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Sample records for abbreviated neuropsychological assessment

  1. Neuropsychological assessment: principles, rationale, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are increasingly in demand for a wide range of patients. This paper offers a survey of the basic aspects of neuropsychological assessment that are of greatest importance for professionals (e.g., psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and lawyers) who are not trained in neuropsychological testing, but who refer clients for neuropsychological assessment. This survey could also serve neuropsychologists in their early stages of training, by addressing some of the major issues related to the assessment process. The range of goals that neuropsychological assessment may attain is first outlined. Next, a model is presented that explains the rationale enabling generalization from assessment to real-world functions that are the focus of interest and the target of prediction. Issues that need to be considered before deciding to conduct a neuropsychological evaluation are then introduced, and sources of information available to the assessor are described. A description is provided of what a neuropsychological assessment includes, with an emphasis on its cognitive aspects. Finally, mention is made of some of the difficulties and challenges that must be confronted in the course of a neuropsychological assessment.

  2. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  3. Neuropsychological Assessment of Adult Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Roger; Meghani, Rehana; Reddon, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This report is primarily concerned with reporting on the normative results obtained on a large sample of serious adult offenders. An expanded Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery was administered to 584 adult offenders (OF), 132 normal controls (NC), and 494 acute psychiatric patients (PP). Subjects were between 18 and 44 years of age.…

  4. Symptom validity testing, effort, and neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2012-07-01

    Symptom validity testing (SVT) has become a major theme of contemporary neuropsychological research. However, many issues about the meaning and interpretation of SVT findings will require the best in research design and methods to more precisely characterize what SVT tasks measure and how SVT test findings are to be used in neuropsychological assessment. Major clinical and research issues are overviewed including the use of the “effort” term to connote validity of SVT performance, the use of cut-scores, the absence of lesion-localization studies in SVT research, neuropsychiatric status and SVT performance and the rigor of SVT research designs. Case studies that demonstrate critical issues involving SVT interpretation are presented.

  5. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Lopez, Enrique; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Shirakawa, Itiro; Bertolucci, Paulo H; Da Silveira, Dartiu X

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate neuropsychologically adolescents who use ayahuasca in a religious context. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to adolescents who use ayahuasca. These subjects were compared to a matched control group of adolescents who did not use ayahuasca. The controls were matched with regards to sex, age, and education. The neuropsychological battery included tests of speeded attention, visual search, sequencing, psychomotor speed, verbal and visual abilities, memory, and mental flexibility. The statistical results for subjects from matched controls on neuropsychological measures were computed using independent t-tests. Overall, statistical findings suggested that there was no significant difference between the two groups on neuropsychological measures. Even though, the data overall supports that there was not a difference between ayahuasca users and matched controls on neuropsychological measures, further studies are necessary to support these findings.

  6. Computerized neuropsychological assessment devices: joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M; Iverson, Grant L; Cernich, Alison N; Binder, Laurence M; Ruff, Ronald M; Naugle, Richard I

    2012-05-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care.

  7. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  8. Training School Psychologists in Neuropsychological Assessment: Current Practices and Trends.

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    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results of a survey of directors of school psychology programs support the notion that training in neuropsychological screening and assessment techniques is appropriate in the preparation of specialists in the area of school psychology. (Author)

  9. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Goulart

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate associations among symptoms of depression, anxiety, pain perception and cognitive impairment in patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia. We evaluated 32 women volunteers with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on the criteria of the ACR. The control group was matched to the patient group for age, schooling and income. The volunteers were submitted to a neuropsychological battery focused on Memory, Attention, Executive Functions, Perceived Pain, Anxiety and Depression. Anxiety was more relevant than depression in the group of women with fibromyalgia, the perception of pain was very high and cognitive impairment was more evident in executive functions, especially planning and inhibitory control. Memory and attention were more impaired in the fibromyalgia group, especially on tasks that require executive functions. Patients with fibromyalgia seem to be less efficient in tasks related to executive functions.

  10. Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions following pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K Drorit; Soper, Henry V

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of executive functions in the adult is best captured at the stage where full maturation of brain development occurs. Assessment of executive functions of children, however, is considerably more complicated. First, assessment of executive functioning in children represents a snapshot of these developing functions at a particular time linked stage, which may have implications for further development. Second, neuropsychological measures available to assess executive functions in children are limited in number and scope and may not be sensitive to the gradual developmental changes. The present article provides an overview of the salient neurodevelopmental stages of executive functioning and discusses the utilization of recently developed neuropsychological measures to assess these stages. Comments on clinical implications of these findings regarding Traumatic Brain Injury will be provided.

  11. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  12. Forensic neuropsychological assessment: clinical case of depression and working incapacity

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, Camila; Saffi, Fabiana; Barros, Daniel Martins de; Dias, Alvaro Machado; Akiba, Henrique Teruo; Serafim, Antonio de Pádua

    2015-01-01

    Issues related to mental health in relation to court matters have increasingly required the participation of the psychologist. We present the use of forensic neuropsychological assessment in a case of retirement reversal. Incapacity was attested due to disability resulting from depression of a 35-year-old attorney, and the case was forwarded from the courts to the Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology Unit at the USP Clinical Hospital. A clinical interview and application of cognitive tests was ...

  13. The use of neuropsychological tests to assess intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansler, David A; Varvaris, Mark; Schretlen, David J

    We sought to derive a 'neuropsychological intelligence quotient' (NIQ) to replace IQ testing in some routine assessments. We administered neuropsychological testing and a seven-subtest short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale to a community sample of 394 adults aged 18-96 years. We regressed Wechsler Full Scale IQs (W-FSIQ) on 23 neuropsychological scores and derived an NIQ from 9 measures that explained significant variance in W-FSIQ. We then compared subgroups of 284 healthy and 108 unhealthy participants in NIQ and W-FSIQ to assess criterion validity, correlated NIQ and W-FSIQ scores with education level and independence for activities of daily living to assess convergent validity, and compared validity coefficients for the NIQ with those of 'hold' and 'no-hold' indices. By design, NIQ and W-FSIQ scores correlated highly (r = .84), and both were higher in healthy participants. The difference was larger for NIQ, which accounted for more variability in activities of daily living. The NIQ and 'no-hold' index were better predicted by health status and less predicted by educational status than the 'hold' index. We constructed an NIQ that correlates highly with Wechsler FSIQ. Tests required to obtain NIQ are commonly used and can be administered in about 45 min. Validity properties of NIQ and W-FSIQ are similar. The NIQ bore greater resemblance to a 'no-hold' than 'hold' index. One can obtain a reasonably accurate estimate of current Full Scale IQ without formal intelligence testing from a brief neuropsychological battery.

  14. [Capgras syndrome: a proposal of neuropsychological battery for assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillers Rodríguez, Rosalía; Madoz-Gúrpide, Agustín; Tirapu Ustárroz, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is the most prevalent of the delusional misidentification syndromes. It appears in both psychiatric illness and organic brain damage. Cognitive and neuropsychiatric models (lateralization and disconnection) have been proposed to explain the syndrome. From a neuropsychological point of view Capgras syndrome seems to be due to damage of bifrontal and right limbic and temporal regions. Memory, feeling of familiarity, monitoring of self and reality would be altered. All of these cause a failure to adequately integrate the information about emotions and facial recognition. Relative preservation of the left frontal lobe may be necessary for the development of delusional response. There does not seem to be a differential pattern as regards the aetiology, but there is a common underlying neuropsychiatric mechanism. Based on theoretic models, and clinics features, we propose a neuropsychological battery to assess the Capgras syndrome, that should be sensitive to the main expected deficits. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  16. Neuropsychological assessment in kidney and liver transplantation candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, S S; Guimaro, M S; Prade, C V; Ferraz-Neto, B H; Karam, C H; Andreoli, P B A

    2008-04-01

    Chronic renal and liver diseases are associated with cognitive and intellectual impairment, which can be irreversible even after kidney or liver transplantation. We sought to investigate the presence of cognitive deficits in organ transplantation candidates. From May 2005 to March 2006, 35 organ transplantation candidates, of mean age 46.71 (+/- 13.01) years, 54.3% including females and 7.29 (+/- 4.22) years mean formal schooling. Of those, 27 (77%) were renal and 8 (23%), liver transplantation candidates. All subjects underwent a neuropsychological assessment battery designed to evaluate attention performance, executive functions, memory, language, visuaospatial, and intellectual skills. We found impairments in attention performance (attention span [34.3%], sustained attention [76.5%], and divided attention [77.8%]), executive functions (category formation [58.3%], errors [61.5%], and perseverative errors [30.4%]), memory (working memory [57.1%], verbal [37.1%] and visual short-term memory [31.4%], verbal [25.7%] and visual long-term memory [51.4], verbal learning [42.9%], interference susceptibility [42.9%], and verbal recognition memory [20.6%]), language (comprehension [38.1%], and vocabulary [30.8%]), visuaospatial (45.8%), and intellectual skills (50.0%). Neuropsychological (cognitive) deficits in transplant candidates are frequent, regardless of the kind of transplantation. The deficits involve several cognitive skills, such as attentional processes, executive functions, memory, language, visuaospatial, and intellectual skills. Therefore, we concluded that a pretransplant neuropsychological assessment is an important measure to detect impairments and to help understand how these difficulties can interfere with patient self-care before and after transplantation.

  17. Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment and perceived employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Johnny H; Boone, Kyle; Kim, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    Ecological validity studies that have examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and employment in psychiatric and medical populations have found that a wide range of cognitive domains predict employability, although memory and executive skills appear to be the most important. However, no information is available regarding a patient's self-perceived work attributes and objective neuropsychological performance, and whether the same cognitive domains associated with successful employment are also related to a patient's self-perception of work competence. In the present study, 73 medical and psychiatric patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. Step-wise multiple regression analyses revealed that the visual-spatial domain was the only significant predictor of self-perceived work attributes and work competence as measured by the Working Inventory (WI) and the Work Adjustment Inventory (WAI), accounting for 7% to 10% of inventory score variability. The results raise the intriguing possibility that targeting of visual spatial skills for remediation and development might play a separate and unique role in the vocational rehabilitation of a lower SES population, specifically, by leading to enhanced self-perception of work competence as these individuals attempt to enter the job market.

  18. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment Devices: Joint Position Paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Russell M.; Iverson, Grant L.; Cernich, Alison N.; Binder, Laurence M.; Ruff, Ronald M.; Naugle, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    This joint position paper of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology and the National Academy of Neuropsychology sets forth our position on appropriate standards and conventions for computerized neuropsychological assessment devices (CNADs). In this paper, we first define CNADs and distinguish them from examiner-administered neuropsychological instruments. We then set forth position statements on eight key issues relevant to the development and use of CNADs in the healthcare setting. These statements address (a) device marketing and performance claims made by developers of CNADs; (b) issues involved in appropriate end-users for administration and interpretation of CNADs; (c) technical (hardware/software/firmware) issues; (d) privacy, data security, identity verification, and testing environment; (e) psychometric development issues, especially reliability, and validity; (f) cultural, experiential, and disability factors affecting examinee interaction with CNADs; (g) use of computerized testing and reporting services; and (h) the need for checks on response validity and effort in the CNAD environment. This paper is intended to provide guidance for test developers and users of CNADs that will promote accurate and appropriate use of computerized tests in a way that maximizes clinical utility and minimizes risks of misuse. The positions taken in this paper are put forth with an eye toward balancing the need to make validated CNADs accessible to otherwise underserved patients with the need to ensure that such tests are developed and utilized competently, appropriately, and with due concern for patient welfare and quality of care. PMID:22382386

  19. Assessment of fitness to drive after acquired brain injury: The role of neuropsychological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette

    to identify a neuropsychological test battery to predict driving ability. However, there is no consensus as to which test such a test battery should consist of. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between some neuropsychological test results and the results of an on-road test.......g. WCST will not predict the driving ability of this group. This illustrates that many things can affect the predictive value a neuropsychological test and the belief that neuropsychological testing on its own cannot predict fitness to drive. As findings in the field of driving assessment of older people...

  20. Antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia: the role of computerized neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Semion; Reznik, Ilya; Grinspan, Haim; Weizman, Abraham; Kotler, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzes the role of neurocognitive assessment instruments in the detection of the contribution of antipsychotic treatment to cognitive functioning. Recently, a panel of experts suggested six main domains (working memory; attention/vigilance; verbal/visual learning and memory; reasoning and problem solving; speed of processing) implicated in schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, which serve as a theoretical base for creation of real-time computerized neurocognitive batteries. The high sensitivity of computerized neuropsychological testing is based on their ability to adopt the reaction time (RT) paradigm for the assessment of brain function in a real-time regime. This testing is highly relevant for the monitoring of the cognitive effects of antipsychotics. Computerized assessment assists in the identification of state- and trait-related cognitive impairments. The optimal real-time computerized neurocognitive battery should composite balance between broad and narrow coverage of cognitive domains relevant to the beneficial effects of antipsychotics and will enable better planning of treatment and rehabilitation programs.

  1. Clinical utility of Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) among patients with first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2010-01-01

    for comorbid personality disorder among patients suffering from depression would be of clinical use. METHOD: The present study aimed to assess the utility of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) as a screen for personality disorder in a population of patients recently......BACKGROUND: Personality disorder frequently co-occurs with depression and seems to be associated with a poorer outcome of treatment and increased risk for recurrences. However, the diagnosing of personality disorder can be lengthy and requires some training. Therefore, a brief screening interview...... diagnosed with first episode depression. A total number of 394 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of a single depressive episode were sampled consecutively via the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register during a 2years inclusion period and assessed by the screening interview and, subsequently...

  2. Indications and expectations for neuropsychological assessment in routine epilepsy care: Report of the ILAE Neuropsychology Task Force, Diagnostic Methods Commission, 2013-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Baxendale, Sallie; Barr, William; Hamed, Sherifa; Langfitt, John; Samson, Séverine; Watanabe, Masako; Baker, Gus A; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Hermann, Bruce P; Smith, Mary-Lou

    2015-05-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Methods Commission charged the Neuropsychology Task Force with the job of developing a set of recommendations to address the following questions: (1) What is the role of a neuropsychological assessment? (2) Who should do a neuropsychological assessment? (3) When should people with epilepsy be referred for a neuropsychological assessment? and (4) What should be expected from a neuropsychological assessment? The recommendations have been broadly written for health care clinicians in established epilepsy settings as well as those setting up new services. They are based on a detailed survey of neuropsychological assessment practices across international epilepsy centers, and formal ranking of specific recommendations for advancing clinical epilepsy care generated by specialist epilepsy neuropsychologists from around the world. They also incorporate the latest research findings to establish minimum standards for training and practice, reflecting the many roles of neuropsychological assessment in the routine care of children and adults with epilepsy. The recommendations endorse routine screening of cognition, mood, and behavior in new-onset epilepsy, and describe the range of situations when more detailed, formal neuropsychological assessment is indicated. They identify a core set of cognitive and psychological domains that should be assessed to provide an objective account of an individual's cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial functioning, including factors likely contributing to deficits identified on qualitative and quantitative examination. The recommendations also endorse routine provision of feedback to patients, families, and clinicians about the implications of the assessment results, including specific clinical recommendations of what can be done to improve a patient's cognitive or psychosocial functioning and alleviate the distress of any difficulties identified. By canvassing the breadth and depth

  3. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  4. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  5. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: EPISODIC AND SEMANTIC MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Comesaña

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the neuropsychological evaluation process in Alzheimer (AD patients, specifically that related to episodic and semantic memory. Alzheimer-style dementia is the main form of dementia, and is nowadays one of the most important social, cultural and health-related problems. Diagnosis and differentiation from normal aging are difficult in the initial stages, and so neuropsychological evaluation is key. The criteria currently utilized are those of the DSM IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994 and of the NINCDS-ADRDA (Instituto Nacional para los Desórdenes Neurológicos, de la Comunicación y el Accidente Cerebro Vascular y la Asociación para la Enfermedad de Alzheimer y Desórdenes Relacionados (McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, y col., 1984, and they require that the diagnosis of probable AD be confirmed by neuropsychological evaluation in addition to clinical evaluation and other studies. After the division of long term memory into semantic and episodic memory was made, specific tests were created for their neuropsychological evaluation in different pathologies, including AD. An important contribution to the early detection of memory deterioration typical of such illness was thus made.

  6. Reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the standardized assessment of personality-abbreviated scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A short screening tool for high-risk individuals with personality disorder (PD is useful both for clinicians and researchers. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS. Methods: The original English version of the SAPAS questionnaire was translated into Farsi, and then, translated back into English by two professionals. A survey was then conducted using the questionnaire on 150 clients of primary health care centers in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 235 medical students were also studied for the reliability assessment of the questionnaire. The SAPAS was compared to the short form of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The data analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve technique, operating characteristic for diagnostic efficacy, Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest for reliability evaluation. Results: We found an area under the curve (AUC of 0.566 [95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.455-0.677]; sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.26 at the cut-off score of 2 and higher. The total Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.38 and Cohen's kappa ranged between 0.5 and 0.8. Conclusion: The current study showed that the Farsi version of the SAPAS was relatively less efficient, in term of validity and reliability, in the screening of PD in the population.

  7. Rest improves performance, nature improves happiness: Assessment of break periods on the abbreviated vigilance task.

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    Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2016-05-01

    The abbreviated vigilance task can quickly generate vigilance decrements, which has been argued is due to depletion of cognitive resources needed to sustain performance. Researchers suggest inclusion of rest breaks within vigilance tasks improve overall performance (Helton & Russell, 2015; Ross, Russell, & Helton, 2014), while different types of breaks demonstrate different effects. Some literature suggests exposure to natural movements/stimuli helps restore attention (Herzog, Black, Fountaine, & Knotts, 1997; Kaplan, 1995). Participants were randomly assigned to one experimental condition: dog video breaks, robot video breaks, countdown breaks or continuous vigilance. We assessed task performance and subjective reports of stress/workload. The continuous group displayed worst performance, suggesting breaks help restore attention. The dog videos did not affect performance, however, decreased reports of distress. These results support the importance of rest breaks and acknowledge the benefit of natural stimuli for promoting wellbeing/stress relief, overall suggesting performance and wellbeing may be independent, which warrants future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between smell identification testing and the neuropsychological assessment of dementia in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goette, William; Schmitt, Andrew; Clark, Avery

    2017-11-28

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) with neuropsychological tests and identify the utility of the UPSIT in detecting cognitive impairment. This research was an archival study of neuropsychological test results obtained from 70 clients (30 male/40 female) of a community-based memory clinic. The sample had an average age of 69.7 (SD = 9.7) and education of 14.6 (SD = 2.8) years. Hypotheses were tested using correlations, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and logistic regression. The UPSIT showed significant, weak to moderate correlations with neuropsychological tests. The UPSIT raw score correlated significantly with all but one cognitive ability domain. The UPSIT T-score was significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. Obtained areas under the ROC curve (AUC) for the UPSIT ranged from .60 to .87. The AUCs of the UPSIT did not differ significantly from verbal semantic fluency tests, but the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Total Scale and Delayed Memory index tended to produce larger AUCs than the UPSIT. Results from step-wise logistic regressions suggest that the UPSIT raw score provides unique information beyond its relationship to age. Olfaction relates broadly to cognitive ability and may be sensitive to early symptoms of cognitive decline. Further research is needed to explore the relationships between smell identification tests and neuropsychological assessment.

  9. Lifting the veil: how to use clinical neuropsychology to assess dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, James R; Piguet, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Neurologists often struggle to interpret the results of neuropsychological testing, even though cognitive assessments are an integral component of the diagnostic process in dementia syndromes. This article reviews the principles underlying clinical neuropsychology, background on common neuropsychological tests, and tips on how to interpret the results when assessing patients with dementia. General cognitive screening tools, appropriate for use by general neurologists and psychiatrists, as well as specific cognitive tests examining the main cognitive domains (attention and orientation, memory, visuospatial function, language and executive function) in patients with dementia are considered. Finally, the pattern of deficits, helpful in defining clinical dementia phenotypes and sometimes in predicting the underlying molecular pathology, are outlined. Such clinicopathological associations will become invaluable as disease-modifying treatments for dementia are developed and implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Virtual reality measures in neuropsychological assessment: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neguț, Alexandra; Matu, Silviu-Andrei; Sava, Florin Alin; David, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Virtual reality-based assessment is a new paradigm for neuropsychological evaluation, that might provide an ecological assessment, compared to paper-and-pencil or computerized neuropsychological assessment. Previous research has focused on the use of virtual reality in neuropsychological assessment, but no meta-analysis focused on the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures of cognitive processes in measuring cognitive processes in various populations. We found eighteen studies that compared the cognitive performance between clinical and healthy controls on virtual reality measures. Based on a random effects model, the results indicated a large effect size in favor of healthy controls (g = .95). For executive functions, memory and visuospatial analysis, subgroup analysis revealed moderate to large effect sizes, with superior performance in the case of healthy controls. Participants' mean age, type of clinical condition, type of exploration within virtual reality environments, and the presence of distractors were significant moderators. Our findings support the sensitivity of virtual reality-based measures in detecting cognitive impairment. They highlight the possibility of using virtual reality measures for neuropsychological assessment in research applications, as well as in clinical practice.

  11. Auditory pathways and processes: implications for neuropsychological assessment and diagnosis of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Neuroscience research on auditory processing pathways and their behavioral and electrophysiological correlates has taken place largely outside the field of clinical neuropsychology. Deviations and disruptions in auditory pathways in children and adolescents result in a well-documented range of developmental and learning impairments frequently referred for neuropsychological evaluation. This review is an introduction to research from the last decade. It describes auditory cortical and subcortical pathways and processes and relates recent research to specific conditions and questions neuropsychologists commonly encounter. Auditory processing disorders' comorbidity with ADHD and language-based disorders and research addressing the challenges of assessment and differential diagnosis are discussed.

  12. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery of the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moleiro, Carla; Madureira, Sofia; Verdelho, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Age-related white matter changes have been associated with cognitive functioning, even though their role is not fully understood. This work aimed to test a 3-factor model of the neuropsychological assessment battery and evaluate how the model fit the data longitudinally. Confirmatory factor analy...

  13. Role of neuropsychological assessment in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Maria Lima Pimentel

    Full Text Available Abstract The prevalence of dementia increases significantly from the age of 65 years, doubling every five years thereafter. Alzheimer's disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD constitute the two main dementia types. Differentiating them encompasses anamnesis, neurological examination, laboratory and neuroimaging exams and neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological assessment produces different findings for each dementia type, and reveals those areas most impaired as well as those most preserved. The aim of the present article was to describe the role of neuropsychology in diagnosing dementia and achieving a differential diagnosis between AD and VaD. A general overview follows of the most widely known instruments used to assess cognitive function in dementia, and the cognitive changes seen in AD and VaD. The conclusion drawn was that there is significant overlap in cognitive changes between both these dementia types, while each type has its own specific characteristics which are identifiable and quantifiable on neuropsychological assessments and provide the basis for reaching a differential diagnosis.

  14. A Cognitive Neuropsychological Approach to the Assessment and Remediation of Acquired Dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardell, Elizabeth A.; Chenery, Helen J.

    1999-01-01

    Used a cognitive neuropsychological approach to investigate a case of acquired dysgraphia in an adult who had sustained focal brain damage. The aims of the study were to investigate the usefulness of model-based assessment in identifying the mechanisms responsible for dysgraphia and for designing a treatment program informed by theories of normal…

  15. Development of abbreviated measures to assess patient trust in a physician, a health insurer, and the medical profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachtenberg Felicia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recent proliferation in research on patient trust, it is seldom a primary outcome, and is often a peripheral area of interest. The length of our original scales to measure trust may limit their use because of the practical needs to minimize both respondent burden and research cost. The objective of this study was to develop three abbreviated scales to measure trust in: (1 a physician, (2 a health insurer, and (3 the medical profession. Methods Data from two samples were used. The first was a telephone survey of English-speaking adults in the United States (N = 1117 and the second was a telephone survey of English-speaking adults residing in North Carolina who were members of a health maintenance organization (N = 1024. Data were analyzed to examine data completeness, scaling assumptions, internal consistency properties, and factor structure. Results Abbreviated measures (5-items were developed for each of the three scales. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for trust in a physician (test-retest reliability = 0.71, 0.84 for trust in a health insurer (test-retest reliability = 0.73, and 0.77 for trust in the medical profession. Conclusion Assessment of data completeness, scale score dispersion characteristics, reliability and validity test results all provide evidence for the soundness of the abbreviated 5-item scales.

  16. Establishing valid neuropsychological assessments in patients with gliomas undergoing awake surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    The present work highlights various requirements for neuropsychological assessment in the context of glioma patients undergoing awake craniotomy. The first study assessed the validity of the Brief Cognitive Status Exam (BCSE) compared to already established cognitive screening instruments such as Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in patients with intracranial tumors. For screening purposes, the MoCA turned out to be the best available tool, in clini...

  17. Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptom assessment form total symptom score: Prospective international assessment of an abbreviated symptom burden scoring system among patients with MPNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Emanuel (Robyn); A.C. Dueck (Amylou); H.L. Geyer (Holly); J.J. Kiladjian; S. Slot (Stefanie); S. Zweegman (Sonja); P.A.W. te Boekhorst (Peter); S. Commandeur (Suzan); H. Schouten (Harry); F. Sackmann (Federico); A.K. Fuentes (Ana Kerguelen); D. Hernández-Maraver (Dolores); C. Pahl (Clemens); M. Griesshammer (Martin); F. Stegelmann (Frank); K. Doehner (Konstanze); T. Lehmann (Thomas); K. Bonatz (Karin); A. Reiter (Alfred); F. Boyer (Francoise); J. Etienne (Jerome); J.-C. Ianotto (Jean-Christophe); D. Ranta (Dana); L. Roy (Lydia); J.-Y. Cahn (Jean-Yves); C.N. Harrison (Claire); D. Radia (Deepti); P. Muxi (Pablo); N. Maldonado (Norman); C. Besses (Carlos); F. Cervantes (Francisco); P.L. Johansson (Peter); T. Barbui (Tiziano); G. Barosi (Giovanni); A.M. Vannucchi (Alessandro); F. Passamonti (Francesco); B. Andreasson (Bjorn); M.L. Ferarri (Maria); A. Rambaldi (Alessandro); J. Samuelsson (Jan); G. Birgegard (Gunnar); A. Tefferi (Ayalew); A.A. Mesa

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptoms are troublesome to patients, and alleviation of this burden represents a paramount treatment objective in the development of MPN-directed therapies. We aimed to assess the utility of an abbreviated symptom score for the most pertinent

  18. Assessment of cognitive functions after prophylactic and therapeutic whole brain irradiation using neuropsychological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penitzka, S.; Wannenmacher, M.; Steinvorth, S.; MIT, Cambridge, MT; Sehlleier, S.; Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg; Fuss, M.; Texas Univ., San Antonio, TX; Wenz, F.; Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of this study was the assessment of neuropsychological changes after whole brain irradiation. Patients and Method: 64 patients were tested before, and 29 after whole brain irradiation, including 28 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) before prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) and 36 patients with cerebral metastases before therapeutic cranial irradiation (TCI), as well as 14 patients after PCI and 15 after TCI (Table 1). Intelligence, attention and memory were assessed applying a 90-minute test battery of standardized, neuropsychological tests (Table 3). Results: Patients with SCLC showed test results significantly below average before PCI (n=28, mean IQ=83, SD=17). Neither after PCI, nor after TCI the tested neuropsychological functions decreased significantly (Tables 4, 5). A comparison between SCLC-patients with and without cerebral metastases before whole brain irradiation showed better test-results in patients with cerebral metastases and fewer cycles of preceding chemotherapy (Table 7). Conclusion: Neuropsychological capacity in patients with SCLC was impaired even before PCI. Possible reason is the preceding chemotherapy. Whole brain irradiation did not induce a significant decline of cognitive functions in patients with PCI or TCI. A decline in a longer follow-up nevertheless seems possible. (orig.) [de

  19. Neuropsychological assessment of children with epilepsy and average intelligence using NEPSY II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilli, Tiziana; Zanini, Sergio; Conte, Stefania; Borgatti, Renato; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown altered neuropsychological functioning of children with epilepsy even in the absence of intellectual disability, with notable concerns for both patients and their families. Although studies have described the cognitive profiles associated with specific epilepsy syndromes, there is incomplete agreement on the relation between spared and impaired abilities in different cognitive domains and on how deficits in one neuropsychological ability can secondarily affect performance in other cognitive domains. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile and vulnerabilities of children with epilepsy without intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning. 23 children aged 7-15 years, with a diagnosis of epilepsy of genetic or unknown cause and average intellectual functioning (IQ >85), were administered all age-appropriate tests of the Italian-language version (Urgesi, Campanella, & Fabbro, 2011) of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery (NEPSY-II: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition; Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 2007). Their performance was compared with that of a control group matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Children with epilepsy showed significant impairments as compared to the control group in tests of attention and executive functions and sensorimotor skills. Notably, particular difficulties were observed also in social perception tasks that require affect recognition, an ability that has been so far poorly considered in children with epilepsy. The results highlight the importance of performing extensive evaluation of cognitive functions, including social cognition processes, in children with epilepsy with average intelligence in order to design appropriate interventions aimed at minimizing long-term consequences on educational and behavioral outcome.

  20. Assessment of neuropsychological changes in patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Wildermuth, Susanne; Lohr, Frank; Fuss, Martin; Debus, Juergen; Essig, Marco; Hacke, Werner; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate neuropsychological effects of radiosurgery in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), with special focus on attention and memory. This report describes the study setup and presents the first results during a follow-up of up to 1 year. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients were studied before, acutely after radiosurgery, and during the regular follow-up (subacute phase: Weeks 6-12, chronic phase: Months 6-12). Radiosurgery was performed using a modified linear accelerator (minimum doses to the target volume: 15-22 Gy, median 20 Gy). Estimated whole brain dose was 0.5 to 2 Gy. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine) and memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Benton Visual Retention Test). During follow-up, alternate test versions were used. Neuropsychological deficits were defined as a test score of at least one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the normal distribution. Results: The pretherapeutic evaluation revealed marked deviations from the normal population; 24% had deficits in intelligence (range 23-31% in different subtests), attention (35%, 23-59%) and memory (48%, 31-61%). The overall percentage of aberrant results was reduced by 12% (memory) to 14% (attention) in the chronic phase up to 12 months after therapy. The improvement in test scores was significant (p < 0.05) in 3 of 4 subtests of attention functions. Conclusions: The acute tolerance of radiosurgery seems to be very good in these patients, showing no relevant increase in number of patients with neuropsychological deficits. Although the long-term follow-up needs to be further increased, our data indicate a tendency to slight improvement in the overall neuropsychological performance of AVM patients in the chronic phase after radiosurgery

  1. An Abbreviated Protocol for High-risk Screening Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Impact on Performance Metrics and BI-RADS Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Babita; Mullen, Lisa; Falomo, Eniola; Panigrahi, Benita; Harvey, Susan

    2017-09-01

    Annual breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended to screen high-risk populations for breast cancer, although costs are significant. This study assesses the performance of an abbreviated MRI protocol as a resource-efficient approach for screening patients at high-risk of breast cancer, and assesses whether the abbreviated protocol alters the assigned Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category. This is a prospective paired cohort study performed in an academic ambulatory setting. MRI images of women at high risk of breast cancer were reviewed using an abbreviated MRI protocol, followed by an immediate review of additional sequences included in a full diagnostic protocol. BI-RADS assessments, including all changes and interpretation times, were recorded for both the abbreviated and full protocol reviews. Cancer detection rate, positive predictive value 3 (PPV3), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. A total of 1052 MRI cases were reviewed. The cancer detection rate was 13.3 per 1000 with a PPV3 of 30.4% based on the full protocol. Review of sequences included in the full protocol resulted in a change in the final BI-RADS assessments in 3.4% of the cases, the majority of which did not change clinical management with respect to biopsy. The sensitivity and specificity of the abbreviated and full protocols were not significantly different. This pilot study of an abbreviated MRI protocol demonstrates effective performance in cancer detection. BI-RADS assessments were rarely altered with the additional information afforded by the full protocol. The abbreviated protocol holds promise for resource-efficient breast cancer screening in high-risk women. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current standards of neuropsychological assessment in epilepsy surgery centers across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Viola Lara; Äikiä, Marja; Del Barrio, Antonio; Boon, Paul; Borbély, Csaba; Bran, Ema; Braun, Kees; Carette, Evelien; Clark, Maria; Cross, Judith Helen; Dimova, Petia; Fabo, Daniel; Foroglou, Nikolaos; Francione, Stefano; Gersamia, Anna; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Guekht, Alla; Harrison, Sue; Hecimovic, Hrvoje; Heminghyt, Einar; Hirsch, Edouard; Javurkova, Alena; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Kavan, Nicole; Kelemen, Anna; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kirschner, Margarita; Kleitz, Catherine; Kobulashvili, Teia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Kurtish, Selin Yagci; Lesourd, Mathieu; Ljunggren, Sofia; Lossius, Morten Ingvar; Malmgren, Kristina; Mameniskiené, Ruta; Martin-Sanfilippo, Patricia; Marusic, Petr; Miatton, Marijke; Özkara, Çiğdem; Pelle, Federica; Rubboli, Guido; Rudebeck, Sarah; Ryvlin, Philippe; van Schooneveld, Monique; Schmid, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Pia-Magdalena; Seeck, Margitta; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Shavel-Jessop, Sara; Tarta-Arsene, Oana; Trinka, Eugen; Viggedal, Gerd; Wendling, Anne-Sophie; Witt, Juri-Alexander; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    We explored the current practice with respect to the neuropsychological assessment of surgical epilepsy patients in European epilepsy centers, with the aim of harmonizing and establishing common standards. Twenty-six epilepsy centers and members of "E-PILEPSY" (a European pilot network of reference centers in refractory epilepsy and epilepsy surgery), were asked to report the status of neuropsychological assessment in adults and children via two different surveys. There was a consensus among these centers regarding the role of neuropsychology in the presurgical workup. Strong agreement was found on indications (localization, epileptic dysfunctions, adverse drugs effects, and postoperative monitoring) and the domains to be evaluated (memory, attention, executive functions, language, visuospatial skills, intelligence, depression, anxiety, and quality of life). Although 186 different tests are in use throughout these European centers, a core group of tests reflecting a moderate level of agreement could be discerned. Variability exists with regard to indications, protocols, and paradigms for the assessment of hemispheric language dominance. For the tests in use, little published evidence of clinical validity in epilepsy was provided. Participants in the survey reported a need for improvement concerning the validity of the tests, tools for the assessment of everyday functioning and accelerated forgetting, national norms, and test co-normalization. Based on the present survey, we documented a consensus regarding the indications and principles of neuropsychological testing. Despite the variety of tests in use, the survey indicated that there may be a core set of tests chosen based on experience, as well as on published evidence. By combining these findings with the results of an ongoing systematic literature review, we aim for a battery that can be recommended for the use across epilepsy surgical centers in Europe. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League

  3. Virtual reality paced serial assessment test for neuropsychological assessment of a military cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher; Rizzo, Albert A; Armstrong, Christina; Edwards, Joseph; Reger, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a difficult challenge for the DoD medical health system. Clinical neuropsychologists are being asked to make statements regarding a soldier's functional skills, ability to return to active duty, and competence in tasks of community living. Given the increasing prevalence of blast injuries to the head, and the fact that many brain injuries may have no external marker of injury, there is need for researching innovative assessment methods in detecting blast-related brain injury. To address these issues, two virtual reality-based Paced Auditory/Visual Serial Addition Tests (PA/VSAT) were developed that involve the participant being immersed in a Virtual Middle Eastern City as serial addition stimuli are presented. This study is an initial validation of the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT as assessments of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil version of the test, as well as the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, the VRPASAT and VRPVSAT appear to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's performance while immersed in a military relevant simulation.

  4. Some Common Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/appendixb.html Appendix B: Some Common Abbreviations To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. This is a list of some common abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviation Stands for More information ABG ...

  5. P300 and Neuropsychological assessment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eParra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a small proportion of individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI will convert to dementia. Methods currently available to identify risk for conversion do not combine enough sensitivity and specificity, which is even more problematic in low-educated populations. Current guidelines suggest the use of combined markers for dementia to enhance the prediction accuracy of assessment methods. The present study adhered to this proposal and investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the electrophysiological component P300 and standard neuropsychological tests to assess patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and MCI recruited from a low-income country. The neuropsychological battery comprised tests of memory, attention, language, praxis and executive functions. The P300 was recorded using a classical visual odd-ball paradigm. Three variables were found to achieve sensitivity and specificity values above 80% (Immediate and Delayed recall of word list – CERAD – and the latency of P300 for both MCI and AD. When they entered the model together (i.e., combined approach the sensitivity for MCI increased to 96% and the specificity remained high (80%. Our preliminary findings suggest that the combined use of sensitive neuropsychological tasks and the analysis of the P300 may offer a very useful method for the preclinical assessment of AD, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic and educational levels. Our results provide a platform and justification to employ more resources to convert P300 and related parameters into a biological marker for AD.

  6. P300 and neuropsychological assessment in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mario A; Ascencio, Lindsay Lorena; Urquina, Hugo Fenando; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín M

    2012-01-01

    Only a small proportion of individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) will convert to dementia. Methods currently available to identify risk for conversion do not combine enough sensitivity and specificity, which is even more problematic in low-educated populations. Current guidelines suggest the use of combined markers for dementia to enhance the prediction accuracy of assessment methods. The present study adhered to this proposal and investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the electrophysiological component P300 and standard neuropsychological tests to assess patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and MCI recruited from a low-income country. The neuropsychological battery comprised tests of memory, attention, language, praxis, and executive functions. The P300 was recorded using a classical visual odd-ball paradigm. Three variables were found to achieve sensitivity and specificity values above 80% (Immediate and Delayed recall of word list - CERAD - and the latency of P300) for both MCI and AD. When they entered the model together (i.e., combined approach) the sensitivity for MCI increased to 96% and the specificity remained high (80%). Our preliminary findings suggest that the combined use of sensitive neuropsychological tasks and the analysis of the P300 may offer a very useful method for the preclinical assessment of AD, particularly in populations with low socioeconomic and educational levels. Our results provide a platform and justification to employ more resources to convert P300 and related parameters into a biological marker for AD.

  7. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment for detecting brain injury in a prospective cohort of university amateur boxers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Hart

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: While this neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment protocol could not detect any evidence of brain injury, one boxer developed seizures and another developed a chronic sub-dural haematoma.

  8. Affective state and cognitive functioning in patients with intracranial tumors: validity of the neuropsychological baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Simone; Kaup, Lea; Wiesner, Christian D; Mehdorn, H Maximilian

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the affective and cognitive states of neurooncological patients prior to the neurosurgical treatment to assess associations between distress levels and neuropsychological test performance in this sample and setting. The prospective study population consists of 172 patients. Patients were studied preoperatively with a comprehensive test battery consisting of a variety of affective and cognitive measures. Psychological instruments included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, and the Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Factor analysis revealed two factors representing subjective affective functioning: whereas one reflects the patients' more general emotional state (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Acute Stress Disorder Scale), the second reflects anxiety specifically related to the neurosurgical procedure (Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale). After age and education have been accounted for via linear regression analyses, affect did not contribute to cognitive performance in any of the cognitive domains in the whole patient sample. However, in patients with extreme levels of psychiatric morbidity, there was evidence for distinct cognitive morbidity consistent with previous research. Our results suggest that, for a large variety of widely used neuropsychological measures and for most neurooncological patients, the preoperative neuropsychological baseline assessment can be considered valid and dependable. In patients with extreme levels of distress, however, distinct cognitive domains might be differentially affected. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot: neuropsychological assessment and structural brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Rivkin, Michael J; DeMaso, David; Robertson, Richard L; Stopp, Christian; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Wypij, David; Newburger, Jane W

    2015-02-01

    Few data are available on the neuropsychological, behavioural, or structural brain imaging outcomes in adolescents who underwent corrective surgery in infancy for tetralogy of Fallot. In this single-centre cross-sectional study, we enrolled 91 adolescents (13-16 years old) with tetralogy of Fallot and 87 referent subjects. Assessments included tests of academic achievement, memory, executive functions, visual-spatial skills, attention, and social cognition, as well as brain magnetic resonance imaging. Genetic abnormalities or syndromes were present in 25% of tetralogy of Fallot patients, who had markedly greater neuropsychological morbidities than did patients without a syndrome. However, even patients without a syndrome performed significantly worse than the referent group or population norms in all of the neuropsychological domains assessed. In multivariable regression in those without a genetic/phenotypic syndrome, the strongest predictors of adverse late neurodevelopmental outcomes included a greater number of complications at the first operation, more total surgical complications across all operations, and occurrence of post-operative seizures. The presence of at least one abnormality on structural magnetic resonance imaging was more frequent in tetralogy of Fallot patients than the referent group (42% versus 8%). Adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot are at increased neurodevelopmental risk and would benefit from ongoing surveillance and educational supports even after childhood.

  10. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronilla Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  11. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Petronilla; Salvatore, Christian; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR). Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  12. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Canini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance, specifically (1 the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2 the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal; and (3 the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control, including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1 touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2 intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3 touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people.

  13. INTERDISCIPLINARY PROTOCOL OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL, BEHAVIORAL AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENTS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH INATTENTION AND HYPERACTIVITY COMPLAINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carreiro, Luiz Renato Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a protocol developed for the investigation of signs of inattention and hyperactivity in children and adolescents, considering the behavioral, neuropsychological and clinical aspects. The first stage is a telephone triage. Further, the assessment consists of a face-to-face screening in which a behavioral inventory (BPM) is filled, and neuropsychological tests (IQ estimated by the Wisc-III and CPT-II Test) are performed. If there are indicators of inattention and hyperacti...

  14. Abbreviations in Maritime English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhirong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomena that more and more abbreviations occur in maritime English correspondences, the composing laws of the abbreviations in maritime English correspondence are analyzed, and the correct methods to answer the abbreviations are pointed out, and the translation method of abbreviations are summarized in this article, and the…

  15. Using the virtual reality device Oculus Rift for neuropsychological assessment of visual processing capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Poth, Christian H; Behler, Christian; Botsch, Mario; Schneider, Werner X

    2016-11-21

    Neuropsychological assessment of human visual processing capabilities strongly depends on visual testing conditions including room lighting, stimuli, and viewing-distance. This limits standardization, threatens reliability, and prevents the assessment of core visual functions such as visual processing speed. Increasingly available virtual reality devices allow to address these problems. One such device is the portable, light-weight, and easy-to-use Oculus Rift. It is head-mounted and covers the entire visual field, thereby shielding and standardizing the visual stimulation. A fundamental prerequisite to use Oculus Rift for neuropsychological assessment is sufficient test-retest reliability. Here, we compare the test-retest reliabilities of Bundesen's visual processing components (visual processing speed, threshold of conscious perception, capacity of visual working memory) as measured with Oculus Rift and a standard CRT computer screen. Our results show that Oculus Rift allows to measure the processing components as reliably as the standard CRT. This means that Oculus Rift is applicable for standardized and reliable assessment and diagnosis of elementary cognitive functions in laboratory and clinical settings. Oculus Rift thus provides the opportunity to compare visual processing components between individuals and institutions and to establish statistical norm distributions.

  16. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil

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    Brito G.N.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991 Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418. A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8, who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children

  17. Developmental norms for eight instruments used in the neuropsychological assessment of children: studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, G N; Alfradique, G M; Pereira, C C; Porto, C M; Santos, T R

    1998-03-01

    Norms for a battery of instruments, including Denckla's and Garfield's tests of Motor Persistence, Benton's Right-Left Discrimination, two recall modalities (Immediate and Delayed) of the Bender Test, Wechsler's Digit Span, the Color Span Test and the Human Figure Drawing Test, were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. Additionally, the behavior of each child was assessed with the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). A total of 398 children (199 boys and 199 girls balanced for age) with a mean age of 9.3 years (SD = 2.8), who were attending a public school in Niterói, were the subjects of this study. Gender and age had significant effects on performance which depended on the instrument. Nonachievers performed worse than achievers in most neuropsychological tests. Comparison of our data to the available counterparts in the United States revealed that American children outperformed Brazilian children on the Right-Left Discrimination, Forward Digit Span, Color Span and Human Figure Drawing Tests. Further analysis showed that the neurobehavioral data consist of different factorial dimensions, including Human Body Representation, Motor Persistence of the Legs, Orbito-Orobuccal Motor Persistence, Attention-Memory, Visuospatial Memory, Neuropsychomotor Speed, Hyperactivity-Inattention, and Anxiety-Negative Socialization. We conclude that gender and age should be taken into account when using the normative data for most of the instruments studied in the present report. Furthermore, we stress the need for major changes in the Brazilian public school system in order to foster the development of secondary cognitive abilities in our children.

  18. Executive functions of children with developmental dyspraxia: assessment combining neuropsychological and ecological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint-Thorin, M; Marchal, F; Benkhaled, O; Pradat-Diehl, P; Boyer, F-C; Chevignard, M

    2013-05-01

    To assess executive function in children with developmental dyspraxia. children aged 8 years to 12 years 5 months at the time of the study, diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia between January, 2008 and August, 2009 by a multidisciplinary team in one single center. (1) Paper-and-pencil neuropsychological and ecological tests to assess flexibility, planning, inhibition and prospective memory; (2) two questionnaires answered by parents; (3) the 'Children's Cooking Task' (CCT), an ecological task performed in a real environment (Chevignard et al., 2009 [15]). In this last test, children were compared to matched controls. Non-parametric statistical tests were used. Thirteen patients participated in the study (11 boys-2 girls; mean age 10.3 years [SD=1.3]). Neuropsychological tests highlighted planning and inhibition disorders, but no impaired flexibility. For more than half of the children, the questionnaires indicated impaired executive functions in daily life tasks. Finally, patients showed a significantly increased rate of errors during the CCT, compared with the control group (Pchildren diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia also exhibit executive function disorders. Ecological tests seem more sensitive for identifying executive function disorders than conventional tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

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    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  20. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

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    Tomohiro Miyanishi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J. RESULTS: Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  1. FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Acronyms and Abbreviations database provides a quick reference to acronyms and abbreviations related to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) activities

  2. NRC collection of abbreviations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff collected this list of abbreviations from NRC documents and nuclear industry documents, both foreign and domestic. Readers can use the collection, which is not all inclusive, to identify the terms from which the abbreviations are formed. The Editorial Section of the Division of Freedom of Information and Publications Services compiled this collection. In the introduction, the editorial staff offers suggestions for using abbreviations but does not recommend the use of one abbreviation over another

  3. International growth of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-five years ago, the field of neuropsychology was well established in North America, Europe, and Australia, with less presence elsewhere. This article discusses the development of neuropsychology over the last 25 years in other regions. The growth of neuropsychology in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Central and South America, and New Zealand is reviewed. Sources drawn on include a 2016 edition of The Clinical Neuropsychologist describing the practice of neuropsychology in 18 countries; papers on the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America (Arango-Lasprilla, Stevens, Paredes, Ardila, & Rivera, 2016), the history of neuropsychology in Asia (Lee, Wang, & Collinson, 2016), and neuropsychology in Central America (Judd, 2017); INSNET; and personal communications. There has been tremendous variability in the development of neuropsychology across these regions over the last 25 years. Obstacles to the growth of neuropsychology have included economic constraints on health care provision, limited availability of appropriate assessment and treatment methods, linguistic diversity and illiteracy, stigma toward and/or lack of awareness of neuropsychological disorders, lack of graduate training and clinical supervision, absence of accreditation of neuropsychologists as a clinical profession, poor pay, and diminished visibility of the field within the regional culture. Despite these obstacles, neuropsychological research and practice is establishing itself in these regions and has grown significantly over the last quarter century. Major challenges remain in establishing awareness of the significance of and developing culturally appropriate methods of assessing and rehabilitating cognitive aspects of brain disorders, training programs, recognition as a profession, and dedicated funding for neuropsychology positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Pediatric neuropsychology: toward subspecialty designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Wills, Karen; Rey-Casserly, Celiane; Armstrong, Kira; Westerveld, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology is a rapidly expanding field of study in the psychological sciences whose practitioners are expert in the assessment, treatment, and research of individuals with known or suspected central nervous system disease or disorder. Pediatric neuropsychology has emerged as a distinct subspecialty area with related education, training, and clinical expertise for a growing number of neuropsychologists. This paper details the numerous steps taken by two affiliated organizations, the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and its membership organization, the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, in the interest of the larger pediatric neuropsychology community and in pediatric neuropsychology subspecialty development.

  5. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E Gavett

    Full Text Available Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96 or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72 or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121 at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed-but not the immediate-recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls. These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants-but not participants with AD-improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects-especially on the delayed recall condition-suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  6. Sleep Problem of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Assessed by Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire-Abbreviated in Indonesia and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwanto; Rehatta, Nancy Margarita; Hartini, Sri; Takada, Satoshi

    2016-07-04

    Sleep problems are associated with problems of cognitive functioning, learning, attention and school performance. It has been found that sleep problems are highly prevalent in children with Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), with rates ranging from 40% to 80%. We aimed to identify the prevalence of sleep problems on children with ASD in Indonesia and Japan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Surabaya, Indonesia and Kobe, Japan. Children aged 4 -10 years old were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire-Abbreviated (CSHQ-A) was used in this research to assess the sleep problems, consisted of 22 questions (NICHD SECCYD-Wisconsin). Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U test to compare the CSHQ-A scores between Indonesian and Japanese children, while the proportion of sleep problems was evaluated by chi-square test with 95% confidence interval. Fifty children with ASD were included in this study, 25 children from Kobe, Japan and 25 children from Surabaya, Indonesia. The prevalence of sleep problems on children with ASD was 60% (15 children) in Indonesia and 16% (4 children) in Japan respectively. There were significant differences in total waking during the night and in morning wake for the CSHQ-A between children from Indonesia and Japan (psleep problems on children with ASD was higher in children from Indonesia than from Japan.

  7. Binaural beat technology in humans: a pilot study to assess neuropsychologic, physiologic, and electroencephalographic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Calabrese, Carlo; Zwickey, Heather; Zajdel, Dan

    2007-03-01

    When two auditory stimuli of different frequency are presented to each ear, binaural beats are perceived by the listener. The binaural beat frequency is equal to the difference between the frequencies applied to each ear. Our primary objective was to assess whether steady-state entrainment of electroencephalographic activity to the binaural beat occurs when exposed to a specific binaural beat frequency as has been hypothesized. Our secondary objective was to gather preliminary data on neuropsychologic and physiologic effects of binaural beat technology. A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover experiment in 4 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomized to experimental auditory stimulus of 30 minutes of binaural beat at 7 Hz (carrier frequencies: 133 Hz L; 140 Hz R) with an overlay of pink noise resembling the sound of rain on one session and control stimuli of the same overlay without the binaural beat carrier frequencies on the other session. Data were collected during two separate sessions 1 week apart. Neuropsychologic and blood pressure data were collected before and after the intervention; electroencephalographic data were collected before, during, and after listening to either binaural beats or control. Neuropsychologic measures included State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, Rey Auditory Verbal List Test, Stroop Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Spectral and coherence analysis was performed on the electroencephalogram (EEG), and all measures were analyzed for changes between sessions with and without binaural beat stimuli. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions in any of the EEG measures. There was an increase of the Profile of Mood States depression subscale in the experimental condition relative to the control condition (p = 0.02). There was also a significant decrease in immediate verbal memory recall (p = 0.03) in the experimental condition compared to control

  8. Abbreviated Lifestyle Assessment Information as an Indicant of Delinquent Versus High Achieving Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nield, John B.; Taylor, James S.

    A key concept in understanding a person's lifestyle is family constellation. Data on birth order and ordinal position of a child in the family can provide the trained observer with an immediate impression of grouping within the family and the position an individual perceives himself to hold. Observers trained in lifestyle assessment sought to…

  9. Neuropsychological assessment of a new computerized cognitive task that developed for training several cognitive functions simultaneously.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoe eIchihara-Takeda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that computerized cognitive training is effective as therapy for reducing the cognitive decline with aging and the dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatric illness. Although cognitive trainings that targets a specific function and multi-domain cognitive training have both been shown to have significant effects, we need one simple behavioral training paradigm to improve multiple domains of cognitive functions easily and simultaneously. We had developed a new computerized task that seeks to engage the cognitive functions of planning, mental calculation, and divergent thinking based on a working memory task in a single task. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive features of our new task by comparing the scores of seven known neuropsychological batteries in healthy elderly subjects. The relationships between performance in our task and the scores obtained by the neuropsychological batteries were examined. The percentage of correct performance on our task was correlated with the scores on the category fluency test, the digit span backward task, and the Trail making test B. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that the scores on the category fluency test and the Trail making test B showed significant positive correlations with the percentage of correct performance on our task. Although the present study did not show high correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and working memory functions as a primary target, we did observe mid-level correlations between the percentage of correct performance on our task and functions for divided attention and word fluency. Our new task could not measure subject’s working memory capacity specifically, but could measure the abilities of attention and divergent thinking. Thus, this task might be a useful tool for training multiple cognitive functions simultaneously.

  10. Can the CERAD neuropsychological battery be used to assess cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease?

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    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD neuropsychological battery was created to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD but it is widely-used for various dementias. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of using the CERAD battery in the assessment of patients with Parkinson's disease. Forty-nine patients with Parkinson's disease were divided into two groups (one with dementia and one without using the Movement Disorder Society criteria for Parkinson's disease dementia. Cognitive deficits were assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale as the gold standard, and the CERAD. The ROC curve for the CERAD battery had an area under the curve = 0.989 (95% CI = 0.967 – 1, p<0.0001. Among the CERAD subtests, verbal fluency had the worst accuracy, and word list learning had the best accuracy. Despite the limits of this study, the CERAD battery can be efficient for assessment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease patients.

  11. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment for detecting brain injury in a prospective cohort of university amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M G; Housden, C R; Suckling, J; Tait, R; Young, A; Müller, U; Newcombe, V F J; Jalloh, I; Pearson, B; Cross, J; Trivedi, R A; Pickard, J D; Sahakian, B J; Hutchinson, P J

    2017-01-01

    The safety of amateur and professional boxing is a contentious issue. We hypothesised that advanced magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing could provide evidence of acute and early brain injury in amateur boxers. We recruited 30 participants from a university amateur boxing club in a prospective cohort study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing was performed at three time points: prior to starting training; within 48 h following a first major competition to detect acute brain injury; and one year follow-up. A single MRI acquisition was made from control participants. Imaging analysis included cortical thickness measurements with Advanced Normalization Tools (ANTS) and FreeSurfer, voxel based morphometry (VBM), and Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests was performed assessing attention, learning, memory and impulsivity. During the study period, one boxer developed seizures controlled with medication while another developed a chronic subdural hematoma requiring neurosurgical drainage. A total of 10 boxers contributed data at to the longitudinal assessment protocol. Reasons for withdrawal were: logistics (10), stopping boxing (7), withdrawal of consent (2), and development of a chronic subdural hematoma (1). No significant changes were detected using VBM, TBSS, cortical thickness measured with FreeSurfer or ANTS, either cross-sectionally at baseline, or longitudinally. Neuropsychological assessment of boxers found attention/concentration improved over time while planning and problem solving ability latency decreased after a bout but recovered after one year. While this neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment protocol could not detect any evidence of brain injury, one boxer developed seizures and another developed a chronic sub-dural haematoma.

  12. Computed tomography abbreviated assessment of sarcopenia following trauma: The CAAST measurement predicts 6-month mortality in older adult trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Christine M; Lin, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Marcus; Fombona, Anisleidy; Zhou, Tianhua; Kutcher, Matthew; Rosengart, Matthew; Watson, Gregory; Billiar, Timothy; Peitzman, Andrew; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Sperry, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Older adult trauma patients are at increased risk of poor outcome, both immediately after injury and beyond hospital discharge. Identifying patients early in the hospital stay who are at increased risk of death after discharge can be challenging. Retrospective analysis was performed using our trauma registry linked with the social security death index from 2010 to 2014. Age was categorized as 18 to 64 and 65 years or older. We calculated mortality rates by age category then selected elderly patients with mechanism of injury being a fall for further analysis. Computed Tomography Abbreviated Assessment of Sarcopenia for Trauma (CAAST) was obtained by measuring psoas muscle cross-sectional area adjusted for height and weight. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed, and proportional hazards regression modeling was used to determine independent risk factors for in-hospital and out-of-hospital mortality. A total of 23,622 patients were analyzed (16,748, aged 18-64 years; and 6,874, aged 65 or older). In-hospital mortality was 1.96% for ages 18 to 64 and 7.19% for age 65 or older (p older (p older group included injury characteristics such as ISS, admission vitals, and head injury. Predictors of postdischarge mortality for age 65or older included skilled nursing before admission, disposition, and mechanism of injury being a fall. A total of 57.5% (n = 256) of older patients who sustained a fall met criteria for sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was the strongest predictor of out-of-hospital mortality in this cohort with a hazard ratio of 4.77 (95% confidence interval, 2.71-8.40; p older adults. The CAAST measurement is an efficient and inexpensive measure that can allow clinicians to target older trauma patients at risk of poor outcome for early intervention and/or palliative care services. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.

  13. Neuropsychological assessment of a potential "euthanasia" case: a 5 year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Herbert, C M

    2000-02-01

    McMillan reported a neuropsychological assessment procedure which was used to determine whether or not there was evidence for sentience in a young woman who had been rendered tetraplegic and anarthric as a result of a road traffic accident. An application to court had been made to withdraw feeding and this was supported by medical evidence which gave the view that the individual was functioning little beyond vegetative state, had a poor quality of life and had little prospect of further recovery. Evidence for an ability to communicate reliably was found including for a wish to continue living, and as a consequence the application to court was withdrawn. This paper describes further recovery 2-4 years after the original assessment (i.e. 4-6 years post-injury). At follow-up, she remained dependent for all care, but was now feeding orally and was talking. She could learn new information, some of which she retained for at least 12 months and had greater insight into her condition. She now reported low mood and some pain. As before, she consistently reported a wish to live. The implications of the follow-up are discussed in the context of assumptions made about quality of life and decision making about euthanasia in brain injured people who are severely disabled, but are not in a vegetative state.

  14. Assessing Executive Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Critical Review of Brief Neuropsychological Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena S. Moreira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF has been defined as a multifaceted construct that involves a variety of high-level cognitive abilities such as planning, working memory, mental flexibility, and inhibition. Being able to identify deficits in EF is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of several neurodegenerative disorders, and thus their assessment is a topic of much debate. In particular, there has been a growing interest in the development of neuropsychological screening tools that can potentially provide a reliable quick measure of EF. In this review, we critically discuss the four screening tools of EF currently available in the literature: Executive Interview-25 (EXIT 25, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, INECO Frontal Screening (IFS, and FRONTIER Executive Screen (FES. We first describe their features, and then evaluate their psychometric properties, the existing evidence on their neural correlates, and the empirical work that has been conducted in clinical populations. We conclude that the four screening tools generally present appropriate psychometric properties, and are sensitive to impairments in EF in several neurodegenerative conditions. However, more research will be needed mostly with respect to normative data and neural correlates, and to determine the extent to which these tools add specific information to the one provided by global cognition screening tests. More research directly comparing the available tools with each other will also be important to establish in which conditions each of them can be most useful.

  15. The Stroop test as a measure of performance validity in adults clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Sagar, Sanya; Seke, Kristian; Zuccato, Brandon G; Schwartz, Eben S; Roth, Robert M

    2018-02-22

    This study was designed to develop performance validity indicators embedded within the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems (D-KEFS) version of the Stroop task. Archival data from a mixed clinical sample of 132 patients (50% male; M Age = 43.4; M Education = 14.1) clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment were analyzed. Criterion measures included the Warrington Recognition Memory Test-Words and 2 composites based on several independent validity indicators. An age-corrected scaled score ≤6 on any of the 4 trials reliably differentiated psychometrically defined credible and noncredible response sets with high specificity (.87-.94) and variable sensitivity (.34-.71). An inverted Stroop effect was less sensitive (.14-.29), but comparably specific (.85-90) to invalid performance. Aggregating the newly developed D-KEFS Stroop validity indicators further improved classification accuracy. Failing the validity cutoffs was unrelated to self-reported depression or anxiety. However, it was associated with elevated somatic symptom report. In addition to processing speed and executive function, the D-KEFS version of the Stroop task can function as a measure of performance validity. A multivariate approach to performance validity assessment is generally superior to univariate models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. [NeuroCogFX--a computer-based neuropsychological assessment battery for the follow-up examination of neurological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliessbach, K; Hoppe, C; Schlegel, U; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C

    2006-11-01

    Many neurological therapeutic trials require a longitudinal assessment of cognitive functions. An ideal instrument for that purpose should be in accordance to the criteria of classical testing theory and, furthermore, it should be repeatable and economic in administration and interpretation. We developed NeuroCogFX, a computerized assessment battery, according to these criteria. NeuroCogFX comprises subtests for short term memory, working memory, psychomotor speed, selective attention, verbal and figural memory and verbal fluency (mean duration: 25 minutes). Age-related normative data was obtained from 244 subjects without history of neurological or psychiatric disease (age range 16 - 75 years). Forty-two subjects were re-tested after an average of 8 weeks (range: 6 - 10 weeks) in order to assess retest reliability and training effects. Retest-reliabilities were middle-sized in all but one subtest, ranging from r (12) = 0.5 to r (12) = 0.7 (2-back Test: r (12) = 0.37). For construct validation NeuroCogFX was administered in addition to a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment battery in a group of 40 healthy subjects and in 42 patients with chronic epilepsy. The test allows a valid assessment of short-term memory, reaction speed, memory and verbal fluency. NeuroCogFX is an economic, sufficiently reliable and valid instrument for the neuropsychological follow-up examination in single patients and study groups which can be administered if a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is unavailable.

  17. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed t...

  18. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  19. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T; Jacobson, R; Gross, M

    1997-01-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

 PMID:9285467

  20. Neuropsychology of thallium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; Jacobson, R R; Gross, M

    1997-08-01

    Cases of thallium poisoning are rare and neuropsychological assessment has only been reported in detail in one other case. In the case reported here, neuropsychological assessments were carried out three, 12, and 54 months after diagnosis of thallium poisoning in a man who had acutely shown a number of neurological signs including confusion and disorientation and generalised slowing of EEG which was more prominent on the left. Evidence suggested that he had been exposed to thallium over a period of weeks. Neuropsychological assessment indicated an unexpected weakness in verbal abilities which persisted. This finding is consistent with the only other published case report which details neuropsychological effects after a single large dose of thallium and which also found a lateralised impairment.

  1. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  2. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...... prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding...

  3. Supervision in neuropsychological assessment: a survey of training, practices, and perspectives of supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Laura A Schwent; Pedersen, Heather A; Roper, Brad L; Rey-Casserly, Celiane

    2014-01-01

    Within the psychology supervision literature, most theoretical models and practices pertain to general clinical or counseling psychology. Supervision specific to clinical neuropsychology has garnered little attention. This survey study explores supervision training, practices, and perspectives of neuropsychology supervisors. Practicing neuropsychologists were invited to participate in an online survey via listservs and email lists. Of 451 respondents, 382 provided supervision to students, interns, and/or fellows in settings such as VA medical centers (37%), university medical centers (35%), and private practice (15%). Most supervisors (84%) reported supervision was discussed in graduate school "minimally" or "not at all." Although 67% completed informal didactics or received continuing education in supervision, only 27% reported receiving training specific to neuropsychology supervision. Notably, only 39% were satisfied with their training in providing supervision and 77% indicated they would likely participate in training in providing supervision, if available at professional conferences. Results indicate that clinical neuropsychology as a specialty has paid scant attention to developing supervision models and explicit training in supervision skills. We recommend that the specialty develop models of supervision for neuropsychological practice, supervision standards and competencies, training methods in provision of supervision, and benchmark measures for supervision competencies.

  4. Genetic and environmental sources of covariance between reading tests used in neuropsychological assessment and IQ subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Mark; Wright, Margaret J; Geffen, Gina M; Geffen, Laurie B; Luciano, Michelle; Martin, Nicholas G

    2004-07-01

    In this study, we examined genetic and environmental influences on covariation among two reading tests used in neuropsychological assessment (Cambridge Contextual Reading Test [CCRT], [Beardsall, L., and Huppert, F. A. (1994). J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 16:232-242], Schonell Graded Word Reading Test [SGWRT], [Schonell, F. J., and Schonell, P. E. (1960). Diagnostic and attainment testing. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.]) and among a selection of IQ subtests from the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB), [Jackson, D. N. (1984). Multidimensional aptitude battery, Ontario: Research Psychologists Press.] and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) [Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation]. Participants were 225 monozygotic and 275 dizygotic twin pairs aged from 15 years to 18 years (mean, 16 years). For Verbal IQ subtests, phenotypic correlations with the reading tests ranged from 0.44 to 0.65. For Performance IQ subtests, phenotypic correlations with the reading tests ranged from 0.23 to 0.34. Results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) supported a model with one genetic General factor and three genetic group factors (Verbal, Performance, Reading). Reading performance was influenced by the genetic General factor (accounting for 13% and 20% of the variance for the CCRT and SGWRT, respectively), the genetic Verbal factor (explaining 17% and 19% of variance for the CCRT and SGWRT), and the genetic Reading factor (explaining 21% of the variance for both the CCRT and SGWRT). A common environment factor accounted for 25% and 14% of the CCRT and SGWRT variance, respectively. Genetic influences accounted for more than half of the phenotypic covariance between the reading tests and each of the IQ subtests. The heritabilities of the CCRT and SGWRT were 0.54 and 0.65, respectively. Observable covariance between reading assessments used by neuropsychologists to estimate IQ

  5. Neuropsychological Impairment in Prodromal, First-Episode, and Chronic Psychosis: Assessing RBANS Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tang, YingYing; Guo, Qian; Zhuo, KaiMing; Qian, ZhenYing; Cui, HuiRu; Zhu, YiKang; Jiang, LiJuan; Chow, Annabelle; Tang, YunXiang; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Yi, ZhengHui; Xiao, ZePing; Wang, JiJun

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits are observed throughout all developmental phases of psychosis. However, prior studies have usually focused on a limited illness period and used a wide variety of cognitive instruments. Therefore, it has been difficult to characterize or highlight cognitive functioning in different stages of psychosis. Method We administered the RBANS (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) tests to 4 participant subgroups, including healthy volunteers (controls, HC, n = 28), subjects at high risk for clinical psychosis (prodrome, CHR, n = 27), first-episode schizophrenia patients (FE-Sz, n = 26), and mid-term and long-term chronic schizophrenia patients (Ch-Sz, n =147). Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses of RBANS index scores were assessed among groups. We examined clinical outcomes over 2 years between the CHR and HC subjects, and RBANS domains were used as possible predictors for conversion to psychosis. Results Performance on all RBANS domains was significantly impaired during a post-onset stage of psychosis (FE-Sz and Ch-Sz), and RBANS scores declined along with disease progression. Regression analyses showed that for CHR and HC subjects, baseline impairment in delayed memory (DM) significantly predicted conversion to psychosis. Additionally, partial correlations showed that for FE-Sz and Ch-Sz subjects, DM was the only correlate with a later stage of psychosis. Conclusions Cognitive deficits broadly emerged, and diminished functioning followed along with disease progression. Impairment in DM is perhaps one domain that helps us understand the development of psychosis. A critical need is to monitor and treat memory functioning for psychotic patients throughout all phases of the disease. PMID:25973925

  6. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  7. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  8. Correlation with neuropsychological assessment and SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Jae Woo [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a degenerative condition of unknown aetiology that produces an akinetic-rigid form of parkinsonism characterised by early falls, dementia and abnormalities of extraocular movements. The patterns of decreased regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in PSP compared with normal control have been insufficiently investigated and a limited number of studies have been performed. We evaluated clinical symptoms, functional neuroimaging study using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and neuropsychological profiles in patients with PSP. Eleven patients with PSP diagnosed by the clinical criteria of National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP (NINDS-SPSP) (mean age: 70.5{+-}5.6 years, educational period: 4.5{+-}4.7 years) and age-matched 10 healthy control subjects (mean age: 68.1{+-}4.5 years, educational period: 6.5{+-}4.1 years) participated in this study were participated. All patients were given a neurologic examination, brain MRI and cerebral perfusion SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO. We concomittently evaluated several cognitive profiles using the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. SPM analysis of the SPECT image showed significant perfusion deficits in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, left middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus in the patients with PSP compared with age-matched healthy control (uncorrected p<0.01). On neuropsychological assessment, cognitive deficits on verbal and visual memory, word fluency and frontal executive functions were prominent in most patients with PSP compared with healthy control subjects. Our findings suggest that measurement of regional cerebral blood flow by perfusion SPECT and voxel-based SPM analysis with neuropsychological assessment are useful to understanding the correlation between perfusion deficits and abnormal cognitive profiles in patients with PSP.

  9. Multivariate Normative Comparisons for Neuropsychological Assessment by a Multilevel Factor Structure or Multiple Imputation Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A.; de Vent, Nathalie R.; Schmand, Ben A.; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychologists administer neuropsychological tests to decide whether a patient is cognitively impaired. This clinical decision is made by comparing a patient's scores to those of healthy participants in a normative sample. In a multivariate normative comparison, a patient's entire profile of

  10. Neuropsychological evaluation and parental assessment of behavioral and motor difficulties in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, V; Kemlin, I; Dorison, N; Billette de Villemeur, T; Rodriguez, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder, with large inter and intrafamilial clinical variability and uncertain prognosis. In children with NF1 cognitive disorders, learning difficulties and behavioral problems are common. The present study aims to establish the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of 78 patients with NF1, aged between 5 and 18 years, and to examine the relationship between these profiles and the transmission of NF1 (sporadic vs. familial), clinical manifestations, and environmental factors. We used several questionnaires completed by parents and neuropsychological tests. The results confirmed specific neuropsychological disabilities in children with NF1, especially involving visuospatial and fine motor skills, learning difficulties and behavioral problems. Cognitive difficulties were significantly more frequent in patients with familial than in those with sporadic NF1. All parental questionnaires were correlated with each other, but parental reports were not associated with FSIQ, SES, school status, and clinical manifestations of the disease. Neuropsychological tests were poorly related to parental reports of cognitive and behavioral difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of neuropsychological assessment in leukaemia patients shortly after diagnosis: directions for future prospective research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, NC; Kingma, A; Tellegen, P; van Dommelen, RI; Bouma, A; Veerman, A; Kamps, WA

    Aims: To study neuropsychological functioning of newly diagnosed children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) within two weeks after diagnosis in order to determine the feasibility of a sibling controlled prospective study design. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients (median age at testing 6.6

  12. The Short Form Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery in Assessment of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    This study sought to determine whether a short form of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery could discriminate between senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type and depression in a sample of elderly neuropsychiatric patients. The short form Luria-Nebraska includes 141 of the 269 items contained in the original version, with the Rhythm scale…

  13. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease phenotype related to C9ORF72 repeat expansions: contribution of the neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Mariam; Beaufils, Émilie; Viola, Ursule-Catherine; Vourc'h, Patrick; Hommet, Caroline; Mondon, Karl

    2013-08-29

    Expanded GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeats in the non-coding region of the C9ORF72 gene was recently identified as being responsible for over 40% of the cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, in various extrapyramidal syndromes including supranuclear gaze palsy and corticobasal degeneration, and in addition, has been found to be a rare genetic cause of isolated Parkinsonism. To our knowledge, there is no published data concerning the neuropsychological evaluation of patients diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease related with C9ORF72 repeat expansions. We report the results of the comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation in a newly described case in the literature (the sixth) of a patient presenting isolated idiopathic Parkinson's disease associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions.The decrease in the patient's prefrontal functions resulted in a slight decrease in global efficiency. These abnormalities did not appear to be different, with respect to the deficit observed and the intensity of the cognitive impairment, from those classically observed in cases of sporadic idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Our patient also exhibited a significant impairment in visual gnosis. If confirmed in other patients, visuoperceptive deficits in idiopathic Parkinson's disease could represent a red flag that should prompt the clinician to perform addition diagnostic procedures. A thorough neuropsychological assessment may prove to be useful for detecting idiopathic Parkinson's disease in patients who are suspected of having repeat abnormalities of C9ORF72 expansions.

  14. Diagnosing ADHD in Adults: An Examination of the Discriminative Validity of Neuropsychological Tests and Diagnostic Assessment Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Richard; Söderström, Staffan; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-12-17

    The objective of this study is to investigate the discriminative validity of neuropsychological tests and diagnostic assessment instruments in diagnosing adult ADHD in a clinical psychiatric population. Of 108 patients, 60 were diagnosed with ADHD. The Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in adults (DIVA 2.0) and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) v.1.1 together with eight neuropsychological tests were investigated. All instruments showed poor discriminative ability except for the DIVA, which showed a relatively good ability to discriminate between the groups (sensitivity = 90.0; specificity = 72.9). A logistic regression analysis model with the DIVA and measures of inattention, impulsivity, and activity from continuous performance tests (CPTs) showed a sensitivity of 90.0 and a specificity of 83.3. Neuropsychological tests have a poor ability to discriminate between patients diagnosed with ADHD and patients not diagnosed with ADHD, but variables from CPT tests can contribute to increasing the specificity by 10% if used in combination with the DIVA. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Avaliação neuropsicológica da criança Neuropsychological assessment in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle I. Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a metodologia empregada na avaliação neuropsicológica de crianças e suas contribuições, priorizando aqueles aspectos de interesse dos profissionais da área da saúde, em especial pediatras, psicólogos, psiquiatras, neurologistas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Revisão da literatura sobre o tema proposto nos últimos anos e incluídas referências de livros texto e manuais dos testes imprescindíveis para a compreensão do exame neuropsicológico e aporte da experiência da Unidade de Neuropsicologia do HSL - PUCRS. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A avaliação neuropsicológica não se limita a aplicação de testes psicométricos e neuropsicológicos organizados em baterias, mas objetiva, também, avaliar a relação destes achados com a patologia neurológica e/ou comportamental e em estabelecer a possível área cerebral envolvida. Adicionalmente, a interpretação cuidadosa destes resultados deve ser associada à análise da situação atual do sujeito e do contexto onde vive. CONCLUSÃO: O resultado final deve fornecer um perfil neuropsicológico do paciente que, combinado à avaliação dos aspectos neurológicos/clínicos, psicológicos e sociais, permitirá auxiliar no seu diagnóstico e/ou orientar sobre o melhor aproveitamento de suas potencialidades.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods used for neuropsychological assessment in children, emphasizing aspects of interest to pediatricians, psychologists and neurologists. SOURCES OF DATA: Review of the published literature concerning neuropsychological assessment, including textbooks and reference manuals. The experience of the Neuropsychology Unit at Hospital São Lucas, Brazil, is described. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Neuropsychological assessment should not be limited to the application of psychometric and neuropsychological tests; it should also correlate test findings with the neurological/behavioral disorder and establish which part of the brain is likely

  16. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding......, including assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of the SAPAS for various cut-off scores, will be presented Conclusions: The study provides a basis for preliminary conclusions regarding the validity of SAPAS as a brief routine screen for personality disorders amongst incarcerated male youth......Aims: To test the validity of an age-appropriate adaptation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) in a sample of incarcerated male youth Method: A sample of incarcerated boys, age 15 to 18, were administered the SAPAS by social workers from the participating...

  17. Assessing mental flexibility: neuroanatomical and neuropsychological correlates of the Trail Making Test in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Vogels, Raymond L C; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A; Poggesi, Anna; Scheltens, Philip; Kessels, Roy P C; Scherder, Erik J A

    2010-02-01

    The Trail Making Test part B (TMT-B) is highly sensitive to age-related changes in the brain and cognitive function. However, the precise contribution of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH), deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH), and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) to task performance remains unspecified. Similarly, diminished performance may be due to deficient flexibility functions, but also to other age-related cognitive decline (e.g., mental slowing). The aim of the present study was to determine neuroanatomical (PVH, DWMH, MTA) and neuropsychological (working memory, executive function, speed and attention, episodic memory) predictors of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Results showed that MTA was the strongest predictor of TMT-B performance. The predictive value of the neuropsychological scores differed among the various TMT-B variables. For example, all neuropsychological domains predicted the TMT-B total completion time, whereas only executive function predicted the ratio score (TMT-B/A). We conclude that MTA is a very important predictor of TMT-B performance in elderly people. Furthermore, multiple cognitive functions are involved in TMT-B performance and a mild decline in any of these functions may result in diminished TMT-B performance. Therefore it is crucial to use the ratio score when one wishes to examine executive function ability.

  18. Cognitive change in patients with Huntington disease on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Leigh J; Duff, Kevin; Allison, Jessica; Theriault, Danielle; O'Rourke, Justin J F; Leserman, Anne; Paulsen, Jane S

    2010-07-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with cognitive, motor, and psychiatric deterioration over time. Although there is currently no cure for HD, there has been a surge of clinical trials available to patients with HD over the past 5 years. However, cognitive measures have generally been lacking from these trials. A brief, repeatable neuropsychological battery is needed to assess cognitive endpoints. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) may be useful for assessing change in interventional studies or for clinical monitoring. A total of 38 patients with HD were assessed using the RBANS, other cognitive tests, and the standardized HD battery (Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, UHDRS) at two clinic visits approximately 16 months apart. The RBANS Attention Index, as well as individual subtest scores on Coding, Digit Span, List Recognition, Figure Copy, and Figure Recall all declined significantly over this interval. Performance on the UHDRS cognitive tests (Symbol Digit Modalities; Stroop Color, and Stroop Word) also declined, as did functional capacity. Results suggest that cognitive changes were detected both on established cognitive tasks used in HD research and on the RBANS in patients with measurable functional decline. The RBANS provided additional information about other cognitive domains affected (e.g., memory) and may be a useful measure for tracking longitudinal change.

  19. A brief neurocognitive assessment of patients with psychosis following traumatic brain injury (PFTBI): Use of the Repeatable battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Rachel A; Francis, Andrew; Thomas, Neil; Hopwood, Malcolm; Ponsford, Jennie; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-03-30

    Patients who develop psychosis following a traumatic brain injury (PFTBI) show impaired neurocognition; however, the degree of impairment has not been empirically investigated using a standardised battery. We administered the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to patients with PFTBI (n=10), and to three groups of controls: traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n=10), schizophrenia (n=23), and nonclinical controls (n=23). The results confirmed that the cognitive neuropsychological profile of dually-diagnosed patients with PFTBI is significantly and substantially impaired. Seventy per cent of patients with PFTBI received a neuropsychological classification between the "extremely low" and "low average" ranges. Group-wise analyses on the RBANS indices indicated that patients with PFTBI had the lowest (Immediate Memory, Attention, Delayed Memory, Total Score), or equal lowest (visuospatial, equivalent with schizophrenia patients) scores, with the exception of the Language Index where no group differences were shown (however, the mean PFTBI score on the Language Index was two standard deviations below the RBANS normative score). These findings provide novel evidence of impaired cognitive neuropsychological processing in patients with PFTBI using a standardised and replicable battery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuropsychological assessment in two cases of adult mild traumatic brain injury with a history of childhood head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert A; Priluck, Jacob; Bonilla, Xavier; Evans, Charles; Macedo, Pedro S

    2017-01-01

    The existence of residual cognitive deficits following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) has been a topic of controversy. The current paper describes neuropsychological assessment in two cases of adulthood mild traumatic brain injury. Both patients showed objective results demonstrating cognitive impairment. The first patient experienced a head trauma around the age of 4 and the other patient had a head injury around the age of 7. Discussion focuses on the need for the systematic consideration of a history of childhood head injury as a moderating factor that may account for why a subgroup of patients show cognitive deficits following MTBI.

  1. Comparing the test of practical judgment with the neuropsychological assessment battery judgment subtest in a neurodegenerative disease clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, January; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Banks, Sarah Jane; Miller, Justin Benjamin

    2017-06-12

    The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) and the Judgment subtest from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB-JDG) are both brief interview-based measures that assess judgment. This study compared estimates of judgment obtained from these measures in a neurodegenerative disease population. Records from 61 referrals seen for neuropsychological evaluation in a neurodegenerative disorders clinic were reviewed. Measures of interest included the TOP-J and NAB-JDG. Concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and root mean square differences (RMSD) were calculated between judgment T-scores. Discrepancy scores were calculated by subtracting NAB-JDG scores from TOP-J scores. CCC showed poor agreement between the judgment measures, with evidence of fixed bias, such that the NAB-JDG systematically generates higher scores than the TOP-J. This fixed bias was present whether NAB-JDG scores are demographically adjusted or unadjusted. There was no evidence of proportional bias. In a neurodegenerative disease clinic population, the TOP-J and NAB-JDG provide estimates of judgment ability that are systematically different. These two measures may be assessing different aspects within the larger construct of judgment and the inconsistency between measures would contraindicate using them interchangeably. Clinicians will need to carefully consider patient characteristics, clinical needs, and review specific item content when selecting between these measures.

  2. Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN) Symptom Assessment Form Total Symptom Score: Prospective International Assessment of an Abbreviated Symptom Burden Scoring System Among Patients With MPNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Robyn M.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Geyer, Holly L.; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Slot, Stefanie; Zweegman, Sonja; te Boekhorst, Peter A.W.; Commandeur, Suzan; Schouten, Harry C.; Sackmann, Federico; Kerguelen Fuentes, Ana; Hernández-Maraver, Dolores; Pahl, Heike L.; Griesshammer, Martin; Stegelmann, Frank; Doehner, Konstanze; Lehmann, Thomas; Bonatz, Karin; Reiter, Andreas; Boyer, Francoise; Etienne, Gabriel; Ianotto, Jean-Christophe; Ranta, Dana; Roy, Lydia; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Harrison, Claire N.; Radia, Deepti; Muxi, Pablo; Maldonado, Norman; Besses, Carlos; Cervantes, Francisco; Johansson, Peter L.; Barbui, Tiziano; Barosi, Giovanni; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Passamonti, Francesco; Andreasson, Bjorn; Ferarri, Maria L.; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Samuelsson, Jan; Birgegard, Gunnar; Tefferi, Ayalew; Mesa, Ruben A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) symptoms are troublesome to patients, and alleviation of this burden represents a paramount treatment objective in the development of MPN-directed therapies. We aimed to assess the utility of an abbreviated symptom score for the most pertinent and representative MPN symptoms for subsequent serial use in assessing response to therapy. Patients and Methods The Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Symptom Assessment Form total symptom score (MPN-SAF TSS) was calculated as the mean score for 10 items from two previously validated scoring systems. Questions focus on fatigue, concentration, early satiety, inactivity, night sweats, itching, bone pain, abdominal discomfort, weight loss, and fevers. Results MPN-SAF TSS was calculable for 1,408 of 1,433 patients with MPNs who had a mean score of 21.2 (standard deviation [SD], 16.3). MPN-SAF TSS results significantly differed among MPN disease subtypes (P < .001), with a mean of 18.7 (SD, 15.3), 21.8 (SD, 16.3), and 25.3 (SD, 17.2) for patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis, respectively. The MPN-SAF TSS strongly correlated with overall quality of life (QOL; r = 0.59; P < .001) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) functional scales (all P < .001 and absolute r ≥ 0.50 except social functioning r = 0.48). No significant trends were present when comparing therapy subgroups. The MPN-SAF TSS had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .83). Factor analysis identified a single underlying construct, indicating that the MPN-SAF TSS is an appropriate, unified scoring method. Conclusion The MPN-SAF TSS is a concise, valid, and accurate assessment of MPN symptom burden with demonstrated clinical utility in the largest prospective MPN symptom study to date. This new prospective scoring method may be used to assess MPN symptom burden in both clinical practice and trial settings. PMID

  3. Neuropsychological assessment with the Visual Gestalt Test: psychometric properties and differential diagnostic probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Cour, Peter; Andersen, Ruth

    2006-02-01

    The Visual Gestalt Test is a neuropsychological instrument developed for evaluation of learning and memory of visuo-spatial material. A revised strategy of scoring has motivated the present study, where data from 153 normal persons, 99 epilepsy patients, and 24 depressed patients are presented and compared. The Visual Gestalt Test is observed to discriminate between normal and diagnosed groups in several ways. Additionally it is found to discriminate between depressed and brain damage subgroups of patients. Data are presented in order to supplement previously published ways of scoring and norms. Practical guidelines for the clinical applications of the test are suggested as perspectives.

  4. Sociolinguistic reflection on neuropsychological assessment: an insight into selected culturally adapted battery of Lebanese Arabic cognitive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Mrad, Fadi; Tarabey, Lubna; Zamrini, Edward; Pasquier, Florence; Chelune, Gordon; Fadel, Patricia; Hayek, Maryse

    2015-10-01

    Neuropsychological tests (NPTs) are highly dependent on education, culture differences as well as age and sex. It is therefore essential to take these factors into consideration when translating NPTs to be used in screening for cognitive impairment. Translations into Arabic must respect the principles of linguistic relativity and cultural specificity of the population under study. The objective is to assess feasibility and outcome of translating neuropsychological tests to Arabic. A team of Lebanese professionals selected a battery of screening NPTs. These tests were translated into Arabic and independently back translated by a team of sociolinguists and cultural specialists. The translations were adapted to suit the Lebanese culture. The final NPT translated versions were reached by consensus of an expert panel and tested on a group of independently living community-dwelling elderly. Translated items had to be modified when: (1) terms could not be translated using one word as required by the test; (2) Concepts were foreign to the culture; (3) Translated words carried multiple meanings; (4) Words were rarely used in Lebanon; (5) Sentences did not have an equivalent; and (6) Words had letters pronounced differently by subgroups in Lebanon. Despite all measures to maintain cultural sensitivity in translations, non-linguistic challenges remained. A battery of cognitive screening tests were translated into Arabic and adapted for the Lebanese population. These adaptations allow for a better assessment of cognitive abilities since they reflect the thought patterns of the population. The challenge is to establish local normative data.

  5. Age- and education-matched comparison of aging HIV+ men who have sex with men to general population on common neuropsychological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupprat, Sandra Anne; Halkitis, Perry N; Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael; Solomon, Todd M; Ashman, Teresa; Kingdon, Molly J; Levy, Michael David

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the impact of HIV and aging on cognitive functioning. This New York City cross-sectional study of aging HIV-positive gay and bisexual men assessed their neuropsychological state. Working memory and verbal abstract reasoning were relatively intact. After 55 years of age, attention abilities were impaired. Executive function impairment was present regardless of age and education. Results suggest the need for HIV-specific norms, and the use of neuropsychological assessments (i.e. baseline and over time) as a cost-effective way to assess HIV-related cognitive decline in developed and under-developed countries. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Multivariate Normative Comparisons for Neuropsychological Assessment by a Multilevel Factor Structure or Multiple Imputation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; de Vent, Nathalie R; Schmand, Ben A; Murre, Jaap M J; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-05-29

    Neuropsychologists administer neuropsychological tests to decide whether a patient is cognitively impaired. This clinical decision is made by comparing a patient's scores to those of healthy participants in a normative sample. In a multivariate normative comparison, a patient's entire profile of scores is compared to scores in a normative sample. Such a multivariate comparison has been shown to improve clinical decision making. However, it requires a multivariate normative data set, which often is unavailable. To obtain such a multivariate normative data set, the authors propose to aggregate healthy control group data from existing neuropsychological studies. As not all studies administered the same tests, this aggregated database will contain substantial amounts of missing data. The authors therefore propose two solutions: multiple imputation and factor modeling. Simulation studies show that factor modeling is preferred over multiple imputation, provided that the factor model is adequately specified. This factor modeling approach will therefore allow routine use of multivariate normative comparisons, enabling more accurate clinical decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Routine use of an abbreviated 4-item scale to assess dependence in essential activities of daily living amongst elderly hemodialysis patients: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Farhat; Jassal, Sarbjit V

    2013-02-01

    Poor functional status is associated with reduced survival and poor outcomes in older dialysis patients. The Geriatric Nephrology Advisory Group recommends routine evaluation of functional status on all older patients; however, assessments can be time consuming and burdensome to clinical care providers. The objective of this study was to validate an abbreviated 4-item self-report screening tool for use in elderly hemodialysis patients. The functional dependence of community-dwelling hemodialysis patients, aged ≥65 years, was measured by trained evaluators. The accuracy of a 4-item self-report activities of daily living (ADL) score was compared against formal evaluation by the Barthel Index and the outcomes using agreement statistics and Cox regression analysis. The cohort included 167 patients with a mean age of 74.8 ± 5.9 years (57 % males). The 4-item scale correctly identified 83 % of the patients dependent in ≥1 ADL. Those incorrectly identified as independent on the abbreviated scale were uniformly unable to climb stairs without assistance. The sensitivity and specificity, and coefficient for agreement between the 4-item scale and the Barthel Index were 83.2, 100 and 0.78 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values of the 4-item scale were 100 and 76.9 %, respectively. Using the 4-item scale, the presence of severe disability was predictive of increased mortality (HR 12.5; 95 % CI 2.5-65.0; P = 0.03). The 4-item scale is a simple, valid screening test for disability which can be used in the elderly population on dialysis as a screening tool. Difficulties with stair climbing may be overlooked using this score.

  8. Brain Function, Structure, and Neurochemistry After Tamoxifen/Chemotherapy Assessed by Neuropsychologic Testing and 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ernst, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    .... Most recently, several reports have used a sensitive method (neuropsychological testing) to evaluate younger women with breast cancer after chemotherapy and hormonal modifying therapy (with tamoxifen...

  9. Analysis of abbreviations used by residents in admission notes and discharge summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, L; Shilo, G

    2018-03-01

    There are abbreviations that are used daily such as BP for blood pressure and ECG for electrocardiogram, but many of the abbreviations found in medical documents are unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and comprehension of abbreviations in admission notes and discharge letters composed by orthopedic surgery and medical residents. Abbreviations were extracted from discharge letters and admission notes composed by residents from orthopedic surgery and medical wards. The frequency of use of the abbreviations was determined. Additionally, the fifty commonest abbreviations from each specialty were graded by three medical and three orthopedic surgery senior physicians as 1. understandable or 2. Ambiguous or unknown. The number of abbreviations found in the documents composed by medical and orthopedic surgery residents was 1525 with 80 different abbreviations and 493 with 51 different abbreviations respectively (9.3% and 4.9% of the total word number respectively). Analysis revealed that 14% of the abbreviations from medical ward documents were graded as ambiguous or unknown by medical senior physicians compared with 25% by senior orthopedic surgeons. When abbreviations from orthopedic surgery documents were presented to both groups, senior orthopedic surgeons graded 8% as ambiguous or unknown compared with 21% by the medical senior physicians. In order to prevent impairment of patient care, only standard abbreviations should be used in medical documents. Measures should be taken to decrease the use of non standard abbreviations such as the incorporation of authorized abbreviations to the electronic medical record.

  10. The Judgment Test of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB): psychometric considerations in an assisted-living sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Elizabeth E; Mansbach, William E

    2013-01-01

    A total of 82 older adults recruited from assisted-living facilities completed the Judgment subtest of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery. The internal consistency reliability of Judgment scores in this sample, as estimated by Cronbach's α, was .83. Significant and strong Judgment score correlations with measures of general cognitive functioning and instrumental activities of daily living provided evidence of construct validity. Furthermore, participants who exhibited the capacity to consent to the evaluation performed significantly better on the Judgment subtest than did participants who did not exhibit consent capacity. Finally, Judgment scores predicted a significant proportion of variance in both instrumental and basic activities of daily living over and above the variance accounted for by scores on measures of general cognitive functioning and executive functioning. This study presents promising preliminary evidence of the incremental validity of Judgment subtest scores for predicting both basic and instrumental activities of daily living in an assisted-living sample.

  11. Preliminary adaptation into Portuguese of a standardised picture set for the use in research and neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POMPÉIA SABINE

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli and words have been widely used to evaluate mnemonic processes in clinical settings, neuropsychological investigations, as well as in studies on the mechanisms underlying the phenomena of memory. However, there seem to be few studies of standardisation of pictures for research in this field. The present paper aimed at adapting the use of a set of pictures standardised for English speaking subjects for Portuguese speakers. Name agreement of 150 pictures was assessed in 100 high-school students. Ninety pictures were found to present the same name for over 90 subjects. Results yield data that may help create more controlled tests for the study of memory for pictorial stimuli in Brazil.

  12. Mental retardation in Nance-Horan syndrome: clinical and neuropsychological assessment in four families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, A; Ayrault, A D; Moraine, C

    1997-08-22

    Nance-Horan syndrome (NHS) is a rare X-linked condition comprising congenital cataract with microcornea, distinctive dental, and evocative facial anomalies. Intellectual handicap was mentioned in seven published NHS patients. We performed a clinical study focused on psychomotor development, intellectual abilities, and behavior in 13 affected males in four NHS families, and present the results of a neuropsychological evaluation in 7 of them. Our study confirms that mental retardation (MR) can be a major component of the NHS. Combining our data with those from the literature leads to a frequency of MR in NHS of around 30%. In most cases, MR is mild or moderate (80%) and not associated with motor delay. Conversely, a profound mental handicap associated with autistic traits may be observed. MR has intra- and inter-familial variability but does not appear to be expressed in carriers. Awareness of MR in NHS may be of importance in the management of the patients, especially in terms of education. Cloning and characterization of the gene and analysis of mutations will be an important step towards understanding the molecular basis of mental deficiency in NHS, and in delineation from the other XLMR conditions at Xp22.

  13. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendlebury, S T; Klaus, S P; Mather, M; de Brito, M; Wharton, R M

    2015-11-01

    Routine cognitive screening for in-patients aged ≥75 years is recommended, but there is uncertainty around how this should be operationalised. We therefore determined the feasibility and reliability of the Abbreviated mental test score (AMTS/10) and its relationship to subjective memory complaint, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA/30) and informant report in unselected older admissions. Consecutive acute general medicine patients aged ≥75 years admitted over 10 weeks (March-May 2013) had AMTS and a question regarding subjective memory complaint (if no known dementia/delirium). At ≥72 h, the 30-point Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) were done. Cognitive impairment was defined as AMTS Subjective memory complaint agreed poorly with objective cognitive deficit (39% denying a memory problem had AMTS well with the MoCA albeit with a ceiling effect. Objective cognitive deficits were prevalent in patients without known dementia or delirium but were not reliably identified by subjective cognitive complaint or informant report. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  14. [Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability: a new instrument for the neuropsychological assessment of adults with intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteba-Castillo, S; Pena-Casanova, J; Garcia-Alba, J; Castellanos, M A; Torrents-Rodas, D; Rodriguez, E; Deus-Yela, J; Caixas, A; Novell-Alsina, R

    2017-05-16

    Neuropsychological assessment in individuals with intellectual disability is of utmost importance in order to determine the cognitive deficits underlying brain dysfunction and limiting intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. However, no neuropsychological batteries in Spanish language have been created and validated for this population. To adapt the 'programa integrado de exploracion neuropsicologica-test Barcelona' and to validate the new version, the Barcelona Test for Intellectual Disability (TB-DI). To create normative data for its clinical use. The original test was modified based on data from a pilot sample of 65 individuals with intellectual disability. In order to study the psychometric properties of the TB-DI, it was administered to a sample of 170 individuals with intellectual disability and to a group of 60 individuals without it. The relevant variables for stratification of normative data were determined by means of regression models. The TB-DI was finally composed by 67 subtests grouped in eight cognitive domains and it showed good psychometric properties. Normative data were created for five groups taking into account intellectual disability level, age and acquired curricular competence. These data were organized in percentiles in a way that allows the creation of cognitive profiles in the clinical and experimental fields. The TB-DI constitutes a tool of high applicability in the population with intellectual disability. It shows adequate validity and reliability, and it has good psychometric properties. The cognitive profiles obtained by the TB-DI will provide valuable information for the treatment of adult adults with mild and moderate intellectual disability.

  15. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. PMID:22766012

  16. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-12-30

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were comparable in terms of age, sex, and years of education. Subjects with CBD had a mean age of 36.3 years (S.D.=15.7) and an age at onset of 19.7 years (S.D.=7.0). Compulsive buyers had more lifetime mood, anxiety, and impulse control disorders. People with Compulsive buying performed significantly better on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Picture Completion task, a test of visual perception; otherwise, there were no consistent differences in neuropsychological measures. They also had elevated levels of self-reported depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. In conclusion, compulsive buyers have greater lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls, and higher levels of self-rated depression, ADHD symptoms, trait impulsivity, and novelty seeking. The present study does not support the notion that there is a pattern of neuropsychological deficits associated with CBD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining neurocognition in body dysmorphic disorder using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): A comparison with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Lin; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2015-08-30

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by (i) an excessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance, as well as (ii) repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts that occur in response to the preoccupation. To date, neuropsychological investigations have been limited. This study examined performance on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), tapping into five indices of neurocognition: (i) Immediate Memory, (ii) Visuospatial Construction, (iii) Language, (iv) Attention, and (iv) Delayed Memory. Twenty-one BDD participants were compared with 19 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) participants and 21 healthy controls (HC), who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched. Results indicated the BDD and OCD groups demonstrated poor overall neuropsychological performance (i.e. total RBANS) as well as deficits on the indices of Immediate Memory and Attention. Further group differences involving the subtests of Story Memory, Digit Span, and Story Recall were detected. Neuropsychological impairment in BDD with indicated similarities in OCD were corroborated. Future research should extend investigations focusing on gist and delayed memory, and aspects of attentional processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Accounting for ethnic-cultural and linguistic diversity in neuropsychological assessment of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Valeria; Scarpa, Pina; Toraldo, Alessio; Bottini, Gabriella

    2016-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment is critical in both diagnosis and prognosis of patients with epilepsy. Beyond electrophysiological and anatomical alterations, other factors including different ethnic-cultural and linguistic backgrounds might affect neuropsychological performance. Only a few studies considered migration and acculturation effects and they typically concerned nonclinical samples. The current study aimed at investigating the influence of ethnic background and time spent in Italy on a full neuropsychological battery administered to both Italian and foreign-born patients and at providing a brief interview for obtaining relevant information on each patient's transcultural and language-related history. Clinical reports from 43 foreign-born patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were collected from the archives of Milan Niguarda Hospital. Epileptogenic zone, age, education, profession, illness duration, seizure frequency, handedness, and gender were considered in selecting 43 Italian controls. Ethnicity (Italian/foreign-born) and years spent in Italy were analyzed as main predictors on 21 neuropsychological scales by means of General(ized) Linear Models. An additional analysis studied two composite scores of overall verbal and nonverbal abilities. Ethnicity significantly affected the following: the verbal overall score, Verbal Fluency, Naming, Token-test, Digit Span, Attentional Matrices, Trail-Making-Test, Line-Orientation-Test, and Raven matrices; no effects were found on the nonverbal overall score, Word Pairs Learning, Episodic Memory, reading accuracy, visual span, Bells test, Rey Figure, and face memory and recognition. No significant effects of years spent in Italy emerged. While years spent in Italy does not predict neuropsychological performance, linguistic background had a strong impact on it. With respect to Italian-speaking patients, those who were foreign-born showed large task-related variability, with an especially low performance on language

  19. The CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery total score detects and predicts Alzheimer disease dementia with high diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Jessen, Frank; Wiese, Birgitt; Stein, Janine; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Pentzek, Michael; Fuchs, Angela; Köhler, Mirjam; Bachmann, Cadja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2014-10-01

    To establish the diagnostic accuracy of the Total Score of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) both for cross-sectional discrimination of Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia and short-term prediction of incident AD dementia. Longitudinal cohort study with two assessments at a 1.5-year interval. Primary care sample randomly recruited via medical record registries. As part of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia (AgeCoDe), a sample of elderly individuals (N = 1,606; mean age: 84 years) was assessed. Subjects were assessed with the CERAD-NP and followed up for 18 months (97.6% follow-up rate). Logistic regression and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the CERAD-NP Total Score (CTS) with that of single CERAD-NP scores and the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE) score. ROC curve analysis resulted in excellent (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.97) cross-sectional discrimination between non-AD and AD dementia subjects. Prediction of incident AD dementia with the CTS was also very good (AUC: 0.89), and was significantly better than prediction based on the MMSE. The cross-sectional results confirm that the CTS is a highly accurate diagnostic tool for detecting AD dementia in elderly primary care patients. In addition, we provide evidence that the CTS is also accurate for the prediction of incident AD dementia. These findings further support the validity of the CTS as an index of overall cognitive functioning for detection and prediction of AD dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  1. [DAD-6: an abbreviated version of the DAD scale (disability assessment for dementia). An instrument for detection of loss of autonomy at an early stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Djabelkhir, Leila; Seux, Marie-Laure; Hugonot, Laurence; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the French version of DAD-6, a validated instrument for the assessment of IADL (instrumental activities of daily living) considered as intentional and complex activities. A loss of autonomy remains a major criterion in the diagnosis of dementia. In addition, IADL assessment is recommended as a primary outcome in dementia drug trials. Since the publication in 1969 by Lawton and Brody of an IADL scale, many instruments have been developed. However, their psychometric properties remain to be improved. The need for improving the early diagnosis yielded to the design of DAD-6, an instrument allowing capturing subtle difficulties in IADL management. The DAD-6 scale emphasizes the role of the cognitive function, mainly the executive function in early IADL impairment. DAD-6 requires the participation of an informant (a patient's proxy). Relative to patients' self-reports or performance-based methods, informant-based questionnaires are the most common and practical methods used in memory clinics. In previous work, DAD-6 score gradually decreased with increasing severity of the cognitive status. The present work shows the inter-rater reliability of DAD-6. The use of the scale with the same informants by one neurologist and two neuropsychologists, separately, indicated a high agreement between raters (alpha of Krippendorff>0.80).This work also highlights the main sources of bias in the context of evaluation based on subjective judgement. The authors stress the necessity of: 1--a clarification of the relationship between cognitive function and IADL; 2--the measurement of IADL performance in a routine neuropsychological assessment by experienced professionals.

  2. Assessment of memory function: the relation between daily observation and neuropsychological test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, J.W.B.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Banningh, L.J.; Verkoelen, J.; Achterberg, T. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the value of a daily observation scale in the assessment of patients' memory function by nurses on a geriatric ward. METHODS: An observational study of 50 geriatric inpatients was carried out. The relationship between the memory items of the Nurses'

  3. Assessment of memory function: the relation between daily observation and neuropsychological test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Verkoelen, J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the value of a daily observation scale in the assessment of patients' memory function by nurses on a geriatric ward. Methods: An observational study of 50 geriatric inpatients was carried out. The relationship between the memory items of the Nurses'

  4. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) as a Cognitive Evaluation Tool for Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKATSU, Daisuke; FUKUHARA, Toru; CHAYTOR, Naomi S.; PHATAK, Vaishali S.; AVELLINO, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    External lumbar drainage (ELD) is recognized as a screening method for ventriculo-peritoneal shunting (VPS) candidacy for possible normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). This study focused on the ELD predictability of the cognitive outcome after VPS for NPH. In addition, Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was examined in ELD cognition screening. ELD results were considered positive with any improvement in gait and/or cognition. Among 36 patients examined for possible NPH, 26 underwent VPS because of positive ELD. Cognitive outcome after VPS was assessed at 6-month follow-up. The RBANS scores, examined pre- and post-ELD, were evaluated statistically to identify consistency with the neuropsychologist judgment and the predictability of cognitive outcome after VPS. Among 26 shunted patients, gait was improved in 24. Cognitive improvement was rated in 19, and there were 9 false negative and 5 false positive in ELD cognition screening. The neuropsychologist judgment in ELD cognition screening is most consistent with the RBANS score in delayed memory. The patients rated as improved in cognition after VPS had significantly lower RBANS scores pre-ELD in immediate memory and delayed memory. If both scores at pre-ELD were ≤ 80 (13 patients), all were rated as improved in cognition after VPS. ELD screening was highly predictive of clinical gait improvement but not of cognitive improvement after VPS for possible NPH. Particularly among patients with a positive ELD gait response, pre-ELD low RBANS scores in memory predicted cognitive improvement after VPS. RBANS seems effective in evaluating cognition for NPH. PMID:26369720

  6. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics Version 4 (ANAM4): Select Psychometric Properties and Administration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Vestibular Pathology in Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury. Otology & Neurotology. 2011;32(4):571-580 510.1097/MAO.1090b1013e318210b318218fa. 8...the Assessment of Vestibular Deficits. Otology & Neurotology. 1998;19(6):790-796. 28. Schubert MC, Herdman SJ, Tusa RJ. Vertical Dynamic Visual Acuity...in Normal Subjects and Patients with Vestibular Hypofunction. Otology & Neurotology. 2002;23(3):372-377. 29. Mohammed M WS, Marchetti G, Sparto P

  7. Automated Neuropsychological assessment Metrics Version 4 (ANAM4): Select Psychometric Properties and Administration Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any...staff. This screening included the assessment for symptoms of at- tention defi cit disorder (Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Self-Report: Short...positive for ADD/ ADHD symptomatology (t-score . 70 on the CAARS-S:S, or self- report of prior ADD/ ADHD diagnosis) or brain injury (positive or

  8. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.

  9. Impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Parsons, Thomas D; Reynolds, Brooke L; Bedford, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Guides to neuropsychological assessment emphasize the importance of establishing rapport; however, there has been a minimal amount of empirical investigation of the impact of rapport on neuropsychological test performance. In this experiment, participants (N = 98) were randomly assigned to take neuropsychological tests in either a high or low rapport condition. Results showed that we were able to manipulate the level of rapport and that the level of rapport had a significant effect on the Grooved Pegboard Test and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, with other tests nearing statistical significance. These results suggest that the level of rapport may affect neuropsychological test performance.

  10. Neuropsychological and MRI assessment of young adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukamachi, Makoto; Tsuru, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yukiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    We assessed 12 young adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, aged from 14 to 33 years, by intellectual quotient (IQ) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and obtained the following findings. First, the IQ scores were relatively lower than those predicted by their social activities. Second, there were two cases who seemed to have right or bilateral hemisphere representatives of language; their IQ scores were within normal range, while MRI demonstrated extensive brain damages including usual ones in language areas. Third, IQ scores and MRI findings were correlated to some extent; however, a case of limited brain damage on MRI had low IQ score, while five cases of brain damage located excluding their language areas had normal or high IQ scores. The results of the present study indicate the necessity of follow-up MRI for prospective observation of the brain damage acquired at or around birth. (author)

  11. Neuropsychological assessment of chronic non-malignant pain patients treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgren, Per; Christrup, Lona Louring; Petersen, Morten Aa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of pain, sedation, pain medications and socio-demographics on cognitive functioning in chronic non-malignant pain patients. Chronic non-malignant pain patients (N=91) treated in a multidisciplinary pain centre were compared with age and sex...... with a combination of long-term oral opioids and antidepressants and/or anticonvulsants. Assessments comprised pain (PVAS) and sedation (SVAS), Continuous Reaction Time (CRT) testing for sustained attention, Finger Tapping Test (FTT) testing for psychomotor speed, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) testing...... for information processing and working memory and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). CRT and FTT were impaired in the total patient sample. Treatment with opioids was associated with poorer performance of PASAT. High scores of PVAS and SVAS were associated with poor performance of PASAT and CRT, respectively...

  12. 40 CFR 300.4 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 300.4 Section 300.4... Introduction § 300.4 Abbreviations. (a) Department and Agency Title Abbreviations: ATSDR—Agency for Toxic... the abbreviation “NRC” only with respect to the National Response Center. (b) Operational...

  13. 49 CFR 172.308 - Authorized abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized abbreviations. 172.308 Section 172.308... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.308 Authorized abbreviations. (a) Abbreviations may not be used in a proper shipping name marking except as authorized in this section. (b) The abbreviation “ORM” may be used in place...

  14. 40 CFR 86.094-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.094-3 Section 86.094...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.094-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.090-3 remain effective. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning with the 1994 model year. (b...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1703-99 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1703-99 Section 86....1703-99 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in subpart A of this part apply to this subpart. (b) In addition, the following abbreviations shall apply to this subpart: ASTR—All States Trading Region HEV...

  16. 40 CFR 86.090-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.090-3 Section 86.090...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.090-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.078-3 remain effective. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning with the 1990 model year. (b...

  17. 40 CFR 88.103-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.103-94 Section 88...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Emission Standards for Clean-Fuel Vehicles § 88.103-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations of part 86 also apply to this subpart. The abbreviations in this section apply to all of part 88...

  18. 40 CFR 88.303-93 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.303-93 Section 88...) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.303-93 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in subpart A of this part and in 40 CFR part 86 apply to this subpart. The abbreviations in this section apply to...

  19. 40 CFR 86.000-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.000-3 Section 86.000...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.000-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.098-3 continue to apply to 1998 and later model year vehicles. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning...

  20. 40 CFR 86.098-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.098-3 Section 86.098...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.096-3 continue to apply. The abbreviations in this section apply beginning with the 1998 model year...

  1. 40 CFR 86.096-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.096-3 Section 86.096...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.096-3 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.094-3 continue to apply. The abbreviation in this section applies beginning with the 1996 model year...

  2. Neuropsychological assessment of memory in child and adolescent first episode psychosis: cannabis and «the paradox effect».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Granados, Josefa María; Ferrín, Maite; Salcedo-Marín, Dolores M; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of neuropsychological functioning in First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) has led to the publication of a growing number of studies in this area of research. The present study pursued three goals: First, to examine verbal and visual memory in a sample of Child and Adolescent FEP, second, to evaluate the effect of other cognitive domains on verbal and visual memory, and finally, to examine the relationship between performance in this cognitive dimension and the use of cannabis at this age. A sample of 41 FEPs and 39 healthy subjects were evaluated. The variables assessed were verbal and visual memory, attention, working memory, processing speed, mental flexibility, verbal fluency, motor coordination, planning ability and intelligence. Our results found impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal memory, and short-term visual memory in early psychosis. They also found relationships between cognitive dimensions, such as visual memory and intelligence and motor coordination. Finally, a «paradoxical» effect was found in patients who used cannabis, as the FEP consumers performed the visual memory test better than those who had not used it. Patients showed impairment of short and long-term recall of verbal information and short-term visual reproduction. In the second place, motor coordination and intelligence influenced short-term visual memory in patients in the early stages of the illness. Third, use of cannabis in patients with FEP was associated with better performance in the test that evaluated the short-term visual memory, as measured by task completion time, that is, efficiency in performing the test. However, when measured by task execution accuracy, their visual memory was no better than the controls. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of chronic neuropsychological effects of mercury vapour poisoning in chloral-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Sinanović, Osman; Karamehić, Jasenko; Jakubović, Rusid

    2002-12-01

    A prospective case study was conducted in the Department of Occupational Medicine, Tuzla. The purpose of this study was to indicate negative effects from occupational exposure to mercury on behavioural and mental health, memory and psychomotor function that was tested in 46 chloral-alkali plant workers (mean age was 38. 8+/- 5. 7 years; mean age of occupational history 16. 5+/- 6. 0 years). Data on toxicological monitoring on atomic absorption spectrometer, and data on mental health were collected, psychiatric and other subjective symptoms, and behavioural, psychomotor and memory function tested. The data were compared to control group, 32 healthy non exposed workers. The study was designed to assess blood and urine mercury levels and length of occupational exposure and investigate its relationships to effects on the mental health. The mean air mercury levels were 0.23 mg/m3, the mean blood mercury concentrations was 3. 6 mg/ dl and the mean urine mercury concentrations were 151.7 +/- 180.4 mg/l. In 25 (53%) workers exposed to mercury vapour was identified Depression-Hypochondrias Syndrome (p trend 2. 9 mg/ dl, or urine mercury levels > 87 mg/l workers exposed to mercury vapour knew that toxic effects in body resulted in loosing some of intellectual abilities, and that people who handle chemicals had an increased health risk (ESW questionnaire). The occupational mercury exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ). Aggressiveness was found in 71.7% workers. The cognitive disturbances: short-term memory loss, difficult to concentrate on tasks which require attention and thinking, were significantly differed compared to those of controls (p trend < 0. 001). In 24 (52%) exposed to mercury workers we have determined ego strength loss and regressive defensive mechanisms (LB). Handwriting disturbances-micrography we have identified in 27 (58.7%) workers.

  4. Vygotsky in applied neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are: 1 to show the role of clinical experience for the theoretical contributions of L.S. Vygotsky, and 2 to analyze the development of these theories in contemporary applied neuropsychology. An analysis of disturbances of mental functioning is impossible without a systemic approach to the evidence observed. Therefore, medical psychology is fundamental for forming a systemic approach to psychology. The assessment of neurological patients at the neurological hospital of Moscow University permitted L.S. Vygotsky to create, in collaboration with A.R. Luria, the theory of systemic dynamic localization of higher mental functions and their relationship to cultural conditions. In his studies of patients with Parkinson’s disease, Vygotsky also set out 3 steps of systemic development: interpsychological, then extrapsychological, then intrapsychological. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria in the late 1920s created a program to compensate for the motor subcortical disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD through a cortical (visual mediation of movements. We propose to distinguish the objective mediating factors — like teaching techniques and modalities — from subjective mediating factors, like the individual’s internal representation of his/her own disease. The cultural-historical approach in contemporary neuropsychology forces neuropsychologists to re-analyze and re-interpret the classic neuropsychological syndromes; to develop new assessment procedures more in accordance with the patient’s conditions of life; and to reconsider the concept of the social brain as a social and cultural determinant and regulator of brain functioning. L.S. Vygotsky and A.R. Luria proved that a defect interferes with a child’s appropriation of his/her culture, but cultural means can help the child overcome the defect. In this way, the cultural-historical approach became, and still is, a methodological basis for remedial education.

  5. Brain responses to auditory oddball task in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: Quantitative analysis and correlation with neuropsychological assessment scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkholy, Mostafa M; Ebraheim, Asmaa M; ElFayoumy, Neveen M

    2018-03-01

    Variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction have been reported in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). Our aim was to perform quantitative analyses of the brain responses to cognitive tasks using event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) and correlating the results with the scores of neuropsychological tests in patients with BCECTS. This case control study included 30 patients with BCECTS and 20 controls. Clinical assessment, neuropsychological tests, the Positive wave at 300 msec (P300) parameters recording, and quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) analysis were carried out for both groups. Alpha power ERD and ERS were measured in six different brain regions during an auditory oddball paradigm. Children with epilepsy showed a statistically significant poorer performance in verbal intelligence quotient (IQ), performance IQ, and total scale IQ and lower number of correct responses. Moreover, both groups showed diffuse alpha power attenuation in response to the target tones. After summation of the alpha power ERD over all brain regions to get the net diffuse ERD, the patients' group showed a statistically significant smaller net alpha ERD compared with that of the control group (P=0.001). No significant correlations between the alpha ERD percentage, recorded P300 parameters, and neuropsychological tests scores were found. Children with BCECTS have subtle cognitive dysfunction proved by significantly lower scores of verbal IQ and performance IQ subtests. The significantly smaller net diffuse alpha power ERD detected in children with epilepsy may be an electrophysiological indicator of disruptive brain activation in relation to cognitive attentional tasks; however, its correlation with neuropsychological tests was insignificant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Malpractice in Counseling Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert Henley

    1992-01-01

    Responds to earlier four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology by noting that neuropsychology occurs in settings with high risk of legal complaints. Contends that aspiration to press counseling psychology toward clinical neuropsychology should be filtered through consideration for legal risk. Explores legal…

  7. Statistical advances in clinical neuropsychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agelink van Rentergem Zandvliet, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve the reliability of neuropsychological assessment, specifically by improving the normative comparison procedure. The first goal was to provide multivariate normative comparisons, which test the patient's whole profile of scores. The second goal was to provide

  8. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment of Children With Reading Disabilities From 8 to 10 Years Old: An Exploratory Portuguese Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha e Silva, CS; Glória e Silva, FM; Martins, MI

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reading disabilities are one of the most significant causes of school failure and may result from different causes and cognitive processes. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to a control group of 102 children (46 girls, 56 boys) with no history of learning disabilities and 32 children (13 girls, 19 boys) with poor reading achievement (PRA) to characterize their cognitive profile. A principal component analysis of the cognitive measures was undertaken to ...

  10. Neuropsychological assessment of African children: evidence for a universal brain/behavior omnibus within a coconstructivist paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michael J; Giordani, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Cross-cultural neuropsychology with African and American children provides evidence of consistent deficit patterns in attention, working memory, and learning in children at risk from disease affecting brain function by means of similar pathophysiologic mechanisms (e.g., cerebral malaria (CM) and sickle-cell disease (SCD); HIV in African and American children). These brain-behavior disease processes are also modified in a consistent manner cross-culturally by quality of developmental milieu and caregiving. We then present findings from the pioneering use of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) with Ugandan children surviving CM and with HIV. This neuropsychological evidence that CCRT enhances positive brain plasticity in a consistent manner across cultures supports the "coconstructive" paradigm (Li, 2003), since plasticity across the life span is the hallmark of this approach. Coconstructivism is a holistic multi-dimensional approach that emphasizes reciprocal biocultural influences across the life span. It also emphasizes the reciprocal interaction of culture and the genome in shaping brain/mind at multiple levels: neurobiological, cognitively, behavioral, and sociocultural (Li, 2003). Cross-cultural neuropsychology in healthy and diseased brains, brain imaging technologies, and genomic research can triangulate the manner in which a universal brain/behavior omnibus drives plasticity across the life span. As such, the further scientific characterization of the brain/behavior omnibus can provide the vital lynchpin between biology and culture in Li's coconstructive paradigm, revolutionizing our understanding of intelligence and culture.

  11. [Abbreviations in daily language: stop it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbes, A C; Girbes, A R J

    2017-01-01

    Abbreviations are used more and more in physician common parlance and it seems they are on the way to becoming a new jargon. However, identical abbreviations may have different meanings, especially in different medical specialties. Moreover, many physicians do not know the meaning of specific abbreviations or are attributing the wrong meaning to the abbreviation. This will lead to misunderstanding and therefore danger to the patient. The authors are calling for a stop on the use of spoken abbreviations and for minimising the use of abbreviations in clinical notes and medical prescriptions.

  12. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  13. Exploring the sensitivity of the Personality Assessment Inventory symptom validity tests in detecting response bias in a mixed neuropsychological outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasedelen, Owen J; Whiteside, Douglas M; Basso, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the symptom validity tests (SVTs) within the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a neuropsychological assessment context. Accordingly, the present study explored the accuracy of PAI SVTs in identifying exaggerated cognitive dysfunction in a mixed sample of outpatients referred for neuropsychological assessment. Participants who failed two or more Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) were classified as having exaggerated cognitive dysfunction (n = 49). Their responses on PAI SVTs were compared to examinees who did not fail PVTs (n = 257). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated the Negative Impression Management (NIM) scale most strongly discriminated between those with exaggerated cognitive dysfunction from honest responders (Cohen's d = .58). Nonetheless, its classification accuracy was low (area under the curve [AUC] = .65). A k-means cluster analysis and a subsequent multinomial logistic regression indicated evidence for two distinct groups of exaggerators. In particular, one group seemed to exaggerate symptoms, whereas another presented in a defensive manner, implying that individuals with positive and NIM biases on the PAI were apt to display invalid performance on PVTs. Findings indicated that exaggerated cognitive dysfunction tends to be present when NIM is very high and that evidence exists for a defensive response style on the PAI in the context of PVT failure.

  14. MEDLARS Abbreviations for Medical Journal Titles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charen, Thelma; Gillespie, Constantine J.

    1971-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine announces its adoption of the Anglo-American standard for the formulation of journal title abbreviations according to the American National Standard for the Abbreviation of Titles of Periodicals (1969), with individual words abbreviated, in turn, according to the International List of Periodical Title Word Abbreviations (1970). The history of the activity of the specific Z39 Committee of USASI (now ANSI) concerned with journal title abbreviations is reviewed, covering the period from 1962 to the present. A history of the National Clearinghouse for Periodical Title Word Abbreviations and of the International List is also given. Former NLM usage is compared with the forms of the present International List and examples show the major changes in NLM abbreviations. The NLM Rules for Abbreviation of Periodical Titles as derived from the new standard are appended. PMID:5146764

  15. Reflections on clinical neuropsychology: a multifaceted approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869233

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychology is a rapidly growing, independent discipline with a broad work field. Neuropsychologists are working in hospitals, rehabilitation centres, nursing homes, forensic organisations and research institutes. One of the most important instruments of a neuropsychologist in assessing the

  16. 40 CFR 129.3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 129.3 Section 129.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions § 129.3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used...

  17. 40 CFR 86.503-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.503-78 Section 86.503-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.503-78 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.403-78...

  18. 7 CFR 1945.5 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Abbreviations. 1945.5 Section 1945.5 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.5 Abbreviations. The following abbreviations are used in this subpart. (a) ASCS—Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. (b) DAR...

  19. 40 CFR 600.003-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.003-77 Section 600.003-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.003-77 Abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations used in this...

  20. 40 CFR 600.503-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.503-78 Section 600... Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.503-78 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this subpart. ...

  1. 40 CFR 94.3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 94.3 Section 94.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations of this section apply to all...

  2. 40 CFR 600.203-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.203-77 Section 600... Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.203-77 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this subpart. ...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1503 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1503 Section 86.1503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.084-3 or in § 86.1804-01, as applicable, apply to this subpart. [64 FR...

  4. 40 CFR 92.3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 92.3 Section 92.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations of this section apply to all...

  5. 16 CFR 500.22 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations. 500.22 Section 500.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.22 Abbreviations. The following abbreviations and none other may be...

  6. 40 CFR 86.884-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.884-3 Section 86.884... New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.078-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  7. 40 CFR 86.703-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.703-94 Section 86.703-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... § 86.703-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in subparts A and B of this part apply to this subpart. ...

  8. 40 CFR 86.103 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.103 Section 86.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF...; Test Procedures § 86.103 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in subpart A apply to this subpart. [45 FR...

  9. 40 CFR 86.078-3 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.078-3 Section 86.078-3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.078-3 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in this...

  10. 14 CFR 34.2 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations. 34.2 Section 34.2... EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.2 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used in this part have the following meanings in both upper and lower case: COCarbon...

  11. 48 CFR 3002.270 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abbreviations. 3002.270 Section 3002.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Abbreviations 3002.270 Abbreviations...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1303-84 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1303-84 Section 86.1303-84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED....1303-84 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.084-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  13. 40 CFR 600.103-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.103-78 Section 600.103-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.103-78 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply...

  14. 40 CFR 600.403-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.403-77 Section 600... Model Year Automobiles-Dealer Availability of Fuel Economy Information § 600.403-77 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this subpart. ...

  15. 40 CFR 52.18 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 52.18 Section 52.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.18 Abbreviations. Abbreviations used in this part...

  16. 40 CFR 88.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 88.203-94 Section 88.203-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES California Pilot Test Program § 88.203-94 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1203-85 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1203-85 Section 86.1203-85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1203-85 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.079-3 apply to...

  18. 40 CFR 86.403-78 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.403-78 Section 86.403-78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.403-78 Abbreviations. The abbreviations used in this...

  19. 40 CFR 600.303-77 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 600.303-77 Section 600.303-77 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL... Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.303-77 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 600.003 apply to this...

  20. 40 CFR 86.303-79 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.303-79 Section 86.303-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.078-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1403 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.1403 Section 86.1403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... Short Test Procedures § 86.1403 Abbreviations. The abbreviations in § 86.096-3 apply to this subpart. ...

  2. Assessment of cognition using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests on a group of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bruno Bidin Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the cognition of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS using the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N. METHOD: BRB-N was translated and adapted for control subjects. Subsequently, it was applied to a group of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR MS. RESULTS: The assessment on the healthy controls (n=47 showed that the correlation between tests on the same cognitive domain was high and that there was a five-factor solution that explained 90% of the total variance. Except for the Word List Generation subset of tests, the performance of patients with RRMS (n=39 was worse than that of the healthy controls. CONCLUSION: BRB-N is a relatively simple method to assess cognition of patients with MS in the daily clinic. It does not take long to apply and does not require special skills or equipment.

  3. Longitudinal assessment of neuropsychological and temporal/spatial gait characteristics of elderly fallers: taking it all in stride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K MacAulay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait abnormalities are linked to cognitive decline and an increased fall risk within older adults. The present study addressed gaps from cross-sectional studies in the literature by longitudinally examining the interplay between temporal and spatial aspects of gait, cognitive function, age, and lower-extremity strength in elderly fallers and non-fallers. Gait characteristics, neuropsychological and physical test performance were examined at two time points spaced a year apart in cognitively intact individuals aged 60 and older (N = 416. Mixed-model repeated-measure ANCOVAs examined temporal (step time and spatial (stride length gait characteristics during a simple and cognitive-load walking task in fallers as compared to non-fallers. Fallers consistently demonstrated significant alterations in spatial, but not temporal, aspects of gait as compared to non-fallers during both walking tasks. Step time became slower as stride length shortened amongst all participants during the dual task. Shorter strides and slower step times during the dual task were both predicted by worse executive attention/processing speed performance. In summary, divided attention significantly impacts spatial aspects of gait in fallers, suggesting stride length changes may precede declines in other neuropsychological and gait characteristics, thereby selectively increasing fall risk. Our results indicate that multimodal intervention approaches that integrate physical and cognitive remediation strategies may increase the effectiveness of fall risk interventions.

  4. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of attention and ADHD comorbidity in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Regina Carvalho Machado da Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy present significant problems concerning attention and comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective To determine the prevalence of attention complaints, ADHD diagnosis and attention profile in a sample of children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy. Method 36 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy and 37 genre and age matched healthy controls underwent several procedures to diagnose their neuropsychological profile and comorbidity with ADHD. Results The prevalence of ADHD was higher in patients with epilepsy [χ2= 4.1, p = 0.043, 6 (16.7% vs 1 (2.7%], with worse results in attention related WISC items and factors in patients with epilepsy comparing to the controls, but not between patients with and without ADHD. Clinical characteristics did not influence those results. Conclusion This study found a greater prevalence of problems wih attention in pediatric patients with idiopathic epilepsy, but not a distinct profile between those with or without ADHD.

  5. New Abbreviations in Colloquial French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pogačnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article treats the process of abbreviations, which he explored forty years ago in his master thesis. The article is based on the corpus created on the basis of Télématin broadcast on French television network TV5. According to the author, clipping is a widespread process that occurs primarily in various forms of oral communication.

  6. The impact of pediatric neuropsychological consultation in mild traumatic brain injury: a model for providing feedback after invalid performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connery, Amy K; Peterson, Robin L; Baker, David A; Kirkwood, Michael W

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, pediatric practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of objectively measuring performance validity during clinical assessments. Yet, no studies have examined the impact of neuropsychological consultation when invalid performance has been identified in pediatric populations and little published guidance exists for clinical management. Here we provide a conceptual model for providing feedback after noncredible performance has been detected. In a pilot study, we examine caregiver satisfaction and postconcussive symptoms following provision of this feedback for patients seen through our concussion program. Participants (N = 70) were 8-17-year-olds with a history of mild traumatic brain injury who underwent an abbreviated neuropsychological evaluation between 2 and 12 months post-injury. We examined postconcussive symptom reduction and caregiver satisfaction after neuropsychological evaluation between groups of patients who were determined to have provided noncredible effort (n = 9) and those for whom no validity concerns were present (n = 61). We found similarly high levels of caregiver satisfaction between groups and greater reduction in self-reported symptoms after feedback was provided using the model with children with noncredible presentations compared to those with credible presentations. The current study lends preliminary support to the idea that the identification and communication of invalid performance can be a beneficial clinical intervention that promotes high levels of caregiver satisfaction and a reduction in self-reported and caregiver-reported symptoms.

  7. Neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cruz-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the neuropsychological characteristics of dyslexic children. Seventy-three children underwent neuropsychological assessment and were divided into two groups: a group with dyslexia (DG; n=39 and a control group (CG; n= 34. A general linear model showed a significant difference between the groups regarding the following abilities: reading, writing and mathematics; forward and backward digit span tasks; semantic and phonological fluency; number of completed categories and total number of cards in the Wisconsin Cards Sorting Test; as well as right and left discrimination on self and on other. These results suggest impairment in executive functions, phonological working memory and semantic memory among dyslexic children, rather than impairment of just phonological abilities, as suggested in previous studies.

  8. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  9. Neuropsychological Assessment of Children With Reading Disabilities From 8 to 10 Years Old: An Exploratory Portuguese Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha e Silva, Cláudia Susana Rosa Correia; Glória e Silva, Filipe Miguel; Martins, Maria Isabel Pavão

    2015-01-01

    Reading disabilities are one of the most significant causes of school failure and may result from different causes and cognitive processes. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to a control group of 102 children (46 girls, 56 boys) with no history of learning disabilities and 32 children (13 girls, 19 boys) with poor reading achievement (PRA) to characterize their cognitive profile. A principal component analysis of the cognitive measures was undertaken to identify cognitive domains. Age-adjusted normative data were computed from controls for verbal and visuospatial abilities, psychomotor skills, executive functions, and a total score. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Although single tests could not identify children with PRA, measures of oral and written language, immediate and working memory, calculation, and verbal learning discriminated the 2 groups. A logistic regression model using these factors allowed us to identify 91.2% of healthy children and 96.9% of children with PRA. PRA may result from different patterns of cognitive difficulties, and it is more common in children with oral language and working-memory deficits. Wide-range cognitive testing is necessary to identify strong and weak areas to plan personalized intervention programs.

  10. Neuropsychology in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky Shejet, Feggy; Velez Garcia, Alicia

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper explores the diverse pathways that have led to the development of neuropsychology in Mexico. The authors conducted a review of the literature and their own experiences to describe the seminal events and people relevant to the development of this area of research and practice. The master's degree is the usual level of educational attainment for those who wish to practice clinical neuropsychology. As of now, there is not a board certification process in neuropsychology, although there is one in clinical psychology. Neuropsychology and other mental health disciplines in Mexico and Latin America have historically been poorly funded, and have lacked optimal means of communication as to research findings and clinical initiatives and standards. However, there is reason to think that this will be improved upon in coming years.

  11. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  12. List of abbreviation of nuclear energy term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This book deals with abbreviation of nuclear energy terms, which are in alphabetical order. List of abbreviation of nuclear energy term can be used in various field like the medical world, power plant and research center of researchers and students. This book contains a lot of abbreviation of nuclear energy term like LWR, PWR, SG, MGE, MNE, MNF, AINS, AMS, ATWS, CARE, EOF, MCR, RIMS, SMS and TRF.

  13. Abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    "AB" The official French logo for certified organic produce ("Agriculture Biologique") CF Conventional farming EF Ecological farming IFS Integrated farming systems LIF Low-input farming OF Organic farming OFgc Organic farming under group certification AFSAA Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments (French food safety agency) AMAP Association pour le Maintien d'une Agriculture Paysanne (Association for the maintenance of small-scale farming – there is a network of such associations ...

  14. Neuropsychology 3.0: Evidence-Based Science and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilder, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuropsychology is poised for transformations of its concepts and methods, leveraging advances in neuroimaging, the human genome project, psychometric theory, and information technologies. It is argued that a paradigm shift towards evidence-based science and practice can be enabled by innovations, including: (1) formal definition of neuropsychological concepts and tasks in cognitive ontologies; (2) creation of collaborative neuropsychological knowledgebases; and (3) design of web-based assessment methods that permit free development, large-sample implementation, and dynamic refinement of neuropsychological tests and the constructs these aim to assess. This article considers these opportunities, highlights selected obstacles, and offers suggestions for stepwise progress towards these goals. PMID:21092355

  15. Abbreviations used in scientific and technical reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chang.

    1986-04-01

    Reports contain a large number of abbreviations which have not yet been included in the current specialized dictionaries or lists of abbreviations. It is therefore often time-consuming or even fruitless to search for such abbreviations. The present alphabetical list of more than 4,000 abbreviations gathered from the report inventory of the Central Library of the KFA Juelich in the period from 1982-1986, taking into consideration all the scientific and technical disciplines, is intended to remedy a deficiency and to offer assistance which will undoubtedly be welcomed by scientists and engineers. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Neuropsychological function in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como, P G

    2001-01-01

    equally well in children with TS. The available body of scientific evidence suggests that persons with TS have normally distributed intellectual ability. This would suggest a diminished role for routine IQ testing unless there is compelling clinical evidence to suggest that the IQ score be obtained, such as when the individual is suspected of having an LD. Given that children with TS may be particularly at risk for learning disabilities or academic deficiencies in math and written language, a complete psychoeducational workup should be conducted on any child with TS who is suspected of having such difficulties. This evaluation should be conducted as early as possible, so that educational interventions can be implemented. Traditionally, the psychoeducational evaluation is performed by the school psychologist and should include standardized IQ assessment and academic achievement testing that can objectively identify and quantify the nature and severity of the learning problem. Once the problem has been documented, the school psychologist should recommend appropriate educational and remedial interventions. In addition to psychoeducational testing, neuropsychological testing is indicated to identify specific cognitive deficits that might be present in children with TS, notably problems with visuomotor integration, motor skill, and executive function. The psychoeducational evaluation performed by the school psychologist typically does not assess these cognitive functions. Therefore, referral for neuropsychological testing is indicated if there is a strong clinical suspicion of cognitive deficits. The accumulated neuropsychological literature in TS suggests that a broad-based, comprehensive, and lengthy neuropsychological examination is not necessary, however. At a minimum, the neuropsychological test battery should include assessment of visuomotor integration ability, motor skills, spatial/perceptual abilities, and executive function. This type of assessment would take less

  17. Stereotype contrast effect on neuropsychological assessment of contact-sport players: The moderating role of locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie; Meulemans, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    Diagnosis threat has been shown to produce detrimental effects on neuropsychological performance in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Focusing on contact-sport players who are at great risk of mTBI, our study was designed to examine the moderating role of internal locus of control. Specifically, we predicted that following diagnosis threat (reminder of their risk of sustaining mTBI and of its consequences), low-internal contact-sport players would underperform (assimilation to the stereotype), while their high-internal counterparts would outperform (contrast effect). We predicted that effort and anxiety would mediate these effects. Contact-sport players and non-contact-sport players ("control" group) were randomly assigned to one condition (diagnosis threat or neutral) and then completed attention, executive, episodic memory, and working memory tasks. Regarding mediating and moderating variables, participants rated their effort and anxiety (self-report measures) and completed the Levenson (1974) locus of control scale. Regression-based path analyses were carried out to examine the direct and indirect effects. As expected, there was no effect of condition on the control group's performance. Contact-sport players with moderate and high levels of internal control outperformed (contrast effect) on executive and episodic memory tasks following diagnosis threat compared to the neutral condition. Additionally, the less anxiety moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants felt, the better they performed on episodic memory and executive tasks. However, contact-sport players low in internal control did not underperform (assimilation effect) under diagnosis threat. Our results suggest that diagnosis threat instructions may have challenged moderate- and high-internal contact-sport participants, leading them to outperform compared to the neutral condition. Individuals who have moderate and high levels of internal locus of control may have higher

  18. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus

    2010-01-01

    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  19. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  20. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  1. The effectiveness of a 'Do Not Use' list and perceptions of healthcare professionals on error-prone abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Nithushi R; Cheung, Dixon S T; Lam, May P S; Cheung, Tommy T; Chui, William C M; Wong, Ian C K; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2014-10-01

    The use of error-prone abbreviations has led to medication errors. Many safety organisations have introduced 'Do Not Use' lists (lists of error-prone abbreviations that should be avoided by prescribers), but the effectiveness of these lists have not been studied. We assessed the effectiveness of the 'Do Not Use' list introduced to the study hospital, and sought the attitudes of healthcare professionals on other potentially dangerous abbreviations (not included in the 'Do Not Use' list) used in prescriptions. The study was conducted in a university affiliated tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. An uncontrolled observational study was conducted. In-patient prescriptions were reviewed to assess the use of error-prone abbreviations included in the 'Do Not Use' list before, after its introduction, and following the first reinforcement. An on-line survey was also conducted among prescribers, pharmacists and nurses. Rate of using error-prone abbreviations and other unapproved abbreviations among reviewed prescriptions. 3,238 prescriptions (23,398 drug items) were reviewed. The use of abbreviations in the 'Do Not Use' list decreased from 7.8 to 3.3 % after its introduction (P abbreviations were used to denote prescribing instructions in 19.2 % of the drugs prescribed. 49 different types of unapproved abbreviations were used for drug names. A 'Do Not Use' list is effective in reducing error-prone abbreviations. Reinforcements of the 'Do Not Use' list further improves prescriber adherence. However, many other unapproved abbreviations (not included in current 'Do Not Use' lists) are used when prescribing. Periodic reminders on error-prone abbreviations and education of prescribers on associated risks may help to reduce the use of error-prone abbreviations in hospitals.

  2. Frequency, comprehension and attitudes of physicians towards abbreviations in the medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Uri; Hecht, Idan; Nemet, Achia; Pe'er, Liron; Man, Vitaly; Hilely, Assaf; Achiron, Asaf

    2018-03-14

    Abbreviations are common in the medical record. Their inappropriate use may ultimately lead to patient harm, yet little is known regarding the extent of their use and their comprehension. Our aim was to assess the extent of their use, their comprehension and physicians' attitudes towards them, using ophthalmology consults in a tertiary hospital as a model. We first mapped the frequency with which English abbreviations were used in the departments' computerised databases. We then used the most frequently used abbreviations as part of a cross-sectional survey designed to assess the attitudes of non-ophthalmologist physicians towards the abbreviations and their comprehension of them. Finally, we tested whether an online lecture would improve comprehension. 4375 records were screened, and 235 physicians responded to the survey. Only 42.5% knew at least 10% of the abbreviations, and no one knew them all. Ninety-two per cent of respondents admitted to searching online for the meanings of abbreviations, and 59.1% believe abbreviations should be prohibited in medical records. A short online lecture improved the number of respondents answering correctly at least 50% of the time from 1.2% to 42% (PAbbreviations are common in medical records and are frequently misinterpreted. Online teaching is a valuable tool for physician education. The majority of respondents believed that misinterpreting abbreviations could negatively impact patient care, and that the use of abbreviations should be prohibited in medical records. Due to low rates of comprehension and negative attitudes towards abbreviations in medical communications, we believe their use should be discouraged. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. [Mini Mental State Examination and Brief neuropsychological Examination as neuropsychological screening tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissi, Marianna; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2012-01-01

    An adequate neuropsychological evaluation is essential today to obtain a correct diagnosis in most neurological and geriatric areas. For these purposes, a number of screening and evaluation tools are in use to aid the neuropsychologist for diagnosis of cognitive disorder and for assessing the type of the disease. The present research compares two neuropsychological tools, commonly used in the daily practice: the "Mini Mental State Examination" and the "Brief Neuropsychological Examination". This study explores the neuropsychological profile of 56 post-stroke patients in rehabilitation phase. Patients were divided in three groups, in order to the stroke brain area: left, right and multinfarctual. No significant difference in the three pathological groups were observed, in the mean MMSE-score. On the opposite, ENB demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in discrimination between pathological groups, but only on the descriptive level: for example, right-stroke patients performed worse in visuo-spatial tests while left-stroke patients had lower performance in verbal memory tests. Our results showed an inadequacy of neuropsychological screening evaluation in post-stroke patients: both Mini Mental State Examination and the Brief Neuropsychological Examination appear to be inadequate to underline specific cognitive deficits in patients with different brain lesions; therefore it is important to consider the tools adequacy and the time-after-stroke when doing neuropsychological evaluation.

  4. Acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations: Fourth Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolman, B.J. [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This document lists acronyms used in technical writing. The immense list is supplemented by an appendix containing chemical elements, classified information access, common abbreviations used for functions, conversion factors for selected SI units, a flowcharting template, greek alphabet, metrix terminology, proofreader`s marks, signs and symbols, and state abbreviations.

  5. 40 CFR 117.2 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 117.2 Section 117.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 117.2 Abbreviations. NPDES equals...

  6. 40 CFR 116.2 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 116.2 Section 116.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DESIGNATION OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES § 116.2 Abbreviations. ppm=parts per million mg=milligram(s) kg=kilogram(s) mg/l=milligrams(s) per...

  7. 15 CFR 995.5 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations. 995.5 Section 995.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... HYDROGRAPHIC PRODUCTS General § 995.5 Abbreviations. CEDCertified NOAA ENC Distributor CEVADCertified NOAA ENC...

  8. 32 CFR 552.162 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations. 552.162 Section 552.162 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL..., and Camp Bonneville § 552.162 Abbreviations. See appendix F to this subpart. ...

  9. 48 CFR 1302.170 - Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abbreviations 1302.170 Section 1302.170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL DEFINTIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 1302.170 Abbreviations AIRAdditional Item Requirements BPOSenior Bureau...

  10. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for acl injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, A.; Meijer, M.; Cortes, N.; Gokeler, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. OBJECTIVE: Assess differences between male and female athletes in jump-landing technique in relation to their neuropsychological capabilities. DESIGN:

  11. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor-based sleep assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor-based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and the month prior to a neuropsychological evaluation on cognitive performance. Results showed that mildly disturbed sleep the week prior and month prior to cognitive testing was associated with reduced working memory on cognitive evaluation. One night of mild sleep disturbance was not associated with decreased cognitive performance the next day. Sleep duration was unrelated to cognition. In-home, unobtrusive, sensor monitoring technologies provide a novel method for objective, long-term, and continuous assessment of sleep behavior and other everyday activities that might contribute to decreased or variable cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  12. Clinical utility of the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B in adults living with HIV: Associations with neuropsychological impairment and patient-reported everyday functioning difficulties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeanne C Moore

    Full Text Available Requiring only 10-15 minutes to complete, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B has high clinical utility as a brief measure of functional capacity. This study aimed to validate the UPSA-B in adults living with HIV/AIDS (HIV+, and identify whether the UPSA-B can be used as an indicator of functional dependence in this population.One hundred and three HIV+ adults and 91 HIV- adults completed a comprehensive neuropsychological and neuromedical battery, including a self-report measure of functional status (IADL Dependence vs. IADL Independence, an objective measure of functional capacity (UPSA-B, and a self-report measure of mood states including a subscale related to cognitive difficulties (Profile of Mood States [POMS]-Confusion/Bewilderment subscale.HIV+ participants had significantly lower UPSA-B scores than their HIV- counterparts (p = 0.02, although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08 when including covariates. Among the HIV+ group, higher UPSA-B scores were related to better neuropsychological ability, but unrelated to self-reported functional independence. Conversely, UPSA-B scores were unrelated to participant-reported cognitive difficulties on the POMS Confusion/Bewilderment subscale. An ROC curve was generated to determine the optimal UPSA-B value for discriminating between normal neuropsychological functioning versus neuropsychological impairment, with results indicating an optimal cutoff of 79. The UPSA-B identified HIV+ persons with cognitive impairment with 70.9% accuracy.The UPSA-B was able to differentiate neuropsychological impairment from no impairment among HIV+ participants and holds promise as a clinical screening tool in this population. However, indicators of functional disability among adults living with HIV is still not well understood and is likely multifactorial in nature. These data highlight the complex interplay between objective functional capacity, neurocognitive ability, subjective cognitive symptoms, and

  13. The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Supplementary Index Score of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Screening Module that is Sensitive to Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David; Jones, Christopher A; Clowes, Zoe; Belli, Antonio; Su, Zhangjie; Sitaraman, Murugan; Davies, David; Taylor, Ross; Flahive, Elizabeth; Travis, Clare; O'Neil, Nicci; Pettigrew, Yvonne

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the validity of the NAB Screening Module (screening module of the neuropsychological assessment battery, S-NAB) in an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) inpatient population and provides psychometric evaluation of an original index sensitive to TBI impairment. The utility of the S-NAB as a TBI screen was examined using a between groups design. One-hundred and four patients with mild complicated to severe TBI were recruited from a consecutive cohort of patients admitted as inpatients to a UK Major Trauma Centre. Ninety-eight control participants were selected from the S-NAB normative sample. All TBI patients completed the S-NAB during their inpatient stay. Control participants scored significantly higher than TBI participants on the Total Screening index (t = 3.626, p injury. The S-NAB TBI index is a robust, reliable screening index for use with acute TBI patients, which is sensitive to the effects of acute TBI. It affords a briefer cognitive screen than the S-NAB and demonstrates a dose response relationship to TBI severity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. [An international neuropsychological assessment tool for children, adolescents, and adults with anorexia nervosa – the German adaptation of the Ravello Profile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Betteke Maria; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2013-11-01

    Adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) show weaknesses in several cognitive functions before and after weight restoration. There is a great demand for standardized examinations of executive functioning in the field of child and adolescent AN. Previous studies exhibited methodological inconsistencies regarding test selection and operationalization of cognitive functions, making the interpretation of their findings difficult. In order to overcome these inconsistencies, a neuropsychological assessment tool, the "Ravello Profile," was developed, though previously not available in German. This paper presents a German adaptation of the Ravello Profile and illustrates its applicability in children and adolescents via three case descriptions. The Ravello Profile was adapted for the German-speaking area. The applicability of the Ravello Profile was evaluated in three children and adolescents with AN. The cases presented confirm the feasible implementation of this adaptation of the Ravello Profile, both in children and adolescents. Hence, it enables a methodologically consistent examination of executive functioning in German-speaking children, adolescents, and adults with AN. Using the Ravello Profile, the role of cognitive functions in the development of AN can be systematically examined over a broad age range.

  15. Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: Comparison of the Italian Versions of Three Neuropsychological Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Federico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Recently proposed criteria for MCI in PD (PD-MCI indicate level I diagnosis based on abbreviated assessment and level II based on comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. The study explored the sensitivity and specificity of the Italian versions of three neuropsychological tests for level I diagnosis of PD-MCI. We recruited 100 consecutive PD patients. After screening for inclusion criteria, 43 patients were included. The sensitivity and specificity of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, and the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R in comparison to level II diagnosis of PD-MCI were examined. PD-MCI was diagnosed (level II in 51% of patients. Disease duration was significantly longer and PD motor scales were more severely impaired in MCI group. The receiver-operator characteristics curve documented nonsignificant difference in the performance of the three tests, with slight advantage of MMSE (corrected data. The time of administration favored MMSE. In Italian-speaking PD patients, MMSE might represent a good screening tool for PD-MCI, because of the shorter time of administration and the performance comparable to those of MoCA and ACE-R. Further studies are needed to validate the new PD-MCI criteria across different languages and cultures.

  16. Pharmacist and Physician Interpretation of Abbreviations for Acetaminophen Intended for Use in a Consumer Icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of multiple acetaminophen medications is associated with overdose. To help patients identify acetaminophen medications and thus avoid concomitant use, an icon with an abbreviation for “acetaminophen” has been proposed for all acetaminophen medications. This study assessed pharmacists’ and physicians’ use and interpretation of abbreviations for “acetaminophen”, to identify abbreviations with other meanings that might cause confusion. Physicians (n = 150 reported use and interpretation of candidate abbreviations Ac and Acm. Pharmacists (n = 150 interpretations of prescription orders using the candidate abbreviations APAP, Ac, Ace and Acm in typed, handwritten or spoken form, were judged for critical confusions likely to cause patient harm. Critical confusion was rare, except for omission by pharmacists of the acetaminophen dose for Hydrocodone/APAP prescriptions (10%. Ac was in common use to indicate “before meals”, and was interpreted as such, but some physicians (8% said they use Ac to indicate anticoagulant drugs. Most pharmacists (54% interpreted Ace as acetaminophen, and none interpreted it as referring to ACE-inhibitors. Acm was rarely used in prescriptions, had no common interfering meanings, and was often (63% interpreted as acetaminophen, especially when prescribed in combination with an opiate (85%. The data validated concerns about abbreviations in prescribing: all abbreviations resulted in some misinterpretations. However, Acm was rarely misinterpreted, was readily associated with “acetaminophen”, and seemed appropriate for use in a graphic icon to help consumers/patients identify acetaminophen medications.

  17. The Neuropsychological Profile of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Sandra; Wicklund, Alissa H.; Salmon, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessment has featured prominently over the past 30 years in the characterization of dementia associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical neuropsychological methods have identified the earliest, most definitive cognitive and behavioral symptoms of illness, contributing to the identification, staging, and tracking of disease. With increasing public awareness of dementia, disease detection has moved to earlier stages of illness, at a time when deficits are both behaviorally and pathologically selective. For reasons that are not well understood, early AD pathology frequently targets large-scale neuroanatomical networks for episodic memory before other networks that subserve language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. This chapter reviews the pathognomonic neuropsychological features of AD dementia and how these differ from “normal,” age-related cognitive decline and from other neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia, including cortical Lewy body disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:22474609

  18. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes in children and adolescents after cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Zellem (Lennart); C.M.P. Buysse (Corinne); M.J. Madderom (Marlous); F.K. Aarsen (Femke); J.S. Legerstee (Jeroen); D. Tibboel (Dick); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Research into neuropsychological functioning of survivors of cardiac arrest (CA) in childhood is scarce. We sought to assess long-term neuropsychological functioning in children and adolescents surviving CA. Methods: Neuropsychological follow-up study involving all consecutive

  19. The predictive value of measures of social cognition for community functioning in schizophrenia : Implications for neuropsychological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenborg, G.H M; Withaar, F.K.; Evans, J.J; van den Bosch, R.J.; Timmerman, M.E.; Brouwer, W.H.

    The objective of this study was to examine the unique contribution of social cognition to the prediction of community functioning and to explore the relevance of social cognition for clinical practice. Forty-six schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls were assessed with tests of social

  20. The Progression of Alzheimer's Disease Can Be Assessed with a Short Version of the CERAD Neuropsychological Battery: The Kuopio ALSOVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Hallikainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Measuring and predicting Alzheimer's disease (AD progression is important in order to adjust treatment and allocate care resources. We aimed to identify a combination of subtests from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB that best correlated with AD progression in follow-up as well as to predict AD progression. Method: A total of 236 participants with very mild [Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR = 0.5] or mild AD (CDR = 1.0 at baseline were followed up for 3 years. The CERAD-NB and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were used to assess cognition, and the CDR scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb was employed to evaluate AD progression. Generalized estimating equations were used to develop models to predict and follow up disease progression. Results: Performance declined on all CERAD-NB subtests. The ability of the separate subtests to distinguish between groups (baseline CDR = 0.5 or 1.0 diminished during follow-up. The best combination of subtests that explained 62% of CDR-sb variance in follow-up included verbal fluency, constructional praxis, the clock drawing test, and the MMSE. Baseline values of the same combination predicted 37% of the CDR-sb change. Conclusion: A short version of the CERAD-NB subtests provides a promising and time-efficient alternative for measuring cognitive deterioration during AD follow-up. Although the initial signs of AD include memory difficulties, it may be useful to assess non-memory tasks in follow-up.

  1. The Equivalence and Difference between the English and Chinese Language Versions of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rachel; Cheung, Yin Bun; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Lim, May-Li; Ling, Audrey; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Chinese is the most commonly spoken language in the world. The availability of Chinese translations of assessment scales is useful for research in multi-ethnic and multinational studies. This study aimed to establish whether each of the Chinese translations (Mandarin, Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese) of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) achieved measurement equivalence to the English version. Participants included 1856 ethnic Chinese, older adults. The RBANS was administered in the language/dialect according to the participants' preference by interviewers who were fluent in that language/dialect. Multiple regression analysis was used to adjust for demographic and clinical differences between participants who spoke different languages/dialects. Equivalence (practical equivalence) was declared if the 90% confidence interval for the adjusted mean difference fell entirely within the pre-specified equivalence margin, ±.2 (±.4) standard deviations. The delayed memory index was at least practically equivalent across languages. The Mandarin, Hokkien, and Teochew versions of the immediate memory, language, and total scale score were practically equivalent to the English version; the Cantonese version showed small differences from the English version. Equivalence was not established for the Hokkien and Teochew versions of the visuospatial/constructional index. The attention index was different across languages. Data from the English and Chinese versions for the total scale score, language, delayed, and immediate memory indexes may be pooled for analysis. However, analysis of the attention and visuospatial/constructional indexes from the English and Chinese versions should include a covariate that represents the version in the statistical adjustment.

  2. Neuropsychological evidence for subjective memory complaints in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Subjective memory and concentration difficulties are frequently expressed in modern society and, if sufficiently worrying, may elicit a medical consultation for elucidation. When a clear explanation cannot be given, a neuropsychological assessment may be a useful tool. Method. The present naturalistic study ...

  3. School Neuropsychology Consultation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    The role of school psychologists with training in neuropsychology is examined within the context of multitiered models of service delivery and educational reform policies. An expanded role is suggested that builds on expertise in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders and extends to broader tiers through consultation practice. Changes in…

  4. Neuropsychological Correlates of Early Symptoms of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Osterling, Julie; Rinaldi, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examined performance on neuropsychological tests (tapping the medial temporal lobe and related limbic structures, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, respectively) in relation to performance on tasks assessing autistic symptoms in young children with autism, and developmentally matched children with Down syndrome or typical development.…

  5. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  6. 7 CFR 1951.852 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Definitions and abbreviations. 1951.852 Section 1951....852 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) General definitions. The following definitions are applicable... business. (b) Abbreviations. The following abbreviations are applicable: B&I—Business and Industry CSA...

  7. 38 CFR 21.8010 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... abbreviations. 21.8010 Section 21.8010 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... abbreviations. (a) Program-specific definitions and abbreviations. For the purposes of this subpart: Covered.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 101, 1802, 1804, 1811-1812, 1814, 1821) (b) Other terms and abbreviations. The...

  8. 7 CFR 771.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 771.2 Section 771.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.2 Abbreviations and definitions. The following abbreviations and definitions apply to this part: (a) Abbreviations: APHIS means the Animal and...

  9. The neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Frith, U

    1996-08-01

    In this review, we aim to bring together major trends in autism research at three levels: biology, behaviour and cognition. We propose that cognitive theories are vital in neuropsychology, which seeks to make connections between brain abnormality and behavioural symptoms. Research at each of the three levels is incomplete, but important advances have been made. At the biological level, there is strong evidence for genetic factors, although the mechanism is, as yet, unknown. At the behavioural level, diagnosis and education are becoming more coherent and less controversial, although the possibility of autism subtypes has provoked new debate. At the cognitive level, three major theories are proving fruitful (mentalizing impairment, executive dysfunction and weak central coherence), although the relation and overlap between these is uncertain. Rapidly advancing technology and methodology (e.g. brain imaging, gene mapping), as tools of cognitive theory, may help to make autism one of the first developmental disorders to be understood at the neuropsychological level.

  10. Neuropsychological diagnostics of neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera B. Nikishina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of neuropsychological studies of the patients with neurosarcoidosis. The obtained results show that typical manifestations of neurosarcoidosis are disorders of motor functions. They appear in the speed reduction of actions and their accuracy, which prove peripheral neuropathy and myopathy at the functional level as clinical signs of neurosarcoidosis. Specific manifestations of neurosarcoidosisare determinedby topographical localization of granulomatoma.

  11. Child neuropsychological rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez Yepes, Natalia; Quiroz Molinares, Nathalia; Monachello Fuentes, Franca Melina; De los Reyes, Carlos Jose; Universidad del Norte

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, there are many children with cognitive difficulties as results of brain injury or neurodevelopmental disorders. These difficulties lead to school, social, family and behavioral disturbances, among others; and reduce the quality of life of the child and his family. Consequently, more papers are published in scientific literature that evaluate the usefulness of several neuropsychological rehabilitation programs. This review aimed (1) to determine which are the most frequently ...

  12. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Selma Sánchez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychology has had an explosive grow in the last decades. It contributions to the fields of Psychiatry are growing in an exponential rate. Research related to schizophrenia has bringing new views of the nature of the disease, at the same time offering contradictions and questions pending to resolve. The present article exposes the most relevant discoveries in the neuropshychology of schizophrenia neuroanatomy dysfunctions, development neurofuntionality, alterations in neurotransmitters and cognitive deficiencies and areas for exploring.

  13. Abbreviations in Swedish Clinical Text--use by three professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövestam, Elin; Velupillai, Sumithra; Kvist, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A list of 266 abbreviations from dieticians' notes in patient records was used to extract the same abbreviations from patient records written by three professions: dieticians, nurses and physicians. A context analysis of 40 of the abbreviations showed that ambiguous meanings were common. Abbreviations used by dieticians were found to be used by other professions, but not always with the same meaning. This ambiguity of abbreviations might cause misunderstandings and put patient safety at risk.

  14. HISTORY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Varako

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The article reviews the history of neuropsychological rehabilitation. It begins with the description of first rehabilitation programs developed by Paul Broca and Shepherd Franz. Franz’s experimental work for motor recovery in monkeys and correlation between active movement or affected limb immobilization and rehabilitation outcomes are described in further details. Special focus is given on ideas of famous German neurologist and psychiatrist Kurt Goldstein, who laid the foundation for modern approach in rehabilitation. Goldstein developed the idea of connection between rehabilitation and patient’s daily life. He also pointed out the necessity of psychological care of patients with brain damage.Russian neuropsychological approach is presented by its founders L.S. Vygotskiy and A.R. Luriya. Aspects of higher mental processes structure and options of its correction such as “cognitive prosthesis” are described in the sense of the approach.Y. Ben-Yishay, G. Prigatano, B. Wilson represent neuropsychological rehabilitation of the second half of the 20th century. The idea of a holistic approach for rehabilitation consists of such important principles as patient’s active involvement in a process of rehabilitation, work of a special team of rehabilitation professionals, inclusion of patient’s family members. The short review of a new rehabilitation approach for patients in coma, vegetative states and critical patients under resuscitation is given. 

  15. Cognitive reserve during neuropsychological performance in HIV intravenous drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Justo, Enrique; Blanco, Adolfo Piñón; Vergara-Moragues, Esperanza; Gestoso, Carlos Guillén; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders are frequently observed in people with HIV. We aimed to evaluate the influence of cognitive reserve on the neuropsychological performance of seropositive drug users. We carried out a neuropsychological assessment and compared the performance of seropositive drug users (n = 75) with that of a group of seronegative drug users (n = 48). The results showed that a low cognitive reserve makes the seropositive patients neuropsychologically vulnerable. Likewise, we found that a high cognitive reserve has a protective effect in the presence of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV. In the seronegative group, differences in a small number of tests were found between participants with low and high cognitive reserve. Overall, these data suggest that seropositivity is not sufficient to explain the neuropsychological alterations of seropositive drug users; rather, these alterations are multifactorial.

  16. Introduction to special issue: moving forward in pediatric neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L

    2011-08-01

    This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.

  17. Characterization of Disability in Canadians with Mental Disorders Using an Abbreviated Version of a DSM-5 Emerging Measure: The 12-Item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjonnesen, Kirsten; Bulloch, Andrew G M; Williams, Jeanne; Lavorato, Dina; B Patten, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a disability scale included in Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a possible replacement for the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). To assist Canadian psychiatrists with interpretation of the scale, we have conducted a descriptive analysis using data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health component (CCHS-MH). The 2012 CCHS-MH was a cross-sectional survey of the Canadian community (n = 23,757). The survey included an abbreviated 12-item version of the WHODAS 2.0. Mental disorder diagnoses were assessed for schizophrenia, other psychosis, major depressive episode (MDE), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), bipolar I disorder, substance abuse/dependence, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Mean scores ranged from 14.2 (95% CI, 14.1 to 14.3) for the overall community population to 23.1 (95% CI, 19.5 to 26.7) for those with schizophrenia, with higher scores indicating greater disability. Furthermore, the difference in scores between those with lifetime and past-month episodes suggests that the scale is sensitive to changes occurring during the course of these disorders; for example, scores varied from 23.6 (95% CI, 22.2 to 25.1) for past-month MDE to 14.4 (95% CI, 14.2 to 14.7) in the lifetime MDE group without a past-year episode. This analysis suggests that the WHODAS 2.0 may be a suitable replacement for the GAF. As a disability measure, even though it is not a mental health-specific instrument, the 12-item WHODAS 2.0 appears to be sensitive to the impact of mental disorders and to changes over the time course of a mental disorder. However, the clinical utility of this measure requires additional assessment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Influence of Age and Education on Neuropsychological Tests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Reading level predicted performance on neuropsychological tests better than years of schooling. INTRODUCTION. Assessment of neurocognitive impairment relies on .... Working Memory. Paced Serial Addition Test. WMS Spatial Span. Motor Dexterity. Grooved Pegboard (Dominant & Non Dominant Hands). Domain. Age.

  19. Lying in neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seron, X

    2014-10-01

    The issue of lying occurs in neuropsychology especially when examinations are conducted in a forensic context. When a subject intentionally either presents non-existent deficits or exaggerates their severity to obtain financial or material compensation, this behaviour is termed malingering. Malingering is discussed in the general framework of lying in psychology, and the different procedures used by neuropsychologists to evidence a lack of collaboration at examination are briefly presented and discussed. When a lack of collaboration is observed, specific emphasis is placed on the difficulty in unambiguously establishing that this results from the patient's voluntary decision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  1. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  2. The use and abuse of abbreviations in orthopaedic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilshaw, Michael J; Rooker, Jemma; Harding, Ian J

    2010-04-01

    Abbreviations are commonly used in medical literature. Their use has been associated with medical errors and they can be a source of irritation and misunderstanding. There are strict guidelines for their use. This study analysed the use of abbreviations in orthopaedic literature and compared adherence with guidelines in a general orthopaedic and spinal journal. It also examined orthopaedic professionals' understanding of abbreviations. The use of abbreviations in articles over a 3-month period in a general orthopaedic and spinal journal was analysed. The number of abbreviations and adherence with guidelines was recorded. A group of orthopaedic healthcare professionals were tested for their understanding of abbreviations. Almost half of all abbreviations were not properly used and 30% of abbreviations were never defined. Abbreviations were used significantly more often in the spinal journal. Only 40% of abbreviations were correctly defined by the orthopaedic professionals tested. Guidelines regarding the use of abbreviations are not being adhered to by authors or editors. The poor understanding of abbreviations underlines the importance of minimising their use and defining abbreviations when they are used.

  3. MBA: a literature mining system for extracting biomedical abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Wang, ZhiHao; Lei, YiMing; Zhao, YuZhong; Xue, Yu

    2009-01-09

    The exploding growth of the biomedical literature presents many challenges for biological researchers. One such challenge is from the use of a great deal of abbreviations. Extracting abbreviations and their definitions accurately is very helpful to biologists and also facilitates biomedical text analysis. Existing approaches fall into four broad categories: rule based, machine learning based, text alignment based and statistically based. State of the art methods either focus exclusively on acronym-type abbreviations, or could not recognize rare abbreviations. We propose a systematic method to extract abbreviations effectively. At first a scoring method is used to classify the abbreviations into acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations, and then their corresponding definitions are identified by two different methods: text alignment algorithm for the former, statistical method for the latter. A literature mining system MBA was constructed to extract both acronym-type and non-acronym-type abbreviations. An abbreviation-tagged literature corpus, called Medstract gold standard corpus, was used to evaluate the system. MBA achieved a recall of 88% at the precision of 91% on the Medstract gold-standard EVALUATION Corpus. We present a new literature mining system MBA for extracting biomedical abbreviations. Our evaluation demonstrates that the MBA system performs better than the others. It can identify the definition of not only acronym-type abbreviations including a little irregular acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ), but also non-acronym-type abbreviations (e.g., ).

  4. Avaliação neuropsicológica dos transtornos psicológicos na infância: um estudo de revisão Neuropsychological assessment of psychological disorders in childhood: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Lessinger Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão da literatura sobre a avaliação neuropsicológica dos déficits cognitivos associados aos transtornos psicológicos na infância e adolescência, com base em pesquisas publicadas no período de 2000 a 2006. Foi realizado um levantamento abrangendo publicações nacionais e internacionais indexadas nas bases de dados Medline, SciELo e PsycInfo. Os resultados indicaram um aumento da produção científica na área da avaliação neuropsicológica do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade, autismo, transtornos de humor e transtorno de conduta. Observou-se a presença de poucos estudos nacionais, indicando a necessidade de pesquisas na área de avaliação neuropsicológica no Brasil.This study comprises a review about neuropsychological assessment of cognitive deficits associated to psychological disorders in childhood and adolescence, including researches published between 2000 and 2006. A survey of national and international publications indexed on Medline, SciELo and PsychoInfo was carried out. The results showed an increase of scientific publications within the neuropsychological assessment area of the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, mood disorders and conduct disorder. A lack of national studies was observed, indicating the necessity of more research in the neuropsychological assessment in Brazil.

  5. [An exploratory study on the use of cognitive and neuropsychological assessessments in centres for the elderly in Galicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facal, David; Mouriz Corbelle, Romina; Balo-García, Aranzazu; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Caamaño Ponte, Xosé; Dosil Díaz, Carlos; Millán-Calenti, José C

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive assessment is a fundamental tool in centres for the elderly when planning individualized care and intervention. The Galician Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (Sociedade Galega of Xerontoloxía and Xeriatría) has formed a Working Group on Cognitive and Neuropsychological Assessment, with the aim of studying the tools used and to identify the main challenges in this area. An exploratory study was conducted via an online questionnaire with Sociedade Galega of Xerontoloxía and Xeriatría members between December 2013 and January 2014. It was completed by 49 professionals, of whom 26 were professionals in psychology and 10 medical doctors. Consensus was found on the use of the MMSE as a screening tool, as well as the Global Deterioration Scale for dementia. There is a wide variation in the choice of general batteries of tests for the assessment of dementia (CAMCOG-R, ADAS-Cog, abbreviated Barcelona Test), and of the use of specific tests and a severe impairment battery. The risk of bias in the sector is suggested, with a high percentage of general practitioners using a few tools, and a small percentage using a large number of specific tools. The need for a consensus is stressed in order to facilitate assessment, objectify training needs, maximize the relationship between assessment and cognitive intervention, and provide tools to assess change. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient satisfaction with a hospital-based neuropsychology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Amie; Millar, Elisa; Dorstyn, Diana

    2016-09-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to develop and pilot a measure of patient satisfaction that encompasses themes, activities, settings and interactions specific to the neuropsychological assessment process. Methods A focus group of out-patients (n=15) was surveyed to identify the factors commonly associated with a satisfactory neuropsychological experience. Responses informed a purposely designed 14-item patient satisfaction scale (α=0.88) that was completed by 66 hospital out-patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Results Satisfaction with the neuropsychological assessment process was generally reported, with the testing phase (85%) rated significantly more favourably than the pre-assessment (79%) and feedback (70%) phases. Commentaries provided by 32 respondents identified interpersonal facilitators to a satisfactory neuropsychological assessment experience, but also dissatisfaction with physical aspects of the testing environment in addition to service availability. Conclusions The patient satisfaction scale can be used as a quality assurance tool to evaluate neuropsychological service delivery. Large-scale research is needed to confirm the scale's psychometric properties. Further research may also include a broader perspective on the consumers' experience of neuropsychological services.

  7. Clinical study on the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling ZHAO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of combining neuropsychological tests with auditory event-related potential (ERP P300 for cognitive assessment in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD.  Methods A total of 183 elderly patients with cSVD were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to brain MRI: lacunar infarct (LACI group (N = 62, white matter hyperintensity (WMH group (N = 60 and LACI + WMH group (N = 61. A total of 50 brain MRI normal persons were selected as control group. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Chinese version was used to evaluate the cognitive function, and the amplitude and latency of P300 were measured in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the MoCA total score in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly lower (P = 0.042, 0.015, 0.000, and the score in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.001, 0.042. In the eight cognitive domains of MoCA scale, the visual space and executive function (P = 0.006, 0.041, 0.035, delayed memory (P = 0.006, 0.012, 0.048, language (P = 0.001, 0.032, 0.047 and calculation (P = 0.009, 0.001, 0.003 in LACI + WMH group were significantly lower than those in control, LACI and WMH groups. The delayed memory in LACI group was significantly lower than that in control group (P = 0.037. The delayed memory (P = 0.005 and language (P = 0.047 in WMH group were significantly lower than those in control group. Compared with control group, the amplitudes of P300 (P = 0.025, 0.033, 0.000 in LACI, WMH and LACI + WMH groups were significantly decreased, and the latencies (P = 0.018, 0.000, 0.000 were significantly prolonged. The amplitude of P300 in LACI + WMH group was significantly lower than that in LACI and WMH groups (P = 0.041, 0.018, and the latency was significantly prolonged (P = 0.000, 0.022.  Conclusions Elderly patients of cSVD all suffer from different degrees of cognitive impairment

  8. Abbreviations of nuclear power plant engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyberger, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The edition of this English and German list of abbreviations comprises about 5200 entries in English and about 1400 entries in German as well as the most important American, English, German and other foreign Utilities and component manufacturers frequently quoted in nuclear engineering literature and documentation. (orig./HP) [de

  9. 40 CFR 86.203-94 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations. 86.203-94 Section 86.203-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty...

  10. Creating an online dictionary of abbreviations from MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey T; Schütze, Hinrich; Altman, Russ B

    2002-01-01

    The growth of the biomedical literature presents special challenges for both human readers and automatic algorithms. One such challenge derives from the common and uncontrolled use of abbreviations in the literature. Each additional abbreviation increases the effective size of the vocabulary for a field. Therefore, to create an automatically generated and maintained lexicon of abbreviations, we have developed an algorithm to match abbreviations in text with their expansions. Our method uses a statistical learning algorithm, logistic regression, to score abbreviation expansions based on their resemblance to a training set of human-annotated abbreviations. We applied it to Medstract, a corpus of MEDLINE abstracts in which abbreviations and their expansions have been manually annotated. We then ran the algorithm on all abstracts in MEDLINE, creating a dictionary of biomedical abbreviations. To test the coverage of the database, we used an independently created list of abbreviations from the China Medical Tribune. We measured the recall and precision of the algorithm in identifying abbreviations from the Medstract corpus. We also measured the recall when searching for abbreviations from the China Medical Tribune against the database. On the Medstract corpus, our algorithm achieves up to 83% recall at 80% precision. Applying the algorithm to all of MEDLINE yielded a database of 781,632 high-scoring abbreviations. Of all the abbreviations in the list from the China Medical Tribune, 88% were in the database. We have developed an algorithm to identify abbreviations from text. We are making this available as a public abbreviation server at \\url[http://abbreviation.stanford.edu/].

  11. 40 CFR 89.303 - Symbols/abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols/abbreviations. 89.303 Section... Provisions § 89.303 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.094-3 or part 89.3 of this chapter apply to this subpart. (b) The abbreviations in table 1 in appendix A of this subpart apply to this...

  12. 40 CFR 89.403 - Symbols/abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols/abbreviations. 89.403 Section... Procedures § 89.403 Symbols/abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 86.094-3 or § 89.3 of this chapter apply to this subpart. (b) The abbreviations in Table 1 in appendix A to subpart D also apply to this...

  13. Abbreviations of polymer names and guidelines for abbreviating polymer names (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, J.; Chen, J.; Hellwich, K. H.; Hess, M.; Horie, K.; Jones, R. G.; Kahovec, Jaroslav; Kitayama, T.; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Meille, S. V.; Mita, I.; dos Santos, C.; Vert, M.; Vohlídal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 6 (2014), s. 1003-1015 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : abbreviations * IUPAC Polymer Division * polymer names Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.492, year: 2014

  14. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  16. Core competencies in clinical neuropsychology training across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik; Hokkanen, Laura; Ponsford, Jennie; van Zandvoort, Martine; Watts, Ann; Evans, Jonathan; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2018-05-01

    This work aimed to review main competency requirements from training models in countries with well-established specialties in clinical neuropsychology and to extract core competencies that likely will apply to clinical neuropsychologists regardless of regional and cultural context. We reviewed standards for post-graduate training in clinical neuropsychology from countries in Europe, Australia, and North America based on existing literature, presentations at international conferences, and from description of the training models from national psychological or neuropsychological associations. Despite differences, the reviewed models share similar core competencies considered necessary for a specialty in clinical neuropsychology: (1) In-depth knowledge of general psychology including clinical psychology (post-graduate level), ethical, and legal standards. (2) Expert knowledge about clinically relevant brain-behavioral relationships. (3) Comprehensive knowledge about, and skills in, related clinical disciplines. (4) In-depth knowledge about and skills in neuropsychological assessment, including decision-making and diagnostic competency according to current classification of diseases. (5) Competencies in the area of diversity and culture in relation to clinical neuropsychology. (6) Communication competency of neuropsychological findings and test results to relevant and diverse audiences. (7) Knowledge about and skills in psychological and neuropsychological intervention, including treatment and rehabilitation. All the models have undergone years of development in accordance with requirements of national health care systems in different parts of the world. Despite differences, the common core competency requirements across different regions of the world suggest generalizability of these competencies. We hope this summary can be useful as countries with less established neuropsychology training programs develop their models.

  17. 40 CFR 91.303 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.303 Section 91.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS....303 Acronyms and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart. (b...

  18. 40 CFR 97.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are defined as follows: Btu...

  19. 40 CFR 60.3 - Units and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units and abbreviations. 60.3 Section...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES General Provisions § 60.3 Units and abbreviations. Used in this part are abbreviations and symbols of units of measure. These are defined as follows: (a...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1804-01 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 86.1804-01..., and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1804-01 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following abbreviations apply to this subpart: A/C—Air conditioning. AECD—Auxiliary emission control device. A/F—Air/Fuel...

  1. 40 CFR 91.4 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 91.4...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES General § 91.4 Acronyms and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to this part 91. AECD—Auxiliary emission control device ASME...

  2. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table 1 in Appendix A to Subpart D apply to...

  3. 7 CFR 766.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 766.2 Section 766.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Overview § 766.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and definitions for terms used in this part are provided in § 761.2 of this chapter. ...

  4. 7 CFR 4274.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 4274.302 Section 4274... Relending Program (IRP) § 4274.302 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) General definitions. The following..., the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. (b) Abbreviations. The...

  5. 40 CFR 61.03 - Units and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units and abbreviations. 61.03 Section...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.03 Units and abbreviations. Used in this part are abbreviations and symbols of units of measure. These are defined as follows: (a...

  6. 40 CFR 72.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 72.3 Section 72.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows...

  7. 7 CFR 762.102 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 762.102 Section 762.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.102 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and...

  8. 7 CFR 770.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 770.2 Section 770.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.2 Abbreviations and definitions. (a) Abbreviations. FSA Farm Service Agency, an Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture, including its...

  9. 7 CFR 765.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 765.2 Section 765.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Overview § 765.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and definitions for terms used in this part are provided in § 761.2 of this chapter. ...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3 - Units and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units and abbreviations. 63.3 Section 63.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Units and abbreviations. Used in this part are abbreviations and symbols of units of measure. These are...

  11. 40 CFR 89.3 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 89.3 Section 89.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 89. AECD Auxiliary emission control device...

  12. 40 CFR 96.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 96.303 Section 96.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB...

  13. 32 CFR 245.6 - Abbreviations and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations and acronyms. 245.6 Section 245.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED... Abbreviations § 245.6 Abbreviations and acronyms. AADC—Area Air Defense Commander ADE—Air Defense Emergency ADIZ...

  14. 7 CFR 767.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 767.2 Section 767.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Overview § 767.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations and definitions for terms used in this part are provided in § 761.2 of this chapter. ...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. 60.4103 Section 60.4103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....4103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this...

  16. 24 CFR 50.2 - Terms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms and abbreviations. 50.2... Terms and abbreviations. (a) The definitions for most of the key terms or phrases contained in this part... for HUD assistance or insurance. (b) The following abbreviations are used throughout this part: AS/CPD...

  17. 40 CFR 90.5 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 90.5 Section 90.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... and abbreviations. The following acronyms and abbreviations apply to part 90. AECD—Auxiliary emission...

  18. 40 CFR 97.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Trading Program General Provisions § 97.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu-British thermal unit. CO2-carbon...

  19. 40 CFR 96.3 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 96.3 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this part are defined as follows: Btu—British...

  20. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5...

  1. 7 CFR 772.2 - Abbreviations and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and Definitions. 772.2 Section 772.2... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.2 Abbreviations and Definitions. (a) Abbreviations. AMPAssociation-Type Minor Program loan; CFRCode of Federal Regulations; FOFarm Ownership Loan...

  2. 40 CFR 96.203 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR SO2 Trading Program General Provisions § 96.203 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBB through III are...

  3. 40 CFR 96.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 96.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are...

  4. 24 CFR 58.2 - Terms, abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Terms, abbreviations and... RESPONSIBILITIES Purpose, Legal Authority, Federal Laws and Authorities § 58.2 Terms, abbreviations and definitions... means a habitable structure that has been vacant for more than one year. (b) The following abbreviations...

  5. 40 CFR 97.303 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 97.303 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BBBB through IIII are defined as...

  6. 7 CFR 764.2 - Abbreviations and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations and definitions. 764.2 Section 764.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Overview § 764.2 Abbreviations and definitions. Abbreviations...

  7. 40 CFR 87.2 - Acronyms and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acronyms and abbreviations. 87.2 Section 87.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... abbreviations. The abbreviations used in this part have the following meanings in both upper and lower case...

  8. 40 CFR 91.403 - Symbols and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols and abbreviations. 91.403 Section 91.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Symbols and abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table...

  9. 40 CFR 97.103 - Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurements, abbreviations, and... Annual Trading Program General Provisions § 97.103 Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms. Measurements, abbreviations, and acronyms used in this subpart and subparts BB through II are defined as...

  10. 40 CFR 92.102 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the number of carbon atoms in a molecule of that compound. Precision means the standard deviation of... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 92.102... Definitions and abbreviations. The definitions and abbreviations of subpart A of this part apply to this...

  11. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  12. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  13. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin P. Antony

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial Infarction (MI, commonly known as a Heart Attack, remains a leading cause of death throughout the world. Studies have shown that patients, who had MI, have cognitive impairment affecting attention, problem solving, memory, visuospatial, executive function and even dementia. Since cognition and emotion are integral part of the disease, there are no focused studies addressing this issue in the Indian context. Hence the present study. The objective of the study was to determine the neuropsychological deficits in patients with MI and with MI after cardiac bypass surgery. The sample consisted of 30 patients, 15 MI and 15 MI after CABG. All patients were assessed on. a battery of Neuropsychological tests and Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, The findings revealed impairment in mental speed, sustained attention, Animal Fluency Test, Phonemic Fluency Test, verbal and visual working memory, planning, response inhibition, verbal and visual learning and memory. On comparison with MI patients CABG patients showed significant deficits in Planning.

  14. [Dyslexia: neuropsychological and neurolinguistic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, A

    1991-01-01

    A brief review is given of the contribution of neuropsychological diagnostic methods and neurolinguistic diagnostic investigations. Through the analysis of errors, neurolinguistic examinations today make it possible to isolate in dyslexic populations at least three groups with clear-cut characteristics, requiring a distinct remedial approach. Neuropsychological investigations, and in particular their cross-matching with radiological neuro-imaging methods, serve to evidence the specificity of the cerebral organization of dyslexics.

  15. Virtual reality and neuropsychological assessment: The reliability of a virtual kitchen to assess daily-life activities in victims of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Jeremy; Richard, Paul; Banville, Frederic; Nolin, Pierre; Aubin, Ghislaine; Le Gall, Didier; Richard, Isabelle; Allain, Phillippe

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes impairments affecting instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). However, few studies have considered virtual reality as an ecologically valid tool for the assessment of IADL in patients who have sustained a TBI. The main objective of the present study was to examine the use of the Nonimmersive Virtual Coffee Task (NI-VCT) for IADL assessment in patients with TBI. We analyzed the performance of 19 adults suffering from TBI and 19 healthy controls (HCs) in the real and virtual tasks of making coffee with a coffee machine, as well as in global IQ and executive functions. Patients performed worse than HCs on both real and virtual tasks and on all tests of executive functions. Correlation analyses revealed that NI-VCT scores were related to scores on the real task. Moreover, regression analyses demonstrated that performance on NI-VCT matched real-task performance. Our results support the idea that the virtual kitchen is a valid tool for IADL assessment in patients who have sustained a TBI.

  16. Computational Neuropsychology and Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Thomas; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine 'prior' beliefs with a generative (predictive) model to explain the causes of sensations. Under this view, neuropsychological deficits can be thought of as false inferences that arise due to aberrant prior beliefs (that are poor fits to the real world). This draws upon the notion of a Bayes optimal pathology - optimal inference with suboptimal priors - and provides a means for computational phenotyping. In principle, any given neuropsychological disorder could be characterized by the set of prior beliefs that would make a patient's behavior appear Bayes optimal. We start with an overview of some key theoretical constructs and use these to motivate a form of computational neuropsychology that relates anatomical structures in the brain to the computations they perform. Throughout, we draw upon computational accounts of neuropsychological syndromes. These are selected to emphasize the key features of a Bayesian approach, and the possible types of pathological prior that may be present. They range from visual neglect through hallucinations to autism. Through these illustrative examples, we review the use of Bayesian approaches to understand the link between biology and computation that is at the heart of neuropsychology.

  17. Methodologic Issues in Neuropsychological Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To familiarize athletic trainers with methodologic issues regarding the development and implementation of neuropsychological tests used in programs for monitoring sport-related cerebral concussion. Data Sources: Knowledge base and MEDLINE and PsychLit searches from 1980–2000 using the terms sports, athletes, concussion, and brain. Data Synthesis: Neuropsychological testing is a proven method for evaluating symptoms of concussion that results from a variety of different causes. These tests have been shown to be effective in evaluating symptoms of subtle cognitive dysfunction in a number of patient groups. Applying these tests in an athletic population has required some procedural modifications, including the use of brief test batteries, collection of preseason baseline data, and evaluation of subtle postconcussive changes in test scores over time. New methods are now being used for improved evaluation of the reliability and validity of neuropsychological tests in athletes. Proper scientific analysis of the psychometric properties of neuropsychological tests and the ultimate value of their use in the sport setting will require years of detailed study on large numbers of athletes with and without symptoms of concussion. Conclusions/Recommendations: Athletic trainers and related personnel need to be aware of the training and methodologic issues associated with neuropsychological testing. Knowledge of the scientific properties of these tests, their advantages, and current limitations will ultimately enhance the athletic trainer's ability to use information from neuropsychological testing in an effective manner. PMID:12937499

  18. Use of abbreviations by healthcare professionals: what is the way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, S; McDermott, F; Srinivas, G; Houghton, P W J

    2011-07-01

    To assess the understanding of commonly used abbreviations in the medical records among healthcare professionals. A selection of abbreviations from surgical inpatient admissions (gathered over a 10 day period in October 2008), in the form of a standard questionnaire, was shown to different members of a multidisciplinary team to examine interpretation and knowledge. 209 questionnaires were analysed. The average correct response was 43%. Foundation Year 1 (F1) doctors scored the highest with 57% correct responses, whereas dieticians fared worst (20% correct). Among different abbreviations, NAD (91%) and SCBU (93%) were most often correctly answered, whereas CIC (3%) and STS (0.5%) were the most incorrectly answered. Certain abbreviations which are mostly used by nurses (eg, OTT) achieved a 75% correct response by them compared to only 11% by F1 and 10% by F2 doctors (pabbreviations such as COBH (p=0.025) and LUTS (pabbreviations. Use of unambiguous and approved list of abbreviations is suggested in order to ensure good communication in patient care.

  19. Purine cytokinins: a proposal of abbreviations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamínek, Miroslav; Březinová, Alena; Gaudinová, Alena; Motyka, Václav; Vaňková, Radomíra; Zažímalová, Eva

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2001), s. 253-256 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038002; GA ČR GA522/00/1346; GA ČR GA522/99/1130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cytokinin abbreviations * cytokinins * plant nomenclature Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.761, year: 2001

  20. 2015 American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN) student affairs committee survey of neuropsychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Guidotti Breting, Leslie M; Butts, Alissa M; Hahn-Ketter, Amanda E; Osborn, Katie; Towns, Stephanie J; Barisa, Mark; Santos, Octavio A; Smith, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Surveys of practicing neuropsychologists have been conducted for years; however, there have been no comprehensive surveys of neuropsychology trainees, which may result in important issues being overlooked by the profession. This survey assessed trainees' experiences in areas such as student debt, professional development, and training satisfaction. Survey items were written by a task force of the AACN Student Affairs Committee (SAC), and neuropsychology trainees were recruited via neuropsychology-focused listservs. In total, 344 trainees completed the survey (75% female) and included participants from every region of the US and Canada. Based on the survey questions, nearly half of all trainees (47%) indicated financial factors were the greatest limitation in their training. Student debt had a bimodal distribution; 32.7% had minimal debt, but 45% had debt >$100,000. In contrast, expected starting salaries were modest, but consistent with findings ($80-100,000). While almost all trainees intended to pursue board certification (97% through ABPP), many were 'not at all' or only 'somewhat' familiar with the process. Results indicated additional critical concerns beyond those related to debt and lack of familiarity with board certification procedures. The results will inform SAC conference programming and the profession on the current 'state of the trainees' in neuropsychology.

  1. Neuropsychological Correlates of Hazard Perception in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Katalina; Suhr, Julie

    2016-03-01

    Hazard perception, the ability to identify and react to hazards while driving, is of growing importance in driving research, given its strong relationship to real word driving variables. Furthermore, although poor hazard perception is associated with novice drivers, recent research suggests that it declines with advanced age. In the present study, we examined the neuropsychological correlates of hazard perception in a healthy older adult sample. A total of 68 adults age 60 and older who showed no signs of dementia and were active drivers completed a battery of neuropsychological tests as well as a hazard perception task. Tests included the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, Trail Making Test, Block Design, Useful Field of View, and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color Word Interference Test. Hazard perception errors were related to visuospatial/constructional skills, processing speed, memory, and executive functioning skills, with a battery of tests across these domains accounting for 36.7% of the variance in hazard perception errors. Executive functioning, particularly Trail Making Test part B, emerged as a strong predictor of hazard perception ability. Consistent with prior work showing the relationship of neuropsychological performance to other measures of driving ability, neuropsychological performance was associated with hazard perception skill. Future studies should examine the relationship of neuropsychological changes in adults who are showing driving impairment and/or cognitive changes associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment or dementia.

  2. Reasons for holding a Consensus Conference on neuropsychological rehabilitation in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Làdavass, E; Paolucci, S; Umiltà, C

    2011-03-01

    Neuropsychological deficits are common in various cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative and traumatic pathologies. Neuropsychological rehabilitation refers to a set of interventions that aim to improve a person's ability to perform cognitive tasks by retraining previously learned skills and teaching compensatory strategies. However, today there are some relevant points that need of further investigations. In 2007, a Task Force was set up under the auspices of several scientific societies that operate in the field of psychology, neuropsychology, rehabilitation and neurology (AIP, GIRN, SIMFER, SIN, SINP, and SPAN) with the aim to clarify the theoretical background of neuropsychological rehabilitation and to assess the diagnostic instruments and the treatments available to date. This consensus conference (CC), using methods derived from those of Evidence-Based-Medicine (EMB), evaluated several points, including: a) legal aspects; b) epidemiological aspects; c) neuropsychological rehabilitation of attentional and executive disorders; d) neuropsychological rehabilitation of speech/language disorders; e) neuropsychological rehabilitation of visual field defects; f) neuropsychological rehabilitation of neglect; g) neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory disorders; h) cognitive rehabilitation of arm apraxia; i) neuropsychological rehabilitation of Alzheimer disease; j) rehabilitation of multiple sclerosis; k) rehabilitation of severe brain injuries; l) rehabilitation of mild to moderate brain injuries; m) rehabilitation of behavioral disorders in severe brain injuries. Then, CC submitted to a specific Jury a final report with summary tables and questions. The final meeting of the Jury was held in Siena in February 2010.

  3. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction of the Abbreviated Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale and Impact on Length of Stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watson, C. E.; Clous, E. A.; Jaeger, M.; D'Amours, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is a common presentation to Emergency Departments. Early identification of patients with cognitive deficits and provision of discharge advice are important. The Abbreviated Westmead Post-traumatic Amnesia Scale provides an early and efficient assessment of post-traumatic

  5. Cross-validation of a psychometric system for screening neuropsychological abnormality in older children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, T A; Tramontana, M G; Hooper, S R

    1986-01-01

    The Discriminant Equation (DE) represents a recently developed system for screening neuropsychological abnormality in older children. The DE was subjected to cross-validation on a sample of 82 child and adolescent psychiatric patients referred for a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. An overall hit rate of 79.3% correct classification was found which supported the validity of the DE in predicting neuropsychological impairment. The findings are discussed in relation to population characteristics and the nature of the criterion to be predicted as they may affect the application of neuropsychological screening procedures.

  6. Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade: proposta de avaliação neuropsicológica para diagnóstico Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: proposal of neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena do Amaral

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDA/H é caracterizado por padrão persistente de desatenção e/ou hiperatividade/impulsividade. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi propor uma bateria de avaliação neuropsicológica e analisar a precisão individual dos testes utilizados. O material compreendeu 10 crianças com TDA/H e 10 crianças sem queixas na faixa etária de 7 a 11 anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram: comportamentos típicos de TDA/H; diagnóstico positivo para TDA/H pelo DSM-IV; nível intelectual dentro da média ou superior; exame neurológico tradicional normal e autorização dos pais. Utilizou-se completa bateria neuropsicológica. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças com TDA/H apresentaram desempenho inferior em todos os testes. O item erros do WCST mostrou diferença estatística levemente significativa entre os grupos, sendo pior no grupo-caso. Concluímos que a bateria neuropsicológica contribuiu de maneira objetiva para o diagnóstico de TDA/H, apesar de não ter atingido níveis estatisticamente significativos na maioria dos testes.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this research was to contribute more precisely to the diagnosis of ADHD, to propose a battery of neuropsychological assessment and to analyze the contribution of each test. We studied 10 matched pairs of children with ADHD and normal controls (7 to 11 years. Inclusion criteria were: presence of ADHD typical behavior, positive diagnosis of ADHD based on DSM-IV, normal IQ, normal neurological examination and parental consent. We used extensive neuropsychological battery. The results showed differential sensitivity for detection of attentional problems in children with ADHD, although most tests did not reach statistical significance. The item, errors, of WCST revealed statistically significant difference between the two groups

  7. Using UMLS lexical resources to disambiguate abbreviations in clinical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Hurdle, John; Meystre, Stéphane M

    2011-01-01

    Clinical text is rich in acronyms and abbreviations, and they are highly ambiguous. As a pre-processing step before subsequent NLP analysis, we are developing and evaluating clinical abbreviation disambiguation methods. The evaluation of two sequential steps, the detection and the disambiguation of abbreviations, is reported here, for various types of clinical notes. For abbreviations detection, our result indicated the SPECIALIST Lexicon LRABR needed to be revised for better abbreviation detection. Our semi-supervised method using generated training data based on expanded form matching for 12 frequent abbreviations in our clinical notes reached over 90% accuracy in five-fold cross validation and unsupervised approach produced comparable results with the semi-supervised methods.

  8. Abbreviations: the need for legibility and accuracy in documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Bridgit

    This article explores the use of abbreviations in health care. It considers the current advice of the Nursing and Midwifery Council against the use of any abbreviations and suggests, in the interests of using time effectively, that it would be wise for directorates within trusts to create a list of approved abbreviations and symbols so that the dangers of misunderstandings are removed. It also considers how the problem of illegibility should be dealt with as a clinical governance issue.

  9. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Sushree Sangita; Swain, Sarada Prasanna

    2015-01-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion), oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia). Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration) as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning), which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs (global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings), the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases. Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but the severity level varies from person to person. Like the

  10. Computational Neuropsychology and Bayesian Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Parr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational theories of brain function have become very influential in neuroscience. They have facilitated the growth of formal approaches to disease, particularly in psychiatric research. In this paper, we provide a narrative review of the body of computational research addressing neuropsychological syndromes, and focus on those that employ Bayesian frameworks. Bayesian approaches to understanding brain function formulate perception and action as inferential processes. These inferences combine ‘prior’ beliefs with a generative (predictive model to explain the causes of sensations. Under this view, neuropsychological deficits can be thought of as false inferences that arise due to aberrant prior beliefs (that are poor fits to the real world. This draws upon the notion of a Bayes optimal pathology – optimal inference with suboptimal priors – and provides a means for computational phenotyping. In principle, any given neuropsychological disorder could be characterized by the set of prior beliefs that would make a patient’s behavior appear Bayes optimal. We start with an overview of some key theoretical constructs and use these to motivate a form of computational neuropsychology that relates anatomical structures in the brain to the computations they perform. Throughout, we draw upon computational accounts of neuropsychological syndromes. These are selected to emphasize the key features of a Bayesian approach, and the possible types of pathological prior that may be present. They range from visual neglect through hallucinations to autism. Through these illustrative examples, we review the use of Bayesian approaches to understand the link between biology and computation that is at the heart of neuropsychology.

  11. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  12. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  13. Neuropsychology: music of the hemispheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Lauren; Walsh, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit.......Music may be the food of love but it is also good fodder for cognitive scientists. Here we highlight a recent study of a neuropsychological patient who has lost her ability to read music, but not text, in the absence of any other musical deficit....

  14. Case Series Investigations in Cognitive Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Myrna F.; Dell, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Case series methodology involves the systematic assessment of a sample of related patients, with the goal of understanding how and why they differ from one another. This method has become increasingly important in cognitive neuropsychology, which has long been identified with single-subject research. We review case series studies dealing with impaired semantic memory, reading, and language production, and draw attention to the affinity of this methodology for testing theories that are expressed as computational models and for addressing questions about neuroanatomy. It is concluded that case series methods usefully complement single-subject techniques. PMID:21714756

  15. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  16. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mango, Victoria L., E-mail: vlm2125@columbia.edu [Columbia University Medical Center, Herbert Irving Pavilion, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, 10th Floor, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Morris, Elizabeth A., E-mail: morrise@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); David Dershaw, D., E-mail: dershawd@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Abramson, Andrea, E-mail: abramsoa@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Fry, Charles, E-mail: charles_fry@nymc.edu [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); New York Medical College, 40 Sunshine Cottage Rd, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Moskowitz, Chaya S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Hughes, Mary, E-mail: hughesm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Kaplan, Jennifer, E-mail: kaplanj@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S., E-mail: jochelsm@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast and Imaging Center, 300 East 66th Street, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  17. Abbreviated protocol for breast MRI: Are multiple sequences needed for cancer detection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango, Victoria L.; Morris, Elizabeth A.; David Dershaw, D.; Abramson, Andrea; Fry, Charles; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Hughes, Mary; Kaplan, Jennifer; Jochelson, Maxine S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Abbreviated breast MR demonstrates high sensitivity for breast carcinoma detection. • Time to perform/interpret the abbreviated exam is shorter than a standard MRI exam. • An abbreviated breast MRI could reduce costs and make MRI screening more available. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of an abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, consisting of a precontrast T1 weighted (T1W) image and single early post-contrast T1W image, to detect breast carcinoma. Materials and methods: A HIPAA compliant Institutional Review Board approved review of 100 consecutive breast MRI examinations in patients with biopsy proven unicentric breast carcinoma. 79% were invasive carcinomas and 21% were ductal carcinoma in situ. Four experienced breast radiologists, blinded to carcinoma location, history and prior examinations, assessed the abbreviated protocol evaluating only the first post-contrast T1W image, post-processed subtracted first post-contrast and subtraction maximum intensity projection images. Detection and localization of tumor were compared to the standard full diagnostic examination consisting of 13 pre-contrast, post-contrast and post-processed sequences. Results: All 100 cancers were visualized on initial reading of the abbreviated protocol by at least one reader. The mean sensitivity for each sequence was 96% for the first post-contrast sequence, 96% for the first post-contrast subtraction sequence and 93% for the subtraction MIP sequence. Within each sequence, there was no significant difference between the sensitivities among the 4 readers (p = 0.471, p = 0.656, p = 0.139). Mean interpretation time was 44 s (range 11–167 s). The abbreviated imaging protocol could be performed in approximately 10–15 min, compared to 30–40 min for the standard protocol. Conclusion: An abbreviated breast MRI protocol allows detection of breast carcinoma. One pre and post-contrast T1W sequence may be adequate for detecting

  18. Developing and Validating an Abbreviated Version of the Microscale Audit for Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS-Abbreviated).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Geremia, Carrie M; Millstein, Rachel A; Frank, Lawrence D; Saelens, Brian E; Adams, Marc A; Glanz, Karen; King, Abby C; Sallis, James F

    2017-06-01

    Macroscale built environment factors (e.g., street connectivity) are correlated with physical activity. Less-studied but more modifiable microscale elements (e.g., sidewalks) may also influence physical activity, but shorter audit measures of microscale elements are needed to promote wider use. This study evaluated the relation of an abbreviated 54-item streetscape audit tool with multiple measures of physical activity in four age groups. We developed a 54-item version from the original 120-item Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS). Audits were conducted on 0.25-0.45 mile routes from participant residences toward the nearest nonresidential destination for children (N=758), adolescents (N=897), younger adults (N=1,655), and older adults (N=367). Active transport and leisure physical activity were measured with surveys, and objective physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Items to retain from original MAPS were selected primarily by correlations with physical activity. Mixed linear regression analyses were conducted for MAPS-Abbreviated summary scores, adjusting for demographics, participant clustering, and macroscale walkability. MAPS-Abbreviated and original MAPS total scores correlated r=.94 The MAPS-Abbreviated tool was related similarly to physical activity outcomes as the original MAPS. Destinations and land use, streetscape and walking path characteristics, and overall total scores were significantly related to active transport in all age groups. Street crossing characteristics were related to active transport in children and older adults. Aesthetics and social characteristics were related to leisure physical activity in children and younger adults, and cul-de-sacs were related with physical activity in youth. Total scores were related to accelerometer-measured physical activity in children and older adults. MAPS-Abbreviated is a validated observational measure for use in research. The length and related cost of implementation has

  19. Changes in neuropsychological functioning following temporal lobectomy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, M.S.; Lee, S.; Seol, S.H.; Lim, Y.J.; Park, E.H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Chung, C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in neuropsychological functioning in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) after temporal lobe resection. Methods: Fifty-four TLE patients were evaluated before and after surgery using comprehensive neuropsychological tests to assess

  20. Predicting Arithmetical Achievement from Neuro-Psychological Performance: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel; Barrouillet, Pierre; Marinthe, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Assessed whether performances of 5- and 6-year olds in arithmetic tests can be predicted from their performances in neuropsychological tests. Participants completed neuropsychological, drawing, and arithmetic tests at 5 and 6 years of age. Findings at older age were correctly assumed by conclusions of first evaluation. (LBT)

  1. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  2. Average use of Alcohol and Binge Drinking in Pregnancy: Neuropsychological Effects at Age 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilburn, Tina R.

    were asked to undergo a neuropsychological development exam intended to assess both general measures of cognition, such as IQ, as well as investigating their IPT. The overall neuropsychological development data were obtained through administration of standardized tests for children, as well as parental...

  3. Is there a relation between neuropsychologic variables and quality of life after stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, J. B.; Anderson, PG; Mulder, TT

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the quality of life (QOL) of stroke patients and to distill neuropsychologic predictors for poor QOL. Design: A cohort study in which patients were neuropsychologically assessed at a mean of 72.2 days after stroke, with follow-up at a mean of 9.8 months after stroke. Setting:

  4. Neuropsychological outcomes following stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Melanie R F; Lucas, John A; Feyissa, Anteneh M; Grewal, Sanjeet; Wharen, Robert E; Tatum, William O

    2017-10-01

    The objective was to analyze neuropsychological testing data from 15 patients before and after stereotactic laser ablation surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy and to describe the seizure outcomes after stereotactic laser ablation surgery. A retrospective review of 15 patients who underwent stereotactic laser ablation and who also underwent neuropsychological testing before and after surgery was performed. Verbal and visual memory was assessed in all 15 patients using California Verbal Learning Test and Wechsler Memory Scale IV. Naming was assessed in 9 of 15 patients using the Boston Naming Test. Statistical analysis was performed to determine clinically significant changes using previously validated reliable change indices and proprietary Advanced Clinical Solutions software. Seizure outcome data were evaluated using Engel classification. Postsurgery neuropsychological evaluation demonstrated that all 15 patients experienced at least 1 clinically significant decline in either verbal or visual memory. Ten patients in this series, including five with dominant-hemisphere surgery, demonstrated decline in delayed memory for narrative information (Logical Memory II). By contrast, the Boston Naming Test demonstrated more favorable results after surgery. Two of nine patients demonstrated a clinically significant increase in naming ability, and only one of nine patients demonstrated a clinically significant decline in naming ability. With at least 6months of follow-up after surgery, 33% reported seizure freedom. Stereotactic laser ablation can result in clinically significant and meaningful decline in verbal and visual memory when comparing patients to their own presurgical baseline. Naming ability, conversely, is much less likely to be impacted by stereotactic laser ablation and may improve after the procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neuropsychology in South Africa: confronting the challenges of specialist practice in a culturally diverse developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ann D; Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B

    2016-11-01

    This was an invited paper on the history and current status of neuropsychology in South Africa. Information was gathered from literature searches, personal communication, and the authors' experiences while occupying relevant professional and academic positions for over 30 years. Since its origins in the 1950s, the development of neuropsychology in South Africa has faced numerous challenges, against a background of extreme sociocultural and socioeconomic disparity in the country that is on-going. The creation of the South African Clinical Neuropsychological Society in the 1980s, a credentialing and training body, gave impetus to the discipline. In the absence of a neuropsychology category within the South African professional framework, university instruction has been ad hoc with vastly different levels of competency depending on the institution involved. The small number of practitioners and/or academics involved in neuropsychology includes mainly masters, and some doctoral level psychologists registered in clinical, counseling or educational categories. A prime emphasis of neuropsychological research has been local norming of psychometric tests to facilitate valid assessment practices in the country. South Africa is on the cusp of achieving a hard-won neuropsychology professional register. It is anticipated that this development will provide impetus to the discipline by promoting training programs, the creation of neuropsychology posts, wider service delivery, and increased research funding. Despite significant challenges in a culturally diverse, developing country, neuropsychology has evolved sufficiently to warrant the creation of a separate category in the professional framework. This development will facilitate training, research, and services in the country.

  6. The practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the development and practice of clinical neuropsychology in Australia. Clinical Neuropsychology has shown rapid growth in Australia over the past three decades. Comprehensive and specialized training programs are producing high quality graduates who are employed in a broad range of settings or private practice. Australia now has a substantial number of clinical neuropsychologists with specialist training. Whilst the majority of Australian clinical neuropsychologists still undertake assessment predominantly, there are growing opportunities for clinical neuropsychologists in rehabilitation and in a broad range of research contexts. Cultural issues relating to the assessment of Indigenous Australians and immigrants from many countries present significant challenges. Some major contributions have been made in the realms of test development and validation across various age groups. Australian clinical neuropsychologists are also contributing significantly to research in the fields of traumatic brain injury, aging and dementias, epilepsy, memory assessment, rehabilitation, substance abuse, and other psychiatric disorders. Expansion of roles of clinical neuropsychologists, in domains such as rehabilitation and research is seen as essential to underpin continuing growth of employment opportunities for the profession.

  7. Personality and Neuropsychological Profiles in Friedreich Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Sabrina; Rotgé, Jean-Yves; Francisque, Hélène; Gargiulo, Marcela; Czernecki, Virginie; Justo, Damian; Lahlou-Laforet, Khadija; Hahn, Valérie; Pandolfo, Massimo; Pelissolo, Antoine; Fossati, Philippe; Durr, Alexandra

    2018-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia, an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease, is the most frequent inherited ataxia. Many studies have attempted to identify cognitive and affective changes associated with the disease, but conflicting results have been obtained, depending on the tests used and because many of the samples studied were very small. We investigated personality and neuropsychological characteristics in a cohort of 47 patients with genetically confirmed disease. The neuropsychological battery assessed multiple cognition domains: processing speed, attention, working memory, executive functions, verbal memory, vocabulary, visual reasoning, emotional recognition, and social cognition. Personality was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. We found deficits of sustained attention, processing speed, semantic capacities, and verbal fluency only partly attributable to motor deficit or depressed mood. Visual reasoning, memory, and learning were preserved. Emotional processes and social cognition were unimpaired. We also detected a change in automatic processes, such as reading. Personality traits were characterized by high persistence and low self-transcendence. The mild cognitive impairment observed may be a developmental rather than degenerative problem, due to early cerebellum dysfunction, with the impairment of cognitive and emotional processing. Disease manifestations at crucial times for personality development may also have an important impact on personality traits.

  8. Enhancing acronym/abbreviation knowledge bases with semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Manabu; Liu, Hongfang

    2007-10-11

    In the biomedical domain, a terminology knowledge base that associates acronyms/abbreviations (denoted as SFs) with the definitions (denoted as LFs) is highly needed. For the construction such terminology knowledge base, we investigate the feasibility to build a system automatically assigning semantic categories to LFs extracted from text. Given a collection of pairs (SF,LF) derived from text, we i) assess the coverage of LFs and pairs (SF,LF) in the UMLS and justify the need of a semantic category assignment system; and ii) automatically derive name phrases annotated with semantic category and construct a system using machine learning. Utilizing ADAM, an existing collection of (SF,LF) pairs extracted from MEDLINE, our system achieved an f-measure of 87% when assigning eight UMLS-based semantic groups to LFs. The system has been incorporated into a web interface which integrates SF knowledge from multiple SF knowledge bases. Web site: http://gauss.dbb.georgetown.edu/liblab/SFThesurus.

  9. History of neuropsychology in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Barr, W.B.; Bielauskas, L.A.

    2018-01-01

    German neuroscientists played a crucial role in the foundation of neuropsychology. In the 19th century, Gall formulated new assumptions with respect to the nature and localization of mental functions in the brain. Wernicke popularized an approach in which mental functions were represented as

  10. Neuropsychological Counseling in Hospital Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Explores integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology in hospital setting. Sees example of such interchange occurring in rehabilitation unit or hospital where psychologist has responsibilities for helping patients, families, and staff to understand implications of central nervous system dysfunction and to adapt to changes. Discusses…

  11. Abbreviations for device names: a proposed methodology with specific examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Dover, Jeffrey S; Alam, Murad; Goldman, Mitchel P; Kaminer, Michael S; Orringer, Jeffrey; Waldorf, Heidi; Alam, Murad; Avram, Mathew; Cohen, Joel L; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Dover, Jeffrey S; Hruza, George; Kilmer, Suzanne; Lawrence, Naomi; Lupo, Mary; Metelitsa, Andrei; Nestor, Mark; Ross, E Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many devices used in dermatology lack generic names. If investigators use commercial device names, they risk the appearance of bias. Alternatively, reliance on ad-hoc names and abbreviations may confuse readers who do not recognize these. To develop a system for assigning abbreviations to denote devices commonly used in dermatology. Secondarily, to use this system to create abbreviations for FDA-approved neurotoxins and prepackaged injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery convened a Lexicon Task Force in March 2012. One charge of this Task Force was to develop criteria for assigning abbreviations to medical devices. A modified consensus process was used. Abbreviations to denote devices were to be: based on a standardized approach; transparent to the casual reader; markedly brief; and in all cases, different than the commercial names. Three-letter all caps abbreviations, some with subscripts, were assigned to denote each of the approved neurotoxins and fillers. A common system of abbreviations for medical devices in dermatology may avoid the appearance of bias while ensuring effective communication. The proposed system may be expanded to name other devices, and the ensuing abbreviations may be suitable for journal articles, continuing medical education lectures, or other academic or clinical purposes. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 806 - Abbreviations and Acronyms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abbreviations and Acronyms B Appendix B to Part 806 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806, App. B Appendix B to Part 806—Abbreviations and...

  13. 16 CFR 300.9 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks. 300.9 Section 300.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.9 Abbreviations...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix F to Subpart M of... - Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abbreviations F Appendix F to Subpart M of Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS...—Abbreviations AAOArea Access Officer ARArmy Regulation CBRCCamp Bonneville Range Control DEHDirector of...

  15. 7 CFR 635.1 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 635.1 Section 635.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE... abbreviations. The following terms apply to this part: Covered program means a natural resource conservation...

  16. 49 CFR 179.2 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 179.2 Section 179.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Introduction, Approvals and Reports § 179.2 Definitions and abbreviations. (a) The following apply in part 179...

  17. The use of abbreviations in surgical note keeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Collard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abbreviations are used to improve the speed of note keeping and to simplify patient notes. However studies have shown that they can reduce clarity, increase mistakes and cause confusion in management plans. Our review highlights the misuse of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

  18. The use of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, B; Royal, A

    2015-06-01

    Abbreviations are used to improve the speed of note keeping and to simplify patient notes. However studies have shown that they can reduce clarity, increase mistakes and cause confusion in management plans. Our review highlights the misuse of abbreviations in surgical note keeping.

  19. 7 CFR 718.302 - Definitions and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions and abbreviations. 718.302 Section 718.302 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... MULTIPLE PROGRAMS Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.302 Definitions and abbreviations. In addition...

  20. 16 CFR 301.4 - Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations or ditto marks prohibited. 301.4 Section 301.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.4 Abbreviations or ditto...

  1. 7 CFR 1421.400 - Applicability and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability and abbreviations. 1421.400 Section 1421.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Associations for Peanuts § 1421.400 Applicability and abbreviations. (a) This subpart sets forth the terms and...

  2. Neuropsychological effects associated with recreational cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soar, Kirstie; Mason, Colette; Potton, Anita; Dawkins, Lynne

    2012-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that recreational cocaine use is on the increase, with the UK reporting one of the highest levels of use in the EU (EMCDDA 2010). Nevertheless, very few studies have addressed the neuropsychological effects associated with non-dependent recreational cocaine use. The current study aimed to assess whether recreational cocaine users show neuropsychological deficits on a battery of tests, previously shown to be sensitive to cocaine-dependent and psychosis-prone individuals. Schizotypal traits were also measured. Recreational cocaine users (n = 17) were compared with controls (n = 24) on drug use patterns, the General Health Questionnaire, the Brief Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-B) and four neuropsychological tasks: spatial working memory, intra/extra-dimensional set shifting, the Stocking of Cambridge and the rapid visual processing. Relative to controls, recreational cocaine users produced significantly more errors on the intra/extra-dimensional set shift task and completed fewer stages, made significantly more six box stage errors on the spatial working memory task, and made significantly more errors and fewer hits, with overall poorer detection rates on the rapid visual processing task. Recreational cocaine users reported significantly higher scores on the cognitive perceptual and disorganised thinking SPQ-B subscales and total SPQ-B scores compared to controls. Recreational cocaine users displayed impairments on tasks tapping sustained attention, attentional shifting and spatial memory and reported higher schizotypal trait expression. These findings are consistent with the emerging literature suggesting subtle cognitive deficits, putatively reflecting underlying dopaminergic dysfunction, in non-dependent, recreational cocaine users.

  3. Forensic neuropsychology: a reply to the method skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J T; Ryan, T V; Hawk, G L

    1991-09-01

    Various critics or "method skeptics" have contended that clinical neuropsychology is not sufficiently developed as a science to be offered as evidence in legal or trial proceedings. The present article attempts to balance the extreme position of the method skeptics with an overview of legal and research data that support forensic applications of neuropsychology. It is suggested that clinical evidence can usefully inform legal decision making and that the modern trend has been for courts to be increasingly open to such expert testimony. The relevance of studies of clinical judgement, experience, and actuarial prediction is discussed, and neuropsychological assessment validity is specifically addressed. It is concluded that the arguments of the method skeptics should guide future research and caution forensic neuropsychologists, but that a retreat from the courtroom is unwarranted.

  4. Graduate admissions in clinical neuropsychology: the importance of undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Reeves, Jonathan W

    2013-11-01

    Discussions of and recommendations for the training of clinical neuropsychologists exist at the doctoral, internship, and post-doctoral level. With few exceptions, the literature on undergraduate preparations in clinical neuropsychology is sparse and lacks empirical evidence. In the present study, graduate-level faculty and current trainees completed surveys about graduate school preparations. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for research methods, statistics, and assessment. Preferences for "goodness of fit" also emerged as important admissions factors. These results offer evidence for desirable undergraduate preparations for advanced study in clinical neuropsychology. Although undergraduate training in psychology is intentionally broad, results from this study suggest that students who desire advanced study in clinical neuropsychology need to tailor their experiences to be competitive in the application process. The findings have implications for prospective graduate students, faculty who train and mentor undergraduates, and faculty who serve on admissions committees.

  5. Neuropsychological Predictors of Trauma Centrality in OIF/OEF Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland P. Hart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether reduced performance on two neuropsychological tasks, cognitive flexibility and working memory, were associated with higher levels of trauma centrality. A growing body of research has shown that trauma centrality, the extent to which a person believes a potentially traumatic event has become central to their self-identity and life story, is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Furthermore, PTSD is often associated with alterations in neuropsychological functioning. The relationship between neuropsychological processes and trauma centrality, however, has yet to be explored. OEF/OIF combat veterans (N = 41 completed the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, the Centrality of Event Scale (CES, and on-line measures of cognitive flexibility and working memory assessed via WebNeuro. Bivariate Pearson correlations showed that CES scores were positively correlated with PDS and BDI scores, and negatively correlated with cognitive flexibility and working memory. Linear regressions revealed that working memory significantly predicted CES when controlling for depression and PTSD severity while cognitive flexibility approached significance when controlling for these same variables. This study employed a cross-sectional design, precluding causality. The small sample size, entirely male sample, and use of an online neuropsychological assessment warrant follow-up research. Although numerous studies have found an association between CES and PTSD, this is the first to suggest that neuropsychological processes underlie the construct of trauma centrality. Given the importance of maladaptive cognitive processes underlying the pathogenesis of PTSD, these data suggest that future studies aimed at examining the link between neuropsychological processes and maladaptive cognitive processes, such as trauma centrality, may help to characterize and treat PTSD.

  6. Neuropsychological Treatment of Dyslexia: Does Type of Treatment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Maria Lulsa; Facoetti, Andrea; Bakker, Dirk J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 123 children with a diagnosis of developmental dyslexia were assigned to different treatment groups, either variations of Bakker's intervention program based on the balance model or a control, a specific reading training group. Thorough cognitive and neuropsychological assessment allowed determination of the subtype of dyslexia…

  7. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Neuropsychological approaches to epileptic encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Melissa; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Gobbi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Commission report on classification and terminology indicates that "diagnosing an individual as having an encephalopathic course requires demonstration of a failure to develop as expected relative to the same-aged peers or to regress in abilities." In this chapter, basing our discussion on the theoretical framework of neuroconstructivism, on the latest results deriving from functional neuroimaging and on the concept of system epilepsy, we use continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) as an example of how non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep spikes interfere with the organization and consolidation of neuropsychological networks in the sensitive phase of development, affecting also interconnected systems. Indeed, recent discoveries show that the normal overnight downscaling of slow wave activity (SWA) from the first to the last hours of sleep is absent in electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) patients, thus impairing the neural process and possibly the local plastic changes associated with learning and other cognitive functions. Moreover, specific patterns of spike-induced activation (especially in perisylvian and/or prefrontal areas) and deactivation of default mode network (DMN) have been shown in patients with CSWS. Consequently, to date, we may conceive that the possible mechanisms underlying neuropsychological disorders in encephalopathic epilepsy (EE) may be double, since NREM sleep interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) induce both a pathologic activation in epileptogenic areas and a pathologic deactivation of DMN beyond the epileptogenic zone. The growing body of literature on the effects of ESES in CSWS provides us with increasing knowledge on the complexity of brain development and a better understanding of plasticity, enlightening the pathogenesis of damage on developing neuropsychological functions. Finally, the need for an individually tailored interpretation of the neuropsychological

  9. McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI: Proposal of an abbreviate version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamarrita Farkas Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.

  10. Complicações neurológicas em anemia falciforme: avaliação neuropsicológica do desenvolvimento com o NEPSY Neurological complications in sickle cell anemia: a developmental neuropsychological assessment using NEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Nunest

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de caso de duas crianças portadoras de anemia falciforme, com complicações neurológicas. Utilizou-se uma ampla bateria neuropsicológica - NEPSY. Uma criança apresentou acidente vascular cerebral com paresia de hemicorpo esquerdo, e a outra, ataque isquêmico transitório. As avaliações neuropsicológicas demonstraram que havia extenso prejuízo cognitivo no primeiro caso, em contraste com comprometimento leve no segundo. Baixas pontuações nas funções de atenção visual, memória operacional, linguagem, flexibilidade cognitiva, habilidades sensório-motora, visoespacial e viso-construtiva. Rebaixamento intelectual e no desempenho acadêmico foram encontrados no paciente que sofreu o acidente isquêmico. A criança que foi acometida por ataque isquêmico transitório apresentou dispraxia motora e oromotora, diminuição da atenção visual e memória verbal. Estes achados corroboram com os dados encontrados na literatura e reforçam a relevância de conhecer a tipologia destas alterações para intervir precocemente na deficiência cognitiva, minimizando as repercussões no desenvolvimento cognitivo, acadêmico e psicossocial.This is a case study of two children with sickle cell anemia and neurological complications. An extensive series of neuropsychological tests - NEPSY was used in the evaluation of the children. One child had suffered an ischemic stroke with left hemiparesis and the other, transient ischemic attack. The neuropsychological assessment showed extensive cognitive damage in the first case, in contrast to mild impairment in the second. Low scores were found for tasks of visual attention, operational memory, language, cognitive flexibility and for sensory-motor, visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills. Low intellectual and academic performance was found in the patient who suffered ischemic stroke. The child who suffered transient ischemic attack showed motor and oromotor dyspraxia, and decreased visual attention

  11. Effects of socio-demographic variables on performance on the Cambridge neuropsychological automated tests for the assessment of dementia and Portuguese norms for older adults living in retirement homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos Gonçalves, Marta; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Rodrigues Simões, Mário

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, education, gender, computer experience, institutionalization time, and psychotropic drug use on performance on four tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) which are recommended for the assessment of dementia (Rapid Visual Information Processing [RVP], Paired Associates Learning [PAL], Spatial Working Memory [SWM], and Reaction Time [RTI]), and to provide norms for Portuguese older persons without neuropsychiatric diagnoses who are living in retirement homes. The normative sample included 128 adults aged 69-96 years who had no neuropsychiatric diagnosis and who had lived in retirement homes for 3-232 months. The CANTAB was administered, at the latest, one week after a screening session that comprised an interview and the administration of pencil-and-paper tests. The simultaneous multiple linear regression models were significant (p computer experience effect was found for the RTI simple movement time measure. We additionally observed significant effects of education, age, gender, and computer experience on several pencil-and-paper tests. Our findings suggest that different socio-demographic variables influence distinct tests and measures of the same test, and that the associations between computer experience and several pencil-and-paper tests may be mediated by possible cognitive skills developed through computer use.

  12. Avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas: considerações metodológicas Neuropsychological assessment of executive functions: methodological questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo estudo das funções executivas tem crescido nos últimos anos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar algumas questões metodológicas e conceituais relacionadas à avaliação neuropsicológica das funções executivas. As principais limitações e dicotomias relacionadas às funções executivas são apresentadas e a importância de um modelo teórico que fundamente os instrumentos de avaliação e suas interpretações clinicas analisada. Conclui-se que as evidências provenientes da investigação das funções executivas ainda não permitem a compreensão satisfatória desses processos. Sugere-se, a adoção de um modelo específico para o estudo das funções executivas.The article aims to review methodological and conceptual issues related to neuropsychological assessment of executive functions. The main limitations and dichotomies of current studies related to executive functions are presented and the importance of theoretical support to validate the instruments and their clinical interpretation are discussed. There is still the need of additional evidences on executive functions that allow a complete understanding of all the processes involved. Finally, it is suggested the adoption of a specific model that may guide the study of the executive functions.

  13. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  14. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  15. Relationship jump-landing technique and neuropsychological characteristics, implications for ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gokeler; Anne Benjaminse; N. Cortes; M. Meier

    2014-01-01

    Abstract from the IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, Monaco 2014 Background: Neuropsychological capabilities in athletes may be associated with a predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: Assess differences between male and female athletes

  16. [Mindful neuropsychology: Mindfulness-based cognitive remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacka, E; Lavault, S; Pelissolo, A; Bagnis Isnard, C

    2018-02-01

    ), mood (emotional dysregulation, anxiety, depression, mood shifts) and somatic preoccupations (stress induced immune dysregulation, chronic pain, body representation, eating disorders, sleep quality, fatigue). In psychiatry, these three components closely coexist and interact which explains the complexity of patient assessment and care. Numerous studies show that meditation inspired interventions offer a promising solution in the prevention and rehabilitation of cognitive impairment. In the last part, we discuss the benefits and risks of integrating meditation practice into broader programs of cognitive remediation and therapeutic education in patients suffering from cognitive disorders. We propose a number of possible guidelines for developing mindfulness inspired cognitive remediation tools. Along with Jon Kabatt Zinn (Kabatt-Zinn & Maskens, 2012), we suggest that the construction of neuropsychological tools relies on seven attitudinal foundations of mindfulness practice. This paper highlights the importance of referring to holistic approaches such as MBI when dealing with patients with neuropsychological impairment, especially in the field of psychiatry. We advocate introducing mindfulness principles in order to help patients stabilize their attention and improve cognitive flexibility. We believe this transition in neuropsychological care may offer an interesting paradigm shift promoting a more efficient approach towards cognition and its links to emotion, body, and environment. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropsychological change following individualized cognitive rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatsch, Linda; Stress, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Results from a retrospective chart review of thirty-seven patients completing an individualized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) program, using a Developmental Metacognitive approach, are reported. Neuropsychological functioning was used as the measure of progress in CRT. Demographic data, number of CRT sessions, and number of months post-injury were used to predict overall improvement in neuropsychological status. Eighty-nine percent of the patients in the CRT program experienced significant change on at least one neuropsychological measure administered. Despite considerable sample diversity, demographic and treatment variables were not predictive of overall neuropsychological change. Individualizing the CRT approach can maximize the chance of improvement in a diverse patient sample.

  18. 40 CFR 1042.905 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1042.905 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. The following... Archives and Records Administration. NMHCnonmethane hydrocarbons. NOXoxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2.... SCRselective catalytic reduction. THCtotal hydrocarbon. THCEtotal hydrocarbon equivalent. ULSDultra low-sulfur...

  19. Rabies vaccinations: are abbreviated intradermal schedules the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, R. W.; Leenstra, T.; van Thiel, P. P. A. M.; van Vugt, M.; Stijnis, C.; Goorhuis, A.; Grobusch, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is a deadly disease, and current preexposure vaccination schedules are lengthy and expensive. We identified nine studies investigating abbreviated schedules. Although initial responses were lower, accelerated adequate immune responses were elicited after booster vaccinations. Lower-dose (and

  20. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  1. Fasting abbreviation among patients submitted to oncologic surgery: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Andressa dos Santos; GRIGOLETTI, Shana Souza; MARCADENTI, Aline

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The abbreviation of perioperative fasting among candidates to elective surgery have been associated with shorter hospital stay and decreased postoperative complications. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review from randomized controlled trials to detect whether the abbreviation of fasting is beneficial to patients undergoing cancer surgery compared to traditional fasting protocols. METHOD: A literature search was performed in electronic databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO...

  2. Neuropsychological and emotional correlates of personality traits in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara; Leenders, Klaus L; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is, apart from the well-known motor symptoms, also characterized by neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. However, patients also often present with a personality profile of low Novelty Seeking and high Harm Avoidance. This profile can be identified as the disease emerges, which raises the question whether these traits correlate with more fundamental neuropsychological and emotional disturbances. This study determined the neuropsychological and emotional correlates of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance and two other personality traits that are often considered in PD, i.e. Reward Dependence and Persistence. Forty-three patients and 25 healthy participants were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory, a symptoms of depression questionnaire and neuropsychological tests. PD patients showed a higher Harm Avoidance than healthy participants, which was predicted by symptoms of depression. Groups did not differ regarding Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Persistence. While cognitive flexibility was a predictor of Reward Dependence, Persistence was predicted by divergent thinking and inhibition. Novelty Seeking was not predicted by cognition or emotion. In conclusion, cognition and emotion are selectively related to personality traits in PD. Whereas Harm Avoidance covaries with emotional symptoms, Persistence and Reward Dependence are related to cognition. Alterations in personality, cognition and emotion in PD are thus not independent from each other.

  3. Systems Biology, Neuroimaging, Neuropsychology, Neuroconnectivity and Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2016-01-01

    The patient who sustains a traumatic brain injury (TBI) typically undergoes neuroimaging studies, usually in the form of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases the neuroimaging findings are clinically assessed with descriptive statements that provide qualitative information about the presence/absence of visually identifiable abnormalities; though little if any of the potential information in a scan is analyzed in any quantitative manner, except in research settings. Fortunately, major advances have been made, especially during the last decade, in regards to image quantification techniques, especially those that involve automated image analysis methods. This review argues that a systems biology approach to understanding quantitative neuroimaging findings in TBI provides an appropriate framework for better utilizing the information derived from quantitative neuroimaging and its relation with neuropsychological outcome. Different image analysis methods are reviewed in an attempt to integrate quantitative neuroimaging methods with neuropsychological outcome measures and to illustrate how different neuroimaging techniques tap different aspects of TBI-related neuropathology. Likewise, how different neuropathologies may relate to neuropsychological outcome is explored by examining how damage influences brain connectivity and neural networks. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes that occur following TBI and how best to capture those pathologies via different neuroimaging methods. However, traditional clinical neuropsychological techniques are not well suited for interpretation based on contemporary and advanced neuroimaging methods and network analyses. Significant improvements need to be made in the cognitive and behavioral assessment of the brain injured individual to better interface with advances in neuroimaging-based network analyses. By viewing both neuroimaging and neuropsychological processes within a systems biology

  4. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor based sleep assessment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study, we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and t...

  5. Neuropsychological function in homeless mentally ill individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, L J; Caplan, B B; Tolomiczenko, G S; Turner, W M; Penk, W E; Schutt, R K; Goldfinger, S M

    1997-01-01

    Because little data are available on the neuropsychological functioning of severely and persistently mentally ill (SPMI) persons who are homeless, our primary goal was to describe accurately and extensively the general neuropsychological functioning of a large group of such homeless individuals. In addition, we have sought to examine the relationship between some neuropsychological functions and demographic, illness, and clinical state measures in this population. A 5-hour neuropsychological test battery was administered to 116 SPMI homeless individuals. Neuropsychological, diagnostic, substance abuse, clinical, and psychopathology data were obtained in a standardized manner. SPMI homeless individuals were significantly impaired on a wide range of neuropsychological functions. Specific test performances were most significantly related to precursor variables (level of education and parental socioeconomic status) and state variables (level of psychosis and anticholinergic medication dose). Gender and substance abuse had significant effects limited to sustained attention. Neuropsychological performance was impaired in this sample of homeless SPMI persons. Further research, using profile analysis to directly compare groups composed of homeless persons without psychiatric illness or demographically matched persons of comparable psychiatric status who are not homeless will help clarify the role of homelessness and psychosis on neuropsychological function.

  6. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although uraemic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little information exists concerning the identification of some of the neuropsychological processes. underlying overt behaviour that affect adjustment to ESRD. The results of a neuropsychological investigation of a ...

  7. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  8. Neuropsychological and quality of life assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to bilateral deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Shenandoa Heluani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been widely used to control motor symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD. Recently, DBS in the subthalamic nucleus (STN has become the preferred target for patients with mixed motor symptoms. Despite resultant motor and quality of life improvements, the procedure has been associated with cognitive decline, mainly in language skills, and also with psychiatric symptoms. Objective: To evaluate the influence of DBS in the STN on cognition, mood and quality of life. Methods: We studied 20 patients with PD submitted to DBS in the STN from May 2008 to June 2012 with an extensive battery of cognitive tests including memory, language, praxis, executive functions and attention assessments; the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-39; and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, were applied both before and after the surgery. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and results compared using the paired Student's t test. Results: A total of 20 patients with pre and post-operative assessments were included. A statistically significant improvement was found in total score and on subscales of mobility, activities of daily living and emotional well-being from the PDQ-39 (P=0.009, 0.025, 0.001 and 0.034, respectively. No significant difference was found on the cognitive battery or mood scale. Conclusion: DBS in the SNT improved quality of life in PD with no negative impact on cognitive skills and mood.

  9. Affective and Neuropsychological Correlates of Children's Rituals and Compulsive-Like Behaviors: Continuities and Discontinuities with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrefesa, Ashley S.; Evans, David W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relations among ritualistic and compulsive-like behavior, fears, and neuropsychological performance in typically developing children between the ages of four and eight years. Forty-two children were administered a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing response inhibition and set-shifting. Two parent-report…

  10. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings in traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    Advances in imaging technology, coupled with military personnel returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have increased interest in the neuropsychology and neurobiology of these two conditions. There has been a particular focus on differential diagnosis. This paper provides an overview of findings regarding the neuropsychological and neurobiological underpinnings of TBI and for PTSD. A specific focus is on assessment using neuropsychological measures and imaging techniques. Challenges associated with the assessment of individuals with one or both conditions are also discussed. Although use of neuropsychological and neuroimaging test results may assist with diagnosis and treatment planning, further work is needed to identify objective biomarkers for each condition. Such advances would be expected to facilitate differential diagnosis and implementation of best treatment practices.

  11. Neuropsychological functioning following cardiac transplant in Danon disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David; Meredith, Katherine

    2017-06-08

    To present a unique case involving a 31-year-old male with Danon disease (diagnosed at 14) who received cardiac transplant and subsequent cardiac re-transplant. Brief report/case study. Serial neuropsychological assessment across a 23-year span along with a review of school records and prior psychoeducational assessment. A consistent pattern of higher level cognitive impairment from childhood through adulthood was found. This pattern is interpreted in light of the sparse literature regarding cognitive and adaptive functioning related to Danon disease. The noteworthy aspects of this case include the preservation of some academic abilities and an unexpected level of functional independence given cognitive concerns. This case study further explores the nature of the deficits related to Danon disease and highlights the benefits of neuropsychological evaluation to guide functional interventions and maximize level of independence across the life span.

  12. The abbreviated form of the Brief Cognitive Battery in the diagnosis of dementia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB developed by our group for cognitive assessment of low educated individuals has also shown to be highly accurate in diagnosing dementia of individuals with medium or high levels of education, making it a useful tool for populations with heterogeneous educational background. The application of BCB takes around eight minutes, a rather long period for a screening test. Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate whether the exclusion of items of the BCB could reduce its application time without losing accuracy. Methods: Patients with Alzheimer's disease with mild or moderate dementia (N=20, and 30 control subjects were submitted to an abbreviated version of the BCB in which the clock drawing test was not included as an interference test for the delayed recall test. Data from another 22 control individuals who were submitted to the original BCB in another study were also included for comparison. A mathematical formula was employed to compare the two versions of the BCB. Descriptive statistics and ROC (receiver operator characteristic curves were used (alpha=0.05. Results: Using the abbreviated version, the delayed recall test also had high accuracy in diagnosing dementia and the mathematical formula results did not differ to those obtained using the original version, while mean time was reduced by 2 minutes and 37 seconds. Conclusions: This abbreviated form of the BCB is a potentially valuable tool for screening dementia in population studies as well as in busy clinical practices in countries with heterogeneous educational backgrounds.

  13. The abbreviated form of the Brief Cognitive Battery in the diagnosis of dementia in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Stephanie; Damin, Antonio Eduardo; Porto, Cláudia Sellitto; Caramelli, Paulo; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB) developed by our group for cognitive assessment of low educated individuals has also shown to be highly accurate in diagnosing dementia of individuals with medium or high levels of education, making it a useful tool for populations with heterogeneous educational background. The application of BCB takes around eight minutes, a rather long period for a screening test. Our aim was to evaluate whether the exclusion of items of the BCB could reduce its application time without losing accuracy. Patients with Alzheimer's disease with mild or moderate dementia (N=20), and 30 control subjects were submitted to an abbreviated version of the BCB in which the clock drawing test was not included as an interference test for the delayed recall test. Data from another 22 control individuals who were submitted to the original BCB in another study were also included for comparison. A mathematical formula was employed to compare the two versions of the BCB. Descriptive statistics and ROC (receiver operator characteristic) curves were used (alpha=0.05). Using the abbreviated version, the delayed recall test also had high accuracy in diagnosing dementia and the mathematical formula results did not differ to those obtained using the original version, while mean time was reduced by 2 minutes and 37 seconds. This abbreviated form of the BCB is a potentially valuable tool for screening dementia in population studies as well as in busy clinical practices in countries with heterogeneous educational backgrounds.

  14. Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, ADHD symptoms, and novelty seeking in compulsive buying disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Donald Wayne; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Bayless, John David; Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological performance of people with compulsive buying disorder (CBD) and control subjects, along with trait impulsivity, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and selected personality characteristics. Subjects received a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery, depression and ADHD symptom assessment, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and a version of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Persons with CBD (n=26) and controls (n=32) were ...

  15. Long-term neuropsychological effects of ecstasy in middle-aged ecstasy/polydrug users

    OpenAIRE

    Schilt, T.; Koeter, M.W.J.; Smal, J.P.; Gouwetor, M.N.; van den Brink, W.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Studies reporting ecstasy-induced serotonin-toxicity and (neuro)psychological dysfunctions have been conducted in young adults. Little is known about ecstasy effects later in life, when serotonin levels and cognition decrease as a consequence of normal ageing. Objective This study aimed to assess whether harmful effects of ecstasy only add to or also interact with age-related neuropsychological decline. Methods Attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial ability, self-reported...

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RUSSIAN AND BRITISH APPROACHES TO NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Mukhitova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the Russian and British approaches to restoration of the highest mental functions in patients with neurological disorders.The applicability of development of effective programs for neuropsychological rehabilitation of neurological patients is represented, where one of the main directions is the reconstruction of higher mental functions.Results. This article shows the importance of cooperation and understanding of specialists among the multidisciplinary team in medical rehabilitation system. The history of origin of the concept «multidisciplinary approach» is cited, it was spoken about by V. M. Bekhterev for the first time, emphasizing the necessity of multidisciplinary study of neuropsychic system of a healthy and ill person. Special aspects of rehabilitation process in Russia and in England were considered. Results of the comparison of neuropsychological rehabilitation models of two countries were presented. Conclusions. Further guidelines of cooperation between Russian and foreign neuropsychologists were identified. The attention is focused on determination of rehabilitation potential and inclusion of the patient and his family in rehabilitation process as it allows to solve problems of insufficiency of motivation, a self-assessment and to prevent emotional violations, increasing quality of life of patients. 

  17. The influence of awake craniotomy on postoperative neuropsychology

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Ming-yuan; GENG Ying; WANG Gang; HAN Ru-quan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the neuropsychological function and quality of life of the patients after awake craniotomy (AC). Methods A case-control study was conducted among 81 patients who underwent awake craniotomy, and a 1-to-1 control group (matched by age, gender, degree of education, tumor location and characteristic) undergoing general anesthesia (GA) in glioma resections was assembled. The incidence of postoperative neurological deficits, psychological disorders and recurrence were investigat...

  18. Detecting abbreviations in discharge summaries using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghui; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Denny, Joshua C; Miller, Randolph A; Mani, Subramani; Giuse, Dario A; Xu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of abbreviations is an important, challenging task in clinical natural language processing (NLP). A comprehensive lexical resource comprised of all common, useful clinical abbreviations would have great applicability. The authors present a corpus-based method to create a lexical resource of clinical abbreviations using machine-learning (ML) methods, and tested its ability to automatically detect abbreviations from hospital discharge summaries. Domain experts manually annotated abbreviations in seventy discharge summaries, which were randomly broken into a training set (40 documents) and a test set (30 documents). We implemented and evaluated several ML algorithms using the training set and a list of pre-defined features. The subsequent evaluation using the test set showed that the Random Forest classifier had the highest F-measure of 94.8% (precision 98.8% and recall of 91.2%). When a voting scheme was used to combine output from various ML classifiers, the system achieved the highest F-measure of 95.7%.

  19. Mild cognitive impairment: a concept and diagnostic entity in need of input from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Mark W; Smith, Glenn E

    2014-02-01

    This virtual issue consists of studies previously published in the Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society and selected on the basis of their content related to one of the most highly researched concepts in behavioral neurology and neuropsychology over the past decade: mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The reliance on cognitive screening measures, staging-based rating scales, and limited neuropsychological testing in diagnosing MCI across most research studies may miss individuals with subtle cognitive declines or mis-diagnose MCI in those who are otherwise cognitively normal on a broader neuropsychological battery of tests. The assembled articles highlight the perils of relying on these conventional criteria for MCI diagnosis and reveal how the reliability of diagnosis is improved when sound neuropsychological approaches are adopted. When these requirements are met, we illustrate with a second series of articles that neuropsychological measures associate strongly with biomarkers and often reflect pathology beyond or instead of typical AD distributions. The final set of articles reveal that people with MCI demonstrate mild but identifiable functional difficulties, and a challenge for neuropsychology is how to incorporate this information to better define MCI and distinguish it from early dementia. Neuropsychology is uniquely positioned to improve upon the state of the science in MCI research and practice by providing critically important empirical information on the specific cognitive domains affected by the predominant neurodegenerative disorders of late life as well as on the diagnostic decision-making strategies used in studies. When such efforts to more comprehensively assess neuropsychological functions are undertaken, better characterizations of spared and impaired cognitive and functional abilities result and lead to more convincing associations with other biomarkers as well as to prediction of clinical outcomes.

  20. Occupational health, cognitive disorders and occupational neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Caixeta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Work can be an important etiologic factor in the genesis of some mental disorders including cognitive disability. Occupational neuropsychology constitutes an intriguing new but neglected area of research and clinical practice which deals with the neurocognitive consequences of the work environment and work habits. Neuropsychological knowledge is fundamental to understand cognitive requirements of work competence. Work can impact sleep patterns and mental energy, which in turn can cause neuropsychological symptoms. This report presents relevant evidence to illustrate the relationship between work and cognitive dysfunction.

  1. Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities

  2. Neuropsychological and psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cerian F; Makin, Selina M; Baker, Gus A

    2015-07-22

    Many people with epilepsy report experiencing psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression and neuropsychological deficits including memory problems. Research has shown that these difficulties are often present not only for people with chronic epilepsy but also for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Despite this, there are very few published interventions that detail means to help people with newly diagnosed epilepsy manage these problems. To identify and assess possible psychological and neuropsychological interventions for adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We searched the following databases on 30 June 2015: the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). This review includes all randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort controlled studies, and prospective before and after studies which include psychological or neuropsychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. We excluded studies that included people with epilepsy and any other psychological disorder or neurological condition. We excluded studies carried out which recruited only children. We used the standard methodological procedure expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently completed data extraction and risk of bias analysis. The results of this were cross-checked and third author resolved any discrepancies. In the event of missing data, we contacted the study authors. Meta-analysis was not completed due to differences in the intervention and outcomes reported in the two studies. We included two randomised controlled trials assessing psychological interventions for people with newly diagnosed epilepsy. One study assessed a cognitive behavioural intervention (CBI) in an adolescent

  3. Detection of sentence boundaries and abbreviations in clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Western languages the period character is highly ambiguous, due to its double role as sentence delimiter and abbreviation marker. This is particularly relevant in clinical free-texts characterized by numerous anomalies in spelling, punctuation, vocabulary and with a high frequency of short forms. The problem is addressed by two binary classifiers for abbreviation and sentence detection. A support vector machine exploiting a linear kernel is trained on different combinations of feature sets for each classification task. Feature relevance ranking is applied to investigate which features are important for the particular task. The methods are applied to German language texts from a medical record system, authored by specialized physicians. Two collections of 3,024 text snippets were annotated regarding the role of period characters for training and testing. Cohen's kappa resulted in 0.98. For abbreviation and sentence boundary detection we can report an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure using a 10-fold cross validation of 0.97 for the training set. For test set based evaluation we obtained an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure of 0.95 for abbreviation detection and 0.94 for sentence delineation. Language-dependent resources and rules were found to have less impact on abbreviation detection than on sentence delineation. Sentence detection is an important task, which should be performed at the beginning of a text processing pipeline. For the text genre under scrutiny we showed that support vector machines exploiting a linear kernel produce state of the art results for sentence boundary detection. The results are comparable with other sentence boundary detection methods applied to English clinical texts. We identified abbreviation detection as a supportive task for sentence delineation.

  4. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  5. Reliability and validity of a Danish version of the multiple sclerosis neuropsychological screening Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejbæk, Tobias; Blaabjerg, Morten; Sprogøe, Pippi

    2018-01-01

    . The Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire (MSNQ) has previously shown good validity in American, Argentinean, and Dutch MS cohorts. We sought to test reliability and validity of a Danish translation of the MSNQ compared with formal neuropsychological testing, and measures of depression...... and disability, and to compare self-reported cognition with Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) results. Methods: Of 126 patients with MS and their informants tested with the MSNQ, 77 also underwent formal neuropsychological testing. All patients were tested with the SDMT and assessed clinically using...... the Expanded Disability Status Scale and MS Impairment Scale. Results: The test-retest reliability of the MSNQ-P was significant (R2 = 0.79, P neuropsychological testing, the MSNQ-P and MSNQ...

  6. Psychometric Assessment of the Chinese Version of the Abbreviated Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) and the Clinical Practice Version (EPIC-CP) in Chinese Men With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy W T; Tse, Michael A; Ng, Chris N L; Chung, Edward K M; Fielding, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument was designed to assess a range of health-related quality-of-life issues specifically relevant to patients with prostate cancer. This study examined the validity and reliability of Chinese versions of the 26-item EPIC and of the 16-item EPIC for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) in Chinese patients with prostate cancer. A Chinese version of the 26-item EPIC and the 16-item EPIC-CP were self-completed by 252 Chinese patients with prostate cancer who were recruited from three community-based cancer service centers. Confirmatory factors analysis assessed the factor structures of the EPIC and the EPIC-CP. Internal consistency and construct and clinical validities of the factor structures were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original factor structure of both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP showed good fit to this sample. A correlated model was superior to a hierarchical model in both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP supporting the utility of the domain scores over the total scores. Cronbach α ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 for EPIC-26 and 0.44 to 0.67 for EPIC-CP. Construct validity was supported by correlations between EPIC-26/EPIC-CP and psychological distress measures. Clinical validity was supported by differentiation between patients with and without prostatectomy. These Chinese versions of the five-factor EPIC-26 and the EPIC-CP are valid and practical measures for assessing a range of health-related quality-of-life issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, highlighting their utility in assessing health-related quality of life for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sourcing archaeological obsidian by an abbreviated NAA procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glascock, M.D.; Neff, H.; Stryker, K.S.; Jonhson, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    An abbreviated NAA procedure has been developed to fingerprint obsidian artifacts in the Mesoamerican region. Despite the large number of available sources, an NAA procedure, which relies on producing short-lived isotopes, has been applied with a success rate greater than 90 percent. The abbreviated NAA procedure is rapid and cost competitive with the XRF technique more often applied in obsidian sourcing. Results from the analysis of over 1,200 obsidian artifacts from throughout Mesoamerica are presented. (author) 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Asperger Syndrome and Schizophrenia: A Comparative Neuropsychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Maria; Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2016-07-01

    There has been an increasing interest in possible connections between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in the last decade. Neuropsychological comparison studies have, however, been few. The present study examined similarities and differences in intellectual and executive functioning between adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and adults with schizophrenic psychosis (SP). A group with AS and a group with SP were assessed neuropsychologically with WAIS-III and D-KEFS. Similarities were found between groups, as displayed by an uneven cognitive profile, limitations in working memory, processing speed and some aspects of executive functioning. Full Scale IQ was higher in the AS group. These results add to the current research illuminating similarities and differences between ASD and schizophrenia on a cognitive level.

  9. Neuropsychological profile in patients with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kato, Kanade; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Neuropsychological impairments have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. As little is known whether subjects with schizotypal personality disorder exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction similar to that in schizophrenia, we assessed the neuropsychological profile of 15 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder and compared it with that for 15 patients with schizophrenia and for 15 psychiatrically normal volunteers. All participants were administered a standard neuropsychological battery assessing language ability, spatial ability, visuomotor function, verbal memory, visual memory, auditory attention, visual attention, and executive function. Performance on most of the cognitive domains was impaired in patients with schizotypal personality disorder but less than patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, impairment in verbal memory and visuomotor ability in patients with schizotypal personality disorder and patients with schizophrenia were comparable, while patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the test of executive function than did patients with schizotypal personality disorder. As a whole, cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder were qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive abilities related to frontotemporal lobe function are disturbed across these schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  10. Effects on neuropsychological performance and sleep quality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Staub

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS may have impaired neuropsychological performance. The aim of the study is to assess neuropsychological function in OSAS patients before and on continous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy to assess different neuropsychological tests – especially of sensomotor memory – in OSAS patients, and to relate neuropsychological test results to polysomnographic findings. Therefore, 36 normal controls and 18 OSAS patients performed tests of attention capacity and memory with retrieval in the evening and the following morning. Six weeks later, the tests were repeated (patients on CPAP. Controls performed significantly better than patients in the tests of attention and of memory of facts without and on CPAP therapy. Moreover, good compliance of CPAP therapy was not associated with better performance. However, there was no significant difference between controls and patients in the tests of sensomotor memory. The neuropsychological results depended on oxygen values, the arousal index, and sleep stages. There is no group difference in overnight improvement in the neuropsychological tests, which could indicate that sleep has an important function in homeostatic regulation rather than in consolidation.

  11. Neuropsychology in Multiple Sclerosis: A literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodneys Mauricio Jiménez Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by demyelination and degeneration. The objective of this article is to offer a review of the latest scientific discoveries in the field of neuropsychology in ME. A description is presented of the most frequent neuropsychological manifestations and their probable association with other factors such as: school level, fatigue, disability, cerebral dysfunction, time and clinical form of evolution, as well as depression and other states of mind starting from recent evidences in the scientific community. Also addressed is the development of tests and valid sensitive neuropsychological sets to evaluate cognitive functions. The use of sensitive and specific test facilitates the evaluation of neuropsychological alterations associated to ME, besides other socio-demographic and clinical-evaluative factors to contemplate in the exploration.

  12. Effect of demographic data on neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Evlice

    2016-09-01

    Material and Methods: Between 2014-2016 years; mini mental state examination, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency (semantic and lexical, clock drawing, verbal and visual memory tests were performed to healthy people. The presence of correlation between neuropsychological tests and gender, age and education were researched in healthy people. Results: Hundred subjects (60 female, 40 male were included to study. No difference was observed between male and female subjects on neuropsychological tests. There was negative correlation between age and mini mental state examination, digit span and semantic fluency tests. And also there was positive correlation between education and all neuropsychological tests (except verbal memory test. Conclusion: The mean neuropsychological test scores in healthy people were not shown differences by gender, but they were affected by age and education. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 528-532

  13. Neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Gentilini, M; Nichelli, P; Schoenhuber, R; Bortolotti, P; Tonelli, L; Falasca, A; Merli, G A

    1985-01-01

    Neuropsychological deficits following mild head injury have been reported recently in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue with a strict methodological approach. The neuropsychological performance of 50 mildly head injured patients was compared with that of 50 normal controls chosen with the case-control approach. No conclusive evidence was found that mild head injury causes cognitive impairment one month after the trauma.

  14. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Methods: Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention...... = 0.59). Conclusion: Any effects of the acute neuropsychological intervention were limited. Further research is needed to explore the effects of different interventions in more homogenous and larger groups of relatives....

  15. JPRS Report, Latin America, Reference Aid Glossary of Spanish Military and General Acronyms and Abbreviations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Glossary of Spanish Military and general acronyms and abbreviations. This Reference Aid is a first attempt at making a systematic compilation of Spanish acronyms and abbreviations, particularly in the military field...

  16. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nishinaka

    Full Text Available In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk.Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used.Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts.Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  17. Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.

  18. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  19. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  20. 40 CFR 310.4 - What abbreviations should I know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES General Information § 310.4 What abbreviations should I know? The.... 11000-11050). LEPC—Local Emergency Planning Committee. NCP—National Oil and Hazardous Substances... Response Center. OMB—Office of Management and Budget. PRP—Potentially Responsible Party. SARA—The Superfund...

  1. Abbreviations and acronyms: the case of Tlhalosi ya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This paper looks at how abbreviations and acronyms are treated in African language dictionaries in general compared to selected mainstream English dictionaries. Specifically, the study looks at their treatment in T.J. Otlogetswe's (2012) Tlhalosi ya Medi ya Setswana dictionary. Altogether, a survey of twenty ...

  2. Children's Text Messaging: Abbreviations, Input Methods and Links with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, N.; Bushnell, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mobile phone text-messaging method (predictive and multi-press) and experience (in texters and non-texters) on children's textism use and understanding. It also examined popular claims that the use of text-message abbreviations, or "textese" spelling, is associated with poor literacy skills. A sample of 86…

  3. Interactive Hangman Teaches Amino Acid Structures and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Britney O.; Sears, Duane; Clegg, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying…

  4. 32 CFR 634.3 - Explanation of abbreviations and terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Explanation of abbreviations and terms. 634.3 Section 634.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.3 Explanation of...

  5. Neuropsychological and Cognitive Correlates of Recovery in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jessica A; Brodrick, Brooks; Van Enkevort, Erin; McAdams, Carrie J

    2017-11-01

    To identify clinical or cognitive measures either predictive of illness trajectory or altered with sustained weight recovery in adult women with anorexia nervosa. Participants were recruited from prior studies of women with anorexia nervosa (AN-C) and in weight-recovery following anorexia nervosa (AN-WR). Participants completed a neuropsychological battery at baseline and clinical assessments at both baseline and follow-up. Groups based on clinical outcome (continued eating disorder, AN-CC; newly in recovery, AN-CR; sustained weight-recovery, AN-WR) were compared by using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons. Women with continued eating disorder had poorer neuropsychological function and self-competence at baseline than AN-CR. AN-CR showed changes in depression and externalizing bias, a measure of self-related attributions. AN-WR differed from both AN-CC and AN-CR at baseline in externalizing bias, but only from AN-CC at outcome. Neuropsychological function when recently ill may be a prognostic factor, while externalizing bias may provide a clinical target for recovery. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Profile in a Patient with Triple A Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mazzone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple A syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the triad of adrenocorticotropic hormone resistant adrenal insufficiency, achalasia, and alacrima. Our aim was to describe the neuropsychological characteristics and the cooccurring psychopathological and neurological disorders in an Italian male child suffering from Triple A syndrome at the time of admission (T0 and after one year of follow-up (T1. Many difficulties were observed in the motor domain, as well as in manual dexterity and static/dynamic balance domains of the motor task over time. In sharp contrast with previous literature reports on frequent mild cognitive dysfunction in patients with Triple A syndrome, our child did not show any mental retardation. By contrast, he showed an average IQ at T0 with a slight improvement at T1. To our knowledge, this report is the first describing neuropsychological profile and co-occurring psychopathological problems in a child with Triple A syndrome. Considering that the Triple A syndrome is a progressive disorder which can take years to develop the full-blown clinical picture, these patients require periodical medical controls. Moreover, assessment of neuropsychological and psychopathological features should be performed in patients with this disease, in order to underline the variability of this syndrome.

  7. [Neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics: some implications for road safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, M J; Fernández-Guinea, S

    There are various published studies showing that chronic alcoholics present cognitive deficit. In this conference we would like to review the most actual studies focusing on the neuropsychological alterations as consequences of the long and abusive alcohol intake. We also will analyse the involvement of these deficit in a complex task as driving. The long and abusive alcohol intake produces an affectation of the central nervous system. We could observe its consequences both in short and long term. Attention and memory deficit and a slowness of information processing are very common. However, complete neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation programs are convenient. This is an important topic if we consider the high number of traffic accidents in which alcohol intake is one of the possible causes. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the persons working daily with a car, such as taxi or bus drivers, especially those of them who are alcoholics in abstinence, chronic alcoholics and people who suffer from alcohol abuse. The control of this situation and the publicity about neuropsychological sequels of alcoholism could contribute in an efficient way towards safety in road.

  8. Neuropsychological alterations in mercury intoxication persist several years after exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Zachi

    Full Text Available Abstract Elemental mercury is a liquid toxic metal widely used in industry. Occupational exposure occurs mainly via inhalation. Previously, neuropsychological assessment detected deficits in former workers of a fluorescent lamp plant who had been exposed to elemental mercury vapor and were away from exposure for several years at the time of examination. Objectives: The purpose of this work was to reexamine these functions after 18 months in order to evaluate their progression. Methods: Thirteen participants completed tests of attention, inhibitory control, verbal/visual memory, psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, visuomotor ability, executive function, semantic knowledge, and depression and anxiety inventories on 2 separate occasions. Results: At baseline, the former workers indicated slower psychomotor and information processing speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory impairment, and increased depression and anxiety symptoms compared to controls (P<0.05. Paired comparisons of neuropsychological functioning within the exposed group at baseline and 1.5 years later showed poorer immediate memory performance (P<0.05. There were no differences on other measures. Conclusions: Although the literature show signs of recovery of functions, the neuropsychological effects related to mercury exposure are found to persist for many years.

  9. Neuropsychological health in F-111 aircraft maintenance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Peter W; Gibson, Richard; Tavener, Meredith; Attia, John R; D'Este, Catherine; Guest, Maya; Brown, Anthony M; Lee, Stephen J; Horsley, Keith; Harrex, Warren; Ross, James

    2006-09-01

    To contrast subjective and objective measures of neuropsychological health in F-111 aircraft Deseal/Reseal maintenance personnel, against two appropriate comparison groups. Exposed and comparison participants completed a postal questionnaire which included a validated memory questionnaire and additional questions relating to possible cognitive symptoms. They also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and screening for a past or current disturbance of mood. Multiple linear or logistic regression was conducted for each outcome using exposure group and potential confounders as explanatory variables. There was a strong and consistent excess of self-reported cognitive problems among the exposed group relative to the comparison groups including a 2.8-4.3-fold increase in self-reported symptoms of forgetfulness, loss of concentration and difficulty finding the right word. On detailed neuropsychological testing, the exposed group performed significantly worse than comparisons on tests of psychomotor speed, executive functioning, and new learning/memory. These findings could not be accounted for by disturbances of mood or other potential confounders. There was a strong and consistent increase in self-reported cognitive problems among the exposed, and small but significant exposure-specific differences on objective tests of cognitive functioning. The findings are consistent with the development of adverse neuropsychiatric changes related to occupational exposure to solvents.

  10. ILAE survey of neuropsychology practice in pediatric epilepsy surgery evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Madison M; Smith, Mary Lou; Bulteau, Christine

    2017-06-01

    To determine the extent to which specific neuropsychological measures are in common use around the world for the assessment of children who are candidates for epilepsy surgery. As part of the work of the International League Against Epilepsy Pediatric Surgical Task Force, a survey was developed and distributed online. The survey consisted of questions related to demographics, training experience, general practice, and specific measures used and at what frequency. Seventy-eight clinicians with an average of 13.5 years of experience from 19 countries responded to the survey; 69% were English-speaking. Pre- and post-neuropsychological evaluations were conducted with a majority of children undergoing surgical resection for epilepsy. There was high consistency (>90%) among the domains evaluated, while consistency rate among specific measures was more variable (range: 0-100%). Consistency rates were also lower among respondents in non-English-speaking countries. For English-speaking respondents, at least one measure within each domain was used by a majority (>75%) of clinicians; 19 specific measures met this criterion. There is consensus of measures used in neuropsychological studies of pediatric epilepsy patients which provides a basis for determining which measures to include in establishing a collaborative data repository to study surgical outcomes of pediatric epilepsy. Challenges include selecting measures that promote collaboration with centers in non-English-speaking countries and providing data from children under age 5.

  11. Neuropsychological characteristics of Gulf War illness: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A Janulewicz

    Full Text Available Gulf War illness (GWI is a disorder related to military service in the 1991 GW. Prominent symptoms include fatigue, pain and cognitive problems. These symptoms were reported by GW Veterans (GWV immediately after the war and were eventually incorporated into case definitions of GWI. Neuropsychological function in GW veterans has been studied both among deployed GWV and in GWV diagnosed with GWI. Results have been inconsistent between and across GW populations. The purpose of the present investigation was to better characterize neuropsychological function in this veteran population.Meta-analysis techniques were applied to published studies on neuropsychological performance in GWV to identify domains of dysfunction in deployed vs. non-deployed GW-era veterans and symptomatic vs. non-symptomatic GWVs.Significantly decreased performance was found in three functional domains: attention and executive function, visuospatial skills and learning/memory.These findings document the cognitive decrements associated with GW service, validate current GWI case definitions using cognitive criteria, and identify test measures for use in GWI research assessing GWI treatment trial efficacy.

  12. Mercury derived from dental amalgams and neuropsychologic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Hasselgren, Gunnar; Jacobs, Diane; Begg, Melissa; Kline, Jennie; Geier, Jamie; Mervish, Nancy; Schoenholtz, Sonia; Graziano, Joseph

    2003-05-01

    There is widespread concern regarding the safety of silver-mercury amalgam dental restorations, yet little evidence to support their harm or safety. We examined whether mercury dental amalgams are adversely associated with cognitive functioning in a cross-sectional sample of healthy working adults. We studied 550 adults, 30-49 years of age, who were not occupationally exposed to mercury. Participants were representative of employees at a major urban medical center. Each participant underwent a neuropsychologic test battery, a structured questionnaire, a modified dental examination, and collection of blood and urine samples. Mercury exposure was assessed using a) urinary mercury concentration (UHg); b) the total number of amalgam surfaces; and c) the number of occlusal amalgam surfaces. Linear regression analysis was used to estimate associations between each marker of mercury exposure and each neuropsychologic test, adjusting for potential confounding variables. Exposure levels were relatively low. The mean UHg was 1.7 micro g/g creatinine (range, 0.09-17.8); the mean total number of amalgam surfaces was 10.6 (range, 0-46) and the mean number of occlusal amalgam surfaces was 6.1 (range, 0-19). No measure of exposure was significantly associated with the scores on any neuropsychologic test in analyses that adjusted for the sampling design and other covariates. In a sample of healthy working adults, mercury exposure derived from dental amalgam restorations was not associated with any detectable deficits in cognitive or fine motor functioning.

  13. Neuropsychological symptoms of juvenile-onset batten disease: experiences from 2 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Heather R; Kwon, Jennifer; Marshall, Frederick J; de Blieck, Elisabeth A; Pearce, David A; Mink, Jonathan W

    2007-05-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Batten disease) is a progressive and fatal autosomal-recessive inherited lysosomal storage disorder of childhood. Core symptoms include vision loss, seizures, and mental and motor decline. This article presents data from 2 studies of neuropsychological function in juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. In the first cross-sectional pilot study, 15 children with genetic or clinicopathologic confirmation of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis completed a brief test of attention (mean age = 14.3 +/- 2.9 years, range = 8.75-18.74 years; 7 males, 8 females). Average attention performances were significantly below age-expected normative data. A second longitudinal study was then initiated to study neuropsychological function in greater depth, including change in function over time. The authors have enrolled 18 children to date (mean age = 12.88 +/- 3.59 years, range = 6.26-18.65; 11 males, 7 females). Of these, 5 children have completed a second (annual) re-evaluation. Results thus far indicate significant impairment in domains of auditory attention, memory, estimated verbal intellectual function, and verbal fluency. Neuropsychological impairment was significantly correlated with disease duration and with motor function as assessed by a disease-specific clinical neurologic rating scale. There was no significant difference between males and females in neuropsychological test performance. Neuropsychological function was worse among children with a positive seizure history. Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-affected children exhibited significant and pervasive impairments on tests of auditory attention, verbal memory and repetition, verbal fluency, and an estimate of verbal intellectual ability. Preliminary follow-up data from an annual reassessment showed progressive declines in cognitive function, in particular on a task of working memory. Neuropsychological deficits are pervasive and progressive. Future research will

  14. Integrating Neuropsychology and Brain Imaging for a Referral of Possible Pseudodementia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J J; Mellott, E; Dunne, E M; Price, C C

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to highlight the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and the value for combining normative neuropsychological and neuroradiological measures for clinical purposes. We present the case of "CL," a 65-year-old, right-handed, Caucasian female referred for a neuropsychological evaluation of memory difficulties and depression with the rule-out of pseudodementia. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was conducted within 24 hours of the neuropsychology exam. Mood measures showed elevated depression and apathy symptoms. The neuropsychological profile showed variable effort, intact comprehension but compromised confrontation naming and verbal memory deficits. Using normative references from 20 female age- and education-matched healthy control peers, CL showed significantly reduced temporal cortex thickness with reduced bilateral hippocampal, right amygdala, and right caudate volumes. Combined data were supportive of a diagnosis of semantic dementia. Examining neuropsychological profiles in combination with neuroimaging standardized metrics relative to peers improved case conceptualization. Standard measures of effort and malingering examined alone and without MRI for the diagnosis of pseudodementia have questionable validity and rationale. We additionally discuss the advantages and limitations/challenges for integrating neuropsychological assessments with normative based MRI brain metrics.

  15. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  16. Neuropsychology in Finland - over 30 years of systematically trained clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Laura; Nybo, Taina; Poutiainen, Erja

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this invited paper for a special issue of international practice in The Clinical Neuropsychologist is to provide information on training models, clinical practice, and professional issues within neuropsychology in Finland. Relevant information was gathered via literature searches, a survey by the Neuropsychology Working Group of the Finnish Psychological Association, archives of the Finnish Neuropsychological Society, and personal communication with professionals in Finland. The roots of Finnish neuropsychology are linked to the early German tradition of experimental psychology. Since the 1970s, it has been strongly influenced by both the psychometric approach in the U.S. and the qualitative approach by Luria. Systematic specialization training program began in Finland in 1983. It was first organized by the Finnish Neuropsychological Society and since 1997 by Finnish universities. At present, around 260 neuropsychologists have completed this training. According to the survey by the Finnish Psychological Association in 2014, 67% of Finnish neuropsychologists work in the public sector, 36% in the private sector, and 28% reported that they had private practice. Work includes assessments for 90% of the respondents, rehabilitation for 74%, and many are involved in teaching and research. Of the respondents, 20% worked both with adults and children, 44% with adults only and 36% with children only. Within test development, pediatric neuropsychology is an especially prominent field. A unique blend of approaches and a solid systematic training tradition has led to a strong position of neuropsychologists as distinguished experts in the Finnish health care system.

  17. Neuropsychological sequelae of medulloblastoma in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Joel H.; Crowe, Amy Bassell; Larson, David A.; Sneed, Penny K.; Gutin, Philip H.; McDermott, Michael W.; Prados, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the neuropsychological consequences of medulloblastoma in adults. Methods: Patients 18 years of age or older who had medulloblastoma and at least 3 years of disease-free survival were eligible. A battery of tests was conducted to assess global intellectual functioning, verbal ability, visuospatial ability, memory, reasoning, and academic proficiency. For the verbal memory performance, each patient was matched with two normal controls selected on the basis of age, sex, and level of education. Results: Review of the Neuro-Oncology database revealed 24 patients eligible for the study. Of these, 10 patients (6 good-risk and 4 poor-risk) agreed to participate; 7 patients were lost to follow-up; 5 lived too far away to come to the testing site, and 2 refused testing. There were four men and six women; their mean age was 36.5 years at testing and 29.9 years at surgical diagnosis. Mean dose of whole brain radiation was 34.5 Gy. Mean interval between diagnosis and testing was 79.1 months. Test results demonstrated below average intelligence quotients (mean intelligence quotient 90.2; range 67-103) and specific deficits in memory, reasoning, visuospatial ability, and arithmetic. Conclusion: Adults with medulloblastoma in a prolonged disease-free status may suffer significant cognitive deficits. We recommend further controlled, prospective studies to evaluate cognitive outcomes in this patient population in the hope that interventional strategies could be developed, or treatment modified to minimize such toxicities

  18. Detecting unapproved abbreviations in the electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Andrew; Stack, Anne; Harper, Marvin B; Kimia, Amir

    2012-04-01

    At an emergency department (ED) in a tertiary care children's hospital with a level 1 pediatric trauma designation, unapproved abbreviations (UAAs) within electronic medical records (EMRs) were identified, and feedback was provided to providers regarding their types and use rates. Existing EMRs, including the ED physicians' patient notes were used as templates to develop a UAA list and an abbreviation detector. The detector was validated against human-screened samples of electronic ED notes from 2003 and then applied to all existing data to generate baseline rates of UAA, before intervention/implementation. Next, the validated abbreviation detector was applied prospectively in screening all EMRs monthly during a six-month period. In validation, the abbreviation detector had a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 99.9%, and a positive predictive value of 89%. Some 475,613 EMRs were screened, with UAAs identified at a rate of 26.4 +/- 4 per 1,000 EMRs. The most common nonmedication UAA was "qd" [11.8/1,000 EMRs], and the most common medication UAA was "PCN" [4.2/1,000 EMRs]. A total of 27,282 patient notes from 74 physicians were screened between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2007, and 392 monthly reports were generated. Aggregate UAA use decreased by 8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6%-14%) per month-from 19.3 to > 12.1/100 charts, for a 37.3% decrease in UAA use in the six-month period. The estimated monthly decrease per physician was 0.9/100 (95% CI: 0.86-0.94, p abbreviation detector for surveillance of newly created EMRs, followed by consistent education and feedback, led to a significant decrease in UAA use in the study period.

  19. Parametric model measurement: reframing traditional measurement ideas in neuropsychological practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory G; Thomas, Michael L; Patt, Virginie

    Neuropsychology is an applied measurement field with its psychometric work primarily built upon classical test theory (CTT). We describe a series of psychometric models to supplement the use of CTT in neuropsychological research and test development. We introduce increasingly complex psychometric models as measurement algebras, which include model parameters that represent abilities and item properties. Within this framework of parametric model measurement (PMM), neuropsychological assessment involves the estimation of model parameters with ability parameter values assuming the role of test 'scores'. Moreover, the traditional notion of measurement error is replaced by the notion of parameter estimation error, and the definition of reliability becomes linked to notions of item and test information. The more complex PMM approaches incorporate into the assessment of neuropsychological performance formal parametric models of behavior validated in the experimental psychology literature, along with item parameters. These PMM approaches endorse the use of experimental manipulations of model parameters to assess a test's construct representation. Strengths and weaknesses of these models are evaluated by their implications for measurement error conditional upon ability level, sensitivity to sample characteristics, computational challenges to parameter estimation, and construct validity. A family of parametric psychometric models can be used to assess latent processes of interest to neuropsychologists. By modeling latent abilities at the item level, psychometric studies in neuropsychology can investigate construct validity and measurement precision within a single framework and contribute to a unification of statistical methods within the framework of generalized latent variable modeling.

  20. Comparison of neuropsychological performance between students from public and private Brazilian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth Izábal; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-11-01

    Neuropsychological assessment reveals that certain cognitive changes that take place during the neural development process may be associated with biopsychosocial issues. A substantial body of research has focused on cognitive development in children and adults, but few such studies have been carried out on adolescents. Therefore, research into the processing of neuropsychological functions in adolescents, taking into account the role of major socio-cultural factors such as school type (public vs. private), is highly relevant. The present study sought to assess whether differences in neuropsychological development exist between adolescent students of public (government-funded) and private schools. A total of 373 grade-matched students between the ages of 12 and 18, 190 from public schools and 183 from private schools, took part in the study. All subjects had no self-reported neurologic or psychiatric conditions and sensory disorders. The NEUPSILIN Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was administered to this sample. Comparison of mean scores (one-way ANCOVA with socioeconomic score and age as covariates) showed that adolescents attending private schools generally outperformed their public-school peers in tasks involving sustained attention, memory (working and visual), dictated writing, and constructional and reflective abilities. We conclude that school type should be taken into account during standardization of neuropsychological assessment instruments for adolescent and, probably, child populations.

  1. Reducing sedation for pediatric body MRI using accelerated and abbreviated imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Hu, Houchun Harry; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an established diagnostic imaging tool for investigating pediatric disease. MRI allows assessment of structure, function, and morphology in cardiovascular imaging, as well as tissue characterization in body imaging, without the use of ionizing radiation. For MRI in children, sedation and general anesthesia (GA) are often utilized to suppress patient motion, which can otherwise compromise image quality and diagnostic efficacy. However, evidence is emerging that use of sedation and GA in children might have long-term neurocognitive side effects, in addition to the short-term procedure-related risks. These concerns make risk-benefit assessment of sedation and GA more challenging. Therefore, reducing or eliminating the need for sedation and GA is an important goal of imaging innovation and research in pediatric MRI. In this review, the authors focus on technical and clinical approaches to reducing and eliminating the use of sedation in the pediatric population based on image acquisition acceleration and imaging protocols abbreviation. This paper covers important physiological and technical considerations for pediatric body MR imaging and discusses MRI techniques that offer the potential of recovering diagnostic-quality images from accelerated scans. In this review, the authors also introduce the concept of reporting elements for important indications for pediatric body MRI and use this as a basis for abbreviating the MR protocols. By employing appropriate accelerated and abbreviated approaches based on an understanding of the imaging needs and reporting elements for a given clinical indication, it is possible to reduce sedation and GA for pediatric chest, cardiovascular and abdominal MRI. (orig.)

  2. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  3. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Sherin; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Loukusa, Soile; Omar, Manal; Riad, Geylan; Rautio, Arja; Moilanen, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ) on these abilities. Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1) and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6). Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (pneuropsychological performance. Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  4. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  5. Propriedades psicométricas do Instrumento Abreviado de Avaliação de Qualidade de Vida da Organização Mundial da Saúde no Estudo Pró-Saúde Psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment in the Pró-Saúde Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinda B. Moreno

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, relatam-se propriedades psicométricas do Instrumento Abreviado de Avaliação de Qualidade de Vida da Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-Bref, composto por 24 questões distribuídas em quatro domínios (físico, psicológico, relações sociais e meio ambiente e duas questões globais sobre qualidade de vida e saúde global, quando aplicado no Estudo Pró-Saúde (estudo de coorte de trabalhadores de uma universidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em seu estudo piloto e entre os 3.574 participantes da fase 2 (2001 do estudo. Foi estimada a confiabilidade teste-reteste dos escores, com coeficiente de correlação intraclasse variando entre 0,76 e 0,91 nos diversos domínios. Níveis de consistência interna, avaliados pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, variaram entre 0,69 e 0,79. Na análise de fatores, pelo método de fatores principais iterados e rotação varimax, não foi replicada exatamente a estrutura do instrumento original, verificada em seus testes de campo; uma das possíveis razões para as discrepâncias observadas refere-se à natureza da população de estudo, em idade laboral ativa e relativamente saudável.This paper reports on the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-Bref, comprising 26 items which measure the following broad domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. The instrument was used in the Pró-Saúde Study, a cohort study of public employees at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the pilot phase, and by 3,574 subjects in study phase 2 (2001. The estimated test-retest reliability of the responses, measured by intraclass correlation coefficients, ranged from 0.76 to 0.91 across domains. The internal consistency of the items, measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, was estimated between 0.69 and 0.79. The factor structure, using iterated principal

  6. Exploring Neuropsychology: Seeking Evidence of Added Worth to School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassu, Kari A.; Gelbar, Nicholas W.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Patwa, Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Historically, school psychological assessment has included the core elements of cognitive, academic, and behavioral indices. Neuropsychological assessment has included these and the additional elements of attention, memory, language, visual-spatial, motor, sensory, and executive functioning (American Psychological Association, 2006). With the…

  7. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Zachi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 ± 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 ± 1.8; 20 males diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 ± 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 ± 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 ± 0.9 µg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P < 0.05. In addition, the patients showed increased depression and anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001. A statistically significant correlation (Pearson was demonstrable between mean urinary mercury and anxiety trait (r = 0.75, P = 0.03. The neuropsychological performances of the former workers suggest that occupational exposure to elemental mercury has long-term effects on information processing and psychomotor function, with increased depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  8. Neuropsychological support to relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury in the sub-acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Siert, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported emotional distress in relatives of patients with brain injury, but few studies have investigated neuropsychological interventions for relatives. The present study assessed the amount of neuropsychological support as well as the actual number of sessions...... as characteristics related to the patient: Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, Early Functional Abilities, Functional Independence Measure, Rancho Los Amigos; and to the relative: symptoms of anxiety and depression (SCL-90-R), quality of life (SF-36) and amount and number of sessions of neuropsychological...

  9. Interactive Hangman teaches amino acid structures and abbreviations

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, BO; Sears, D; Clegg, DO

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(6):495-500, 2014. We developed an interactive exercise to teach students how to draw the structures of the 20 standard amino acids and to identify the one-letter abbreviations by modifying the familiar game of "Hangman." Amino acid structures were used to represent single letters throughout the game. To provide additional practice in identifying structures, hints to the answers were written in "amino acid sentences" f...

  10. Pb Neurotoxicity: Neuropsychological Effects of Lead Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H. Mason

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  11. Neuropsychological intervention in the acute phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the effects of acute neuropsychological intervention for relatives of patients with severe brain injury. Participants were enrolled in an intervention group comprising 39 relatives, and a control group comprising 47 relatives. The intervention consisted of supportive.......0100.30), but also significantly lower Role Emotional scores (= 2.12 = 0.043, = 0.40). In the sub-acute setting, an analysis of covariance model showed a borderline significant difference between the intervention and the control group on the anxiety scale (= 0.066 = 0.59). Any effects of the acute neuropsychological...

  12. Comparative study of neuropsychological correlates in schizophrenia with onset in childhood, adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Parthasarathy; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil; Gupta, Nitin

    2006-09-01

    Childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) patients have marked neuropsychological deficits in areas of attention, working memory and executive functions. Similar deficits have been found in studies on Adolescent onset (AdOS) and Adult onset schizophrenia (AOS). In this study we compared the neuropsychological profile of COS with AdOS and AOS to test the hypothesis that earlier the onset greater is the severity of illness and greater are the neuropsychological deficits. A sample of 15 patients of COS was compared with 20 patients each of AdOS and AOS group. Assessment of neuropsychological profile was done using standard neuropsychological battery for Indian population. Nahor Benson Test and Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test were used to assess perceptuomotor functioning. COS patients showed significantly greater deficits on scales of IQ, memory and perceptuomotor skills as compared to AdOS that in turn had greater deficits than AOS. The persistence of differences across the three groups inspite of controlling for education and age suggest that these deficits may have been present even before the onset of illness and was not the result of poor academic achievements. These findings also point towards a brain damage in schizophrenia that occurs on a continuum of severity with COS being the most virulent, AOS being the least and AdOS falling in between these two extremes.

  13. Abbreviated RD and D program portfolio selection workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.W.; Cohan, D.; Regulinski, S.G.

    1979-12-01

    A workbook for implementing an abbreviated version of the RD and D portfolio selection methodology described in A Resource Allocation Methodology for Establishing RD and D Budgetary Priorities is presented. The purpose of the abbreviated methodology is to allow a fast, first-cut analysis of a set of programs and to provide a means of discovering important issues that deserve more detailed analysis. The use of the abbreviated methodology in the overall process of evaluating RD and D programs is outlined. The effect of the program on a process is represented by the process model. Those process cost and performance characteristics that are important to the market for an energy product are described. The product cost model takes the cost and performance characteristics and the feedstock price and calculates the cost of producing a unit of energy using the technology in question. The market model takes this cost, the demand for the energy product, and the characteristics of alternative sources of the same product, and specifies the market share captured by the new technology. From this point it is relatively straightforward to infer the impacts of the new technology on the energy system. The benefit model evaluates the impacts in a consistent way, given the cost of the Federal support.

  14. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  15. The Effect of Prior Caffeine Consumption on Neuropsychological Test Performance: A Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elizabeth R; Lesk, Valerie E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the prior consumption of 200 mg of pure caffeine affected neuropsychological test scores in a group of elderly participants aged over 60 years. Using a double-blind placebo versus caffeine design, participants were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg of caffeine or placebo. A neuropsychological assessment testing the domains of general cognitive function, processing speed, semantic memory, episodic memory, executive function, working memory and short-term memory was carried out. Significant interaction effects between age, caffeine and scores of executive function and processing speed were found; participants who had received caffeine showed a decline in performance with increasing age. This effect was not seen for participants who received placebo. The results highlight the need to consider and control prior caffeine consumption when scoring neuropsychological assessments in the elderly, which is important for accuracy of diagnosis and corresponding normative data. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Autistic traits and neuropsychological performance in 6- to-10-year-old children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyseni, Fjola; Blanken, Laura M E; Muetzel, Ryan; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2018-04-23

    Clinical studies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide evidence for poorer neuropsychological performance within specific domains compared to age, gender, and sometimes IQ-matched controls. Since recent evidence suggests that autistic symptoms form a spectrum that extends into the general population, it was our goal to evaluate the nature of the relationship between autistic traits and neuropsychological performance across the continuum in the general population. We examined neuropsychological performance across five different domains in 1019 6-to-10-year-old children participating in a population-based study of child development. Autistic traits were assessed when the children were 6 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale and ASD diagnoses were obtained via medical records. Neuropsychological functioning was measured using the NEPSY-II-NL and included the domains of attention and executive function, memory and learning, sensorimotor functioning, language, and visuospatial functioning. We found that children with higher autistic traits showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance in all domains investigated and that this association remained even after excluding children with the highest autistic traits or confirmed ASD. When comparing 41 children with confirmed ASD diagnosis to typically developing controls, children with ASD showed significantly lower neuropsychological performance across all domains. Taken together, our results suggest that children with both ASD and subclinical autistic traits have lower neuropsychological performance. Thus, this may provide an understanding of why some children without an ASD diagnosis may require some additional assistance within academic settings.

  17. A Flexible and Integrated System for the Remote Acquisition of Neuropsychological Data in Stroke Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisko, Corrine; McCue, Michael; Doyle, Patrick J; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Fiez, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a central aspect of stroke research because it provides critical information about the cognitive-behavioral status of stroke survivors, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related disorders. Standard neuropsychological methods rely upon face-to-face interactions between a patient and researcher, which creates geographic and logistical barriers that impede research progress and treatment advances. To overcome these barriers, we created a flexible and integrated system for the remote acquisition of neuropsychological data (RAND). The system we developed has a secure architecture that permits collaborative videoconferencing. The system supports shared audiovisual feeds that can provide continuous virtual interaction between a participant and researcher throughout a testing session. Shared presentation and computing controls can be used to deliver auditory and visual test items adapted from standard face-to-face materials or execute computer-based assessments. Spoken and manual responses can be acquired, and the components of the session can be recorded for offline data analysis. To evaluate its feasibility, our RAND system was used to administer a speech-language test battery to 16 stroke survivors with a variety of communication, sensory, and motor impairments. The sessions were initiated virtually without prior face-to-face instruction in the RAND technology or test battery. Neuropsychological data were successfully acquired from all participants, including those with limited technology experience, and those with a communication, sensory, or motor impairment. Furthermore, participants indicated a high level of satisfaction with the RAND system and the remote assessment that it permits. The results indicate the feasibility of using the RAND system for virtual home-based neuropsychological assessment without prior face-to-face contact between a participant and researcher. Because our RAND system architecture uses off

  18. Consumer Protection in the Expansion of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F.

    1992-01-01

    Responses to previous four articles on integration of counseling psychology and neuropsychology. Contends that articles provide persuasive arguments for offering basic coursework in neuropsychology in counseling psychology doctoral programs. Raises concern that expanded training in neuropsychology may result in minimal training being…

  19. An abbreviated protocol for multilineage neural differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells and its perturbation by methyl mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, P T; Schulpen, S H W; van Dartel, D A M; Hermsen, S A B; van Schooten, F J; Piersma, A H

    2010-07-01

    Alternative assays are highly desirable to reduce the extensive experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing. In the present study, we developed an improved test system for assessing neurodevelopmental toxicity using differentiating embryonic stem cells. We advanced previously established methods by merging, modifying and abbreviating the original 20-day protocol into a more efficient 13-day neural differentiation protocol. Using morphological observation, immunocytochemistry, gene expression and flow cytometry, it was shown predominantly multiple lineages of neuroectodermal cells were formed in our protocol and to a lower extent, endodermal and mesodermal differentiated cell types. This abbreviated protocol should lead to an advanced screening method using morphology in combination with selected differentiation markers aimed at predicting neurodevelopmental toxicity. Finally, the assay was shown to express differential sensitivity to a model developmental neurotoxicant, methyl mercury.

  20. Neuropsychological dysfunction related to earlier occupational exposure to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachi, E C; D F, Ventura; Faria, M A M; Taub, A

    2007-03-01

    We assessed the neuropsychological test performances of 26 patients (mean age = 41.5 +/- 6.1 years; mean years of education = 9.8 +/- 1.8; 20 males) diagnosed with chronic occupational mercurialism who were former workers at a fluorescent lamp factory. They had been exposed to elemental mercury for an average of 10.2 +/- 3.8 years and had been away from this work for 6 +/- 4.7 years. Mean urinary mercury concentrations 1 year after cessation of work were 1.8 +/- 0.9 microg/g creatinine. Twenty control subjects matched for age, gender, and education (18 males) were used for comparison. Neuropsychological assessment included attention, inhibitory control, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, manual dexterity, visual-spatial function, executive function, and semantic knowledge tests. The Beck Depression Inventory and the State and Trait Inventory were used to assess depression and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The raw score for the group exposed to mercury indicated slower information processing speed, inferior performance in psychomotor speed, verbal spontaneous recall memory, and manual dexterity of the dominant hand and non-dominant hand (P depression and anxiety symptoms (P depression and anxiety also possibly reflecting the psychosocial context.

  1. Neuropsychology of Learning Disabilities: The Past and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jack M; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, research on children and adults with learning disabilities has seen significant advances. Neuropsychological research historically focused on the administration of tests sensitive to brain dysfunction to identify putative neural mechanisms underlying learning disabilities that would serve as the basis for treatment. Led by research on classifying and identifying learning disabilities, four pivotal changes in research paradigms have produced a contemporary scientific, interdisciplinary, and international understanding of these disabilities. These changes are (1) the emergence of cognitive science, (2) the development of quantitative and molecular genetics, (3) the advent of noninvasive structural and functional neuroimaging, and (4) experimental trials of interventions focused on improving academic skills and addressing comorbid conditions. Implications for practice indicate a need to move neuropsychological assessment away from a primary focus on systematic, comprehensive assessment of cognitive skills toward more targeted performance-based assessments of academic achievement, comorbid conditions, and intervention response that lead directly to evidence-based treatment plans. Future research will continue to cross disciplinary boundaries to address questions regarding the interaction of neurobiological and contextual variables, the importance of individual differences in treatment response, and an expanded research base on (a) the most severe cases, (b) older people with LDs, and (c) domains of math problem solving, reading comprehension, and written expression. (JINS, 2017, 23, 930-940).

  2. Specific learning disabilities in children: deficits and neuropsychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Adarsh; Malhotra, Savita; Mohanty, Manju; Khehra, Nitasha; Kaur, Manreet

    2005-06-01

    The public is gradually becoming aware of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), which are very often the cause of academic difficulties. The aim of the study was to assess the SLDs in the clinic population at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences SLD index and subsequently to assess the children's neuropsychological functions using a battery of tests. Thirty-five children in the age range of 7-14 years (both boys and girls) were recruited as the cohort, diagnosed clinically and assessed using the battery of tests for SLDs and neuropsychological tests consisting of the PGIMER memory scale for children, the Wisconsin card sorting test, the Bender visuo-motor gestalt test and Malin's intelligence scale for Indian children. The study revealed deficits in language and writing skills and impairments in specific areas of memory, executive functions and perceptuo-motor tasks. Identification of SLDs is useful in drawing up a treatment plan specific for a particular child.

  3. Neuropsychological diagnostics in Ethiopia - challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Neuropsychological tests can provide crucial information regarding the consideration of psychiatric differential diagnosis. This is especially important in developing countries like Ethiopia where advanced imaging is not widely available. Methods A detailed literature search was conducted using the search ...

  4. Multi-country evaluation of affective experience: validation of an abbreviated version of the day reconstruction method in seven countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ayuso-Mateos

    Full Text Available The Day Reconstruction Method (DRM was developed to assess affective states as measures of experienced well-being. The present study aimed to validate an abbreviated version of the DRM in a representative sample of the population in seven countries (China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, and Spain, and to examine whether there are country differences in affect and in the relationships among the activities based on the similarity of the affect associated with each of them.Interviews were conducted with 47,222 non-institutionalized adults from seven countries, using an abbreviated version of the DRM. A cluster analysis was carried out to classify activities on the basis of the similarity of the associated affect. In each country, the factorial structure of the affect adjectives was tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed. Moreover, the differences in affect across countries and the diurnal cycles of affect were evaluated.The DRM showed adequate psychometric properties regarding reliability and construct validity in all countries. Respondents from Ghana and South Africa reported more positive net affect whereas Indian respondents reported less positive net affect. Most of the countries showed a similar diurnal variation of affect, which tended to improve throughout the day.The results show that this abbreviated version of the DRM is a useful tool for multi-country evaluation of experienced well-being.

  5. The effect of shunt surgery on neuropsychological performance in normal pressure hydrocephalus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Katie; Savulich, George Joseph; Jackson, Dan; Killikelly, Clare; Pickard, John Douglas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a systematic review of the literature and used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the impact of shunt surgery on neuropsychological performance in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Methods: Twenty-three studies with 1,059 patients were identified for review using PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and manual searching. Inclusion criteria were prospective, within-subject investigations of cognitive outcome using neuropsychological assessment b...

  6. Event-related potentials (P300 and neuropsychological assessment in boys exhibiting Duchenne muscular dystrophy Potencial evocado cognitivo (P300 e testagem neuropsicológica em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Della Coletta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine auditory cognitive evoked potentials (P300 potentials and neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: P300 potentials and neuropsychological test results were obtained from 16 healthy control boys and 20 DMD patients. Full Intelligence Quotients (IQ were estimated for patients and control group. Mean age was 9.5 years in the DMD patient group, and 10 years in the control group (p>0.05. RESULTS: The mean IQ values were 64.35 in the DMD patients and 82.68 in the control group (p=0.01. Mean P300 values were 347.6 in the DMD group and 337.4 in the control group (p=0.14. There was no significant correlation between parameters in each group. CONCLUSION: DMD patients showed a poor performance as evaluated by P300 potential compared to the control group, although the difference was not statistically significant. Systematic alterations in neuropsychological test results were found, the differences paralleling those detected in IQ.OBJETIVO: Avaliar potenciais evocados cognitivos auditivos (P300 e disfunções neuropsicológicas em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD. MÉTODO: Potenciais auditivos P300 e testes neuropsicológicos foram obtidos de 16 controles e 20 pacientes com DMD. Valores de quociente de inteligência (QI foram estimados para os dois grupos. A media de idade foi de 9.5 anos no grupo DMD e 10 anos no grupo controle (p>0.05. RESULTADOS: Os valores médios de QI foram 64.35 no grupo DMD e 82.68 no grupo controle (p=0.01. A média de valores de P300 foi 347.6 no grupo DMD e 337.4 no grupo controle (p=0.14. Não houve correlação significativa entre os parâmetros em cada grupo. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com DMD mostraram um pior desempenho nas testagens de P300 quando comparados com o grupo controle, embora a diferença não tenha apresentado diferença significativa. Alterações sistemáticas foram encontradas nos testes neuropsicológicos, correspondendo

  7. [Neuropsychological performance in neurofibromatosis type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Del Castillo, Lilia; Martínez Bermejo, Antonio; Portellano Pérez, José Antonio; Tirado Requero, Pilar; Garriz Luis, Alexandra; Velázquez Fragua, Ramón

    2017-08-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children. A comparison was made between the neuropsychological performance of a group of 23 boys and girls with a mean age of 8.7 years (+/-1.39) and diagnosed with NF1, and a control group consisting of 21 healthy children, with mean age of 8.9 years (+/- 1.41) and with similar socio-demographic characteristics. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) was applied to evaluate the subjects of both groups. The group of patients affected with NF1 showed a lower performance in every primary index of WISC IV: Verbal Comprehension Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and full Scale IQ. Only in two subscales were no statistically significant differences observed: similarities and coding. The results show subtle and generalised neuropsychological alterations in the sample of children affected with NF1, which affect most of cognitive domains that have been evaluated. Proper specific and early neuropsychological treatment should be provided in order to prevent the high risk for these children of presenting learning difficulties and school failure. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuropsychological performance of Finnish and Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin Elsheikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies investigating neuropsychological functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD have only analysed certain abilities, such as executive functions or language. While comprehensive assessment of the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD has been the focus of recent research, most of the published evidence originates from single centres. Though studies on differences in neuropsychological features of children with ASD across countries are essential for identifying different phenotypes of ASD, such studies have not been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to assess the neuropsychological abilities of children with ASD in northern Finland and Egypt and to examine the effect of age and intelligence quotient (IQ on these abilities. Design: Selected verbal and non-verbal subtests of the neuropsychological assessment NEPSY were used to examine 88 children with ASD in northern Finland (n=54, age M=11.2, IQ M=117.1 and Egypt (n=34, age M=8.4, IQ M=96.6. Results: Finnish ASD children scored significantly higher than their Egyptian counterparts on the verbal NEPSY subtests Comprehension of Instructions (p<0.001, Comprehension of Sentence Structure (p<0.01, Narrative Memory (p<0.001 and Verbal Fluency (p<0.05 and on the non-verbal NEPSY subtest Design Fluency (p<0.01. Finnish and Egyptian ASD children did not differ on the subtests Memory for Faces, Object Recognition and Object Memory. In addition, we found that age and verbal IQ can have significant influence on neuropsychological performance. Conclusions: Our results suggest a possible cultural impact on verbal and visuomotor fluency. However, the ability to recognize and memorize objects and the disability to remember faces appear to be typical for ASD and culturally independent.

  9. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Neuropsychological performance in patients with schizophrenia and controls as a function of cigarette smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C.; Bacher, Ingrid; Sacco, Kristi A.; George, Tony P.

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with many neurocognitive deficits, some of which are improved by nicotine and cigarette smoking. To better understand the relationship between smoking and cognitive function in schizophrenia, cross-sectional assessment of neuropsychological performance as a function of smoking status (smoker or non-smoker) and smoking history (current, former or never-smoker) in clinically-stable outpatients with schizophrenia and controls was evaluated. Subjects (N=140) were divided into subgroups on the basis of self-report and biochemical verification of smoking history. Current smokers with schizophrenia (n=38), former smokers with schizophrenia (n=17), never-smokers with schizophrenia (n=12), control smokers (n=31), control former smokers (n=16), and control never-smokers (n=26) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Smokers were studied under non-deprivation conditions. Comparison of neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia and control subjects revealed significant main effects of diagnosis. Analysis of the data as a function of smoking history demonstrated that never-smokers with schizophrenia performed the poorest on measures of sustained attention, processing speed and response inhibition, when compared to the other schizophrenia subgroups. Cigarette smoking did not alter neuropsychological performance in controls. Our findings suggest that smoking status and history differentially alters neuropsychological outcomes in schizophrenia compared to non-psychiatric controls, and that never-smokers may present with more severe neurocognitive impairments. PMID:21669462

  11. Psychiatric and neuropsychological issues in Marfan syndrome: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Antonella; Pisano, Simone; Catone, Gennaro; Iuliano, Raffaella; Salvati, Tiziana; Gritti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The cooccurrence of Marfan syndrome and psychiatric disorders has been reported for many years. Furthermore, neuropsychological deficits have been shown to be associated with Marfan syndrome. The aim of the present article is to summarize findings from the sparse studies and case reports available. The results hold clinical and therapeutic implications and suggest that psychological and neuropsychological domains in Marfan syndrome patients should be carefully assessed. In particular, some patients may require specific rehabilitation programs. On this basis, a multidisciplinary approach to Marfan syndrome treatment seems mandatory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Neuropsychology reports for childhood brain tumor survivors: implementation of recommendations at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Accuracy statistics in predicting Independent Activities of Daily Living (IADL) capacity with comprehensive and brief neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzmark, Peter; Deutsch, Gayle K

    2018-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38). Standardized neuropsychological assessments were administered to all participants and were comprised of the Halstead Reitan Battery and portions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. A comprehensive test battery yielded a moderate increase over base-rate in predictive accuracy that generalized to older individuals. There was only limited support for using a brief battery, for although sensitivity was high, specificity was low. We found that a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery provided good classification accuracy for predicting IADL capacity.

  14. Orbital and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Functioning in Parkinson's Disease: Neuropsychological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Michele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-01-01

    A recent paper (Zald & Andreotti, 2010) reviewed neuropsychological tasks that assess the function of the orbital and ventromedial portions of the prefrontal cortex (OMPFC). Neuropathological studies have shown that the function of the OMPFC should be preserved in the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) but becomes affected in the advanced…

  15. Cerebral perfusion and neuropsychological follow up in mild traumatic brain injury : Acute versus chronic disturbances?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, Zwany; Spikman, Jacoba M.; Rodiger, Lars A.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    In a subgroup of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) residual symptoms, interfering with outcome and return to work, are found. With neuropsychological assessment cognitive deficits can be demonstrated although the pathological underpinnings of these cognitive deficits are not fully

  16. Relationship of temporal lobe volumes to neuropsychological test performance in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Carolyn T.; Mahone, E. Mark; Matson, Melissa A.; Kates, Wendy R.; Hay, Trisha; Horska, Alena

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity of neuropsychological assessment includes the ability of tests to predict real-world functioning and/or covary with brain structures. Studies have examined the relationship between adaptive skills and test performance, with less focus on the association between regional brain

  17. Neuropsychological outcome in chemotherapy-only-treated children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Nathalie C. A. J.; Kingma, Annette; Schuitema, Arnout; Bouma, Anke; Veerman, Anjo J. P.; Kamps, Willem A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate neuropsychological functioning over time in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with chemotherapy only. Patients and Methods Forty-nine consecutive patients (median age at first assessment, 6.8 years; range, 4.0 to 11.8 years) treated with intrathecal and

  18. The Relationship of Neuropsychological Skills and Functional Outcome in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael; And Others

    Typically, neuropsychological assessment has been used to predict various diagnostic parameters. In the elderly, referrals are often made to psychologists for the purpose of facilitating diagnosis of psychiatric or organic conditions, such as depression or Alzheimer's disease. However, psychologists are routinely requested to make recommendations…

  19. Comparison of performance on three neuropsychological tests in healthy Turkish immigrants and Danish elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Vogel, Asmus; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate neuropsychological tests for cross-cultural assessment of dementia in elderly ethnic and linguistic minorities are generally lacking in Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-cultural applicability of the Recall of Pictures Test (RPT), Clock Reading Test (CRT...

  20. Cognitive Deficits Associated with Acquired Amusia after Stroke: A Neuropsychological Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…

  1. Auditory and Visual Differences in Time Perception? An Investigation from a Developmental Perspective with Neuropsychological Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children (5- and 8-year-olds) performed a temporal bisection task with either auditory or visual signals and either a short (0.5-1.0s) or long (4.0-8.0s) duration range. Their working memory and attentional capacities were assessed by a series of neuropsychological tests administered in both the auditory and visual modalities. Results…

  2. Neuropsychological functioning in Wernicke′s encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushree Sangita Behura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Wernicke′s encephalopathy (WE is caused by thiamine (Vitamin B1 deficiency and most commonly found in chronic alcoholism and malnutrition. Clinically, the key features are mental status disturbances (global confusion, oculomotor abnormalities, and gait disturbances (ataxia. Apart from these clinical features, we can find deficits in neuropsychological functioning in patients with WE, which is more prominent after the improvement in the physical conditions. Neuropsychological functioning includes both basic cognitive processes (i.e., attention-concentration as well as higher order cognitive processes (i.e., memory, executive functioning, reasoning, which is much vital for the maintenance of quality of life of an individual. However, unfortunately, in most of the cases, neuropsychological functioning is ignored by the clinicians. Materials and Methods: In this study four case reports of WE have been presented. The patients were taken from the outdoor department of Mental Health Institute, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha. Neuropsychological functioning was measured by administration of PGIBBD and Quality of Life was measured by WHO-QOL BREF Odia Version. Discussion: As described in the literature, among the three cardinal signs ( global confusion, ataxia, and ocular sings, the first two were present in all cases, but nystagmus was present in only two cases.Memory dysfunction was so disabling that the persons were unable to maintain a good Quality of Life and occupational impairment was prominent. There are disturbances in recent, remote memory, immediate recall, delayed recall, and attention and concentration, ultimately creating both physical and mental disability. PGI-BBD findings also suggest the overall impairment in neuropsychological functioning other than memory, that is, executive functioning, visual acuity, and depth perception. Findings of WHO-QOL BREF suggest the impairment of four domains of QOL in all the cases, but

  3. New bilingual version of the VGB abbreviation catalogue for power plant technology released

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantschel, Jochen; Seiffert, Joerg [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Froehner, Joerg [ct.e Controltechnology Engineering GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the VGB Standard for power plant technology VGB-S-891-00 (abbreviation catalogue) is to regulate the systematic creation of abbreviations. The determination of abbreviations for terms related to power plants provides a common basis for planners, erectors, and operators of power plants and their systems. In combination with VGB-B 108 ''Rules for the creation of denominations and their application for power plant engineering'' the abbreviation catalogue is the basis for the creation of denominations.

  4. [Abbreviations of special terms for presentation/paper titles in magnetic resonance study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, Masanori; Shiraishi, Junji

    2013-08-01

    A large number of abbreviations have been created for various special terms, and used in magnetic resonance (MR) study. However, the use of these abbreviations in the paper title has been restricted by the majority of societies and journals. In this study, we investigated the use of various abbreviations for special terms in MR study in order to clarify which abbreviation could be used in the paper title without spelling. We used two journals, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (MRM) and Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (JMRI) published by the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM), which has been considered to be the most advanced society for MR study in the world, as the reference standard for use of the abbreviations. Except for some basic abbreviations and specific abbreviations that were used on a long-term basis, the majority of abbreviations were used in the paper title with its full spelling in order to ensure generality. It is preferable that abbreviations not be used in the title of the or title of the paper.

  5. Predictors of health-related quality of life and participation after brain injury rehabilitation: The role of neuropsychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosman, H; Winkens, I; van Heugten, C M; Rasquin, S M C; Heijnen, V A; Visser-Meily, J M A

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were: (1) to assess associations between neuropsychological factors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and participation three months after discharge from inpatient acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation; and (2) to determine the best neuropsychological predictor of HRQoL and participation after controlling for demographic and injury-related factors. Patients with ABI (n = 100) were assessed within approximately two weeks of enrolment in inpatient rehabilitation. Predictor variables included demographic and injury-related characteristics and the following neuropsychological factors: active and passive coping, attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, learning potential, depressive symptoms, motivation, extraversion, neuroticism and self-awareness. Bivariate analyses revealed that passive coping, executive functioning, depressive symptoms, extraversion, and neuroticism were significantly associated with HRQoL and/or participation. Neuropsychological factors significantly explained additional variance in HRQoL (18.1-21.6%) and participation (6.9-20.3%) after controlling for demographic and injury-related factors. However, a higher tendency towards passive coping was the only significant neuropsychological predictor (β = -0.305 to -0.464) of lower HRQoL and participation. This study shows that neuropsychological functioning, and in particular passive coping, plays a role in predicting HRQoL and participation after inpatient ABI rehabilitation and emphasises the importance of addressing patients' coping styles in an early phase of ABI rehabilitation.

  6. Physician Preferences to Communicate Neuropsychological Results: Comparison of Qualitative Descriptors and a Proposal to Reduce Communication Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Osborn, Katie E; Mahone, E Mark; Feigon, Maia; Roth, Robert M; Pliskin, Neil H

    2017-11-08

    Errors in communication are a leading cause of medical errors. A potential source of error in communicating neuropsychological results is confusion in the qualitative descriptors used to describe standardized neuropsychological data. This study sought to evaluate the extent to which medical consumers of neuropsychological assessments believed that results/findings were not clearly communicated. In addition, preference data for a variety of qualitative descriptors commonly used to communicate normative neuropsychological test scores were obtained. Preference data were obtained for five qualitative descriptor systems as part of a larger 36-item internet-based survey of physician satisfaction with neuropsychological services. A new qualitative descriptor system termed the Simplified Qualitative Classification System (Q-Simple) was proposed to reduce the potential for communication errors using seven terms: very superior, superior, high average, average, low average, borderline, and abnormal/impaired. A non-random convenience sample of 605 clinicians identified from four United States academic medical centers from January 1, 2015 through January 7, 2016 were invited to participate. A total of 182 surveys were completed. A minority of clinicians (12.5%) indicated that neuropsychological study results were not clearly communicated. When communicating neuropsychological standardized scores, the two most preferred qualitative descriptor systems were by Heaton and colleagues (26%) and a newly proposed Q-simple system (22%). Comprehensive norms for an extended Halstead-Reitan battery: Demographic corrections, research findings, and clinical applications. Odessa, TX: Psychological Assessment Resources) (26%) and the newly proposed Q-Simple system (22%). Initial findings highlight the need to improve and standardize communication of neuropsychological results. These data offer initial guidance for preferred terms to communicate test results and form a foundation for more

  7. Traumatic brain injury and forensic neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Brooks, Michael

    2009-01-01

    As part of a special issue of The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, forensic neuropsychology is reviewed as it applies to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other types of acquired brain injury in which clinical neuropsychologists and rehabilitation psychologists may be asked to render professional opinions about the neurobehavioral effects and outcome of a brain injury. The article introduces and overviews the topic focusing on the process of forensic neuropsychological consultation and practice as it applies to patients with TBI or other types of acquired brain injury. The emphasis is on the application of scientist-practitioner standards as they apply to legal questions about the status of a TBI patient and how best that may be achieved. This article introduces each topic area covered in this special edition.

  8. Neuropsychological sequelae of postradiation somnolence syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.A.; Ch'ien, L.T.; Lancaster, W.; Williams, S.; Cummins, J.

    1983-01-01

    Postirradiation somnolence syndrome in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation has been identified as a possible precursor of later cognitive dysfunction. To test this, the neuropsychological evaluation of 48 children who developed somnolence syndrome was compared with that of 31 children who did not have the syndrome at approximately 1 1/2 and 3 3/4 years after treatment. No differences in performance between the two groups were found on many measures of neuropsychological functioning with the exception of fine motor speed. Children without somnolence syndrome scored somewhat less than normal on measures of academic achievement. No other differences from normal performance were noted in either group. The results of the study indicated that if children with somnolence are at greater risk for the development of cognitive dysfunction than those not manifesting the syndrome, such risks occur at a time farther from treatment than 3 to 4 years

  9. Preoperative neuropsychological presentation of patients with refractory frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Gatzonis, Stylianos; Siatouni, Anna; Angelopoulos, Elias; Konstantakopoulos, George; Takousi, Maria; Sakas, Damianos E; Zalonis, Ioannis

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated whether certain cognitive deficits are associated with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) aiming to contribute with localization data to the preoperative assessment of epilepsy surgery candidates. We evaluated 34 patients with refractory FLE, 37 patients with refractory medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and 22 healthy individuals in attention, psychomotor speed, motor function, verbal memory span, verbal fluency, response inhibition/interference, concept formation and set shifting, anticipation and planning, global memory. Neuropsychological performances of FLE and MTLE were similar, with the only exception the WCST-number of categories index, measuring mental flexibility, in which MTLE patients performed significantly worse than FLE patients. Left-FLE patients presented more perseverative responding compared to both other patient groups and healthy controls (HCs), while left-MTLE patients showed worse sorting abilities than the other epilepsy groups. Our findings suggest a weak cognitive differentiation between FLE and MTLE, probably attributed to the intricate nature of fronto-temporal connectivity frequently resulting in overlapping deficits as well as the confounding effects of seizure-related variables. In clinical practice, a highly individualized (idiographic) neuropsychological approach along with the inclusion of concurrent EEG recordings (e.g., interictal coupling) may be of help for neuropsychologists in identifying FLE patients from those with medial temporal pathology presenting frontal dysfunction as a secondary cognitive symptom.

  10. Driving-Related Neuropsychological Performance in Stable COPD Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foteini Karakontaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cognitive deterioration may impair COPD patient’s ability to perform tasks like driving vehicles. We investigated: (a whether subclinical neuropsychological deficits occur in stable COPD patients with mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 55 mmHg, and (b whether these deficits affect their driving performance. Methods. We recruited 35 stable COPD patients and 10 normal subjects matched for age, IQ, and level of education. All subjects underwent an attention/alertness battery of tests for assessing driving performance based on the Vienna Test System. Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, and dyspnea severity were also recorded. Results. COPD patients performed significantly worse than normal subjects on tests suitable for evaluating driving ability. Therefore, many (22/35 COPD patients were classified as having inadequate driving ability (failure at least in one of the tests, whereas most (8/10 healthy individuals were classified as safe drivers (P=0.029. PaO2 and FEV1 were correlated with almost all neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. COPD patients should be warned of the potential danger and risk they face when they drive any kind of vehicle, even when they do not exhibit overt symptoms related to driving inability. This is due to the fact that stable COPD patients may manifest impaired information processing operations.

  11. Neuropsychology of Multiple Sclerosis: Looking Back and Moving Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Ralph H B; DeLuca, John; Enzinger, Christian; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Krupp, Lauren B; Rao, Stephen M

    2017-10-01

    The neuropsychological aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS) have evolved over the past three decades. What was once thought to be a rare occurrence, cognitive dysfunction is now viewed as one of the most disabling symptoms of the disease, with devastating effects on patients' quality of life. This selective review will highlight major innovations and scientific discoveries in the areas of neuropathology, neuroimaging, diagnosis, and treatment that pertain to our understanding of the neuropsychological aspects of MS. Specifically, we focus on the recent discovery that MS produces pathogical lesions of gray matter (GM) that have consequences for cognitive functions. Methods for imaging these GM lesions in MS are discussed along with multimodal imaging studies that integrate structural and functional imaging methods to provide a better understanding of the relationship between cognitive test performance and functional reserve. Innovations in the screening and comprehensive assessment of cognitive disorders are presented along with recent research that examines cognitive dysfunction in pediatric MS. Results of innovative outcome studies in cognitive rehabilitation are discussed. Finally, we highlight trends for potential future innovations over the next decade. (JINS, 2017, 23, 832-842).

  12. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICIT AND EFFECT OF COMPUTERISED COGNITIVE RETRAINING IN TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhranshu Nath

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is a major public health issue across the globe. A range of cognitive and behavioural sequelae is exhibited by TBI. Patients of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI do benefit from cognitive retraining. The aim of the present study is to observe the effects of cognitive retraining on neuropsychological deficits. Sample for the study comprised of 36 patients of head injury reporting to a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS The cases were evaluated on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and Wechsler’s Memory Scale (WMS III to assess the prevalence of neuropsychological deficit. The cases were given four sessions of Brain Function Therapy (BFT per week. A total of eight sessions were finally given to each one of the cases. The neuropsychological deficit were assessed before and after giving Brain Function Therapy (BFT or cognitive retraining and compared. RESULTS The mean age of the sample was 32.13±6.14 years and majority of the cases were educated till higher secondary school. Significant differences were noted when the neuropsychological deficit assessed pre-BFT and post-BFT were compared (p <0.001. CONCLUSION Cases of TBI do benefit with BFT, and hence, it is recommended to institute computerised cognitive rehabilitation/retraining in such cases in psychiatry setup.

  13. Traumatic brain injury neuropsychology in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quijano María Cristina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: comparative analysis between control group and patients with TBI to determine whetherthere neuropsychological differences at 6 months of evolution, to guide timely interventioncommensurate with the needs of this population. Materials and methods: a total of 79 patientswith a history of TBI with a minimum of 6 months of evolution and 79 control subjects were evaluated.Both groups with a mean age of 34 and without previous neurological or psychiatric disorders and an average schooling of 11 years for the control group and 9 years for the TBI group.The Glasgow Coma Scale in the TBI group was classified as moderate with 11 points. The BriefNeuropsychological Evaluation in Spanish Neuropsi was applied to both groups. Results: significantdifferences (p≤0.05 in the tasks of orientation, attention, memory, language, reading andwriting were found. Conclusions: TBI generates significant neuropsychological changes, even sixmonths after discharge from the health service. It suggests that patients with head injury requiretreatment after overcoming the initial stage.

  14. The neuropsychological function of children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, Kimberley; Tofts, Louise; Benson, Suzanne; Porter, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    The current observational study had three specific objectives: (i) to document any neuropsychological impairment in a sample of children with achondroplasia; (ii) to explore individual variability; and (iii) to determine the functional impact of any impairments. Fourteen children aged between 6 and 15 years with a medically confirmed diagnosis of achondroplasia (FGFR 3 mutation positive) underwent a comprehensive standardized neuropsychological evaluation. On average, while generally still within normal limits, significantly lower scores compared to standardized means were identified on: Full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, working memory, arithmetic, attention, executive functioning and aspects of day-to-day emotional, social, and behavioral functioning. Clinically significant levels of impairment at a group level were identified on measures of: arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning. There was variability among the group and for most measures scores ranged from impaired to within normal limits. A high percentage of children were impaired on measures of: verbal IQ, attention and executive functioning. Results of this study suggest a need for individual neuropsychological evaluation and monitoring of children with achondroplasia and suggest verbal IQ, arithmetic, attention, and executive functioning are particularly common areas of impairment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Behavior, neuropsychology and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean; Hermens, Daniel F; Lagopoulos, Jim

    Cognitive neuroscientists in the late 20th century began the task of identifying the part(s) of the brain concerned with normal behavior as manifest in the psychological capacities as affective powers, reasoning, behaving purposively and the pursuit of goals, following introduction of the 'functional magnetic resonance imaging' (fMRI) method for identifying brain activity. For this research program to be successful two questions require satisfactory answers. First, as the fMRI method can currently only be used on stationary subjects, to what extent can neuropsychological tests applicable to such stationary subjects be correlated with normal behavior. Second, to what extent can correlations between the various neuropsychological tests on the one hand, and sites of brain activity determined with fMRI on the other, be regarded as established. The extent to which these questions have yet received satisfactory answers is reviewed, and suggestions made both for improving correlations of neuropsychological tests with behavior as well as with the results of fMRI-based observations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Neuropsychological Mechanisms for Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eLiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in – and the prevalence of – falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life.

  17. Neuropsychological deficits in BPD patients and the moderator effects of co-occurring mental disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unoka, Zsolt; J Richman, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have co-occurring disorders; literature has also suggested that BPD patients have impairments in neuropsychological functioning, as seen in a previous meta-analysis (Ruocco, 2005). This meta-analysis showed that neuropsychological functioning are marked areas of concern in BPD; however, this meta-analytic research did not assess the effects of co-occurring disorders on neuropsychological functioning in BPD patients. The current meta-analysis takes this into consideration and a systematic review of cross-sectional studies comparing neuropsychological performance of individuals with BPD with age-matched healthy comparison subjects was carried out. Potential moderators (i.e., age, gender, education level, and co-morbid mental disorders) were analyzed. Significant deficits were observed in the decision making, memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal intelligence, and visuospatial abilities. BPD patients with more education and with parents of a higher educational level had better neuropsychological functioning. Globally, BPD samples with a higher percentage of co-morbid personality disorders, major depression, eating disorders, or any substance abuse disorders performed worse than patients with a less percentage; however, anxiety disorders and PTSD co-morbidity did not affect the cognitive performance of the BPD group. Differences are seen dependent on neuropsychological domain and specific co-morbidity. These findings highlight the clinical relevance of characterizing cognitive functioning in BPD and the importance of considering demographic and clinical moderators in future analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of volumetric and fractal measurements of brain atrophy with neuropsychological tests in patients with dementive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecka, A.; Sasiadek, M.; Filarski, J.

    2008-01-01

    Brain atrophy is one of the features of the dementive diseases, but also of other neurodegenerative disorders as well as physiological brain aging. The aim of the study was to define the relationship between the brain atrophy measurements and the degree of the severity of dementive process based on the neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test). In 68 patients with diagnosed impairment of cognitive functions due to dementia, neuropsychological tests (MMSE and Clock Drawing Test) and CT studies were performed. On the basis of CT images we evaluated cortical and subcortical atrophy with 3 methods; visual, semiautomatic (volumetric) and automatic method based on fractal geometry calculations; the latter was characterized by very short time of measurements. The correlation between neuropsychological tests and brain atrophy measurements has been assessed using Pearson's correlation test. No statistical correlation was found between the results of neuropsychological tests and measurements of the brain atrophy (both cortical and subcortical) using all three methods mentioned above. Single measurement of the generalized cortical and subcortical atrophy is not correlated with the results of neuropsychological tests. In our opinion, these measurements might be valuable in follow-up of the dementive process to compare progression of the atrophic changes with the changes of the neuropsychological tests results, especially using very quick automatic method, supplemented by local atrophy measurements. (authors)

  19. Routine use of CANTAB system for detection of neuropsychological deficits in patients with PKU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik-Multanowski, Miroslaw; Pietrzyk, Jacek J; Mozrzymas, Renata

    2011-02-01

    Several studies have reported neuropsychological deficits related to hyper phenylalaninemia in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). As computerized neuropsychological tests seem to be promising in the detection of such abnormalities, we aimed to assess the usefulness of routine use of CANTAB system in PKU clinic. A group of 49 PKU patients aged >16 years were tested by means of computerized CANTAB tests measuring speed of response, response inhibition, sustained attention, and working memory capacity. The scores achieved by study participants were analyzed with respect to their blood phenylalanine concentrations. Proper dietary control was observed in 22 patients, whereas in the remaining 27 persons, blood phenylalanine concentrations exceeded the recommended range. The results of the tests assessing sustained attention, working memory, and inhibitory control achieved by the non-compliant patients were significantly worse in comparison with patients maintaining proper diet. However, the mean scores achieved by treatment-adherent patients were also worse than expected, what could probably be related to problems with early start of treatment during their infancy. Our results confirmed the presence of specific neuropsychological deficits related to hyperphenylalaninemia in adults and adolescents with PKU. In our opinion, routine use of computerized neuropsychological tests should be recommended in PKU clinics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuropsychological presentation and adaptive skills in high-functioning adolescents with visual impairment: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, R; Pring, L; Schepers, A; Isaacs, D P; Dale, N J

    2017-01-01

    Studies in infants and young children with congenital visual impairment (VI) have indicated early developmental vulnerabilities, conversely research with older children and adults have highlighted areas of cognitive strength. A minimal amount is known, however, about the possible combination of strengths and weaknesses in adolescence, and this present study therefore aims to explore the neuropsychological presentation and adaptive behavior profile in high-functioning adolescents with congenital VI. Participants completed a battery of commonly used neuropsychological measures assessing memory, executive function, and attention. The measures utilized focused on auditory neuropsychological function, because only subtests that could be completed with auditory administration were suitable for this sample. Parents completed standardized measures of adaptive behavior, executive function, and social communication. Compared to aged-based norms for normal sight, adolescents with VI demonstrated strengths in aspects of working memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, performance across the neuropsychological battery was within or above the average range for the majority of the sample. In contrast, parent-report measures indicated areas of weakness in adaptive functioning, social communication, and behavioral executive functioning. Overall, this study provides preliminary evidence that relative to fully sighted peers, high-functioning adolescents with VI present with an uneven profile of cognitive and adaptive skills, which has important implications for assessment and intervention.

  1. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João Carlos Centurion; Veleda, Gessyka Wanglon; Mazzoleni, Martina; Colares, Elton Pinto; Neiva-Silva, Lucas; Neves, Vera Torres das

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer's disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  2. The effects of energy drinks alone and with alcohol on neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Kim; Stasio, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks-alone or with alcohol-are heavily marketed to young adults, many of whom believe that caffeine counteracts some negative effects of alcohol intoxication. While the effects of caffeine and alcohol have been widely investigated, few studies have examined neuropsychological performance after consumption of a beverage containing both ingredients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 27 non-caffeine-deprived female participants were randomly assigned to consume a caffeinated energy drink alone, one containing alcohol, or a non-alcoholic, non-caffeinated control beverage. Pre- and post-test assessments were conducted using alternate forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Participants who consumed the energy drink plus alcohol evidenced significantly lower post-test performance on a global score of neuropsychological status. Specifically, deficits were found in both visuospatial/constructional and language performance scores. While participants who consumed the caffeinated beverage alone trended toward improved attention scores, neuropsychological status did not show meaningful changes from the pre- to post-test. Consumption of an energy drink containing 6% alcohol by volume negatively influenced performance on a global measure of cognitive functioning. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cognitive impairment in depressive disorders. Neuropsychological evaluation of memory and behavioural disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, G; Penasse, C; Waltregny, A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the contribution that clinical neuropsychology and neuropsychological assessment can conter to neuropsychiatry, particularly in the evaluation of cognitive disturbances and pharmacological treatment of depression. Six patients (4 females, 2 males; age: 16-54 years old) suffering from depressive disorders underwent a clinical neuropsychological examination. Depending on the memory scores obtained on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, the patients were classified as having mild or no memory impairment (memory impairment (20-40% decrease) or severe memory alteration (> 60% deterioration). Evaluation of memory scores of two other memory tests (Wechsler memory scale and Rey visual design learning test) were also considered. Patients who were classified as having severe memory impairment were consistently reported as seriously impaired on all memory tests. The severity of cognitive dysfunction is in accordance with the serious ness of the neuropsychiatric disturbances of the patients as revealed by personality testing (MMPI, IDS and Eysenck questionnaires) or by personal details as assessed during the interview. This paper discusses the importance of the utility of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of depressed patients and seriously considers the possibility of the use of this approach for pharmacological treatment evaluation.

  4. Stress and Cognitive Reserve as independent factors of neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Centurion Cabral

    Full Text Available Abstract Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer’s disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess executive functions, verbal memory and processing speed. Measurement of salivary cortisol at the circadian nadir was taken. A negative association between different stress measures and performance on tasks of memory, executive functions and processing speed was observed. Elderly people with higher cognitive reserve showed superior performance on all neuropsychological measures. No significant interaction between stress and cognitive reserve to neuropsychological performance was observed. These results indicate that older adults with high levels of stress and reduced cognitive reserve may be more susceptible to cognitive impairment.

  5. Celebrating the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association: A quarter century of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory G; Anderson, Vicki; Bigler, Erin D; Chan, Agnes S; Fama, Rosemary; Grabowski, Thomas J; Zakzanis, Konstantine K

    2017-11-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2017. As part of this celebration, the APA journal Neuropsychology has published in its November 2017 issue 11 papers describing some of the advances in the field of neuropsychology over the past 25 years. The papers address three broad topics: assessment and intervention, brain imaging, and theory and methods. The papers describe the rise of new assessment and intervention technologies, the impact of evidence for neuroplasticity on neurorehabilitation. Examples of the use of mathematical models of cognition to investigate latent neurobehavioral processes, the development of the field of neuropsychology in select international countries, the increasing sophistication of brain imaging methods, the recent evidence for localizationist and connectionist accounts of neurobehavioral functioning, the advances in neurobehavioral genomics, and descriptions of newly developed statistical models of longitudinal change. Together the papers convey evidence of the vibrant growth in the field of neuropsychology over the quarter century since APA's 100th anniversary in 1992. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. 14 CFR 221.200 - Content and explanation of abbreviations, reference marks and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., reference marks and symbols. 221.200 Section 221.200 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... § 221.200 Content and explanation of abbreviations, reference marks and symbols. (a) Content. The format..., reference marks and symbols. Abbreviations, reference marks and symbols which are used in the tariff shall...

  7. 16 CFR 303.5 - Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks... Abbreviations, ditto marks, and asterisks prohibited. (a) In disclosing required information, words or terms shall not be designated by ditto marks or appear in footnotes referred to by asterisks or other symbols...

  8. List of abbreviations for currently valid generic-level taxa in family Culicidae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of two letter abbreviations for all genera and three letter abbreviations for all subgenera of mosquitoes (family Culicidae, order Diptera) is given. This information on generic-level taxa of mosquitoes is useful in reducing printed space in publications, tables and lists. The work was comp...

  9. Automatic Word Sense Disambiguation of Acronyms and Abbreviations in Clinical Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sungrim

    2012-01-01

    The use of acronyms and abbreviations is increasing profoundly in the clinical domain in large part due to the greater adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems and increased electronic documentation within healthcare. A single acronym or abbreviation may have multiple different meanings or senses. Comprehending the proper meaning of an…

  10. Acquired brain injury: combining social psychological and neuropsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R Stephen; Fortune, Donal G; Gallagher, Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-01-01

    This theoretical paper reviews an emerging literature which attempts to bring together an important area of social psychology and neuropsychology. The paper presents a rationale for the integration of the social identity and clinical neuropsychological approaches in the study of acquired brain injury (ABI). The paper begins by reviewing the social and neuropsychological perspectives of ABI. Subsequently, theoretical and empirical studies that demonstrate the social influences on neuropsychology and the inherently social nature of mind are considered. Neuropsychological understandings of social identities and their potential relationships to the variability in ABIs are also discussed. The values of these understandings to ABI rehabilitation are then examined. The paper concludes by suggesting an agenda for future research that integrates the social identity and neuropsychological paradigms so that psychology might grow in its store of applicable knowledge to enhance support and rehabilitation for those with ABI.

  11. Past, present, and future of neuropsychology in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Ferreres, Aldo; Morlett-Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To describe the history, current situation, and future challenges of Argentinian neuropsychology. A brief historical description highlighting the most representative authors and publications is made. In addition, a survey was administered to a sample of 135 neuropsychologists practicing neuropsychology in Argentina. The survey explored the current neuropsychological practices among the respondents. Results show that most Argentinian neuropsychologists are: psychologists, women, and work in the clinical field in the country's major cities. Besides, the practice of neuropsychology is mostly unregulated with few training opportunities. Argentinian neuropsychology emerged from neurology in the early twentieth century and slowly progressed until the 1960s when the first organized research groups were created. Since then, a substantial and steady progress followed. However, more training opportunities and a better regulation of the discipline are needed. No similar studies have been conducted in the past, thus becoming one of the first to describe the development of neuropsychology in Argentina.

  12. Is the full version of the AUDIT really necessary? Study of the validity and internal construct of its abbreviated versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Gaya, Carolina; Zuardi, Antonio W; Loureiro, Sonia R; Hallak, Jaime E C; Trzesniak, Clarissa; de Azevedo Marques, João M; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Chagas, Marcos H N; Souza, Roberto M; Crippa, José A S

    2010-08-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the psychometric qualities of the abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-3, AUDIT-4, AUDIT-C, AUDIT-PC, AUDIT-QF, FAST, and Five-Shot) and at comparing them to the 10-item AUDIT and the CAGE in 2 samples of Brazilian adults. The validity and internal consistency of the scales were assessed in a sample of 530 subjects attended at an emergency department and at a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drugs. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used as the diagnostic comparative measure for the predictive validity assessment. The concurrent validity between the scales was analyzed by means of Pearson's correlation coefficient. The assessment of the predictive validity of the abbreviated versions showed high sensitivity (of 0.78 to 0.96) and specificity (of 0.74 to 0.94) indices, with areas under the curve as elevated as those of the AUDIT (0.89 and 0.92 to screen for abuse and 0.93 and 0.95 in the screening of dependence). The CAGE presented lower indices: 0.81 for abuse and 0.87 for dependence. The analysis of the internal consistency of the AUDIT and its versions exhibited Cronbach's alpha coefficients between 0.83 and 0.94, while the coefficient for the CAGE was 0.78. Significant correlations were found between the 10-item AUDIT and its versions, ranging from 0.91 to 0.99. Again, the results for the CAGE were satisfactory (0.77), although inferior to the other instruments. The results obtained in this study confirm the validity of the abbreviated versions of the AUDIT for the screening of alcohol use disorders and show that their psychometric properties are as satisfactory as those of the 10-item AUDIT and the CAGE.

  13. Use of abbreviations in the nursing records of a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Miranda Carneiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the use of abbreviations in nursing records of a teaching hospital and describing their profile in different sectors, work shifts and professional nursing categories. Methods: documentary study that analyzed 627 nursing records in 24 patient charts using a systematic observation script. Results: we identified 1,792 abbreviations, and 35.8% were nonstandard. The incidence of abbreviations was higher in the Intensive Care Unit, used by nurses and in the night shift. Conclusion: abbreviations are part of the day-to-day of nursing records. The use of nonstandard abbreviations make difficult to understand the note content, can generate misinterpretations, put at risk the users’ safety and impair the continuity of labor work.

  14. Knowledge of text message abbreviations as a predictor of spelling ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, David S; Davis, Danielle L

    2011-02-01

    The relationships of self-reported text messaging frequency and knowledge of text message abbreviations with spelling ability were investigated. Two studies were conducted in which the college student participants provided self-reports of text messaging frequency, responded to a test of knowledge of text message abbreviations, and completed a standardized spelling test. In both studies, self-reported text messaging frequency was not predictive of scores on the spelling test. Knowledge of text message abbreviations was positively correlated with spelling scores. In the second study, spelling ability was positively correlated with processing time to identify abbreviations as real. The results were not consistent with the idea that better knowledge of text messaging is predictive of lower spelling ability. Instead, individuals with better knowledge of abbreviations tended to be better spellers.

  15. Neuropsychological profile in new-onset benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS): Focusing on executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippini, Melissa; Ardu, Eleonora; Stefanelli, Silvia; Boni, Antonella; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Benso, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Increased evidence of subnormal neuropsychological functioning in new-onset childhood epilepsy has been obtained, although results are still rare and controversial. With a prospective study, we aimed to define the very early neuropsychological profile of children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS), including executive functions (EF) because of their key role in learning. Additionally, we enrolled drug-naïve children, with a NREM sleep frequency of discharges Performance Intelligence Quotient equal or superior to 85, in order to exclude additional effects on the neuropsychological functioning. Fifteen school-aged children with BECTS (mean age: 8.8years, standard deviation [SD]: 2.4years) and fifteen healthy children (mean age: 9.2years, [SD]: 2.5years) were enrolled and assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. The assessment included domain-specific standardized tests of language, EF, academic skills, visuomotor and visuospatial skills, and short-term memory. A p-valueacademic skills, significant differences between groups emerged regarding the number of mistakes in nonword writing (p=.001), nonword reading speed (p=.027), nonword reading number of mistakes (p=.019), and word reading errors (p=.023). Results showed that children with new-onset BECTS may demonstrate a range of neuropsychological dysfunctions, particularly affecting executive attention, despite a normal IQ, a low frequency of NREM sleep discharges, and the absence of drugs. These difficulties indicate a frontal dysfunction with cascading effects on language and academic skills. The inclusion of EF in the assessment battery and in the intervention since the very onset is warranted in order to avoid further and persistent academic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality disorder symptomatology and neuropsychological functioning in closed head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite an emerging literature characterizing the neuropsychological profiles of borderline, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders, relations between personality disorder traits and neurocognitive domains remain unknown. The authors examined associations among Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales and eight neuropsychological domains in 161 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation following closed head injury. Most personality disorder scales were associated with some decrement in cognitive function, particularly speeded processing, executive function, and language, while histrionic and narcissistic scales had positive relations with neuropsychological functioning. Results suggest that many personality disorder traits are related to neurocognitive function, particularly those functions subserved by frontal and temporal regions.

  17. WOMEN AND ADVANCEMENT IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY:REAL-LIFE LESSONS LEARNED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsabeck, Robin C.; Martin, Eileen M.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in neuropsychology has been increasing over the past 20 years while the number of women in senior and leadership positions within neuropsychology has not. The field of neuropsychology has much to gain by facilitating the advancement of women into leadership roles, including access to some of the brightest and creative minds in the field. The purpose of this article is to offer practical advice about how to overcome barriers and advance within neuropsychology. Suggestions for professional organizations, women, and mentors of women are provided that will likely benefit trainees and junior colleagues regardless of their gender. PMID:18841516

  18. Allie: a database and a search service of abbreviations and long forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Bono, Hidemasa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Many abbreviations are used in the literature especially in the life sciences, and polysemous abbreviations appear frequently, making it difficult to read and understand scientific papers that are outside of a reader's expertise. Thus, we have developed Allie, a database and a search service of abbreviations and their long forms (a.k.a. full forms or definitions). Allie searches for abbreviations and their corresponding long forms in a database that we have generated based on all titles and abstracts in MEDLINE. When a user query matches an abbreviation, Allie returns all potential long forms of the query along with their bibliographic data (i.e. title and publication year). In addition, for each candidate, co-occurring abbreviations and a research field in which it frequently appears in the MEDLINE data are displayed. This function helps users learn about the context in which an abbreviation appears. To deal with synonymous long forms, we use a dictionary called GENA that contains domain-specific terms such as gene, protein or disease names along with their synonymic information. Conceptually identical domain-specific terms are regarded as one term, and then conceptually identical abbreviation-long form pairs are grouped taking into account their appearance in MEDLINE. To keep up with new abbreviations that are continuously introduced, Allie has an automatic update system. In addition, the database of abbreviations and their long forms with their corresponding PubMed IDs is constructed and updated weekly. Database URL: The Allie service is available at http://allie.dbcls.jp/.

  19. Allie: a database and a search service of abbreviations and long forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Bono, Hidemasa; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Many abbreviations are used in the literature especially in the life sciences, and polysemous abbreviations appear frequently, making it difficult to read and understand scientific papers that are outside of a reader’s expertise. Thus, we have developed Allie, a database and a search service of abbreviations and their long forms (a.k.a. full forms or definitions). Allie searches for abbreviations and their corresponding long forms in a database that we have generated based on all titles and abstracts in MEDLINE. When a user query matches an abbreviation, Allie returns all potential long forms of the query along with their bibliographic data (i.e. title and publication year). In addition, for each candidate, co-occurring abbreviations and a research field in which it frequently appears in the MEDLINE data are displayed. This function helps users learn about the context in which an abbreviation appears. To deal with synonymous long forms, we use a dictionary called GENA that contains domain-specific terms such as gene, protein or disease names along with their synonymic information. Conceptually identical domain-specific terms are regarded as one term, and then conceptually identical abbreviation-long form pairs are grouped taking into account their appearance in MEDLINE. To keep up with new abbreviations that are continuously introduced, Allie has an automatic update system. In addition, the database of abbreviations and their long forms with their corresponding PubMed IDs is constructed and updated weekly. Database URL: The Allie service is available at http://allie.dbcls.jp/. PMID:21498548

  20. New method for abbreviating the fault tree graphical representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.E.; Fussell, J.B.; Crump, R.J.

    1974-12-01

    Fault tree analysis is being widely used for reliability and safety analysis of systems encountered in the nuclear industry and elsewhere. A disadvantage of the fault tree method is the voluminous fault tree graphical representation that conventionally results from analysis of a complex system. Previous methods for shortening the fault tree graphical representation include (1) transfers within the fault tree, and (2) the use of the SAMPLE (K out of N logic) gate, the MATRIX gate, and the SUMMATION gate. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce TABULATION gates as a method to abbreviate the fault tree graphical representation. These new gates reduce the cost of analysis and generally increase the system behavior visibility that is inherent in the fault tree technique