WorldWideScience

Sample records for abatement programs rules

  1. Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program : A Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the background, current activities, and future plans for the Urban Rail Noise Abatement Program. This program, sponsored by the Office of Technology Development and Deployment of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA...

  2. Rapid transit system noise abatement program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This program plan describes a broad program for the reduction of noise and vibration in rapid transit systems, which impacts the patrons and inhabitants of the nearby commuity. An UMTA/TSC survey has provided data on the most urgent needs and state-o...

  3. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  4. 77 FR 66025 - Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... 76 Program Access Rules; Final Rule and Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 211... 47 CFR Part 76 [MB Docket Nos. 12-68; 07-18; 05-192; 07-29; FCC 12-123] Program Access Rules AGENCY... to extend the prohibition on exclusive contracts involving satellite-delivered, cable-affiliated...

  5. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  7. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  8. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  9. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  10. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L. A.; Adams, S. M.; Ashwood, T. L.; Blaylock, B. G.; Greeley, M. S.; Loar, J. M.; Peterson, M. J.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Shoemaker, B. A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R. L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  11. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  12. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  13. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  14. Study of Statewide Type II Noise Abatement Program for the Texas Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    This project will provide sufficient information to the Texas Department of Transportation and the Texas Transportation Commission to make an informed decision regarding the development and implementation of a statewide Type II Noise Abatement Progra...

  15. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Amano, H.; Jimenez, B.D.; Kitchings, J.T.; Meyers-Schoene, L.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986

  16. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  17. A Review of the Pollution Abatement Programs Relating to the Petroleum Refinery Industry in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    or animal carcinogen, confirmed genotoxic teratogen , or confirmed hereditary mutagen. OHIO PROGRAMS Pollution abatement of the petroleum refining...Beryllium Chronium 12 (86%) 0.002 0.68 0.19 Silver Copper 14 (100%) 0.003 0.037 0.013 Thallium Iron 14 (100%) 0.24 2.35 0.60 Cobalt Lead 10 (71%) 0.002

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  20. 77 FR 66052 - Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... delivered, cable-affiliated RSNs in the 2010 Program Access Order. 3. With respect to the first element (the... exclusive contract involving a cable-affiliated RSN is an ``unfair act.'' In the 2010 Program Access Order... Agreements 18. ACA also urges the Commission to revise the program access rules to prohibit cable-affiliated...

  1. Water Resources Research Program. Abatement of malodors at diked, dredged-material disposal sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Dravnieks, A.; Zussman, R.; Goltz, R.

    1976-06-01

    Samples of malodorous air and dredged material were collected at diked disposal sites at the following locations: Buffalo, NY; Milwaukee, WI; Mobile, AL; York Harbor, ME; Houston, TX; Detroit, MI; and Anacortes, WA; during the period July--October, 1975. Odorous compounds in the air samples were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the detection threshold, intensity, and character of the various odors were determined by experienced panelists using a dynamic, forced-choice-triangle olfactometer. Although significant problems with malodors were not observed beyond the disposal-area dikes during site visits, noteworthy odor episodes had occurred at some sites. An odor-abatement strategy is presented for handling the expected range of odor conditions at dredged-material disposal sites. Its aim is to reduce to an acceptable level the intensity of malodors in an affected community. The main steps in the strategy cover selection of the disposal site, site preparation, odor characterization of sediments to be dredged, malodor abatement during dredging and disposal operations, malodor abatement after filling of the disposal site, and the handling of malodor complaints.

  2. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  3. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  4. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  5. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate

  6. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  7. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  8. VA Dental Insurance Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations to establish rules and procedures for the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Under the pilot program, VA will contract with a private insurer, through the Federal contracting process, to offer dental insurance to eligible individuals. The private insurer will be responsible for the administration of the dental insurance plan. VA will form the contract and verify the eligibility of individuals who apply for the private dental insurance.

  9. 77 FR 24301 - Revision of the Commission's Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ...-delivered, cable-affiliated programming; and (ii) potential revisions to our program access rules to better... Revision of the Commission's Program Access Rules; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 78... Part 76 [MB Docket Nos. 12-68, 07-18, and 05-192; FCC 12-30] Revision of the Commission's Program...

  10. Noise Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  11. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinzman, R.L.; Black, M.C.

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate

  12. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  13. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  14. Dynamic Programming Approach for Construction of Association Rule Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-11-18

    In the paper, an application of dynamic programming approach for optimization of association rules from the point of view of knowledge representation is considered. The association rule set is optimized in two stages, first for minimum cardinality and then for minimum length of rules. Experimental results present cardinality of the set of association rules constructed for information system and lower bound on minimum possible cardinality of rule set based on the information obtained during algorithm work as well as obtained results for length.

  15. 14 CFR 91.1075 - Training program: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Operations Program Management § 91.1075 Training program: Special rules. Other than the program manager, only... approved curriculums, curriculum segments, and portions of curriculum segments applicable for use in...

  16. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  17. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.G.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively

  18. 10th International Workshop on Rule-Based Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, Anamaria Martins

    2010-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of RULE 2009: the tenth International Workshop on Rule-Based Programming. It took place in June 28th 2009, Brasilia, Brazil, as a satellite event of RDP 2009. The first Rule workshop was held in Montreal in 2000, and subsequent editions took place in Firenze, Pittsburgh, Valencia, Aachen, Nara, Seattle, Paris, and Hagenberg.

  19. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Black, M.C.; Boston, H.L.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hill, W.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Gatz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  20. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  1. Design and Analysis of Decision Rules via Dynamic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.

    2017-04-24

    The areas of machine learning, data mining, and knowledge representation have many different formats used to represent information. Decision rules, amongst these formats, are the most expressive and easily-understood by humans. In this thesis, we use dynamic programming to design decision rules and analyze them. The use of dynamic programming allows us to work with decision rules in ways that were previously only possible for brute force methods. Our algorithms allow us to describe the set of all rules for a given decision table. Further, we can perform multi-stage optimization by repeatedly reducing this set to only contain rules that are optimal with respect to selected criteria. One way that we apply this study is to generate small systems with short rules by simulating a greedy algorithm for the set cover problem. We also compare maximum path lengths (depth) of deterministic and non-deterministic decision trees (a non-deterministic decision tree is effectively a complete system of decision rules) with regards to Boolean functions. Another area of advancement is the presentation of algorithms for constructing Pareto optimal points for rules and rule systems. This allows us to study the existence of “totally optimal” decision rules (rules that are simultaneously optimal with regards to multiple criteria). We also utilize Pareto optimal points to compare and rate greedy heuristics with regards to two criteria at once. Another application of Pareto optimal points is the study of trade-offs between cost and uncertainty which allows us to find reasonable systems of decision rules that strike a balance between length and accuracy.

  2. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  3. 75 FR 47444 - Amendments to the Informal and Other Procedures, Rules of Organization and Program Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... to the Informal and Other Procedures, Rules of Organization and Program Management, and Rules of... Organization and Program Management and Rules of Practice to delegate authority to the Chief Accountant related....11) as Rule 190 (Sec. 202.190); (2) its Rules of Organization and Program Management \\3\\ to provide...

  4. Dynamic programming approach to optimization of approximate decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-02-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows sequential optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure R(T) which is the number of unordered pairs of rows with different decisions in the decision table T. For a nonnegative real number β, we consider β-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most β. Our algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δβ(T) which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by systems of equations of the kind "attribute = value". This algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most β. The graph Δβ(T) allows us to describe the whole set of so-called irredundant β-decision rules. We can describe all irredundant β-decision rules with minimum length, and after that among these rules describe all rules with maximum coverage. We can also change the order of optimization. The consideration of irredundant rules only does not change the results of optimization. This paper contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Medicare and Medicaid programs; advance directives--HCFA. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-27

    This final rule responds to public comments on the March 6, 1992 interim final rule with comment period that amended the Medicare and Medicaid regulations governing provider agreements and contracts to establish requirements for States, hospitals, nursing facilities, skilled nursing facilities, providers of home health care or personal care services, hospice programs and managed care plans concerning advance directives. An advance directive is a written instruction, such as a living will or durable power of attorney for health care, recognized under State law, relating to the provision of health care when an individual's condition makes him or her unable to express his or her wishes. The intent of the advance directives provisions is to enhance an adult individual's control over medical treatment decisions. This rule confirms the interim final rule with several minor changes based on our review and consideration of public comments.

  6. Health Care for Homeless Veterans program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its medical regulations concerning eligibility for the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program. The HCHV program provides per diem payments to non-VA community-based facilities that provide housing, outreach services, case management services, and rehabilitative services, and may provide care and/or treatment to homeless veterans who are enrolled in or eligible for VA health care. The rule modifies VA's HCHV regulations to conform to changes enacted in the Honoring America's Veterans and Caring for Camp Lejeune Families Act of 2012. Specifically, the rule removes the requirement that homeless veterans be diagnosed with a serious mental illness or substance use disorder to qualify for the HCHV program. This change makes the program available to all homeless veterans who are enrolled in or eligible for VA health care. The rule also updates the definition of homeless to match in part the one used by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). The rule further clarifies that the services provided by the HCHV program through non-VA community-based providers must include case management services, including non-clinical case management, as appropriate.

  7. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Huq, M.V.; Meyers-Schone, L.J.; Mohrbacher, D.A.; Olsen, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987

  8. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  9. Medicaid program: rescission of School-Based Administration/Transportation final rule, Outpatient Hospital Services final rule, and partial rescission of Case Management Interim final rule. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    This rule finalizes our proposal to rescind the December 28, 2007 final rule entitled, "Elimination of Reimbursement under Medicaid for School Administration Expenditures and Costs Related to Transportation of School-Age Children Between Home and School;" the November 7, 2008 final rule entitled, "Clarification of Outpatient Hospital Facility (Including Outpatient Hospital Clinic) Services Definition;" and certain provisions of the December 4, 2007 interim final rule entitled, "Optional State Plan Case Management Services." These regulations have been the subject of Congressional moratoria and have not yet been implemented (or, with respect to the case management interim final rule, have only been partially implemented) by CMS. In light of concerns raised about the adverse effects that could result from these regulations, in particular, the potential restrictions on services available to beneficiaries and the lack of clear evidence demonstrating that the approaches taken in the regulations are warranted, CMS is rescinding the two final rules in full, and partially rescinding the interim final rule. Rescinding these provisions will permit further opportunity to determine the best approach to further the objectives of the Medicaid program in providing necessary health benefits coverage to needy individuals.

  10. Dynamic Programming Approach for Exact Decision Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach that allows sequential optimization of exact decision rules relative to the length and coverage. It contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  11. Station Living Program, RCM, and the maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleam, J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-01-01

    A project is being conducted at Boston Edison's Pilgrim nuclear power station (PNPS) to develop, implement, and demonstrate the effectiveness of a Station Living Program and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintenance rule. This project is a collaborative effort by PNPS, the Electric Power Corp, and Quadrex Energy Series Corporation. In parallel, a preventive maintenance optimization project utilizing reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is being performed on ∼90% of the plant's systems. These two projects are being combined as a major cornerstone at PNPS in the implementation of the NRC maintenance rule

  12. Optimization of decision rules based on dynamic programming approach

    KAUST Repository

    Zielosko, Beata

    2014-01-14

    This chapter is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure that is the difference between number of rows in a given decision table and the number of rows labeled with the most common decision for this table divided by the number of rows in the decision table. We fix a threshold γ, such that 0 ≤ γ < 1, and study so-called γ-decision rules (approximate decision rules) that localize rows in subtables which uncertainty is at most γ. Presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ γ T which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by pairs "attribute = value". The algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most γ. The chapter contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

  13. Dynamic programming approach for partial decision rule optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2012-10-04

    This paper is devoted to the study of an extension of dynamic programming approach which allows optimization of partial decision rules relative to the length or coverage. We introduce an uncertainty measure J(T) which is the difference between number of rows in a decision table T and number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules (partial decision rules) that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Presented algorithm constructs a directed acyclic graph Δ γ(T) which nodes are subtables of the decision table T given by systems of equations of the kind "attribute = value". This algorithm finishes the partitioning of a subtable when its uncertainty is at most γ. The graph Δ γ(T) allows us to describe the whole set of so-called irredundant γ-decision rules. We can optimize such set of rules according to length or coverage. This paper contains also results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  14. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  15. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge

  16. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program.

  17. Noise Abatement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  18. Implementing embedded artificial intelligence rules within algorithmic programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Most integrations of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities with non-AI (usually FORTRAN-based) application programs require the latter to execute separately to run as a subprogram or, at best, as a coroutine, of the AI system. In many cases, this organization is unacceptable; instead, the requirement is for an AI facility that runs in embedded mode; i.e., is called as subprogram by the application program. The design and implementation of a Prolog-based AI capability that can be invoked in embedded mode are described. The significance of this system is twofold: Provision of Prolog-based symbol-manipulation and deduction facilities makes a powerful symbolic reasoning mechanism available to applications programs written in non-AI languages. The power of the deductive and non-procedural descriptive capabilities of Prolog, which allow the user to describe the problem to be solved, rather than the solution, is to a large extent vitiated by the absence of the standard control structures provided by other languages. Embedding invocations of Prolog rule bases in programs written in non-AI languages makes it possible to put Prolog calls inside DO loops and similar control constructs. The resulting merger of non-AI and AI languages thus results in a symbiotic system in which the advantages of both programming systems are retained, and their deficiencies largely remedied.

  19. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2010-09-15

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate modelling with endogenous technical change: Stochastic learning and optimal greenhouse gas abatement in the PAGE2002 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberth, Stephan; Hope, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the impact of ETC on the costs and benefits of different abatement strategies using a modified version of the PAGE2002 model. It was found that for most standard abatement paths there would be an initial 'learning investment' required that would substantially reduce the unit costs of CO 2 abatement as compared to a business as usual scenario. Furthermore, optimising an abatement program where ETC has been included leads to an increase in cost uncertainty during the period of widespread CO 2 abatements due to our lack of knowledge of the learning investments involved. Finally, the inclusion of ETC leads to a slightly deferred optimised abatement path followed by a rapid abatement program. Together, the results draw attention to the possibilities of 'uncovering uncertainty' through proactive abatements. 'Learning about learning' could become an important consideration for any plan to optimise future abatements

  1. Emission Abatement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  2. The generalized algebraic modal combination (GAC) rule validation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, P.G.; Culot, M.V.; Sahgal, S.; Tinic, S.

    1991-01-01

    With R.G. 1.92 the NRC imposes to use the absolute values of the modal responses when performing Response Spectra modal combination with coupling factors derived from the current heuristic, stationary or pseudo-stationary random vibration models. This results in overly conservative calculations in the case of closely spaced modes of opposite signs, a case frequently encountered in dynamic analyses in particular when systems with close modal frequencies have a small mass ratio. A new generalised algebraic combination (GAC) formula and its associated coupling factor have been theoretically derived by the first author. It is based on a non-stationary, non-white noise random vibration model which fully accounts for all the time and frequency dependent aspects of the time histories. This should allow the conservative use of algebraic signs in the modal combination over the whole frequency range, and allow a derogation to the current NRC R.G. 1.92 practice to use absolute signs. The use of the industry wide accepted RS method with the GAC rule will result in more economical and safer NPPs through the reduction of an excessive and unrealistic number of seismic restraints and avoidance of prematurely fatigued plants. It is envisaged to use the GAC seismic response combination method for the evaluation of the seismic response of auxiliary class one lines attached to the primary coolant loop piping of the Beznau 1 and 2 nuclear power plants. Since the plant is in operation, it is imperative to use a methodology which is conservative but still as realistic as possible. The paper presents an introduction to the GAC rule and some aspects of the validation program, which will jointly be undertaken by WESI and NOK for obtaining acceptance by the Swiss Safety Authorities for a seismic qualification program. (author)

  3. 75 FR 39820 - Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ...-2008-0114] RIN 2125-AF26 Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise... the Federal regulations on the Procedures for Abatement of Highway Traffic Noise and Construction Noise. The final rule clarifies and adds definitions, the applicability of this regulation, certain...

  4. ANSI / FM Approvals 2510 flood abatement equipment test standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravetz Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards, including flooding, continue to be the leading cause of commercial and industrial property damage worldwide. Until recently, there has been a limited amount of readily available guidance on choosing flood abatement protection. FM Approvals, a division of FM Global, one of the world’s largest business property insurers, working together with the Association of State Floodplain Managers and the US Army Corps of Engineers have developed a National Flood Barrier Test Program after recognizing the urgent demand for reliable flood abatement products to mitigate potential losses. This lead to the ANSI/ FM2510 flood abatement equipment standard.

  5. 47 CFR 76.1004 - Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cable Programming § 76.1004 Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates. (a... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of program access rules to common carriers and affiliates. 76.1004 Section 76.1004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...

  6. Human health risks associated with asbestos abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrostowski, P C; Foster, S A; Anderson, E L

    1991-09-01

    Upperbound lifetime excess cancer risks were calculated for activities associated with asbestos abatement using a risk assessment framework developed for EPA's Superfund program. It was found that removals were associated with cancer risks to workers which were often greater than the commonly accepted cancer risk of 1 x 10(-6), although lower than occupational exposure limits associated with risks of 1 x 10(-3). Removals had little effect in reducing risk to school populations. Risks to teachers and students in school buildings containing asbestos were approximately the same as risks associated with exposure to ambient asbestos by the general public and were below the levels typically of concern to regulatory agencies. During abatement, however, there were increased risks to both workers and nearby individuals. Careless, everyday building maintenance generated the greatest risk to workers followed by removals and encapsulation. If asbestos abatement was judged by the risk criteria applied to EPA's Superfund program, the no-action alternative would likely be selected in preference to removal in a majority of cases. These conclusions should only be interpreted within the context of an overall asbestos risk management program, which includes consideration of specific fiber types and sizes, sampling and analytical limitations, physical condition of asbestos-containing material, episodic peak exposures, and the number of people potentially exposed.

  7. Renewable Fuel Pathways II Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways under Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels derived from biogas fuel pathways under the RFS program and other minor amendments related to survey requirements associated with ULSD program and misfueling mitigation regulations for E15.

  8. Extraction of Static and Dynamic Reservoir Operation Rules by Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Akbari Alashti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the necessity of desirable operation of limited water resources and assuming the significant role of dams in controlling and consuming the surface waters, highlights the advantageous of suitable operation rules for optimal and sustainable operation of dams. This study investigates the hydroelectric supply of a one-reservoir system of Karoon3 using nonlinear programming (NLP, genetic algorithm (GA, genetic programming (GP and fixed length gen GP (FLGGP in real-time operation of dam considering two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules. In static operation rule, only one rule curve is extracted for all months in a year whereas in dynamic operation rule, monthly rule curves (12 rules are extracted for each month of a year. In addition, nonlinear decision rule (NLDR curves are considered, and the total deficiency function as the target (objective function have been used for evaluating the performance of each method and approach. Results show appropriate efficiency of GP and FLGGP methods in extracting operation rules in both approaches. Superiority of these methods to operation methods yielded by GA and NLP is 5%. Moreover, according to the results, it can be remarked that, FLGGP method is an alternative for GP method, whereas the GP method cannot be used due to its limitations. Comparison of two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules demonstrated the superiority of dynamic operation rule to static operation rule (about 10% and therefore this method has more capabilities in real-time operation of the reservoirs systems.

  9. 23 CFR 772.11 - Noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noise abatement. 772.11 Section 772.11 Highways FEDERAL... OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE § 772.11 Noise abatement. (a) In determining and abating traffic noise impacts, primary consideration is to be given to exterior areas. Abatement will...

  10. Special report on reimbursement. Medicare program abandons 1986 malpractice rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, M M

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals with claims "properly pending" before fiscal intermediaries or in the courts need do nothing in order to obtain corrected reimbursement for fiscal years so pending. However, to speed processing of corrected reimbursements for fiscal years pending in appeals before the PRRB, hospitals should request that the Board determine its jurisdiction and remand to the fiscal intermediary for payment as soon as possible. It will be helpful to include with any such request a copy of the notice of program reimbursement and the original appeal letter for each fiscal year under appeal. Despite the fact that HCFA Ruling 91-1 effectively concedes that HCFA has applied an invalid regulation to all fiscal years since May 1, 1986, HCFA counsel have stated that HCFA will not permit reopening of closed cost reports to correct the inappropriate apportionment of malpractice insurance costs. Nevertheless, hospitals that do not presently have a claim or appeal pending have several options. Under the Provider Reimbursement Manual, HIM-15, sections 2930-2931, fiscal intermediaries are required to reopen cost reports filed within the three-year reopening period to correct errors. Accordingly, should a fiscal intermediary deny a provider's reopening request, the provider should seriously consider taking an appeal to the PRRB. The PRRB's jurisdiction to review fiscal intermediary denials of requests to reopen cost reports was affirmed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, see State of Oregon v. Bowen, 854 F.2d 346 (9th Cir. 1988), a decision that is controlling in California, Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Arizona, Montana, Idaho, Hawaii, Alaska, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. A study on maintenance rule program and its application at Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Kim, Kil Yoo; Kang, Dae Il; Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2000-11-01

    The objective of the Maintenance Rule is to require monitoring of the overall continuing effectiveness of licensee maintenance programs to ensure that safety related and certain nonsafety-related SSCs are capable of performing their intended functions and, for nonsafety-related equipment failures will not occur that prevent the fulfillment of safety-related functions, and failures resulting in scrams and unnecessary actuations of safety-related systems are minimized. That is, proper maintenance is essential to plant safety. U.S. Maintenance Rule, which was effective July 1996 in USA., was not officially adopted in Korea by Korean regulatory body. However, since many PSA and IPE have been performed for NPPs, the philosophy and usefulness of the Maintenance Rule as well as performance-based regulation are being acceptable. We survey the Maintenance Rule program and applications in the USA, and also developed the Maintenance Rule program to apply to Korean NPPs. In addition, we applied the Maintenance Rule Program apply to Ulchin 3,4 Units roughly with the Maintenance Rule Program developed in this project

  12. 24 CFR 5.356 - Housing programs: Pet rule violation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.356 Housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing programs: Pet rule...

  13. Extracting classification rules from an informatic security incidents repository by genetic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Javier Carvajal Montealegre

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the data mining process to obtain classification rules over an information security incident data collection, explaining in detail the use of genetic programming as a mean to model the incidents behavior and representing such rules as decision trees. The described mining process includes several tasks, such as the GP (Genetic Programming) approach evaluation, the individual's representation and the algorithm parameters tuning to upgrade the performance. The paper conclude...

  14. New school radon abatement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.F.; Maniscalco, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to develop a state-of-the-art Radon Abatement system: all aspects of design and implementation from proper sizing radon ventilation ductwork (RVD) in relationship to the amount of free air available in sub-slab aggregate, review of electrical systems with their monitoring devices from the very basic to the more sophisticated type of installation, review abatement designs for their durability and application as well as methods and techniques. Building codes will also be reviewed for commercial construction applications, spot-lighting the usage of specific materials and techniques and their impact on the industry

  15. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical…

  16. 76 FR 60675 - Revision of the Commission's Program Carriage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    .... See Program Carriage NPRM, MB Docket No. 07-42, 22 FCC Rcd 11222 (2007). A. Statute of Limitations 2... Carriage Order, 9 FCC Rcd at 2652-53, para. 25 and 2676, Appendix D (47 CFR 76.1302(r)(3)). In the 1994... Biennial Regulatory Review Order. See 1994 Program Carriage Order, 9 FCC Rcd at 4421, Appendix A (47 CFR 76...

  17. Program grants for black lung clinics--PHS. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-27

    The Public Health Service hereby revises the regulations governing the grants program for black lung clinics established under section 427(a) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. The revision is in keeping with the Department of Health and Human Services' desire to remove as many programmatic burdens and restrictions from grantees as possible, while maintaining program integrity.

  18. 75 FR 53786 - Senior Community Service Employment Program; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Part IV Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 641 Senior... Administration 20 CFR Part 641 RIN 1205-AB48 and RIN 1205-AB47 Senior Community Service Employment Program; Final... implement changes in the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP) resulting from the 2006...

  19. Noise Abatement Tradeoff Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The intent of this study is to obtain information on small high-speed engines so that their effect on the urban environment may be assessed, and if necessary, programs devised to reduce the noise and other emissions from vehicles using these "highly ...

  20. 24 CFR 5.353 - Housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development of pet rules. 5.353 Section 5.353 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Housing Programs § 5.353 Housing...

  1. Medicare Program; Prior Authorization Process for Certain Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    This final rule establishes a prior authorization program for certain durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) items that are frequently subject to unnecessary utilization. This rule defines unnecessary utilization and creates a new requirement that claims for certain DMEPOS items must have an associated provisional affirmed prior authorization decision as a condition of payment. This rule also adds the review contractor's decision regarding prior authorization of coverage of DMEPOS items to the list of actions that are not initial determinations and therefore not appealable.

  2. Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection Program--genitourinary losses. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this final rule that amends the regulations governing the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance Traumatic Injury Protection (TSGLI) program by adding certain genitourinary (GU) system losses to the TSGLI Schedule of Losses and defining terms relevant to these new losses. This amendment is necessary to make qualifying GU losses a basis for paying TSGLI benefits to servicemembers with severe GU injuries. The intended effect is to expand the list of losses for which TSGLI payments can be made. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the interim final rule published in the Federal Register on December 2, 2011.

  3. Maximum noise abatement trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, S.; Speyer, J.

    1972-01-01

    Minimum noise annoyance trajectories for developing STOL operation procedures are obtained by modulating five control variables in two dimensions. The performance index is formulated such that it explicitly assigns the same relative importance to thrust as it does to distances between discrete listeners and the aircraft. However, using a steepest descent optimization program, results indicate that it is preferable to keep the thrusters at their maximum value to minimize the integrated annoyance rather than to reduce thrust which would lower the instantaneous annoyance. Thrust decreases below its bound only when the instantaneous noise at a listener is limited.

  4. Thoughts on abatement and adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    A number of questions having to do with the themes of abatement and adaptation are discussed. Under the first rubric are questions of future concentrations of radiatively active trace gases, the linkage of these gases with greenhouse warming, and other environmental problems. Also examined in the abatement context are opportunities to reduce fossil fuel use and therefore the emission of greenhouse gases, and the likelihood that natural forest expansion may provide an opportunity to control the rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the atmosphere. Also discussed are the possible effects of greenhouse warming on agriculture in the United States and in the developing world. Finally, some suggestions are given on capturing and retaining interest in greenhouse warming on the part of the decision making public

  5. Regional differences in China's CO2 abatement cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Under a framework of output distance function with multiple outputs, the study discusses the carbon abatement cost at provincial and regional levels in China, using the shadow price analysis. The findings show that the abatement cost, reflecting the marginal opportunity cost of carbon reduction, varies greatly among the provinces. On average, the abatement cost of the eastern region was much higher than that of the mid-western region during the observed period. The findings provide evidence that the carbon prices in the current ETS pilots have been much lower than desired levels, implying inefficiency of the markets. The wide range of the abatement cost estimates supports that the equi-marginal principle does not hold for the regulations on carbon pollution at regional levels. The regional cost differences indicate the huge potential for China to minimize the total abatement cost with policy instruments that may motive the emissions moving from areas of low abatement cost to where the abatement cost is higher. For a few undeveloped provinces that are environmentally fragile and have high abatement cost, supplementary measures will be needed to reduce the negative impact of carbon cutbacks on the poor to the minimum. - Highlights: • The marginal abatement cost of CO 2 is defined by the shadow price measure. • A linear programming model based on distance function is established. • Marginal abatement costs at provincial level are empirical investigated. • The abatement cost varies across provinces and regions in China. • The findings provide evidence that the current ETS pilots are inefficient

  6. Rule Extraction using Genetic Programming for Accurate Sales Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    König, Rikard; Johansson, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose and evaluate a method for reducing the inherent tendency of genetic programming to overfit small and noisy data sets. In addition, the use of different optimization criteria for symbolic regression is demonstrated. The key idea is to reduce the risk of overfitting noise in the training data by introducing an intermediate predictive model in the process. More specifically, instead of directly evolving a genetic regression model based on labeled training ...

  7. Evolving Rule-Based Systems in two Medical Domains using Genetic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakonas, A.; Dounias, G.; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate, compare and discuss the application of two genetic programming methodologies for the construction of rule-based systems in two medical domains: the diagnosis of Aphasia's subtypes and the classification of Pap-Smear Test examinations. The first approach consists of a scheme...... of a standard entropy based machine learning approach and to those of a standard genetic programming symbolic expression approach. In the diagnosis of subtypes of Aphasia, two models for crisp rule-bases are presented. The first one discriminates between four major types and the second attempts...

  8. Knowledge rule base for the beam optics program TRACE 3-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.; Van Staagen, P.K.; Hill, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system type of knowledge rule base has been developed for the input parameters used by the particle beam transport program TRACE 3-D. The goal has been to provide the program's user with adequate on-screen information to allow him to initially set up a problem with minimal open-quotes off-lineclose quotes calculations. The focus of this work has been in developing rules for the parameters which define the beam line transport elements. Ten global parameters, the particle mass and charge, beam energy, etc., are used to provide open-quotes expertclose quotes estimates of lower and upper limits for each of the transport element parameters. For example, the limits for the field strength of the quadrupole element are based on a water-cooled, iron-core electromagnet with dimensions derived from practical engineering constraints, and the upper limit for the effective length is scaled with the particle momenta so that initially parallel trajectories do not cross the axis inside the magnet. Limits for the quadrupole doublet and triplet parameters incorporate these rules and additional rules based on stable FODO lattices and bidirectional focusing requirements. The structure of the rule base is outlined and examples for the quadrupole singlet, doublet and triplet are described. The rule base has been implemented within the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes (SPARC) graphical user interface (GUI)

  9. Extracting classification rules from an informatic security incidents repository by genetic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Carvajal Montealegre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the data mining process to obtain classification rules over an information security incident data collection, explaining in detail the use of genetic programming as a mean to model the incidents behavior and representing such rules as decision trees. The described mining process includes several tasks, such as the GP (Genetic Programming approach evaluation, the individual's representation and the algorithm parameters tuning to upgrade the performance. The paper concludes with the result analysis and the description of the rules obtained, suggesting measures to avoid the occurrence of new informatics attacks. This paper is a part of the thesis work degree: Information Security Incident Analytics by Data Mining for Behavioral Modeling and Pattern Recognition (Carvajal, 2012.

  10. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-30

    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  11. 24 CFR 5.380 - Public housing programs: Procedure for development of pet rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for development of pet rules. 5.380 Section 5.380 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities Pet Ownership Requirements for Public Housing...

  12. 76 FR 14777 - National Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Final Rule on Amendments to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... expenses from conducting export promotion marketing or coordination and management of export promotion... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1150 [Docket No. DA-08-07: AMS-DA-08-0050] RIN 0581-AC87 National Dairy Promotion and Research Program; Final Rule on Amendments to...

  13. 77 FR 26154 - Interstate Land Sales Registration Program, Special Rules of Practice; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1012 RIN 3170-AA06 Interstate Land Sales Registration Program, Special Rules of... (76 FR 79486), republishing implementing regulations under the Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure... Subjects in 12 CFR Part 1012 Advertising disclaimers, Adjudicatory proceedings, Certification of...

  14. Federal Court Rules NCAA's Drug-Testing Program Does Not Violate College Athletes' Privacy Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Peter

    1988-01-01

    A federal judge has ruled that the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA) program of mandatory, random drug tests of athletes is constitutionally sound and that the NCAA does not act as a state agent. A University of Washington runner involved in the litigation will appeal the decision. (MSE)

  15. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  16. Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland Cleaning & Abatement Services Corp. (the Company) is located in Baltimore, Maryland. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Baltimore, Maryland.

  17. A NEW RULE-BASED APPROACH FOR COMPUTER CHESS PROGRAMMING USING GP-ARTIFICIAL TECHNIQUES : PECP

    OpenAIRE

    HANEDAN, Y.Güney; SERTBAŞ, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we use a brand new chess engine programming technique which we name PECP (Positional Evolutionary Chess Programming), that brings the Artificial Intelligence and Genetic Programming approaches together, to construct a chess endgame analyzing engine. Throughout the paper, the technique and the algorithm are discussed in detail. Also,  using PECP, an  example program (RETI V1.0)  aimed to prove the correctness and performance of the rule-based theory and algorithm is written in P...

  18. [Legal aspects of noise abatement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierski, W S

    1976-12-02

    Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.

  19. Landscape consequences of aggregation rules for functional equivalence in compensatory mitigation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accatino, Francesco; Creed, Irena F; Weber, Marian

    2018-01-26

    Mitigation and offset programs designed to compensate for ecosystem function losses due to development must balance losses from affected ecosystems and gains in restored ecosystems. Aggregation rules applied to ecosystem functions to assess site equivalence are based on implicit assumptions about the substitutability of functions among sites and can profoundly influence the distribution of restored ecosystem functions on the landscape. We investigated the consequences of rules applied to aggregation of ecosystem functions for wetland offsets in the Beaverhill watershed in Alberta, Canada. We considered the fate of 3 ecosystem functions: hydrology, water purification, and biodiversity. We set up an affect-and-offset algorithm to simulate the effect of aggregation rules on ecosystem function for wetland offsets. Cobenefits and trade-offs among functions and the constraints posed by the quantity and quality of restorable sites resulted in a redistribution of functions between affected and offset wetlands. Hydrology and water-purification functions were positively correlated and negatively correlated with biodiversity function. Weighted-average rules did not replace functions in proportion to their weights. Rules prioritizing biodiversity function led to more monofunctional wetlands and landscapes. The minimum rule, for which the wetland score was equal to the worst performing function, promoted multifunctional wetlands and landscapes. The maximum rule, for which the wetland score was equal to the best performing function, promoted monofunctional wetlands and multifunctional landscapes. Because of implicit trade-offs among ecosystem functions, no-net-loss objectives for multiple functions should be constructed within a landscape context. Based on our results, we suggest criteria for the design of aggregation rules for no net loss of ecosystem functions within a landscape context include the concepts of substitutability, cobenefits and trade-offs, landscape constraints

  20. Trading Rules on Stock Markets Using Genetic Network Programming with Reinforcement Learning and Importance Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Furuzuki, Takayuki

    Genetic Network Programming (GNP) is an evolutionary computation which represents its solutions using graph structures. Since GNP can create quite compact programs and has an implicit memory function, it has been clarified that GNP works well especially in dynamic environments. In addition, a study on creating trading rules on stock markets using GNP with Importance Index (GNP-IMX) has been done. IMX is a new element which is a criterion for decision making. In this paper, we combined GNP-IMX with Actor-Critic (GNP-IMX&AC) and create trading rules on stock markets. Evolution-based methods evolve their programs after enough period of time because they must calculate fitness values, however reinforcement learning can change programs during the period, therefore the trading rules can be created efficiently. In the simulation, the proposed method is trained using the stock prices of 10 brands in 2002 and 2003. Then the generalization ability is tested using the stock prices in 2004. The simulation results show that the proposed method can obtain larger profits than GNP-IMX without AC and Buy&Hold.

  1. Expertise and adventure: In/formalization processes within EU rule of law capacity building programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo M. Zerilli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores dynamics of formalization and informalization as interlinked social processes as a contribution to a critical understanding of rule of law capacity building programs in the framework of EU enlargement process. It also challenges the assumption according to which informality would be a modality characteristic of countries of the “Global South”.

  2. MARKET ALLOCATION RULES FOR NONPRICE PROMOTION WITH FARM PROGRAMS: U.S. COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lily; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    1996-01-01

    Rules are derived to indicate the optimal allocation of a fixed promotion budget between domestic and export markets when the commodity in question represents a significant portion of world trade and is protected in the domestic market by a deficiency-payment program. Optimal allocation decisions are governed by advertising elasticities in the domestic and export markets and the export market share. PromotionÂ’'s ability to lower deficiency payments is inversely related to the absolute value ...

  3. 75 FR 9691 - Review of the Commission's Program Access Rules and Examination of Programming Tying Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... pursue program access claims involving terrestrially delivered, cable-affiliated programming similar to... have filed three program access complaints involving terrestrially delivered, cable-affiliated... program suppliers had the incentive and ability to favor their affiliated cable operators over other MVPDs...

  4. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Removal of Eligible and Ineligible Individuals From Existing Enrollments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-23

    The United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule amending Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations to provide a process for removal of certain identified individuals who are found not to be eligible as family members from FEHB enrollments. This process would apply to individuals for whom there is a failure to provide adequate documentation of eligibility when requested. This action also amends Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations to allow certain eligible family members to be removed from existing self and family or self plus one enrollments.

  5. Medicare program; requirements for the Medicare incentive reward program and provider enrollment. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-05

    This final rule implements various provider enrollment requirements. These include: Expanding the instances in which a felony conviction can serve as a basis for denial or revocation of a provider or supplier's enrollment; if certain criteria are met, enabling us to deny enrollment if the enrolling provider, supplier, or owner thereof had an ownership relationship with a previously enrolled provider or supplier that had a Medicare debt; enabling us to revoke Medicare billing privileges if we determine that the provider or supplier has a pattern or practice of submitting claims that fail to meet Medicare requirements; and limiting the ability of ambulance suppliers to "backbill" for services performed prior to enrollment.

  6. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: Enrollment Options Following the Termination of a Plan or Plan Option. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to amend the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program regulations regarding enrollment options following the termination of a plan or plan option.

  7. Medicare program; establishing additional Medicare durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) supplier enrollment safeguards. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    This final rule will clarify, expand, and add to the existing enrollment requirements that Durable Medical Equipment and Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) suppliers must meet to establish and maintain billing privileges in the Medicare program.

  8. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-01-21

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For

  9. Optimization and analysis of decision trees and rules: Dynamic programming approach

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz

    2013-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the consideration of software system Dagger created in KAUST. This system is based on extensions of dynamic programming. It allows sequential optimization of decision trees and rules relative to different cost functions, derivation of relationships between two cost functions (in particular, between number of misclassifications and depth of decision trees), and between cost and uncertainty of decision trees. We describe features of Dagger and consider examples of this systems work on decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository. We also use Dagger to compare 16 different greedy algorithms for decision tree construction. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Federal Employees Health Benefits Program and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program: eligibility for Pathway Programs participants. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-06

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing an interim final regulation to update the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) and the Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Program (FEDVIP) regulations to reflect updated election opportunities for participants in the Pathways Programs. The Pathways Programs were created by Executive Order (E.O.) 13562, signed by the President on December 27, 2010, and are designed to enable the Federal Government to compete effectively for students and recent graduates by improving its recruitment efforts through internships and similar programs with Federal agencies. This interim final rule furthers these recruitment and retention efforts by providing health insurance, as well as dental and vision benefits, to eligible program participants and their families.

  11. The New Rule Paradigm Shift: Transforming At-Risk Programs by Matching Business Archetypes Strategies in the Global Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge was given to transform aviation-related programs to keep them from being eliminated. These programs were to be discontinued due to enrollment declines, costs, legislative mandates, lack of administrative support, and drastic state budget reductions. The New Rule was a paradigm shift of focus to the global market for program…

  12. A study of adopting maintenance rule under the periodic safety review and reliability centered maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilyoo, Kim

    2001-01-01

    U.S Maintenance Rule (MR) has three main functions. One is to monitor the performance changes of SSCs (Structure, System, and Component) caused by risk informed applications. Periodic Safety Review (PSR) program is widely adopted in Europe while it is not adopted in U. S. A where MR and new oversight program are instead used. Recently, in Korea, it was determined to adopt PSR, and the first PSR program has started this year for Kori unit 1 as a pilot plant. Also, a traditional Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has been performed for 4 systems of YGN unit 1 and 2 and it will be applied to the other nuclear power plants in Korea. However, since MR is adopting many useful concept of RCM, traditional RCM could not be further performed without being associated with MR. Thus, MR, RCM and PSR have recently become hot issue policies which should be well associated each other in Korea, and this paper suggests a desirable new maintenance process which would embrace the concepts of the three policies, and also discusses whether U.S. MR is necessary even though a PSR program is already adopted, and if necessary, then how cost-effectively it can be introduced to. (author)

  13. Carbon dioxide abatement as a differential game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvonen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The report combines predictions on greenhouse warming, CO 2 abatement costs and adaptation costs in a differential game framework. The specified model makes it possible to solve the payoffs of the subgame perfect solution of a two state variable nonautonomous problem with N unequal countries. Abatement cost parameters are calibrated with a global energy sector model and climate parameters are based on empirical time series. Simulation suggests that the backstop technology assumption in the abatement cost model may imply drastic cuts in optimal emission levels. Compared to the Nash noncooperative equilibrium a pareto optimal agreement is found to be beneficial for developing countries but more costly for the industrial world. Given the present damage estimates, the losses due to an emission stabilizing agreement may be 400 times higher than maximum potential gains from cooperation

  14. Genetic Programming for the Generation of Crisp and Fuzzy Rule Bases in Classification and Diagnosis of Medical Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dounias, George; Tsakonas, Athanasios; Jantzen, Jan

    2002-01-01

    programming system for the generation of fuzzy rule-based systems. Two different medical domains are used to evaluate the models. The first field is the diagnosis of subtypes of Aphasia. Two models for crisp rule-bases are presented. The first one discriminates between four major types and the second attempts...... systems. Comparisons on the system's comprehensibility and the transparency are included. These comparisons include for the Aphasia domain, previous work consisted of two neural network models....

  15. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities--HCFA. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-12

    This interim final rule implements provisions in section 4432 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 related to Medicare payment for skilled nursing facility services. These include the implementation of a Medicare prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities, consolidated billing, and a number of related changes. The prospective payment system described in this rule replaces the retrospective reasonable cost-based system currently utilized by Medicare for payment of skilled nursing facility services under Part A of the program.

  16. GAC as a method for radon abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.D.; Smith, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most mysterious abatement procedures is that of the remediation of waterborne radon contamination in residential structures. Many mitigators have been led to believe that the use of GAC as an abatement technique is in appropriate due to the potential creation of a hazardous waste disposal problem. This paper sheds light on the use of GAC as a true alternative to costly aeration mitigation techniques, and can be used as a resource tool for mitigators who need to understand the limits of activity surrounding GAC, and what, if any, shielding may be needed for the protection of residential occupants

  17. Medicare program; Medicare depreciation, useful life guidelines--HCFA. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-18

    These final rules amend Medicare regulations to clarify which useful life guidelines may be used by providers of health care services to determine the useful life of a depreciable asset for Medicare reimbursement purposes. Current regulations state that providers must utilize the Departmental useful life guidelines or, if none have been published by the Department, either the American Hospital Association (AHA) useful life guidelines of 1973 of IRS guidelines. We are eliminating the reference to IRS guidelines because these are now outdated for Medicare purposes since they have been rendered obsolete either by the IRS or by statutory change. We are also deleting the specific reference to the 1973 AHA guidelines since these guidelines are updated by the AHA periodically. In addition, we are clarifying that certain tax legislation on accelerated depreciation, passed by Congress, does not apply to the Medicare program.

  18. Expanded Access to Non-VA Care Through the Veterans Choice Program. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) revises its medical regulations that implement section 101 of the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 (hereafter referred to as "the Choice Act"), which requires VA to establish a program to furnish hospital care and medical services through eligible non-VA health care providers to eligible veterans who either cannot be seen within the wait-time goals of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) or who qualify based on their place of residence (hereafter referred to as the "Veterans Choice Program" or the "Program"). These regulatory revisions are required by the most recent amendments to the Choice Act made by the Construction Authorization and Choice Improvement Act of 2014, and by the Surface Transportation and Veterans Health Care Choice Improvement Act of 2015. The Construction Authorization and Choice Improvement Act of 2014 amended the Choice Act to define additional criteria that VA may use to determine that a veteran's travel to a VA medical facility is an "unusual or excessive burden," and the Surface Transportation and Veterans Health Care Choice Improvement Act of 2015 amended the Choice Act to cover all veterans enrolled in the VA health care system, remove the 60-day limit on an episode of care, modify the wait-time and 40-mile distance eligibility criteria, and expand provider eligibility based on criteria as determined by VA. This interim final rule revises VA regulations consistent with the changes made to the Choice Act as described above.

  19. Infectious disease risk in asbestos abatement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, John H; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Cegolon, Luca

    2012-08-16

    The current literature reports increased infectious disease occurrence in various construction occupations, as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality arising from employment.These observations should be expanded to asbestos abatement workers, as the abatement can create an environment favorable for bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Asbestos abatement work employs activities resulting in cuts, blisters and abrasions to the skin, work in a dirty environment and exposure to dust, mists and fumes.Furthermore, this population exhibits a high smoking rate which increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory infections.In addition, these workers also commonly employ respirators, which can accumulate dirt and debris magnifying exposure to microbes. Use of respirators and related types of personal protective equipment, especially if shared and in the close environment experienced by workers, may enhance communicability of these agents, including viruses. Abatement workers need to be provided with information on hazards and targeted by appropriate health education to reduce the infection risk. Epidemiological studies to investigate this risk in asbestos removers are recommended.

  20. 29 CFR 4207.3 - Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section, as appropriate. If a bond or escrow has been provided to the plan under § 4207.4, the plan sponsor shall send a copy of the notice to the bonding or escrow agent. (c) Effects of abatement. If the... applicable; (3) Any bonds furnished under § 4207.4 shall be cancelled and any amounts held in escrow under...

  1. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents' Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: a Bidirectional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Koning, Ina M

    2016-04-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents' rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents' alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents' beliefs about their competence in and ability to influence their adolescents' drinking habits (i.e., parental self-efficacy [PSE], Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 191-215, 1977). In this study, we examined the direction of influence between parents' rule setting and PSE as outcomes of the program "Prevention of Alcohol use in Students" (PAS), a prevention program aiming to reduce underage drinking by targeting parents and adolescents both separately and in a combined intervention. We tested two mediation processes in which the program would (a) have a direct effect on PSE, which in turn would increase parents' rule setting or (b) have a direct effect on parents' rule setting, which in turn would increase PSE. To examine these processes, we used a sample of 2562 parent-adolescent dyads (age 12 at baseline), followed annually over 3 years. The results showed that the combined intervention increased PSE via an increase in parents' rule setting. No significant effect of the intervention on rules about alcohol via PSE was found. This is the first study to test the mediation processes involving PSE and parental rule setting in an experimental context where parenting practices are being actively changed. The results suggest that giving parents concrete advice on how to deal with alcohol drinking in their adolescents and at the same time helping adolescents to develop healthy attitudes about alcohol drinking have a positive influence on parents' self-efficacy.

  2. 75 FR 69660 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of Hawaii AGENCY: Environmental Protection...-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of Hawaii's request to revise certain of its EPA-authorized... receiving systems that meet the applicable subpart D requirements. On February 16, 2010, the State of Hawaii...

  3. Ensuring Program Uniformity at the Hearing and Appeals Council Levels of the Administrative Review Process. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-16

    We are revising our rules so that more of our procedures at the hearing and Appeals Council levels of our administrative review process are consistent nationwide. We anticipate that these nationally consistent procedures will enable us to administer our disability programs more efficiently and better serve the public.

  4. Medicare program; revisions to the durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) supplier safeguards. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    This final rule removes the definition of "direct solicitation'' and allows DMEPOS suppliers, including DMEPOS competitive bidding program contract suppliers, to contract with licensed agents to provide DMEPOS supplies, unless prohibited by State law. It also removes the requirement for compliance with local zoning laws and modifies certain State licensure requirement exceptions.

  5. Syntheses by rules of the speech signal in its amplitude-time representation - melody study - phonetic, translation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamarina, Carole

    1975-01-01

    The present paper deals with the real-time speech synthesis implemented on a minicomputer. A first program translates the orthographic text into a string of phonetic codes, which is then processed by the synthesis program itself. The method used, a synthesis by rules, directly computes the speech signal in its amplitude-time representation. Emphasis has been put on special cases (diphthongs, 'e muet', consonant-consonant transition) and the implementation of the rhythm and of the melody. (author) [fr

  6. Model Servqual Rule Base Asean University Network untuk Penilaian Kualitas Program Studi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Wijayanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As well known that AUN (Asean University Network.AUN and ABET (Accreditation Boardb for Enginnering and Technology are non-profit organitatinon which have. AUN (Asean University Network were using variable with refer to AUN’s criteria’s there consist of fifteen which are: Expected Learning Outcomes, Programme Specification, Programme Structure and Content, Teaching and Learning Strategy, Student Assessment, Academic Staff Quality, Support Staff Quality, Student Quality, Student Advice and Support, Facilities and Infrastructure, Quality Assurance of Teaching/Learning Process, Staff Development Activities, Stakeholders Feedback, Output, Stakeholders Satisfaction,and adopted score's scale 7. In there here, we discuss the fifteen AUN’s of AUN in the criterias. There servqual of as can be into five dimensions, assurance, empathy, responsive, reliability and facilty in order to make the assessment's process easier. This research outcome indicated that this proposed method can be used to evaluate an education program. The validation result by using AUN's data and the analysis of servqual rule base Asean University Network almost have the same pattern with correlation value is 0,985 and this is can be accepted because its validity have reach 97%.

  7. Mining Context-Aware Association Rules Using Grammar-Based Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Jose Maria; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Del Jesus, Maria Jose; Ventura, Sebastian

    2017-09-25

    Real-world data usually comprise features whose interpretation depends on some contextual information. Such contextual-sensitive features and patterns are of high interest to be discovered and analyzed in order to obtain the right meaning. This paper formulates the problem of mining context-aware association rules, which refers to the search for associations between itemsets such that the strength of their implication depends on a contextual feature. For the discovery of this type of associations, a model that restricts the search space and includes syntax constraints by means of a grammar-based genetic programming methodology is proposed. Grammars can be considered as a useful way of introducing subjective knowledge to the pattern mining process as they are highly related to the background knowledge of the user. The performance and usefulness of the proposed approach is examined by considering synthetically generated datasets. A posteriori analysis on different domains is also carried out to demonstrate the utility of this kind of associations. For example, in educational domains, it is essential to identify and understand contextual and context-sensitive factors that affect overall and individual student behavior and performance. The results of the experiments suggest that the approach is feasible and it automatically identifies interesting context-aware associations from real-world datasets.

  8. Optimization of approximate decision rules relative to number of misclassifications: Comparison of greedy and dynamic programming approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we present a comparison of dynamic programming and greedy approaches for construction and optimization of approximate decision rules relative to the number of misclassifications. We use an uncertainty measure that is a difference between the number of rows in a decision table T and the number of rows with the most common decision for T. For a nonnegative real number γ, we consider γ-decision rules that localize rows in subtables of T with uncertainty at most γ. Experimental results with decision tables from the UCI Machine Learning Repository are also presented. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2017, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and SNF Payment Models Research. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2017. In addition, it specifies a potentially preventable readmission measure for the Skilled Nursing Facility Value-Based Purchasing Program (SNF VBP), and implements requirements for that program, including performance standards, a scoring methodology, and a review and correction process for performance information to be made public, aimed at implementing value-based purchasing for SNFs. Additionally, this final rule includes additional polices and measures in the Skilled Nursing Facility Quality Reporting Program (SNF QRP). This final rule also responds to comments on the SNF Payment Models Research (PMR) project.

  10. Medicare program; final waivers in connection with the shared savings program; continuation of effectiveness and extension of timeline for publication of final rule. Interim final rule; continuation of effectiveness and extension of timeline for publication of final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-17

    This document announces the continuation of effectiveness of an interim final rule and the extension of the timeline for publication of the final rule. This document is issued in accordance with section 1871(a)(3)(C) of the Social Security Act (the Act), which allows an interim final rule to remain in effect after the expiration of the timeline specified in section 1871(a)(3)(B) of the Act if the Secretary publishes a notice of continuation prior to the expiration of the timeline.

  11. World Trade Center Health Program; amendments to list of WTC-related health conditions; cancer; revision. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    On September 12, 2012, the Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) published a final rule in the Federal Register adding certain types of cancer to the List of World Trade Center (WTC)-Related Health Conditions (List) in the WTC Health Program regulations; an additional final rule was published on September 19, 2013 adding prostate cancer to the List. Through the process of implementing the addition of cancers to the List and integrating cancer coverage into the WTC Health Program, the Administrator has identified the need to amend the rule to remove the ICD codes and specific cancer sub-sites, clarify the definition of ``childhood cancers,'' revise the definition of ``rare cancers,'' and notify stakeholders that the Administrator is revising WTC Health Program policy related to coverage of cancers of the brain and the pancreas. No types of cancer covered by the WTC Health Program will be removed by this action; four types of cancer--malignant neoplasms of the brain, the cervix uteri, the pancreas, and the testis--are newly eligible for certification as WTC-related health conditions as a result of this action.

  12. The New Rules of PR and Marketing: A Teaching Unit for College Public Relations Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Candice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this lesson plan is to introduce the importance of social media and the Internet on public relations and marketing. The lesson describes the new rules for public relations versus the old rules. It is a more in depth look at how, and why, to use blogging, social media, and the Internet for promoting a company and appealing to buyers.…

  13. Report on the FY17 Development of Computer Program for ASME Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jetter, R. I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    One of the objectives of the high temperature design methodology activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components, Division 5, High Temperature Reactors, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to aid assessment procedures of components under specified loading conditions in accordance with the elevated temperature design requirements for Division 5 Class A components. There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this computer program is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the computer program is being structured for eventual incorporation all of the features and permitted materials of HBB. This report will first provide a description of the overall computer program, particular challenges in developing numerical procedures for the assessment, and an overall approach to computer program development. This is followed by a more comprehensive appendix, which is the draft computer program manual for the program development. The strain limits rules have been implemented in the computer program. The evaluation of creep-fatigue damage will be implemented in future work scope.

  14. Medicare program; End-Stage Renal Disease prospective payment system, quality incentive program, and Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-06

    This final rule will update and make revisions to the End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS) for calendar year (CY) 2015. This rule also finalizes requirements for the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP), including for payment years (PYs) 2017 and 2018. This rule will also make a technical correction to remove outdated terms and definitions. In addition, this final rule sets forth the methodology for adjusting Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies (DMEPOS) fee schedule payment amounts using information from the Medicare DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program (CBP); makes alternative payment rules for certain DME under the Medicare DMEPOS CBP; clarifies the statutory Medicare hearing aid coverage exclusion and specifies devices not subject to the hearing aid exclusion; will not update the definition of minimal self-adjustment; clarifies the Change of Ownership (CHOW) and provides for an exception to the current requirements; revises the appeal provisions for termination of a CBP contract, including the beneficiary notification requirement under the Medicare DMEPOS CBP, and makes a technical change to the regulation related to the conditions for awarding contracts for furnishing infusion drugs under the Medicare DMEPOS CBP.

  15. Conditioning of high voltage radio frequency cavities by using fuzzy logic in connection with rule based programming

    CERN Document Server

    Perréard, S

    1993-01-01

    Many processes are controlled by experts using some kind of mental model to decide actions and make conclusions. This model, based on heuristic knowledge, can often be conveniently represented in rules and has not to be particularly accurate. This is the case for the problem of conditioning high voltage radio-frequency cavities: the expert has to decide, by observing some criteria, if he can increase or if he has to decrease the voltage and by how much. A program has been implemented which can be applied to a class of similar problems. The kernel of the program is a small rule base, which is independent of the kind of cavity. To model a specific cavity, we use fuzzy logic which is implemented as a separate routine called by the rule base. We use fuzzy logic to translate from numeric to symbolic information. The example we chose for applying this kind of technique can be implemented by sequential programming. The two versions exist for comparison. However, we believe that this kind of programming can be powerf...

  16. 24 CFR 5.350 - Mandatory pet rules for housing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... local laws. (b) Sanitary standards. (1) The pet rules shall prescribe sanitary standards to govern the... empowered to inoculate animals (or designated agent of such an authority) stating that the pet has received...

  17. Building the Rule of Law: U.S. Assistance Programs and Police/Military Relations in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    1. REPORT DATE FEB 2003 2. REPORT TYPE N /A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biulding the Rule of Law: U.S. Assistance Programs...military poses a far greater problem for democratically-elected civilian governments, as Bolivian President Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozado once put it...Defense Minister Luis Fernando Ramirez Acuna, the army was key”.8 Latin American military and police forces are increasingly dependent upon foreign

  18. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2004-04-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  19. Collateral benefits and hidden hazards of soil arsenic during abatement assessment of residential lead hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Ferguson, B.W.; Bray, C.A.; Patch, S.; Mielke, H.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abatement of soil-lead hazards may also reduce human exposure to other soil toxins, thereby achieving significant collateral benefits that are not accounted for today. This proposition was tested with the specific case of soil-arsenic, where 1726 residential soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead and arsenic. The study found that these two toxins coexisted in most samples, but their concentrations were weakly correlated, reflecting the differing sources for each toxin. Collateral benefits of 9% would be achieved during abatement of the lead-contaminated soils having elevated arsenic concentrations. However, a hidden hazard of 16% was observed by overlooking elevated arsenic concentrations in soils having lead concentrations not requiring abatement. This study recommends that soil samples collected under HUD programs should be collected from areas of lead and arsenic deposition and tested for arsenic as well as lead, and that soil abatement decisions consider soil-arsenic as well as soil-lead guidelines. - Coexistence of arsenic at elevated concentrations with lead in residential soils undergoing lead hazard assessment is often overlooked, providing either collateral benefits or hidden hazards

  20. Medicare program; limitation on recoupment of provider and supplier overpayments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-16

    This final rule implements a provision of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) which prohibits recouping Medicare overpayments from a provider or supplier that seeks a reconsideration from a Qualified Independent Contractor (QIC). This provision changes how interest is to be paid to a provider or supplier whose overpayment is reversed at subsequent administrative or judicial levels of appeal. This final rule defines the overpayments to which the limitation applies, how the limitation works in concert with the appeals process, and the change in our obligation to pay interest to a provider or supplier whose appeal is successful at levels above the QIC.

  1. NOx Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO x abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO x emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO x from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr -1 and an inlet temperature of 320 degrees C. The first stage exhaust NO x concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520 degrees C in both reactors, with minimal NH 3 slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO x concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO x concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip

  2. Damage control productivity : an input damage abatement approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Carpentier, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the value of the marginal product of three different pesticides from different specifications of the production function. The specifications are the output damage abatement specification proposed by Lichtenberg and Zilberman, a general input damage abatement specification and a

  3. Economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Alexander Nicholson

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited This thesis discusses the economic effects of noise abatement regulations on the helicopter industry. Increased manufacturing and operating costs from noise abatement regulations on Sikorsky's S-75 helicopter are estimated. The effects on consumer utilization are also discussed. An appendix compares two independent research studies that used weight estimating relationships and cost estimating relationships to estimate...

  4. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or other.... The policy memorandum and conditions govern current administration of Federal Migratory Bird Special...

  5. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... and held in ``temporary'' caging for extended periods of time, i.e., multiple birds held in a trailer...

  6. Comparison of Decision Rules for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Practices Using a Nonlinear Mathematical Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Juma K.; Dillon, Carl R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.; Kanakasabai, Murali

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of decision rules has been made for case studies of corn production using subsurface drip irrigation under three agricultural management practices (no irrigation, uniform irrigation, and variable rate irrigation). The uniform irrigation strategy appeared to perform the best than the other two management practices under different risk scenarios.

  7. Automatic Rule Identification for Agent-Based Crowd Models Through Gene Expression Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, J.; Luo, L.; Cai, W.; Lees, M.; Lomuscio, A.; Scerri, P.; Bazzan, A.; Huhns, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agent-based modelling of human crowds has now become an important and active research field, with a wide range of applications such as military training, evacuation analysis and digital game. One of the significant and challenging tasks in agent-based crowd modelling is the design of decision rules

  8. Risk management for sulfur dioxide abatement under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C.; Sun, W.; Tan, Q.; Liu, Y.; Lu, W. T.; Guo, H. C.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, interval-parameter programming, two-stage stochastic programming (TSP), and conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) were incorporated into a general optimization framework, leading to an interval-parameter CVaR-based two-stage programming (ICTP) method. The ICTP method had several advantages: (i) its objective function simultaneously took expected cost and risk cost into consideration, and also used discrete random variables and discrete intervals to reflect uncertain properties; (ii) it quantitatively evaluated the right tail of distributions of random variables which could better calculate the risk of violated environmental standards; (iii) it was useful for helping decision makers to analyze the trade-offs between cost and risk; and (iv) it was effective to penalize the second-stage costs, as well as to capture the notion of risk in stochastic programming. The developed model was applied to sulfur dioxide abatement in an air quality management system. The results indicated that the ICTP method could be used for generating a series of air quality management schemes under different risk-aversion levels, for identifying desired air quality management strategies for decision makers, and for considering a proper balance between system economy and environmental quality.

  9. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities; correction--HCFA. Correction of interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-05

    This document corrects technical errors that appeared in the interim final rule with comment period published in the Federal Register on May 12, 1998 entitled "Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities."

  10. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines: State Commitments to National Low Emission Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is issuing a final rule representing the next step in establishing a voluntary nationwide program to make new cars significantly cleaner burning than today’s current cars.

  11. Optimal operating rules definition in complex water resource systems combining fuzzy logic, expert criteria and stochastic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents a methodology for defining optimal seasonal operating rules in multireservoir systems coupling expert criteria and stochastic optimization. Both sources of information are combined using fuzzy logic. The structure of the operating rules is defined based on expert criteria, via a joint expert-technician framework consisting in a series of meetings, workshops and surveys carried out between reservoir managers and modelers. As a result, the decision-making process used by managers can be assessed and expressed using fuzzy logic: fuzzy rule-based systems are employed to represent the operating rules and fuzzy regression procedures are used for forecasting future inflows. Once done that, a stochastic optimization algorithm can be used to define optimal decisions and transform them into fuzzy rules. Finally, the optimal fuzzy rules and the inflow prediction scheme are combined into a Decision Support System for making seasonal forecasts and simulate the effect of different alternatives in response to the initial system state and the foreseen inflows. The approach presented has been applied to the Jucar River Basin (Spain). Reservoir managers explained how the system is operated, taking into account the reservoirs' states at the beginning of the irrigation season and the inflows previewed during that season. According to the information given by them, the Jucar River Basin operating policies were expressed via two fuzzy rule-based (FRB) systems that estimate the amount of water to be allocated to the users and how the reservoir storages should be balanced to guarantee those deliveries. A stochastic optimization model using Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) was developed to define optimal decisions, which are transformed into optimal operating rules embedding them into the two FRBs previously created. As a benchmark, historical records are used to develop alternative operating rules. A fuzzy linear regression procedure was employed to

  12. Cogeneration plant noise: Environmental impacts and abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Renzio, M.; Ciocca, B.

    1991-01-01

    In Italy, ever increasing attention to environmental problems has led to legislation requiring cogeneration plant owners to perform environmental impact assessments in order to determine plant conformity with pollution laws. This paper, based on an in-depth analysis of physics fundamentals relevant to the nature and effects of noise, examines the principal sources of noise in industrial cogeneration plants and the intensity and range of the effects of this noise on the local environment. A review is then made of the different methods of noise pollution abatement (e.g., heat and corrosion resistant silencers for gas turbines, varying types and thicknesses of acoustic insulation placed in specific locations) that can be effectively applied to cogeneration plant equipment and housing

  13. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities--update. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-04

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Annual updates to the PPS rates are required by section 1888(e) of the Social Security Act (the Act), as amended by the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (BBRA), and the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA), relating to Medicare payments and consolidated billing for SNFs.

  14. Programmed Instruction for Teaching Java: Consideration of Learn Unit Frequency and Rule-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emurian, Henry H.

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of a Java computer programming course, nine students in an undergraduate class and nine students in a graduate class completed a web-based programmed instruction tutoring system that taught a simple computer program. All students exited the tutor with an identical level of skill, at least as determined by the tutor's required…

  15. The Rules of Hearing Conservation Program and One Sample Study in Pars- Minoo Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Keshani

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Hearing conservation is one of the useful programs in industrial audiology. Few studies have been reported on this issue. Performing this program is always accompanied with some problems, In a way that lacking enough attention can cause deviation from the main instructions in the program. In the current study we will first of all, have a look on the academic foundations of a hearing conservation program and then will discuss performing such a program in Pars- Minoo Company which have been performed by the audiology department of Tehran university of medical sciences in the winter 1995 in Tehran.

  16. World Trade Center Health Program requirements for the addition of new WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. Sections 3311, 3312, and 3321 of Title XXXIII of the PHS Act require that the WTC Program Administrator develop regulations to implement portions of the WTC Health Program established within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, Shanksville, PA, and at the Pentagon, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. This final rule establishes the processes by which the WTC Program Administrator may add a new condition to the list of WTC-related health conditions through rulemaking, including a process for considering petitions by interested parties to add a new condition.

  17. The Impact of Active Labor Market Programs and Benefit Entitlement Rules on the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2000-01-01

    Swiss policy makers created a unique link between unemployment benefits and active labor market programs (ALMPs) by making benefit payments conditional on program attendance after 7 months of unemployment duration. We evaluate the effect of ALMPs and benefit entitlement on the duration of

  18. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes,AA

    2001-01-01

    As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A ...

  19. 76 FR 4948 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ..., methodologies, procedures, or technology, whether or not patentable; (2) trademarks, copyrights, literary works... Article 8, Rule 3 (Fraudulent Acts) CHX Article 9, Rule 2 (Just & Equitable Trade Principles) CHX Article 11, Rule 2 (Maintenance of Books and Records) CHX Article 6, Rule 5 (Supervision of Registered...

  20. 75 FR 64755 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ..., methodologies, procedures, or technology, whether or not patentable; (2) trademarks, copyrights, literary works... Condition) CHX Article 8, Rule 3 (Fraudulent Acts) CHX Article 9, Rule 2 (Just & Equitable Trade Principles) CHX Article 11, Rule 2 (Maintenance of Books and Records) CHX Article 6, Rule 5 (Supervision of...

  1. 76 FR 79714 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ..., methodologies, procedures, or technology, whether or not patentable; (2) trademarks, copyrights, literary works... Article 8, Rule 3 (Fraudulent Acts) CHX Article 9, Rule 2 (Just & Equitable Trade Principles) CHX Article 11, Rule 2 (Maintenance of Books and Records) CHX Article 6, Rule 5 (Supervision of Registered...

  2. VA Health Professional Scholarship and Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its VA Health Professional Scholarship Program (HPSP) regulations. VA is also establishing regulations for a new program, the Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Program (VIOMPSP). These regulations comply with and implement sections 302 and 603 of the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010 (the 2010 Act). Section 302 of the 2010 Act established the VIOMPSP, which authorizes VA to provide financial assistance to certain students seeking a degree in visual impairment or orientation or mobility, in order to increase the supply of qualified blind rehabilitation specialists for VA and the United States. Section 603 of the 2010 Act reauthorized and modified HPSP, a program that provides scholarships for education or training in certain health care occupations.

  3. EXAMPLES OF TRAFFIC NOISE ABATEMENT IN THE CITY OF OSIJEK

    OpenAIRE

    Zagvozda, Martina; Dragovan, Hrvoje; Dragčević, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem in urban spaces worldwide. The first step toward noise abatement is determining and evaluating noise levels in order to best prioritize and implement protective measures. The city of Osijek, as is obligated by law and the European Directive, has done this by creating a noise map. In this paper, we present measures for noise abatement, showing some of the measures implemented in Osijek based on their noise map, and review possible methods for ab...

  4. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by photo-Fenton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the abatement of 200 mg L -1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solution by means of photo-Fenton process. Biodegradability of the treated solutions was followed by the ratio biochemical oxygen demand at five days/chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and toxicity by Microtox[reg] and inhibition tests. Experiments with different initial concentration of H 2 O 2 were carried out. The initial amount of Fe 2+ and pH of the solution were set at 10 mg L -1 and 2.8 respectively. The temperature of the reactor was kept constant in all the experiments (25 ± 0.8 deg. C). Photo-Fenton process is thought to be a successful treatment step to improve the biodegradability of wastewater containing SMX. The complete antibiotic removal was achieved for a H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 . Biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) rose from zero (SMX solution) to values higher than 0.3 (treated solutions). Toxicity and inhibition tests pointed out in the same direction: oxidized intermediates for initial H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 showed no toxicity effects on pure bacteria and no inhibition on activated sludge activity

  5. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare Maya, R.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1992-08-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) programme of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies is intended to clarify the economic issues involved in assessing the costs of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases and to propose approaches to comparable costing studies. Phase 1 of the Zimbabwe country study describes the current energy situation in Zimbabwe related to the national economy, energy supply and demand and amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. Factors regarding the geography, (including a map illustrating the degree and character of land degradation by erosion) population, politics, international relations, land-use and management of the energy sector are dealt with in detail and the text is illustrated with data compiled from the study. It is estimated that Zimbabwe consumed 270.4 Tj of energy during 1988 and emitted 21.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. An emission intensity of 80.2 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 63.6 tonnes/Tj for electric power generation alone was calculated. Forecasting for the year 2020 estimated carbon dioxide emission intensities of 73.5 tonnes/Tj for the whole economy and 43.7 tonnes for power generation. Net carbon dioxide emissions are predicted to be 30-42 tonnes during 2020. (AB)

  6. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.; Nziramasanga, N.; Muguti, E.; Fenhann, J.

    1993-10-01

    The aim was to assess options and cost of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (with emphasis on carbon dioxide) from human activity in Zimbabwe. A brief description of the country's economy and energy sector, policy and pricing and regulations is given and substantial data related to the country's economy, technology, energy consumption, emission and fuel prices are presented. The energy demand in households and for other sectors in Zimbabwe are assessed, and documented in the case of the former. The reference scenarios on energy demand and supply assess greenhouse gas emissions under conditions whereby the present economic growth trends predominate. Energy efficiency improvements are discussed. Abatement technology options are stated as afforestation for carbon sequestration, more efficient coal-fired industrial boilers, extended use of hydroelectricity, prepayment electric meters, minimum tillage, optimization of coal-fired tobacco barns, industrial power factor correction equipment, domestic biogas digesters, solar water heating systems, time switches in electric geysers, optimization of industrial furnaces, photovoltaic water pumps, production of ammonia from coal for fertilizing purposes, and recovery of coke oven gases for use in thermal power generation. (AB)

  7. Hell no, we won't ACO. Providers, once eager to sign up for new program, say proposed rule on accountable care is a deal-breaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melanie

    2011-06-06

    Hospital executives were eager to sign up for Medicare's proposed ACO program--until they saw the proposed rule spelling out how the CMS wants to structure it. They see too many risks, with too little chance of rewards. Stephen Mansfield, left, of Methodist Health System, describes the rule as "cold water" on the industry's interest and says he fears a promising opportunity will be sidelined. "I am so disappointed," Mansfield says.

  8. Economic aspects of air pollution abatement. Air pollution abatement recommended for economic reasons; Oekonomische Aspekte des Klimaschutzes. Gerade aus oekonomischer Sicht ist Klimaschutz sinnvoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, J.; Serger, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Mikrooekonomik

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is not only dangerous but also expensive. On the other hand, air pollution abatement measures are costly as well. Scientists of the Microeconomics Department investigated how air pollution abatement and cost efficiency can best be combined. (orig.)

  9. Child and Adult Care Food Program: Meal Pattern Revisions Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    This final rule updates the meal pattern requirements for the Child and Adult Care Food Program to better align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. This rule requires centers and day care homes participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program to serve more whole grains and a greater variety of vegetables and fruit, and reduces the amount of added sugars and solid fats in meals. In addition, this final rule supports mothers who breastfeed and improves consistency with the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children and with other Child Nutrition Programs. Several of the changes are extended to the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and Special Milk Program. These changes are based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, science-based recommendations made by the National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies), cost and practical considerations, and stakeholder's input. This is the first major revision of the Child and Adult Care Food Program meal patterns since the Program's inception in 1968. These improvements to the meals served in the Child and Adult Care Food Program are expected to safeguard the health of young children by ensuring healthy eating habits are developed early, and improve the wellness of adult participants.

  10. 77 FR 4654 - Senior Community Service Employment Program; Final Rule, Additional Indicator on Volunteer Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... percent of the Federal poverty level. The program offers participants training at community service... plan, grantees are expected to assess the participants' circumstances, including their degree of social... Justice Reform, and will not unduly burden the Federal court system. The regulation has been written so as...

  11. UNEP greenhouse gas abatement costing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Grohnheit, P.E.

    1992-04-01

    The project initiated by the United Nations Environment Programme aims to clarify some economic issues involved in greenhouse gas limitation by carrying out comparative studies of various nations. The programme should contribute to the establishment of a consistent methodological framework for making cost assessments of greenhouse gas abatement and help to support countries in the process of establishing national and international agreements on actions to combat climate change. The publication gives a survey of Danish energy demand and supply, emissions and current energy policy issues and reviews existing studies of carbon dioxide reductions. This includes the overall national environmental policy and the plan of action for the transport sector. Conclusions are that there seems to be a long-term potential for significant reduction of CO 2 emission by 10-15% by 2010 with no additional costs, a 50% reduction will cost DKK 25-50 per kg reduced CO 2 . The most promising options include increased use of cogeneration of heat and electricity, and electricity conservation in households, services and in industry. Economic growth is forecast as ca. 2.7% and energy prices for oil products should increase by ca. 4.8%. A 40% reduction of CO 2 emission in the year 2005 would increase costs by 1-2%, and a reduction of two thirds of present emission should be possible at no additional cost compared to the reference cases. There is general agreement that a reduction of carbon dioxide emission of 15-30% by 2005-10 should involve no additional costs to society. (AB) (11 refs.)

  12. Getting ready for identity theft rules: creating a prevention program for your medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascardo, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Identity theft worries have found their way into medical practices. By August 1, 2009, all "creditors" must have a written program to prevent, detect, and minimize damage from identity theft. Any medical practice that bills patients is considered a creditor. Like HIPAA, these new Red Flag guidelines will serve to protect your practice from lawsuits as well as protect your patients from identity theft of their financial, personal, and medical information.

  13. 77 FR 43136 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... and Noise Abatement Act, hereinafter referred to as ``the Act'') and 14 Code of Federal Regulations... approval of such program. The submitted program contained twenty-two proposed actions for noise abatement... a noise abatement advisory committee; continue to develop the responsibilities of the Philadelphia...

  14. 76 FR 46352 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for San Diego International, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... approved. No program elements relating to new or revised flight procedures for noise abatement were... actions for noise abatement, noise mitigation, land use planning and program management on and off the... environmental analysis. Any new procedures proposed for noise abatement at SAN may not be implemented prior to a...

  15. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities--update. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), HHS. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-31

    This final rule sets forth updates to the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), for fiscal year 2001. Annual updates to the PPS rates are required by section 1888(e) of the Social Security Act, as amended by the Medicare, Medicaid and State Child Health Insurance Program Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999, related to Medicare payments and consolidated billing for SNFs. In addition, this rule sets forth certain conforming revisions to the regulations that are necessary in order to implement amendments made to the Act by section 103 of the Medicare, Medicaid and State Child Health Insurance Program Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999.

  16. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2008. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-03

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2008. In addition, this final rule revises and rebases the SNF market basket, and modifies the threshold for the adjustment to account for market basket forecast error. This final rule also responds to public comments submitted on the proposed rule and makes a technical correction in the regulations text.

  17. 77 FR 73719 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ..., employees or representatives. No warranties, express or implied, are made by the Participants, individually.... Frequency of review BATS Exercise of Options Rule 23.1 At Expiration. Contracts. BOX Exercise of Options Rule 9000 At Expiration. Contracts. C2 Exercise of Options Rule 11.1 At Expiration. Contracts. CBOE...

  18. 77 FR 29712 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... directors, governors, officers, employees or representatives. No warranties, express or implied, are made by... Options Rule 980 At Expiration. Contracts. BATS Exercise of Options Rule 23.1 At Expiration. Contracts. BOX Exercise of Options Rule 9000 At Expiration. Contracts. Nasdaq OMX B[O]X Exercise of Options...

  19. 75 FR 21051 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., methodologies, procedures, or technology, whether or not patentable; (2) trademarks, copyrights, literary works...) (Books and Records; Financial Condition) CHX Article 8, Rule 3 (Fraudulent Acts) CHX Article 9, Rule 2 (Just & Equitable Trade Principles) CHX Article 11, Rule 2 (Maintenance of Books and Records) CHX...

  20. Optimal investment and uncertainty on China's carbon emission abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingxi; Wang Mingrong; Wang Shouyang

    2012-01-01

    To realize environmentally sustainable development of the economy, China has decided to cut carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40 to 45 percent by 2020, compared with the level in 2005. Based on China's emission abatement target, this paper first analyzes enterprises' emission reduction pathways in practical production processes, and then develops a framework to derive the magnitude of investment required in each pathway in order to achieve the designated target at the minimal cost. Under the framework, it is found that in the absence of policy guidance, individual enterprises' emission reduction investments deviate from the optimal level. To correct the distortion, an alternative option is provided. Meanwhile, to ensure achievement of the emission reduction target, a stochastic model is introduced to measure the uncertainty arising from emission abatement investment. The results show that an appropriate emission abatement ratio can reduce ‘the systemic risk’ of emission abatement. Finally, a simulation is given to demonstrate the results derived from the stochastic model. - Highlights: ► We formulate enterprises' emission–reduction pathways. ► We examine the cost-minimization problem with emission budget. ► A random model is established to measure the uncertainty of emission abatement. ► Several policy recommendations are proposed.

  1. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  2. Medicare program; changes to the Medicare claims appeal procedures; continuation of effectiveness and extension of timeline for publication of final rule. Interim final rule with comment period; continuation of effectiveness and extension of timeline for publication of final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-27

    This notice announces the continuation of effectiveness of a Medicare interim final rule with comment period and the extension of the timeline for publication of the final rule. This notice is issued in accordance with section 1871(a)(3)(C) of the Social Security Act (the Act), which allows an interim final rule to remain in effect after the expiration of the timeline specified in section 1871(a)(3)(B) of the Act (the "regular timeline") or, if applicable, at the end of each succeeding 1-year extension to the regular timeline, if prior to the expiration of the timeline, the Secretary publishes in the Federal Register a notice of continuation and explains why the regular timeline or any subsequent extension was not complied with.

  3. Basic health program: state administration of basic health programs; eligibility and enrollment in standard health plans; essential health benefits in standard health plans; performance standards for basic health programs; premium and cost sharing for basic health programs; federal funding process; trust fund and financial integrity. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-12

    This final rule establishes the Basic Health Program (BHP), as required by section 1331 of the Affordable Care Act. The BHP provides states the flexibility to establish a health benefits coverage program for low-income individuals who would otherwise be eligible to purchase coverage through the Affordable Insurance Exchange (Exchange, also called Health Insurance Marketplace). The BHP complements and coordinates with enrollment in a QHP through the Exchange, as well as with enrollment in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP). This final rule also sets forth a framework for BHP eligibility and enrollment, benefits, delivery of health care services, transfer of funds to participating states, and federal oversight. Additionally, this final rule amends another rule issued by the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (Secretary) in order to clarify the applicability of that rule to the BHP.

  4. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in the Nordic countries, and it seems diffi cult for Nordic countries to meet national targets for its reduction. One reason for this is the lack of municipal activities in the fi eld. Th us the research question that this article seeks to answer in relation...... to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...

  5. Medicare and Medicaid programs; changes in provider and supplier enrollment, ordering and referring, and documentation requirements; and changes in provider agreements. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    This interim final rule with comment period implements several provisions set forth in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act). It implements the provision which requires all providers of medical or other items or services and suppliers that qualify for a National Provider Identifier (NPI) to include their NPI on all applications to enroll in the Medicare and Medicaid programs and on all claims for payment submitted under the Medicare and Medicaid programs. This interim final rule with comment period also requires physicians and eligible professionals to order and refer covered items and services for Medicare beneficiaries to be enrolled in Medicare. In addition, it adds requirements for providers, physicians, and other suppliers participating in the Medicare program to provide documentation on referrals to programs at high risk of waste and abuse, to include durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies (DMEPOS), home health services, and other items or services specified by the Secretary.

  6. 32 CFR 324.6 - Procedural rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedural rules. 324.6 Section 324.6 National... DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Systems of Records § 324.6 Procedural rules. DFAS procedural rules... first as a proposed rule to allow for public comment and then as a final rule. Procedural rules will be...

  7. 13 CFR 124.110 - Do Native Hawaiian Organizations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have obtained, or are likely to obtain, a substantial unfair competitive advantage within an industry... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Do Native Hawaiian Organizations have any special rules for applying to the 8(a) BD program? 124.110 Section 124.110 Business Credit and...

  8. 40 CFR 745.327 - State or Indian Tribal lead-based paint compliance and enforcement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-based paint program. Indian Tribes are not required to exercise criminal enforcement jurisdiction as a... discipline (e.g., abatement supervisor, and/or abatement worker, and/or lead-based paint inspector, and/or...

  9. Economic incentives for optimal sulfur abatement in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkos, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews and develops theoretical and empirical representations of economic incentives for implementing pollution control strategies. A number of alternative economic instruments exist, which, if applied internationally, could encourage implementation of abatement strategies by counties. The article considers means of persuading countries to minimize abatement costs. A comparison between the pollution targets achieved by the imposition of a uniform charge rate and by differentiated charge rates is discussed, and empirical results are provided with associated conclusions. These results are compared with a simple standards setting in the form of critical loads, in order to assess empirically if economic instruments work better than regulations

  10. Exploring the 'permanent forest' paradigm: might renewable commercial forest estates lead to greater net greenhouse abatement over the longer term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Understanding permanence: A common perception exists which suggests that long term or 'permanent' tree plantings are considered a superior form of (post 1990) carbon sink, and commercial plantations (which allow for harvesting and replanting) are less useful for abatement. However, common to all forms of forest carbon sink is the issue of permanence. None of these are truly permanent stores of carbon because at any point either a fire, disease, harvest or major event can mean part of the carbon store is released. Why then the perceived bias against sink projects which allow for commercial harvesting and replanting? Let's not forget - things are getting hotter: Australian projections for climate change provide plenty of challenges for current and future forest managers. Over the next century many key forest species may have to endure conditions outside their'current growing range. This poses risks for the emergent offsets industry which needs to be actively managed. Simply planting local indigenous species alone may no longer be the only best practice. Think 'true fate of carbon': It is important that our thinking is not constrained by current rules, as these will continually be refined as our knowledge about carbon systems improves over the next century (between now and 2100 there will be 22 post-Kyoto negotiation periods). Our key focus should be in considering the 'true fate' of carbon, and the real contribution to greenhouse abatement. Policy makers need to keep this in mind, and ensure that the entire carbon life cycle is considered in their decision making. 'Standing forest' versus 'Net abatement effect': There are two effective means for forests to achieve genuine greenhouse abatement. One is the carbon sequestered and stored in the 'standing forest', the other is the greenhouse benefit (carbon flow or net abatement effect) of an ongoing and renewable supply of tree based products from the site (wood, fibre, biomass, biofuel), which replace

  11. Medicaid program; reductions in payments to the states--Health Care Financing Administration. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    This rule amends current Medicaid regulations to implement section 2161 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 (Pub. L 97-35) which imposes reductions in Federal matching payments for fiscal years 1982 through 1984. In the regulations, we describe the conditions and specify minimum criteria under which States may lower the reduction. The conditions are the existence of the qualified hospital cost review program, a specific level of unemployment in a State, and a specific amount of fraud and abuse recoveries by a State or, for fiscal year 1982 only, a combination of fraud and abuse and third party liability recoveries. We intend these regulations to provide guidance as to when the reductions, and offsets against the reductions, will be made and how States can qualify for the offsets. In addition, we have issued a notice of proposed rulemaking elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register that contains proposed policies concerning recoveries from liable third parties for purposes of implementing section 2161.

  12. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) for FY 2016, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and Staffing Data Collection. Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2016. In addition, it specifies a SNF all-cause all-condition hospital readmission measure, as well as adopts that measure for a new SNF Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, and includes a discussion of SNF VBP Program policies we are considering for future rulemaking to promote higher quality and more efficient health care for Medicare beneficiaries. Additionally, this final rule will implement a new quality reporting program for SNFs as specified in the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 (IMPACT Act). It also amends the requirements that a long-term care (LTC) facility must meet to qualify to participate as a skilled nursing facility (SNF) in the Medicare program, or a nursing facility (NF) in the Medicaid program, by establishing requirements that implement the provision in the Affordable Care Act regarding the submission of staffing information based on payroll data.

  13. 1988 Underground Storage Tanks; Technical Requirements; Final Rule and Underground Storage Tanks Containing Petroleum-Financial Responsibility Requirements and State Program Approval Objective; Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's 1988 regulations concerning USTs are contained in 40 CFR Part 280, 40 CFR Part 281 and 40 CFR Parts 282.50-282.105 and divided into three sections: technical requirements, financial responsibility requirements, and state program approval objectives.

  14. Continuum of Care Program--Increasing Mobility Options for Homeless Individuals and Families With Tenant-Based Rental Assistance. Interim rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    On July 31, 2012, HUD published an interim rule entitled "Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Continuum of Care Program." The Continuum of Care (CoC) program is designed to address the critical problem of homelessness through a coordinated community-based process of identifying needs and building a system of housing and services to address those needs. This rule amends the CoC program regulations to allow individuals and families to choose housing outside of a CoC's geographic area, subject to certain conditions, and to retain the tenant-based rental assistance under the CoC program. In addition to allowing individuals and families to choose housing outside of the CoC's geographic area, this interim rule exempts recipients and subrecipients from compliance with all nonstatutory regulations when a program participant moves to flee domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. This relaxation of conditions is consistent with the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, directing greater protections for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

  15. 75 FR 57998 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Market Prices, Other than Paid Designed to Influence Market Advertising. Prices, Other than Paid... respect to such complaints. 10. Advertising. FINRA shall assume responsibility to review the advertising... Fraudulent Device Rule 3.5(a) Advertising Practices...... NASD Rule 2210(d)(1)(B) Communications with the...

  16. 75 FR 18915 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ..., Housing, and Urban Affairs to Accompany S. 249, S. Rep. No. 94-75, 94th Cong., 1st Session 32 (1975). To... EDGA rules for any broker-dealer subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC.\\15\\ \\15\\ Apparent violations of such EDGA rules by any broker-dealer subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC will be processed by...

  17. 75 FR 28078 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Order Approving and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs to Accompany S. 249, S. Rep. No. 94-75, 94th Cong., 1st... EDGA rules for any broker- dealer subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC.\\14\\ Apparent violations of any EDGA rules by any broker-dealer subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC. will be processed by, and...

  18. 75 FR 28080 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Order Approving and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs to Accompany S. 249, S. Rep. No. 94-75, 94th Cong., 1st... EDGX rules for any broker- dealer subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC.\\14\\ Apparent violations of any EDGX rules by any broker-dealer subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC. will be processed by, and...

  19. 75 FR 39614 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Modesto City-County Airport, Modesto, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... under the provisions of Title I of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act, as amended, (Pub. L. 96..., 2010. Under section 104(a) of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979, as amended (herein... Compatibility Program recommended two noise abatement elements, four land use management elements and one...

  20. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their respective cost effectiveness. Alternative measures, such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS), are not considered as it is difficult to quantify their abatement potential. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of an energy system model to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NOx) that incorporates both end-of-pipe controls and these alternative measures. We decompose the MACC by sector, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS relative to end-of-pipe controls. RE/EE/FS are shown to produce considerable emission reductions after end-of-pipe controls have been exhausted. Furthermore, some RE/EE/FS are shown to be cost-competitive with end-of-pipe controls. Demonstrate how the MARKAL energy system model can be used to evaluate the potential role of renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) in achieving NOx reductions. For this particular analysis, we show that RE/EE/FSs are able to increase the quantity of NOx reductions available for a particular marginal cost (ranging from $5k per ton to $40k per ton) by approximately 50%.

  1. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  2. Gas Flaring, Environmental Pollution and Abatement Measures in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact of gas flaring on the oil bearing enclave of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, was examined with a view to evaluating the abatement measures put in place by the Federal government of Nigeria and the oil producing companies. Primary and secondary information and data were analyzed during the study.

  3. Efficient air pollution abatement for regions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.L. [National Chiao Tung University, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. for Business & Management

    2006-08-15

    This paper computes the efficient air pollution abatement ratios of 30 regions in China during the period 1996-2002. Three air emissions (SO{sub 2}, soot and dust) are considered. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with a single output (real GDP) and five inputs (labour, real capital stock, SO{sub 2}, dust and soot emissions) is used to compute the target emissions of each region for each year. The efficient abatement ratios of each region in each year are then obtained by dividing the target emission by the actual emission of an air pollutant. Our major findings are: 1. The eastern area is the most efficient region with respect to SO{sub 2}, soot and dust emissions in every year during the research period. 2. The eastern, central and western areas have the lowest, medium and highest 1996-2002 average target abatement ratios of SO, (22.09%, 42.23% and 57.58%), soot (26.19%, 56.34% and 66.37%) and dust (15.20%, 29.09% and 40.59%), respectively. 3. These results are consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory, whereby a more developed area will use environmental goods more efficiently than a less developed area. 4. Compared to dust emission, the average target abatement ratios for SO{sub 2} and soot emissions (as direct outcomes of burning coal) are relatively much higher for all three areas.

  4. 26 CFR 1.507-9 - Abatement of taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Abatement of taxes. 1.507-9 Section 1.507-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... calendar months, or (2) Effective assurance is given to the Commissioner in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  5. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating both controls and alternative measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the efficient marginal abatement cost level for any aggregate emissions target when a least cost approach is implemented. In order for it to represent the efficient MAC level, all abatement opportunities across all sectors and loc...

  6. LIMES: A computer program for analyses of light and intermediate-mass fragment emission in heavy ion reactions by an extended sum-rule model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.M.; Wentz, J.; Hohn, H.U.

    1989-10-01

    The computer program LIMES is based on an improved version of the extended sum-rule model for light and intermediate-mass fragment emission in heavy ion reactions. It includes a code for dynamical calculations of the critical angular momentum for fusion following the suggestions. The report briefly describes the use of this program, the necessary input for the calculations of the element distribution and partial cross sections and gives a Fortran listing. Using the fitting routine FITEX the program provides an option for fast parameter adjustments. The use is demonstrated by an application to a specific example. (orig.) [de

  7. Abatement of tetrafluoromethane by chemical absorption with molten aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhongning; Cao, Dao; Tang, Wei; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen

    2017-12-15

    Chemical absorption with molten aluminum to abate tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) was investigated in this paper. The experiments were conducted at a series of different temperatures of 973 K, 1003 K, 1103 K, and 1188 K and the abatement rate of CF 4 was calculated. It was found that CF 4 can be adsorbed firstly and then react with molten aluminum automatically. The initial abatement rate of CF 4 in molten aluminum was 3.10 × 10 -2  mol·m -3 ·s -1 at 973 K, while it reached its maximum value of 1.08 × 10 -1  mol·m -3 ·s -1 at the temperature of 1103 K. The highest abatement efficiency was 48.4%, reached at 1003 K. Higher temperatures up to 1188 K did not affect the abatement efficiency, however, they accelerated slightly the initial reaction rate. The products of the chemical absorption are white solid AlF 3 and black graphite powder identified by XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. Due to density differences, solid AlF 3 and graphite powder in the product tend to accumulate on the top of molten aluminum where they form two separate layers. This makes them recover more easily. The gas-liquid reaction process between CF 4 and molten aluminum is accorded with the two-film theory model, diffusion process is considered to be the control step of the whole process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medicare program; appeals of CMS or CMS contractor determinations when a provider or supplier fails to meet the requirements for Medicare billing privileges. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    This final rule implements a number of regulatory provisions that are applicable to all providers and suppliers, including durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) suppliers. This final rule establishes appeals processes for all providers and suppliers whose enrollment, reenrollment or revalidation application for Medicare billing privileges is denied and whose Medicare billing privileges are revoked. It also establishes timeframes for deciding enrollment appeals by an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) or the Departmental Appeals Board (DAB), or Board, within the DHHS; and processing timeframes for CMS' Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) contractors. In addition, this final rule allows Medicare FFS contractors to revoke Medicare billing privileges when a provider or supplier submits a claim or claims for services that could not have been furnished to a beneficiary. This final rule also specifies that a Medicare contractor may establish a Medicare enrollment bar for any provider or supplier whose billing privileges have been revoked. Lastly, the final rule requires that all providers and suppliers receive Medicare payments by electronic funds transfer (EFT) if the provider or supplier, is submitting an initial enrollment application to Medicare, changing their enrollment information, revalidating or re-enrolling in the Medicare program.

  9. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2006. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    In this final rule we update the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Annual updates to the PPS rates are required by section 1888(e) of the Social Security Act (the Act), as amended by the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Balanced Budget Refinement Act of 1999 (BBRA), the Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (BIPA), and the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA), relating to Medicare payments and consolidated billing for SNFs. This final rule also responds to public comments submitted on the proposed rule published on May 19, 2005 (70 FR 29070), and promulgates provisions set forth in that proposed rule, along with several additional technical revisions to the regulations.

  10. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2015. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2015. In addition, it adopts the most recent Office of Management and Budget (OMB) statistical area delineations to identify a facility's urban or rural status for the purpose of determining which set of rate tables will apply to the facility, and to determine the SNF PPS wage index including a 1-year transition with a blended wage index for all providers for FY 2015. This final rule also contains a revision to policies related to the Change of Therapy (COT) Other Medicare Required Assessment (OMRA). This final rule includes a discussion of a provision related to the Affordable Care Act involving Civil Money Penalties. Finally, this final rule discusses the SNF therapy payment research currently underway within CMS, observed trends related to therapy utilization among SNF providers, and the agency's commitment to accelerating health information exchange in SNFs.

  11. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2012. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year 2012. In addition, it recalibrates the case-mix indexes so that they more accurately reflect parity in expenditures between RUG-IV and the previous case-mix classification system. It also includes a discussion of a Non-Therapy Ancillary component currently under development within CMS. In addition, this final rule discusses the impact of certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act, and reduces the SNF market basket percentage by the multi-factor productivity adjustment. This rule also implements certain changes relating to the payment of group therapy services and implements new resident assessment policies. Finally, this rule announces that the proposed provisions regarding the ownership disclosure requirements set forth in section 6101 of the Affordable Care Act will be finalized at a later date.

  12. Medicare and Medicaid programs; changes in provider and supplier enrollment, ordering and referring, and documentation requirements; and changes in provider agreements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    This final rule finalizes several provisions of the Affordable Care Act implemented in the May 5, 2010 interim final rule with comment period. It requires all providers of medical or other items or services and suppliers that qualify for a National Provider Identifier (NPI) to include their NPI on all applications to enroll in the Medicare and Medicaid programs and on all claims for payment submitted under the Medicare and Medicaid programs. In addition, it requires physicians and other professionals who are permitted to order and certify covered items and services for Medicare beneficiaries to be enrolled in Medicare. Finally, it mandates document retention and provision requirements on providers and supplier that order and certify items and services for Medicare beneficiaries.

  13. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2009. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-08

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), for fiscal year (FY) 2009. It also discusses our ongoing analysis of nursing home staff time measurement data collected in the Staff Time and Resource Intensity Verification (STRIVE) project. Finally, this final rule makes technical corrections in the regulations text with respect to Medicare bad debt payments to SNFs and the reference to the definition of urban and rural as applied to SNFs.

  14. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  15. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  16. Advanced Noise Abatement Procedures for a Supersonic Business Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Jones, Scott M.; Seidel, Jonathan A.; Huff, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Supersonic civil aircraft present a unique noise certification challenge. High specific thrust required for supersonic cruise results in high engine exhaust velocity and high levels of jet noise during takeoff. Aerodynamics of thin, low-aspect-ratio wings equipped with relatively simple flap systems deepen the challenge. Advanced noise abatement procedures have been proposed for supersonic aircraft. These procedures promise to reduce airport noise, but they may require departures from normal reference procedures defined in noise regulations. The subject of this report is a takeoff performance and noise assessment of a notional supersonic business jet. Analytical models of an airframe and a supersonic engine derived from a contemporary subsonic turbofan core are developed. These models are used to predict takeoff trajectories and noise. Results indicate advanced noise abatement takeoff procedures are helpful in reducing noise along lateral sidelines.

  17. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  18. Marginal abatement cost curves for Heavy Duty Vehicles. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroten, A.; Warringa, G.; Bles, M.

    2012-09-15

    Cost curves were calculated for CO2 abatement technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles. These curves were elaborated for eight different vehicle categories (six categories of truck and two subcategories), as well as for an 'average' truck and bus. Given that cost curves depend very much on underlying assumptions, the MACH model (Marginal Abatement Costs of Heavy duty vehicles) was developed. This model allows users to enter their own assumptions with respect to parameters like fuel prices and cost and lifetime of individual technologies, with the model then generating new cost curves for the various vehicle categories. This background report contains a description of the model and a summary of the results of several model runs.

  19. Development and testing of technical measures for the abatement of PM10 emissions from poultry housings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Mosquera, J.; Winkel, A. [Wageningen UR Livestock Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    In order to comply with the European Union's ambient air quality standards, the Netherlands must reduce emissions of PM10. As a contributor to PM10, the poultry industry must implement mitigation measures before 2012. An extensive research and development program was launched in 2008 to provide abatement technology for broiler and layer houses. This paper presented results from studies carried out in 2008 and 2009 by Wageningen UR Livestock Research. The supply industry and poultry farmers participated in the study in which different methods and approaches were examined, including bedding material, light schedules, oil spraying systems, ionization systems, water scrubbers, combined scrubbers, electrostatic filters, and dry filters. Most methods were first tested and optimized in small units at an experimental poultry facility Lelystad. Several methods were validated in a next step on poultry farms, where PM10 emissions were measured to establish official emission factors. The oil spraying system and ionization system were tested in broiler houses and are nearing implementation. Reductions in PM10 emissions by different methods ranged from no effect to levels of 60 per cent. An outlook on adequate dust abatement measures for poultry housings was also provided.

  20. A Methodology for Constructing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for Climate Action in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As drivers of climate action, cities are taking measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which if left unabated pose a challenge to meeting long-term climate targets. The economics of climate action needs to be at the forefront of climate dialogue to prioritize investments among competing mitigation measures. A marginal abatement cost (MAC curve is an effective visualization of climate action that initiates a technical and economic discussion of the cost-effectiveness and abatement potential of such actions among local leaders, policy makers, and climate experts. More commonly demonstrated for countries, MAC curves need to be developed for cities because of their heterogeneity, which vary in their urban activities, energy supply, infrastructure stock, and commuting patterns. The methodology for constructing bottom-up MAC curves for cities is presented for technologies that offer fuel switching and/or energy efficiencies, while considering technology lifetimes, city-specific electricity and fuel prices, and emission intensities. Resulting MAC curves are unique to every city, and chart the pathway towards low-carbon growth by prioritizing measures based on cost-effectiveness. A case study of Toronto’s climate targets demonstrates the prioritization of select technologies. Leveraging MAC curves to support climate programs enables cities to strategically invest in financing climate action and designing incentives.

  1. PARTICULATE EMISSION ABATEMENT FOR KRAKOW BOILERHOUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce H. Easom; Leo A, Smolensky; S. Ronald Wysk; Jan Surowka; Miroslaw Litke; Jacek Ginter

    1998-09-30

    A U.S./Polish Bilateral Steering Committee (BSC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) selected LSR Technologies, Inc. as a contractor to participate in the Krakow Clean Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. The objective of this program was the formation of business ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and services to reduce air emissions in the city of Krakow. A cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE and LSR to begin work in April 1994 involving implementation of particulate control technology called a Core Separator{trademark} for coal-fueled boilerhouses in the city. The major work tasks included: (1) conducting a market analysis, (2) completion of a formal marketing plan, (3) obtaining patent protection within Poland, (4) selecting a manufacturing partner, and (5) completing a demonstration unit and commercial installations. In addition to work performed by LSR Technologies, key contributors to this project were (1) the Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE), a non-profit consulting organization specializing in energy and environmental-related technologies, and (2) EcoInstal, a privately held Polish company serving the air pollution control market. As the project concluded in late 1998, five (5) Core Separator{trademark} installations had been implemented in the city of Krakow, while about 40 others were completed in other regions of Poland.

  2. DRONE - a tool for urban traffic noise abatement policy evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar, A.; Chung, E.; Kuwahara, M.

    2005-01-01

    Areawide Dynamic ROad traffic NoisE simulator-DRONE, been has developed by the integration of a road traffic noise prediction model (ASJ MODEL-1998) with road traffic simulator (AVENUE) which is further linked with GIS to provide areawide dynamic road traffic noise contour maps. This tool provides an engineering solution for the prediction of road traffic noise in urban network. Noise reduction in an urban area can be achieved by noise abatement policie...

  3. Relative Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Competitiveness of Biofuels in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Millinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper, the analysis and modeling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany are carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet-based ethanol for the short- to medium-term least-cost option and substitute natural gas (SNG for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize-based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations, as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid out in policy.

  4. Pollution Emissions, Environmental Policy, and Marginal Abatement Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Ou, Jia-Jia

    2017-12-05

    Pollution emissions impose serious social negative externalities, especially in terms of public health. To reduce pollution emissions cost-effectively, the marginal abatement costs (MACs) of pollution emissions must be determined. Since the industrial sectors are the essential pillars of China's economic growth, as well as leading energy consumers and sulfur dioxide (SO₂) emitters, estimating MACs of SO₂ emissions at the industrial level can provide valuable information for all abatement efforts. This paper tries to address the critical and essential issue in pollution abatement: How do we determine the MACs of pollution emissions in China? This paper first quantifies the SO₂ emission contribution of different industrial sectors in the Chinese economy by an Input-Output method and then estimates MACs of SO₂ for industrial sectors at the national level, provincial level, and sectoral level by the shadow price theory. Our results show that six sectors (e.g., the Mining and Washing of Coal sector) should be covered in the Chinese pollution emission trading system. We have also found that the lowest SO₂ shadow price is 2000 Yuan/ton at the national level, and that shadow prices should be set differently at the provincial level. Our empirical study has several important policy implications, e.g., the estimated MACs may be used as a pricing benchmark through emission allowance allocation. In this paper, the MACs of industrial sectors are calculated from the national, provincial and sectoral levels; therefore, we provide an efficient framework to track the complex relationship between sectors and provinces.

  5. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2014. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2014. In addition, it revises and rebases the SNF market basket, revises and updates the labor related share, and makes certain technical and conforming revisions in the regulations text. This final rule also includes a policy for reporting the SNF market basket forecast error in certain limited circumstances and adds a new item to the Minimum Data Set (MDS), Version 3.0 for reporting the number of distinct therapy days. Finally, this final rule adopts a change to the diagnosis code used to determine which residents will receive the AIDS add-on payment, effective for services provided on or after the October 1, 2014 implementation date for conversion to ICD-10-CM.

  6. 2015 Edition Health Information Technology (Health IT) Certification Criteria, 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) Definition, and ONC Health IT Certification Program Modifications. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This final rule finalizes a new edition of certification criteria (the 2015 Edition health IT certification criteria or "2015 Edition'') and a new 2015 Edition Base Electronic Health Record (EHR) definition, while also modifying the ONC Health IT Certification Program to make it open and accessible to more types of health IT and health IT that supports various care and practice settings. The 2015 Edition establishes the capabilities and specifies the related standards and implementation specifications that Certified Electronic Health Record Technology (CEHRT) would need to include to, at a minimum, support the achievement of meaningful use by eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) under the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs (EHR Incentive Programs) when such edition is required for use under these programs.

  7. TRICARE; Revision of Nonparticipating Providers Reimbursement Rate; Removal of Cost Share for Dental Sealants; TRICARE Dental Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    This final rule revises the benefit payment provision for nonparticipating providers to more closely mirror industry practices by requiring TDP nonparticipating providers to be reimbursed (minus the appropriate cost-share) at the lesser of billed charges or the network maximum allowable charge for similar services in that same locality (region) or state. This rule also updates the regulatory provisions regarding dental sealants to clearly categorize them as a preventive service and, consequently, eliminate the current 20 percent cost-share applicable to sealants to conform with the language in the regulation to the statute.

  8. Medicare Program: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; Short Inpatient Hospital Stays; Transition for Certain Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospitals Under the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System; Provider Administrative Appeals and Judicial Review. Final rule with comment period; final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2016 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program and the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program. Further, this document includes certain finalized policies relating to the hospital inpatient prospective payment system: Changes to the 2-midnight rule under the short inpatient hospital stay policy; and a payment transition for hospitals that lost their status as a Medicare-dependent, small rural hospital (MDH) because they are no longer in a rural area due to the implementation of the new Office of Management and Budget delineations in FY 2015 and have not reclassified from urban to rural before January 1, 2016. In addition, this document contains a final rule that finalizes certain 2015 proposals, and addresses public comments received, relating to the changes in the Medicare regulations governing provider administrative appeals and judicial review relating to appropriate claims in provider cost reports.

  9. National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: nutrition standards for all foods sold in school as required by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    This interim final rule amends the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program regulations to establish nutrition standards for all foods sold in schools, other than food sold under the lunch and breakfast programs. Amendments made by Section 208 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) require the Secretary to establish nutrition standards for such foods, consistent with the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and directs the Secretary to consider authoritative scientific recommendations for nutrition standards; existing school nutrition standards, including voluntary standards for beverages and snack foods; current State and local standards; the practical application of the nutrition standards; and special exemptions for infrequent school-sponsored fundraisers (other than fundraising through vending machines, school stores, snack bars, à la carte sales and any other exclusions determined by the Secretary). In addition, this interim final rule requires schools participating in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program to make potable water available to children at no charge in the place where lunches are served during the meal service, consistent with amendments made by section 203 of the HHFKA, and in the cafeteria during breakfast meal service. This interim final rule is expected to improve the health and well-being of the Nation's children, increase consumption of healthful foods during the school day, and create an environment that reinforces the development of healthy eating habits.

  10. Noise-abatement method for explosives testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, H E; Odell, B N; Arganbright, V E

    1980-09-01

    When Lawrence Livermore Laboratory started detonating explosives at its Site 300 test location in the sparsely populated hills east of the Laboratory, residents in neighboring areas complained of sudden loud noises. A combined literature and research study, coupled with an experimental test program, indicated the combination of air temperatures and winds at various elevations was primarily responsible for blast or sound waves being returned to the surface. To solve the noise problem, the Laboratory devised a method for determining the maximum amount of explosives that could be detonated aboveground under various atmospheric conditions without creating excessive noise in populated areas. This method for predicting explosives weight limits using pressure-distance-weight nomograms and the slope of a sound-velocity curve is described in this paper. The sound-velocity curve is computed with temperature information from the U.S. Weather Bureau and wind data from a target-acquisition radar system. By following this method, the Laboratory has been able to detonate thousands of shots without creating excessive noise in nearby communities.

  11. 75 FR 9970 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Participants desire to eliminate regulatory duplication with respect to SRO market surveillance of Common... Boston Options Exchange LLC Rules). Whereas, for this purpose, the Participants desire to execute and... the Commission. XV. Any Participant may manifest its intention to cancel its participation in this...

  12. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents’ Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: A Bi-directional Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.; Glatz, T.

    2016-01-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents’ rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents’ alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents’ beliefs

  13. 75 FR 18920 - Program for Allocation of Regulatory Responsibilities Pursuant to Rule 17d-2; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...\\ See Securities Act Amendments of 1975, Report of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban... subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC.\\15\\ \\15\\ Apparent violations of such EDGX rules by any broker-dealer subsidiary of Direct Edge Holdings LLC will be processed by, and enforcement proceedings will be conducted by...

  14. Essays on carbon abatement and electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, John Timothy

    In the first chapter of this dissertation, I study the effects of a number of policies which affect the electric grid using the SuperOPF, a full AC optimization/simulation framework with optimal investment developed at Cornell University. A 36-node model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council is used to test policies that aim to reduce CO2, other emissions, or otherwise impact the operation of the electric grid: a base case, with no new environmental legislation; enactment of the Kerry-Lieberman CO2 allowance proposal in 2012; following Fukishima, a retirement of all US nuclear plants by 2022 with and without Kerry-Lieberman; marginal damages from SO2 and NOX emissions charged to coal, gas and oil-fired generation; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load filling; wind incentives in place; and two cases which combine these. The cases suggest that alternative policies may have very different outcomes in terms of electricity prices, emissions, and health outcomes. In all cases, however, the optimal strategy for future investment is investment in new natural gas combined cycle plants. Policies can change how much new generation is built, whether other plants are built, or what types of plants are retired. The second chapter of my dissertation utilizes the SuperOPF and the model of the Northeast Power Coordinating Council to analyze the issue of carbon leakage. I analyze the effects of a regionally-limited carbon cap and trade program, the Regional Greenhouse Initiative (RGGI), when additional generating assets in non-affected states are included in the analysis. In the face of different carbon prices on generating assets in covered and non-covered states, generation is expected to shift from states bound by RGGI to states outside of RGGI. This carbon leakage may undermine some or all of the benefits of RGGI while simultaneously increasing prices for customers in the area. Even though carbon prices under RGGI are very low, some leakage is occurring, and this leakage

  15. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  16. World Trade Center Health Program; addition of certain types of cancer to the list of WTC-related health conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    Title I of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act of 2010 amended the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act) to establish the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program. The WTC Health Program, which is administered by the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), provides medical monitoring and treatment to eligible firefighters and related personnel, law enforcement officers, and rescue, recovery, and cleanup workers who responded to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, at the Pentagon, and in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, and to eligible survivors of the New York City attacks. In accordance with WTC Health Program regulations, which establish procedures for adding a new condition to the list of covered health conditions, this final rule adds to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions the types of cancer proposed for inclusion by the notice of proposed rulemaking.

  17. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2004. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-07

    This final rule will refine the resource-based practice expense relative value units (RVUs) and make other changes to Medicare Part B payment policy. The policy changes concern: Medicare Economic Index, practice expense for professional component services, definition of diabetes for diabetes self-management training, supplemental survey data for practice expense, geographic practice cost indices, and several coding issues. In addition, this rule updates the codes subject to the physician self-referral prohibition. We also make revisions to the sustainable growth rate and the anesthesia conversion factor. These changes will ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. We are also finalizing the calendar year (CY) 2003 interim RVUs and are issuing interim RVUs for new and revised procedure codes for CY 2004. As required by the statute, we are announcing that the physician fee schedule update for CY 2004 is -4.5 percent, the initial estimate of the sustainable growth rate for CY 2004 is 7.4 percent, and the conversion factor for CY 2004 is $35.1339. We published a proposed rule (68 FR 50428) in the Federal Register on Part B drug payment reform on August 20, 2003. This proposed rule would also make changes to Medicare payment for furnishing or administering certain drugs and biologicals. We have not finalized these proposals to take into account that the Congress is considering legislation that would address these issues. We will continue to monitor legislative activity that would reform the Medicare Part B drug payment system. If legislation is not enacted soon on this issue, we remain committed to completing the regulatory process.

  18. 78 FR 52907 - Fees for Reviews of the Rule Enforcement Programs of Designated Contract Markets and Registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... are designed to recover program costs, including direct labor costs and overhead. The overhead rate is calculated by dividing total Commission-wide overhead direct program labor costs into the total amount of the Commission-wide overhead pool. For this purpose, direct program labor costs are the salary costs of personnel...

  19. 77 FR 74351 - Fees for Reviews of the Rule Enforcement Programs of Designated Contract Markets and Registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the Commission to the SROs are designed to recover program costs, including direct labor costs and... costs into the total amount of the Commission-wide overhead pool. For this purpose, direct program labor... direct program costs, plus an overhead factor. The Commission calculates actual costs, then calculates an...

  20. 76 FR 16388 - Fees for Reviews of the Rule Enforcement Programs of Contract Markets and Registered Futures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... the costs of operating this Commission program. Fees are calculated by extracting direct labor costs... not all direct program labor costs were captured and that some direct costs were misapplied to SRO... overhead direct program labor costs into the total amount of the Commission-wide overhead pool. For this...

  1. 77 FR 26672 - Fees for Reviews of the Rule Enforcement Programs of Designated Contract Markets and Registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Commission to the SROs are designed to recover program costs, including direct labor costs and overhead. The overhead rate is calculated by dividing total Commission-wide overhead direct program labor costs into the total amount of the Commission-wide overhead pool. For this purpose, direct program labor costs are the...

  2. Medicare Program; Medicare Shared Savings Program; Accountable Care Organizations--Revised Benchmark Rebasing Methodology, Facilitating Transition to Performance-Based Risk, and Administrative Finality of Financial Calculations. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Under the Medicare Shared Savings Program (Shared Savings Program), providers of services and suppliers that participate in an Accountable Care Organization (ACO) continue to receive traditional Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) payments under Parts A and B, but the ACO may be eligible to receive a shared savings payment if it meets specified quality and savings requirements. This final rule addresses changes to the Shared Savings Program, including: Modifications to the program's benchmarking methodology, when resetting (rebasing) the ACO's benchmark for a second or subsequent agreement period, to encourage ACOs' continued investment in care coordination and quality improvement; an alternative participation option to encourage ACOs to enter performance-based risk arrangements earlier in their participation under the program; and policies for reopening of payment determinations to make corrections after financial calculations have been performed and ACO shared savings and shared losses for a performance year have been determined.

  3. Compiling standardized information from clinical practice: using content analysis and ICF Linking Rules in a goal-oriented youth rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Nadia A; Prodinger, Birgit; Dorjbal, Delgerjargal; Rubinelli, Sara; Schmitt, Klaus; Scheel-Sailer, Anke

    2017-09-23

    To illustrate how routinely written narrative admission and discharge reports of a rehabilitation program for eight youths with chronic neurological health conditions can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. First, a qualitative content analysis was conducted by building meaningful units with text segments assigned of the reports to the five elements of the Rehab-Cycle ® : goal; assessment; assignment; intervention; evaluation. Second, the meaningful units were then linked to the ICF using the refined ICF Linking Rules. With the first step of transformation, the emphasis of the narrative reports changed to a process oriented interdisciplinary layout, revealing three thematic blocks of goals: mobility, self-care, mental, and social functions. The linked 95 unique ICF codes could be grouped in clinically meaningful goal-centered ICF codes. Between the two independent linkers, the agreement rate was improved after complementing the rules with additional agreements. The ICF Linking Rules can be used to compile standardized health information from narrative reports if prior structured. The process requires time and expertise. To implement the ICF into common practice, the findings provide the starting point for reporting rehabilitation that builds upon existing practice and adheres to international standards. Implications for Rehabilitation This study provides evidence that routinely collected health information from rehabilitation practice can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by using the "ICF Linking Rules", however, this requires time and expertise. The Rehab-Cycle ® , including assessments, assignments, goal setting, interventions and goal evaluation, serves as feasible framework for structuring this rehabilitation program and ensures that the complexity of local practice is appropriately reflected. The refined "ICF Linking Rules" lead to a standardized

  4. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System

  5. Federal Employees Health Benefits and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Programs' Coverage Exception for Children of Same-Sex Domestic Partners. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    This action amends the rule to create a regulatory exception that allows children of same-sex domestic partners living overseas to maintain their Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Program (FEDVIP) coverage until September 30, 2018. Due to a recent Supreme Court decision, as of January 1, 2016, coverage of children of same-sex domestic partners under the FEHB Program and FEDVIP will generally only be allowed if the couple is married, as discussed in Benefits Administration Letter (BAL) 15-207 dated October 5, 2015. OPM recognizes there are additional requirements placed on overseas federal employees that may not apply to other civilian employees with duty stations in the United States making it difficult to travel to the United States to marry same-sex partners.

  6. Tradeable emission permit in Dutch acidification abatement policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyssenaars, P.; Sliggers, J. [Ministry of Environment (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Target groups as well as the government are under the spell of economic instruments as part of environmental policy. Under this heading fall (regulatory) taxes and tradeable emission permits (VER). Of the two, VER, particularly, receive a lot of attention. From the target groups, because the flexibility of VER means working cost-effectively, which could lead to cost savings. From the government, because it can have more faith in the viability of emission ceilings, and has less need to pass detailed legislation. The latter conforms nicely to the philosophy `government at arm`s length`. The Ministry of Environment has had a study made on the feasibility of VER in the context of the acidification abatement policy in the Netherlands. The development and implementation of policy concerning acidification abatement is at an advanced stage, with deposition targets already set for 2000 and 2010 (2400 and 1400 acid equivalents/ha/year, respectively, averaged for afforested areas). From these, also emission reduction targets per target group are deduced, which can be used in a VER system. The main starting point of the study was to gain more insight into the practical aspects of VER. One important question is what form a VER system for the Netherlands should have to take. Also, an investigation was made into the activities which are necessary to introduce a VER system as well as the time, manpower and money these activities entail

  7. Hanford Tank Farm Vapors Abatement Technology and Vendor Proposals Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Farrar, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fink, S. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-20

    Suspected chemical vapor releases from the Hanford nuclear waste tank system pose concerns for worker exposure. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) contracted the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to explore abatement technologies and strategies to remediate the vapors emitted through the ventilation system. In response, SRNL conducted an evaluation of technologies to abate, or reduce, vapor emissions to below 10% of the recognized occupational exposure limits (OELs). The evaluation included a review of published literature and a broadly communicated Request for Information to commercial vendors through a Federal Business Opportunities (Fed Biz Opps) web posting. In addition, SRNL conducted a workshop and post-workshop conference calls with interested suppliers (vendors) to assess proposals of relevant technologies. This report reviews applicable technologies and summarizes the approaches proposed by the vendors who participated in the workshop and teleconference interviews. In addition, the report evaluates the estimated performance of the individual technologies for the various classes of chemical compounds present in the Hanford Chemicals of Potential Concern (COPCs) list. Similarly, the report provides a relative evaluation of the vendor proposed approaches against criteria of: technical feasibility (and maturity), design features, operational considerations, secondary waste generation, safety/regulatory, and cost / schedule. These rough order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates are intended to provide a comparison basis between technologies and are not intended to be actual project estimates.

  8. Abatement costs of post-Kyoto climate regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel den; Lucas, Paul; Vuuren, Detlef van

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the abatement costs of three post-Kyoto regimes for differentiating commitments compatible with stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gases concentrations at 550 ppmv CO 2 equivalent in 2100. The three regimes explored are: (1) the Multi-Stage approach assumes a gradual increase in the number of Parties involved who are adopting either emission intensity or reductions targets; (2) the Brazilian Proposal approach, i.e. the allocation or reductions based on countries' contribution to temperature increase; (3) Contraction and Convergence, with full participation in convergence of per capita emission allowances. In 2050, the global costs increase up to about 1% of the world GDP, ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, depending on baseline scenario and marginal abatement costs. Four groups of regions can be identified on the basis of similar costs (expressed as the percentage of GDP). These are: (1) OECD regions with average costs; (2) FSU, the Middle East and Latin America with high costs; (3) South-East Asia and East Asia (incl. China) with low costs; and (4) South Asia (incl. India) and Africa with net gains from emissions trading for most regimes. The Brazilian Proposal approach gives the highest costs for groups 1 and 2. The distribution of costs for the Contraction and Convergence approach highly depends on the convergence year. The Multi-Stage approach and Contraction and Convergence (convergence year 2050) seem to result in relatively the most even distribution of costs amongst all Parties

  9. Medicare program; replacement of reasonable charge methodology by fee schedules for parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-28

    This final rule implements fee schedules for payment of parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) items and services furnished under the prosthetic device benefit, defined in section 1861(s)(8) of the Social Security Act. The authority for establishing these fee schedules is provided by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which amended the Social Security Act at section 1842(s). Section 1842(s) of the Social Security Act specifies that statewide or other area wide fee schedules may be implemented for the following items and services still subject to the reasonable charge payment methodology: medical supplies; home dialysis supplies and equipment; therapeutic shoes; parenteral and enteral nutrients, equipment, and supplies; electromyogram devices; salivation devices; blood products; and transfusion medicine. This final rule describes changes made to the proposed fee schedule payment methodology for these items and services and provides that the fee schedules for PEN items and services are effective for all covered items and services furnished on or after January 1, 2002. Fee schedules will not be implemented for electromyogram devices and salivation devices at this time since these items are not covered by Medicare. In addition, fee schedules will not be implemented for medical supplies, home dialysis supplies and equipment, therapeutic shoes, blood products, and transfusion medicine at this time since the data required to establish these fee schedules are inadequate.

  10. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.M.; Ogle, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  11. 29 CFR 1960.30 - Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. 1960.30 Section 1960.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... unhealthful working conditions. (a) The agency shall ensure the prompt abatement of unsafe and unhealthful...

  12. 29 CFR 4207.4 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section... withdrawal liability. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow nor pays its withdrawal liability payments remains eligible for abatement. (b) Bond/escrow. The bond or escrow allowed by...

  13. 29 CFR 4208.5 - Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 4208.5 Withdrawal liability payments during pendency of abatement determination. (a) Bond/Escrow. An... to, or establish an escrow account for, the plan that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (b) of... second consecutive plan year. An employer that applies for abatement and neither provides a bond/escrow...

  14. Effects-based integrated assessment modelling for the support of European air pollution abatement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettelingh, J.P.; Posch, M.; Slootweg, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.; Gall, Le A.; Maas, R.

    2015-01-01

    Critical load and exceedance based indicators for effects of air pollution are used to define and compare air pollution abatement scenarios, thus assisting in the framing of policies and strategies, of emission abatement options. In this chapter the effects-based support of European air pollution

  15. Public Education as an Approach to Future Planning for Pollution Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Eliot R.

    One approach to the abatement of pollution is that which stresses that an informed public will, because of an altruistic motive termed "civic responsibility," control the disruption of the environment, before such disruption reaches a perceived 'crisis' state. This paper discusses the public approach to pollution abatement in terms of long-range…

  16. Marginal Abatement Cost of CO2 in China Based on Directional Distance Function: An Industry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial sectors account for around 70% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions in China. It is of great importance to measure the potential for CO2 emissions reduction and calculate the carbon price in industrial sectors covered in the Emissions Trading Scheme and carbon tax. This paper employs the directional distance function to calculate the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions during 2005–2011 and makes a comparative analysis between our study and the relevant literature. Our empirical results show that the marginal abatement costs vary greatly from industry to industry: high marginal abatement costs occur in industries with low carbon intensity, and vice versa. In the application of the marginal abatement cost, the abatement distribution scheme with minimum cost is established under different abatement targets. The conclusions of abatement distribution scheme indicate that those heavy industries with low MACs and high carbon intensity should take more responsibility for emissions reduction and vice versa. Finally, the policy implications for marginal abatement cost are provided.

  17. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM) demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal…

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.20 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? 102-80.20 Section 102-80.20 Public Contracts... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Safety and Environmental Management Radon § 102-80.20 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the abatement of radon? Federal...

  19. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  20. Diderot's rule

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    "Like many new products, newly released creative goods such as books, music records and movies are sometimes 'surprise' hits but often flops. Experimental and empirical research suggests that it is hard to predict the demand for a new creative good, and therefore its success, even for industry experts. Rules of thumb on the quantitative properties of demand uncertainty exist for various creative industries - including a rule by Denis Diderot (1763) according to which one out of ten published ...

  1. An integrated strategy for aircraft/airport noise abatement: A legal-institutional control act section 7 to the noise control act of 1972 and proposals based thereon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the aircraft noise control structure since the Griggs case of 1962 was examined. The Noise Control Act of 1972 is described which undertook to establish the legal-institutional framework within which an adequate aircraft/airport noise abatement program might be initiated with concern for full recognition of all the beneficial and detrimental consequences of air transportation and appropriate distribution of benefits and costs.

  2. Regional and sectoral marginal abatement cost curves for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  3. On the fair division of greenhouse gas abatement cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics, Ammerlaender Heerstrasse 114-118, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Helm, Carsten [Darmstadt University of Technology, Department of Law and Economics, Marktplatz 15, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    This paper introduces a solution for the fair division of emission reduction costs in the climate change regime. Our primary focus is on the fair division of efficiency gains that arise from exchanging the initial allocation of emission entitlements, rather than the initial allocation itself. We propose to complement the competitive Walrasian solution with welfare bounds, the ethical justification of which rests on commonality of ownership. Simulations with an intertemporal computable general equilibrium model illustrate the relevance of such welfare bounds. For a wide range of initial allocations of emission entitlements - including an equal per capita allocation - we find that developing countries should be fully compensated for their emission abatement efforts, but should not receive any further transfers. (author)

  4. Jejum Pré-abate em Frangos de Corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes AA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As condições ideais dos frangos de corte no momento do abate devem ser conhecidas a fim de possibilitar a produção de carne de excelente qualidade, uma vez que diversos fatores pré e pós-abate estão envolvidos na qualidade final. Em condições normais de abate e processamento, a retirada de ração é feita de 6 a 8 horas antes da apanha das aves, resultando em um período total de jejum de 8 a 12 horas antes do abate, para esvaziar o intestino e com isso minimizar a contaminação no abatedouro. A escalda, depena e evisceração são pontos importantes de contaminação cruzada no abatedouro devido à grande quantidade de microorganismos aderidos às penas, pele e patas das aves e ao rompimento das vísceras durante a evisceração. Entretanto, a desidratação da carcaça começa imediatamente após o início do jejum. Períodos prolongados de jejum podem afetar o pH das diversas partes do intestino, aumentando a presença de Salmonella e outros microorganismos patogênicos. Além disso, determinam uma maior contaminação pela bile, e são, subjetivamente, associados à fragilidade dos intestinos durante a evisceração mecânica. Portanto, os esquemas de processamento devem ser estabelecidos levando-se em conta a integridade e o esvaziamento do intestino e da vesícula biliar, bem como a desidratação e os seus efeitos sobre o bem estar das aves, contaminação da carcaça e qualidade da carne. Como alguns efeitos do jejum ainda não são bem conhecidos, sugerem-se pesquisas nas seguintes áreas: definir o tempo ótimo de jejum para atender o bem estar das aves, minimizar a contaminação e otimizar os parâmetros de qualidade de carcaça; estudar os efeitos de períodos prolongados de jejum sobre o pH e a colonização do papo, pró-ventrículo, moela, intestino delgado, intestino grosso e cecos por enterobactérias, como Salmonella, por exemplo; efeito do jejum sobre o tamanho e cor do fígado. O resultado esperado é um aumento

  5. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  6. A computational study of stimulus driven epileptic seizure abatement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neal Taylor

    Full Text Available Active brain stimulation to abate epileptic seizures has shown mixed success. In spike-wave (SW seizures, where the seizure and background state were proposed to coexist, single-pulse stimulations have been suggested to be able to terminate the seizure prematurely. However, several factors can impact success in such a bistable setting. The factors contributing to this have not been fully investigated on a theoretical and mechanistic basis. Our aim is to elucidate mechanisms that influence the success of single-pulse stimulation in noise-induced SW seizures. In this work, we study a neural population model of SW seizures that allows the reconstruction of the basin of attraction of the background activity as a four dimensional geometric object. For the deterministic (noise-free case, we show how the success of response to stimuli depends on the amplitude and phase of the SW cycle, in addition to the direction of the stimulus in state space. In the case of spontaneous noise-induced seizures, the basin becomes probabilistic introducing some degree of uncertainty to the stimulation outcome while maintaining qualitative features of the noise-free case. Additionally, due to the different time scales involved in SW generation, there is substantial variation between SW cycles, implying that there may not be a fixed set of optimal stimulation parameters for SW seizures. In contrast, the model suggests an adaptive approach to find optimal stimulation parameters patient-specifically, based on real-time estimation of the position in state space. We discuss how the modelling work can be exploited to rationally design a successful stimulation protocol for the abatement of SW seizures using real-time SW detection.

  7. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  8. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Jim; Shackley, Simon; Sohi, Saran; Brownsort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO 2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO 2 e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO 2 e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO 2 e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  9. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  10. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    . The climax of the masque was “Rule, Britannia!” This song advocated a strong navy as a guard against the absolutist European powers with their lack of civil liberties. Furthermore, a strong navy made a standing army superfluous, and so an army could not be deployed as a repressive force of the state. Later...

  11. When public health and genetic privacy collide: positive and normative theories explaining how ACA's expansion of corporate wellness programs conflicts with GINA's privacy rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) contains many provisions intended to increase access to and lower the cost of health care by adopting public health measures. One of these promotes the use of at-work wellness programs by both providing employers with grants to develop these programs and also increasing their ability to tie the price employees pay for health insurance for participating in these programs and meeting specific health goals. Yet despite ACA's specific alteration of three different statues which had in the past shielded employees from having to contribute to the cost of their health insurance based on their achieving employer-designated health markers, it chose to leave alone recently enacted rules implementing the Genetic Non-Discrimination Act (GINA), which prohibits employers from asking employees about their family health history in any context, including assessing their risk for setting wellness targets. This article reviews how both the changes made by ACA and the restrictions recently put place by GINA will affect the way employers are likely to structure Wellness Programs. It also considers how these changes reflect the competing social goals of both ACA, which seeks to expand access to the population by lowering costs, and GINA, which seeks to protect individuals from discrimination. It does so by analyzing both positive theories about how these new laws will function and normative theories explaining the likelihood of future friction between the interests of the population of the United States as a whole who are in need of increased and affordable access to health care, and of the individuals living in this country who risk discrimination, as science and medicine continue to make advances in linking genetic make-up to risk of future illness. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, Samudra; DeCarolis, Joseph F.; Srivastava, Ravi K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology cost and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO x control configurations on a large subset of the existing coal-fired, utility-owned boilers in the US. The resultant data are used to create technology-specific marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) and also serve as input to an integer linear program, which minimizes system-wide control costs by finding the optimal distribution of NO x controls across the modeled boilers under an emission constraint. The result is a single optimized MACC that accounts for detailed, boiler-specific information related to NO x retrofits. Because the resultant MACCs do not take into account regional differences in air-quality standards or pre-existing NO x controls, the results should not be interpreted as a policy prescription. The general method as well as NO x -specific results presented here should be of significant value to modelers and policy analysts who must estimate the costs of pollution reduction.

  13. Virtual Reality Platform Based Simulation System of Environmental Noise Abatement Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Liu; Yu, Fang; Xiaoman, He; Yongyou, Wang

    The general mathematic mode of computing noise abatement is commonly used for most project planning and appraisal of environmental noise abatement projects. However, the inconvenient and impracticable mode and algorithm usually cannot meet the real world computation and testing. Therefore, a more practicable abatement mode and algorithm (multiple noise sources with multiband under sound barriers) which had been applied to VR based simulation system. That implemented the function of real-time demonstrating noise scattering condition within 3D virtual space, furthermore, with sound barriers added in 3D scene, the effectiveness of denoise by sound barriers also can be demonstrated within this system. That provides a significant solution for environmental noise abatement projects as a whole.

  14. Noise Assessment and Abatement in Rapid Transit Systems: Report on the MBTA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    A methodology is described for assessing the noise climate and for selecting the combination of abatement techniques which reduces the existing noise to user specified levels for minimum cost. This methodology, developed in a pilot study of the Massa...

  15. Investigation into effective traffic noise abatement design solutions for mountain corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Traffic noise abatement in mountain corridors can be difficult because traditional roadside barriers may be ineffective : due to topography or may not fit the setting. This study examined current best practices from around the world to gather : conce...

  16. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  17. Emigrants in Flight. The Novel of Carmine Abate and the Peasant Fights in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia FLORIANI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel "La moto de Skanderberg" by Carmine Abate tells the story of the arberesh people's emigration and its involmement in the village conflict; the novel tells also the journey of identity construction of the young protagonist.

  18. Cigar Lake project abatement of August 2008 inflow - a story of innovation and relentless teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.; Dixon, B.; King, C.; Dent, A.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The presentation recounts the process of finding August 2008 inflow, as well as planning and executing the inflow abatement project. Brian Dixon will speak regarding locating the inflow, preparing the inflow abatement plan, and preparing the underground work site at the (underwater) 420 meter level. Craig King will speak regarding design, procurement, and installation of the grout bag barrier adjacent to the No. 1 Shaft at the underwater work site. April Dent will speak regarding the surface abatement drilling and backfilling/grouting, as well as the testing of the completed inflow abatement work. The team will discuss the innovative methods to locate the source of inflow and steps taken to remediate it. (author)

  19. Cooperation in USDA studies and evaluations, and full use of federal funds in nutrition assistance programs nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, Public Law 111-296. Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    This final rule incorporates into the regulations governing the Programs authorized under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (NSLA) and the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (CNA) two nondiscretionary provisions of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture studies and evaluations related to Programs authorized under the NSLA and the CNA. The HHFK Act also amends the NSLA to stipulate that Federal funds must not be subject to State budget restrictions or limitations, including hiring freezes, work furloughs, and travel restrictions. This final rule amends regulations for the National School Lunch Program; the Special Milk Program for Children; the School Breakfast Program; the Summer Food Service Program; the Child and Adult Care Food Program; State Administrative Expense Funds ; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children; and the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program. These provisions will strengthen program integrity by ensuring that sufficient data is made available for studies and evaluations. Additionally, exempting Federal funds from State budgetary restrictions or limitations is intended to increase the ability of State agencies to administer USDA's nutrition assistance programs effectively.

  20. Social Tools And Rules for Teens (The START Program): Program Description and Preliminary Outcomes of an Experiential Socialization Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W; Miller, Amber R; Ko, Jordan A; Wu, Victoria L

    2016-05-01

    Experiential learning is an essential process in the development of core social competencies. Unfortunately, adolescents with autism spectrum disorders often do not possess the prerequisite skillset and motivation to sustain the level of social immersion needed to benefit from this learning process. These persisting social vulnerabilities can limit their long-term relational success and associated quality of life, creating a need for comprehensive social programming. This paper describes a multi-component socialization intervention that simultaneously targets motivational, conceptual, and skill deficits using a hybrid experiential/didactic treatment approach. Evidence of social competence improvements was noted in survey and live conversational measures, indicating that the START program may hold promise as a method for improving the social success of participating adolescents with ASD.

  1. Energy conservation and CO2-emission abatement potential in the Greek residential services sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy for CO 2 -emission abatement will have to allow for the sectoral energy-conservation potential. The present paper outlines the energy-analysis method applied to the Greek residential and services sectors. The trends in energy requirements for 1990-2000 are forecast and energy-conservation and CO 2 -abatement measures are proposed. A Maximum Action Scenario (MAS) and a Realistic Scenario (RS) are compared with a No-Action Scenario (NAS). (Author)

  2. Benefit measures for noise abatement: Calculations for road and rail traffic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Jonsson, Lina; Ögren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose : the aim of this study is to estimate monetary abatement values for road and rail traffic noise that can be used for policy purposes. However, a main objective is to critically discuss the assumptions necessary to convert the monetary values elicited in willingness to pay (WTP) studies to values than can be use for policy purposes. Methods : we employ the hedonic regression technique on Swedish data to elicit individuals’ preferences for noise abatement. Our elicited values are then ...

  3. Using cerium oxides as catalysts for the abatement of trichloroethylene by plasma-catalysis route

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Mora, Manuel; Jimenéz-Sanchidrián, C; Romero-Salguero, Francisco; De Geyter, Nathalie; Leys, Christophe; Morent, Rino

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the abatement of trichloroethylene was examined with a negative DC corona/glow discharge with CeO2 catalyst downstream. The abatement with the plasma alone system showed a poor COx selectivity. However, by combining the plasma source with CeO2 catalyst the COx selectivity was greatly improved, proving that this plasma-catalysis route shows great potential as air pollution control technology for low concentrated VOC air streams.

  4. Adolescents Exiting Homelessness Over Two Years: The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rice, Eric; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Batterham, Phillip; May, Susanne J.; Witkin, Andrea; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    The Risk Amplification and Abatement Model (RAAM), demonstrates that negative contact with socializing agents amplify risk, while positive contact abates risk for homeless adolescents. To test this model, the likelihood of exiting homelessness and returning to familial housing at 2 years and stably exiting over time are examined with longitudinal data collected from 183 newly homeless adolescents followed over 2 years in Los Angeles, CA. In support of RAAM, unadjusted odds of exiting at 2 yea...

  5. Solar energy and the abatement of atmospheric emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirasgedis, S.; Diakoulaki, D.; Assimacopoulos, D.

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the fact that solar energy is a ''clean'' energy form, gaseous pollutants are emitted during the manufacturing of the systems necessary for its utilisation. An attempt is made in this paper to estimate the level of atmospheric pollutants emitted during the successive stages which make up the manufacture process for solar water heating (SWH) systems, and to evaluate these results in comparison with the respective pollutant emission levels attributed to the generation of electricity in Greece's conventional power plants. As energy consumption is recognised as the main source of atmospheric pollution, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) method was applied, focusing on the most energy-consuming stages of the SWH system production process. The conclusions of the analysis indicate that the emissions of gaseous pollutants associated with the utilisation of solar energy are considerably lower than those caused by the production of electricity in conventional systems, thereby substantiating that solar energy utilisation can make a notable contribution to the abatement of atmospheric pollution. (author)

  6. Administrative procedures and sanctions; questions and answers relating to the applicability to the petroleum violation escrow funds of regulations of the energy conservation programs--Department of Energy. Ruling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of General Counsel issues the appended Ruling to respond to questions relating to the applicability to the petroleum violation escrow funds of the regulations of the energy conservation programs administered by DOE to which these funds can be distributed under Section 155 of the Further Continuing Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 1983.

  7. Climate and air quality-driven scenarios of ozone and aerosol precursor abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje; Fagerli, Hilde; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to causing domestic and regional environmental effects, many air pollutants contribute to radiative forcing (RF) of the climate system. However, climate effects are not considered when cost-effective abatement targets for these pollutants are established, nor are they included in current international climate agreements. We construct air pollution abatement scenarios in 2030 which target cost-effective reductions in RF in the EU, USA, and China and compare these to abatement scenarios which instead target regional ozone effects and particulate matter concentrations. Our analysis covers emissions of PM (fine, black carbon and organic carbon), SO 2 , NO x , CH 4 , VOCs, and CO. We find that the effect synergies are strong for PM/BC, VOC, CO and CH 4 . While an air quality strategy targeted at reducing ozone will also reduce RF, this will not be the case for a strategy targeting particulate matter. Abatement in China dominates RF reduction, but there are cheap abatement options also available in the EU and USA. The justification for international cooperation on air quality issues is underlined when the co-benefits of reduced RF are considered. Some species, most importantly SO 2 , contribute a negative forcing on climate. We suggest that given current knowledge, NO x and SO 2 should be ignored in RF-targeted abatement policies.

  8. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  9. Modeling for waste management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, Y P; Huang, G H; Zhang, J L

    2015-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can generate significant amounts of pollutants, and thus pose a risk on human health. Besides, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, a life cycle assessment-based interval-parameter programming (LCA-IPP) method is developed for MSW management associated with environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty. The LCA-IPP can effectively examine the environmental consequences based on a number of environmental impact categories (i.e., greenhouse gas equivalent, acid gas emissions, and respiratory inorganics), through analyzing each life cycle stage and/or major contributing process related to various MSW management activities. It can also tackle uncertainties existed in the related costs, impact factors, and objectives and expressed as interval numbers. Then, the LCA-IPP method is applied to MSW management for the City of Beijing, the capital of China, where energy consumptions and six environmental parameters [i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NOX, SO2, inhalable particle (PM10)] are used as systematic tool to quantify environmental releases in entire life cycle stage of waste collection, transportation, treatment, and disposal of. Results associated with system cost, environmental impact, and the related policy implication are generated and analyzed. Results can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW flows, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty.

  10. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  11. Continuous-emission monitoring: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowances Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CRF Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet summarizes the key components of the proposed Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75)

  12. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  13. Future needs for ship emission abatement and technical measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa ANTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has revised air pollution regulations in MARPOL Annex VI. In 2012 Emission Control Areas (ECA will limit fuel sulphur content to 1% and from 2015 to 0.1%. NOx emissions based on ships engine speed are also reduced for new vessels (2012 & 2016. Facing this legislation, ship owners have the alternative either to operate ships with costly low-sulphur fuels, or to keep using HFO but together with a gas cleaning equipment at the ship stack in order to reduce the rejected amount of SO2 gas in the atmosphere. To achieve this requirement, research and development organizations came out with proposing a solution that uses a device for cleaning exhaust gas of marine diesel engines. The paper presents a short communication about the DEECON project, which aim is to create a novel on-board after-treatment unit more advanced than any currently available. Each sub-unit of the system will be optimized to remove a specific primary pollutant. In particular, the technology within the DEECON system is based on novel or improved abatement techniques for reducing SOx, NOx, Particulate Matter (PM, CO and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC. Some of these technologies are completely new for the maritime sector and they will represent a breakthrough in the reduction of the atmospheric emissions of ships, moving forward the performance of exhaust gas cleaning systems and fostering and anticipating the adoption of future and tighter regulatory requirements. In addition, an after-treatment strategy enables the possible adoption of alternative fuels, which often have their own emissions characteristics.

  14. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data- Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric O’Shaughnessy, Jenny Heeter, David Keyser, Pieter Gagnon, and Alexandra Aznar

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy’s City Energy Profile tool. The analysis estimates the national carbon abatement potential of the most commonly implemented actions in six specific policy areas. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a "moderate abatement scenario" by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a "high abatement scenario" by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city’s control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. City carbon abatement potential is sensitive to national and state policies that affect the carbon intensity of electricity and transportation. Specifically, the U.S. Clean Power Plan and further renewable energy cost reductions could reduce city carbon emissions overall, helping cities achieve their carbon reduction goals.

  15. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-30

    This final rule responds to comments submitted by the public on our May 12, 1998 interim final rule, that implemented provisions in section 4432 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 regarding Medicare payment for skilled nursing facility services. This legislation established a prospective payment system, a consolidated billing provision, and a number of related changes.

  16. Market reaction to economic climate change policy : The merit order effect and the limits of marginal abatement cost curves

    OpenAIRE

    Levihn, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Governments around the world have introduced economic policies to combat global warming. In the form of taxes, emissions trading schemes and subsidies, these polices seek to influence market actors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One tool used to understand market reactions to such policy is marginal abatement cost curves. These curves optimise the two dimensions of cost per abatement and abatement. However; in reality corporations instead optimize for cost reductions, not the combined co...

  17. Engineering simulation evaluation of the two-segment noise abatement approach in the Douglas DC-8-61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylen, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The development and operational evaluation are discussed of a noise abatement two-segment approach which is safe and operationally acceptable for routine use in air carrier service. An engineering simulation evaluation was conducted; it was found that the entry speed and initial configuration are more important in the DC-8-61 than in the 727 because of the DC-8's aerodynamic cleanliness and drag programming constraints. It was also found that the altitude required for the DC-8 upper and lower transitions is less than the 727 transitions principally due to the pitching moment from the underslung DC-8 engines as compared to the 727 engines which produce no pitching moment with a change in thrust. The 727 approach was a reduced flaps (30 degrees) procedure with a 10-knot airspeed bleed in the lower transition; the DC-8 approach is a full flaps (50 degrees) procedure with constant airspeed established as soon as possible after upper segment transition.

  18. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Working Group 'Air pollution abatement' of the University of Stuttgart -ALS. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Despite considerable efforts for air pollution abatement - examples are here desulphurization and nitrogen removal in power and large combustion plants as well as catalytic converters for automobiles there are still many problems to solve. Many small and medium-size companies still have to reduce production-related pollutant emissions, traffic still is a major source of pollutants. Air pollution abatement in the new Federal states and other Eastern European countries is a particularly urgent task and reductions of CO 2 emissions from energy production processes with fossil fuels are not least a great challenge. Apart from industry, legislation and administration especially science is called upon to find solutions to these problems. The university of Stuttgart takes up the challenge. Numerous institutes - 17 of 8 faculties -united in the working group ''air pollution abatement'' of the university of Stuttgart which carries out in interdisciplinary cooperation research work in the area of air pollution abatement. In this annual report activities of individual member states institutes in the area of air pollution abatement (fields of study, current research projects, cooperations and publications in 1991) as well as joint projects are presented. (orig./KW) [de

  20. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongel, Aybike; Sezgin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  1. Emission abatement: Untangling the impacts of the EU ETS and the economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel, Germà; Joseph, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In this study we use historical emission data from installations under the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to evaluate the impact of this policy on greenhouse gas emissions during the first two trading phases (2005–2012). As such the analysis seeks to disentangle two causes of emission abatement: that attributable to the EU ETS and that attributable to the economic crisis that hit the EU in 2008/09. To do so, we use a dynamic panel data approach. Our results suggest that, by far, the biggest share of abatement was attributable to the effects of the economic crisis. This finding has serious implications for future policy adjustments affecting core elements of the EU ETS, including the distribution of EU emission allowances. - Highlights: • We untangle the effects of the EU ETS from those of the economic crisis on industrial emission abatement. • The empirical analysis uses verified emission data instead of estimated emission data. • Abatement of emissions in EU in the last years has been mainly due to the impact of the economic crisis. • Low level of abatement attributable to the EU ETS suggests that important changes must be made in environmental policy

  2. Save water to save carbon and money: developing abatement costs for expanded greenhouse gas reduction portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Hendrickson, Thomas P; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-12-02

    The water-energy nexus is of growing interest for researchers and policy makers because the two critical resources are interdependent. Their provision and consumption contribute to climate change through the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research considers the potential for conserving both energy and water resources by measuring the life-cycle economic efficiency of greenhouse gas reductions through the water loss control technologies of pressure management and leak management. These costs are compared to other GHG abatement technologies: lighting, building insulation, electricity generation, and passenger transportation. Each cost is calculated using a bottom-up approach where regional and temporal variations for three different California water utilities are applied to all alternatives. The costs and abatement potential for each technology are displayed on an environmental abatement cost curve. The results reveal that water loss control can reduce GHGs at lower cost than other technologies and well below California's expected carbon trading price floor. One utility with an energy-intensive water supply could abate 135,000 Mg of GHGs between 2014 and 2035 and save--rather than spend--more than $130/Mg using the water loss control strategies evaluated. Water loss control technologies therefore should be considered in GHG abatement portfolios for utilities and policy makers.

  3. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  4. Marginal abatement cost curves for policy recommendation – A method for energy system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to rank possible measures marginal abatement cost curves have become a tool to graphically represent the relationship between abatement costs and emission reduction. This paper demonstrates how to derive marginal abatement cost curves for well-to-wheel GHG emissions of the transport sector considering the full energy provision chain and the interlinkages and interdependencies within the energy system. Presented marginal abatement cost curves visualize substitution effects between measures for different marginal mitigation costs. The analysis makes use of an application of the energy system model generator TIMES for South Africa (TIMES-GEECO). For the example of Gauteng province, this study exemplary shows that the transport sector is not the first sector to address for cost-efficient reduction of GHG emissions. However, the analysis also demonstrates that several options are available to mitigate transport related GHG emissions at comparable low marginal abatement costs. This methodology can be transferred to other economic sectors as well as to other regions in the world to derive cost-efficient GHG reduction strategies

  5. Medicare Program; hospital inpatient prospective payment systems for acute care hospitals and the long-term care hospital prospective payment system changes and FY2011 rates; provider agreements and supplier approvals; and hospital conditions of participation for rehabilitation and respiratory care services; Medicaid program: accreditation for providers of inpatient psychiatric services. Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    : We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation. In addition, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare acute care hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. We are updating the payment policy and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) and setting forth the changes to the payment rates, factors, and other payment rate policies under the LTCH PPS. In addition, we are finalizing the provisions of the August 27, 2009 interim final rule that implemented statutory provisions relating to payments to LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities and increases in beds in existing LTCHs and LTCH satellite facilities under the LTCH PPS. We are making changes affecting the: Medicare conditions of participation for hospitals relating to the types of practitioners who may provide rehabilitation services and respiratory care services; and determination of the effective date of provider agreements and supplier approvals under Medicare. We are also setting forth provisions that offer psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs increased flexibility in obtaining accreditation to participate in the Medicaid program. Psychiatric hospitals and hospitals with inpatient psychiatric programs will have the choice of undergoing a State survey or of obtaining accreditation from a national accrediting organization whose hospital accreditation

  6. FUEL/CARBON PRICE VS. ABATEMENT TECHNOLOGY IN FREIGHT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Ferdinand Spangenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current situation is the exponential increase in greenhouse gases (GHG, which is mainly caused by industrial and transport activities. The recent Paris agreement in 2015 (Framework Convention on Climate Change COP21, UNFCCC made it clear to everyone that CO2 emissions are to be limited in all areas of life. Alternative fuels with a lower environmental impact than carbon (CO2 emissions are hard to find if the overall footprint is to be taken into account. Nevertheless, there are some fuels that have less impact on climate change. One the other hand, the production of biofuels is a controversial matter, although it is a viable alternative to emissions reduction. CNG or LNG-powered vehicles are also better in terms of environmental pollution, but are hardly better with regard to CO2 impact when a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is carried out. LNG (liquid natural gas, for example, is the future fuel in the maritime sector because of the stricter environmental regulations (SOx,NOx in the shipping industry. The battery-powered vehicle is another example of an environmentally friendly solution. The afore-mentioned measures can be considered as “abatement“ necessary in order to limit CO2 impact. The study shows that there are significant differences in the environmental impact between transport systems and the corresponding drive-system or associated energy base. The polluter should pay, which is a common basic principle in economic research. The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS has been introduced in order to ensure a reduction in CO2 output – emissions come with a price tag. An overall view is necessary, both en-vironmental and economic impact must be reconciled (cf. Spangenberg - TQI. The future viability of the transport system as we know it may change significantly over time if new environmental requirements or e.g. CO2 taxes or ETS are introduced in the freight sector. The abatement of CO2 should be effected primarily through technological

  7. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  8. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  9. Estimating the National Carbon Abatement Potential of City Policies: A Data-Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aznar, Alexandra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Cities are increasingly taking actions such as building code enforcement, urban planning, and public transit expansion to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in their communities and municipal operations. However, many cities lack the quantitative information needed to estimate policy impacts and prioritize city actions in terms of carbon abatement potential and cost effectiveness. This report fills this research gap by providing methodologies to assess the carbon abatement potential of a variety of city actions. The methodologies are applied to an energy use data set of 23,458 cities compiled for the U.S. Department of Energy City Energy Profile tool. The analysis develops a national estimate of the carbon abatement potential of realizable city actions in six specific policy areas encompassing the most commonly implemented city actions. The results of this analysis suggest that, in aggregate, cities could reduce nationwide carbon emissions by about 210 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (MMT CO2) per year in a 'moderate abatement scenario' by 2035 and 480 MMT CO2/year in a 'high abatement scenario' by 2035 through these common actions typically within a city's control in the six policy areas. The aggregate carbon abatement potential of these specific areas equates to a reduction of 3%-7% relative to 2013 U.S. emissions. At the city level, the results suggest the average city could reduce carbon emissions by 7% (moderate) to 19% (high) relative to current city-level emissions. In the context of U.S. climate commitments under the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties (COP21), the estimated national abatement potential of the city actions analyzed in this report equates to about 15%-35% of the remaining carbon abatement necessary to achieve the U.S. COP21 target. Additional city actions outside the scope of this report, such as community choice aggregation (city-level purchasing of renewable energy), zero energy districts, and multi

  10. Comparison of two head-up displays in simulated standard and noise abatement night visual approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronn, F.; Palmer, E. A., III

    1975-01-01

    Situation and command head-up displays were evaluated for both standard and two segment noise abatement night visual approaches in a fixed base simulation of a DC-8 transport aircraft. The situation display provided glide slope and pitch attitude information. The command display provided glide slope information and flight path commands to capture a 3 deg glide slope. Landing approaches were flown in both zero wind and wind shear conditions. For both standard and noise abatement approaches, the situation display provided greater glidepath accuracy in the initial phase of the landing approaches, whereas the command display was more effective in the final approach phase. Glidepath accuracy was greater for the standard approaches than for the noise abatement approaches in all phases of the landing approach. Most of the pilots preferred the command display and the standard approach. Substantial agreement was found between each pilot's judgment of his performance and his actual performance.

  11. Benefits from restoring wetlands for nitrogen abatement: A case study of Gotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The values of nitrogen abatement by measures involving restoration of wetlands, sewage treatment plants and agriculture are calculated and compared. The analytical results show that the value of wetlands is likely to exceed the values of other measures due to the multi-functionality of wetlands and their self-organizing ability. The multi-functionality implies that, in addition to nitrogen abatement, other outputs like buffering of water and biodiversity are produced and the self-organizing feature reduces the rate at which future values of outputs are discounted. According to the empirical results applied to Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic with high concentrations of nitrate in the ground water, the imputed value of wetlands exceeds the corresponding values of the other nitrogen abatement measures by several hundred per cent. 21 refs, 6 tabs

  12. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities; extension of comment period--HCFA. Notice of extension of comment period for interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-13

    This document extends the comment period for an interim final rule with comment period that was published in the Federal Register on May 12, 1998 (63 FR 26252). That interim final rule implements provisions in section 4432 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 related to Medicare payment for skilled nursing facility services. Those include the implementation of a Medicare prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities, consolidated billing, and a number of related changes. The comment period is extended for 60 days.

  13. Modeling and experimental validation of TCE abatement and ozone formation with non thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Arne; Aerts, Robby; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie; Bogaerts, Annemie; Leys, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the formation of ozone and the abatement of trichloroethylene (TCE) with non thermal plasma was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The model predicts that the ozone formation increases with the energy deposition and decreases with the relative humidity (RH) of the air, which is qualitatively in agreement with experimental data. For an energy deposition of 0.136 J/cm³, the abatement of 1000 ppm TCE in air with 5 % RH is dominated by atomic oxygen and to a lesser exte...

  14. Water Pollution abatement programme, The Czech republic Pollution abatement analysis and strengthening of water resources management, Odra River Catchment, phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Dagestad, K.; Ratnaweera, H.; Ibrekk, H.O.; Hansen, J.H.; Tridlica, L.; Brezina, P.; Skacel, A.

    1995-01-01

    Odra river is extremely polluted by organic matter, nitrates, ammonia, phosphorus, bacteria, particles, heavy metals and other micro pollutants from municipalities, industries and agriculture. The poor water quality severely affects the ecology and represents a risk to human health. The water has a very limited value of use. This report presents an abatement programme with both technical and accompanying measures. In order to identify the major polluters several multi criteria analysis have b...

  15. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  16. Intuitionistic Rules : Admissible Rules of Intermediate Logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the admissible rules of intermediate logics. On the one hand, one can characterize the admissibility of rules in certain logic, and on the other hand, one can characterize logics through their admissible rules. We take both approaches, and reach new results in both

  17. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; CY 2018 Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update and CY 2019 Case-Mix Adjustment Methodology Refinements; Home Health Value-Based Purchasing Model; and Home Health Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    This final rule updates the home health prospective payment system (HH PPS) payment rates, including the national, standardized 60-day episode payment rates, the national per-visit rates, and the non-routine medical supply (NRS) conversion factor, effective for home health episodes of care ending on or after January 1, 2018. This rule also: Updates the HH PPS case-mix weights using the most current, complete data available at the time of rulemaking; implements the third year of a 3-year phase-in of a reduction to the national, standardized 60-day episode payment to account for estimated case-mix growth unrelated to increases in patient acuity (that is, nominal case-mix growth) between calendar year (CY) 2012 and CY 2014; and discusses our efforts to monitor the potential impacts of the rebasing adjustments that were implemented in CY 2014 through CY 2017. In addition, this rule finalizes changes to the Home Health Value-Based Purchasing (HHVBP) Model and to the Home Health Quality Reporting Program (HH QRP). We are not finalizing the implementation of the Home Health Groupings Model (HHGM) in this final rule.

  18. Tobacco litter costs and public policy: a framework and methodology for considering the use of fees to offset abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, N Andrew; Kiss, Noemi; Ebeid, Omar; Doyle, Alexis S

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Growing concern over the costs, environmental impact and safety of tobacco product litter (TPL) has prompted states and cities to undertake a variety of policy initiatives, of which litter abatement fees are part. The present work describes a framework and methodology for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees. Methods Abatement is associated with four categories of costs: (1) mechanical and manual abatement from streets, sidewalks and public places, (2) mechanical and manual abatement from storm water and sewer treatment systems, (3) the costs associated with harm to the ecosystem and harm to industries dependent on clean and healthy ecosystems, and (4) the costs associated with direct harm to human health. The experiences of the City of San Francisco's recently proposed tobacco litter abatement fee serve as a case study. Results City and municipal TPL costs are incurred through manual and mechanical clean-up of surfaces and catchment areas. According to some studies, public litter abatement costs to US cities range from US$3 million to US$16 million. TPL typically comprises between 22% and 36% of all visible litter, implying that total public TPL direct abatement costs range from about US$0.5 million to US$6 million for a city the size of San Francisco. The costs of mitigating the negative externalities of TPL in a city the size of San Francisco can be offset by implementing a fee of approximately US$0.20 per pack. Conclusions Tobacco litter abatement costs to cities can be substantial, even when the costs of potential environmental pollution and tourism effects are excluded. One public policy option to address tobacco litter is levying of fees on cigarettes sold. The methodology described here for calculating TPL costs and abatement fees may be useful to state and local authorities who are considering adoption of this policy initiative. PMID:21504923

  19. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities; reopening of comment period--HCFA. Notice of reopening of comment period for interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-27

    We published an interim final rule with comment period in the Federal Register on May 12, 1998 (63 FR 26252). That interim final rule implements provisions in section 4432 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 related to Medicare payment for skilled nursing facility services. Those include the implementation of a Medicare prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities, consolidated billing, and a number of related changes. A document published on July 13, 1998 extended the comment period for the May 12, 1998 interim final rule until September 11, 1998. This document reopens and extends the comment period for an additional 30 days after the date of publication of this notice. The document also clarifies the explanation of the Federal rates.

  20. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  1. Perverse effects of carbon markets on HFC-23 and SF6 abatement projects in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lambert; Kollmuss, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Carbon markets are considered a key policy tool to achieve cost-effective climate mitigation. Project-based carbon market mechanisms allow private sector entities to earn tradable emissions reduction credits from mitigation projects. The environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms has been subject to controversial debate and extensive research, in particular for projects abating industrial waste gases with a high global warming potential (GWP). For such projects, revenues from credits can significantly exceed abatement costs, creating perverse incentives to increase production or generation of waste gases as a means to increase credit revenues from waste gas abatement. Here we show that all projects abating HFC-23 and SF6 under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation mechanism in Russia increased waste gas generation to unprecedented levels once they could generate credits from producing more waste gas. Our results suggest that perverse incentives can substantially undermine the environmental integrity of project-based mechanisms and that adequate regulatory oversight is crucial. Our findings are critical for mechanisms in both national jurisdictions and under international agreements.

  2. Guidelines for Assessment and Abatement of Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielert, James H.; Mathey, Robert G.

    This report presents guidelines, based on available information, for the assessment and abatement of asbestos-containing materials in buildings. Section 1 provides background information on the history and use of asbestos-containing products in buildings, the characteristics of asbestos fibers, products and materials containing asbestos, and…

  3. Cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1998-01-01

    This article attempts to shed light on technological aspects of carbon abatement in China's power industry and is thus devoted to satisfying electricity planning requirements in the CO2 context. To that end, a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model for power system expansion planning has

  4. Sustainable noise abatement along motorways in Germany – an empirical study in the municipality Frasdorf (Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Breuste

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecological respects. Sustainable noise abatement should take into consideration ecological and social aspects like landscape integration and contribution to local development due to the unique location of the municipality. Enclosed motorway canopies are particularly beneficial to meet these criteria. The costs for sustainable noise abatement measures should be weighted as less important; however, financial costs are crucial for the federal government due to the requirements of the Federal Pollution Control Act. Hence, residents and experts assume that noise barriers as the cheaper noise abatement measures will be implemented. However, the results of the study and the latest developments in the expansion plans suggest that the implementation of enclosed motorway canopies, which go beyond the legal requirements, is feasible through extensive citizen participation and community-specific planning.

  5. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karky, B.S.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other

  6. Technical efficiency and CO2 abatement policies in the Dutch glasshouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a short-run microeconomic simulation model of the Dutch glasshouse industry in order to investigate the relation between technical efficiency and marginal abatement costs of CO2 emission. The model is also used to determine the effects of an emission tax and systems of tradable

  7. Valuation of marginal CO2 abatement options for electric power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hojeong; Lim, Jaekyu

    2009-01-01

    The electricity generation sector in Korea is under pressure to mitigate greenhouse gases as directed by the Kyoto Protocol. The principal compliance options for power companies under the cap-and-trade include the application of direct CO 2 emission abatement and the procurement of emission allowances. The objective of this paper is to provide an analytical framework for assessing the cost-effectiveness of these options. We attempt to derive the marginal abatement cost for CO 2 using the output distance function and analyze the relative advantages of emission allowance procurement option as compared to direct abatement option. Real-option approach is adopted to incorporate emission allowance price uncertainty. Empirical result shows the marginal abatement cost with an average of Euro 14.04/ton CO 2 for fossil-fueled power plants and confirms the existence of substantial cost heterogeneity among plants which is sufficient to achieve trading gains in allowance market. The comparison of two options enables us to identify the optimal position of the compliance for each plant. Sensitivity analyses are also presented with regard to several key parameters including the initial allowance prices and interest rate. The result of this paper may help Korean power plants to prepare for upcoming regulations targeted toward the reduction of domestic greenhouse gases.

  8. The Copenhagen Accord: abatement costs and carbon prices resulting from the submissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Hof, Andries F.; Mendoza Beltran, Angelica; Grassi, Giacomo; Roelfsema, Mark; Ruijven, Bas van; Vliet, Jasper van; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Copenhagen Accord, individual countries have submitted greenhouse gas reduction proposals for the year 2020. This paper analyses the implications for emission reductions, the carbon price, and abatement costs of these submissions. The submissions of the Annex I (industrialised) countries are estimated to lead to a total reduction target of 12-18% below 1990 levels. The submissions of the seven major emerging economies are estimated to lead to an 11-14% reduction below baseline emissions, depending on international (financial) support. Global abatement costs in 2020 are estimated at about USD 60-100 billion, assuming that at least two-thirds of Annex I emission reduction targets need to be achieved domestically. The largest share of these costs are incurred by Annex I countries, although the costs as share of GDP are similar for Annex I as a group and the seven emerging economies as a group, even when assuming substantial international transfers from Annex I countries to the emerging economies to finance their abatement costs. If the restriction of achieving two-thirds of the emission reduction target domestically is abandoned, it would more than double the international carbon price and at the same time reduce global abatement costs by almost 25%.

  9. 78 FR 3848 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule Extension AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations. This emergency rule... trawl rationalization program. Background on this rule was provided in the proposed rule, published on...

  10. 75 FR 30095 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Amending Its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... market system. Specifically, the proposed rule change allows the pilot program to continue without... Commission has considered the proposed rule's impact on efficiency, competition, and capital formation. See...

  11. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  12. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Lipman, Tim; Megel, Olivier; Ganguly, Srirupa; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-12-31

    The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) todetermine the potential role of commercial sector distributed generation (DG) with combined heat and power (CHP) capability deployment in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) reductions. CHP applications at large industrial sites are well known, and a large share of their potential has already been harvested. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the potential of medium-sized commercial buildings, i.e. ones with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how this sector might implement DG with CHP in cost minimizing microgrids that are able to adopt and operate various energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), on-site thermal generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We apply a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that minimizes a site?s annual energy costs as its objective. Using 138 representative mid-sized commercial sites in California (CA), existing tariffs of three major electricity distribution ultilities, and performance data of available technology in 2020, we find the GHG reduction potential for this CA commercial sector segment, which represents about 35percent of total statewide commercial sector sales. Under the assumptions made, in a reference case, this segment is estimated to be capable of economically installing 1.4 GW of CHP, 35percent of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) statewide 4 GW goal for total incremental CHP deployment by 2020. However, because CARB?s assumed utilization is far higher than is found by the MILP, the adopted CHP only contributes 19percent of the CO2 target. Several sensitivity runs were completed. One applies a simple feed-in tariff similar to net metering, and another includes a generous self-generation incentive program (SGIP) subsidy for fuel cells. The feed-in tariff proves ineffective at

  13. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program.

  14. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  16. Essays on the economics of energy markets. Security of supply and greenhouse gas abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline

    2013-02-01

    In summary, the presented thesis analyzes two distinct economic subjects: security of supply in natural gas markets and greenhouse gas abatement potentials in the residential heating market. These subjects considered both reflect key points in the triangle of energy policy and are both associated with transnational market failures within energy markets. The security of supply analyses in an intermeshed network are approached from a rather normative, top-down perspective of a social planner. On the contrary, the analyses of greenhouse gases emitted by households are positive analyses of consumer choices. The normative analyses of security of supply in natural gas markets and the positive analyses on greenhouse gas abatement in the residential heating market are organized in two parts of the thesis. 1. Normative analyses - Security of supply in natural gas markets: The two papers of the first part of the dissertation thesis are based on a normative approach with the European natural gas market and infrastructure model TIGER that allows for security of supply analyses. The general idea behind the modeling approach is based on the assumption of a social planner and finds an efficient utilization of the natural gas infrastructure. More precisely, the security of supply analyses conducted in the first part of the thesis refer to scenario simulations of disrupted supply routes in the European natural gas network. The effects of these security of supply scenarios on the usage of other infrastructure components, on marginal supply costs and disruptions to consumers are investigated. 2. Positive analyses of greenhouse gas abatement potentials - Econometric modeling of consumer choices and evaluation of public policies: The second part of the thesis includes two positive analyses which investigate household choices to derive greenhouse gas abatement potentials. In the residential heating market, the energy efficiency level exhibited and the type of energy carrier used are

  17. Medicare and Medicaid programs; modifications to the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program for 2014 and other changes to EHR Incentive Program; and health information technology: revision to the certified EHR technology definition and EHR certification changes related to standards. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This final rule changes the meaningful use stage timeline and the definition of certified electronic health record technology (CEHRT) to allow options in the use of CEHRT for the EHR reporting period in 2014. It also sets the requirements for reporting on meaningful use objectives and measures as well as clinical quality measure (CQM) reporting in 2014 for providers who use one of the CEHRT options finalized in this rule for their EHR reporting period in 2014. In addition, it finalizes revisions to the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs to adopt an alternate measure for the Stage 2 meaningful use objective for hospitals to provide structured electronic laboratory results to ambulatory providers; to correct the regulation text for the measures associated with the objective for hospitals to provide patients the ability to view online, download, and transmit information about a hospital admission; and to set a case number threshold exemption for CQM reporting applicable for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals (CAHs) beginning with FY 2013. Finally, this rule finalizes the provisionally adopted replacement of the Data Element Catalog (DEC) and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture (QRDA) Category III standards with updated versions of these standards.

  18. Chromate abatement in the Y-12 Plant's New Hope Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMonbrum, J.R.; Muenzer, W.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a 15-months field study that utilized four nonchromate-based water-treatment programs in 16 low-temperature (less than 100 0 F) cooling towers using corrosion and deposition studies, microbiological control, and plant effluent creek analyses as evaluation parameters. The study succeeded in bringing the chromate content of effluent of the New Hope Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to the limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency. (auth)

  19. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid

  20. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  1. Efficiency, equity or disagreement? The economics of international carbon abatement negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabey, N.; Smith, C.

    1995-01-01

    The current international effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as embodied in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is often criticized as inefficient by economists because it uses uniform targets instead of more theoretically efficient instruments such as international taxes. However, the effectiveness of any international treaty in producing environmental benefits is not wholly dependent on its economic efficiency but also on its political stability and the ability to accurately monitor and enforce its conditions. Stability depends on the magnitude and distribution of costs and benefits between countries which have heterogeneous economies, environmental damages, trading partners and abatement costs. The distribution of costs between countries will also depend on the type of policy instrument used to coordinate international abatement efforts. This paper analyses trade-offs that must be made when negotiating international agreements in order to balance the need for administrative convenience and economic efficiency with the realization that any agreement is better than no agreement

  2. The timing of pollution abatement investments and the business cycle. An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouman, M.; Hofkes, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    A simple equilibrium business-cycle model for an economy with both clean- and dirty-producing plants is developed. The authors derive that the optimal timing of cleaning the production process is during a slowdown of the economy. Due to external effects and market failures the timing of pollution abatement investments is not expected to be optimal in the real world. We test the optimality of the timing of those investments with data for Germany, the Netherlands and the U.S.A. It appears that for more than 25 percent of the sectors pollution abatement investments show counter-cyclical behaviour, while in only one sector these investments are pro-cyclical. 1 tab., 3 appendices, 10 refs

  3. Research on the application of active sound barriers for the transformer noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound barriers are a type of measure most commonly used in the noise abatement of transformers. In the noise abatement project of substations, the design of sound barriers is restrained by the portal frames which are used to hold up outgoing lines from the main transformers, which impacts the noise reduction effect. If active sound barriers are utilized in these places, the noise diffraction of sound barriers can be effectively reduced. At a 110kV Substation, an experiment using a 15-channel active sound barrier has been carried out. The result of the experiment shows that the mean noise reduction value (MNRV of the noise measuring points at the substation boundary are 1.5 dB (A. The effect of the active noise control system is impacted by the layout of the active noise control system, the acoustic environment on site and the spectral characteristic of the target area.

  4. The role of abatement costs in GHG permit allocations : a global reduction scenario with the World-MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillancourt, K.; Kanudia, A.

    2004-01-01

    The World-MARKAL model was used to examine a permit trading system to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions. The model considered the participation of all countries, including developing countries. Allocation schemes aimed at fair distribution of net abatement costs among world regions were proposed. The net abatement costs for each region are good indicators of where more abatement measures are needed. Equity issues relative to permit allocations and burden sharing were also presented along with the allocation methodology. The gross abatement costs before permit trading were calculated for each region. The main advantages and disadvantages of this approach were listed. It was concluded that permit allocation schemes based on cost distribution make it possible to obtain solutions with equalized net costs per gross domestic product for all regions. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Population growth, energy consumption, pollution abatement - looking for the global consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakainski, M.

    1993-01-01

    A new system of the world for solutions to the energy supply problem was damanded by the representatives of China and India at the Madrid congress of the World Energy Council. Drastic energy conservation measures were requested from the Western World. It is still a long way to go to a global consensus about energy consumption, pollution abatement and the protection of the climate. (DG) [de

  6. Sustainable noise abatement along motorways in Germany – an empirical study in the municipality Frasdorf (Bavaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Breuste

    2014-01-01

    As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecologica...

  7. Greenhouse gas abatement in Senegal. A case study of least-cost options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amous, S.; Revet, D.; Sokona, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The first stage of the study was to make a preliminary inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the base year 1988. Following this seven no regret technical options for emission reduction were investigated and the costs calculated, allowing the identification of three least-cost options. The three least-cost options must be implemented first because of their negative costs. The economic benefits of both abatement scenarios are characterized by a negative global cost whatever the discount rate is. (author)

  8. Socio-economic impact analysis: Centralia mine fire abatement alternatives. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-07

    The overall purpose of information contained in the following text is to document the likely social and economic impacts upon the Borough of Centralia through implementation of various mine fire abatement alternatives. Much of the data presented herein and utilized in preparing conclusions and recommendations have been derived from those individuals whose lives are now, or may eventually be, impacted by the underground mine fire.

  9. The effect of noise-abatement profiles on noise immissions and human annoyance underneath a subsequent climbpath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbell, Maurice A.

    1990-01-01

    En route noise emissions on the ground can be affected by the detailed characteristics of intended noise-abatement climb profiles and procedures to an extent of 10 or more nautical miles from the start of the takeoff roll of a large or heavy air-carrier-type aircraft. Suggestions submitted to the noise abatement officials of the airports at Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany, and Zurick, Switzerland, and the aircarriers Lufthansa German Airlines and SWISSAIR are explained and discussed.

  10. Marginal abatement costs for reducing leaching of nitrates in Croatian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SUMELIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate marginal abatement costs (MAC of N-fertiliser tax policies which aim to prevent NO3 levels from rising. Estimates of MAC provide information on how large reductions in Nfertilisation rates should be before other measures are considered. Based on N-response experiments from Croatian field trials with maize, N-response curves were estimated and profit maximising N-doses were derived. Values of NO3-N concentration in lysimeter water from the same treatments were used to estimate an NO3-leaching function. A sample of 20 Croatian family farms was used to obtain records of producer and input prices as well as actual N-doses. Abatement costs and MAC for an N-tax, a product tax and an Nquota were estimated. The MAC for all the instruments are non-constant and increase at an accelerating rate. The MAC for N-taxes are positive for N-taxes lower than 60%, indicating a net return to society. Reduction rates in fertilisation up to this level should be achieved before considering governmental support for other measures. The N-tax has the lowest abatement cost and the lowest MAC for a particular level of reduction while the N-quota has a lower MAC than the product tax when total reduction levels are below 20 mg NO3 l-1.;

  11. Considerations upon the possibility of abating the pollution produced by thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataman, Eleonora

    1992-01-01

    Thermal power plants using fossil fuels in conventional boilers are among the most important man-made stationary sources of pollutant release. A review of the present possibilities to abate the pollution, mainly by abatement of releases at stack is presented. At present the unique viable solution applicable in Romania thermopower stations appears to be the use of catalytic technology based on NO x selective reduction with ammonia. Investments for pollution abatement installations for intra- or post-combustion burning gases in classic boilers appear to be 1/4 and 1/3 of the cost of a new thermal power plant and the maintenance costs of de-pollution installations even when the resulting products are rendered profitable, the cost of KWh will raise. Replacement of classical boilers by circulating fluidized bed boilers would solve entirely the SO 2 and NO x release issue. Investments for such boilers are lower than those implied by a new classical boiler equipped with supplementary installations for the removal of intra- and post-combustion gases. The only remaining drawback is waste resulting desulfurization which is disposed at the dump. (author)

  12. Modeling dynamics of culex pipiens complex populations and assessing abatement strategies for West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelek, Kasia A; Niehaus, Patrick; Salmeron, Cristian; Hager, Elizabeth J; Hunt, Gregg J

    2014-01-01

    The primary mosquito species associated with underground stormwater systems in the United States are the Culex pipiens complex species. This group represents important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) throughout regions of the continental U.S. In this study, we designed a mathematical model and compared it with surveillance data for the Cx. pipiens complex collected in Beaufort County, South Carolina. Based on the best fit of the model to the data, we estimated parameters associated with the effectiveness of public health insecticide (adulticide) treatments (primarily pyrethrin products) as well as the birth, maturation, and death rates of immature and adult Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes. We used these estimates for modeling the spread of WNV to obtain more reliable disease outbreak predictions and performed numerical simulations to test various mosquito abatement strategies. We demonstrated that insecticide treatments produced significant reductions in the Cx. pipiens complex populations. However, abatement efforts were effective for approximately one day and the vector mosquitoes rebounded until the next treatment. These results suggest that frequent insecticide applications are necessary to control these mosquitoes. We derived the basic reproductive number (ℜ0) to predict the conditions under which disease outbreaks are likely to occur and to evaluate mosquito abatement strategies. We concluded that enhancing the mosquito death rate results in lower values of ℜ0, and if ℜ0control strategies of the vector populations and, consequently, a potential decrease in the risk of a WNV outbreak.

  13. Can China’s Industrial SO2 Emissions Trading Pilot Scheme Reduce Pollution Abatement Costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengge Tu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effects of China’s industrial SO2 emissions trading pilot scheme (SETPS on the pollution abatement costs (PAC from the past and future perspective. We apply the kernel-based propensity score difference-in-difference method to examine the effects of SETPS on the average pollution abatement costs (APAC and the marginal pollution abatement costs (MPAC based on the environment data from the industrial sector of 29 provinces in China over the period of 1998 to 2011. Our findings are that SETPS failed to reduce PAC as a whole. During 2002 to 2011, SETPS increased APAC by 1310 RMB per ton on average and had an insignificant negative effect on MPAC. Nevertheless, the conclusions would be markedly different if we separately investigated the effects of SETPS each year of the pilot period. The positive effects of SETPS on PAC started to appear since 2009, and SETPS significantly reduced both APAC and MPAC, especially in 2009 and 2011.

  14. Electrochemical processes in macro and microfluidic cells for the abatement of chloroacetic acid from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scialdone, O.; Corrado, E.; Galia, A.; Sirés, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The electrochemical abatement of chloroacetic acid in water was studied. • The performance of both macro and microfluidic reactors was examined. • Cathodic reduction and anodic oxidation was studied in detail. • Mediated oxidation by electro-Fenton and active chlorine was carried out. • Anodic oxidation at BDD gave better performances. • Microfluidic reactors gave better performances compared to conventional cells. - Abstract: The remediation of solutions contaminated with monochloroacetic acid (CAA), which is one of the most resistant haloacetic acids (HAAs) to chemical degradation, dramatically depends on the adopted electrochemical approach: (i) CAA is only poorly oxidized either by homogeneous hydroxyl radical in electro-Fenton (EF), electrogenerated active chlorine or electro-oxidation on Pt anode; (ii) it is moderately abated by direct reduction on silver or compact graphite cathodes (from 30% in macro cells to 60% in the microfluidic devices); (iii) it is quantitatively removed by direct electro-oxidation on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The use of a microreactor enables operation in the absence of supporting electrolyte and drastically enhances the performance of the cathodic process. Simultaneously performing direct oxidation on BDD and reduction on graphite in a microfluidic cell yields the fastest CAA removal with 100% abatement at low current densities (∼5 mA cm −2 )

  15. The Design of MnOx Based Catalyst in Post-Plasma Catalysis Configuration for Toluene Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of our present state of knowledge using manganese oxide (MnOx-based catalysts for toluene abatement in PPC (Post plasma-catalysis configuration. The context of this study is concisely sum-up. After briefly screening the main depollution methods, the principles of PPC are exposed based on the coupling of two mature technologies such as NTP (Non thermal plasma and catalysis. In that respect, the presentation of the abundant manganese oxides will be firstly given. Then in a second step the main features of MnOx allowing better performances in the reactions expected to occur in the abatement of toluene in PPC process are reviewed including ozone decomposition, toluene ozonation, CO oxidation and toluene total oxidation. Finally, in a last part the current status of the applications of PPC using MnOx on toluene abatement are discussed. In a first step, the selected variables of the hybrid process related to the experimental conditions of toluene abatement in air are identified. The selected variables are those expected to play a role in the performances of PPC system towards toluene abatement. Then the descriptors linked to the performances of the hybrid process in terms of efficiency are given and the effects of the variables on the experimental outcomes (descriptors are discussed. The review would serve as a reference guide for the optimization of the PPC process using MnOx-based oxides for toluene abatement.

  16. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  17. 75 FR 1091 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... delete NYSE Rule 445 (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program) and adopt new Rule 3310 (Anti-Money..., subject to certain amendments, NASD Rule 3011 (Anti- Money Laundering Compliance Program) and related Interpretive Material NASD IM-3011-1 and 3011-2 as consolidated FINRA Rule 3310 (Anti-Money Laundering...

  18. A Regionally-Specific Assessment of the Carbon Abatement Potential of Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, G.; Field, J.; Keske, C.; DeFoort, M.; Cotrufo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Biochar, the solid carbon-rich co-product of certain bioenergy conversion technologies, is receiving a great deal of attention as a strategy for sequestering carbon in soils and improving the performance of agricultural systems. Several studies have attempted to quantify the lifecycle carbon abatement potential of biochar systems, considering emissions associated with feedstock provisioning and processing, energy co-production, agronomic system impacts (yield increases and nitrous oxide emission suppression), and the recalcitrance of biochar in soil, as well as accounting for the carbon abatement value of using the char as a fuel that is foregone when it is used as a soil amendment instead. These assessments typically focus on biochar production in advanced, efficient slow pyrolysis systems, despite the fact that much biochar is currently produced through small-scale carbonization or gasification systems that lack energy recovery or even emission control capability. Here, a mechanistic biochar system assessment model is presented, capable of estimating system carbon abatement value and profitability for different feedstocks, conversion technologies and temperatures, and application into different agricultural soils. The variation of biochar recalcitrance in soil as a function of production temperature is considered, and agricultural impacts are assessed in the context of biochar's liming value, an effect that is straightforward to quantify and that has often been implicated in observed crop yield increases or nitrous oxide emission reductions. The analysis is rigorous in that tradeoffs between biochar production quantity and quality are endogenized, but conservative in that other potential agronomic benefits of biochar (e.g. improved soil water holding capacity) are not considered. This model is applied to a case study of bioenergy and biochar co-production in northern Colorado using beetle-killed pine wood and slash as a feedstock. Preliminary results suggest that

  19. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andrés Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana María; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate CO 2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO 2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO 2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO 2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. An assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper. - Highlights: • Four energy and economy-wide models under carbon mitigation scenarios are compared. • Baseline results show that CO

  20. Lei do Abate, guerra às drogas e defesa nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Raposo Pereira Feitosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa o processo de criação e regulamentação da Lei do Abate no Brasil, que autoriza a derrubada em pleno voo de aeronaves civis suspeitas de envolvimento no tráfico de drogas. Investigam-se as relações entre a elaboração da Lei do Abate, a política de guerra às drogas propagada pelos EUA e as preocupações estratégicas dos militares brasileiros acerca da segurança da Região Amazônica. Como parte da contextualização da criação dos programas de interdição aérea baseados no abate de aeronaves, estudam-se as origens e as transformações das políticas antidrogas dos EUA desde a década de 1960 e o modelo de guerra às drogas (War on Drugs. Analisa-se também o processo de discussão parlamentar no Brasil sobre a Lei do Abate e os debates para a sua regulamentação. A pesquisa ocorreu por meio da análise de documentos produzidos pelos governos dos EUA (abertos e sigilosos reclassificados e do Brasil, da investigação dos anais do Congresso Nacional e do estudo de livros e artigos científicos nacionais e estrangeiros. Verifica-se que os programas que autorizam o abate nascem sob a justificativa do combate ao tráfico, mas se ligam às necessidades militares específicas de Peru e Colômbia. A lei brasileira surge para combater o transporte aéreo ilícito vinculado ao tráfico; contudo, sua origem e os debates posteriores para sua regulamentação submetem-se ao condicionamento dos temores e projetos militares em torno da defesa da soberania sobre a Amazônia brasileira.

  1. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  2. Modifying Intramural Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    1981-01-01

    Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)

  3. The Rules of the Game—The Rules of the Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    of the game manager in order to implement the rules and provide a world for the other players. In online role-playing games, a programmed system simulates the rule system as well as part of the game manager’s tasks, while the rest of the activity is up to the players to define. Some aspects may translate more...... or less unproblematically across media, others are transformed by the introduction of the programmed system. This reveals some important perspectives on the sort of rules that can be simulated in a programmed system and what this means to the concept of rules in game studies.......This article presents a critical view of the concept of rules in game studies on the basis of a case study of role-playing across media. Role-playing in its traditional form is a complex activity including a game system and a number of communicative conventions where one player takes the role...

  4. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  5. Abatement of CO2 emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.; Keppler, J.H.; Jaureguy-Naudin, Maite; Smeers, Yves; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Trochet, Jean-Michel; Dassa, Francois; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO 2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO 2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO 2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler

  6. Medicare program: hospital outpatient prospective payment system and CY 2011 payment rates; ambulatory surgical center payment system and CY 2011 payment rates; payments to hospitals for graduate medical education costs; physician self-referral rules and related changes to provider agreement regulations; payment for certified registered nurse anesthetist services furnished in rural hospitals and critical access hospitals. Final rule with comment period; final rules; and interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    The final rule with comment period in this document revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system and to implement certain provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act). In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare hospital outpatient services paid under the prospective payment system. These changes are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2011. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates the revised Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with this system and to implement certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act. In this final rule with comment period, we set forth the applicable relative payment weights and amounts for services furnished in ASCs, specific HCPCS codes to which these changes apply, and other pertinent ratesetting information for the CY 2011 ASC payment system. These changes are applicable to services furnished on or after January 1, 2011. In this document, we also are including two final rules that implement provisions of the Affordable Care Act relating to payments to hospitals for direct graduate medical education (GME) and indirect medical education (IME) costs; and new limitations on certain physician referrals to hospitals in which they have an ownership or investment interest. In the interim final rule with comment period that is included in this document, we are changing the effective date for otherwise eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals that have been reclassified from urban to rural under section 1886(d)(8)(E) of the Social Security

  7. Extending Dynamic Rules, An Application Oriented Study Into Stratego’s New Dynamic Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van

    2004-01-01

    The Stratego language for program transformation is based on a strategy-controlled application of basic rewrite rules. These rewrite rules have only local knowledge of the input term they are rewriting. Information gained elsewhere in the transformation of the input tree is unknown. Getting this

  8. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Phipps, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams' biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL

  9. Nonpoint source water pollution abatement and the feasibility of voluntary programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, David S.; Judd, Lynne B.

    1983-09-01

    This article details a case study of a voluntary, decentralized institutional arrangement for nonpint source water pollution control used in the Root River watershed in southeastern Wisconsin. This watershed was chosen because of its mix of urban, agricultural, and urbanizing land uses. The project objectives were to monitor and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of a voluntary, decentralized institutional system, to specify deficiencies of the approach and suggest means to correct them, and to use the conclusions to speculate about the need for regulations regarding nonpoint source pollution control or the appropriateness of financial incentives for nonpoint source control. Institutional factors considered include diversity of land uses in the watershed, educational needs, economic conditions, personality, water quality, number of agencies involved, definition of authority, and bureaucratic requirements

  10. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Anderson, G.E.; Gregory, S.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Schilling, E.M.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phipps, T.L. [CKY, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams` biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL.

  11. An Analysis of the United States Air Force Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Most of the installations also plan roadbeds to limit 34 erosion and leave buffer strips along strem banks. One installation noted that directional...and 4) Control runoff of nutrients from around horse stables by not piling or storing manure . MAJC0M #6 also appears to be the only MAJOX which has...oily sheen could be observed. Finally, the report notes that the ammonia -nitrogen discharge limits have not consistently been met during the winter

  12. U.S. Coast Guard pollution abatement program - Two-stroke cycle outboard engine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    This report documents the results of emissions tests performed on three old and two new outboard engines. Tests of the emissions were made before and after water contact. Older engines were tested in as-received condition, tuned to factory specificat...

  13. Oil Spill Response Technology Initiation Decision Report to the Pollution Abatement Ashore Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    determine their potential for oil spill cleanup. Polypropylene nonwoven web, rice hull, and bagasse with two different particle sizes were evaluated in...a standard air line to provide its power. • The air powered Chiperator makes recycling old coolant easy by filtering fluids contaminated with chips...Materials” (pdf file) ABSTRACT. Three sorbents were compared in order to determine their potential for oil spill cleanup. Polypropylene nonwoven

  14. International CO{sub 2} abatement projects: experience from the Swiss AIJ pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, C.; Brodmann, U.; Luechinger, A. [Factor Consulting + Management Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the two most advanced Swiss AIJ (Activities Implemented Jointly) projects. Key success and failure factors are derived from practical experience in developing and implementing these projects. The assessment of uncertainties shows that the counterfactual nature of baselines forms the most relevant factor for uncertainty with regard to climate benefits. Different strategies to minimise this uncertainty are described. For the investor, the performance of the project during its lifetime is the main source of uncertainty, since this will usually have a direct influence on the amount of emission reduction credits produced. Consequently, adequate legal structure and incentives for project hosts are crucial to ensure. The projects analysed are the Swiss-Romanian Thermal Energy Project (STEP) involving coal and gas for district heating and the Bucina Energy Optimisation Project in Slovakia to optimise a wood processing plant. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  16. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  17. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Rules Surgeon Specific Registry Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program ... Scope of Practice Pediatric Issues Other Federal Legislative ...

  18. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution abatement cost functions in central portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P C; Rocha, J; Nunes, J P; Fidélis, T; Alves, H; Fonseca, S

    2014-01-01

    Coastal aquatic ecosystems are increasingly affected by diffuse source nutrient water pollution from agricultural activities in coastal catchments, even though these ecosystems are important from a social, environmental and economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from coastal resource appreciation. Diffuse-source water pollution abatement costs across agricultural sectors are not easily determined given the spatial heterogeneity in biophysical and agro-ecological conditions as well as the available range of best agricultural practices (BAPs) for water quality improvement. We demonstrate how the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) can be used to estimate diffuse-source water pollution abatement cost functions across agricultural land use categories based on a stepwise adoption of identified BAPs for water quality improvement and corresponding SWAT-based estimates for agricultural production, agricultural incomes, and water pollution deliveries. Results for the case of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) surface water pollution by the key agricultural land use categories ("annual crops," "vineyards," and "mixed annual crops & vineyards") in the Vouga catchment in central Portugal show that no win-win agricultural practices are available within the assessed BAPs for DIN water quality improvement. Estimated abatement costs increase quadratically in the rate of water pollution abatement, with largest abatement costs for the "mixed annual crops & vineyards" land use category (between 41,900 and 51,900 € tDIN yr) and fairly similar abatement costs across the "vineyards" and "annual crops" land use categories (between 7300 and 15,200 € tDIN yr). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. 76 FR 69774 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Rule Change Proposing a One...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Rule Change The Exchange proposes a one-year pilot program that would add new NYSE Amex Equities Rule... a one-year pilot program that would add new NYSE Amex Equities Rule 107C to establish a Retail...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Rule Change Proposing a One-Year Pilot Program...

  20. Structure and practices of the video relay service program; telecommunications relay services and speech-to-speech services for individuals with hearing and speech disabilities. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    In this document, the Commission adopts further measures to improve the structure, efficiency, and quality of the video relay service (VRS) program, reducing the inefficiencies in the program, as well as reducing the risk of waste, fraud, and abuse, and ensuring that the program makes full use of advances in commercially-available technology. These measures involve a fundamental restructuring of the program to support innovation and competition, drive down ratepayer and provider costs, eliminate incentives for waste that have burdened the Telecommunications Relay Services (TRS) Fund in the past, and further protect consumers. The Commission adopts several measures in order to: ensure that VRS users can easily select their provider of choice by promoting the development of interoperability and portability standards; enable consumers to use off-the-shelf devices and deploying a VRS application to work with these devices; create a centralized TRS User Registration Database to ensure VRS user eligibility; encourage competition and innovation in VRS call handling services; spur research and development on VRS services by entering into a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Science Foundation; and pilot a National Outreach Program to educate the general public about relay services. In this document, the Commission also adopts new VRS compensation rates that move these rates toward actual costs over the next four years which will better approximate the actual, reasonable costs of providing VRS, and will reduce the costs of operating the program. The Commission takes these steps to ensure the integrity of the TRS Fund while providing stability and certainty to providers.

  1. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-11-25

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  2. Medicare and state health care programs: fraud and abuse, civil money penalties and intermediate sanctions for certain violations by health maintenance organizations and competitive medical plans--HHS. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-15

    This final rule implements sections 9312(c)(2), 9312(f), and 9434(b) of Public Law 99-509, section 7 of Public Law 100-93, section 4014 of Public Law 100-203, sections 224 and 411(k)(12) of Public Law 100-360, and section 6411(d)(3) of Public Law 101-239. These provisions broaden the Secretary's authority to impose intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties on health maintenance organizations (HMOs), competitive medical plans, and other prepaid health plans contracting under Medicare or Medicaid that (1) substantially fail to provide an enrolled individual with required medically necessary items and services; (2) engage in certain marketing, enrollment, reporting, or claims payment abuses; or (3) in the case of Medicare risk-contracting plans, employ or contract with, either directly or indirectly, an individual or entity excluded from participation in Medicare. The provisions also condition Federal financial participation in certain State payments on the State's exclusion of certain prohibited entities from participation in HMO contracts and waiver programs. This final rule is intended to significantly enhance the protections for Medicare beneficiaries and Medicaid recipients enrolled in a HMO, competitive medical plan, or other contracting organization under titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act.

  3. Impact of the choice of emission metric on greenhouse gas abatement and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Maarten; Hof, Andries F.; van Vliet, Jasper; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyses the effect of different emission metrics and metric values on timing and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation in least-cost emission pathways aimed at a forcing level of 3.5 W m-2 in 2100. Such an assessment is currently relevant in view of UNFCCC’s decision to replace the values currently used. An emission metric determines the relative weights of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in obtaining CO2-equivalent emissions. For the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the UNFCCC has used 100 year global warming potential (GWP) values as reported in IPCC’s Second Assessment Report. For the second commitment period, the UNFCCC has decided to use 100 year GWP values from IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. We find that such a change has only a minor impact on (the optimal timing of) global emission reductions and costs. However, using 20 year or 500 year GWPs to value non-CO2 greenhouse gases does result in a significant change in both costs and emission reductions in our model. CO2 reductions are favored over non-CO2 gases when the time horizon of the GWPs is increased. Application of GWPs with time horizons longer than 100 year can increase abatement costs substantially, by about 20% for 500 year GWPs. Surprisingly, we find that implementation of a metric based on a time-dependent global temperature potential does not necessary lead to lower abatement costs. The crucial factor here is how fast non-CO2 emissions can be reduced; if this is limited, the delay in reducing methane emissions cannot be (fully) compensated for later in the century, which increases total abatement costs.

  4. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J; Hernandez, José L; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R B; Waldron, Janice

    2014-10-07

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127-209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited.

  5. Reforestation as a novel abatement and compliance measure for ground-level ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Timm; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Hernandez, José L.; Varela, Sebastián; Delphin, Sonia; Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Waldron, Janice

    2014-01-01

    High ambient ozone (O3) concentrations are a widespread and persistent problem globally. Although studies have documented the role of forests in removing O3 and one of its precursors, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the cost effectiveness of using peri-urban reforestation for O3 abatement purposes has not been examined. We develop a methodology that uses available air quality and meteorological data and simplified forest structure growth-mortality and dry deposition models to assess the performance of reforestation for O3 precursor abatement. We apply this methodology to identify the cost-effective design for a hypothetical 405-ha, peri-urban reforestation project in the Houston–Galveston–Brazoria O3 nonattainment area in Texas. The project would remove an estimated 310 tons of (t) O3 and 58 t NO2 total over 30 y. Given its location in a nitrogen oxide (NOx)-limited area, and using the range of Houston area O3 production efficiencies to convert forest O3 removal to its NOx equivalent, this is equivalent to 127–209 t of the regulated NOx. The cost of reforestation per ton of NOx abated compares favorably to that of additional conventional controls if no land costs are incurred, especially if carbon offsets are generated. Purchasing agricultural lands for reforestation removes this cost advantage, but this problem could be overcome through cost-share opportunities that exist due to the public and conservation benefits of reforestation. Our findings suggest that peri-urban reforestation should be considered in O3 control efforts in Houston, other US nonattainment areas, and areas with O3 pollution problems in other countries, wherever O3 formation is predominantly NOx limited. PMID:25201970

  6. Estimating the financial risks of Andropogon gayanus to greenhouse gas abatement projects in northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A

    2013-01-01

    Financial mechanisms such as offsets are one strategy to abate greenhouse gas emissions, and the carbon market is expanding with a growing demand for offset products. However, in the case of carbon offsets, if the carbon is released due to intentional or unintentional reversal through environmental events such as fire, the financial liability to replace lost offsets will likely fall on the provider. This liability may have implications for future participation in programmes, but common strategies such as buffer pool and insurance products can be used to minimize this liability. In order for these strategies to be effective, an understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of expected reversals is needed. We use the case study of savanna burning, an approved greenhouse gas abatement methodology under the Carbon Farming Initiative in Australia, to examine potential risks to carbon markets in northern Australia and quantify the financial risks. We focus our analysis on the threat of Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) to savanna burning due to its documented impacts of increased fuel loads and altered fire regimes. We assess the spatial and financial extent to which gamba grass poses a risk to savanna burning programmes in northern Australia. We find that 75% of the eligible area for savanna burning is spatially coincident with the high suitability range for gamba grass. Our analysis demonstrates that the presence of gamba grass seriously impacts the financial viability of savanna burning projects. For example, in order to recuperate the annual costs of controlling 1 ha of gamba grass infestation, 290 ha of land must be enrolled in annual carbon abatement credits. Our results show an immediate need to contain gamba grass to its current extent to avoid future spread into large expanses of land, which are currently profitable for savanna burning. (letter)

  7. Inferring Carbon Abatement Costs in Electricity Markets: A Revealed Preference Approach using the Shale Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Cullen; Erin T. Mansur

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how much carbon emissions from the electricity industry would decrease in response to a carbon price. We show how both carbon prices and cheap natural gas reduce, in a nearly identical manner, the historic cost advantage of coal-fired power plants. The shale revolution has resulted in unprecedented variation in natural gas prices that we use to estimate the short-run price elasticity of abatement. Our estimates imply that a price of $10 ($60) per ton of carbon dioxide woul...

  8. A comparison of optimal and noise-abatement trajectories of a tilt-rotor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Gibs, J.; Hinterkeuser, W. Z.

    1972-01-01

    The potential benefits of flight path control to optimize performance and/or reduce the noise of a tilt-rotor aircraft operating in the takeoff and landing phases of flight are investigated. A theoretical performance-acoustic model is developed and then mathematically flown to yield representative takeoff and landing profiles. Minimum-time and minimum-fuel trajectories are compared to proposed noise-abatement profiles to assess the reductions in annoyance possible through flight path control. Significant reductions are feasible if a nearly vertical-takeoff flight profile is flown near the landing site; however, the time expended and fuel consumed increase.

  9. Flight evaluation of three-dimensional area navigation for jet transport noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denery, D. G.; Bourquin, K. R.; White, K. C.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1972-01-01

    The NASA, working with American Airlines, has completed the first phase of research to evaluate the operational feasibility of two-segment approaches for noise abatement. For these tests, area navigation was used to establish the upper glide slope and an ILS was used to establish the lower. The flight director was modified to provide command information during the entire approach. Twenty-eight pilots representing the airlines, professional pilot associations, FAA, and NASA participated. With an ILS approach for comparison, the procedure gave a noise reduction of 18 EPNdB at the outer marker and 8 EPNdB 1.1 n. mi. from touchdown.

  10. 75 FR 1099 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Laundering Compliance Program) and adopt new Rule 3310--NYSE Amex Equities (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance... amendments, NASD Rule 3011 (Anti- Money Laundering Compliance Program) and related Interpretive Material NASD IM-3011-1 and 3011-2 as consolidated FINRA Rule 3310 (Anti-Money Laundering Compliance Program), and...

  11. 42 CFR 495.354 - Rules for charging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rules for charging equipment. 495.354 Section 495... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.354 Rules for charging equipment. Equipment...

  12. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  13. Initial flight and simulator evaluation of a head up display for standard and noise abatement visual approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, K.; Palmer, E. A.; Cooper, G.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the adequacy of a simple head up display (HUD) for providing vertical guidance for flying noise abatement and standard visual approaches in a jet transport. The HUD featured gyro-stabilized approach angle scales which display the angle of declination to any point on the ground and a horizontal flight path bar which aids the pilot in his control of the aircraft flight path angle. Thirty-three standard and noise abatement approaches were flown in a Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a head up display. The HUD was also simulated in a research simulator. The simulator was used to familiarize the pilots with the display and to determine the most suitable way to use the HUD for making high capture noise abatement approaches. Preliminary flight and simulator data are presented and problem areas that require further investigation are identified.

  14. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. The case of CO2 capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Reilly, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO 2 -trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO 2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that captures empirical links between CO 2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We specify CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) as a discrete CO 2 abatement technology. We find that combining CO 2 -trading schemes with an adoption subsidy is the most effective instrument to induce adoption of the CCS technology. Such a subsidy directly improves the competitiveness of the CCS technology by compensating for its markup over the cost of conventional electricity. Yet, introducing R and D subsidies throughout the entire economy leads to faster adoption of the CCS technology as well and in addition can be cost-effective in achieving the abatement target. (author)

  15. Asia least-cost greenhouse gas abatement strategy identification and assessment of mitigation options for the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sujata; Bhandari, Preety

    1998-01-01

    The focus of the presentation was on greenhouse gas mitigation options for the energy sector for India. Results from the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (ALGAS) project were presented. The presentation comprised of a review of the sources of greenhouse gases, the optimisation model, ie the Markal model, used for determining the least-cost options, discussion of the results from the baseline and the abatement scenarios. The second half of the presentation focussed on a multi-criteria assessment of the abatement options using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model. The emissions of all greenhouse gases, for India, are estimated to be 986.3 Tg of carbon dioxide equivalent for 1990. The energy sector accounted for 58 percent of the total emissions and over 90 percent of the CO2 emissions. Net emissions form land use change and forestry were zero. (au)

  16. The timing of biological carbon sequestration and carbon abatement in the energy sector under optimal strategies against climate risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitz, V.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Ciais, Ph.

    2005-10-01

    This paper addresses the timing of the use of biological carbon sequestration and its capacity to alleviate the carbon constraint on the energy sector. We constructed a stochastic optimal control model balancing the costs of fossil emission abatement, the opportunity costs of lands allocated to afforestation, and the costs of uncertain climate damages. We show that a minor part of the sequestration potential should start immediately as a 'brake', slowing down both the rate of growth of concentrations and the rate of abatement in the energy sector. thus increasing the option value of the emission trajectories. But, most of the potential is put in reserve to be used as a 'safety valve' after the resolution of uncertainty, if a higher and faster decarbonization is required: sequestration cuts off the peaks of costs of fossil abatement and postpones the pivoting of the energy system by up to two decades. (authors)

  17. Planning the low-carbon city. Thoughts about abatement costs of mobility policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication proposes a summary of a research thesis which studied how to address urban climate policies from an economic point of view. This thesis shows that it is possible to develop tools for an economic analysis of local climate policies which would take urban peculiarities into account, notably the systemic aspect, and the importance of positive and negative externalities. The author puts forward the abatement cost which relies on a set of conventions, and is studied through a given analysis table. The application of a urban planning-transport model to the Grenoble area with different scenarios of urban development confirms that abatement costs of measures of reduction of greenhouse gases in the field of mobility are high in comparison with other values (building sector, Quinet value). However, taking co-benefits (or positive externalities) into account allows these costs to be reduced, that which makes investments in the transport sector more attractive. The author shows that reaching the factor 4 in urban transports seems difficult

  18. Abatements of reduced sulphur compounds, colour, and organic matter from indigo dyeing effluents by electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tünay, Olcay; Simşeker, Merve; Kabdaşli, Isik; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the treatability of indigo dyeing effluents by the electrocoagulation (EC) process using stainless steel electrodes was experimentally investigated. The samples used were concentrated with main pollutant parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1000-1100 mg/L), reduced sulphur species (over 2000 mg SO2-(3)/L), and colour (0.12-0.13 1/cm). The study focused on the effect of main operation parameters on the EC process performance in terms of abatement of reduced sulphur compounds as well as decolourization and organic matter reduction. Results indicated that the performance of EC proved to be high providing total oxidation of the reduced sulphur compounds, almost complete decolourization, and COD removal up to 90%. Increasing applied current density from 22.5 to 45 mA/cm2 appreciably improved abatement of the reduced sulphur compounds for Sample I, but a further increase in the applied current density to 67.5 mA/cm2 did not accelerate the conversion rate to sulphate. The process performance was adversely affected by increasing initial concentration of the reduced sulphur compounds. Decolourization and organic matter removal efficiency enhanced with increasing applied current density. The main removal mechanism of the reduced sulphur compounds by EC was explained as conversion to sulphate via oxidation. Conversion rate to sulphate fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics very well.

  19. CFD modeling of a UV-LED photocatalytic odor abatement process in a continuous reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zimeng; Liu, Jing; Dai, Yuancan; Dong, Weiyang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2012-05-15

    This paper presents a model study of a UV light-emitting-diode (UV-LED) based photocatalytic odor abatement process. It integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of the gas flow in the reactor with LED-array radiation field calculation and Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. It was applied to simulate the photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a UV-LED reactor based on experimentally determined chemical kinetic parameters. A non-linear power law relating reaction rate to irradiation intensity was adopted. The model could predict the steady state DMS concentration profiles by calculating the advection, diffusion and Langmuir-Hinshelwood reaction kinetics. By affecting the radiation intensity and uniformity, the position of the LED array relative to the catalyst appeared to be a critical parameter determining DMS removal efficiency. Too small distances might yield low quantum efficiency and consequently poor abatement performance. This study provided an example of LED-based photocatalytic process modeling and gave insights into the optimization of light source design for photocatalytic applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Abatement of xenon and iodine emissions from medical isotope production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Charles G; Sorensen, Christina M; Bowyer, Theodore W; Friese, Judah I; Hayes, James C; Hoffmann, Emmy; Kephart, Rosara

    2014-04-01

    The capability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to detect xenon from underground nuclear explosions is dependent on the radioactive xenon background. Adding to the background, medical isotope production (MIP) by fission releases several important xenon isotopes including xenon-133 and iodine-133 that decays to xenon-133. The amount of xenon released from these facilities may be equivalent to or exceed that released from an underground nuclear explosion. Thus the release of gaseous fission products within days of irradiation makes it difficult to distinguish MIP emissions from a nuclear explosion. In addition, recent shortages in molybdenum-99 have created interest and investment opportunities to design and build new MIP facilities in the United States and throughout the world. Due to the potential increase in the number of MIP facilities, a discussion of abatement technologies provides insight into how the problem of emission control from MIP facilities can be tackled. A review of practices is provided to delineate methods useful for abatement of medical isotopes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO 2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO 2 , CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  2. The intrusiveness of sound: Laboratory findings and their implications for noise abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert; Jones, Dylan M.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental policy with regard to noise abatement has traditionally only considered whether the noise levels in a given setting are high enough to be deemed a source of annoyance, disturbance, or threat to well being. However, laboratory studies using both simple and more complex work-related tasks have shown that task-irrelevant sound, regardless of its intensity, intrudes upon cognitive processing and disrupts performance substantially; furthermore, its damaging effect does not diminish with repeated exposure to the sound over time. For tasks that require short-term memory processing (particularly the short-term maintenance of order information) sound assumes disruptive power if it is acoustically varying over its time course. However, other properties of sound (e.g., the semanticity of speech) can incur an additional cost if the primary task necessitates or tends to evoke the extraction of meaning. It will be argued that interference in each case is explained by reference to a conflict between two concurrent mental processes; that being demanded by the task and that being involuntarily applied to properties of the sound. Such harmful effects, as well as having direct consequences for the general well-being of those working in noisy environments, may have far reaching consequences for health insofar as extraneous sound is a feature of many safety-critical work settings. Implications for noise abatement policy are highlighted.

  3. Noise exposure assessment and abatement strategies at an indoor firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardous, Chucri A; Willson, Robert D; Hayden, Charles S; Szlapa, Piotr; Murphy, William J; Reeves, Efrem R

    2003-08-01

    Exposure to hazardous impulse noise is common during the firing of weapons at indoor firing ranges. The aims of this study were to characterize the impulse noise environment at a law enforcement firing range; document the insufficiencies found at the range from a health and safety standpoint; and provide noise abatement recommendations to reduce the overall health hazard to the auditory system. Ten shooters conducted a typical live-fire exercise using three different weapons--the Beretta.40 caliber pistol, the Remington.308 caliber shotgun, and the M4.223 caliber assault rifle. Measurements were obtained at 12 different positions throughout the firing range and adjacent areas using dosimeters and sound level meters. Personal and area measurements were recorded to a digital audio tape (DAT) recorder for further spectral analysis. Peak pressure levels inside the firing range reached 163 decibels (dB) in peak pressure. Equivalent sound levels (Leq) ranged from 78 decibels, A-weighted (dBA), in office area adjacent to the range to 122 dBA inside the range. Noise reductions from wall structures ranged from 29-44 dB. Noise abatement strategies ranged from simple noise control measures (such as sealing construction joints and leaks) to elaborate design modifications to eliminate structural-borne sounds using acoustical treatments. Further studies are needed to better characterize the effects of firing weapons in enclosed spaces on hearing and health in general.

  4. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  5. Extreme flood abatement in large dams with gate-controlled spillways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Garrote, Luis; Bejarano, M. Dolores; Castillo, Luis G.

    2013-08-01

    In this study the flood abatement effect at dams with gated spillways under a wide range of extreme floods is analysed (100 < return period <10,000 years). A group of integrated models (rainfall generator, hydrological model and dam operation model) interacting within a Monte Carlo simulation framework is used for producing numerous hydrologic events at 21 sites across mainland Spain, and the hydrologic response applied to 81 configurations of dams and reservoirs. Common behavioural patterns are identified and dimensionless coefficients classified, based on the hydrologic variables and the dam and reservoir characteristics. The relationships between these coefficients are analysed, with a significant degree of correlation both among the cases and the varying magnitude of floods being obtained. Finally, models that enable evaluation of the abatement capacity of a dam with a gated spillway in the event of a flood with Tr between 500 and 10,000 years are offered. In addition, they allow the frequency curve of such a maximum flow to be obtained, something which could serve of use not only during the design phase but also in the evaluation of the hydrologic safety of dams.

  6. Analysis of CO2 Emission Performance and Abatement Potential for Municipal Industrial Sectors in Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the main source of CO2 emissions in China, the industrial sector has faced pressure for reducing emissions. To achieve the target of 50% reduction of industrial carbon intensity by 2020 based on the 2005 level, it is urgent to formulate specific CO2 emission mitigation strategies in the provincial industrial sector. In order to provide decision-making support for the development and implementation of mitigation policy, our undesirable slack based measure (SBM model is firstly applied to evaluate the industrial CO2 emission efficiency under total-factor frame (TFICEE in 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu Province, the largest CO2 emitter in China. Then, we analyze space-time distribution and distributional evolution tendency of TFICEE by using the GIS visualization method and kernel density estimation, respectively. Finally, we utilize the industrial abatement model to estimate the CO2 abatement potential of Jiangsu’s industrial sector. The empirical results show that there exists a significant spatial inequality of TFICEE across various regions in Jiangsu, but the regional disparity has been narrowing during our study period. Additionally, average annual industrial CO2 emission reductions in Jiangsu Province can attain 15,654.00 (ten thousand tons, accounting for 28.2% of its average annual actual emissions, which can be achieved by improving production technology, adjusting industrial structure and raising the level of industry concentration.

  7. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  8. Preliminary data from γ-cardiography during the abatement of an asthmatic attack (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, R.; Vernejoul, P. de; Raynaud, C.; Blanchon, P.; Kellershohn, C.; Turiaf, J.

    1961-01-01

    The authors used gamma cardiology during the abatement of 16 cases of asthma with a view to detecting heart attacks not otherwise visible with routine methods of examination: clinical, radiological and electro-cardio-graphical. In gamma cardiology, a radioactive indicator is used and its path followed in the cavities of the heart. The method makes it possible to study the circulation in the right heart, the pulmonary crossing, and the left heart, as well as evaluation of the heart-flow. As a result of their investigations the authors, after having discussed the significance of the data obtained with the method, suggest that it is possible by the use of gamma cardiography during the abatement of an asthma attack: 1- To confirm attacks of the right heart which have already been detected by ordinary methods. 2- To confirm the presence of modifications in the recorded curves which suggest, in the case of the left heart, possible attack; such on attack is also indicated, in a small number of cases, by electrocardiography curves. Some considerations are put forward by the authors concerning the physiopathology of attacks on the left heart. (authors) [fr

  9. Macro economic linkages and impacts. Technical and fiscal options in GHG abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, G.; Barker, T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the main macro economic linkages and feedbacks associated with policies for GHG abatement. The linkages in a global model are described when OECD carbon taxes or alternatively OECD/OPEC joint action raises world oil prices with a smaller OECD carbon tax. The results give a world perspective on the GHG abatement problem. The paper continues with a discussion of the linkages and feedbacks associated with three options: demand-side management (DSM), mainly to improve end-use energy efficiency, reductions in subsidies of fossil fuel production and use, and investment in renewable energy supplies, specifically in energy forestry and associated infrastructure. It concludes that DSM and investment in renewables are unlikely on their own to bring about reduction in GHG emissions, and that new supplies may even lead to increased emissions by driving down the price of energy. However, reductions in emissions may be compatible with increased efficiency and development, as well as with improvements in the quality of the local environment and in rural living, with the new supplies replacing fossil fuel supplies, provided that real fossil fuel prices are increased via removal of subsidies and if required carbon taxes. (au) 15 refs

  10. Assessment of the abatement of acelsulfame K using cerium doped ZnO as photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calza, P.; Gionco, C.; Giletta, M. [Department of Chemistry, Via Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Kalaboka, M.; Sakkas, V.A.; Albanis, T. [Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Ioannnina 45 110 (Greece); Paganini, M.C., E-mail: mariacristina.paganini@unito.it [Department of Chemistry, Via Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Ce doped ZnO. • The abatement of ACE K is assessed in ultrapure water and in river water matrix. • Demonstrated higher degradation activity than P25 under visible light. • The degradation activity is less affected in river water than for P25. - Abstract: In the present study, we investigated the possibility to abate Acesulfame K, a persistent emerging contaminant, in aqueous media using zinc oxide based materials. For this purpose, bare and Ce-doped zinc oxide was prepared via an easy and cheap hydrothermal process using different cerium salts as precursors. Their photocatalytic performance was evaluated in different media, namely ultrapure and river water under both UV–vis and visible light. Commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 was also employed and used as a reference photocatalyst for comparison purposes. The obtained results pointed out that cerium doped zinc oxide composites exhibit higher performance than TiO{sub 2} P25, especially under visible light and in the presence of organic matter, when the activity of the latter is greatly depressed. In particular, ZnO doped with cerium (1%) was the most effective material, and could be a promising alternative to TiO{sub 2} P25, especially in the treatment of natural waters.

  11. Abating coal tar seepage into surface water bodies using sheet piles with sealed interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingwood, B.I.; Boscardin, M.D.; Murdock, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A former coal tar processing facility processed crude coal tar supplied from manufactured gas plants in the area. Coal-tar-contaminated ground water from the site was observed seeping through an existing timber bulkhead along a tidal river and producing a multicolored sheen on the surface of the river. As part of a short-term measure to abate the seepage into the river, 64-m long anchored sheet pile wall with sheet pile wing walls at each end was constructed inland of the of the timber bulkhead. The sheet piles extended to low-permeability soils at depth and the interlocks of the sheet piles were provided with polyurethane rubber seals. Based on postconstruction observations for leakage and sheens related to leakage, the steel sheet piles with polyurethane rubber interlock seals appeared to provide a successful seal and abate coal-tar-contaminated ground water seepage into the river. The tie rod penetration sealing proved to be a more problematic detail, but through several postconstruction grouting episodes, an effective seal was produced

  12. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 2: Scenarios and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, M.J.; Jeppesen, M.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Alpcan, T.; Dargaville, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two part study that considers least cost, greenhouse gas abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 of this study formulated a model for determining these abatement pathways, and applied this model to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) for a single reference scenario. Part 2 of this study applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. These include cases where nuclear power generation and CCS (carbon capture and storage) are implemented in Australia, which is presently not the case, as well as a more detailed examination of how an extended, RPS (renewable portfolio standard) might perform. The effect of future fuel costs and different discount rates are also examined. Several results from this study are thought to be significant. Most importantly, this study suggests that Australia already has utility scale technologies, renewable and non-renewable resources, an electricity market design and an abatement policy that permit continued progress towards deep greenhouse gas abatement in its electricity sector. In particular, a RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears to be close to optimal as a greenhouse gas abatement policy for Australia's electricity sector for at least the next 10–15 years. - Highlights: • Considers scenarios and policy implications for Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). • An extended form of RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears near optimal until roughly 2030. • For up to 80% abatement, the inclusion of nuclear achieves only marginal benefit by 2050. • CCS (Carbon capture and storage) does not appear competitive with current cost estimates.

  13. Separating environmental efficiency into production and abatement efficiency. A nonparametric model with application to U.S. power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we present a new approach to evaluate the environmental efficiency of decision making units. We propose a model that describes a two-stage process consisting of a production and an end-of-pipe abatement stage with the environmental efficiency being determined by the efficiency of both stages. Taking the dependencies between the two stages into account, we show how nonparametric methods can be used to measure environmental efficiency and to decompose it into production and abatement efficiency. For an empirical illustration we apply our model to an analysis of U.S. power plants.

  14. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  15. 75 FR 35122 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Buckeye Municipal Airport, Town of Buckeye, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... approval of such program. The submitted program contained five proposed actions for noise abatement, noise... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Buckeye Municipal Airport... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program submitted by the...

  16. Abatement Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds in Emissions from Biofuel Driers; Reningsteknik foer organiska aemnen i utslaepp till luft vid biobraensletorkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Karin; Ehrstedt, Thomas [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    This report is a part of a program at Vaermeforsk called Drying of Biofuels and deals with abatement technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOC) in biofuel drier emissions. The report gives an account of the amount of organic matter in wood and in drying gases and also of different abatement technologies for VOC. Processes from about 20 contractors are briefly described. The conclusions from this work are that thermal or catalytic oxidizing technologies in connection with regenerative heat recovery seems to be the most suitable technique for this application. Both technologies should give a degree of purification above 95 %. The purification cost for a typical case has been estimated to about 22 SEK per kg removed organic matter in both cases. The investment cost is higher for the catalytic oxidizer (6-20 MSEK for a 60.000 Nm{sup 3} /h catalytic plant compared to 4-6,5 MSEK for a thermal plant) but the fuel cost is lower. Condensation is a usable technique but it suffers from bad degree of purification. By using a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) the degree of purification can be enhanced but it will still be lower than for the oxidizers. Adsorption and absorption are not suitable for gases at high temperatures containing several different organic compounds at low concentrations, which is the case in biofuel drying. This means high purification costs and low degree of purification. Other technologies that have been found less suitable are biological purification and membrane technology. World-wide there are a few reference plants based on thermal oxidizing in connection with biofuel drying. Otherwise the experiences are very limited. According to this, tests in pilot plant scale are recommended before investment in a full-scale plant for biofuel driers.

  17. 26 CFR 1.692-1 - Abatement of income taxes of certain members of the Armed Forces of the United States upon death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in a combat zone (as determined under section 112), or at any place as a result of wounds, disease... (including interest, additions to the tax, and additional amounts) is assessed, the assessment will be abated... additional amounts) has been assessed, the assessments will be abated. If the amount of any such unpaid tax...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... QPP Resource Center 2018 Information 2017 Information Program Rules Surgeon Specific Registry Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation ... Project Medicare Enrollment and Participation Medicare Inpatient & Outpatient Rules Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) Value-Based Payment ...

  19. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  20. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  1. A decision rule based on goal programming and one-stage models for uncertain multi-criteria mixed decision making and games against nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Gaspars-Wieloch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with games against nature and multi-criteria decision making under uncertainty along with scenario planning. We focus on decision problems where a deterministic evaluation of criteria is not possible. The procedure we propose is based on weighted goal programming and may be applied when seeking a mixed strategy. A mixed strategy allows the decision maker to select and perform a weighted combination of several accessible alternatives. The new method takes into consideration the decision maker’s preference structure (importance of particular goals and nature (pessimistic, moderate or optimistic attitude towards a given problem. It is designed for one-shot decisions made under uncertainty with unknown probabilities (frequencies, i.e. for decision making under complete uncertainty or decision making under strategic uncertainty. The procedure refers to one-stage models, i.e. models considering combinations of scenarios and criteria (scenario-criterion pairs as distinct meta-attributes, which means that the novel approach can be used in the case of totally independent payoff matrices for particular targets. The algorithm does not require any information about frequencies, which is especially desirable for new decision problems. It can be successfully applied by passive decision makers, as only criteria weights and the coefficient of optimism have to be declared.

  2. Following the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  3. Surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis in layer houses: a retrospective comparison of the Food and Drug Administration's egg safety rule (2010-2011) and the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesky, Maurice; Charlton, Bruce; Bland, Mark; Rolfe, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Between July 2007 and December 2011, 2660 environmental drag swab samples were collected in total from California layer flocks on behalf of the California Egg Quality Assurance Program (CEQAP), the egg safety rule (21 CFR Parts 16 and 118) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), or both. The samples were processed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety Lab, and positive or negative results for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were recorded. This study retrospectively compares the differences between the FDA and CEQAP programs with respect to their SE environmental sampling surveillance results. To accomplish this comparison, two different CEQAP (new and old) data sets representing different SE environmental surveillance approaches in the life of the flock were compared against each other and against the FDA's SE environmental testing plan. Significant differences were noted between the CEQAP and FDA programs with respect to the prevalence of SE in the farm environment. Analyses of the prevalence of SE at different stages in the flock's life cycle (chick papers, preproduction, midproduction, postmolt, and premarket) found the highest prevalence of SE in premarket (11.9%), followed by postmolt (3.5%) and midproduction (3.4%), and there was a tie between chick papers and preproduction (2.1%). To assess the main effects of the presence of SE in the farm environment, backwards binary logistic regression was used. Of six independent variables examined (age of flock, year, season, owner, CEQAP membership, and analysis of pooled samples vs. individual swabs), only age of flock, owner, and year were determined to be significant factors in the final model. Although CEQAP membership and pooling vs. individuals swabs were not included in the final model, Pearson chi-square tests did show significantly higher odds of SE for non-CEQAP member farms and higher odds of SE in pooled samples vs. individual swabs.

  4. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  5. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E; Claveau, Vincent

    2008-11-19

    Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI), a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  6. 76 FR 69788 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes a one-year pilot program that would add new Rule 107C to.... Purpose The Exchange is proposing a one-year pilot program that would add new NYSE Rule 107C to establish...-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Rule Change Proposing a One-Year...

  7. Hexane abatement and spore emission control in a fungal biofilter-photoreactor hybrid unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucedo-Lucero, J.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Quijano, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Arriaga, S. [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, División de Ciencias Ambientales, Camino a la Presa San José No. 2055, C.P., 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Muñoz, R., E-mail: mutora@iq.uva.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • A fungal biofilter/photoreactor was evaluated in terms of hexane and spore removal. • Biofilter supported elimination capacities of ≈35 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and CO{sub 2} yields of ≈75%. • The photocatalytic process slightly boosted the hexane abatement performance. • Biofilter emitted fungal spores at concentrations of 2.4 × 10{sup 3}–9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. • Photo-assisted post-treatments resulted in spore deactivation efficiencies of 98%. - Abstract: The performance of a fungal perlite-based biofilter coupled to a post-treatment photoreactor was evaluated over 234 days in terms of n-hexane removal, emission and deactivation of fungal spores. The biofilter and photoreactor were operated at gas residence times of 1.20 and 0.14 min, respectively, and a hexane loading rate of 115 ± 5 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Steady n-hexane elimination capacities of 30–40 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} were achieved, concomitantly with pollutant mineralization efficiencies of 60–90%. No significant influence of biofilter irrigation frequency or irrigation nitrogen concentration on hexane abatement was recorded. Photolysis did not support an efficient hexane post-treatment likely due to the short EBRT applied in the photoreactor, while overall hexane removal and mineralization enhancements of 25% were recorded when the irradiated photoreactor was packed with ZnO-impregnated perlite. However, a rapid catalyst deactivation was observed, which required a periodic reactivation every 48 h. Biofilter irrigation every 3 days supported fungal spore emissions at concentrations ranging from 2.4 × 10{sup 3} to 9.0 × 10{sup 4} CFU m{sup −3}. Finally, spore deactivation efficiencies of ≈98% were recorded for the photolytic and photocatalytic post-treatment processes. This study confirmed the potential of photo-assisted post-treatment processes to mitigate the emission of hazardous fungal spores and boost the abatement performance of

  8. 77 FR 5740 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ..., General Reclamation Requirements; Part 876, Acid Mine Drainage Treatment and Abatement Program; Part 879... fires, subsidence, water loss, dangerous impoundments, abandoned structures/equipment, open mine portals... [SATS NO. TN-001-FOR; OSM 2011-0010] Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program AGENCY: Office of Surface...

  9. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  10. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper illustrates a new method to create supply curves for pollution abatement using boiler-level data that explicitly accounts for technology costs and performance. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different NO...

  11. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters: defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, J.A.G.; Coppens, L.J.C.; Laak, ter T.L.; Raterman, B.W.; Wezel, van A.P.

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  12. Abatement of fluorinated compounds using a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with a reverse vortex plasma reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Cho, C H; Shin, D H; Hong, Y C; Shin, Y W

    2015-08-30

    Abatement of fluorinated compounds (FCs) used in semiconductor and display industries has received an attention due to the increasingly stricter regulation on their emission. We have developed a 2.45GHz microwave plasma torch with reverse vortex reactor (RVR). In order to design a reverse vortex plasma reactor, we calculated a volume fraction and temperature distribution of discharge gas and waste gas in RVR by ANSYS CFX of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation code. Abatement experiments have been performed with respect to SF6, NF3 by varying plasma power and N2 flow rates, and FCs concentration. Detailed experiments were conducted on the abatement of NF3 and SF6 in terms of destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The DRE of 99.9% for NF3 was achieved without an additive gas at the N2 flow rate of 150 liter per minute (L/min) by applying a microwave power of 6kW with RVR. Also, a DRE of SF6 was 99.99% at the N2 flow rate of 60 L/min using an applied microwave power of 6kW. The performance of reverse vortex reactor increased about 43% of NF3 and 29% of SF6 abatements results definition by decomposition energy per liter more than conventional vortex reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. DIFERENTES MÉTODOS DE ABATE DO PESCADO PRODUZIDO EM AQUICULTURA, QUALIDADE DA CARNE E BEM ESTAR DO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Campos Freire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O pescado constitui uma importante fonte de proteína animal para a população humana. Somada a essa importância, os alimentos oriundos do ambiente aquático, principalmente os peixes de origem marinha, apresentam propriedades e compostos que ajudam a prevenir determinados problemas de saúde. Além disso, a carne magra é recomendada para evitar problemas de saúde e aumentar a longevidade das pessoas. Um aspecto negativo do pescado consiste em sua elevada capacidade de deterioração por processos físicos, químicos e biológicos. Os métodos de abate, nesse sentido, tornam-se importantes fatores a serem considerados para uma melhor preservação das características do alimento, visto que, durante o processo de abate o animal pode se debater bastante fazendo com que as reservas de energia sejam reduzidas drasticamente promovendo o acúmulo de ácido lático, favorecendo a ação de enzimas proteolíticas e levando um sabor indesejado ao produto. Esta revisão descreve os principais mecanismos de abate, publicadas na literatura, nos diferentes tipos de pescado e sua influência na qualidade da carne. Outro aspecto importante, descrito e analisado, foi o bem-estar do animal durante o processo de abate.

  14. Towards spatially smart abatement of human pharmaceuticals in surface waters : Defining impact of sewage treatment plants on susceptible functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Lieke J C; van Gils, Jos A G; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Raterman, Bernard W; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2015-01-01

    For human pharmaceuticals, sewage treatment plants (STPs) are a major point of entry to surface waters. The receiving waters provide vital functions. Modeling the impact of STPs on susceptible functions of the surface water system allows for a spatially smart implementation of abatement options at,

  15. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  16. Report on developing bottom-up Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCS) for representative farm types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eory, V.; MacLeod, M.; Faverdin, P.

    2015-01-01

    years, discussing the variability in these estimates. The second study reports on marginal abatement cost curves for beef cattle production in Brazil. Finally, the last report presents the conceptual basis of a tool to assess the financial implications of the mitigation measures to be used in parallel...... number of reports done in developed countries show a high variability in the country-level cost-effectiveness estimates, and suggest that approaches providing higher granularity at the spatial and farm type could suit better to the purpose of regional policy development. At the same time, there is still...... a gap in our understanding of economic mitigation potential of agriculture in developing and newly industrialised countries. To address these questions this report presents three studies. The first is a literature review of the cost-effectiveness estimates of mitigation measures published in the past 15...

  17. CO2 abatement potential of wood utilisation. Wood as an energy carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegener, G.; Fruehwald, A.

    1994-01-01

    Forests as ecosystems not only supply the raw material wood but also exert an influence on soils, water resources and many other ecological factors; provide animals with a habitat; and offer as humans a place for recreation. Recently, forests and wood have become of interest to human civilisation from yet another aspect: they constitute a carbon storage. This means that forestry and the forest industries can help moderate the increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, which is essentially the result of energetic utilisation of fossil fuels and considered the decisive factor underlying the greenhouse effect. Besides constituting a carbon storage, forests hold an additional CO 2 abatement potential which can be realised by continuous utilisation of wood. (orig./EF) [de

  18. Economic and game-theoretical analysis of CO{sub 2} emission abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvonen, O. [Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Current decisions on greenhouse gas emissions may have effects on human well being for centuries. This project has aimed to extend the economic models designed for analyzing this particular issue. A closely related topic follows from the fact that emitting CO{sub 2} can be interpreted as a utilization of a free access resource, i.e., when countries gain from utilizing cheap fossil fuels (relative to noncarbon energy sources), the possible loss any country suffers from climate change is only a negligible fraction of the total loss of all countries. Thus, from a global point of view, the incentives for an individual country to abate emissions is low. Economic understanding of these problems calls for dynamic game-theoretical models

  19. Freer markets and the abatement of carbon emissions. The electricity-generating sector in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Madhu; Zilberman, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a framework to explore the implications of trade and domestic policy distortions for the magnitude of carbon emissions and for the welfare costs of abating these emissions. An application to the electricity-generating sector in India shows that economic policy reforms can also be effective environmental policy instruments and reduce carbon emissions even in the absence of an emissions tax. This reduction in emissions is accompanied by an increase in domestic welfare, an increase in electricity output, and conservation of coal. Coordinating trade and domestic policy reform with an emissions tax policy reduces emissions further, while leading to gains in welfare that are greater than those under an emissions tax policy alone

  20. Influence of climatic factors and the ground surface on the required noise abatement from power equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupov, V. B.; Taratorin, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of climatic factors and the ground surface on the required noise abatement from the power equipment is analyzed. It is shown that annual oscillations of temperature and humidity lead to substantial variations in the levels of the sound and the sound pressure from the same source in the design point, while the ground effect surface can in some cases cause an increase in the sound pressure levels in the design point, and in other cases—their decrease. When developing the measures on sound suppression of the power equipment, it is recommended to take into account the influence of climatic factors depending on annual variations in temperature and humidity for this terrain as well as on the category of the ground surface.

  1. Description and flight performance of two systems for two-segment approach. [for aircraft noise abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R.; Shigemoto, F. H.; Bourquin, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes two different avionic systems which were designed and developed to provide guidance and control for two-segment noise abatement approaches. The concept of a low-cost retrofit avionic system evolved into a special-purpose two-segment computer which required a DME collocated with the ILS glide-slope transmitter. This system was evaluated in a Boeing 727-200 aircraft. The second system is an area navigation (RNAV) system modified to include the two-segment approach. This system is more sophisticated than the first system and does not restrict usage to any specific navigation ground aid. The modified RNAV system is a Collins ANS-70A and is currently being evaluated in a DC-8-61 aircraft.

  2. The Role of Technology Spillovers in the Process of Water Pollution Abatement for Large International Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aldieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of technology externalities stemming from different technological sectors for international firms engaged both in water pollution abatement and in dirty activities. We present a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis based upon a dataset composed of worldwide R&D-intensive firms. In order to identify the technological proximity between the firms, we construct an original Mahalanobis environmental industry weight matrix, based on the construction of technological vectors for each firm, with European ecological patents distributed across more technology classes. Opportune econometric techniques that deal with the firms’ unobserved heterogeneity and the weak exogeneity of the explanatory variables are implemented. The findings show significant spillover effects on the productivity and environmental performance of the firms.

  3. Nanomaterials for the Abatement of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Stefania Freyria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this short-review, the most common types of both pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP, a class of “emerging pollutants” are considered, as well as some of the most frequent methods for their removal that envisage the use of nanomaterials. The nanomaterials used in conservative methods (namely, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and adsorption are basically nanoporous solids. Non-conservative methods, which include photocatalysis and Fenton reaction, are currently considered more promising than conservative ones, as the former allow the (at least partial degradation of the original molecules into more biodegradable by-products, which can be further abated by subsequent biological treatments, whereas the former are not efficient for the removal of small quantities of pollutants and have to be regenerated.

  4. Payback Period for Emissions Abatement Alternatives: Role of Regulation and Fuel Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zis, Thalis; Angeloudis, Panagiotis; Bell, Michael G. H.

    2016-01-01

    period of a potential scrubber investment. The results show that lower prices would significantly delay the payback period of such investments, up to two times in some cases. The case studies present the emissions generation through each option for representative short sea shipping routes....... The repercussions of low-sulfur policies on large emission reduction investments including cold ironing are examined, along with implications of slow steaming for their respective payback periods. Recommendations are made for research in anticipation of future regulations and technological improvements....... of the fuel used. This paper presents a literature review of emissions abatement options and relevant research in the field. A cost–benefit methodology to assess emission reduction investments from ship owners is also presented. A study examined the effects of recent drops in bunker fuel price to the payback...

  5. Mashad trigeneration potential – An opportunity for CO2 abatement in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behboodi Kalhori, Sahand; Rabiei, Hossein; Mansoori, Zohreh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Utilization of trigeneration system is investigated for Mashad town center. ► The case study is the main tourist destination in Iran. ► Two CHCP scenarios are considered to meet thermal demand regarding the hourly load. ► Thermodynamic performance criteria of both scenarios are discussed. ► Environmental and financial features of both scenarios are proposed. - Abstract: Trigeneration, referred to as Combined Heating, Cooling and Power (CHCP), is an efficient energy conversion technology which offers several merits, including fuel consumption saving, CO 2 emission abatement and reduced expenses. In this article, the viability of trigeneration system in Mashad city, the main tourist destination in Iran, has been studied. For this aim, two scenarios have been proposed to meet thermal energy demand which is about 80 MW th at peak time. In the first scenario, the plan is developed on the basis of heat recovery opportunity from hot exhaust gases of two gas turbines installed near Mashad town center, and in the second scenario, an onside CHCP plant with optimum capacity is considered. Then, some performance criteria are investigated to assess the effectiveness of projected scenarios. Finally, both options are analyzed from technical and financial point of view. Finally, although CO 2 abatement is approximately 311,500 ton per year for the first scenario, and four times lower for the second one, the latter presents better economic features (internal rate of return: 14.27% versus 12.93%). Accordingly, the onside CHCP proposal is recommended to be installed.

  6. A watershed-scale assessment of cost-effectiveness of sediment abatement with flow diversion terraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Zhao, Zhengyong; Benoy, Glenn; Chow, Thien Lien; Rees, Herb W; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui

    2010-01-01

    Soil conservation beneficial management practices (BMPs) are effective at controlling soil loss from farmlands and minimizing water pollution in agricultural watersheds. However, costs associated with implementing and maintaining these practices are high and often deter farmers from using them. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct cost-benefit analysis of BMP implementation to assist decision-makers with planning to provide the greatest level of environmental protection with limited resources and funding. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of flow diversion terraces (FDT) in abating sediment yield at the outlet of Black Brook Watershed (BBW), northwestern New Brunswick. Different FDT-implementation scenarios were expressed as the ratio of land area protected by FDT to the total cultivated area. From this analysis, we found that average annual sediment yield decreased exponentially with increased FDT protection. When the proportion of FDT-protected areas was low, sediment reductions caused by FDT increased sharply with increasing use of FDT. Similarly, marginal sediment yield abatement costs (dollar per tonne of sediment reduction) increased exponentially with increasing proportion of FDT-protected area. The results indicated that increasing land protection with FDT from 6 to 50% would result in a reduction of about 2.1 tonne ha(-1) yr(-1) and costs of sediment reduction increased from $7 to $12 per tonne. Increasing FDT-protected cropland from 50 to 100%, a reduction of about 0.9 tonne of sediment ha(-1) yr(-1) would occur and the costs would increase from $12 to $53 per tonne of sediment yield reduction.

  7. Sulfur deposition simulations over China, Japan, and Korea: a model intercomparison study for abating sulfur emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheol-Hee; Chang, Lim-Seok; Meng, Fan; Kajino, Mizuo; Ueda, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yuanhang; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Jong-Jae; He, Youjiang; Xu, Jun; Sato, Keiichi; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Han, Zhiwei; Duan, Lei; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Song, Chang-Keun; Ban, Soo-Jin; Shim, Shang-Gyoo; Sunwoo, Young; Lee, Tae-Young

    2012-11-01

    In response to increasing trends in sulfur deposition in Northeast Asia, three countries in the region (China, Japan, and Korea) agreed to devise abatement strategies. The concepts of critical loads and source-receptor (S-R) relationships provide guidance for formulating such strategies. Based on the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollutants in Northeast Asia (LTP) project, this study analyzes sulfur deposition data in order to optimize acidic loads over the three countries. The three groups involved in this study carried out a full year (2002) of sulfur deposition modeling over the geographic region spanning the three countries, using three air quality models: MM5-CMAQ, MM5-RAQM, and RAMS-CADM, employed by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean modeling groups, respectively. Each model employed its own meteorological numerical model and model parameters. Only the emission rates for SO(2) and NO(x) obtained from the LTP project were the common parameter used in the three models. Three models revealed some bias from dry to wet deposition, particularly the latter because of the bias in annual precipitation. This finding points to the need for further sensitivity tests of the wet removal rates in association with underlying cloud-precipitation physics and parameterizations. Despite this bias, the annual total (dry plus wet) sulfur deposition predicted by the models were surprisingly very similar. The ensemble average annual total deposition was 7,203.6 ± 370 kt S with a minimal mean fractional error (MFE) of 8.95 ± 5.24 % and a pattern correlation (PC) of 0.89-0.93 between the models. This exercise revealed that despite rather poor error scores in comparison with observations, these consistent total deposition values across the three models, based on LTP group's input data assumptions, suggest a plausible S-R relationship that can be applied to the next task of designing cost-effective emission abatement strategies.

  8. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Videos Contact Us Clinical Congress Clinical Congress 2018 Clinical Congress 2018 Call for Abstracts and Videos Hotel and Travel ... Payment Program QPP Resource Center QPP Resource Center 2018 Information 2017 Information Program Rules Surgeon Specific Registry ...

  9. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Policy Updates Selected Research Findings Quality Program Initiatives Communications to the Profession Advocacy Advocacy Overview Quality Payment Program QPP Resource Center QPP Resource Center 2018 Information 2017 Information Program Rules Surgeon Specific Registry Metabolic ...

  10. Energy-saving and emission-abatement potential of Chinese coal-fired power enterprise: A non-parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Chu; Löschel, Andreas; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    In the context of soaring demand for electricity, mitigating and controlling greenhouse gas emissions is a great challenge for China's power sector. Increasing attention has been placed on the evaluation of energy efficiency and CO 2 abatement potential in the power sector. However, studies at the micro-level are relatively rare due to serious data limitations. This study uses the 2004 and 2008 Census data of Zhejiang province to construct a non-parametric frontier in order to assess the abatement space of energy and associated CO 2 emission from China's coal-fired power enterprises. A Weighted Russell Directional Distance Function (WRDDF) is applied to construct an energy-saving potential index and a CO 2 emission-abatement potential index. Both indicators depict the inefficiency level in terms of energy utilization and CO 2 emissions of electric power plants. Our results show a substantial variation of energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement potential among enterprises. We find that large power enterprises are less efficient in 2004, but become more efficient than smaller enterprises in 2008. State-owned enterprises (SOE) are not significantly different in 2008 from 2004, but perform better than their non-SOE counterparts in 2008. This change in performance for large enterprises and SOE might be driven by the “top-1000 Enterprise Energy Conservation Action” that was implemented in 2006. - Highlights: • Energy-saving potential and CO 2 abatement-potential for Chinese power enterprise are evaluated. • The potential to curb energy and emission shows great variation and dynamic changes. • Large enterprise is less efficient than small enterprise in 2004, but more efficient in 2008. • The state-owned enterprise performs better than non-state-owned enterprise in 2008

  11. Integrated assessment of energy efficiency technologies and CO2 abatement cost curves in China’s road passenger car sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Bin-Bin; Fan, Ying; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency technologies in Chinese passenger cars are classified in detail. • CO 2 -reduction potential and abatement cost are analyzed for technology bundles. • Marginal abatement cost curve is established from both micro and macro perspectives. • Spark ignition, diesel and hybrid electric vehicle paths should be firstly promoted. • Technology promotion should start from the area of taxies and high-performance cars. - Abstract: Road transport is one of the main sources of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. It is essential to conserve energy and reduce emissions by promoting energy efficiency technologies (EETs) in this sector. This study first identifies EETs for the passenger cars and then classifies them into various technology bundles. It then analyzes the CO 2 -reduction potentials and emissions abatement costs of 55 type-path, 246 type-path-technology, and 465 type-path-subtechnology bundles from micro-vehicular and macro-industrial perspectives during 2010–2030, based on which marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for China’s road passenger car sector is established. Results show that the cumulative CO 2 -reduction potential of EETs on passenger cars in China during 2010–2030 is about 2698.8 Mt, but only 4% is cost-effective. The EETs with low emissions abatement costs are mainly available in the spark ignition (SI), diesel, and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) paths on the taxis and high-performance cars, and also in the transmission, vehicle body and SI technologies on the private cars, which could be promoted at present. The technologies with large emissions reduction potential are mainly available in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) paths, which would be the main channels for reducing carbon emissions in the long run.

  12. Exploring the limits for CO2 emission abatement in the EU power and industry sectors—Awaiting a breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootzén, Johan; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the prospects for presently available abatement technologies to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions from large stationary sources of CO 2 in the EU up to year 2050. The study covers power generation, petroleum refining, iron and steel, and cement production. By simulating capital stock turnover, scenarios that assume future developments in the technology stock, energy intensities, fuel and production mixes, and the resulting CO 2 emissions were generated for each sector. The results confirm that the EU goal for reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emission in the sectors covered by the EU Emission Trading System, i.e., 21% reduction by 2020 as compared to the levels in 2005, is attainable with the abatement measures that are already available. However, despite the optimism regarding the potential for, and implementation of, available abatement strategies within current production processes, our results indicate that the power and industrial sectors will fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in both the medium term (2030) and long term (2050). Deliberate exclusion from the analysis of mitigation technologies that are still in the early phases of development (e.g., CO 2 capture and storage) provides an indirect measure of the requirements for novel low-carbon technologies and production processes. - Highlights: • Explore the limits for CO 2 emission abatement within current production processes. • Analysis of scenarios for CO 2 emissions from EU power and industrial sectors 2010–2050. • Short-term (2020) emission targets are attainable with available abatement measures. • Fail to comply with more stringent reduction targets in the long term (2050). • Efforts to develop new low-carbon production processes need to be accelerated

  13. Optimization of inhibitory decision rules relative to length and coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. In contrast with usual rules that have on the right-hand side a relation "attribute ≠ value", inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute = value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  15. 42 CFR 50.303 - General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General rule. 50.303 Section 50.303 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Abortions and Related Medical Services in Federally Assisted Programs of the Public Health Service § 50.303...

  16. 42 CFR 441.202 - General rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General rule. 441.202 Section 441.202 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: REQUIREMENTS AND LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.202...

  17. Higher Education: New Models, New Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Louis; Eaton, Judith S.; Smith, Burck

    2013-01-01

    The Internet enables new models. In the commercial world, for example, we have eBay, Amazon.com, and Netflix. These new models operate with a different set of rules than do traditional models. New models are emerging in higher education as well--for example, competency-based programs. In addition, courses that are being provided from outside the…

  18. More Than the Rules of Precedence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yawei

    2005-01-01

    In a fundamental computer-programming course, such as CSE101, questions about how to evaluate an arithmetic expression are frequently used to check if our students know the rules of precedence. The author uses two of our final examination questions to show that more knowledge of computer science is needed to answer them correctly. Furthermore,…

  19. ANALOGICAL REASONING USING TRANSFORMATIONS OF RULES

    OpenAIRE

    Haraguchi, Makoto; 原口, 誠

    1986-01-01

    A formalism of analogical reasoning is presented. The analogical reasoning can be considered as a deduction with a function of transforming logical rules. From this viewpoint, the reasoning is defined in terms of deduction, and is therefore realized in a logic programming system. The reasoning system is described as an extension of Prolog interpreter.

  20. 76 FR 26489 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Purchasing Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 88 / Friday, May 6, 2011 / Rules and...-Based Purchasing Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements a Hospital Inpatient Value-Based Purchasing program (Hospital VBP...

  1. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  2. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  3. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving: General rules. (a) On any airport, paving of the designated instrument landing runway (or dominant runway if...

  4. Online learning algorithm for ensemble of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We describe an online learning algorithm that builds a system of decision rules for a classification problem. Rules are constructed according to the minimum description length principle by a greedy algorithm or using the dynamic programming approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  5. 34 CFR 75.104 - Applicants must meet procedural rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicants must meet procedural rules. 75.104 Section 75.104 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant The Application Notice § 75.104 Applicants must meet procedural rules. (a) The Secretary...

  6. 7 CFR 550.35 - Rules of the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules of the workplace. 550.35 Section 550.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Agreements Program Management § 550.35 Rules of the workplace. Cooperator employees, while engaged in work at...

  7. 24 CFR 146.13 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rules against age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 146.13 Rules against...

  8. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  9. QCD spectral sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    The aim of the book is to give an introduction to the method of QCD Spectral Sum Rules and to review its developments. After some general introductory remarks, Chiral Symmetry, the Historical Developments of the Sum Rules and the necessary materials for perturbative QCD including the MS regularization and renormalization schemes are discussed. The book also gives a critical review and some improvements of the wide uses of the QSSR in Hadron Physics and QSSR beyond the Standard Hadron Phenomenology. The author has participated actively in this field since 1978 just before the expanding success

  10. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  11. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  12. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  13. Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies.

  14. Automated generation of lattice QCD Feynman rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.; Mueller, E.H.; Horgan, R.R.

    2009-04-01

    The derivation of the Feynman rules for lattice perturbation theory from actions and operators is complicated, especially for highly improved actions such as HISQ. This task is, however, both important and particularly suitable for automation. We describe a suite of software to generate and evaluate Feynman rules for a wide range of lattice field theories with gluons and (relativistic and/or heavy) quarks. Our programs are capable of dealing with actions as complicated as (m)NRQCD and HISQ. Automated differentiation methods are used to calculate also the derivatives of Feynman diagrams. (orig.)

  15. Automated generation of lattice QCD Feynman rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, A.; Mueller, E.H. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; von Hippel, G.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Horgan, R.R. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP, CMS

    2009-04-15

    The derivation of the Feynman rules for lattice perturbation theory from actions and operators is complicated, especially for highly improved actions such as HISQ. This task is, however, both important and particularly suitable for automation. We describe a suite of software to generate and evaluate Feynman rules for a wide range of lattice field theories with gluons and (relativistic and/or heavy) quarks. Our programs are capable of dealing with actions as complicated as (m)NRQCD and HISQ. Automated differentiation methods are used to calculate also the derivatives of Feynman diagrams. (orig.)

  16. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  17. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  18. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 199...

  19. Rule and rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Eilenberg, Michael

    This policy brief contributes to a novel understanding of public authority and state formation. It draws on a recent publication, Rule and Rupture, edited by Christian Lund and Michael Eilenberg (2016), and argues that public authority is not simply given but constituted through social contracts...

  20. Ozone: Stage Two Vapor Recovery Rule and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes the guidance document, fact sheet, memorandum, and final rule on removing Stage II Gasoline Vapor Control Programs from State Implementation Plans (SIP) for the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

  1. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2014-02-14

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  2. Increasing organ donation via changes in the default choice or allocation rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danyang; Hawley, Zackary; Schnier, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This research utilizes a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative public policies targeted at increasing the rate of deceased donor organ donation. The experiment includes treatments across different default choices and organ allocation rules inspired by the donor registration systems applied in different countries. Our results indicate that the opt-out with priority rule system generates the largest increase in organ donation relative to an opt-in only program. However, sizeable gains are achievable using either a priority rule or opt-out program separately, with the opt-out rule generating approximately 80% of the benefits achieved under a priority rule program. PMID:24135615

  3. Manejo pré-abate e bem-estar dos suínos em frigoríficos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Aurélia Pereira [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um levantamento em quatro frigoríficos comerciais da Região Sul do Brasil, com a finalidade de fornecer um panorama das condições do manejo pré-abate visando o bem-estar animal. A avaliação das condições do manejo pré-abate foi realizada mediante um questionário fornecido aos motoristas responsáveis pelo transporte dos suínos até o frigorífico. Neste questionário foram obtidas informações referentes às condições do acesso à propriedade, do embarcad...

  4. 78 FR 23637 - Identity Theft Red Flags Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... and guidelines to require certain regulated entities to establish programs to address risks of... address identity theft. First, the rules require financial institutions and creditors to develop and... Financial Institutions and Creditors Are Required to Have a Program 2. The Objectives of the Program 3. The...

  5. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? Conclusions from a case study. I: Energy production and carbon dioxide abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.O.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the renewable energy production of crops used for phytoremediation. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region (Belgium and The Netherlands), where agricultural soils are diffusely contaminated with cadmium, lead, and zinc, with an enhanced risk for uptake of these metals in crops and leaching to the groundwater. However, the area has such a large extent (700 km 2 ) that conventional remediation is not applicable. Cultivation of crops for energy purposes on such land offers the opportunity to come up with an approach that efficiently uses contaminated agricultural land and that can be beneficial for both farmer and society. Performing a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), we examined the energy and CO 2 abatement potential of willow (Salix spp.), silage maize (Zea mays L.), and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) originating from contaminated land. Taking into account the marginal impact of the metals in the biomass on the energy conversion efficiency and on the potential use of the biomass and its rest products after conversion, digestion of silage maize with combustion of the contaminated digestate shows the best energetic and CO 2 abating perspectives. The replacement of cokes based electricity by willow is more efficient in CO 2 abatement than willow used in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, despite lower net energy production in the former option. Willow reaches the same energy production and same CO 2 abatement per hectare per year as silage maize when its biomass yield is respectively 13 and 8.7 Mg dm ha −1 y −1 . -- Highlights: ► We study the energy potential of Salix, Zea mays and Brassica after phytoremediation. ► The case study contains agricultural soils that are contaminated with cadmium. ► We include the impact of metals on energy conversion efficiency and rest product use. ► Higher biomass yields for Salix would make it energetically competitive with Z. mays.

  6. Determinants of willingness-to-pay for water pollution abatement: a point and interval data payment card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre; Riera, Pere; Giergiczny, Marek

    2012-10-15

    This paper shows a contingent valuation exercise of pollution abatement in remote lakes. In addition to estimating the usual interval data model, it applies a point and interval statistical approach allowing for uncensored data, left-censored data, right-censored data and left- and right-censored data to explore the determinants of willingness-to-pay in a payment card survey. Results suggest that the estimations between models may diverge under certain conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 1: Problem formulation and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, M.; Brear, M.J.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Dargaville, R.; Alpcan, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first of a two part study that considers long term, least cost, GHG (greenhouse gas) abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 formulates a planning model to optimise these pathways and presents results for a single reference scenario. Part 2 applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. The planning model formulated has several constraints which are important when considering GHG abatement and widespread uptake of intermittent renewable generation. These constraints do not appear to have been integrated into a single planning model previously, and include constraints on annual GHG emissions, unit commitment, storage, plant dynamics and intermittent renewable generation. The model prioritises overall abatement, and therefore does not include a price on carbon or support for any particular technology. The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as an example. All model inputs – for technologies, demand, and meteorological data – are from the most current and authoritative public sources. As such, the results are transparently derived and both policy and technology neutral. For the reference scenario presented here, key technologies are wind from 2015, gas generation from 2030, and solar generation from 2040. - Highlights: • An electricity system planning model for least-cost long term abatement is presented. • The model has inter-temporal constraints (linearised commitment and utility storage). • The model is applied to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) as a case study. • Key technologies: wind from 2015, CCGT from 2030, and solar (PV & thermal) from 2040.

  8. A rule-based software test data generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  9. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them. PMID:26516623

  10. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2014-11-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ~2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Household Solar Photovoltaics: Supplier of Marginal Abatement, or Primary Source of Low-Emission Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Palmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With declining system costs and assuming a short energy payback period, photovoltaics (PV should, at face value, be able to make a meaningful contribution to reducing the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system. However, solar is an intermittent power source and households remain completely dependent on a “less than green” electricity grid for reliable electricity. Further, much of the energy impact of PV occurs outside of the conventional boundaries of PV life-cycle analyses (LCA. This paper examines these competing observations and explores the broader impacts of a high penetration of household PV using Melbourne, Victoria as a reference. It concludes that in a grid dominated by unsequestered coal and gas, PV provides a legitimate source of emission abatement at high, but declining costs, with the potential for network and peak demand support. It may be technically possible to integrate a high penetration of PV, but the economic and energy cost of accommodating high-penetration PV erodes much of the benefits. Future developments in PV, storage, and integration technologies may allow PV to take on a greater long term role, but in the time horizon usually discussed in climate policy, a large-scale expansion of household PV may hinder rather than assist deep cuts to the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system.

  12. The economics of greenhouse gas mitigation: Insights from illustrative global abatement scenarios modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurney, Andrew; Ahammad, Helal; Ford, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the Global Trade and Environment Model (GTEM) and MAGICC are used to simulate a number of global emission mitigation scenarios devised by the EMF 22 Transition Scenarios group in which radiative forcing goals and the architecture of developing economies' participation in hypothetical mitigation actions are varied. This paper presents a reference case of the world economy to 2100 and analyses some key regional and global results for the various global mitigation scenarios, including emission prices, emission levels, primary energy consumption and economic growth. Modelling results suggest that a transition to a low-carbon world would require a significant decarbonisation of electricity generation without necessarily cutting the electricity output in the long run. With the uptake of hybrids and non-fossil-fuel technologies, the transport sector could make an important contribution to global abatement of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, with substantial international mitigation efforts and uptake of low- and/or zero-emission technologies, the achievement of 3.7 W/m 2 and 4.5 W/m 2 radiative forcing targets by the end of the century could occur at emission prices of up to $550/t CO 2 -e. However, achieving the 2.6 W/m 2 (overshoot) radiative forcing target would require considerably higher emission prices and an immediate global mitigation action.

  13. Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L

    2010-01-01

    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  14. Acoustic flight tests of rotorcraft noise-abatement approaches using local differential GPS guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Robert T. N.; Hindson, William S.; Mueller, Arnold W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the test design, instrumentation set-up, data acquisition, and the results of an acoustic flight experiment to study how noise due to blade-vortex interaction (BVI) may be alleviated. The flight experiment was conducted using the NASA/Army Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) research helicopter. A Local Differential Global Positioning System (LDGPS) was used for precision navigation and cockpit display guidance. A laser-based rotor state measurement system on board the aircraft was used to measure the main rotor tip-path-plane angle-of-attack. Tests were performed at Crows Landing Airfield in northern California with an array of microphones similar to that used in the standard ICAO/FAA noise certification test. The methodology used in the design of a RASCAL-specific, multi-segment, decelerating approach profile for BVI noise abatement is described, and the flight data pertaining to the flight technical errors and the acoustic data for assessing the noise reduction effectiveness are reported.

  15. The emission abatement policy paradox in Australia: evidence from energy-emission nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-09-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the emissions embodied in Australia's economic growth and disaggregate primary energy sources used for electricity production. Using time series data over the period of 1990-2012, the ARDL bounds test approach to cointegration technique is applied to test the long-run association among the underlying variables. The regression results validate the long-run equilibrium relationship among all vectors and confirm that CO2 emissions, economic growth, and disaggregate primary energy consumption impact each other in the long-run path. Afterwards, the long- and short-run analyses are conducted using error correction model. The results show that economic growth, coal, oil, gas, and hydro energy sources have positive and statistically significant impact on CO2 emissions both in long and short run, with an exception of renewables which has negative impact only in the long run. The results conclude that Australia faces wide gap between emission abatement policies and targets. The country still relies on emission intensive fossil fuels (i.e., coal and oil) to meet the indigenous electricity demand.

  16. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  17. Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxley, T.; Elshkaki, A.; Kwiatkowski, L.; Castillo, A.; Scarbrough, T.; ApSimon, H.

    2012-01-01

    With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO 2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.

  18. External costs from electricity generation of China up to 2030 in energy and abatement scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Weili, Tian; Yumei, Wei; Yingxu, Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents estimated external costs of electricity generation in China under different scenarios of long-term energy and environmental policies. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) software is used to develop a simple model of electricity demand and to estimate gross electricity generation in China up to 2030 under these scenarios. Because external costs for unit of electricity from fossil fuel will vary in different government regulation periods, airborne pollutant external costs of SO 2 , NO x , PM 10 , and CO 2 from fired power plants are then estimated based on emission inventories and environmental cost for unit of pollutants, while external costs of non-fossil power generation are evaluated with external cost for unit of electricity. The developed model is run to study the impact of different energy efficiency and environmental abatement policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement and also reduce external costs of electricity generation. It is shown that external costs of electricity generation may reduce 24-55% with three energy policies scenarios and may further reduce by 20.9-26.7% with two environmental policies scenarios. The total reduction of external costs may reach 58.2%. (author)

  19. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sarfraz; Yuebo, Xie; Saifullah, Muhammad; Nabi Jan, Ramila; Muhetaer, Adila

    2015-01-01

    Today's ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT) was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU); Gankeng River (GKS); Xia Zhang River (XZY); Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR); Jiu Haogang River (JHH)) in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N) were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM) method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP). The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at "JHH" due to the limit of "COD" as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river's water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.

  20. Integrated Evaluation of Urban Water Bodies for Pollution Abatement Based on Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfraz Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s ecology is erected with miscellaneous framework. However, numerous sources deteriorate it, such as urban rivers that directly cause the environmental pollution. For chemical pollution abatement from urban water bodies, many techniques were introduced to rehabilitate the water quality of these water bodies. In this research, Bacterial Technology (BT was applied to urban rivers escalating the necessity to control the water pollution in different places (Xuxi River (XXU; Gankeng River (GKS; Xia Zhang River (XZY; Fenghu and Song Yang Rivers (FSR; Jiu Haogang River (JHH in China. For data analysis, the physiochemical parameters such as temperature, chemical oxygen demand (COD, dissolved oxygen (DO, total phosphorus (TP, and ammonia nitrogen (NH3N were determined before and after the treatment. Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM method was used for relative significance of different water quality on each station, based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP. The overall results revealed that the pollution is exceeding at “JHH” due to the limit of “COD” as critical water quality parameter and after treatment, an abrupt recovery of the rivers compared with the average improved efficiency of nutrients was 79%, 74%, 68%, and 70% of COD, DO, TP, and NH3N, respectively. The color of the river’s water changed to its original form and aquatic living organism appeared with clear effluents from them.