Stentebjerg-Olesen, Bodil; Chakraborty, Trinad; Klemm, Per
We have investigated the capacity of a well-defined Escherichia coli fimB strain, AAEC350 (a derivative of MG1655), to express type 1 fimbriae under various growth conditions. The expression of type 1 fimbriae is phase-variable due to the inversion of a 314-bp DNA segment. Two tyrosine recombinases......, FimB and FimE, mediate the inversion of the phase switch. FimB can carry out recombination in both directions, whereas the current evidence suggests that FimE-catalyzed switching is on-to-off only. We show here that AAEC350 is in fact capable of off-to-on phase switching and type 1 fimbrial expression...
Ophel, T.R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Physics
Full text: ANSTO was formed in 1958 as a cooperative venture of modest scope, involving the newly established AAEC (created by the Atomic Energy Act of 1953 with facilities at Lucas Heights being formally opened in 1955) and the eight universities that existed at the time. Research emphasis was very much nuclear, with the two reactors MOATA and HIFAR and possible future nuclear energy developments defining it. Two accelerators, added in the early sixties - the 3 MV Van de Graaff and the 1.3 MV electron machine, were to sustain those original activities of the AAEC. It would probably be true to say that AINSE in those early days placed much importance on the general support of nuclear science throughout Australia, whereas now of course the facilitation of the use of ANSTO facilities has become the main function. Thereafter, both AINSE and the AAEC have undergone dramatic change. The number of universities expanded to 19 in the late sixties, along with more support and encouragement for research at both the new institutions and the original group of eight. University use of Lucas Heights facilities, through the agency of AINSE, expanded and began to diversify somewhat into other disciplines - a trend that has continued apace ever since. In the nineties, the Dawkins revolution led to a doubling of the number of tertiary institutions, so that once again AINSE experienced a quantum jump in size, with of course matching complexity. In parallel, AAEC broadened its activities to embrace a wide range of nuclear and energy related areas, though basic research began to taper off. Finally, the organization was given a new charter in 1985 and re-named ANSTO. A much expanded university system, the `new` ANSTO, the rise of economic rationalism and the creation of the Australian Research Council have combined to provide a succession of challenges to AINSE. From the original small, club-like beginning with narrow interests, AINSE has emerged with more than a four-fold increase in
This is the 46th Annual Report of ANSTO or its predecessor, AAEC outlining the quality services being delivered and the development of knowledge in areas where ANSTO`s nuclear science and technology and related capabilities are of strategic and technical benefit. ANSTO is reporting against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives, outcomes and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff
Full Text Available In this paper, the dye Acid Red 114(AR 114 was removed from aqueous solutions using Acid-Activated Eichornia Crassipes (AAEC under batch conditions. The optimum conditions for AR 114 removal were found to be pH 1.5, adsorbent dosage = 1.25 g/L of solution and equilibrium time = 3 h. The equilibrium data were evaluated for compliance with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms and Langmuir isotherm was found to fit well. The maximum sorption capacity was estimated as 112.34 mg/g of adsorbent. Also, adsorption kinetics of the dye was studied and the rates of sorption were found to follow pseudo-second order kinetics with good correlation (R2 ≥ 0.997.The kinetic study at different temperatures revealed that the sorption was an endothermic process. The activation energy of the sorption process was estimated as 9.722 kJ/mol.
Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.
For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.
Sangster, D. R. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry
The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) has enabled research workers from its member universities to make extensive use of the (sometimes unique) radiation facilities at Lucas Heights. This has resulted in a better understanding of the action of gamma, X-ray and electron beam radiation on physical, chemical and biological systems, and of the radical and excited species which are produced. A selection of the ensuing first class publications is described. Over the years the emphasis has changed from the obtaining of a fundamental understanding of the science and the refining of the techniques to utilising these in attacking problems in other fields. Examples are given of the use of radiation chemistry techniques in metal-organic, polymer, excited state and biological chemistry. In radiation biology, the early emphasis on genetics and on the production of chromosomal aberrations by radiation has given way to molecular biology and cancer treatment studies. In all of this, AAEC/ANSTO and CSIRO have played major roles. In addition, AINSE has organised a continuing series of specialist conferences which has facilitated interaction between research groups within the universities and involved other investigators in Australia, New Zealand and the rest of the world. 27 refs.
Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Comenge, Yannick; Ruby, Vincent; Amsellem, Raymonde; Nicolas, Valérie; Servin, Alain L
The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, which belongs to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, acts as a virulence factor in extraintestinal and intestinal pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We observed that HeLa cells exposed to the cell-free culture supernatant of recombinant strain AAEC185p(Sat-IH11128) producing the Sat toxin (CFCS(Sat) ), displayed dramatic disorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton before loosening cell-to-cell junctions and detachment. Examination of the effect of Sat on GFP-microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) HeLa cells revealed that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy follows CFCS(Sat) -induced F-actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. The induced autophagy shows an acceleration of the autophagy flux soon after Sat treatment, followed later by a blockade of the flux leading to the accumulation of large GFP-LC3-positive vacuoles in the cell cytoplasm. CFCS(Sat) did not induce cell detachment in autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts in contrast with wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The CFCS(Sat) -induced large GFP-LC3 dots do not display the characteristics of autophagolysosomes including expression of cathepsin D and Lamp-1 and 2 proteins, and Lysotracker Red- and DQ-BSA-positive labelling. We provide evidences that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy is not a cell response intended to get rid of the intracellular toxin. By a pharmacological blockers approach, we found that the blockade of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPKs, but not JNK, inhibited the CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy and cell detachment whereas phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase blockers inhibiting canonical autophagy were inactive. When attached CFCS(Sat) -treated cells start to detach they showed caspase-independent cell death and rearrangements of the focal adhesion-associated vinculin and paxillin. Collectively, our results support that Sat triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on its cell-detachment effect. © 2011 Blackwell