’ records in order to evaluate efficiency of Er: YAG laser therapy. Results: Of these 103 patients included in the study were evaluated in 8 groups, described as xanthelasma (n=21, syringoma (n=17, solar lentigo (n=16, epidermal nevus (n=11, seborrheic keratosis (n=9, nevus of ota (n=5, CALM (n=3 and other than these (n=21. In the Er: YAG laser treatment, the average energy flow was 3-7 J/cm2, the average pulse duration was 300 ms, the average number of passes was 3-5 repeat, and the average pulse frequency was 3-7 Hz. While 4.9% of the patients showed no improvement, 59.2% showed marked improvement, 26.2% showed moderate improvement and 9.7% showed mild improvement. Treatment responses in xanthelasma, syringoma, epidermal nevus, solar lentigo and CALM lesions were statistically significant. Observed side effects were hyperpigmentation in 4 patients, hypopigmentation in 3 patients, hypertrophic scar in 2 patients and persistent erythema in one patient and the treatment was well tolerated by all the patients. Conclusion: Er: YAG laser is an effective and safe treatment option in the treatment of benign skin lesions especially in epidermal lesions.

  1. [Iodine 131 joint radio frequency ablation treatment for child with hyperthyroidism goiter: one case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Liang, Li; Fang, Yanlan; Wang, Chunlin; Li, Linfa; Jiang, Tian'an

    2017-01-25

    A 12-year-old girl presented with a history of cervical mass, and one week of throat discomfort and dyspnea. Five years ago, the patient was diagnosed as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hyperthyroidism; she received antithyroid drug treatment, but the result was not satisfactory. B-ultrasonic showed that the size of thyroid gland was 8.1 cm×3.2 cm in the left and 8.2 cm×4.8 cm in the right. After iodine 131 combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment, throat discomfort and recumbent breathing difficulties disappeared, and B-ultrasonic showed that the size of thyroid reduced to 2.3 cm×1.7 cm (left) and 2.8 cm×2.0 cm (right). No recurrence was observed during the two and a half years of follow-up.

  2. Adrenal neoplasms: Effectiveness and safety of CT-guided ablation of 23 tumors in 22 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Farrah J.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Machan, Jason T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and the Office of Research Administration, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903 (United States); Mayo-Smith, William W., E-mail: wmayo-smith@lifespan.org [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and the Office of Research Administration, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, 593 Eddy Street, Providence, RI 02903 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of image-guided ablation of adrenal tumors. Materials and methods: : This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved and informed consent was waived. From 5/1999-6/2008, 20 consecutive adrenal metastases (mean diameter 4.2 cm; range, 2-8) and 3 hormonally active primary adrenal tumors (mean diameter 2.3 cm; range, 1-4), including an aldosteronoma and 2 pheochromocytomas in 22 patients (14 men, 8 women; mean age 61 years; range 40-84) were ablated in 23 sessions. Bilateral metastases were treated in a single patient. Radiofrequency ablation was used to treat 16 adrenal metastases and the 3 hyperfunctioning tumors. Microwave ablation was used to treat 4 metastases. Successful treatment was defined as a lack of both enhancement on follow-up contrast enhanced CT and/or up-take on FDG PET-CT and for functioning tumors, resolution of biochemical abnormalities. Results: Technical success was achieved in all sessions. Mean follow-up was 45.1 months (range, 1-91) Local tumor progression (focal enhancement at ablation site {>=}1 cm in short axis) was detected in 4 of 23 tumors, two of which were identified bilaterally in a single patient prompting re-treatment. Of 19 patients with metastatic disease, 16 had fatal extra-adrenal disease progression, and 3 remain alive. Two of the 3 patients who underwent ablation of hyperfunctioning tumors remain alive, including the patient with an aldosteronoma who had recurrent symptoms 91 months post ablation. Intra-ablative hypertension occurred in 9% (2/23) of sessions and was successfully treated pharmacologically. Conclusion: Ablation of metastatic and hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors is safe and may provide local control and treatment of pathologic biochemical activity.

  3. Adrenal neoplasms: Effectiveness and safety of CT-guided ablation of 23 tumors in 22 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Farrah J.; Dupuy, Damian E.; Machan, Jason T.; Mayo-Smith, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of image-guided ablation of adrenal tumors. Materials and methods: : This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved and informed consent was waived. From 5/1999-6/2008, 20 consecutive adrenal metastases (mean diameter 4.2 cm; range, 2–8) and 3 hormonally active primary adrenal tumors (mean diameter 2.3 cm; range, 1–4), including an aldosteronoma and 2 pheochromocytomas in 22 patients (14 men, 8 women; mean age 61 years; range 40–84) were ablated in 23 sessions. Bilateral metastases were treated in a single patient. Radiofrequency ablation was used to treat 16 adrenal metastases and the 3 hyperfunctioning tumors. Microwave ablation was used to treat 4 metastases. Successful treatment was defined as a lack of both enhancement on follow-up contrast enhanced CT and/or up-take on FDG PET-CT and for functioning tumors, resolution of biochemical abnormalities. Results: Technical success was achieved in all sessions. Mean follow-up was 45.1 months (range, 1–91) Local tumor progression (focal enhancement at ablation site ≥1 cm in short axis) was detected in 4 of 23 tumors, two of which were identified bilaterally in a single patient prompting re-treatment. Of 19 patients with metastatic disease, 16 had fatal extra-adrenal disease progression, and 3 remain alive. Two of the 3 patients who underwent ablation of hyperfunctioning tumors remain alive, including the patient with an aldosteronoma who had recurrent symptoms 91 months post ablation. Intra-ablative hypertension occurred in 9% (2/23) of sessions and was successfully treated pharmacologically. Conclusion: Ablation of metastatic and hyperfunctioning adrenal tumors is safe and may provide local control and treatment of pathologic biochemical activity.

  4. The Effects of Accounting Treatment and Financial Crisis on the Stock Option Plans of Italian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Avallone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies state that favourable accounting treatment has been one of the main reasons behind employee stock options. In addition, stock options have recently been the target of growing criticism with a possible influence on incentive effectiveness and outrage costs. In such a perspective, the main purpose of the paper is to explore the impact of IFRS 2 and of the recent financial crisis on stock option compensation. Empirical evidence suggests that: (i IFRS 2 did not have a significant effect on stock option granting, (ii the issue of stock options is less likely to occur during the financial crisis.

  5. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min; Kwak, Seo Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediat