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Sample records for aa motvirke negative

  1. Environmental measures in forest. Realistic measures for counteracting negative effects of acid precipitation in forest; Miljoetiltak i skog. Realistiske tiltak for aa motvirke negative effekter av sur nedboer i skog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, P. [Norsk Inst. for Skogforskning, Aas (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with an Norwegian research programme concerning environmental measures for decreasing the effects of acidification in forest areas. This programme, which lasts in a period of five years, will terminate in 1997. An important part of the programme has been to investigate other types of measures than the ordinary methods of liming and fertilizing. In the course of the programme, there was determined to put the attention to the increased use of broad-leaved trees as an alternative in a coniferous forest. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Negative Affect, Relapse, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): Does AA Work by Reducing Anger?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Magill, Molly; Pagano, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Anger and other indices of negative affect have been implicated in a stress-induced pathway to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) literature states that reduction of anger is critical to recovery, yet this proposed mechanism has rarely been investigated. Using lagged, controlled hierarchical linear modeling analyses, this study investigated whether AA attendance mobilized changes in anger and whether such changes explained AA-related benefit. Method: Alcohol-dependent adults (N = 1,706) receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results: Findings revealed substantially elevated levels of anger compared with the general population (98th percentile) that decreased over 15-month follow-up but remained high (89th percentile). AA attendance was associated with better drinking outcomes, and higher levels of anger were associated with heavier drinking. However, AA attendance was unrelated to changes in anger. Conclusions: Although support was not found for anger as a mediator, there was strong convergence between AA's explicit emphasis on anger and the present findings: Anger appears to be a serious, enduring problem related to relapse and heavy alcohol consumption. Methodological factors may have contributed to the lack of association between AA and anger, but results suggest that AA attendance alone may be insufficient to alleviate the suffering and alcohol-related risks specifically associated with anger. PMID:20409438

  3. Negative affect, relapse, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): does AA work by reducing anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Tonigan, J Scott; Magill, Molly; Pagano, Maria E

    2010-05-01

    Anger and other indices of negative affect have been implicated in a stress-induced pathway to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) literature states that reduction of anger is critical to recovery, yet this proposed mechanism has rarely been investigated. Using lagged, controlled hierarchical linear modeling analyses, this study investigated whether AA attendance mobilized changes in anger and whether such changes explained AA-related benefit. Alcohol-dependent adults (N = 1,706) receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Findings revealed substantially elevated levels of anger compared with the general population (98th percentile) that decreased over 15-month follow-up but remained high (89th percentile). AA attendance was associated with better drinking outcomes, and higher levels of anger were associated with heavier drinking. However, AA attendance was unrelated to changes in anger. Although support was not found for anger as a mediator, there was strong convergence between AA's explicit emphasis on anger and the present findings: Anger appears to be a serious, enduring problem related to relapse and heavy alcohol consumption. Methodological factors may have contributed to the lack of association between AA and anger, but results suggest that AA attendance alone may be insufficient to alleviate the suffering and alcohol-related risks specifically associated with anger.

  4. Ultra-narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830~\\AA\\ using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yan; Ding, Mingde; Kleint, Lucia; Su, Jiangtao; Liu, Chang; Ji, Haisheng; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Cho, Kyuhyoun; Cho, Kyungsuk; Gary, Dale; Wang, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares are sudden flashes of brightness on the Sun and are often associated with coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles which have adverse effects in the near Earth environment. By definition, flares are usually referred to bright features resulting from excess emission. Using the newly commissioned 1.6~m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, here we show a striking "negative" flare with a narrow, but unambiguous "dark" moving front observed in He I 10830 \\AA, which is as narrow as 340 km and is associated with distinct spectral characteristics in H-alpha and Mg II lines. Theoretically, such negative contrast in He I 10830 \\AA\\ can be produced under special circumstances, by nonthermal-electron collisions, or photoionization followed by recombination. Our discovery, made possible due to unprecedented spatial resolution, confirms the presence of the required plasma conditions and provides unique information in understanding the energy release and radiative transfer in astronomi...

  5. Dominant negative phenotype of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba mutants suggest hetero-oligomer formation among different Cry toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carmona

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used worldwide in the control of different insect pests important in agriculture or in human health. The Cry proteins are pore-forming toxins that affect the midgut cell of target insects. It was shown that non-toxic Cry1Ab helix α-4 mutants had a dominant negative (DN phenotype inhibiting the toxicity of wildtype Cry1Ab when used in equimolar or sub-stoichiometric ratios (1∶1, 0.5∶1, mutant∶wt indicating that oligomer formation is a key step in toxicity of Cry toxins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The DN Cry1Ab-D136N/T143D mutant that is able to block toxicity of Cry1Ab toxin, was used to analyze its capacity to block the activity against Manduca sexta larvae of other Cry1 toxins, such as Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, Cry1Ea and Cry1Fa. Cry1Ab-DN mutant inhibited toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa. In addition, we isolated mutants in helix α-4 of Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa, and demonstrate that Cry4Ba-E159K and Cry11Aa-V142D are inactive and completely block the toxicity against Aedes aegypti of both wildtype toxins, when used at sub-stoichiometric ratios, confirming a DN phenotype. As controls we analyzed Cry1Ab-R99A or Cry11Aa-E97A mutants that are located in helix α-3 and are affected in toxin oligomerization. These mutants do not show a DN phenotype but were able to block toxicity when used in 10∶1 or 100∶1 ratios (mutant∶wt probably by competition of binding with toxin receptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that DN phenotype can be observed among different Cry toxins suggesting that may interact in vivo forming hetero-oligomers. The DN phenotype cannot be observed in mutants affected in oligomerization, suggesting that this step is important to inhibit toxicity of other toxins.

  6. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  7. Ser-substituted mutations of Cys residues in Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa7 exert a negative effect on its insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Zhang, Shanshan; Shi, Ruiping; Yi, Shuyuan; Xu, Fangyan; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-11-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs), which were produced by Bacillus thuringiensis during its vegetative growth stage, display a broad insecticidal spectrum to Lepidoptera larvae. Sequence alignment of the Vip3A-type indicates that three cysteine residues were conserved in Vip3A-type proteins. To determine whether these conserved cysteine residues contributed to the insecticidal activity, the three residues were respectively substituted with serine in the Vip3Aa7 protein by site-directed mutagenesis. Bioassays using the third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella showed that the toxicity of C401S and C507S mutants were completely abolished. To find out the inactivity reason of mutants, three mutants and the wild-type Vip3Aa7 were treated with trypsin. The results indicated that the C507S mutant was rapidly cleaved and resulted in decrease of the 62 kDa toxic core fragment. These results indicated that the replacement of the Cys(507) with a Ser(507) caused decrease in C507S resistance against trypsin degradation. It is suggesting a possible association between insecticidal activity and trypsin sensitivity of Vip3A proteins. This study serves a guideline for the study of Vip3A protein structure and active mechanism.

  8. Rating AAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  9. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  10. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  11. AAS 227: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  12. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  13. AAS 228: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  14. [Expression of mosquitocidal Cyt1Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Asticcacaulis excentricus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-sheng; Crickmore, Neil; Cai, Ya-jun; Yan, Jian-ping; Yuan, Zhi-ming

    2007-04-01

    Asticcacaulis excentricus, who lives in upper-layer waters providing food resource to the mosquito larvae and has been proven to be a successful host to produce the mosquitocidal binary toxins or Cry11Aa toxin from Bacilli (Liu et al., 1996, Nat Biotech 14: 343; Armengol, et al. , 2005, Curr Microbiol 51: 430), was developed to express cyt1Aa gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti). Two A. excentricus transformants were constructed with the attempt of producing CytlAa alone and alongside with Cry11Aa, repectively. Detection of expressed Cry11Aa and CytlAa proteins by immunoblot in the recombinant A. excentricus clones showed that either cry11Aa or cyt1Aa was expressed well solely but not simultaneously although both restriction analyses of plasmid DNA and DNA sequencing showed that the transformed plasmid was identical to scheme. To investigate the reason why the recombinant A. excentricus harboring both genes and their ribosome binding site (RBS) sequences expressed only Cry11Aa, the total RNA of A. excentricus cells was extracted and revealed three-band pattern in which all RNA molecule weights are not greater than 16S RNA of Escherichia coli by formamide agarose gel electrophoresis, indicating that different RNA systems within these two Gram-negative strains required distinguishingly organised constructs to express multiple foreign genes. It is hypothesized that an extra promoter upstream of RBS sequence is required to express cyt1Aa in the cry11Aa-cyt1Aa tandom plasmid.

  15. AAS Career Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  16. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  17. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  18. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  19. AA quadrupole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Focusing magnet used for the AA (antiproton accumulator).Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 - three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. About focusing magnets (quadrupoles): Quadrupole magnets are needed to focus the particle beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams cross. Particle beams are stored for about 10 hours in the LHC. During this time, the particles make four hundred million revolutions around the machine, travelling a distance equivalent to the diameter of the solar system.

  20. AAS 227: Day 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  1. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  2. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  3. AAS 228: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  4. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  5. Co-expression of the mosquitocidal toxins Cyt1Aa and Cry11Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Asticcacaulis excentricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dasheng; Valdez-Cruz, Norma Adriana; Armengol, Gemma; Sevrez, Chloe; Munoz-Olaya, Jose Maurilio; Yuan, Zhiming; Orduz, Sergio; Crickmore, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The cyt1Aa gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti), whose product synergizes other mosquitocidal toxins, and functions as a repressor of resistance developed by mosquitoes against Bacilli insecticides, was introduced into the aquatic Gram-negative bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus alongside the cry11Aa gene. The genes were introduced as an operon, but although mRNA was detected for both genes, no Cyt1Aa toxin was detected. Both proteins were expressed using a construct in which a promoter was inserted upstream of each gene. Recombinant A. excentricus expressing both toxins was found to be approximately twice as toxic to third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus as transformants expressing just Cry11Aa.

  6. Negative learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M. [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); O' Neill, B.C. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)]|[Institute for the Study of Society and Environment, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Webster M. [MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate negative learning in the context of climate change with a formal model that embeds the concept within the Bayesian framework, illustrating that it may lead to errant decisions and large welfare losses to society. Based on these cases, we suggest approaches to scientific assessment and decision making that could mitigate the problem. Application of the tools of science history to the study of learning in global change, including critical examination of the assessment process to understand how judgments are made, could provide important insights on how to improve the flow of information to policy makers.

  7. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  8. Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  9. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  10. A.A., constructivism, and reflecting teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevels, B

    1997-12-01

    Numerous studies and clinical anecdotes reveal a relationship between attendance at A.A. meetings and/or degree of involvement in A.A. and maintenance of sobriety. Hypotheses as to how A.A. and/or the A.A. meeting is helpful to its members have ranged from a focus on factors common to all therapy groups, to aspects of A.A. "treatment" which are behavioral in nature. Presented here is another way of understanding A.A.'s effectiveness within the frame of more recent, constructivistic approaches to family therapy. In particular, the A.A. topic meeting is compared to the reflecting team concept of Tom Anderson.

  11. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  12. Impressions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Group Cohesion: A Case for a Nonspecific Factor Predicting Later AA Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samara Lloyd; Tonigan, J Scott

    2012-01-04

    Social support for abstinence in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been reported to be a consistent factor accounting for AA benefit. However, the nonspecific or unintended effects of such support remain poorly understood and rarely investigated. This prospective study investigated how one nonspecific factor-perceived AA group cohesiveness-predicted increased practice of AA-related behaviors. Findings indicated that impressions of AA group cohesion predicted increased AA attendance, the practice of prescribed AA activities, and self-reported AA usefulness. It appears that a sense of belongingness predicts subsequent engagement in the AA social network that, in turn, is predictive of increased abstinence.

  13. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2016-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  14. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  15. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  16. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  17. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  18. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  19. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  20. Expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis mosquitocidal toxin Cry11Aa in the aquatic bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Gemma; Guevara, Oscar Enrique; Orduz, Sergio; Crickmore, Neil

    2005-12-01

    A mosquitocidal aquatic bacterium has been developed by introducing an operon containing the cry11Aa, and p20 genes from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) into the gram-negative aquatic bacterium Asticcacaulis excentricus. After transformation, the cry11Aa gene was successfully expressed in recombinant A. excentricus under the tac promoter, at the level of 0.04 pg/cell. The recombinant bacteria were toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae with an LC(50) of 6.83 x 10(5) cells/mL. We believe that these bacteria may have potential as genetically engineered microorganisms for the control of mosquito larvae.

  1. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  2. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  3. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  4. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  5. Friction Stir Weldabilities of AA1050-H24 and AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijie LIU; Hidetoshi FUJIN; Masakatsu MAEDA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2005-01-01

    The friction stir weldabilities of the strain-hardened AA1050-H24 and precipitate-hardened AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys were examined to reveal the effects of material properties on the friction stir welding behavior. The experimental results are obtlained. (1) For AA1050-H24, the weld can possess smoother surface ripples; there is no elliptical weld nugget in the weld; there is no discernible interface between the stir zone and the thermomechanically affected zone;and the internal defect of the weld looks like a long crack and is located in the lower part of the weld. (2) For AA6061-T6, the weld usually possesses slightly rougher surface ripples; an elliptical weld nugget clearly exists in the weld; there are discernible interfaces among the weld nugget, thermomechanically affected zone and heat affected zone; and the internal defect of the weld is similar to that of the AA1050-H24 weld. (3) The effective range of welding parameters for AA1050-H24 is narrow, while the one for AA6061-T6 is very wide. (4) The maximum tensile strength efficiency of the AA1050-H24 joints is similar to that of the AA6061-T6 joints, i.e. 79% and 77%, respectively.

  6. The power of alternative assessments (AAs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张千茜

    2013-01-01

    This article starts by discussing the potential disadvantages of traditional assessment towards young English as a Second Language (ESL) learners within the American public school education system. In response to such disadvantages, researchers ’call for the implementation of alternative assessments (AAs) is therefore introduced along with the various benefits of AAs. However, the current mainstream education policy in the US, namely No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Policy, is still largely based on the tra-ditional ways of testing, making policy-oriented implementation of AAs on large scales remarkably difficult. After careful analysis, the author points out several implications concerning how, under such an existing policy of NCLB, can practitioners effectively accommodate young ESL learners by applying the power of AAs.

  7. Magnetic horn of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1988-01-01

    In the 1960s, the invention of this "current sheet lens" has helped to greatly improve the flux of neutrino beams. It was used again at the AA, collecting antiprotons from the production target at angles too large to fit into the acceptance of the AA. It was machined from aluminium to a thickness of 1.4 mm and pulsed at 400 kA for 15 microseconds (half-sine).

  8. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  9. Negation and negative concord in romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Sag, I.A.

    This paper addresses the two interpretations a combination of negative indefinites can get in concord languages like French, namely a concord reading which amounts to a single negation, or a double negation reading. We develop an analysis in a polyadic framework, in which a sequence of

  10. Molecular phenotypes in triple negative breast cancer from African American patients suggest targets for therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindner

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is characterized by high proliferation, poor differentiation and a poor prognosis due to high rates of recurrence. Despite lower overall incidence African American (AA patients suffer from higher breast cancer mortality in part due to the higher proportion of TNBC cases among AA patients compared to European Americans (EA. It was recently shown that the clinical heterogeneity of TNBC is reflected by distinct transcriptional programs with distinct drug response profiles in preclinical models. In this study, gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry were used to elucidate potential differences between TNBC tumors of EA and AA patients on a molecular level. In a retrospective cohort of 136 TNBC patients, a major transcriptional signature of proliferation was found to be significantly upregulated in samples of AA ethnicity. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles of AA tumors showed differential activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 and a signature of BRCA1 deficiency in this cohort. Using signatures derived from the meta-analysis of TNBC gene expression carried out by Lehmann et al., tumors from AA patients were more likely of basal-like subtypes whereas transcriptional features of many EA samples corresponded to mesenchymal-like or luminal androgen receptor driven subtypes. These results were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA and protein expression data, again showing enrichment of a basal-like phenotype in AA tumors and mesenchymal subtypes in EA tumors. In addition, increased expression of VEGF-activated genes together with elevated microvessel area determined by the AQUA method suggest that AA patients exhibit higher tumor vascularization. This study confirms the existence of distinct transcriptional programs in triple negative breast cancer in two separate cohorts and that these programs differ by racial group. Differences in TNBC subtypes and levels of tumor angiogenesis in AA

  11. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  12. The AA disappearing under concrete shielding

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    When the AA started up in July 1980, the machine stood freely in its hall, providing visitors with a view through the large window in the AA Control Room. The target area, in which the high-intensity 26 GeV/c proton beam from the PS hit the production target, was heavily shielded, not only towards the outside but also towards the AA-Hall. However, electrons and pions emanating from the target with the same momentum as the antiprotons, but much more numerous, accompanied these through the injection line into the AA ring. The pions decayed with a half-time corresponding to approximately a revolution period (540 ns), whereas the electrons lost energy through synchrotron radiation and ended up on the vacuum chamber wall. Electrons and pions produced the dominant component of the radiation level in the hall and the control room. With operation times far exceeding original expectations, the AA had to be buried under concrete shielding in order to reduce the radiation level by an order of magnitude.

  13. Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Alcoholics Anonymous: Does AA lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott; Pagano, Maria E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically-supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA’s effects. Method Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol dependent adults (N = 1,706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged, mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was partially mediated by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA’s proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was both concurrently and predictively associated with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was additionally associated with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional well-being, which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. PMID:20102345

  14. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  15. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  16. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  17. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  18. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests.

  19. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  20. AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.

  1. Processing and Optimization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, D.; Nageswara rao, P.; Mahapatra, M. M.; Harsha, S. P.; Mandal, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper discusses the optimization of dissimilar friction stir welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys with respect to tool design issues including microstructural study of weld. The optimized ultimate tensile strength was ~280 MPa, and % elongation was ~11.5. It was observed that the extent of tool shoulder flat surface and tool rotational speed influenced the weld quality significantly. A mathematical model was also developed using response surface regression analysis to predict the effects of tool geometry and process variables on dissimilar AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys welds. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were investigated by employing electron backscatter diffraction technique, Vickers microhardness, and tensile testing, respectively. The microstructural observations indicated that the grain size obtained at advancing side (AA 2219 alloy side) was much finer compared to the retreating side (AA 7039 alloy side). Hardness distribution in the stir zone was inhomogeneous, which might be due to inadequate mixing of weld zone material. The hardness values observed at the weld zone were lower than that in the base materials.

  2. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between the comple......In Danish the base position of the negation (and negated quantifier phrases) is between the subject and the finite verb in embedded clauses. However, in embedded clauses introduced by a non-veridical complementizer such as hvis ‘if’ or om ‘whether’, the negation can also appear between...

  3. Negation in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋炳

    2016-01-01

    Every language has its own unique ways of negation and English is no exception. More importance should be attached to when a negative English sentence is translated into its Chinese equivalent. Negation in English can be realized in many differ-ent ways. In the first place, the different types of negation in English will be analyzed. In addition, the affixes and lexicons used to denote negation will be investigated. The last part is mainly concerning the idioms and other expressions which denote nega-tive meanings. In order to make the views much more clearly, some Chinese equivalents of the English sentences will be offered here.

  4. Mapping CSF biomarker profiles onto NIA-AA guidelines for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Roesler, Jennifer; Thierjung, Nathalie; Werle, Lukas; Buck, Dorothea; Yakushev, Igor; Gleixner, Lena; Kagerbauer, Simone; Ortner, Marion; Grimmer, Timo; Kübler, Hubert; Martin, Jan; Laskaris, Nikolaos; Kurz, Alexander; Perneczky, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) guidelines for Alzheimer's disease (AD) propose the categorization of individuals according to their biomarker constellation. Though the NIA-AA criteria for preclinical AD and AD dementia have already been applied in conjunction with imaging AD biomarkers, the application of the criteria using comprehensive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker information has not been thoroughly studied yet. The study included a monocentric cohort with healthy (N = 41) and disease (N = 22) controls and patients with AD dementia (N = 119), and a multicentric sample with healthy controls (N = 116) and patients with AD dementia (N = 102). The CSF biomarkers β-amyloid 1-42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 were measured with commercially available assays. Biomarker values were trichotomized into positive for AD, negative, or borderline. In controls the presence of normal CSF profiles varied between 13.6 and 25.4 % across the studied groups, while up to 8.6 % of them had abnormal CSF biomarkers. In 40.3-52.9 % of patients with AD dementia, a typical CSF profile for AD was detected. Approximately 40 % of the potential biomarker constellations are not considered in the NIA-AA guidelines, and more than 40 % of participants could not be classified into the NIA-AA categories with distinct biomarker constellations. Here, a refined scheme covering all potential biomarker constellations is proposed. These results enrich the discussion on the NIA-AA guidelines and point to a discordance between clinical symptomatology and CSF biomarkers even in patients with full-blown AD dementia, who are supposed to have a clearly positive for AD neurochemical profile.

  5. Detection of AA-type amyloid protein in labial salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacsaquispe, Sonia-Julia; Antúnez-de Mayolo, Eleazar-Antonio; Vicetti, Rodolfo; Delgado, Wilson-Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Among the diverse forms of amyloidosis, secondary type is the most frequent one. Diagnosis of amyloid deposition is based on the identification of the fibrillary protein amyloid by means of Congo Red (CR) or crystal violet (CV) stains, but these techniques do not differentiate between the different types of amyloid fibrils. The aim of this study was to identify by immunofluorescence (IF) AA amyloid a pathological fibrillar low-molecular-weight protein formed by cleavage of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein in labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies from patients with secondary amyloidosis. 98 LSG were studied, 65 were from patients with secondary amyloidosis and 33 from subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases without evidence of this anomaly. All sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H &E), CV, CR and IF using anti-AA antibodies. Positive and negative controls were used for all techniques. CV and CR demonstrated that the amyloid substance was found mainly distributed periductally (93.8%), followed by periacinar and perivascular locations (p <0.001); however, the IF demonstrated that amyloid AA substance predominates in the periacinar area (73.8%), followed by periductal and perivascular locations (p <0.001). IF has a sensitivity of 83%, 100% of specificity, 100% of predictive positive value and 75% of predictive negative value. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of the LSG biopsy as a highly reliable method for diagnosis of secondary amyloidosis.

  6. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  7. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  8. Microstructure analysis of aluminum extrusion: grain size distribution in AA6060, AA6082 and AA7075 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikorra, M.; Tekkaya, A. E. [Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction, Dortmund (Germany); Donate, L.; Iomesani, L. [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Microstructure and material flow of aluminum alloys have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and surface quality. In extrusion of aluminum billets at high temperatures the microstructure is dependent on the alloy and the forming and temperature history. A prediction of grain size and precipitation is of increasing importance in order to design the process by adjustment of parameters such as punch speed, temperatures, and quenching. To give references for microstructure prediction based on material flow, and with it strain and strain rate history, this paper deals with the microstructure during the extrusion process of AA6060, AA6082, and AA7075 alloys. Billets have been partly extruded to axisymmetric round profiles and the microstructure of the press rests consisting of the billet rests in container and die has been considered. Furthermore, these rests have been analyzed to show the material flow, dynamic and static recrystallization based on macro etchings and visible microstructure under different conditions, e.g. as in the area of high strain rate near the container wall, or in dead zones. To allow an accurate simulation of the extrusion process, punch force and temperature conditions during the tests have been measured and are presented in this paper, too.

  9. 大豆microRNA基因GmMIR160A负调控植物叶片衰老进程%GmMIR1 60A,a class of soybean microRNA gene, negatively regulates progress of leaf senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 曾庆发; 张根生; 赵娟

    2015-01-01

    -type soybean through Agrobacterium-medi-ated method with cotyledon node as the explants.Using the time order screening approaches including the antibiotic screen,the genome PCR identification and the phenotypic analysis,we finally generated four transgenic lines (Line OX-3,5,7 and 8)with stable integrated insertion T-DNA.Compared with wild types control,these transgenic plants, successful expressing the transgene showed normal morphological characteristics in respect to roots,stem,leaves, flowers,fruits and seeds but exhibited the increased chlorophyll content and higher maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm)for the first trifoliage leaves during the mature stage.Moreover,GmARFs and GmCYSP 1 ,in which the former are targets ofGmMIR160 and the latter is thought as a soybean senescence marker,were down-regulated dra-matically in the transgenic trifoliage leaves.Taking together,these data indicated that Gma-miR160 might negatively regulate leaf senescence by repression of its targets in soybean.This report uncovered a novel pathway that the plant hormone auxin could modify the processes of leaf senescence by regulating the transcriptional expression of microR-NA gene Gma-miR160 and then repressing the messenger RNA level of auxin responsive factors GmARFs and also provided the new clues for investigating how the plant hormones control the progress of leaf senescence.%叶片衰老是受内外多种因子影响的遗传发育进程.生长素、细胞分裂素和乙烯等多种植物激素是调控叶片衰老的重要内部因子,它们通过长或短距离运输形成叶片组织内特定的区域分布和浓度梯度,从而直接或间接参与植物叶片衰老过程.分子遗传学表明,细胞分裂素和乙烯分别是叶片衰老的抑制子和正调节子,而生长素如何参与叶片衰老的分子机制目前还不清晰.植物体内成熟小分子 RNA 由小 RNA 基因转录并通过特定酶加工形成的21~23 bp的双链RNA分子.这些小分子通过不完全配对方

  10. Colchicine use in isolated renal AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Carlos F; Egües, César A; Uriarte, Miren; Belzunegui, Joaquín; Rezola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old woman, with two-year history of chronic renal insufficiency and proteinuria. A kidney biopsy showed the presence of AA amyloidosis (positive Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry). There was no evidence of amyloid deposits in other organs and there was no underlying disease. AA amyloidosis normally is secondary to chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases. High levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α play a role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis and induce the synthesis of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a precursor of tissue amyloid deposits. We empirically treated the patient with a low dose colchicine. The patient responded well. Colchicine has been used for the treatment of Familiar Mediterranean Fever and related auto-inflammatory diseases. To monitor treatment responses, we measured SAA finding low titers. Soon after treatment onset there were signs of improvement pertaining to proteinuria and stabilization of renal function.

  11. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Shyu, F L, E-mail: fl.shyu@msa.hinet.ne, E-mail: mflin@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Physics, ROC Military Academy, 830 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  12. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  13. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see a wooden model, built in 1978, to gain dimensional experience with such a monster.

  14. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  15. AAS Oral History Project - Seeking Planetary Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-10-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 100 space scientists from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from space scientists at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees' personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one's family, childhood, strong influences on one's scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. We will present preliminary analysis of those interviewed including characterizing career status, age range, nationality, and primary field. Additionally, we will discuss trends beginning to emerge in analysis of participants' responses about data driven science and advice to the next generation. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of space scientists and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are actively recruiting individuals to be interviewed at this meeting from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. We are especially interested in interviewing 40+E members of DPS. Contact Sanlyn Buxner to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (buxner@psi.edu). Contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com).

  16. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  17. Simultaneous and Sequential Feature Negative Discriminations: Elemental Learning and Occasion Setting in Human Pavlovian Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Frank; Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated simultaneous (XA-/A+) vs. sequential (X [right arrow] A-/A+) Feature Negative (FN) discrimination learning in humans. We expected the simultaneous discrimination to result in X (or alternatively the XA configuration) becoming an inhibitor acting directly on the US, and the sequential…

  18. Comparison between ARB and CARB processes on an AA5754/AA6061 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, K.; Helbert, A.-L.; Brisset, F.; Baudin, T.

    2014-08-01

    The present work aims to compare two processes: Accumulative Roll Bonding and Cross Accumulative Roll Bonding (CARB). Both processes consist in the repetition of rolling but the second technique adds a 90° rotation of the sheet around its normal direction between each rolling. Microstructure, mechanical properties and texture were compared for both processes on an AA5754/AA6061 composite. As a result a thinner and less elongated microstructure was obtained in the CARB process leading to an isotropy and an improvement of the mechanical properties. Besides, the texture was characterized by the rotated Cube component for both processes but for CARB it is of less strength.

  19. Simon van der Meer in the AA Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1984-01-01

    Simon van der Meer, spiritus rector of the Antiproton Accumulator, in the AA Control Room. Inventor of stochastic cooling, on which the AA was based, and of the magnetic horn, with which the antiprotons were focused, he also wrote most of the software with which the AA was controlled, and spent uncountable numbers of hours in this chair to tickle the AA to top performance. 8 months after this picture was taken, he received, in October 1984, the Nobel prize, together with Carlo Rubbia, the moving force behind the whole Proton-Antiproton Collider project that led to the discovery, in 1983, of the W and Z intermediate bosons.

  20. Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and R.S. Mishra, Effect of Friction Stir 940Processing on the Microstructure of Cast A356 Aluminum , Mater. Sci. 941Eng. A, 2006, 433, p 269–278...REPORT Computational Investigation of Hardness Evolution During Friction-Stir Welding of AA5083 and AA2139 Aluminum Alloys 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...is combined with the basic physical metallurgy of two wrought aluminum alloys to predict/assess their FSW behaviors. The two alloys selected are AA5083

  1. The Analysis of Negative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛琨

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chapter 1 The Meaning of Negation Negation,in our daily life,is very commonly used.When you deny something,you use it;when you refuse something,you use it too.And the most common negatiom"no"and"not"are used by US every day.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 gb|AAS74186.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74187.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74231.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74233.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74373.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74186.1 1e-163 91% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74184.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74194.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74236.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74326.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74372.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74184.1 1e-177 97% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 gb|AAS74184.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74194.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74236.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74326.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74372.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74184.1 1e-163 91% ...

  5. AAS Special Session: Policy Making in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, J. A.; Massa, D.

    1995-12-01

    The professional astronomical community today is more diverse than at any time in its history. Individuals participating in creative research programs can be found in a wide range of positions. This type of diversity, which mixes research, education, and service (e.g. contract) work, represents the strength of contemporary astronomy. While recognizing the unavoidable reductions in funding and restructuring of organizations like NASA, it is imperative that the significance of the current diversity be considered during these processes. Creative ideas are one of the cornerstones of quality research, and they can originate anywhere. Consequently, it is essential that adequate research resources remain available for free and open competition by all astronomers. Our goal in this session is to bring together officials from the AAS, NASA, and the NSF to discuss how the policy and decision making process operates and whether it should be changed to better serve the general needs of the professional astronomical community. Examples of the issues we believe are important include: In establishing new policy, how can the needs of the average research astronomer be better addressed? How could input from such astronomers be provided to those who craft NASA/NSF policy? How can/should the AAS serve as an interface between policy/decision making bodies and its membership? Should the AAS membership become more actively/effectively involved in the decision making process and, if so, how? More information on this session and related issues can be found at the Association of Research Astronomers Home Page: http://www.phy.vill.edu/astro/faculty/ara/ara_home.htm

  6. Swift Observations of SN 2007aa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.

    2007-03-01

    Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observed the type II SN 2007aa (CBET #850, IAUC #8814) on 2007-02-24.63 UT. The following UVOT magnitudes were measured: V = 15.8 (322 s exposure time), B = 16.4 (367 s), U = 16.9 (367 s), UVW1 [181-321nm] = 18.6 (737 s), UVM2 [166-268 nm] > 19.5 (3-sigma upper limit; 236 s), and UVW2 [112-264 nm] = 19.7 (725 s). The magnitudes have not been corrected for extinction.

  7. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  8. Atlas of Vega: 3850 -- 6860 \\AA

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Valyavin, G; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Shimansky, V; Galazutdinov, G A

    2009-01-01

    We present a high resolving power ($\\lambda$ / $\\Delta\\lambda$ = 90,000) and high signal-to-noise ratio ($\\sim$700) spectral atlas of Vega covering the 3850 -- 6860 \\AA wavelength range. The atlas is a result of averaging of spectra recorded with the aid of the echelle spectrograph BOES fed by the 1.8-m telescope at Bohyunsan observatory (Korea). The atlas is provided only in machine-readable form (electronic data file) and will be available in the SIMBAD database upon publication.

  9. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). A wide one had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. A wooden model was build in 1978, to gain dimensional experience. Here, Peter Zettwoch, one of the largest men at CERN at that time, is putting a hand in the mouth of the wooden BST monster.

  10. Negative thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, G D [Departamento de QuImica, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia SJB, Ciudad Universitaria, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia (Argentina); Bruno, J A O [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de QuImica Inorganica, AnalItica y QuImica FIsica, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barron, T H K [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Allan, N L [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock' s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-02

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  11. Toward a Negative Anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Johannssen, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Can philosophy say what man is? What is gained or lost by making theoretical assumptions about the human being? This essay examines the “negative anthropology” of the early Frankfurt School by asking how Max Horkheimer, Theodor W. Adorno and Ulrich Sonnemann engage with the question “What is man?” Negative anthropology turns out to be more than the critique of philosophical anthropology: By understanding the human being as the ensemble of what it is not, negative anthropology avoids the predi...

  12. Negative transverse impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    1989-06-12

    Recently, measurements in the SPS show that the coherent tune shift in the horizontal direction has positive values whereas that in the vertical direction has negative ones. Thus the existence of negative transverse impedance gets confirmed in a real machine. This stimulates us to start a new round of systematic studies on this interesting phenomenon. The results obtained from our computer simulations are presented in this note. Our simulations demonstrate that the negative transverse impedance may appear when the rotational symmetry embedded in a discontinuity is broken, and that the geometries that we have studies may be the source of the positive horizontal tune shift measured in the SPS.

  13. Holographic Quantum Entanglement Negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for conformal field theories at finite temperatures which exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for (1+1)- dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to (2+1)- dimensional bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. We observe that the holographic entanglement negativity captures the distillable pure quantum entanglement and is related to the holographic mutual information. The application of our prescription to higher dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures within a $AdS_{d+1}/CFT_{d}$ scenario involving dual bulk $AdS$-Schwarzschild black holes is discussed to elucidate the universality of our conjecture.

  14. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Akira [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Bainy, Afonso C.D. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  15. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  16. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  17. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  18. Atomic negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 gb|AAS74960.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74962.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74964.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74966.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74970.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74972.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS74976.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74978.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila ...melanogaster] gb|AAS74979.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74980.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74981.1| 5-HT2 [Dro

  20. Experimental investigation of hardness of FSW and TIG joints of Aluminium alloys of AA7075 and AA6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports hardness testing conducted on welded butt joints by FSW and TIG welding process on similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. FSW joints were produced for similar alloys of AA7075T651 and dissimilar alloys of AA7075T651- AA6061T6. The Friction stir welds of AA7075 & AA6061 aluminium alloy were produced at different tool rotational speeds of 650,700, 800, 900, 1000 and transverse speed of 30, 35, 40 mm/min. TIG welding was conducted along the rolling direction of similar and dissimilar aluminium plates. The Brinell hardness testing techniques were employed to conduct the tests; these tests were conducted on the welds to ascertain the joint integrity before characterization to have an idea of the quality of the welds

  1. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  2. Covariant holographic entanglement negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a holographic prescription for the covariant entanglement negativity of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories dual to non static bulk $AdS_{d+1}$ gravitational configurations in the framework of the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence. Application of our conjecture to a $AdS_3/CFT_2$ scenario involving bulk rotating BTZ black holes exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theories and precisely captures the distillable quantum entanglement. Interestingly our conjecture for the scenario involving dual bulk extremal rotating BTZ black holes also accurately leads to the entanglement negativity for the chiral half of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theory at zero temperature.

  3. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  4. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  5. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueutin, Victor; Langlois, Anne-Lyse; Shehwaro, Nathalie; Elharraqui, Ryme; Rouvier, Philippe; Izzedine, Hassane

    2013-01-01

    Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported.

  6. Nephrotic Syndrome Associated with Lung Cancer: A Rare Case of Malignancy Associated with AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gueutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonhematologic malignancies are rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. Although the association between renal cell carcinoma and systemic AA amyloidosis has been established, the evidence linking pulmonary cancer to AA amyloidosis is scarce. Here, a case of biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis complicated with nephrotic syndrome associated with lung carcinoma is reported.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0022 ref|ZP_01789747.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_08330 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK08473.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_08330 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01789747.1 2e-14 23% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0367 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0367 ref|ZP_01790024.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_05974 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK08288.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_05974 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01790024.1 4.0 29% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0091 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-35-0091 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 2e-08 34% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-15-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-15-0027 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 2e-30 98% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-02-0029 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0029 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 5e-11 48% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-08-0315 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-08-0315 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 8e-25 73% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-02-0031 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0031 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 6e-09 52% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-13-0071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-13-0071 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 0.14 37% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-02-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-02-0026 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 8e-09 50% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-27-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-27-0055 ref|ZP_01791635.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK06802.1| hypothetical protein CGSHiAA_09967 [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01791635.1 8e-09 53% ...

  17. A novel Cry9Aa with increased toxicity for Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naimov, S.; Nedyalkova, R.; Staykov, N.; Weemen-Hendriks, M.; Minkov, I.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cry9Aa, produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is reported to be not active against Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). In this study we have cloned a new cry9Aa5 gene encoding a protoxin with increased activity against S. exigua as compared to Cry9Aa1. When aligned to Cry9Aa1, four amino acid substituti

  18. Design and construction of a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Aa gene: hyperexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tohru; Howlader, Mohammad Tofazzal Hossain; Yamagiwa, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Cry4Aa produced by Bacillus thuringiensis is a dipteran-specific toxin and is, therefore, of great interest for developing a bioinsecticide to control mosquitoes. However, the expression of Cry4Aa in Escherichia coli is relatively low, which is a major disadvantage in its development as a bioinsecticide. In this study, to establish an effective production system, a 1,914-bp modified gene (cry4Aa-S1) encoding Cry4Aa was designed and synthesized in accordance with the G + C content and codon preference of E. coli genes without altering the encoded amino acid sequence. The cry4Aa-S1 gene allowed a significant improvement in expression level, over five-fold, compared to that of the original cry4Aa gene. The product of the cry4Aa-S1 gene showed the same level of insecticidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae as that from cry4Aa. This suggested that unfavorable codon usage was one of the reasons for poor expression of cry4Aa in E. coli, and, therefore, changing the cry4Aa codons to accord with the codon usage in E. coli led to efficient production of Cry4Aa. Efficient production of Cry4Aa in E. coli can be a powerful measure to prepare a sufficient amount of Cry4Aa protein for both basic analytical and applied researches.

  19. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  20. Effect of quenching rate on precipitation kinetics in AA2219 DC cast alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgallad, E. M.; Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.-G.

    2017-06-01

    Slow quenching of direct chill (DC) cast aluminum ingot plates used in large mold applications is often used to decrease quench-induced residual stresses, which can deteriorate the machining performance of these plates. Slow quenching may negatively affect the mechanical properties of the cast plates when using highly quench-sensitive aluminum alloys because of its negative effect on the precipitation hardening behavior of such alloys. The effect of the quenching rate on precipitation kinetics in AA2219 DC cast alloy was systematically studied under water and air quenching conditions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to characterize the precipitate microstructure. The results showed that the precipitation kinetics of the θ‧ phase in the air-quenched condition was mostly slower than that in the water-quenched one. Air quenching continuously increased the precipitation kinetics of the θ phase compared to water quenching. These results revealed the contributions of the inadequate precipitation of the strengthening θ‧ phase and the increased precipitation of the equilibrium θ phase to the deterioration of the mechanical properties of air-quenched AA2219 DC cast plates. The preexisting GP zones and quenched-in dislocations affected the kinetics of the θ‧ phase, whereas the preceding precipitation of the θ‧ phase affected the kinetics of the θ phase by controlling its precipitation mechanism.

  1. Effect of quenching rate on precipitation kinetics in AA2219 DC cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgallad, E.M., E-mail: eelgalla@uqac.ca; Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.-G.

    2017-06-01

    Slow quenching of direct chill (DC) cast aluminum ingot plates used in large mold applications is often used to decrease quench-induced residual stresses, which can deteriorate the machining performance of these plates. Slow quenching may negatively affect the mechanical properties of the cast plates when using highly quench-sensitive aluminum alloys because of its negative effect on the precipitation hardening behavior of such alloys. The effect of the quenching rate on precipitation kinetics in AA2219 DC cast alloy was systematically studied under water and air quenching conditions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to characterize the precipitate microstructure. The results showed that the precipitation kinetics of the θ′ phase in the air-quenched condition was mostly slower than that in the water-quenched one. Air quenching continuously increased the precipitation kinetics of the θ phase compared to water quenching. These results revealed the contributions of the inadequate precipitation of the strengthening θ′ phase and the increased precipitation of the equilibrium θ phase to the deterioration of the mechanical properties of air-quenched AA2219 DC cast plates. The preexisting GP zones and quenched-in dislocations affected the kinetics of the θ′ phase, whereas the preceding precipitation of the θ′ phase affected the kinetics of the θ phase by controlling its precipitation mechanism.

  2. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  3. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  4. The A&A Experience With Impact Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Sandqvist, A

    2004-01-01

    There is a widespread impression that the scientific journal "Astronomy & Astrophysics" (A&A) has a smaller impact, as measured by citations to articles, than some of the other major astronomy journals. This impression was apparently supported - and probably created - by the Journal Citation Report (JCR), which is prepared annually by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge. The published poor impact factor of A&A was in fact wrong and was due to a serious flaw in the method used by ISI Web of Knowledge to determine it. The resulting damage inflicted upon A&A by the JCR is incalculable.

  5. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  6. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-04-0001 gb|AAS74999.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75013.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75024.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75026.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75043.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75052.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS75056.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75073.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila ...melanogaster] gb|AAS75095.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74999.1 1e-165 100% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 gb|AAS74999.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75013.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75024.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75026.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS75043.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75052.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS75056.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75073.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila ...melanogaster] gb|AAS75095.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74999.1 1e-156 96% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74380.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74382.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74389.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74402.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74403.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74405.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74406.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74411.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74412.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74413.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74185.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74209.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74210.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74211.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74224.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74234.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74254.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74258.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74262.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74278.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  16. Deconstructing Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Avolition-Apathy and Diminished Expression Clusters Predict Clinical Presentation and Functional Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Horan, William P.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Fischer, Bernard A.; Keller, William R.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Green, Michael F.; Carpenter, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that negative symptoms reflect a separable domain of pathology from other symptoms of schizophrenia. However, it is currently unclear whether negative symptoms themselves are multi-faceted, and whether sub-groups of patients who display unique negative symptom profiles can be identified. Methods A data-driven approach was used to examine the heterogeneity of negative symptom presentations in two samples: Study 1 included 199 individuals with schizophrenia assessed with a standard measure of negative symptoms and Study 2 included 169 individuals meeting criteria for deficit schizophrenia (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) assessed with a specialized measure of deficit symptoms. Cluster analysis was used to determine whether different groups of patients with distinct negative symptoms profiles could be identified. Results Across both studies, we found evidence for two distinctive negative symptom sub-groups: one group with predominantly Avolition-Apathy (AA) symptoms and another with a predominantly Diminished Expression (DE) profile. Follow-up discriminant function analyses confirmed the validity of these groups. AA and DE negative symptom sub-groups significantly differed on clinically relevant external validators, including measures of functional outcome, premorbid adjustment, clinical course, disorganized symptoms, social cognition, sex, and ethnicity. Conclusions These results suggest that distinct subgroups of patients with elevated AA or DE can be identified within the broader diagnosis of schizophrenia and that these subgroups show clinically meaningful differences in presentation. Additionally, AA tends to be associated with poorer outcomes than DE, suggesting that it may be a more severe aspect of psychopathology. PMID:23453820

  17. Dissimilar friction stir welds in AA5083-AA6082. Part I: Process parameter effects on thermal history and weld properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, M. J.; Steuwer, A.; Withers, P. J.; Dickerson, T.; Shi, Q.; Shercliff, H.

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the so-called processing window, within which good-quality welds can be produced, for the friction stir welding of AA5083 to AA6082. To that end a systematic set of nine instrumented welds were made using rotation speeds of 280, 560, and 840 rpm and traverse speeds of 100, 200, and 300 mm/min with AA5083 on the advancing side and another nine with the materials reversed. For comparison a smaller series of AA5083-AA5083 and AA6082-AA6082 welds were also made. Thermocouple measurements, tool torque, extent of material mixing, and macrostructural observations all indicate that the temperature under the tool is more strongly dependent on the rotation than the traverse speed. It was found that in the current case, the power (energy/s) and heat input (energy/mm) do not correlate simply with the weld temperature. As a result, such metrics may not be suitable for characterizing the conditions under which welds are produced.

  18. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of backreactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as $B$ in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact $B^2$ scaling of the probe limit resul...

  19. Pollution assessment and heavy metal determination by AAS in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foisal

    by AAS in waste water collected from Kushtia industrial zone in ... because of the treatment cost, unconsciousness and other various causes .... Biological oxygen demand (BOD5) ..... Resources Management in European Agriculture. J. Water ...

  20. Negative Emissions Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  1. Multi-institutional study of nuclear KIFC1 as a biomarker of poor prognosis in African American women with triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Angela; Garlapati, Chakravarthy; Li, Xiaoxian Bill; Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Wright, Nikita; Bhattarai, Shristi; Mittal, Karuna; Wetherilt, Ceyda Sönmez; Krishnamurti, Uma; Reid, Michelle D; Jones, Mildred; Gupta, Meenakshi; Osan, Remus; Pattni, Sonal; Riaz, Ansa; Klimov, Sergey; Rao, Arundhati; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Rida, Padmashree C G; Aneja, Ritu

    2017-02-20

    Nuclear KIFC1 (nKIFC1) predicts worse outcomes in breast cancer, but its prognostic value within racially distinct triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients is unknown. Thus, nKIFC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 163 African American (AA) and 144 White TNBC tissue microarrays (TMAs) pooled from four hospitals. nKIFC1 correlated significantly with Ki67 in White TNBCs but not in AA TNBCs, suggesting that nKIFC1 is not merely a surrogate for proliferation in AA TNBCs. High nKIFC1 weighted index (WI) was associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (Hazard Ratios [HRs] = 3.5, 3.1, and 3.8, respectively; P = 0.01, 0.009, and 0.007, respectively) in multivariable Cox models in AA TNBCs but not White TNBCs. Furthermore, KIFC1 knockdown more severely impaired migration in AA TNBC cells than White TNBC cells. Collectively, these data suggest that nKIFC1 WI an independent biomarker of poor prognosis in AA TNBC patients, potentially due to the necessity of KIFC1 for migration in AA TNBC cells.

  2. The OIV 1407.3\\AA /1401.1\\AA\\ emission-line ratio in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nessib, Nabil Ben; Qindeel, Rabia; Sahal-Bréchot, Sylvie; Dimitrijević, Milan S

    2013-01-01

    Line ratio of O IV 1407.3 \\AA/1401.1 \\AA\\- is calculated using mostly our own atomic and collisional data. Energy levels and oscillator strengths needed for this calculation have been calculated using a Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. The electron collision strengths introduced in the statistic equilibrium equations are fitted by Line ratio of O IV 1407.3 \\AA/1401.1 \\AA\\- is calculated using mostly our own atomic and collisional data. Energy levels and oscillator strengths needed for this calculation have been calculated using a Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. The electron collision strengths introduced in the statistic equilibrium equations are fitted by polynomials for different energies. Comparison has also been made with available theoretical results. The provided line ratio has been obtained for a set of electron densities from $10^{8}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $10^{13}$ cm$^{-3}$ and for a fixed temperature of 50 000 K.

  3. Simulation de la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljaafari, Samira

    Les besoins de reduction du poids se sont concretement traduits par l'introduction de nouvelles nuances plus legeres dans les structures automobiles. Ainsi, des alliages d'aluminium ont commence a etre integres dans les pieces de structure de plusieurs vehicules. La faible masse volumique des alliages d'aluminium (2,7g/cm3) permet d'alleger le poids du vehicule qui entraine une diminution de la consommation de carburant et, donc, des emissions de gaz a effet de serre. La striction et la rupture sont les principaux modes de defaillance qui entrainent le rebut systematique des pieces. C'est pourquoi, ameliorer la prediction d'apparition de ces defauts lors de la simulation va dans le sens d'une meilleure maitrise du procede. Dans le cadre de ce travail doctoral, deux modeles sont developpes pour simuler le comportement a grandes deformations d'alliages d'aluminium: un modele polycristallin de type Taylor et un modele a un ou plusieurs elements finis par grain. Les diagrammes limites de formage (DLF) pour les deux alliages d'aluminium AA5754 et AA6063 ont ete simules numeriquement en utilisant une formulation par elements finis pour les polycristaux basee sur l'hypothese de Taylor. Les DLF conventionnels et de l'hydroformage ont ete traces. L'effet des chemins de deformation sur la formabilite des alliages d'aluminium a aussi ete etudie. Finalement, des simulations numeriques avec les donnees de diffraction des electrons retrodiffuses (EBSD) pour 1'alliage d'aluminium AA5754 ont ete effectuees en utilisant le modele a un ou plusieurs elements par grain. Ces simulations sont executees avec differents modeles du durcissement (Asaro, Bassani et puissance). Mots-cles: Formabilite; Alliage d'aluminium; Hydroformage; Glissement cristallographique; Durcissement; Calcul parallele; Diagramme limite de formage (DLF); Diffraction electron.

  4. Negative refractive index metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie J. Padilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.

  5. Rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-jie; FENG Ji-cai; H. Fujii; M. Maeda; K. Nogi

    2005-01-01

    The tensile rupture locations of friction stir welded joints of AA2017-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys were examined. The experiments show that the rupture locations of the joints are different for the two aluminum alloys, which are influenced by the welding parameters. When the joints are free of welding defects, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld nugget adjacent to the thermo-mechanically affected zone on the advancing side and the rupture surfaces appear as oval contours of the weld nugget, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured in the heat affected zone on the retreating side and the rupture surfaces are inclined at a certain degree to the bottom surfaces of the joints. When welding defects are present in the joints, the AA2017-T351 joints are ruptured in the weld center, while the AA6061-T6 joints are ruptured on the retreating side near the weld center. The rupture locations of the joints are dependent on the internal structures of the joints and can be explained through them.

  6. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beiru; Une, Yumi; Fu, Xiaoying; Yan, Jingmin; Ge, FengXia; Yao, Junjie; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which are in danger of extinction, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Given the transmissible characteristics of AA amyloidosis, transmission between captive cheetahs may be a possible mechanism involved in the high incidence of AA amyloidosis. In this study of animals with AA amyloidosis, we found that cheetah feces contained AA amyloid fibrils that were different from those of the liver with regard to molecular weight and shape and had greater transmissibility. The infectious activity of fecal AA amyloid fibrils was reduced or abolished by the protein denaturants 6 M guanidine·HCl and formic acid or by AA immunodepletion. Thus, we propose that feces are a vehicle of transmission that may accelerate AA amyloidosis in captive cheetah populations. These results provide a pathogenesis for AA amyloidosis and suggest possible measures for rescuing cheetahs from extinction. PMID:18474855

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74195.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74276.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74292.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74298.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila... melanogaster] gb|AAS74303.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74304.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74321.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74359.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74195.1 1e-176 97% ...

  8. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  9. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  10. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  11. Cosmology With Negative Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Felder, Gary; Frolov, Andrei; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    We investigate cosmological evolution in models where the effective potential V(\\phi) may become negative for some values of the field \\phi. Phase portraits of such theories in space of variables (\\phi,\\dot\\phi,H) have several qualitatively new features as compared with phase portraits in the theories with V(\\phi) > 0. Cosmological evolution in models with potentials with a "stable" minimum at V(\\phi)<0 is similar in some respects to the evolution in models with potentials unbounded from below. Instead of reaching an AdS regime dominated by the negative vacuum energy, the universe reaches a turning point where its energy density vanishes, and then it contracts to a singularity with properties that are practically independent of V(\\phi). We apply our methods to investigation of the recently proposed cyclic universe scenario. We show that in addition to the singularity problem there are other problems that need to be resolved in order to realize a cyclic regime in this scenario. We propose several modificati...

  12. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  13. Classroom Management and Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Robert T.

    Of the four simple consequences for behavior, none is more misunderstood than negative reinforcement. A Negative Reinforcement Quiz administered to 233 student teachers from two universities revealed that the vast majority of respondents mistakenly viewed negative reinforcement as a synonym for punishment, and believe that negative reinforcement…

  14. On Translation of Negative Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭利彬

    2007-01-01

    The English language has its peculiarities in negation.And the method of negation in English is quite different from that in Chinese.In order to fully understand the negative sentence in English,we should make clear the classification and key points of negation first.

  15. On Translation of Negative Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭利彬

    2007-01-01

    The English language has its peculiarities in negation. And the method of negation in English is quite different from that in Chinese. In order to fully understand the negative sentence in English, we should make clear the classification and key points of negation first.

  16. The influence of Mg/Si ratio on the negative natural aging effect in Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, G.H. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Liu, C.H., E-mail: chliu@hnu.edu.cn [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Chen, J.H. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Hunan Province Key Laboratory for Spray Deposition Technology and Application, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Lai, Y.X.; Ma, P.P.; Liu, L.M. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2015-08-26

    The effects of natural aging (NA) on subsequent artificial aging (AA) at 180 °C in Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys with varied Mg/Si ratios (0.5, 1 and 2) were systematically studied by Vickers micro-hardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloy with large Mg/Si ratio possesses a significant negative NA effect on the maximum hardness achieved during AA preceded by an extended NA, while the alloy with small Mg/Si ratio shows a negligible negative NA effect. Though few lath-like Q''/L precipitates exist, needle-like β'' precipitates are the primary hardening precipitates in all the peak-aged alloys. The negative NA effect is demonstrated to be determined by precipitate coarsening, which is manifested microscopically as the broader precipitate length distributions (PLD) and shift of PLD toward larger length range, in AA with the prolonging of NA. Our results suggest the nature of NA clusters is quite different in Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy varying in Mg/Si ratio. Only a small fraction of NA clusters in alloy with large Mg/Si ratio are stable and could induce preferential growth of precipitates to be considerably coarsened during AA. A large fraction of stable NA clusters in alloy with low Mg/Si ratio lead to synchronous growth of β'' precipitates, thus restricting the preferential growth.

  17. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  18. Negative optical torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T

    2014-09-17

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of "negative optical torque", meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  19. A Study on Flow Behavior of AA5086 Over a Wide Range of Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, A.; Jamshidi Aval, H.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2016-03-01

    Flow stress behavior of AA5086 was determined using tensile testing at different temperatures from room temperature to 500 °C and strain rates varying between 0.002 and 1 s-1. The strain rate sensitivity parameter and occurrence of dynamic strain aging were then investigated in which an Arrhenius-type model was employed to study the serrated flow. Additionally, hot deformation behavior at temperatures higher than 320 °C was evaluated utilizing hyperbolic-sine constitutive equation. Finally, a feed forward artificial neural network model with back propagation learning algorithm was proposed to predict flow stress for all deformation conditions. The results demonstrated that the strain rate sensitivity at temperature range of 25-270 °C was negative due to occurrence of dynamic strain aging leading to significant reduction in fracture strain. The serrated yielding activation energy was found to be 46.1 kJ/mol. It indicated that the migration of Mg-atoms could be the main reason for this phenomenon. The hot deformation activation energy of AA5086 was also calculated about 202.3 kJ/mol while the dynamic recovery was the main softening process. Moreover, the ANN model having two hidden layers was shown to be an efficient structure for determining flow stress of the examined alloy for all temperatures and strain rates.

  20. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal fragments of the Bacillus thuringensis Cyt1Aa toxin have differential roles on toxin oligomerization and pore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almazan, Claudia; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Emiliano Cantón, Pablo; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Pérez, Claudia; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    The Cyt toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis show insecticidal activity against some insects, mainly dipteran larvae, being able to kill mosquitoes and black flies. However, they also possess a general cytolytic activity in vitro showing hemolytic activity in red blood cells. These proteins are composed of two outer layers of α-helix hairpins wrapped around a β-sheet. Regarding to their mode of action, one model proposed that the two outer layers of α-helix hairpins swing away from the β-sheet allowing insertion of β-strands into the membrane forming a pore after toxin oligomerization. The other model suggested a detergent-like mechanism of action of the toxin on the surface of the lipid bilayer. In this work we cloned the N- and C-terminal domains form Cyt1Aa and analyzed their effects in Cyt1Aa toxin action. The N-terminal domain shows a dominant negative phenotype inhibiting the in vitro hemolytic activity of Cyt1Aa in red blood cells and the in vivo insecticidal activity of Cyt1Aa against Aedes aegypti larvae. In addition, N-terminal region is able to induce aggregation of Cyt1Aa toxin in solution. Finally, C-terminal domain composed mainly of β-strands, is able to bind to the SUV liposomes, suggesting that this region of the toxin is involved in membrane interaction. Overall, our data indicate that the two isolated domains of Cyt1Aa have different roles in toxin action. The N-terminal region is involved in toxin aggregation while the C-terminal domain in the interaction of the toxin with the lipid membrane. PMID:21142020

  1. Publication Characteristics of Members of the AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    1990-10-01

    For each of the 4995 persons listed in the 1989 American Astronomical Society Membership Directory, we noted their total 1984-88 publications as listed in the Author Index of Astronomy and Astrophysics Abstracts. The members are subdivided as retired (mean of 0.61 paper/yr), foreign (3.89), Full (3.34), Division Affiliates (1.76), Associate (1.48), and Junior (0.79) members. For Full members the frequencies of various publication rates are listed; the median is 2.28 papers/yr. The Full members are subdivided by affiliations, namely private institutions (mean of 4.71 papers/yr), university (3.89), government-funded (3.46), commercial company (1.81), and unknown affiliations (0.84). We looked up the listed publications for four high producers who each average 25.7 papers/yr. We found that 55% of those are preprints, abstracts, conference papers, and other secondary material. Furthermore, they average 4.2 authors per original research paper. If we divide each original research paper by the number of authors, these four average only the equivalent of 4.0 single-author research papers/yr. A sample of moderate producers also have 53% of their publications as abstracts, conference papers, etc., and they average 4.2 authors per original research paper. We conclude that the average Full AAS member produces the equivalent of 1/2 single-author original-research paper/yr and 23% of them produce more than 1 such paper/yr.

  2. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  3. Large negative lateral shifts due to negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Benedicto, Jessica; Moreau, Antoine; Centeno, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    When a thin structure in which negative refraction occurs (a metallo-dielectric or a photonic crystal) is illuminated by a beam, the reflected and transmitted beam can undergo a large negative lateral shift. This phenomenon can be seen as an interferential enhancement of the geometrical shift and can be considered as a signature of negative refraction.

  4. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  5. Flexibility Analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin Min; XIA Li Qiu; YANG Xiao Ping; PENG Xiao Yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the flexibility and mobility of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Aa. Methods The graph theory-based program Constraint Network Analysis and normal mode-based program NMsim were used to analyze the global and local flexibility indices as well as the fluctuation of individual residues in detail. Results The decrease in Cry1Aa network rigidity with the increase of temperature was evident. Two phase transition points in which the Cry1Aa structure lost rigidity during the thermal simulation were identified. Two rigid clusters were found in domains I and II. Weak spots were found in C-terminal domain III. Several flexible regions were found in all three domains;the largest residue fluctuation was present in the apical loop2 of domain II. Conclusion Although several flexible regions could be found in all the three domains, the most flexible regions were in the apical loops of domain II.

  6. Alcoholics Anonymous in Ireland: AA's first European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shane; Jordan, Tony

    2007-06-01

    To trace the evolution of Alcoholics Anonymous in Ireland from its establishment there in 1946, focusing on the efforts of early members to publicize the fellowship and negotiate a role for themselves in relation to existing religious and healthcare institutions. Archival research, drawing mainly on primary sources in AA archives in New York and Dublin. Anticipated tensions between this fellowship, which had its roots in Evangelical Protestantism, and the politically powerful Roman Catholic Church in Ireland were skillfully avoided; initial hostility from the medical profession quickly dissipated; and AA distanced itself from policy debate on the wider topic of alcoholism as disease. The relatively smooth introduction of AA to Ireland, the first European country in which it was established, may be attributed to the essentially pragmatic nature of the fellowship and the strategic abilities of its early members.

  7. Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henri J. Lezec; Jennifer A. Dionne; Harry A. Atwater

    2007-01-01

    .... We demonstrate an experimental realization of a two-dimensional negative-index material in the blue-green region of the visible spectrum, substantiated by direct geometric visualization of negative refraction...

  8. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This is a final post from the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. This special summary of AAS Hack Day, a meeting of AAS members to collaboratively work on various small projects, was written by Meredith Rawls (@Merrdiff) and was originally posted on astrobites.com.As the 227thAmerican Astronomical Society meeting drew to a close (see highlights from Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, and Day 4), a group of at least 50 attendees spent Day 4working on small projects fondly called hacks. Thanks to sponsorship from LSST and Northrup Grumman, the industrious hackers werewell-caffeinated and fed so we could devote time and energy toworking in groups on one-day projects.TheHack Day beganat 10am with pitches. Anybody with a project idea was welcome to briefly speak and try to convince others to work with them. Only someideas panned out, but the enthusiasm was palpable. Its not every day you get a full room of astronomers and affiliates eager to spend hours working on fun and useful projects to benefit the community.#hackAAS is getting underway! #aas227 pic.twitter.com/yX7jlOnSCK James R A Davenport (@jradavenport) January 8, 2016Here is a rundown of what we accomplished. Pretty impressive for a single day! Many thanks to fellow astrobiter Erika Nesvold (now at Carnegie DTM; @erikanesvold) whose hack was live-documenting all the other hacks. Her tweets as @astrobites appeared with the #hackaas hashtag, and her notes made this recap post infinitely easier to write.Interested in joining the fun? Sign up for Hack Day at the 2017 JanuaryAAS meeting (its free with meeting registration), and consider applying for the .Astronomy conference this summer.Towards Optimal Session Scheduling:Adrian Price-Whelan (Columbia), David Hogg (NYU), and Scott Idem (AAS) began writing a program to take all submitted abstracts to a conference like AAS and sort them using keywords to avoid scheduling similar talks in parallel sessions. Its impossible to make everyone happy, but minimizing conflicts

  9. 荧光标记AA-AMPS的荧光性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慰珺

    2009-01-01

    本文研究了荧光标记的AA-AMPS(FP-AA-AMPS)的紫外吸收光谱和荧光激发光谱、发射光谱,实验表明,FP-AA-AMPS的激发波长与发射波长分别为387 nm和523 nm.通过荧光光谱法研究了FP-AA-AMPS的性能,并进行了评价.

  10. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  11. Wear Behaviour of Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Nanocrystalline AA 4032 Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Saravanari, M. S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Sivaprasad, K.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper emphasizes the friction and wear properties of Carbon Nanotubes reinforced AA 4032 nanocomposites prepared by powder metallurgy technique. CNTs are multi-wall in nature and prepared by electric arc discharge method. Multi-walled CNTs are blended with AA 4032 elemental powders and compaction followed by sintering to get bulk nanocomposites. The strength of the composites has been evaluated by microhardness and the surface contact between the nanocomposites and EN 32 steel has been evaluated by Pin on disk tester. The results are proven that reinforcement of CNTs play a major role in the enhancement of hardness and wear.

  12. Characterization of amyloid in equine recurrent uveitis as AA amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostevik, L; de Souza, G A; Wien, T N; Gunnes, G; Sørby, R

    2014-01-01

    Two horses with chronic uveitis and histological lesions consistent with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) were examined. Microscopical findings in the ciliary body included deposits of amyloid lining the non-pigmented epithelium, intracytoplasmic, rod-shaped, eosinophilic inclusions and intraepithelial infiltration of T lymphocytes. Ultrastructural examination of the ciliary body of one horse confirmed the presence of abundant extracellular deposits of non-branching fibrils (9-11 nm in diameter) consistent with amyloid. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong positive labelling for AA amyloid and mass spectrometry showed the amyloid to consist primarily of serum amyloid A1 in both cases. The findings suggest that localized, intraocular AA amyloidosis may occur in horses with ERU.

  13. Precipitation hardening and hydrogen embrittlement of aluminum alloy AA7020

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Kumar; T K G Namboodhiri

    2011-04-01

    AA7020 Al–Mg–Zn, a medium strength aluminium alloy, is used in welded structures in military and aerospace applications. As it may be subjected to extremes of environmental exposures, including high pressure liquid hydrogen, it could suffer hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen susceptibility of alloy AA7020 was evaluated by slow strain-rate tensile testing, and delayed failure testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of air-cooled, duplexaged, and water-quenched duplex agedmaterials. The resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of the alloy was found to be in the order of air-cooled duplex aged alloy > as-received (T6 condition) > water quenched duplex aged material.

  14. The Effect of Tool Press Force to Weldability of AA5754 and AA6061 Alloys with Friction Stir Welding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Küçükömeroğlu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study AA5754 and A6061 alloys have been butt welded to each other by using friction stir welding (FSW. At constant tool geometry and tool angle experiments were carried out, joints were performed using different welding speed, rotation speed and especially tool press force. The mechanical properties of the welded samples were determined by using tensile test, bending test and micro hardness. Generated microstructure and hardness profile was obtained in the welding zone. In this friction stir welding study the parameters which affect the joint structure are the tool press force, welding speed and tool rotation speed which were determined. At the end of study it is determined that AA5754 and AA6061 alloys can be successfully welded by using Friction Stir Welding method under different tool press forces at least 6kN.

  15. An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Edwards, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article…

  16. Diagnostic performance of amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue of patients with clinical AA amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Bijzet, Johannes; Limburg, Pieter C.; Skinner, Martha; Hawkins, Philip N.; Butrimiene, Irena; Livneh, Avi; Lesnyak, Olga; Nasonov, Evgeney L.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, Anna; Guel, Ahmet; Merlini, Giampaolo; Wiland, Piotr; Oezdogan, Huri; Gorevic, Peter D.; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Benson, Merrill D.; Direskeneli, Haner; Kaarela, Kalevi; Garceau, Denis; Hauck, Wendy; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue is a new immunochemical method for detecting AA amyloidosis, a rare but serious disease. The objective was to assess diagnostic performance in clinical AA amyloidosis. Methods. Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with AA amyloidosis

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0559 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-100 54% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1306 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-100 79% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0937 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-76 39% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0701 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-93 49% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1761 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-47 62% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-149 76% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-2097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-54 61% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0143 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-151 86% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-0928 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 9e-41 30% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0208 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-67 40% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0507 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-64 69% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0989 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-83 37% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0203 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-58 36% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-32 35% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-03-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-27 40% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-19-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-41 48% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1393 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-45 32% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-24-0040 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-65 43% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1688 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-83 46% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0589 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-74 53% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0087 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-69 50% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-20-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-72 50% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGAL-35-0346 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-97 52% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0364 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-38 26% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0307 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-67 83% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1505 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-72 85% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-05-0082 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-84 90% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0427 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-126 87% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0378 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-47 36% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-16-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-151 77% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1722 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-52 60% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-16-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-40 49% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0268 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-116 60% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-10-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-60 57% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-87 63% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1910 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-46 53% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0260 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-111 55% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0240 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-120 58% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0544 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-68 58% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0492 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 6e-80 72% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-04-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 0.0 91% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1384 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-94 74% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0434 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-78 89% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0263 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-113 75% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-23-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-161 56% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-04-0296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-29 39% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0080 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-65 58% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0443 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-57 61% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0272 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-121 61% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-08-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-116 57% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1203 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-58 53% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0191 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-72 42% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0486 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-75 60% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0462 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 3e-65 50% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1765 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-76 59% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-26-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-129 67% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1471 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 5e-69 49% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 4e-68 81% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1181 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 1e-100 81% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-02-0038 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] gb|EAK89192.1|... very large probable mucin, 11700 aa long protein with signal peptide and pronounced Thr repeat (308 aa long) [Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II] XP_626655.1 2e-24 22% ...

  17. Diagnostic performance of amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue of patients with clinical AA amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Bijzet, Johannes; Limburg, Pieter C.; Skinner, Martha; Hawkins, Philip N.; Butrimiene, Irena; Livneh, Avi; Lesnyak, Olga; Nasonov, Evgeney L.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, Anna; Guel, Ahmet; Merlini, Giampaolo; Wiland, Piotr; Oezdogan, Huri; Gorevic, Peter D.; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Benson, Merrill D.; Direskeneli, Haner; Kaarela, Kalevi; Garceau, Denis; Hauck, Wendy; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue is a new immunochemical method for detecting AA amyloidosis, a rare but serious disease. The objective was to assess diagnostic performance in clinical AA amyloidosis. Methods. Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with AA amyloidosis

  18. Dicty_cDB: FCL-AA04 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3A10 of library AV0AA from strain CBS 379 of Saccharomyces exiguus. 101 1e-55 4 AX109696 |AX109696.1 Sequenc...AA006G11 of library AV0AA from strain CBS 379 of Saccharomyces exiguus. 101 3e-55 4 AX109678 |AX109678.1 Seq

  19. Launching of Electromagnetic Surface Waves on Axial Cylindrical Reactive Surface with Negative Permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Scattered Field In the region a < r < b the proper solution of Eqn. 19 is of the form, (b [AH 2 (Aa + aHi2 )(Aa)]J 1 (Ar) - [ AJo (Aa) + aJl(Aa)]gH 2 )(Ar...22) (, b(b ,/3) 2)- + aHo2 )(Aa)]Jx(Ab) -[ AJo (Aa) + aJi(Aa)]Hi2 )(Ab) The solution is an even function of A consequently either branch of A can be

  20. Negative ions in liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapak, A. G.; Schmidt, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of negative ions in liquid 4He is analyzed. The possibility of cluster or bubble formation around impurity ions of both signs is discussed. It is shown that in superfluid helium, bubbles form around negative alkaline earth metal ions and clusters form around halogen ions. The nature of "fast" and "exotic" negative ions is also discussed. It is assumed that "fast" ions are negative ions of helium excimer molecules localized inside bubbles. "Exotic" ions are stable negative impurity ions, which are always present in small amounts in gas discharge plasmas. Bubbles or clusters with radii smaller the radius of electron bubbles develop around these ions.

  1. Social support and comfort in AA as mediators of "Making AA easier" (MAAEZ), a 12-step facilitation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Kaskutas, Lee Ann

    2012-12-01

    A trial of "Making Alcoholics Anonymous Easier" (MAAEZ), a group-format 12-step facilitation program, showed significantly higher odds of past 30-day abstinence after 12 months among those who had been treated in MAAEZ compared to usual care, especially for clients with high prior AA/NA/CA meeting attendance (>90 prior meetings; OR = 2.94, p = .02). We examined whether MAAEZ effects for this group were mediated by social support for sobriety and comfort with the 12-step fellowship. Among those with high prior AA/NA/CA attendance, we performed tests of multiple mediation to estimate MAAEZ effects attributable to the combined effect of social network support for sobriety, comfort being at AA/NA/CA meetings, and comfort speaking at AA/NA/CA meetings. To gain some understanding of sustaining these behaviors, we also examined each potential mediating variable measured both prior to, and concurrent with, 12-month outcomes. Having support for sobriety at 6 months emerged as a mediator of 12-month MAAEZ effects, when controlling for comfort being and speaking at AA/NA/CA meetings at 6 months. The effect remained when controlling for mediator values at 12 months, and explained 44% of the MAAEZ effect. Results highlight the value of studying specific, modifiable 12-step activities, and demonstrate the importance of exploring subgroups to determine behaviors and attitudes to target for optimal treatment. For example, increasing support for sobriety among those with high prior AA/NA/CA attendance may be especially pertinent. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  2. The negation bias: when negations signal stereotypic expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukeboom, Camiel J; Finkenauer, Catrin; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2010-12-01

    Research on linguistic biases shows that stereotypic expectancies are implicitly reflected in language and are thereby subtly communicated to message recipients. We examined whether these findings extend to the use of negations (e.g., not smart instead of stupid). We hypothesized that people use more negations in descriptions of stereotype-inconsistent behavior than in descriptions of stereotype-consistent behavior. In 3 studies, participants either judged the applicability of experimentally controlled person descriptions or spontaneously produced person descriptions themselves. Results provided support for this hypothesis. Moreover, a 4th study demonstrated that negations have communicative consequences. When a target person's behavior was described with negations, message recipients inferred that this behavior was an exception to the rule and that it was more likely caused by situational circumstances than by dispositional factors. These findings indicate that by using negations people implicitly communicate stereotypic expectancies and that negations play a subtle but powerful role in stereotype maintenance.

  3. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Compound negative binomial distribution with negative multinomial summands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Petkova, Monika P.; Stehlík, Milan

    2016-12-01

    The class of Negative Binomial distributions seems to be introduced by Greenwood and Yule in 1920. Due to its wide spread application, investigations of distributions, closely related with it will be always contemporary. Bates, Neyman and Wishart introduce Negative Multinomial distribution. They reach it considering the mixture of independent Poisson distributed random variables with one and the same Gamma mixing variable. This paper investigates a particular case of multivariate compound distribution with one and the same compounding variable. In our case it is Negative Binomial or Sifted Negative Binomial. The summands with equal indexes in different coordinates are Negative Multinomially distributed. In case without shifting, considered as a mixture, the resulting distribution coincides with Mixed Negative Multinomial distribution with scale changed Negative Binomially distributed first parameter. We prove prove that it is Multivariate Power Series Distributed and find explicit form of its parameters. When the summands are geometrically distributed this distribution is stochastically equivalent to a product of independent Bernoulli random variable and appropriate multivariate Geometrically distributed random vector. We show that Compound Shifted Negative Binomial Distribution with Geometric Summands is a particular case of Negative Multinomial distribution with new parameters.

  5. Impact toughness of laser alloyed aluminium AA1200 alloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4kW Nd:YAG laser and impact resistance of the alloys was investigated. The alloying powders were a mixture of Ni, Ti and SiC in different proportions. Surfaces reinforced...

  6. Dynamical bottomonium-suppression in a realistic AA background

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Gossiaux Pol

    2016-01-01

    We refine our dynamical Schroedinger-Langevin scheme designed for dealing with the suppression of quarkonium states in URHIC in order to allow for feed-downs from higher states and present updated results for the $R_{AA}$ as a function of the centrality.

  7. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. See also 7906190, 7906193.

  8. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  9. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  10. A Status Report on the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, Richard Tresch; Fraknoi, Andrew; Gurton, Suzanne; Hurst, Anna; Schatz, Dennis L.

    2014-06-01

    The American Astronomical Society, in partnership with the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), has launched a series of professional-development workshops and a community of practice designed to improve early-career astronomers’ ability to communicate effectively with students and the public. Called AAS Astronomy Ambassadors, the program provides training and mentoring for young astronomers, from advanced undergraduates to beginning faculty; it also provides them access to resources and a network of contacts within the astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) community. Ambassadors are provided with a library of outreach activities and resource materials suitable for a range of venues and audiences. For much of this library we are using resources developed by organizations such as the ASP, the Pacific Science Center, and the Center for Astronomy Education for other outreach programs, though some resources have been created by one of us (AF) specifically for this program. After a period of evaluation and revision, the program’s “Menu of Outreach Opportunities for Science Education” (MOOSE) is now posted on the AAS website at http://aas.org/outreach/moose-menu-outreach-opportunities-science-education.The first two Astronomy Ambassadors workshops were held at AAS meetings in January 2013 and January 2014; each served 30 young astronomers chosen from about twice that many applicants. Web-based follow-up activities are being provided through a website at the ASP designed to keep cohorts of educators trained in their programs in touch with one another. The AAS is exploring ways to fund additional workshops at future winter meetings; suggestions are most welcome. Meanwhile, the Astronomy Ambassadors trained to date have logged more than 150 outreach events, reaching many thousands of children and adults across the U.S. and Canada.

  11. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  12. New perspectives on contributing factors to the monthly behavior of the aa geomagnetic index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Pazos, Marni; González, Luis Xavier

    2016-12-01

    We studied the Aa geomagnetic index ( aa index daily average) behavior on a monthly timescale using data from 1868 to 2015 for cycles 11-24. We identified solar- and lunar-associated periodicities in the Aa time series and found statistically significant Aa minima values a few days before the full Moon and high Aa values during the new Moon. When considering all the cycles, it was clear that the deepest Aa minima occurred during the Aa descending activity phase. However, when the cycles were separated according to the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the Aa minima came from the contribution of cycles with the IMF pointing toward the Sun (Type 1). Furthermore, during the descending phase of cycles with the IMF pointing away from the Sun (Type 2), the smallest Aa index values were found along with smaller changes compared to Type 1 cases. This behavior implies that during Type 1 cycles there are larger Aa perturbations than during Type 2 cycles. It is very likely that the mechanisms responsible for the Aa monthly behavior are a combination of solar and lunar effects that depend on several factors: (a) the Moon phases (new and full Moon), (b) the phase of the solar cycle (ascending or descending), and (c) the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (away or toward the Sun).

  13. Core-corona PSt/P(BA-AA) composite particles by two-stage emulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Delong; Ren, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinya; Liao, Shijun

    2016-03-01

    Raspberry-shaped composite particles with polystyrene (PSt) as core and poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(BA-AA)) as corona were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The random copolymer, P(BA-AA), was pre-prepared and used as a polymeric surfactant, its emulsifying properties adjusted by changing the mass ratio of BA and AA. The morphology of the resulting core-corona composite particles, P(St/P(BA-AA)), could be regulated and controlled by varying the concentrations of P(BA-AA) or the mass ratio of BA:AA in P(BA-AA). The experimental results indicate that 3.0-6.0 wt% of P(BA-AA) is required to obtain stable composite emulsions, and P(BA-AA) with a mass ratio of BA:AA = 1:2 is able to generate distinct core-corona structures. A mechanism of composite particle formation is proposed based on the high affinity between the PSt core and the hydrophobic segments of P(BA-A). The regular morphology of the colloidal film is expected to facilitate potential application of core-corona particles in the field of light scattering. Furthermore, the diversity of core-corona particles can be expanded by replacing P(BA-AA) corona particles with other amphiphilic particles.

  14. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  15. Serum amyloid A and protein AA: molecular mechanisms of a transmissible amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermark, Gunilla T; Westermark, Per

    2009-08-20

    Systemic AA-amyloidosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases and the fibril protein AA derives from the acute phase reactant serum AA. AA-amyloidosis can be induced in mice by an inflammatory challenge. The lag phase before amyloid develops can be dramatically shortened by administration of a small amount of amyloid fibrils. Systemic AA-amyloidosis is transmissible in mice and may be so in humans. Since transmission can cross species barriers it is possible that AA-amyloidosis can be induced by amyloid in food, e.g. foie gras. In mice, development of AA-amyloidosis can also be accelerated by other components with amyloid-like properties. A new possible risk factor may appear with synthetically made fibrils from short peptides, constructed for tissue repair.

  16. Young People in Alcoholics Anonymous: the role of spiritual orientation and AA member affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc; Dermatis, Helen; Santucci, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    Empirical findings characterizing long-term, committed Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members are limited, particularly among younger members. The authors studied a sample of 266 highly committed attendees (mean age, 27 years) at an annual conference of Young People in Alcoholics Anonymous (YPAA), whose first encounter with AA was 6 years previously. Most (72%) had abused drugs and alcohol, and 36% had never received substance abuse treatment. They now reported a mean duration of abstinence of 44 months and had attended an average of 233 AA meetings in the previous year; 66% had served as AA sponsors, and 92% reported experiencing an AA "spiritual awakening," itself associated with a decreased likelihood of alcohol craving. Scores on AA beliefs, affiliation to other members, and the experience of spiritual awakening were associated with lower depression scores. These findings are discussed to clarify the nature of long-term AA membership.

  17. Causality, Nonlocality, and Negative Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcella, Davide; Prada, Claire; Carminati, Rémi

    2017-03-31

    The importance of spatial nonlocality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes nonlocality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial nonlocality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial nonlocality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  18. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  19. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    ’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  20. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  1. Brain representations of negative numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnes, Michael; Berger, Andrea; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Participants performed a physical comparison task of pairs of positive and pairs of negative one-digit numbers while their electrophysiological brain activity was measured. The numerical value of the presented digits was either congruent or incongruent with the physical size of the digits. Analysis has shown that the earliest event-related potential (ERP) difference between positive and negative numbers was found in the P300 ERP component peak, where there was an inverse effect of congruity in the negative pairs, compared with the positive ones. This pattern of results supports the idea that natural numbers serve as primitives of the human cognitive system, whereas negative numbers are apparently generated if needed.

  2. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, C; Haworth, E J; Peters, E; Hemsley, D R; Sharma, T; Gray, J A; Pickering, A; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Bullmore, E T; Williams, S C

    2001-11-16

    Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most significant activation within the negative priming task was within the inferior parietal lobule, left temporal lobe and frontal lobes. Areas of cortical activation are discussed with reference to theoretical accounts of the negative priming effect.

  3. Property Evaluation of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Metals : AA6101-T6 and AA1350 Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran ASHOK KUMAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Next to copper, aluminium alloys are widely used in electrical industries, because of their high electrical conductivity. AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys are widely used in electrical bus bars. As these alloys are joined by mechanical fasteners in electrical bus bars, the conductive area has been reduced. To avoid this problem, they should be joined without removal of metal as well as their properties. Friction stir welding technique is mainly invented for joining similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. In this investigation, friction stir welding of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys was done by varying tool traversing speed, rotational speed and tilt angle with hexagonal pin profiled tool. The analysis of variance was employed to study the effect of above parameters on mechanical properties of welded joints. From the experimental results, it is observed that welded joint with the combination of 1070 rpm rotating speed, 78 mm/min traversing speed and 2° tilt angle provides better mechanical properties. Analysis of variance shows that most significant impact on tensile strength is made by variation in tool rotating speed while tool tilt angle makes the most significant impact on elongation and bending strength.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14132

  4. A Profile Analysis of Raman-scattered O VI Bands at 6825 \\AA\\ and 7082 \\AA\\ in Sanduleak's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Heo, Jeong-Eun; Di Mille, Francesco; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modeling of the two broad bands observed at 6825 \\AA\\ and 7082 \\AA\\ in Sanduleak's star, a controversial object in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These bands are known to originate from Raman-scattering of O VI $\\lambda\\lambda$ 1032 and 1038 photons with atomic hydrogen and are only observed in bona fide symbiotic stars. Our high-resolution spectrum obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan-Clay Telescope reveals, quite surprisingly, that the profiles of the two bands look very different: while the Raman 6825 \\AA\\ band shows a single broad profile with a redward extended bump, the Raman 7082 \\AA\\ band exhibits a distinct triple-peak profile. Our model suggests that the O VI emission nebula can be decomposed into a red, blue and central emission regions from an accretion disk, a bipolar outflow and a further compact, optically thick region. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations with the aim of fitting the observed flux ratio $F(6825)/F(7082) \\si...

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Accumulative Roll-Bonded AA1050A/AA5005 Laminated Metal Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kümmel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminated metal composites (LMCs with alternating layers of commercial pure aluminum AA1050A and aluminum alloy AA5005 were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB. In order to vary the layer thickness and the number of layer interfaces, different numbers of ARB cycles (4, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 were performed. The microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized in detail. Up to 8 ARB cycles, the ultrafine-grained (UFG microstructure of the layers in the LMC evolves almost equally to those in AA1050A and AA5005 mono-material sheets. However, the grain size in the composites tends to have smaller values. Nevertheless, the local mechanical properties of the individual layers in the LMCs are very similar to those of the mono-material sheets, and the macroscopic static mechanical properties of the LMCs can be calculated as the mean value of the mono-material sheets applying a linear rule of mixture. In contrast, for more than 12 ARB cycles, a homogenous microstructure was obtained where the individual layers within the composite cannot be visually separated any longer; thus, the hardness is at one constant and a high level across the whole sheet thickness. This results also in a significant higher strength in tensile testing. It was revealed that, with decreasing layer thickness, the layer interfaces become more and more dominating.

  6. Be Aware of Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio C.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the concept of negative reinforcement in relation to the maintenance of off-task and disruptive behaviors in classrooms. Suggestions are given for determining whether negative reinforcement (in the form of escape from the instructional task) or teacher attention is maintaining the behavior. Suggestions for making tasks less…

  7. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  8. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  9. Negative refraction in outer space?

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2004-01-01

    Mediums which do not support the propagation of plane waves with negative phase velocity (NPV) when viewed at rest can support NPV propagation when they are viewed in a reference frame which is uniformly translated at sufficiently high velocity. Thus, relativistic negative refraction may be exploited in astronomical scenarios.

  10. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  11. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    to an ambiguous impact. Empirically, we consider immigrants’ high school attendance. On the macro-level, we confirm a signficant negative correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. On the individual level, we...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...

  12. Analysis of Negative Correlation Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zou Xiu-fen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes negative correlation learning for designing neural network ensembles. Negative correlation learning has been firstly analysed in terms of minimising mutual information on a regression task. By ninimising the mutual information between variables extracted by two neural networks, they are forced to convey different information about some features of their input. Based on the decision boundaries and correct response sets, negative correlation learning has been further studied on two pattern classification problems. The purpose of examining the decision boundaries and the correct response sets is not only to illustrate the learning behavior of negative correlation learning, but also to cast light on how to design more effective neural network ensembles. The experimental results showed the decision boundary of the trained neural network ensemble by negative correlation learning is almost as good as the optimum decision boundary.

  13. Promoters of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 genes of Artemisia annua direct reporter gene expression in glandular and non-glandular trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Sunita; Longchar, Bendangchuchang; Singh, Alka; Gupta, Vikrant

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report cloning and analysis of promoters of GLABRA2 (AaGL2) homolog and a MIXTA-Like (AaMIXTA-Like1) gene from Artemisia annua. The upstream regulatory regions of AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 showed the presence of several crucial cis-acting elements. Arabidopsis and A. annua seedlings were transiently transfected with the promoter-GUS constructs using a robust agro-infiltration method. Both AaGL2 and AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters showed GUS expression preferentially in Arabidopsis single-celled trichomes and glandular as well as T-shaped trichomes of A. annua. Transgenic Arabidopsis harboring constructs in which AaGL2 or AaMIXTA-Like1 promoters would control GFP expression, showed fluorescence emanating specifically from trichome cells. Our study provides a fast and efficient method to study trichome-specific expression, and 2 promoters that have potential for targeted metabolic engineering in plants.

  14. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  15. AA amyloidosis associated with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijeet; Chopra, Yogiraj; Theis, Jason D; Vrana, Julie A; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2013-10-01

    We report a 12-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome due to renal AA amyloidosis. The AA amyloidosis was associated with a 3-year history of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The presence of serum amyloid A protein was confirmed by laser microdissection of Congo Red-positive glomeruli and vessels followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; this analysis excluded hereditary and familial amyloidosis. Aggressive management of the systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis resulted in improvement in clinical and laboratory parameters. The case represents an unusual cause of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis of renal amyloidosis and management of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis is paramount to preventing progression of kidney disease.

  16. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  17. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  18. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  19. Co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI effectively enhances the yields of tropane alkaloids in Anisodus acutangulus hairy roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropane alkaloids (TA) including anisodamine, anisodine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are a group of important anticholinergic drugs with rapidly increasing market demand, so it is significant to improve TA production by biotechnological approaches. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT) was considered as the first rate-limiting upstream enzyme while tropinone reductase I (TRI) was an important branch-controlling enzyme involved in TA biosynthesis. However, there is no report on simultaneous introduction of PMT and TRI genes into any TA-producing plant including Anisodus acutangulus (A. acutangulus), which is a Solanaceous perennial plant that is endemic to China and is an attractive resource plant for production of TA. Results In this study, 21 AaPMT and AaTRI double gene transformed lines (PT lines), 9 AaPMT single gene transformed lines (P lines) and 5 AaTRI single gene transformed lines (T lines) were generated. RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis results revealed that total AaPMT (AaPMT T) and total AaTRI (AaTRI T) gene transcripts in transgenic PT, P and T lines showed higher expression levels than native AaPMT (AaPMT E) and AaTRI (AaTRI E) gene transcripts. As compared to the control and single gene transformed lines (P or T lines), PT transgenic hairy root lines produced significantly higher levels of TA. The highest yield of TA was detected as 8.104 mg/g dw in line PT18, which was 8.66, 4.04, and 3.11-times higher than those of the control (0.935 mg/g dw), P3 (highest in P lines, 2.004 mg/g dw) and T12 (highest in T lines, 2.604 mg/g dw), respectively. All the tested samples were found to possess strong radical scavenging capacity, which were similar to control. Conclusion In the present study, the co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI genes in A. acutangulus hairy roots significantly improved the yields of TA and showed higher antioxidant activity than control because of higher total TA content, which is the first report on

  20. Co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI effectively enhances the yields of tropane alkaloids in Anisodus acutangulus hairy roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropane alkaloids (TA including anisodamine, anisodine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are a group of important anticholinergic drugs with rapidly increasing market demand, so it is significant to improve TA production by biotechnological approaches. Putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT was considered as the first rate-limiting upstream enzyme while tropinone reductase I (TRI was an important branch-controlling enzyme involved in TA biosynthesis. However, there is no report on simultaneous introduction of PMT and TRI genes into any TA-producing plant including Anisodus acutangulus (A. acutangulus, which is a Solanaceous perennial plant that is endemic to China and is an attractive resource plant for production of TA. Results In this study, 21 AaPMT and AaTRI double gene transformed lines (PT lines, 9 AaPMT single gene transformed lines (P lines and 5 AaTRI single gene transformed lines (T lines were generated. RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis results revealed that total AaPMT (AaPMT T and total AaTRI (AaTRI T gene transcripts in transgenic PT, P and T lines showed higher expression levels than native AaPMT (AaPMT E and AaTRI (AaTRI E gene transcripts. As compared to the control and single gene transformed lines (P or T lines, PT transgenic hairy root lines produced significantly higher levels of TA. The highest yield of TA was detected as 8.104 mg/g dw in line PT18, which was 8.66, 4.04, and 3.11-times higher than those of the control (0.935 mg/g dw, P3 (highest in P lines, 2.004 mg/g dw and T12 (highest in T lines, 2.604 mg/g dw, respectively. All the tested samples were found to possess strong radical scavenging capacity, which were similar to control. Conclusion In the present study, the co-expression of AaPMT and AaTRI genes in A. acutangulus hairy roots significantly improved the yields of TA and showed higher antioxidant activity than control because of higher total TA content, which is the first

  1. Wooden models of an AA quadrupole between bending magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    At two points in the AA lattice, a quadrupole (QDN, defocusing, narrow) was tightly wedged between two bending magnets (BST, short, wide). This picture of wooden models lets one imagine the strong interaction between their magnetic fields. There was no way one could calculate with the necessary accuracy the magnetic effects and their consequences for the machine optics. The necessary corrections were made after measurements with a circulating beam, in a tedious iterative procedure, with corrrection coils and shims.

  2. Mexican obsidian samples analysed by PIXE and AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio, D.; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico (Mexico); Lagarde, G.

    1997-12-31

    Proton induced X-ray emission analysis results are reported for obsidian artifacts from different sites of the State of Mexico: Teotenango, Calixtlahuaca, La Marqueza, Malinalco and Tonatico. Twenty elements were analysed by PIXE and some of them were verified by AAS. The results show that the samples came from three different sources: Teotenango and Calixtlahuaca samples from the first, La Marqueza and Malinalco samples from the second and Tonatico samples from the third. (author)

  3. AA patterns for point sets with controlled spectral properties

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel technique for the fast production of large point sets with different spectral properties. In contrast to tile-based methods we use so-called AA Patterns: ornamental point sets obtained from quantization errors. These patterns have a discrete and structured number-theoretic nature, can be produced at very low costs, and possess an inherent structural indexing mechanism equivalent to those used in recursive tiling techniques. This allows us to generate, manipulate and store ...

  4. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. Here we see the slotted electrodes partly pulled out of the outer casing. See also 7906189, 7906581X, 7896193.

  5. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning, in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. View down the centre of a pickup or kicker. See also 7906189, 7906190, 7906583.

  6. The atmospheric impact trajectory of asteroid 2014 AA

    CERN Document Server

    Farnocchia, D; Brown, P G; Chodas, P W

    2016-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroid 2014 AA entered the Earth's atmosphere on 2014 January 2, only 21 hours after being discovered by the Catalina Sky Survey. In this paper we compute the trajectory of 2014 AA by combining the available optical astrometry, seven ground-based observations over 69 minutes, and the International Monitoring system detection of the atmospheric impact infrasonic airwaves in a least-squares orbit estimation filter. The combination of these two sources of observations results in a tremendous improvement in the orbit uncertainties. The impact time is 3:05 UT with a 1-sigma uncertainty of 6 min, while the impact location corresponds to a west longitude of 44.7 deg and a latitude of 13.1 deg with a 1-sigma uncertainty of 140 km. The minimum impact energy estimated from the infrasound data and the impact velocity result in an estimated minimum mass of 22.6 t. By propagating the trajectory of 2014 AA backwards we find that the only window for finding precovery observations is for the three days before it...

  7. Renal Involvement in AA Amyloidosis: Clinical Outcomes and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murvet Yilmaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural history of AA amyloidosis is typically progressive, leading to multiple organ failure and death. We analyzed the etiology as well as clinical and laboratory features of patients with biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis and evaluated the ultimate outcome. Methods: Seventy-three patients (24 female; mean age 41.85±15.89 years were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features were studied and the outcome was assessed. Results: Familial Mediterranean Fever and tuberculosis were the most frequent causes of amyloidosis. Mean serum creatinine and proteinuria at diagnosis were 4.65±4.89 mg/dl and 8.04±6.09 g/day, respectively; and stage I, II, III, IV and V renal disease were present in 19.2%, 13.7%, 16.4%, 11%, and 39.7% of the patients, respectively. ESRD developed in 16 patients during the follow-up period. All of the ESRD patients started a dialysis programme. Thirty patients (41% died during the follow-up period; median patient survival was 35.9±6.12 months. Old age, tuberculosis etiology, advanced renal disease and low serum albumin levels were associated with a worse prognosis. Serum albumin was a predictor of mortality in logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The ultimate outcome of the patients with AA amyloidosis is poor, possibly due to the late referral to the nephrology clinics. Early referral may be helpful to improve prognosis.

  8. Effects of Friction Stir Welding Speed on AA2195 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of friction stir welding (FSW to aerospace has grown rapidly due to the high efficiency and environmental friendly nature of the process. FSW is achieved by plastic flow of frictionally heated material in solid state and offers many advantages of avoiding hot cracking and limiting component distortion. Recently low density, high modulus and high strength AA2195 are used as substitute for conventional aluminum alloys since the weight saving is critical in aerospace applications. One of the problems for this alloy is weld metal porosity formation leading to hot cracking. Combination of FSW and AA2195 provides synergy effect to improve mechanical properties and weight saving of aerospace structure such as cryogenic fuel tanks for launch systems. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of friction stir welding speed on mechanical and microstructural properties of AA2195. The friction stir welded materials were joined with four different tool rotation speeds (350~800 rpm and five welding speeds (120~360 mm/min, which are the two prime welding parameters in this process.

  9. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  10. Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. R. Smith; J. B. Pendry; M. C. K. Wiltshire

    2004-01-01

    .... Artificial magnetism and negative refractive index are two specific types of behavior that have been demonstrated over the past few years, illustrating the new physics and new applications possible...

  11. Negative numbers in simple arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Runa; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

    2010-10-01

    Are negative numbers processed differently from positive numbers in arithmetic problems? In two experiments, adults (N = 66) solved standard addition and subtraction problems such as 3 + 4 and 7 - 4 and recasted versions that included explicit negative signs-that is, 3 - (-4), 7 + (-4), and (-4) + 7. Solution times on the recasted problems were slower than those on standard problems, but the effect was much larger for addition than subtraction. The negative sign may prime subtraction in both kinds of recasted problem. Problem size effects were the same or smaller in recasted than in standard problems, suggesting that the recasted formats did not interfere with mental calculation. These results suggest that the underlying conceptual structure of the problem (i.e., addition vs. subtraction) is more important for solution processes than the presence of negative numbers.

  12. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  13. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  14. Co-expression and synergism analysis of Vip3Aa29 and Cyt2Aa3 insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Sun, Zhiguang; Guan, Peng; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Lingxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2012-04-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3) from Bacillus thuringiensis shows high activity against lepidopteran insects. Cytolytic δ-endotoxin (Cyt) also has high toxicity to dipteran larvae and synergism with other crystal proteins (Cry), but synergism between Cyt and Vip3 proteins has not been tested. We analyzed for synergism between Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29. Both cyt2Aa3 and vip3Aa29 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 carried on vector pCOLADuet-1. Vip3Aa29 showed insecticidal activity against Chilo suppressalis and Spodoptera exigua, with 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) at 24.0 and 36.6 μg ml(-1), respectively. It could also inhibit Helicoverpa armigera growth, with 50% inhibition concentration at 22.6 μg ml(-1). While Cyt2Aa3 was toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus (LC(50): 0.53 μg ml(-1)) and Chironomus tepperi (LC(50): 36 μg ml(-1)), it did not inhibit C. suppressalis, S. exigua, and H. armigera. However, the co-expression of Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29 showed synergistic effect on C. suppressalis and S. exigua, and the individual activities were strengthened 3.35- and 4.34-fold, respectively. The co-expression had no synergism against C. tepperi and H. armigera, but exerted some antagonistic effect on Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synergism between Cyt2Aa and Vip3Aa was thus discovered for the first time, which confirmed that Cyt toxin can enhance the toxicity of other toxins against some non-target insects. By synergism analysis, the effectiveness of microbial insecticides can be verified.

  15. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  16. Use of Negation in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    number of individuals indicated that negation was valuable for them in their shopping on Craigslist and eBay , particularly for collectible items...research or in a quest for rare collectibles on eBay , is sufficient cause for further investigation into the notion of negation in search. Research...that use of advanced search syntax is correlated with users being online for more time, “spend[ing] less time querying and traversing search trails” (p

  17. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say t...

  18. Negative refraction in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Asatsuma, T.

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystals are multidimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the crystals. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell’s law, can be tailored based on photonic band theory. Negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because photonic crystals usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0305 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0305 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-117 91% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0919 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0919 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-155 89% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0749 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0749 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-116 83% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0154 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 0.0 94% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0807 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0807 pdb|2QW9|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in... The Apo State pdb|2QW9|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Apo State pdb|2QWL|A Chain A, Crystal Structure... Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWL|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of ...Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The Adp State pdb|2QWM|A Chain A, Crystal Structure Of B...ovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State pdb|2QWM|B Chain B, Crystal Structure Of Bovine Hsc70 (1-394aa)in The AdpVi State 2QW9 1e-139 85% ...

  4. Through-thickness recrystallization characteristics of a laminated AA3xxx–AA6xxx aluminum alloy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, L.H., E-mail: l2liao@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Jin, H.; Gallerneault, M. [Formerly Novelis Research and Technology Centre, 945 Princess Street, Kingston, ON K7L 5L9 (Canada); Esmaeili, S., E-mail: shahrzad@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    The through-thickness annealing behavior of a laminated AA3xxx–AA6xxx alloy system at 300 °C has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction analysis, electron probe micro-analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and hardness measurement. Results show that the recrystallization process starts at the interface region between the AA3xxx (clad) and AA6xxx (core) layers. Subsequently, the recrystallization process front progresses into the core layer, while the clad layer is the last region to recrystallize. It is also found that precipitation precedes recrystallization in the entire laminate at the investigated temperature. The preferential onset of recrystallization at the interface region is attributed to the net driving pressure being the highest in this region. The factors that lead to such enhanced net driving pressure are (a) deformation incompatibility between the two alloy layers, (b) lower solute content of the interface, which also leads to lower volume fraction of precipitates, and (c) an accelerated rate of precipitate coarsening due to the presence of a higher density of dislocations. The gradual progress of recrystallization from the interface towards the core layer is dictated by precipitate coarsening and the dependence of its rate on the density of deformation-induced dislocations. The lower driving pressure due to lower work hardening capacity, high solute drag pressure due to Mn, and additional Zener drag from precipitates that form due to solute redistribution during annealing explain the late initiation of recrystallization in the clad layer. - Highlights: • The through-thickness recrystallization of a laminated system is investigated. • The early onset of recrystallization at the interface is discussed. • The effects of precipitation and coarsening on recrystallization are analyzed.

  5. Microstructure, mechanical properties and texture of an AA6061/AA5754 composite fabricated by cross accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, K., E-mail: kevin.verstraete@u-psud.fr [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Helbert, A.L. [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Brisset, F. [Université Paris-Sud, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Benoit, A.; Paillard, P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502, Polytech’Nantes, Nantes Cedex (France); Baudin, T. [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-07-29

    AA6061 alloy is a widely used material in the automotive and aerospace industries, but is prone to hot cracking, which limits its weldability. To prevent this phenomenon, the AA6061/AA5754 composite was formed using a severe plastic deformation technique, Cross Accumulative Roll Bonding (CARB), at an elevated temperature (350 °C) to ensure good bonding between layers. This technique was efficient to maintain a small grain size, even under the process temperature conditions, and consequently, preserve good mechanical properties. The composite had better mechanical properties than the initial aluminium alloys. Microstructure and texture remained stable after two cycles and yield stress tended towards an equal value in the rolling and the transverse directions. After two cycles, the main component was the {001}〈110〉 rotated Cube, which was maintained for up to 10 cycles. Diffusion was more effective as the strain increased. Finally, a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process was performed on the composite and confirmed resistance to hot cracking.

  6. Aedes cadherin mediates the in vivo toxicity of the Cry11Aa toxin to Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Bum; Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2015-06-01

    Cadherin plays an important role in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. We previously cloned a full-length cadherin from Aedes aegypti larvae and reported this protein binds Cry11Aa toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with high affinity, ≈16.7nM. Based on these results, we investigated if Aedes cadherin is involved in the in vivo toxicity of Cry11Aa toxin to Ae. aegypti. We established a mosquito cell line stably expressing the full-length Aedes cadherin and transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression. Cells expressing the Aedes cadherin showed increased sensitivity to Cry11Aa toxin. Cry11Aa toxin at 400nM killed approximately 37% of the cells in 3h. Otherwise, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed increased tolerance to Cry11Aa toxin. Furthermore, cells expressing Aedes cadherin triggered Cry11Aa oligomerization. These results show the Aedes cadherin plays a pivotal role in Cry11Aa toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae by mediating Cry11Aa oligomerization. However, since high toxicity was not obtained in cadherin-expressing cells, an additional receptor may be needed for manifestation of full toxicity. Moreover, cells expressing Aedes cadherin were sensitive to Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba, but not Cry4Ba. However transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed no tolerance to Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Ba toxins. These results suggest that while Aedes cadherin may mediate Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba toxicity, this cadherin but is not the main receptor of Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Ba toxin in Ae. aegypti.

  7. Prediction Models for Sliding Wear of AA3003/Al2O3 Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesava R Alavala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the AA3003/Al2O3 metal matrix composites were manufactured at 10% and 30% volume fractions of Al2O3. The composites were wear tested at different levels of normal load, sliding speed and sliding distances. The microstructure of worn surfaces pertaining to AA3003/ Al2O3 composite reveals the fracture of AA3033 alloy matrix as well as the detachment of Al2O3 particles from the matrix

  8. Immobilization of glucose isomerase onto radiation synthesized P(AA-co-AMPS) hydrogel and its application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Isomerization of glucose to fructose was carried out using Glucose isomerase (GI) that immobilized by entrapment into Poly(acrylic acid) P(AA) and Poly(acrylic acid-co-2-Acrylamido 2-methyl Propane sulfonic acid) P(AA-co-AMPS) polymer networks, the enzyme carriers were prepared by radiation induced copolymerization in the presence of (Methylene-bisacrylamide) (MBAA) as a crosslinking agent. The maximum gel fraction of pure P(AA) and P(AA-co-AMPS) hydrogel was found to be 95.2% and 89.6% for P...

  9. AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Rebecca; Josephson, Michelle A; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M

    2012-04-01

    AA amyloidosis is a disorder characterized by the abnormal formation, accumulation and systemic deposition of fibrillary material that frequently involves the kidney. Recurrent AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft has been documented in patients with tuberculosis, familial Mediterranean fever, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic pyelonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis. De novo AA amyloidosis is rarely described. We report two cases of AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft. Our first case is a 47-year-old male with a history of ankylosing spondylitis who developed end-stage renal disease reportedly from tubulointerstitial nephritis from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent use. A biopsy was never performed. One year after transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the femoral head and 8 years post-transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the renal allograft. He was treated with colchicine and adalimumab and has stable renal function at 1 year-follow-up. Our second case is a 57-year-old male with a long history of intravenous drug use and hepatitis C infection who developed end-stage kidney disease due to AA amyloidosis. Our second patient's course was complicated by renal adenovirus, pulmonary aspergillosis and hepatitis C with AA amyloidosis subsequently being identified in the allograft 2.5 years post-transplantation. Renal allograft function remains stable 4-years post-transplantation. These reports describe clinical and pathologic features of two cases of AA amyloidosis presenting with proteinuria and focal involvement of the renal allograft.

  10. Input calibration for negative originals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    1995-04-01

    One of the major challenges in the prepress environment consists of controlling the electronic color reproduction process such that a perfect match of any original can be realized. Whether this goal can be reached depends on many factors such as the dynamic range of the input device (scanner, camera), the color gamut of the output device (dye sublimation printer, ink-jet printer, offset), the color management software etc. The characterization of the color behavior of the peripheral devices is therefore very important. Photographs and positive transparents reflect the original scene pretty well; for negative originals, however, there is no obvious link to either the original scene or a particular print of the negative under consideration. In this paper, we establish a method to scan negatives and to convert the scanned data to a calibrated RGB space, which is known colorimetrically. This method is based on the reconstruction of the original exposure conditions (i.e., original scene) which generated the negative. Since the characteristics of negative film are quite diverse, a special calibration is required for each combination of scanner and film type.

  11. The negation bias: When negations signal stereotypic expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, C.J.; Finkenauer, C.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research on linguistic biases shows that stereotypic expectancies are implicitly reflected in language and are thereby subtly communicated to message recipients. We examined whether these findings extend to the use of negations (e.g., not smart instead of stupid). We hypothesized that people use mor

  12. Dose from slow negative muons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    Conversion coefficients from fluence to ambient dose equivalent, from fluence to maximum dose equivalent and quality factors for slow negative muons are examined in detail. Negative muons, when stopped, produce energetic photons, electrons and a variety of high-LET particles. Contribution from each particle type to the dose equivalent is calculated. The results show that for the high-LET particles the details of energy spectra and decay yields are important for accurate dose estimates. For slow negative muons the ambient dose equivalent does not always yield a conservative estimate for the protection quantities. Especially, the skin equivalent dose is strongly underestimated if the radiation-weighting factor of unity for slow muons is used. Comparisons to earlier studies are presented.

  13. Chinese Negative Transfer in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红琴

    2009-01-01

    The nat ive language can help learn a foreign language, but foreign language learners const ant ly suffer negat ivet ransfer from t heir mot her language. We,as Chinese English learners in t he environment ,in t he English-Chinese t ranslat ion inChinese is oft en negat ive impact .The present paper probes int o t he essence of language t ransfer ,making a det ailed comparisonbet ween Chinese and English vocabulary in t erms of concept ual meaning,connot at ive meaning and idioms in order t o find out t hebasic principle of t ranslat ion which may help avoid negat ive t ransfer from Chinese.

  14. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema.

  15. Sigma Models with Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2016-01-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold H^n, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O(n,1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  16. Immunological evaluation of OMV(PagL)+Bap(1-487aa) and AbOmpA(8-346aa)+Bap(1-487aa) as vaccine candidates against Acinetobacter baumannii sepsis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmasti, Farzad; Ajdary, Soheila; Bouzari, Saeid; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Siadat, Seyed Davar

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes a high morbidity and mortality rate in infected patients with sepsis form. The surface exposed virulence proteins and serum resistance factors helping to dissemination of this bacterium to bloodstream are the most promising vaccine candidates against this microorganism. In this project we immunologically evaluated OMV(PagL)+Bap(1-487aa) and AbOmpA (8-346aa)+Bap(1-487aa) as combination forms as well as Bap(1-487aa), AbOmpA(8-346aa) and OMV(PagL) singly, with addition of alum adjuvant as vaccine candidates. The titers of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2c as well as concentration of IL-4 and IFN-γ and survival rates were measured in a C57BL/6 murine model with disseminated sepsis. The ratio of IgG1/IgG2c and profile of IL-4/IFN-γ in OMV (PagL)+Bap (1-487aa) formulation shows the humoral and cellular immune responses have been induced robustly and have created a full protection against A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and MDR AB-44 strains. We found that the two combination vaccine candidates were protective and induced both Th1 and Th2 responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization of glucose isomerase onto radiation synthesized P(AA-co-AMPS hydrogel and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Isomerization of glucose to fructose was carried out using Glucose isomerase (GI that immobilized by entrapment into Poly(acrylic acid P(AA and Poly(acrylic acid-co-2-Acrylamido 2-methyl Propane sulfonic acid P(AA-co-AMPS polymer networks, the enzyme carriers were prepared by radiation induced copolymerization in the presence of (Methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAA as a crosslinking agent. The maximum gel fraction of pure P(AA and P(AA-co-AMPS hydrogel was found to be 95.2% and 89.6% for P(AA and P(AA-co-AMPS, respectively at a total dose of 20 kGy. Effects of immobilization conditions such as radiation dose, MBAA concentration, comonomer composition and amount of GI were investigated. The influence of reaction conditions on the activity of immobilized GI were studied, the optimum pH value of the reaction solution is 7.5 and reaction temperature is 65 °C. The immobilized GI into P(AA-co-AMPS and P(AA polymer networks retained 81% and 69%, respectively of its initial activity after recycled for 15 times while it retained 87% and 71%, respectively of its initial activity after stored at 4 °C for 48 days. The Km values of free and immobilized GI onto P(AA-co-AMPS and onto P(AA matrices were found to be 34, 29.2 and 14.5 mg/mL, respectively while the Vmax Values calculated to be 3.87, 1.6 and 0.79 mg/mL min, respectively. GI entrapped into P(AA-co-AMPS hydrogel show promising behavior that may be useful as the newly glucose isomerase reactor in biomedical applications.

  18. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  19. Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Park, Yong-Shik; Li, Jensen; Lu, Xinchao; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Xiang

    2009-01-16

    We experimentally demonstrate a chiral metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index at terahertz frequencies. The presence of strong chirality in the terahertz metamaterial lifts the degeneracy for the two circularly polarized waves and allows for the achievement of negative refractive index without requiring simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability. The realization of terahertz chiral negative index metamaterials offers opportunities for investigation of their novel electromagnetic properties, such as negative refraction and negative reflection, as well as important terahertz device applications.

  20. Photonic crystal negative refractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Toshihiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Asatsuma, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are multi-dimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the PC. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell's law, can be tailored using photonic band theory. The negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because PCs usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at absorption-free frequencies, affording significant design flexibility for free-space optics. The PC slab, a high-index membrane with a two-dimensional airhole array, must be carefully designed to avoid reflection and diffraction losses. Light focusing based on negative refraction forms a parallel image of a light source, facilitating optical couplers and condenser lenses for wavelength demultiplexing. A compact wavelength demultiplexer can be designed by combining the prism and lens effects. The collimation effect is obtainable not only inside but also outside of the PC by optimizing negative refractive condition.

  1. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  2. Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Virginia B.

    2008-01-01

    After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

  3. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...

  4. Introducing the AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In response to two White Papers submitted to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey (1,2), a new AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics (WGAA) has been approved by the AAS Council at the 220th Meeting, June 2012, in Anchorage. The motivation for this WG is the growing importance of the interface between astronomy and various branches of applied mathematics, computer science and the emerging field of data science. With the new data-intensive projects envisioned for the coming decade, the need for advice derived from the focused attention of a group of AAS members who work in these areas is bound to increase. The Working Group is charged with spreading awareness of rapidly advancing computational techniques, sophsticated statistical methods, and highly capble software to further the goals of astronomical and astrophysical research. The three main strategic goals adopted by the WGAA Steering Committee for the next few years are to: (i) develop, organize and maintain methodological resources (such as software tools, papers, books, and lectures); (ii) enhance human resources (such as foster the creation of career paths, establish a Speakers' Bureau, establish and maintain an archived discussion forum, enable periodic news distribution); and (iii) organize topical meetings. The WGAA Steering Committee at this time includes twelve members: Kirk Borne, George Djorgovski, Eric Feigelson, Eric Ford, Alyssa Goodman, Joe Hilbe, Zeljko Ivezic (chair), Ashish Mahabal, Aneta Siemiginowska, Alex Szalay, Rick White, and Padma Yanamandra-Fisher. I will summarize our accomplishments since July 2012. (1) Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy (Borne & 90 coauthors), (2) The Astronomical Information Sciences: A Keystone for 21st-Century Astronomy (Loredo & 72 coauthors)

  5. Inside Hall 193 for the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Installation work is in full swing. A model quadrupole on the left shows where the magnet ring will be. The cables wound on drums are part of the pulse-forming network for the injection kicker. See Annual Report 1979 p. 103, Fig. 9 and photo 7911303. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  6. Slot-type kicker for the AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" structure was used for both pickups and the kicker of one of the stochastic cooling systems of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA). They served for the cooling of the high-density stack, in momentum and in both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 3 bands, 1-2, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. The kicker of the first generation, shown here, was located where the dispersion was zero and the beam size small, and thus had a quadratic cross-section. The pickups were rectangular and wider in the horizontal plane. See also 7906193

  7. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...... the 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation...

  8. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  9. Understanding the photometric variability of {\\zeta} Ori Aa

    CERN Document Server

    Buysschaert, B; Ramiaramanantsoa, T; Richardson, N D; David-Uraz, A; Moffat, A F J

    2016-01-01

    We studied the variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant $\\zeta$ Ori Aa using multi-colour BRITE photometry. We confirmed the known rotation frequency $f_{\\rm rot} = 0.15 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, and detected some of its higher harmonics, of which $4f_{\\rm rot}$ is compatible with the known DAC recurrence timescale. Thanks to simultaneous high-resolution CHIRON spectroscopy, we could identify another frequency $f_{\\rm env} = 0.10 \\pm 0.02$ c/d, caused by the circumstellar environment. Variations in the circumstellar environment are believed to cause the observed difference between the BRITE lightcurves.

  10. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FI-AAS) -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    One of the advantages of the flow injection (FI) concept is that it is compatible with virtually all detection techniques. Being a versatile vehicle for enhancing the performance of the individual detection devices, the most spectacular results have possibly been obtained in conjunction with atomic...... the point of sample injection/introduction to the point of detection. Hence, in FI-fAAS this feature allows not only to obtain improved repeatability but also improved accuracy, and because the wash to sample ratio is high it permits the handling of samples with elevated salt contents - which...

  11. A Semantic Analysis of Negative Concord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouden van der, Ton; Zwarts, Frans

    1993-01-01

    It is not uncommon in natural languages that negation seems to behave in an illogical manner. The general term for the many cases where multiple occurrences of morphologically negative constituents express a single semantic negation is negative concord (Labov 1979). Negative concord may take either

  12. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  13. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other bas...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0775 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0775 ref|ZP_01789776.1| multidrug resistance protein [Haemophilus influenza...e PittAA] gb|EDK08502.1| multidrug resistance protein [Haemophilus influenzae PittAA] ZP_01789776.1 0.22 27% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0065 ref|ZP_03493196.1| hypothetical protein AaLAA1DRAFT_0782 [Alicyclobacillus... acidocaldarius LAA1] gb|EED08211.1| hypothetical protein AaLAA1DRAFT_0782 [Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius LAA1] ZP_03493196.1 2.4 30% ...

  16. Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressantwith activity exerted through serotonergic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mork, A.; Pehrson, A.; Montezinho, L. C. P.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lu AA21004 is a multimodal antidepressant that functions as a 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter in vitro. Here we investigated preclinical effects of Lu AA21004 1) on target occupancies, 2...

  17. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0674 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0674 ref|YP_001022362.1| putative heme O oxygenase (cytochrome aa3-controlling...) transmembrane protein [Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1] gb|ABM96127.1| putative heme O oxygenase (cytochrome aa3-controlling

  19. RADIATION SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY (AA-CO-NVP)/CLAY HYDROGELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan Song; Wen-tao Liu; Su-qin He; Ming-cheng Yang; Ya Gao; Cheng-shen Zhu; Liu-suo Wu

    2008-01-01

    The pH-sensitive P(AA-co-NVP)Iclay hydrogels were prepared with the monomers of acrylic acid (AA) andN-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) based on γ-ray irradiation technique. The influence of pH values of buffer solutions andcontents of clay and NVP on the equilibrium swelling ratio (SR) and compressive properties of the hydrogels wasinvestigated in detail. The results of swelling property tests showed that, with the increase of clay content, the SR ofhydrogels increases in the same buffer solution, and the SR of hydrogels with different contents of HTMAB-clay is higherthan that of P(A.A-co-NVP) hydrogels without clay. When the content of clay is 15%, the SR of P(AA-co-NVP)/clayhydrogel is 201 at pH=9.8, which is 1.23 times of that of the P(AA-co-NVP) hydrogel (164). In addition, the SR ofP(AA-co-NVP)/clay hydrogel is higher than that of PAA/clay hydrogel in the same solution. The compressive properties ofthe hydrogel were also examined. The results showed that the compressive properties of the P(AA-co-NVP)/clay hydrogelswere improved distinctly as compared to those of the conventional hydrogels without clay. When the content of clay is 15%,the compression strength of the P(AA-co-NVP)/clay hydrogel is 23 times of that of the P(AA-co-NVP) hydrogel.

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-13-0076 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-13-0076 ref|YP_073334.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Aleurochiton aceri...s] gb|AAS77045.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Aleurochiton aceris] gb|AAS77789.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [Aleurochiton aceris] YP_073334.1 0.006 22% ...

  1. Molecular characterization of subgenotype A1 (subgroup Aa) of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramvis, Anna; Kew, Michael C

    2007-07-01

    Subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were first recognized after a unique segment of genotype A was identified when sequencing the preS2/S region of southern African HBV isolates. Originally named subgroup A', subsequently called subgroup Aa (for Africa) or subgenotype A1, this subgenotype is found in South Africa, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Yemen, India, Nepal, the Philippines and Brazil. The relatively higher mean nucleotide divergence of subgenotype A1 suggests that it has been endemic and has a long evolutionary history in the populations where it prevails. Distinctive sequence characteristics could account for the high hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) negativity and low HBV DNA levels in carriers of this subgenotype. Substitutions or mutations can reduce HBeAg expression at three levels: (i) 1762T1764A atthe transcriptional level; (ii) substitutions at nt 1809-1812 at the translational level; and (iii) 1862T at the post-translational level. Co-existence of 1762T1764A and nt 1809-1812 mutations reduces HBeAg expression in an additive manner. In addition, subgenotype A1 has unique sequence alterations in the transcriptional regulatory elements and the polymerase coding region. The distinct sequence characteristics of subgenotype A1 may contribute to the 4.5-fold increased risk of heptocellular carcinoma in HBV carriers infected with genotype A, which is entirely attributable to subgenotype A1.

  2. Branching Ratios and Polarization in B-> VV,VA,AA Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hai-Yang

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of charmless two-body B decays into final states involving two vector mesons (VV) or two axial-vector mesons (AA) or one vector and one axial-vector meson (VA), within the framework of QCD factorization, where $A$ is either a $^3P_1$ or $^1P_1$ axial-vector meson. The main results are as follows. (i) In the presence of NLO nonfactorizable corrections, effective Wilson coefficients $a_i^h$ are helicity dependent. For some modes, the constructive (destructive) interference in the negative-helicity (longitudinal-helicity) amplitude of the $\\bar B\\to VV$ decay will render the former comparable to the latter and bring up the transverse polarization. (ii) The measured rates and the longitudinal polarization fraction $f_L$ of penguin-dominated charmless $VV$ modes can be {\\it accommodated} in QCD factorization by allowing for sizable penguin annihilation contributions, though the parameters $\\rho_A$ and $\\phi_A$ fit to the data of $K^*\\phi$ and $K^*\\rho$ are not the same. (iii) The predic...

  3. Goos-Hänchen shifts in AA-stacked bilayer graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahidi, Youness; Redouani, Ilham; Jellal, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The quantum Goos-Hänchen shifts of the transmitted electron beam through an AA-stacked bilayer graphene superlattices are investigated. We found that the band structures of graphene superlattices can have more than one Dirac point, their locations do not depend on the number of barriers. It was revealed that any n-barrier structure is perfectly transparent at normal incidence around the Dirac points created in the superlattices. We showed that the Goos-Hänchen shifts display sharp peaks inside the transmission gap around two Dirac points (E =VB + τ, E =VW + τ), which are equal to those of transmission resonances. The obtained Goos-Hänchen shifts are exhibiting negative as well as positive behaviors and strongly depending on the location of Dirac points. It is observed that the maximum absolute values of the shifts increase as long as the number of barriers is increased. Our analysis is done by considering four cases: single, double barriers, superlattices without and with defect.

  4. Helical 1:1 {alpha}/sulfono-{gamma}-AA heterogeneous peptides with antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Fengyu; Nimmagadda, Alekhya; Teng, Peng; Su, Ma; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-05-01

    As one of the greatest threats facing in 21st century, antibiotic resistance is now a major public health concern. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer an alternative approach to combat emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria. It is known that helical HDPs such as magainin 2 and its analogs adopt cationic amphipathic conformations upon interaction with bacterial membranes, leading to membrane disruption and subsequent bacterial cell death. We have previously shown that amphipathic sulfono-γ-AApeptides could mimic magainin 2 and exhibit bactericidal activity. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that amphipathic helical 1:1 α/sulfono-γ-AA heterogeneous peptides, in which regular amino acids and sulfono-γ-AApeptide building blocks are alternatively present in a 1:1 pattern, display potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) suggests that the lead sequences adopt defined helical structures. The subsequent studies including 2 fluorescence microscopy and time-kill experiments indicate that these hybrid peptides exert antimicrobial activity by mimicking the mechanism of HDPs. Our findings may lead to the development of HDP-mimicking antimicrobial peptidomimetics that combat drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In addition, our results also demonstrate the effective design of a new class of helical foldamer, which could be employed to interrogate other important biological targets such as protein-protein interactions in the future.

  5. Influence of Reaction-Induced Phase Decomposition to Dispersion of Samariam Acrylic Acid (Sm (AA)3 ) in Rubber and Shielding Property of Sm(AA) 3/NR Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Li; He Lei; Zhang Wan; Yang Cheng; Liu Yandong; Jin Riguang; Zhang Liqun

    2004-01-01

    According to radiation protection theory, the radiation shielding properties of composites are closely related to dispersion condition of radiation absorbing materials in matrix. The more equably radiation-shielding materials dispersed in the matrix, the better the composites' shielding properties are. Rare earth ions have preferably absorbing ability for radiation due to their special electronic structures. From our early work, we know Sm(AA) 3 has good radiationabsorbing ability and excellent compatibility with polymer matrix. Furthermore, Sm (AA) 3 has double key structures which can in-situ react with polymer matrix in vulcanization process. This in-situ reaction can also help Sm(AA) 3 disperse better in the matrix. Based on these, we studied a new method to prepare Sm( AA)3/NR( nature rubber) composites( NR used as matrix), in which Sm(AA)3 dispersed very equably with tiny particle size. Both sulfur and peroxide exist in the system as crosslinking agent. The vulcanization process occurred at the temperature of 110℃ first and a certain degree crosslinking network formed in this stage, which we called pre-vulcanization process in this paper. In this stage sulfur was used as the crosslinking agent. Then continued the vulcanization process at higher temperature(170℃). The peroxide was used as crosslinking agent in this stage. According to reaction-induced phase decomposition mechanism, we studied the phase decomposition changing mode of Sm(AA) 3 in NR matrix of different crosslinking degrees. We also studied the influence of different degrees of pre-vulcanization to the dispersion condition of Sm (AA) 3 in NR matrix. The crystal-fusion status of both Sm(AA) 3 powder and Sm(AA) 3 in cured rubber were observed by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and XRD (X-rays Diffraction). The dispersion condition of Sm(AA) 3 in cured rubber was observed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope).The studyresults show different

  6. Influence of cooling after homogenisation and reheating to extrusion on extrudability and final properties of AA 6063 and AA6082 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajac, S. [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Bengtsson, B. [Sapa Technology, Finspang (Sweden); Joensson, C. [Sapa AB, Finspang (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    The influence of cooling conditions after homogenisation and preheating conditions to extrusion temperature have been investigated on AA 6063 and AA 6082 aluminium alloys with regard to the Mg{sub 2}Si particle development and their effect on flow stress at the extrusion temperature and hot ductility as well as hardness after ageing. Both continuous and isothermal cooling (step-cooling) were investigated in combination with fast induction heating and slow gas heating of the billet prior to extrusion. (orig.)

  7. Gram-Negative Flagella Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Merino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram-positive genera Clostridium and Listeria. Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation.

  8. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  9. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie;

    Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...... formation (52%) compared to standard care. The reduction in wound dehiscence was not statistically significant. The numbers needed to treat were 3 (seroma), 17 (dehiscence), and 25 (infection). Methodical heterogeneity across studies led to downgrading quality of evidence to moderate for infection...

  10. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  11. Negative effects of positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive-those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures.

  12. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  13. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  14. Characterization And Study of Friction Stir Welding of AA6101 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Aditya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW combines two plates by frictional heating at the interface with the localized plastic deformation within the material. In friction stir welding heat is generated by the friction between rotating tool shoulder and the plates to be welded. The heat thus generated results in thermal softening of the material. The softened material is then forced to flow by the translation of the tool from the front to the back of the pin. There it cools, consolidates and results in joint formation. In the process, strength of the joint and percentage elongation varies from the parent material. AA6101 is equivalent to AA 6061 and AA6063. At present AA6101 is used by the electrical industries only. A detailed experimental study has been done on AA 6101 to its utility as an Aluminum alloy for structural fabrication

  15. Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressantwith activity exerted through serotonergic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mork, A.; Pehrson, A.; Montezinho, L. C. P.

    2012-01-01

    (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), histamine (Hist)] were measured by microdialysis. Antidepressant potential was assessed in the forced swim test using Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats. Moreover, effects of Lu AA21004 on acquisition, consolidation and recall...... of contextual memory in rats were studied in the fear conditioning paradigm, and episodic memory was evaluated in the novel object recognition test. Results: Administration of Lu AA21004 (0.1-10 mg/kg, sc) demonstrated that the compound dose-dependently occupied the studied targets. Moreover, Lu AA21004...... increased extracellular levels of 5-HT, NA, DA, ACh and Hist in the brain. Lu AA21004 counteracted the immobility of FSL rats in the forced swim test and enhanced memory of the rats in the cognition models. Conclusions: Lu AA21004 in vivo engages relevant targets and affects several neurotransmitter systems...

  16. Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livasy, Chad A

    2009-06-01

    Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBCs) comprise approximately 15% to 20% of breast cancers. Accurate assessment of tumor estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is an essential part of classifying tumors into this group. As a group, these tumors are associated with poor clinical outcomes and have been shown to exhibit an increased propensity for hematogenous metastasis to the brain and lungs. Many TNBCs, particularly ductal, not otherwise specified (NOS), and metaplastic carcinomas, show an overlapping characteristic gene expression pattern when evaluated by cDNA microarrays. This group has been termed basal-like because of the similarity with normal breast basal/myoepithelial cells including basal cytokeratin expression and lack of hormone receptor and HER2 expression. The array data have been used to develop multiple immunohistochemical surrogates to identify basal-like tumors in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, most employing basal cytokeratins and epidermal growth factor receptor. Currently, there is no international consensus on biomarkers used to identify tumors as basal-like, and the routine use of the term basal-like in surgical pathology reports is premature. Tumor morphologic features associated with triple-negative status include Nottingham grade 3 with high mitotic rate, pushing border of invasion, geographic tumor necrosis, solid/sheet-like growth pattern, lymphocytic infiltrate, and large central acellular zone. Most breast cancers arising in patients who have a germ-line BRCA1 mutation show similar histologic features and a triple-negative phenotype. Not all TNBCs are associated with an unfavorable prognosis, drawing attention to the heterogeneity of this tumor group and the continued need to link tumor morphology and grade with triple-negative status. This article focuses on histopathology, molecular characterization, carcinogenesis, clinical behavior, and treatment of these

  17. Quantum Complexity and Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Zhao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k-local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system: classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.

  18. Springback analysis on AA 6061 aluminum alloy sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, Perumalla Janaki; Rao, P. Srinivasa; Yimer, Wassihun

    2016-10-01

    In automotive industry, sheet metal forming process play a key role with respect to economy and weight reduction ratio. In sheet metal forming, one of the operations is bending operation in which sheet will not go under sever deformation. The end components are made by applying the continuous load on the sheet in the bending process. In bending process, elastic limits of materials are exceeded, but flow limit thereof cannot be exceeded. Therefore, the material still keeps a portion of its original flexibility character. When the load is released, the material on forcing compress side tries to enlarge, whereas the material on tensile side tries to shrink. As a result, the material tries to spring back and the bended material by flexing slightly tries to open. Springback varies according to thickness of the material, material and process parameters, type of material, period when punch load stays on the material, dimensions of die, force applied, and bending radius. In order to make bending at a desired angle, springback amounts should be avoided. In the present work, experimentation on AA 6061 alloy sheet springback analysis has done with seven different rolling directions. Results are noted with respect to load, displacement, and die angle on the springback effect. It observed that springback affect is existed notably in the AA 6061 alloys with respect to die angle.

  19. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

  20. Astronomy Career Profiles from the AAS Newsletter Archives

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, Travis; McDaid, Liam; Bullock, Blake; Pulliam, Christine; Williams, Peter; Roth, Joshua; Whitney, Barb; Olsen, Knut; Howell, Andy; Keller, Luke

    2011-01-01

    This is a collection of articles that were originally published in the Newsletter of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) between May 2008 and September 2011 by the Committee on Employment. Authors representing a wide range of career paths tell their stories and provide insight and advice that is relevant to success in various job sectors. Although all of these articles are available individually from the AAS archives, we are posting the complete collection here to make them more accessible as a resource for the astronomy community. The collection includes the following articles: (1) Changing Priorities: the Hard Money Wild Card, (2) Beyond Ivory Towers, (3) Astronomers Working in Public Outreach, (4) Bush-Whacking a Career Trail, (5) Science Communication as a Press Officer, (6) Jobs in Industry, (7) Back to School: A Ph.D. Enters the Classroom, (8) Working at a Soft-Money Institute, (9) Balancing Research and Service at NOAO, (10) Succeeding in a Large Research Collaboration, and (11) Preparing for the C...

  1. Solving the $R_{AA}\\otimes v_2$ puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    For the past ten years $R_{AA}(p_T)$, the nuclear modification factor that encodes the suppression of high $p_T$ particles due to energy loss within the medium was fairly well described by many theoretical models. However, the same models systematically under-predicted the high $p_T$ elliptic flow, $v_2$, which is experimentally measured as the correlation between soft and hard hadrons. All previous calculations neglected the effect of event-by-event fluctuations of an expanding viscous hydrodynamical background as well as the soft-hard flow harmonic correlations in the experimentally measured $v_2$. In this talk I show how event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics (computed using the v-USPhydro code) coupled to an energy loss model (BBMG) is able to simultaneously describe soft physics observables as well as the high-$p_T$ $R_{AA}$ and $v_2$. Suggestions for future more differential calculations at the LHC run2 are made to explore soft-hard flow correlations.

  2. Microstructural characteristics of AA4343/AA3003 Al-alloy sheet brazed joints%AA4343/AA3003铝合金薄板钎焊接头的显微组织特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘春旭; DusanP.Sekulic

    2002-01-01

    采用气氛保护钎焊工艺, 对AA4343/AA3003铝合金复合板材料的钎焊接头组织特征 , 及其与焊接工艺的关系和对接头区显微硬度的影响进行了研究. 实验结果表明, 钎焊过渡区由单相α (Al)固溶体层和Si扩散层组成, 它们的厚度随钎焊条件而发生变化. 远离焊接区有一个α (Al)固溶体残余层, 它的厚度保持20 μm基本不变, 与焊接参数和材料性质无关. 讨论了钎焊接头特征组织的形成机理.

  3. AAS Publishing News: Preparing Your Manuscript Just Got Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Watermarking using the command watermark{DRAFT, v2}.Are you an astronomer considering submitting a paper to an AAS journal (i.e., AJ, ApJ, ApJ Letters, or ApJ Supplements)? If so, this post is for you! Read on to find out about the exciting new things you can do with the AASs newest LaTeX class file, available for download now.Why the Update?AAS publishing has maintained a consistent class file for LaTeX manuscript preparation for the past decade. But academic publishing is changing rapidly in todays era of electronic journals! Since its journals went fully electronic, the AAS has been continuously adding new publishing capabilities based on the recommendations of the Journals Task Force and the needs and requests of AAS authors. The AASs manuscript preparation tools are now being updated accordingly.Whats New in AASTex 6.0?There are many exciting new features and capabilities in AASTex 6.0. Here are just a few:Tracking options for author revisions include added{text}, deleted{text}, replaced{old}{new}, and explain{text}.Based on emulateapjDo you use the popular class file emulateapj to prepare your manuscripts? AASTex 6.0 is based on emulateapj, rather than on the older AASTex 5.2 (though 5.2 is still supported). This means that it is easy to produce a double-columned, single-spaced, and astro-ph-ready manuscript. Since two thirds of the AAS journals authors use emulateapj, this transition was designed to make manuscript preparation and sharing an easier and more seamless process.Tools for collaborationsDo you work in a large collaboration? AASTex now includes new tools to make preparing a manuscript within a collaboration easier. Drafts can now be watermarked to differentiate between versions. New markup for large author lists streamlines the display so that readers can access article information immediately, yet they can still access the full author list and affiliations at the end of the paper. And author revision markup allows members of a collaboration to

  4. Comparative Analysis of Breast Cancer Phenotypes in African American, White American, and West Versus East African patients: Correlation Between African Ancestry and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiagge, Evelyn; Jibril, Aisha Souleiman; Chitale, Dhananjay; Bensenhaver, Jessica M; Awuah, Baffour; Hoenerhoff, Mark; Adjei, Ernest; Bekele, Mahteme; Abebe, Engida; Nathanson, S David; Gyan, Kofi; Salem, Barbara; Oppong, Joseph; Aitpillah, Francis; Kyei, Ishmael; Bonsu, Ernest Osei; Proctor, Erica; Merajver, Sofia D; Wicha, Max; Stark, Azadeh; Newman, Lisa A

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is more common among African American (AA) and western sub-Saharan African breast cancer (BC) patients compared with White/Caucasian Americans (WA) and Europeans. Little is known about TNBC in east Africa. Invasive BC diagnosed 1998-2014 were evaluated: WA and AA patients from the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan; Ghanaian/west Africans from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana; and Ethiopian/east Africans from the St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu expression was performed in Michigan on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from all cases. A total of 234 Ghanaian (mean age 49 years), 94 Ethiopian (mean age 43 years), 272 AA (mean age 60 years), and 321 WA (mean age 62 years; p = 0.001) patients were compared. ER-negative and TNBC were more common among Ghanaian and AA compared with WA and Ethiopian cases (frequency ER-negativity 71.1 and 37.1 % vs. 19.8 and 28.6 % respectively, p < 0.0001; frequency TNBC 53.2 and 29.8 % vs. 15.5 and 15.0 %, respectively, p < 0.0001). Among patients younger than 50 years, prevalence of TNBC remained highest among Ghanaians (50.8 %) and AA (34.3 %) compared with WA and Ethiopians (approximately 16 % in each; p = 0.0002). This study confirms an association between TNBC and West African ancestry; TNBC frequency among AA patients is intermediate between WA and Ghanaian/West Africans consistent with genetic admixture following the west Africa-based trans-Atlantic slave trade. TNBC frequency was low among Ethiopians/East Africans; this may reflect less shared ancestry between AA and Ethiopians.

  5. Research priorities for negative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR)—also known as ‘negative emissions’—features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that ‘negative emission technologies’ (NETs) are insufficiently mature to rely on them for climate stabilization. Some even argue that 2 °C is no longer feasible or might have unacceptable social and environmental costs. Nonetheless, the Paris Agreement endorsed an aspirational goal of limiting global warming to even lower levels, arguing that climate impacts—especially for vulnerable nations such as small island states—will be unacceptably severe in a 2 °C world. While there are few pathways to 2 °C that do not rely on negative emissions, 1.5 °C scenarios are barely conceivable without them. Building on previous assessments of NETs, we identify some urgent research needs to provide a more complete picture for reaching ambitious climate targets, and the role that NETs can play in reaching them.

  6. High level expression, efficient purification and bioactivity assay of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor AA dimer (PDGF-AA) from methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoyan; Yang, Song; Hu, Xing; Tang, Xiaofeng; Li, Peng; Li, Shiwu; Yang, Lijun; Jin, Shouguang; Wang, Yu; Xu, Aimin; Wu, Donghai

    2013-10-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important biochemical mediators regulating many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including promotion of the chemotactic recruitment and proliferation of cells involved in wound repair. Previously, homodimers of rhPDGF-AA protein were purified from Escherichia coli. However, eukaryotic proteins often contain posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation, that are required for biological functions. In this study, an efficient method was established to purify a glycosylated rhPDGF-AA dimer from P. pastoris culture media by one step CM Sepharose ion exchange chromatography yielding about 20mg/L of over 95% highly purified rhPDGF-AA. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified rhPDGF-AA displayed a molecular weight (MW) of 27,825.513Da, composed of a subunit with MW of 15,042.945Da and a subunit with MW of 12,904.374Da. The size difference is accounted for by differential glycosylation of the monomers. Biological activity of the rhPDGF-AA was confirmed by its ability to induce NIH/3T3 cells proliferation. The experimental procedure we have developed facilitates production of an active glycosylated rhPDGF-AA in large amounts for further research and drug development.

  7. Self-polymerization of Eu(TTA)3AA in rubber and their fluorescence effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚璐; 温世鹏; 段雪; 胡晓丹; 车明生; 景文峰; 刘浩亮; 刘力

    2013-01-01

    A simple europium complex, Eu(TTA)3AA (TTA=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione, AA=acrylic acid) was syn-thesized by a simple solution method. Then, two kinds of rubber matrix, nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) and silicone rubber (SiR) were used as the substrate for Eu(TTA)3AA to prepare fluorescence composites. The neat Eu(TTA)3AA complex showed the ability of self-polymerization when it was heated at 145 °C. It was found that the fluorescence intensity of the neat Eu(TTA)3AA decreased over 70%when the polymerization time was over 25 min at 145 °C. The results also revealed that the polymerizated Eu(TTA)3AA could be dispersed in nano-scale in two matrices and the luminescent intensities decreased 52%in NBR matrix, and 95%in SiR ma-trix compared with two relative compounds without crosslinking. To optimize the luminescence intensity of the composites, the Eu(TTA)3AA polymerization kinetic process in matrix was investigated in detail by controlling the temperature, the crosslinking agent, etc. The results showed that the peroxide could accelerate Eu(TTA)3AA self-polymerization in the rubber matrix, and therefore improved the dispersion, but not be helpful for the luminescence intensity enhancement. In addition, the relatively higher luminescence intensity in Eu(TTA)3AA/NBR in comparison to that of Eu(TTA)3AA/SiR might contribute to the interaction between nitrile group (-CN) in NBR and Eu-complexes, suggesting that the luminescence intensity of the composites also depended on the matrix characteristics.

  8. Persistent Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Persistent negative symptoms represent an alternative approach for assessing negative symptoms in the context of clinical trials. Persistent negative symptoms are designed to capture those symptoms that lead to functional impairment but are currently understudied and for which there are no currently available effective treatments. Persistent negative symptoms differ from the 2 most commonly used approaches: primary, enduring negative symptoms or deficit symptoms and negative symptoms broadly ...

  9. Depletion of spleen macrophages delays AA amyloid development: a study performed in the rapid mouse model of AA amyloidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lundmark

    Full Text Available AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease that develops secondary to chronic inflammatory diseases Macrophages are often found in the vicinity of amyloid deposits and considered to play a role in both formation and degradation of amyloid fibrils. In spleen reside at least three types of macrophages, red pulp macrophages (RPM, marginal zone macrophages (MZM, metallophilic marginal zone macrophages (MMZM. MMZM and MZM are located in the marginal zone and express a unique collection of scavenger receptors that are involved in the uptake of blood-born particles. The murine AA amyloid model that resembles the human form of the disease has been used to study amyloid effects on different macrophage populations. Amyloid was induced by intravenous injection of amyloid enhancing factor and subcutaneous injections of silver nitrate and macrophages were identified with specific antibodies. We show that MZMs are highly sensitive to amyloid and decrease in number progressively with increasing amyloid load. Total area of MMZMs is unaffected by amyloid but cells are activated and migrate into the white pulp. In a group of mice spleen macrophages were depleted by an intravenous injection of clodronate filled liposomes. Subsequent injections of AEF and silver nitrate showed a sustained amyloid development. RPMs that constitute the majority of macrophages in spleen, appear insensitive to amyloid and do not participate in amyloid formation.

  10. A three-long noncoding RNA signature as a diagnostic biomarker for differentiating between triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Xing, Lu-Qi; Liu, Yi-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer with unfavorable outcome and it is useful to explore noninvasive biomarkers for its early diagnosis. Here, we identified differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in blood samples of patients with TNBC to assess their diagnostic value. Methods: Differential expression of lncRNAs in plasma of patients with TNBC (n = 25) and non-TNBC (NTNBC; n = 35) and in healthy controls was compared by microarray analysis and validated by real-time PCR. lncRNA expression between plasma and BC tissues was compared using Pearson correlation test. Logit model was used to obtain a new lncRNA-based score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of the selected lncRNAs. Results: Microarray data showed that 41 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed. Among these, antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha antisense RNA-2 (HIF1A-AS2), and urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) were markedly upregulated in plasma of patients with TNBC compared with patients with NTNBC (P < 0.01). HIF1A-AS2 expression was positively associated with its tissue levels (r = 0.670, P < 0.01). AUC (95% CI) of ANRIL, HIF1A-AS2, and UCA1 was 0.785 (0.660–0.881), 0.739 (0.610–0.844), and 0.817 (0.696–0.905), respectively. TNBCSigLnc-3, a new score obtained using the logit model, showed excellent diagnostic performance, with AUC of 0.934 (0.839–0.982), sensitivity of 76.0%, and specificity of 97.1%. Conclusion: ANRIL, HIF1A-AS2, and UCA1 expression was significantly increased in plasma of patients with TNBC, suggesting their use as TNBC-specific diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:28248879

  11. [Negative pressure wound therapy dressings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téot, Luc

    2016-01-01

    There are many different forms of negative pressure wound therapy dressings and it is important to distinguish clearly between each type. They enable the treatment to be adapted to the shape and depth of the wound, its degree of exudation and the persistence of the fibrinous areas on the surface. The machine's traction capacity, measured in mm of mercury (Hg), must be controlled to establish the healing profile: the more powerful the machine and the more contact there is between the foam and the wound, the faster the formation of the granulation tissue. There are many different solutions which are implemented in accordance with the clinical assessment of the wound.

  12. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  13. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with alopecia areata (AA): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lucy Y; King, Brett A; Craiglow, Brittany G

    2016-10-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common skin disease that is frequently emotionally devastating. Several studies have examined the effect of AA on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We performed a systematic review of all published studies of HRQoL in patients with AA. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria, incorporating data from 1986 patients. Patients with AA consistently demonstrate poor HRQoL scores, with greater extent of scalp involvement associated with lower HRQoL. HRQoL experienced by patients with AA is similar to that seen in patients with other chronic skin diseases including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis.

  14. Purification and Immunoprotection Evaluation of AaHIV from Complex Venom Metalloproteinases of Deinagkistrodon acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Cong; Cao, Yuliang; Xie, Baifa; Chen, Xiangyu; Zeng, Fanjie; Liu, Minghua

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoprotective effects of AaHIV in mice. After purification, a 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed. Bicinchoninic acid was used to determine the molecular weight and concentration of AaHIV. AaHIV, venom complex (VC), and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were subsequently used to immunize the mice three times, and the blood was sampled 1 week after the third immunization to determine the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titer. A skin-bleeding inhibition assay and toxin-eliminating assay were performed on the immunized mice. The purity and concentration of AaHIV were 86.6% and 1.20 mg/mL, respectively. The AaHIV group exhibited higher antibody titers than the VC group. The survival rate of the AaHIV group (7/10) was significantly higher than that of the PBS group (0/10) (P = 0.0031). The high titer of antibodies induced by AaHIV partially neutralized the bleeding activity of the Deinagkistrodon acutus venom complex. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Proteomic analysis of Cry2Aa-binding proteins and their receptor function in Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2017-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces Crystal (Cry) proteins that are toxic to a diverse range of insects. Transgenic crops that produce Bt Cry proteins are grown worldwide because of their improved resistance to insect pests. Although Bt “pyramid” cotton that produces both Cry1A and Cry2A is predicted to be more resistant to several lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera exigua, than plants that produce Cry1Ac alone, the mechanisms responsible for the toxicity of Cry2Aa in S. exigua are not well understood. We identified several proteins that bind Cry2Aa (polycalin, V-ATPase subunits A and B, actin, 4-hydroxybutyrate CoA-transferase [4-HB-CoAT]), and a receptor for activated protein kinase C (Rack), in S. exigua. Recombinant, expressed versions of these proteins were able to bind the Cry2Aa toxin in vitro assays. RNA interference gene knockdown of the Se-V-ATPase subunit B significantly decreased the susceptibility of S. exigua larvae to Cry2Aa, whereas knockdown of the other putative binding proteins did not. Moreover, an in vitro homologous competition assay demonstrated that the Se-V-ATPase subunit B binds specifically to the Cry2Aa toxin, suggesting that this protein acts as a functional receptor of Cry2Aa in S. exigua. This the first Cry2Aa toxin receptor identified in S. exigua brush-border membrane vesicles. PMID:28067269

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin disrupts cell membranes by forming large protein aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharad, Sudarat; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt2Aa2 showed toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae and in vitro lysis activity on several cells. It has potential applications in the biological control of insect larvae. Although pore-forming and/or detergent-like mechanisms were proposed, the mechanism underlying cytolytic activity remains unclear. Analysis of the haemolytic activity of Cyt2Aa2 with osmotic stabilizers revealed partial toxin inhibition, suggesting a distinctive mechanism from the putative pore formation model. Membrane permeability was studied using fluorescent dye entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at various protein/lipid molar ratios. Binding of Cyt2Aa2 monomer to the lipid membrane did not disturb membrane integrity until the critical protein/lipid molar ratio was reached, when Cyt2Aa2 complexes and cytolytic activity were detected. The complexes are large aggregates that appeared as a ladder when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF). The results showed that Cyt2Aa2 binds on the cell membrane at an early stage without cell membrane disruption. Protein aggregation on the cell membrane was detected later which coincided with cell swelling. Cyt2Aa2 aggregations on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were visualized by AFM. The AFM topographic images revealed Cyt2Aa2 aggregates on the lipid bilayer at low protein concentration and subsequently disrupts the lipid bilayer by forming a lesion as the protein concentration increased. These results supported the mechanism whereby Cyt2Aa2 binds and aggregates on the lipid membrane leading to the formation of non-specific hole and disruption of the cell membrane. PMID:27612497

  17. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  18. AA, radiation shielding curtain along the target area

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    At the far left is the beam tube for the high-intensity proton beam from the 26 GeV PS. The tube ends in a thin window and the proton beam continues in air through a hole in the shielding blocks (see also 8010308), behind which the target (see 7905091, 7905094)was located. After the target followed the magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons, and the first part of the injection line with a proton dump. The antiprotons, deflected by a magnet, left the target area through another shielding wall, to make their way to the AA ring. Laterally, this sequence of components was shielded with movable, suspended, concrete blocks: the "curtain". Balasz Szeless, who had constructed it, is standing at its side.

  19. Multicomponent He I 10830 {\\AA} profiles in an active filament

    CERN Document Server

    Sasso, C; Solanki, S K

    2011-01-01

    We present new spectropolarimetric observations of the chromospheric He I 10830 {\\AA} multiplet observed in a filament during its phase of activity. The data were recorded with the new Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on 2005 May 18. We inverted the He Stokes profiles using multiple atmospheric components. The observed He Stokes profiles display a remarkably wide variety of shapes. Most of the profiles show very broad Stokes I absorptions and complex and spatially variable Stokes V signatures. The inversion of the profiles shows evidence of different atmospheric blue- and redshifted components of the He I lines within the resolution element (1 arcsec), with supersonic velocities of up to 100 km/s. Up to five different atmospheric components are found in the same profile. We show that even these complex profiles can be reliably inverted.

  20. An Update on the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, Richard T.; Gurton, S.; Fraknoi, A.; Prather, E. E.; Hurst, A.; Schatz, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    The American Astronomical Society, partnering with organizations active in science education and public outreach (EPO), has launched a series of professional-development workshops and a community of practice designed to help improve early-career astronomers’ ability to effectively communicate with students and the public. Called Astronomy Ambassadors, the program provides mentoring and training experiences for young astronomers, from advanced undergraduates to beginning faculty; it also provides access to resources and a network of contacts within the astronomy EPO community. By learning how to implement effective education and outreach strategies, Astronomy Ambassadors become better teachers, better presenters at meetings, and better representatives of our science to the public and to government. And because young astronomers are a more diverse group than those who currently do the majority of outreach, they help the astronomical community present a more multicultural and gender-balanced face to the public, enabling members of underserved groups to see themselves as scientists. Ambassadors are provided with a large library of outreach activities and materials that are suitable for a range of venues and audiences and that will grow with time. For much of this library we are using resources developed by organizations such as the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the Pacific Science Center, and the Center for Astronomy Education for other outreach programs, though some resources have been created by one of us (AF) specifically for this program. The first Astronomy Ambassadors workshop was held at the 221st meeting of the AAS in January 2013 and served 30 young astronomers chosen from more than 75 applicants. Incorporating feedback from workshop participants and lessons learned from the reports they’ve submitted after conducting their own outreach events, we are now planning the second annual workshop to be held 4-5 January 2014 at the 223rd AAS meeting in

  1. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  2. Purification of a cytochrome bc1-aa3 supercomplex with quinol oxidase activity from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Niebisch, A.; Bott, M.

    2003-01-01

    The aerobic respiratory chain of the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a bc(1) complex with a diheme cytochrome c(1) and a cytochrome aa(3) oxidase but no additional c-type cytochromes. Here we show that the two enzymes form a supercomplex, because affinity chromatography of either strep-tagged cytochrome b (QcrB) or strep-tagged subunit I (CtaD) of cytochrome aa(3) always resulted in the copurification of the subunits of the bc(1) complex (QcrA, QcrB, QcrC) and the aa(3) comp...

  3. Renal AA amyloidosis in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Helal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary complete C4 deficiency has until now been reported in 30 cases only. A disturbed clearance of immune- complexes probably predisposes these individuals to systemic lupus erythematosus, other immune- complex diseases and recurrent microbial infections. We present here a 20- year- old female with hereditary complete C4 deficiency. Renal biopsy demonstrated renal AA amyloidosis. This unique case further substantiates that deficiency of classical pathway components predisposes to the development of recurrent microbial infections and that the patients may develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, in clinical practice, the nephrotic syndrome occurring in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency should lead to the suspicion of renal AA amyloidosis.

  4. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other bas...... enhancing factor induction of amyloid, the period when amyloid is first detected. These observations raise the possibility that an abnormality in basement membrane metabolism is a very early event, and potentially plays an integral part in the process of AA amyloidogenesis....

  5. Negative Tree Reweighted Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new class of lower bounds on the log partition function of a Markov random field which makes use of a reversed Jensen's inequality. In particular, our method approximates the intractable distribution using a linear combination of spanning trees with negative weights. This technique is a lower-bound counterpart to the tree-reweighted belief propagation algorithm, which uses a convex combination of spanning trees with positive weights to provide corresponding upper bounds. We develop algorithms to optimize and tighten the lower bounds over the non-convex set of valid parameter values. Our algorithm generalizes mean field approaches (including naive and structured mean field approximations), which it includes as a limiting case.

  6. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Vinter, Christina Anne; Bille, Camilla

    Background: Obese women undergoing caesarean section are at increased risk of surgical wound complications, which may lead to delayed recovery, pain, reduced quality of life, and increased health care cost. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of incisional Negative Pressure Wound...... generator are used to allocate the participants into one of two groups (iNPWT vs. standard dressing), stratified by centre and type of CS. The study is conducted at five public hospitals located in three regions of Denmark. Interim analyses will be preformed along the trial using the group sequential method....... The analyses will be performed when sample size reaches 179, 357, 535, 713, and 891, respectively. Population: women with a pre-gestational BMI ≥ 30 undergoing planned or emergency caesarean section. The iNPWT or standard dressings is applied immediately following operation. In the intervention group...

  7. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  8. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  9. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  10. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  11. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  12. Social approach and avoidance behaviour for negative emotions is modulated by endogenous oxytocin and paranoia in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elliot C; Tas, Cumhur; Kuzu, Duygu; Esen-Danaci, Aysen; Roelofs, Karin; Brüne, Martin

    2014-11-30

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from dysfunctional social behaviour. Social approach and avoidance (AA) has been associated with motor responses, as the affective valence and gaze direction of facial stimuli can bias push and pull motor tendencies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous oxytocin in social AA behaviour in schizophrenia. Basal plasma oxytocin levels were collected from 28 patients who were then given a joystick-based Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Reaction times were recorded and AAT effect scores calculated for responses to happy and angry faces, which either had direct or averted gaze. Individual differences in basal oxytocin had a significant relationship with AAT responses, and patients with higher levels of oxytocin tended to avoid angry faces more. Furthermore, greater avoidance of angry faces was correlated with more severe psychotic (positive and general) symptoms and greater paranoia. This suggests that the endogenous effects of oxytocin may be specific to the interpretation of negative threatening emotions in schizophrenia patients, and also provides evidence that psychotic symptoms and paranoia can impact on social AA behaviour by heightening threat avoidance.

  13. Characterization of AA7050 aluminium alloy processed by ECAP; Caracterizacao da liga de aluminio AA7050 processada por ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.R.; Guido, V. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Travessa, D.N. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Jorge Junior, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The commercial AA7050 aluminium alloy in the solution heat treated condition (W) was processed by ECAP through route A. Two pressing temperatures (room and 150 deg C and velocities (5 and 30mm/min) were used, as well as different number of passes. The effect of such variables on the microstructure evolution was evaluated using optical and transmission electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis, and xray diffraction. It was found that the microstructure has been refined by ECAP, as a result of subgrains formed within deformation bands. ECAP at 150 deg C resulted in intense precipitation of plate like {eta} phase, which evolves to equiaxial morphology as the number of passes increases. (author)

  14. Negative Plasma Densities Raise Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-26

    Nearly all the matter encountered on Earth is either a solid, liquid, or gas. Yet plasma-the fourth state of matter-comprises more than 99 percent of the visible universe. Understanding the physical characteristics of plasmas is important to many areas of scientific research, such as the development of fusion as a clean, renewable energy source. Lawrence Livermore scientists study the physics of plasmas in their pursuit to create fusion energy, because plasmas are an integral part of that process. When deuterium and tritium are heated to the extreme temperatures needed to achieve and sustain a fusion reaction (about 100 million degrees), the electrons in these light atoms become separated from the nuclei. This process of separation is called ionization, and the resulting collection of negatively charged free electrons and positively charged nuclei is known as a plasma. Although plasmas and gases have many similar properties, plasmas differ from gases in that they are good conductors of electricity and can generate magnetic fields. For the past decade, x-ray laser interferometry has been used in the laboratory for measuring a plasma's index of refraction to determine plasma density. (The index of refraction for a given material is defined as the wavelength of light in a vacuum divided by the wavelength of light traveling through the material.) Until now, plasma physicists expected to find an index of refraction less than one. Researchers from Livermore and Colorado State University recently conducted experiments on aluminum plasmas at the Laboratory's COMET laser facility and observed results in which the index of refraction was greater than one. This surprising result implied a negative electron density. Livermore physicist Joseph Nilsen and his colleagues from Livermore and the University of Notre Dame have performed sophisticated calculations to explain this phenomenon. Previously, researchers believed that only free electrons contributed to the index

  15. Effect of cryogenic cooling on corrosion of friction stir welded AA7010-T7651

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Davenport, A. J.; Ambat, Rajan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study how cryogenic CO2 cooling during the welding process affects corrosion behaviour of friction stir welding (FSW) AA7010-T7651. Design/methodology/approach - Friction stir welded AA7010-17651 was produced with a rotation speed of 288 rpm and a travel...... a gel visualisation test and potentiodynamic polarisation measurements using a micro-electrochemical technique. Findings - The main corrosion region for both FSWs AA7010-T7651 produced with and without cryogenic CO2 cooling is in the HAZ region, which exhibited intergranular attack. Cryogenic cooling...... the nugget region of uncooled welds. Originality/value - There has been no previous work to investigate the effect of cryogenic CO2 cooling on the corrosion behaviour of FSW AA7010-T7651. The paper relates the microstructures of both uncooled and cooled welds to their anodic and cathodic reactivities using...

  16. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells.

  17. Reliability and validity of the Activity Questionnaire for Adults and Adolescents (AQuAA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chin A Paw, J.M.M; Slootmaker, S.M; Schuit, A.J; Zuidam, van, M; Mechelen, van, W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate measures of physical activity are highly needed. We evaluated the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the self-report Activity Questionnaire for Adults and Adolescents (AQuAA...

  18. Peaprokurör: kaevake kartellide peale! / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas ; Indrek, Kaju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille kohaselt salajasest kartellileppest esimesena võimudele teatanud ettevõte pääseb vastutasuks karistusest. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ning Neste Eesti peadirektor Indrek Kaju

  19. Siim Kallas seab Lumani argumendid kahtluse alla / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas, Juhan Põldroos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille eesmärgiks on tõhustada võitlust kartellidega ja muude raskete konkurentsiõiguse rikkumistega nn leebusprogrammi abil. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ja Juhan Põldroos

  20. Siim Kallas seab Lumani argumendid kahtluse alla / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas, Juhan Põldroos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille eesmärgiks on tõhustada võitlust kartellidega ja muude raskete konkurentsiõiguse rikkumistega nn leebusprogrammi abil. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ja Juhan Põldroos

  1. Peaprokurör: kaevake kartellide peale! / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas ; Indrek, Kaju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille kohaselt salajasest kartellileppest esimesena võimudele teatanud ettevõte pääseb vastutasuks karistusest. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ning Neste Eesti peadirektor Indrek Kaju

  2. Ultratrace analysis of semiconductor films by vapor phase decomposition/graphite furnace AAS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hideki MATSUNAGA; Naoyuki HIRATE

    1988-01-01

      A sensitive and accurate determination method for detecting metallic impurities in semiconductor films such as SiO2 and Si3N4 has been investigated by using vapor phase decomposition and graphite furnace AAS...

  3. Negative printing by soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang; Moore, David; Kane, Jennifer; Saraf, Ravi F

    2014-08-27

    In inkless microcontact printing (IμCP) by soft lithography, the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp transfers uncured polymer to a substrate corresponding to its pattern. The spontaneous diffusion of PDMS oligomers to the surface of the stamp that gives rise to this deleterious side effect has been leveraged to fabricate a variety of devices, such as organic thin film transistors, single-electron devices, and biomolecular chips. Here we report an anomalous observation on a partially cured PDMS stamp where the transfer of oligomers onto Au occurred on regions that were not in contact with the stamp, while the surface in contact with the stamp was pristine with no polymer. On the SiO2 surface of the same chip, as expected, the transfer of PDMS occurred exclusively on regions in contact with the stamp. The printing on Au was quantified by a novel method where the submonolayer of PDMS transfer was measured by probing the local electrochemical passivation of the Au. The local transfer of polymer on SiO2 (and also Au) was measured by selective deposition of Au nanoparticle necklaces that exclusively deposited on PDMS at submonolayer sensitivity. It was discovered that the selectivity and sharpness of PDMS deposition on Au for inkless printing (i.e., negative) is significantly better than the traditional (positive) microcontact printing where the stamp is "inked" with low molecular weight PDMS.

  4. Increased Hormone-Negative Endocrine Cells in the Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Moin, Abu Saleh; Dhawan, Sangeeta; Shieh, Christine; Butler, Peter C; Cory, Megan; Butler, Alexandra E

    2016-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by a β-cell deficit due to autoimmune inflammatory-mediated β-cell destruction. It has been proposed the deficit in β-cell mass in T1D may be in part due to β-cell degranulation to chromogranin-positive, hormone-negative (CPHN) cells. We investigated the frequency and distribution of CPHN cells in the pancreas of 15 individuals with T1D, 17 autoantibody-positive nondiabetic individuals, and 17 nondiabetic controls. CPHN cells were present at a low frequency in the pancreas from nondiabetic and autoantibody-positive, brain-dead organ donors but are more frequently found in the pancreas from donors with T1D (islets: 1.11% ± 0.20% vs 0.26% ± 0.06 vs 0.27% ± 0.10% of islet endocrine cells, T1D vs autoantibody positive [AA+] vs nondiabetic [ND]; T1D vs AA+, and ND, P pancreas. From these observations, we conclude that CPHN cells are more frequent in T1D and, as in type 2 diabetes, are distributed in a pattern comparable with the neonatal pancreas, implying a possible attempted regeneration. In contrast to rodents, CPHN cells are insufficient to account for loss of β-cell mass in T1D.

  5. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO3) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO3-nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO3) was produced in the flame. The HNO3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (Mhistidine-H+HNO3)- complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO3 at all. Reactions between HNO3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [MAI-H+(HNO3)]- and [MAII-H+(HNO3)]- ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO3)n]3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins.

  6. Overall view of the AA hall dominated by the 50 ton crane (Donges).

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A 50 ton, 32 metre span overhead travelling cranre was mounted in one of the bays of Hall 193 (AA). An identical crane was mounted on the other bay. See also photo 8004261. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  7. Friction welding of AA6061 to AISI 4340 using silver interlayer

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh D. Meshram; G. Madhusudhan Reddy

    2015-01-01

    The present work pertains to the study on joining of AA6061 and AISI 4340 through continuous drive friction welding. The welds were evaluated by metallographic examination, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, tensile test and microhardness. The study reveals that the presence of an intermetallic compound layer at the bonded interface exhibits poor tensile strength and elongation. Mg in AA6061 near to the interface is found to be favourable for the formation and growth of Fe2Al5 i...

  8. Manufacturing Systems Demonstration: Bimetallic Friction STIR Joining of AA6061 and High Hardness Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    tool’s first use. In all tools made of alloy having hafnium carbide, we’ve commonly seen small voids (0.0-1.0 mm dia.) on the surface of machined...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Focus: HOPE (FH) has developed the process parameters to successfully join AA6061 aluminum alloy ...to successfully join AA6061 aluminum alloy and High Hardness Armor (HHA) steel using the friction stir process (FSP). Metallographic analysis

  9. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    -containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100?ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14?V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120?min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed...

  10. Preparation and Characteristics of Corn Straw-Co-AMPS-Co-AA Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the corn straw after removing the lignin was grafted with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) to prepare sulfonated cellulose. The grafting copolymerization between the sulfonated cellulose and acrylic acid (AA) was performed using potassium persulfate and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as the initiator and crosslinking agent, respectively, to prepare corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels. The structure and properties of the resulting hydrogels were characterized by Four...

  11. Nanomodeling of Nonlinear Thermoelastic Behavior of AA5454/ Silicon Nitride Nanoparticulate Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesava R Alavala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to estimate non-linear thermoelastic behavior of three-phase AA5454/silicon nitride nanoparticle metal matrix composites. The thermal loading was varied from subzero temperature to under recrystallization temperature. The RVE models were used to analyze thermo-elastic behavior. The AA5454/silicon nitride nanoparticle metal matrix composites have gained the elastic modulus below 0oC and lost at high temperatures.

  12. Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz transients confirmed by Euler imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Roelens, M.; Semaan, T.; Palaversa, L.; Mowlavi, N.; Eyer, L.

    2016-02-01

    We report confirmation of Gaia Science Alerts transients Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz. Images were obtained through modified Gunn R band filter of the ECAM instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla, on 2016 February 18 - 24 UT. These new sources are cataclysmic variable star candidates and they are not visible in archival 2MASS and DSS images: Gaia16aas, Gaia16ade and Gaia16adz.

  13. Optimization of process parameters for friction Stir welding of dissimilar Aluminum alloys (AA2024 -T6 and AA6351-T6 by using Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramanaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the Taguchi experimental design technique of Friction Stir Welds of dissimilar aluminum alloys (AA2024-T6 and AA6351-T6 for tensile properties. Effect of process parameters, rotational speed, Traverse speed and axial force, on tensile strength was evaluated. Optimized welding conditions for maximize tensile strength were estimated in order to improve the productivity, weld quality. Non-linear regression mathematical model was developed to correlate the process parameters to tensile strength. The results were verified by conducting the confirmation tests at identified optimum conditions.

  14. Multiple Dirac particles in AA-stacked graphite and multilayers of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, I.; Partoens, B.

    2011-04-01

    Using the tight-binding formalism we show that in the recently experimentally realized AA-stacked graphite in essence two types of massless relativistic Dirac particles are present with a different effective speed of light. We also investigate how the electronic structure evolves from a single graphene sheet into AA-stacked graphite. It is shown that in contrast to AB-stacked graphene layers, the spectrum of AA-stacked graphene layers can be considered as a superposition of single-layer spectra and only particles with a linear spectrum at the Fermi energy around the K point are present. From the evolution of the band overlap we show that 6 multilayers of AA-stacked graphene already behave as AA-stacked graphite. The evolution of the effective speeds of light of the Dirac particles to their bulk values shows exactly the same behavior. The tight-binding parameters we use to describe AA-stacked graphite and multilayers of graphene are obtained by ab initio calculations.

  15. AA/12-lipoxygenase signaling contributes to inhibitory learning in Hermissenda Type B photoreceptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony L Walker

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditioned inhibition (CI is a major category of associative learning that occurs when an organism learns that one stimulus predicts the absence of another. In addition to being important in its own right, CI is interesting because its occurrence implies that the organism has formed an association between stimuli that are non-coincident. In contrast to other categories of associative learning that are dependent upon temporal contiguity (pairings of stimuli, the neurobiology of CI is virtually unexplored. We have previously described a simple form of CI learning in Hermissenda, whereby animals’ phototactic behavior is increased by repeated exposures to explicitly unpaired (EU presentations of light and rotation. EU conditioning also produces characteristic reductions in the excitability and light response, and increases several somatic K+ currents in Type B photoreceptors. Type B photoreceptors are a major site of plasticity for classical conditioning in Hermissenda. Because arachidonic acid (AA and/or its metabolites open diverse K+ channels in many cell types, we examined the potential contribution of AA to CI. Our results indicate that AA contributes to one of the major effects of EU-conditioning on Type B photoreceptors: decreases in light-evoked spike activity. We find that AA increases the transient (IA somatic K+ current in Type B photoreceptors, further mimicking CI training. In addition, our results indicate that metabolism of AA by a 12-lipoxygenase enzyme is critical for these effects of AA, and further that 12-lipoxygenase metabolites are apparently generated during CI training.

  16. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  17. A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-07-03

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.

  18. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms.

  19. Insecticidal Activity and Histopathological Effects of Vip3Aa Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis on Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feifei; Lin, Yunfeng; Chen, Chen; Shao, Ensi; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-10-28

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) are insecticidal proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. In this study, Vip3Aa protein, obtained by in vitro expression of the vip3Aa gene from B. thuringiensis WB5, displayed high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura aside from Spodoptera exigua and Helicoverpa armigera. Bioassay results showed that the toxicity of Vip3Aa protein against S. litura larvae statistically decreased along with the increase of the age of the larvae, with LC50 = 2.609 ng/cm(2) for neonatal larvae, LC50 = 28.778 ng/cm(2) for first instar larvae, LC50 = 70.460 ng/cm(2) for second instar larvae, and LC50 = 200.627 ng/cm(2) for third instar larvae. The accumulative mortality of 100% larvae appeared at 72 h for all instars of S. litura larvae, when feeding respectively with 83.22, 213.04, 341.40, and 613.20 ng/cm(2) of Vip3Aa toxin to the neonatal and first to third instar larvae. The histopathological effects of Vip3Aa toxin on the midgut epithelial cells of S. litura larvae was also investigated. The TEM observations showed wide damage of the epithelial cell in the midgut of S. litura larvae fed with Vip3Aa toxin.

  20. Negative interest rates: why and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselak, Jozef; Hermann, Philipp; Stehlik, Milan

    2016-01-01

    The interest rates (or nominal yields) can be negative, this is an unavoidable fact which has already been visible during the Great Depression (1929-39). Nowadays we can find negative rates easily by e.g. auditing. Several theoretical and practical ideas how to model and eventually overcome empirical negative rates can be suggested, however, they are far beyond a simple practical realization. In this paper we discuss the dynamical reasons why negative interest rates can happen in the second o...

  1. A Review of Chinese Redundant Negation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璕

    2016-01-01

    Chinese redundant negation, characteristic of unecnomical language structure and illogical meaning expression, represents an intriguing language phenomenon well worth exploring. By far, plenty of researches have been made on Chinese redundant negation, encompassing researches on specific types of it microscopically and the issue of redundant negation in general macroscopically. This thesis attempts to conduct a review of Chinese redundant negation in the hope of deepening the understanding of this peculiar phenomenon meanwhile yeilding some pedagogical implication for second language teaching.

  2. Negative refraction in a laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    This work is concerned with the reflection and transmission of waves at a plane interface between a homogeneous elastic half-space and a half-space of elastic material that is periodically laminated. The lamination is always in the direction of the x1-coordinate axis and the displacement is always longitudinal shear, so that the only non-zero displacement component is u3(x1 ,x2 , t). After an initial discussion of Floquet-Bloch waves in the laminated material, brief consideration is given to the reflection-transmission problem, when the interface between the two media is the plane x1 = 0. Nothing unusual emerges: there are just a single reflected wave and a single transmitted wave, undergoing positive group-velocity refraction. Then, the problem is considered when the interface between the two media is the plane x2 = 0. The periodic structure of the interface induces an infinite set of reflected waves and an infinite set of transmitted waves. All need to be taken into account, but most decay exponentially away from the interface. It had previously been recognized that, if the incident wave had appropriate frequency and angle of incidence, a propagating transmitted wave would be generated that would undergo negative group-velocity refraction - behaviour usually associated with a metamaterial. It is established by an example in this work that there is, in addition, a propagating transmitted wave with smaller wavelength but larger group velocity that undergoes positive group-velocity refraction. The work concludes with a brief discussion of this finding, including its implications for the utility (or not) of "effective medium" theory.

  3. Reversing a Negative Measurement in Process with Negative Events: A Haunted Negative Measurement and the Bifurcation of Time

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, D M

    2003-01-01

    Reversing an ordinary measurement in process (a haunted measurement) is noted and the steps involved in reversing a negative measurement in process (a haunted negative measurement) are described. In order to discuss in a thorough manner reversing an ordinary measurement in process, one has to account for how reversing a negative measurement in process would work for the same experimental setup. The reason it is necessary to know how a negative measurement in process is reversed is because for a given experimental setup there is no physical distinction between reversing a negative measurement in process and reversing an ordinary measurement in process. In the absence of the reversal of a negative measurement in process in the same experimental setup that supports the reversal of an ordinary measurement in process, the possibility exists of which-way information concerning the negative measurement that would render theoretically implausible reversing an ordinary measuremnt in process. The steps in reversing a n...

  4. Energy flow in negative index materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo Bolla; Michele Midrio; Carlo G. Someda

    2004-01-01

    From Maxwell's equations, we compute the speed and the direction of propagation of active power refractedfrom air into a negative index material. We prove, both analytically and numerically that the power mayrefract positively even if phase fronts refract negatively. Considerations on the usage of ray optics inproblems involving negative index materials are drawn.

  5. Negative Transportation and Tag-Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, Ray

    The author considers the rule of negative transportation in English and discusses his ideas about such a rule in contrast to the theories set forth by Robin Lakoff. The rule of negative transportation allows the shifting of a negative, under certain conditions, from a lower clause into a higher one. The discussion centers around the occurrence of…

  6. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  7. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, and Karnataka, India – 585106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  8. [New diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease by NIA/AA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Ryoko

    2016-03-01

    In 2011, the National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association (NIA/AA) published new guidelines for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) twenty-seven years after old guidelines had been published. The working groups recognized the whole clinical trajectory of AD as consisting of three defined stages, namely, AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment due to AD and preclinical AD. In addition to some refinements of descriptions of clinical features, based on recent scientific evidences of biomarkers, biomarker evidence was incorporated into the diagnostic criteria for AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment(MCI) due to AD to enhance diagnostic accuracy in research settings. Preclinical AD is newly defined as the earliest phase with presence of biomarker evidence suggesting AD pathophysiology and completely absence of clinical manifestation or absence of clinical symptom above subtle cognitive decline which falls short of meeting criteria for MCI. The diagnostic criteria enable disease modifying drug trials for subjects with earlier stage of AD pathology. Note that these criteria incorporating biomarker evidence are solely intended for research purposes. Further biomarker researches targeting subjects with early stage, especially preclinical AD are needed for refinement and broader usage of new guidelines.

  9. Renal AA Amyloidosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. Inflammation is closely involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and reactive amyloidosis occurs in the presence of chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that patients with T2DM may have a higher prevalence of renal AA amyloidosis (RAAA and that this could contribute to worse atherosclerosis and CVD. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 330 autopsy kidneys from patients with a previous T2DM diagnosis. The kidney tissue was evaluated in order to determine the presence of diabetic nephropathy and RAAA, and systemic vessels were evaluated for the presence of atherosclerosis. Results: RAAA was detected in 9% of our study population and was associated with an increased risk for nodular sclerosis [OR (95% CI] [11 (2.04-59.16], for chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy [4.59 (2.02-10.42], for myocardial infarction [3.41 (1.52-7.64] as well as for aortic [4.75 (1.09-20.69], coronary [3.22 (1.47-7.04], and intrarenal atherosclerosis [3.84 (1.46-10.09]. Conclusions: RAAA is prevalent in T2DM and is associated with worse CVD and renal disease, likely because RAAA is a marker of severe chronic inflammation.

  10. Fully Digital: Policy and Process Implications for the AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, every scholarly publisher has migrated at least the mechanical aspects of their journal publishing so that they utilize digital means. The academy was comfortable with that for a while, but publishers are under increasing pressure to adapt further. At the American Astronomical Society (AAS), we think that means bringing our publishing program to the point of being fully digital, by establishing procedures and policies that regard the digital objects of publication primarily. We have always thought about our electronic journals as databases of digital articles, from which we can publish and syndicate articles one at a time, and we must now put flesh on those bones by developing practices that are consistent with the realities of article at a time publication online. As a learned society that holds the long-term rights to the literature, we have actively taken responsibility for the preservation of the digital assets that constitute our journals, and in so doing we have not forsaken t...

  11. Cylindrical diffractive lenses recorded on PVA/AA photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Gallego, S.; Márquez, A.; Navarro-Fuster, V.; Francés, J.; Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2016-04-01

    Photopolymers are optical recording materials appealing for many different applications such as holography, data storage, interconnectors, solar concentrations, or wave-guides fabrication. Recently the capacity of photopolymers to record diffractive optical elements (DOE's) has been investigated. Different authors have reported proposes to record DOE like fork gratings, photonics structures, lenses, sinusoidal, blazed or fork gratings. In these experiments there are different experimental set-ups and different photopolymers. In this work due to the improvement in the spatial light modulation technology together with the photopolymer science we propose a recording experimental system of DOE using a Liquid Cristal based on Silicon (LCoS) display as a master to store complex DOE like cylindrical lenses. This technology permits us an accurate control of the phase and the amplitude of the recording beam, with a very small pixel size. The main advantage of this display is that permit us to modify the DOE automatically, we use the software of the LCoS to send the voltage to each pixel In this work we use a photopolymer composed by acrylamide (AA) as polymerizable monomer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). We use a coverplated and index matched photopolymer to avoid the influence of the thickness variation on the transmitted light. In order to reproduce the material behaviour during polymerization, we have designed our model to simulate cylindrical lenses and used Fresnel propagation to simulate the light propagation through the DOE and analyze the focal plane and the properties of the recorded lenses.

  12. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  13. Negative Poisson's Ratio in Modern Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanwei; Chen, Lang

    2016-10-01

    Materials with negative Poisson's ratio attract considerable attention due to their underlying intriguing physical properties and numerous promising applications, particularly in stringent environments such as aerospace and defense areas, because of their unconventional mechanical enhancements. Recent progress in materials with a negative Poisson's ratio are reviewed here, with the current state of research regarding both theory and experiment. The inter-relationship between the underlying structure and a negative Poisson's ratio is discussed in functional materials, including macroscopic bulk, low-dimensional nanoscale particles, films, sheets, or tubes. The coexistence and correlations with other negative indexes (such as negative compressibility and negative thermal expansion) are also addressed. Finally, open questions and future research opportunities are proposed for functional materials with negative Poisson's ratios.

  14. Multifunctional cellulolytic auxiliary activity protein HcAA10-2 from Hahella chejuensis enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Sunil S; Telke, Amar A; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Lee, Yuno; Lee, Keun-Woo; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Seon-Won

    2015-04-01

    The modular auxiliary activity (AA) family of proteins is believed to cause amorphogenesis in addition to oxidative cleavage of crystalline cellulose although the supporting evidence is limited. HcAA10-2 is a modular AA10 family protein (58 kDa) composed of a AA10 module and a family two carbohydrate binding module (CBM2), joined by a long stretch of 222 amino acids of unknown function. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of Avicel treated with HcAA10-2 provided evidence for the disruption of the cellulose microfibrils ("amorphogenesis") and reduction of the crystallinity index, resulting in a twofold increase of cellulase adsorption on the polysaccharide surface. HcAA10-2 exhibited weak endoglucanase-like activity toward soluble cellulose and cello-oligosaccharides with an optimum at pH 6.5 and 45 °C. HcAA10-2 catalyzed oxidative cleavage of crystalline cellulose released native and oxidized cello-oligosaccharides in the presence of copper and an electron donor such as ascorbic acid. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that His1, His109, and Phe197 in the AA10 module formed the conserved copper-binding site. The reducing sugar released from Avicel by the endoglucanase Cel5 and Celluclast accompanying HcAA10-2 was increased by four- and sixfold, respectively. Moreover, HcAA10-2 and Celluclast acted synergistically on pretreated wheat straw biomass resulting in a threefold increase in reducing sugar than Celluclast alone. Taken together, these results suggest that HcAA10-2 is a novel multifunctional modular AA10 protein possessing amorphogenesis, weak endoglucanase, and oxidative cleavage activities useful for efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose.

  15. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy.

  16. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27073325

  17. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  18. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2008-01-01

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  19. Aqueous extract from leaf of Artocarpus altilis provides cardio-protection from isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats: Negative chronotropic and inotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, Chukwuemeka; Palacios, Javier; Simirgiotis, Mario J; Thomas, Jemesha; Nwokocha, Magdalene; Young, Lauriann; Thompson, Rory; Cifuentes, Fredi; Paredes, Adrian; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-05-05

    The leaves of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn, Fosberg) (Moraceae) are used in the management of hypertension; this study assessed the cardio-protective effects of the leaf extract on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial damage in rats. Twenty (20) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-230g) were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 (Control), 2 (AA) received 50mg/Kg Artocarpus altilis (AA) only; 3 (ISO) received 85mg/Kg ISO only; 4 (ISO+AA/50) and 5 (ISO+AA/100) received 50 and 100mg/Kg AA respectively for 6 days, after induced with ISO twice (85mg/Kg) at a 24-h period. Blood pressure readings were taken before and after the administering of ISO using the tail cuff method. ECG was performed on anaesthetized rats. Cardiac contractility was measured in isolated right atrial muscles. Assessment of myocardial infarct (MI) size, heart/body weight ratio, biochemical, hematological and histo-morphological parameters were conducted at the end of seven days. An aqueous extract from leaves of A. altilis was analyzed for organic compounds using UHPLC mass spectrometry. ISO induced myocardial damage through an elevation of the heart rate (HR), infarct size and ECG distortions. Treatment with AA significantly (p˂0.05) reduced heart/body weight ratio (49%), MI (96%), HR (27%), sympathovagal imbalance (36%) and serum cardiac biomarkers (AST, LDH, HDL, triglycerides and CCK) caused by ISO. AA decreased the beat frequency of isolated right atrium (11%) cause by ISO, an action similar to propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist; 20%), but showed no significant changes in the QTc intervals of the ECG (suggesting no cardio-toxic drug-herb interactions), Thirty nine compounds were detected using high resolution LC-MS analysis (HPLC-Orbitrap-APCI-MS) in the extract. Pure compounds, as gallic acid and rutin, presented a higher negative chronotropic effect, similar to propranolol. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Artocarpus artilis has cardio-protective functions in

  20. Impact of negation salience and cognitive resources on negation during attitude formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Kathryn L; Rydell, Robert J

    2012-10-01

    Because of the increased cognitive resources required to process negations, past research has shown that explicit attitude measures are more sensitive to negations than implicit attitude measures. The current work demonstrated that the differential impact of negations on implicit and explicit attitude measures was moderated by (a) the extent to which the negation was made salient and (b) the amount of cognitive resources available during attitude formation. When negations were less visually salient, explicit but not implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations. When negations were more visually salient, both explicit and implicit attitude measures reflected the intended valence of the negations, but only when perceivers had ample cognitive resources during encoding. Competing models of negation processing, schema-plus-tag and fusion, were examined to determine how negation salience impacts the processing of negations.

  1. Efficacy of surface disinfectant cleaners against emerging highly resistant gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Mirja; Schlicht, Anastasija; Ostermeyer, Christiane; Kampf, Günter

    2014-05-28

    Worldwide, the emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria is a clinical problem. Surface disinfectant cleaners (SDCs) that are effective against these bacteria are needed for use in high risk areas around patients and on multi-touch surfaces. We determined the efficacy of several SDCs against clinically relevant bacterial species with and without common types of multidrug resistance. Bacteria species used were ATCC strains; clinical isolates classified as antibiotic-susceptible; and multi-resistant clinical isolates from Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens (all OXA-48 and KPC-2); Acinetobacter baumannii (OXA-23); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-1); and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (ATCC strain). Experiments were carried out according to EN 13727:2012 in quadruplicate under dirty conditions. The five evaluated SDCs were based on alcohol and an amphoteric substance (AAS), an oxygen-releaser (OR), surface-active substances (SAS), or surface-active-substances plus aldehydes (SASA; two formulations). Bactericidal concentrations of SDCs were determined at two different contact times. Efficacy was defined as a log10 ≥ 5 reduction in bacterial cell count. SDCs based on AAS, OR, and SAS were effective against all six species irrespective of the degree of multi-resistance. The SASA formulations were effective against the bacteria irrespective of degree of multi-resistance except for one of the four P. aeruginosa isolates (VIM-1). We found no general correlation between SDC efficacy and degree of antibiotic resistance. SDCs were generally effective against gram-negative bacteria with and without multidrug resistance. SDCs are therefore suitable for surface disinfection in the immediate proximity of patients. Single bacterial isolates, however, might have reduced susceptibility to selected biocidal agents.

  2. Expression and function of anew angiogenic factor AA98 target molecule at the maternal-embryonic boundary ofrhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The target molecule of monoclonal antibody AA98 (AA for short) is a new vascular endothelial cell related factor and plays a role in angiogenesis as indicated by the previous data. To investigate its role in angiogenesis and placentation in primate, we examined its expression in the implantation sites on D17, 19, 28 and 34 of gestation in rhesus monkey by immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblot. Western blot analysis showed that the primary antibody used in this study was specific for its epitope. AA protein was mainly expressed in small blood vessels and in some cytotrophoblast cells. The AA staining was found mainly in the endothelial cells and vascular small muscle.This observation supported the AA's role in angiogenesis. AA was spatio-temporarily expressed in cytotrophoblasts: weak in proliferating trophoblast within cell column and endovascular trophoblast, strong in trophoblastic subpopulation within the basal plate and vascular trophoblast; AA staining within the basal plate was down-regulated during early placentation. The shift of AA98 expression in extravillous trophoblasts suggestes a role of this new factor during the course of cytotrophoblast metastasis and spiral artery remodeling. The spatio-temporarily expression indicats that AA98 could be also used as a trophoblast cellular marker to characterize the acquisition of a vascular endothelial and invasive phenotype.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis 4AA1, a typical strain with toxicity to Coleopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuling; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhu, Lei; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2015-06-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar morrisoni biovar tenebrionis has been developed as an bioinsecticide to control Coleopteran insects in agriculture and forestry for a few decades. Its major crystal protein Cry3Aa was also applied to transgenic crops. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain tenebrionis 4AA1, which has one chromosome of 5,652,292bp and six plasmids. Two crystal protein genes, cry3Aa and cry15Aa, locate on one single plasmid named pBMB51. This strain also possesses plentiful virulence factors besides crystal proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welded joints between AA1100-B{sub 4}C MMC and AA6063 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, J. [Department of Applied Science, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay (QC) G7H 2B1 (Canada); Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Saguenay (QC) G7H 8C3 (Canada); Gougeon, P. [Aluminium Technology Centre, National Research Council Canada, Saguenay (QC) G7H 8C3 (Canada); Chen, X.-G., E-mail: xgrant_chen@uqac.ca [Department of Applied Science, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay (QC) G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures and mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW between AA1100-B{sub 4}C and AA6063 alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of the welding parameters on the interface bonding, joint microstructure and mechanical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural evolution of dissimilar joints revealed by the electron backscatter diffraction analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good material mixing and seamless bonding around the interfaces between Al-B{sub 4}C and the AA6063 alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 100% joint efficiencies (UTS) achieved by all dissimilar joints. - Abstract: The feasibility of dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) between the AA1100-16 vol.% B{sub 4}C metal matrix composite and the AA6063 alloy has been evaluated. The effect of the welding parameters on the interface bonding, joint microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated. The results revealed that all dissimilar joints produced under welding conditions investigated were stronger than the base materials of the Al-B{sub 4}C composite. Analysis of the Mg concentration and the B{sub 4}C particle distribution indicates that good material mixing and seamless bonding was achieved around the interface between the Al-B{sub 4}C composite and the Al 6063 alloy during FSW. The electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) shows that during dissimilar FSW, there was a gradual microstructural evolution on both material sides, resulting in a variety of grain structures in the different weld zones. In the weld zones of FSW joints, the materials underwent dynamic recovery and recrystallization to different extents depending on their thermal mechanical history. The grain refinement of both materials in the nugget zone was observed. It is recommended that the 6063 aluminum alloy should be fixed on the advancing side and the use of an appropriate offset to the 6063 aluminum side is preferred.

  5. Caracterización de la capa y el filo adherido en el mecanizado de la aleación AA7050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Sola, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The built-up edge (BUE and the built-up layer (BUL are the most common adhesion effects that can take place in the metal machining processes. Surface finish quality and tool life can be negatively affected by BUL and BUE. This work reports the results of a study on the microstructural differences between BUL and BUE formed in AA7050 cutting processes. From this study, it can be concluded that different mechanisms are the responsible of BUL and BUE. Thus, BUL and BUE cannot be considered as different forms of the same effect.

    El filo recrecido (BUE y capa adherida (BUL son los principales efectos de incorporación de material mecanizado a la herramienta de corte. Ambos, se enmarcan dentro de los denominados efectos de adhesión. La existencia de BUL y BUE puede influir de forma directa sobre la calidad de acabado superficial de la pieza e indirectamente sobre el desgaste de la propia herramienta. En el presente trabajo se analizan las diferencias microestructurales entre el BUL y el BUE, formados en el mecanizado de la aleación AA7050. Estas diferencias ponen de manifiesto que, al menos en las aleaciones estudiadas, ambos fenómenos están gobernados por distintos mecanismos y, por tanto, no pueden considerarse como formas diferentes de un mismo efecto.

  6. Nonlinear Negative Refraction by Difference Frequency Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jianjun; Feng, Yaming; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Negative refraction has attracted much interest for its promising capability in imaging applications. Such an effect can be implemented by negative index meta-materials, however, which are usually accompanied by high loss and demanding fabrication processes. Recently, alternative nonlinear approaches like phase conjugation and four wave mixing have shown advantages of low-loss and easy-to-implement, but associated problems like narrow accepting angles can still halt their practical applications. Here we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a new scheme to realize negative refraction by nonlinear difference frequency generation with wide tunability, where a thin BBO slice serves as a negative refraction layer bending the input signal beam to the idler beam at a negative angle. Furthermore, we realize optical focusing effect using such nonlinear negative refraction, which may enable many potential applications in imaging science.

  7. Nonlinear negative refraction by difference frequency generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianjun; Shen, Dongyi; Feng, Yaming; Wan, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Negative refraction has attracted much interest for its promising capability in imaging applications. Such an effect can be implemented by negative index meta-materials, however, which are usually accompanied by high loss and demanding fabrication processes. Recently, alternative nonlinear approaches like phase conjugation and four wave mixing have shown advantages of low-loss and easy-to-implement, but associated problems like narrow accepting angles can still halt their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally a scheme to realize negative refraction by nonlinear difference frequency generation with wide tunability, where a thin Beta barium borate slice serves as a negative refraction layer bending the input signal beam to the idler beam at a negative angle. Furthermore, we realize optical focusing effect using such nonlinear negative refraction, which may enable many potential applications in imaging science.

  8. Avoiding Negative Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2013-01-01

    As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac Equation. The Dirac Equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical world. In this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless question, "Do negative probabilities exist in quantum mechanics?" In an effort to answer this question, we arrive at the conclusion that depending on the choice one makes of the quantum probability current, one will obtain negative probabilities. We thus propose a new quantum probability current of the Klein-Gordon theory. This quantum probability current leads directly to positive definite quantum probabilities. Because these negative probabilities are in the bare Klein-Gordon theory, intrinsically a result of negative energie...

  9. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  10. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  11. Negative refraction in natural ferromagnetic metals

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbrecht, Sebastian; Shuvaev, Alexey Mikhailovich; Luo, Y.; Moshnyaga, V.; Pimenov, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that Veselago's criterion for negative refraction cannot be fulfilled in natural materials. However, considering imaginary parts of the permittivity ({\\epsilon}) and permeability ({\\mu}) and for metals at not too high frequencies the general condition for negative refraction becomes extremely simple: Re({\\mu}) Re(n) < 0. Here we demonstrate experimentally that in such natural metals as pure Co and FeCo alloy the negative values of the refractive index are achi...

  12. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  13. Singularities in universes with negative cosmological constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1976-10-01

    It is well known that many universes with negative cosmological constant contain singularities. We shall generalize this result by proving that all closed universes with negative cosmological constant are both future and past timelike geodesically incomplete if the strong energy condition holds. No global causality conditions or restrictions on the initial data are used in the proof. Furthermore, we shall show that all open universes with a Cauchy surface and a negative cosmological constant are singular if the strong energy condition holds. (AIP)

  14. Exploring Impact: Negative Effects of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Henrik; Sedlarski, Teodor

    2011-01-01

    he sociological literature on social networks emphasizes by and large positive network effects. Negative effects of such networks are discussed rather rarely. This paper tackles negative effects by applying economic theory, particularly neoclassical theory, new institutional theory and the results from experimental economics to the concept of social networks. In the paper it is assumed that social networks are exclusive and since exclusiveness affects the allocation of resources, negative ext...

  15. Copper and the negative price of storage

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald Frederick; DEC

    1994-01-01

    Commodities are often stored during periods in which storage returns a negative price. Further, during periods of"backwardation,"the expected revenue from holding inventories will be negative. Since the 1930s, the negative price of storage has been attributed to an offsetting"convenience yield."It has been argued that inventories are a necessary adjunct to business and that increasing inventories from some minimal level reduces overall costs. This theory has always been criticized by proponen...

  16. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  17. Enhanced Negative Feedback Responses in Remitted Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzagalli, Diego; Meites, Tiffany M.; Deveney, Christen M; Holmes, Avram J.; Bogdan, Ryan; Steele, Katherine T.; Santesso, Diane L.

    2008-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD)is characterized by hypersensitivity to negative feedback that might involve frontocingulate dysfunction. MDD patients exhibit enhanced electrophysiological responses to negative internal (errors) and external (feedback) cues. Whether this dysfunction extends to remitted depressed (RD) individuals with a history of MDD is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined the feedback-related negativity in RD and control participants using a probabilistic pun...

  18. Experimental Investigation on Friction Stir Welding of Cryorolled AA2219 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. Kamal; Panneerselvam, K.; Sathiya, P.; Haq, A. Noorul; Sundarrajan, S.; Mastanaiah, P.; Murthy, C. V. Srinivasa

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, experimental investigation on cryorolled aluminum AA2219-T87 plate by using friction stir welding (FSW) process is carried out. AA2219-T87 plates with a size of 200×100×22.4 mm were rolled and reduced to 12.2mm thickness (more than 45% of reduction in total thickness of the base material) at cryogenic temperature (operating temperature range -90--30∘C). The cryorolled (CR) plates have reduced grain size, improved hardness and increased corrosion resistance property compared with the uncryorolled AA2219-T87 plates. FSW joints of cryorolled AA2219-T87 plates were prepared using cylindrical threaded FSW tool pin profile. Mechanical and metallurgical behaviors of friction stir welded joints were analyzed and the effects of the FSW process parameters are discussed in this paper. The variation of microhardness in the FSW joint regions were correlated with the microstructure of FSW joints. Cryorolled plate and FSW joints were tested for corrosion resistance using potentiodynamic polarization test. FSW joints shows better result during the corrosion resistance analysis compared to base AA2219-T87. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results showed that fine α-Al grains with eutectic phase (Al2Cu) were present in the weld nugget (WN). The large clusters of strengthening precipitates were reduced in size and merged with the weld nugget portion.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of polycaprolactone/acrylic acid (PCL/AA) hydrogel for controlled drug delivery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nazar Mohammad Ranjha; Jahanzeb Mudassir; Sajid Majeed

    2011-12-01

    In the present work biodegradable pH-sensitive polycaprolactone/acrylic acid (PCL/AA) hydrogels have been developed using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. For these prepared hydrogels swelling studies, sol–gel fraction analysis and porosity measurements were performed. Results show that swelling of the hydrogels decreases on increasing the concentration of PCL and EGDMA, however swelling of hydrogels increases on increasing the concentration of AA. Results of sol–gel fraction analysis show that gel fraction increases on increasing concentration of monomer AA, polymer PCL as well as cross-linker EGDMA. As far as porosity is concerned, it increases on increasing the concentration of AA and PCL while porosity decreases on increasing the concentration of EGDMA. Hydrogels were characterized by measuring diffusion coefficient () and equilibrium water content (EWC). Network formation, morphology and crystallinity of PCL/AA hydrogels were investigated using FTIR, SEM and XRD, respectively. Tramadol hydrochloride was loaded as model drug and its release pattern was analysed using various kinetic models like zero order, first order, Higuchi and Peppas. Results indicated that most of the samples followed non-Fickian release mechanism.

  20. Preparation and Characteristics of Corn Straw-Co-AMPS-Co-AA Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Min Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the corn straw after removing the lignin was grafted with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS to prepare sulfonated cellulose. The grafting copolymerization between the sulfonated cellulose and acrylic acid (AA was performed using potassium persulfate and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as the initiator and crosslinking agent, respectively, to prepare corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels. The structure and properties of the resulting hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic rheometry. The effects of initiator, crosslinker, monomer neutralization degree, and temperature on the swelling ratio of the hydrogels were studied. The water retention, salt resistance, and recyclability of the corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels were also investigated. The optimum water absorptivity of the corn straw hydrogels was obtained at a polymerization temperature of 50 °C with 1.2% crosslinker, 1:7 ratio of the pretreated corn straw and AA, 2% initiator, and 50% neutralized AA.

  1. A Flare Observed in Coronal, Transition Region and Helium I 10830 \\AA\\ Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda; Judge, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    On June 17, 2012, we observed the evolution of a C-class flare associated with the eruption of a filament near a large sunspot in the active region NOAA 11504. We obtained high spatial resolution filtergrams using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory in broad-band TiO at 706 nm (bandpass:10 \\AA) and He I 10830 \\AA\\ narrow-band (bandpass: 0.5 \\AA, centered 0.25 \\AA\\ to the blue). We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of the He I 10830 \\AA\\ data, which were obtained over a 90" X 90" field of view with a cadence of 10 sec. We also analyze simultaneous data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, and data from Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and GOES spacecrafts. Non-thermal effects are ignored in this analysis. Several quantitative aspects of the data, as well as models derived using the "0D" Enthalpy-Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model (EBTEL: Klimchuk...

  2. SwrAA activates poly-gamma-glutamate synthesis in addition to swarming in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osera, Cecilia; Amati, Giuseppe; Calvio, Cinzia; Galizzi, Alessandro

    2009-07-01

    Poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) is an extracellular polymer produced by various strains of Bacillus. Iotat was first described as the component of the capsule in Bacillus anthracis, where it plays a relevant role in virulence. gamma-PGA is also a distinctive component of 'natto', a traditional Japanese food consisting of soybean fermented by Bacillus subtilis (natto). Domesticated B. subtilis strains do not synthesize gamma-PGA although they possess the functional biosynthetic pgs operon. In the present work we explore the correlation between the genetic determinants, swrAA and degU, which allow a derivative of the domestic strain JH642 to display a mucoid colony morphology on LB agar plates due to the production of gamma-PGA. Full activation of the pgs operon requires the co-presence of SwrAA and the phosphorylated form of DegU (DegU approximately P). The presence of either DegU approximately P or SwrAA alone has only marginal effects on pgs operon transcription and gamma-PGA production. Although SwrAA was identified as necessary for swarming and full swimming motility together with DegU, we show that motility is not involved in gamma-PGA production. Activation of gamma-PGA synthesis is therefore a motility-independent phenotype in which SwrAA and DegU approximately P display a cooperative effect.

  3. Multi-Line Quiet Sun Spectro-Polarimetry at 5250 and 6302 \\AA

    CERN Document Server

    Socas-Navarro, H; Ramos, A Asensio; Collados, M; Cerdeña, I Domínguez; Khomenko, E V; González, M J Martínez; Pillet, V Martínez; Cobo, B Ruiz; Almeida, J Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    The reliability of quiet Sun magnetic field diagnostics based on the \\ion{Fe}{1} lines at 6302 \\AA has been questioned by recent work. We present here the results of a thorough study of high-resolution multi-line observations taken with the new spectro-polarimeter SPINOR, comprising the 5250 and 6302 \\AA spectral domains. The observations were analyzed using several inversion algorithms, including Milne-Eddington, LTE with 1 and 2 components, and MISMA codes. We find that the line-ratio technique applied to the 5250 \\AA lines is not sufficiently reliable to provide a direct magnetic diagnostic in the presence of thermal fluctuations and variable line broadening. In general, one needs to resort to inversion algorithms, ideally with realistic magneto-hydrodynamical constrains. When this is done, the 5250 \\AA lines do not seem to provide any significant advantage over those at 6302 \\AA . In fact, our results point towards a better performance with the latter (in the presence of turbulent line broadening). In any...

  4. Design of double negativity elastic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A metamaterial model that possesses simultaneously negative effective mass density and negative effective Young’s modulus is proposed in this study. Dispersion curves and dynamic responses of the model are investigated. In the double negative frequency region, it is demonstrated that the phase velocity is negative. In addition, it was found that the band gap region of the metamaterial can be predicted accurately by taking parts of single-unit cell to analyze the steady-state response. The design is also fabricated by a 3D printer.

  5. Negative Correlations in Visual Cortical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chelaru, Mircea I; Dragoi, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    .... Whereas positive noise correlations have been extensively studied using experimental and theoretical tools, the functional role of negative correlations in cortical circuits has remained elusive...

  6. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound source... Operations, Rubber Tire Manufacturing, Polymer Manufacturing, Industrial Wastewater, Ship Building and...

  7. Causality, Non-Locality and Negative Refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Forcella, Davide; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    The importance of spatial non-locality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes non-locality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial non-locality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial non-locality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  8. Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and Negative Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pavšič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    We review the occurrence of negative energies in Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator. We point out that in the absence of interactions negative energies are not problematic, neither in the classical nor in the quantized theory. However, in the presence of interactions that couple positive and negative energy degrees of freedom the system is unstable, unless the potential is bounded from bellow and above. We review some approaches in the literature that attempt to avoid the problem of negative energies in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  9. Functional significance of membrane associated proteolysis in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin against Colorado potato beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; Contreras, Estefanía; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are widely used as biocontrol agents in bioinsecticides and transgenic plants. In the three domain-Cry toxins, domain II has been identified as an important determinant of their highly specific activity against insects. In this work, we assessed the role in membrane associated proteolysis and toxicity in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) of a previously reported ADAM recognition motif present in Cry3Aa toxin domain II. We used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the Bacillus thuringiensis cry3A gene in amino acid residues 344, 346, 347, 351 and 353 of the ADAM recognition motif in Cry3Aa toxin. Cry3Aa toxin mutants displayed decreased toxicity when compared to the wild type toxin and impaired ability to compete CPB brush border membrane associated cleavage of an ADAM fluorogenic substrate. Although the proteolytic profile of Cry3Aa toxin mutants generated by brush border membrane associated proteases was similar to that of Cry3Aa toxin, the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline was less efficient on the proteolysis of mutants than on that of the wild type toxin. The relevance of the Cry3Aa-ADAM interaction through the predicted recognition sequence was further confirmed by analyzing the effect of membrane integrity disturbance on Cry3Aa toxin membrane associated proteolysis and CPB larvae toxicity. Data support that Cry3Aa proteolysis, as a result of the interaction with ADAM through the Cry3Aa recognition motif, is essential for Cry3Aa toxic action in CPB. Detailed knowledge of Cry3Aa interaction with CPB midgut membrane should facilitate the development of more effective Bt based products against this devastating pest and other Coleoptera. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. I:\\AA-TYPESET\\CHEM\\2006\\Van Es.vp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The preparation, spectral properties and structure elucidations of the hitherto undocumented 3-oxo-, 3-thioxo-, ... aged3 to arise via hydrosulphide ion, generated in situ, substitut- ing the ..... the δH-values of the non-deshielded comparable protons in (a) .... fusion test negative for Cl and S. The 1H (600 MHz, CDCl3) and.

  11. The Impact of Reclassification from Division II to DI-AA and from Division I-AA to I-A on NCAA Member Institutions from 1993 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieder, Laura L., Comp.; Fulks, Daniel L., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a number of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II institutions seeking reclassification to Division I-AA and Division I-AA institutions moving to Division I-A. Yet, other schools that seem like natural candidates to reclassify have resisted. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the…

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AA2195 DC Cast Ingot Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgallad, E. M.; Hekmat-Ardakan, A.; Ajersch, F.; Chen, X.-G.

    DC cast ingot plates are especially suitable for large mold manufacturing in the plastic and automotive industries. The microstructures and mechanical properties of AA2195 DC cast ingot plates in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions were studied. Aging treatments were carried out at 125 and 150°C for 12 and 24 h. A microstructural analysis was conducted using optical and scanning electron microscopies as well as a differential scanning calorimetry. The results show a significant increase in yield and tensile strengths after aging at 150°C. It is suggested that the strengthening of AA2195 cast plates is largely determined by the proportion of both θ'-Al2Cu and T1-Al2CuLi precipitations. By adopting an appropriate heat treatment, AA2195 cast ingot plates can provide a range of satisfactory combinations of strength and ductility which fulfill the design requirements of large mold applications.

  13. Crystal structure determination of alkaline haemorrhagin AaHⅢ from snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚为民; 滕脉坤; 牛立文

    1997-01-01

    The haemorrhagin AaH Ⅲ isolated from the snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus is one of the few al-kaline ones in snake venoms. Its crystals belong to space group P212121 with a = 9. 573 4 nm, b = 4. 996 7 nm and c = 4. 728 8 nm. Its crystal structure was determined by the molecular replacement method according to the model of metalloproteinase Adamalysin n from eastern rattlesnake venom. The AaHⅢ structure has been refined by PROLSQ. The final R factor was 0.254 and the RMS deviations of bond lengths and angles were 0. 001 8 nm and 1.5°. The structure comparison suggested that AaHⅢ has a similar structure to other snake venom zinc-metalloproteinases. They all belong to matrix metalloproteinases super-family.

  14. AA Amyloidosis and Atypical Familial Mediterranean Fever with Exon 2 and 3 Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Yabuuchi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old Japanese man presented with recurrent abdominal pain, fever lasting >5 days, and renal failure. AA amyloidosis was proven by renal and gastric biopsy. Symptoms subsided with the administration of colchicine, but a subsequent recurrence of symptoms did not respond to colchicine. Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV analysis showed that he was heterozygous for mutations in exon 2 (E148Q/R202Q and exon 3 (P369S/R408Q, although he had none of the exon 10 mutations known to be closely related to AA amyloidosis. He did not respond to infliximab, but tocilizumab therapy was successful. The present case is a rare report of AA amyloidosis associated with familial Mediterranean fever in Japan.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Banana (AA Diploids with Contrasting Levels of Black and Yellow Sigatoka Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia F. Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most banana cultivars are susceptible to many diseases, whereas Sigatoka leads to greatest yield losses. One of the strategies to overcome this disease is thorough banana genetic breeding which consists in the obtainment of improved (AA diploids which are then crossed with triploids obtaining (AAAB tetraploid disease resistant bananas also presenting other important agronomic characteristics. The prior knowledge of the genetic diversity of (AA diploids, is therefore considered indispensable in order to direct the crosses being made. The objective of the present work was to analyze the genetic diversity of 20 (AA banana diploids with contrasting levels of reaction to yellow and black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella musicola and M. fijensis, respectively, using molecular markers. From the dendrogram data it is shown that a great number of experimental hybrids can be obtained from the combination of genetically different diploids, therefore making the banana genetic breeding program more efficient regarding its objectives.

  16. Linear Diophantine Equation Discrete Log Problem and the AA{\\beta}-Cryptosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Ariffin, M R K; Abu, N A; Mandangan, A; Atan, K A M

    2011-01-01

    The Linear Diophantine Equation Discrete Log Problem (LDEDLP) is a discrete log problem on the linear Diophantine equation U=Vx+y. A proper implementation of LDEDLP would render an attacker to search for two private parameters amongst the exponentially many solutions. The search would involve a key space of size at least 2^k, where k is the length of the private key. LDEDLP follows a simple mathematical structure. Its low computational requirement would enable communication devices with low computing power to deploy secure communication procedures efficiently. Similar to the cryptographic schemes based on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Log Problem (ECDLP), cryptographic schemes based upon the LDEDLP are also able to produce secure key exchange schemes and asymmetric cryptographic schemes. The AA{\\beta}-cryptosystem is one such cryptographic scheme. The AA{\\beta}-cryptosystem transmits a two-parameter ciphertext analogous to the El-Gamal and elliptic curve cryptosystems. The AA{\\beta}-cryptosystem consists of bas...

  17. Observations of the forward scattering Hanle effect in the Ca i 4227 {\\AA} line

    CERN Document Server

    Bianda, M; Anusha, L S; Stenflo, J O; Nagendra, K N; Holzreuter, R; Sampoorna, M; Frisch, H; Smitha, H N

    2011-01-01

    Chromospheric magnetic fields are notoriously diffcult to measure. The chromospheric lines are broad, while the fields are producing a minuscule Zeeman-effect polarization. A promising diagnostic alternative is provided by the forward-scattering Hanle effect, which can be recorded in chromospheric lines such as the He i 10830 {\\AA} and the Ca i 4227 {\\AA} lines. We present a set of spectropolarimetric observations of the full Stokes vector obtained near the center of the solar disk in the Ca i 4227 {\\AA} line with the ZIMPOL polarimeter at the IRSOL observatory.We detect a number of interesting forward-scattering Hanle effect signatures, which we model successfully using polarized radiative transfer. Here we focus on the observational aspects, while a separate companion paper deals with the theoretical modeling.

  18. AA479 antiserum: new reagent for the serotype characterization of atypical variants of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A van der Ploeg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri is divided into 13 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. A new O-antigen modification with phosphoethanolamine has been identified. The presence of this antigenic determinant (called E1037 is recognized by monoclonal antibody MASF IV-1. Given the increasing incidence of these new variants and the difficulty in supplying the monoclonal antibody to our country, we produced a polyclonal antiserum (AA479 through immunization with a S. flexneri Xv strain. The antiserum specificity was assessed by slide agglutination against isolates from clinical cases and a culture collection representing all Shigella serotypes. The results obtained demonstrated a 100% correlation between AA479 absorbed antiserum and monoclonal antibody MASF IV-1. The availability of AA479 antiserum in every public hospital in Argentina will allow us to identify atypical S. flexneri isolates in order to strengthen Shigella surveillance in our country and to compare with global epidemiological data.

  19. The degree functions of negative adjectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidman Sassoon, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a new account of positive versus negative antonyms. The data includes well-known linguistic generalizations regarding negative adjectives, such as their incompatibility with measure phrases (cf. two meters tall/ *short) and ratio phrases (twice as tall/ #short) as well as the imp

  20. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    of Euclidean spaces. We prove that, if the distance matrix is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points. In connection with an open problem raised...

  1. Negative Learning Rates and P-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Devon

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of training a differentiable function approximator for a regression task using negative examples. We effect this training using negative learning rates. We also show how this method can be used to perform direct policy learning in a reinforcement learning setting.

  2. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  3. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  4. Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that negative evaluators will be perceived as more intelligent than positive evalutors. Two types of stimuli were used: excerpts from actual negative and positive book reviews, and versions of those excerpts that were edited so that the balance of the reviews varied but the content did not. The results strongly…

  5. Atomic Gases at Negative Kinetic Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosk, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    We show that thermalization of the motion of atoms at negative temperature is possible in an optical lattice, for conditions that are feasible in current experiments. We present a method for reversibly inverting the temperature of a trapped gas. Moreover, a negative-temperature ensemble can be coole

  6. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  7. Brouwer and Griss on intuitionistic negation

    OpenAIRE

    Franchella, Miriam

    1994-01-01

    During the 1940s, a debate about the intuitionistic definition of negation took place between G .F. C. Griss and L. E. J. Brouwer: namely, Griss criticized Brouwer's definition as inconsistent with the intuitionistic framework. In this paper I present firstly Brouwer's definition of negation; then Griss' criticism of it and his proposal of a "negationless" mathematics; finally Brouwer's reply to Griss.

  8. Scope of negation detection in sentiment analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dadvar, M.; Hauff, C.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2011-01-01

    An important part of information-gathering behaviour has always been to find out what other people think and whether they have favourable (positive) or unfavourable (negative) opinions about the subject. This survey studies the role of negation in an opinion-oriented information-seeking system. We i

  9. Estimation for Entanglement Negativity of Free Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we study the negativity of one dimensional free fermions. We derive the general form of the $\\mathbb{Z}_{N}$ symmetric term in moments of the partial transposed (reduced) density matrix, which is an algebraic function of the end points of the system. Such a path integral turns out to be a convenient tool for making estimations for the negativity.

  10. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  11. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  12. ORBITAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE σ Ori Aa, Ab, B TRIPLE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simón-Díaz, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Caballero, J. A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Dorda, R.; Marco, A. [Departamento de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal, Escuela Politécnica Superior, University of Alicante, Apdo. 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Schneider, F. R. N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Barbá, R. H. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de La Serena, Benavente 980, La Serena (Chile); Montes, D. [Departamento Astrofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pellerin, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Geneseo, 1 College Circle, Geneseo, NY 14454 (United States); Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Sota, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Sódor, Á., E-mail: ssimon@iac.es [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-01121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-02-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric σ Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhés method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the σ Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that σ Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while σ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the σ Orionis cluster, at 3 ± 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the σ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for σ Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.

  13. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g(-1) fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g(-1) fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness.

  14. DARPP-32 and Akt regulation in ethanol-preferring AA and ethanol-avoiding ANA rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuutinen, Saara; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Panula, Pertti

    2011-09-26

    Ethanol and other addictive drugs affect many intracellular phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades. These cascades are thought to be highly important in the regulation of neuronal activity. The present experiments characterized the regulation of three key signaling molecules, DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein, 32kDa), Akt kinase and ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2) in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and ethanol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rat lines. Radioactive in situ hybridization was used in drug naïve animals and Western blotting after acute ethanol administration in striatum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The mRNA levels of DARPP-32 in striatal areas were higher in ANA rats than in AA rats. There was no difference in the striatal enriched phosphatase (STEP61), the downstream target of DARPP-32 expression between the rat lines. Ethanol (1.5g/kg) increased phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at threonine 34 in both AA and in ANA rats indicating that acute ethanol activates DARPP-32 similarly in these rat lines. The expression of Akt kinase was higher in the CA1 of hippocampus in ANA than in AA rats and acute ethanol activated Akt in hippocampus in ANA but not in AA rats. No significant alterations in the regulation of ERK1/2 were found in either rat line. Our findings suggest that DARPP-32 and Akt are regulated by ethanol and differences in the regulation of these molecules might contribute to the dramatically different ethanol drinking patterns seen in AA and ANA rats.

  15. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  16. Enhanced Negative Feedback Responses in Remitted Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Steele, Katherine T.; Bogdan, Ryan; Holmes, Avram J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Meites, Tiffany M.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by hypersensitivity to negative feedback that might involve frontocingulate dysfunction. MDD subjects exhibit enhanced electrophysiological responses to negative internal (errors) and external (feedback) cues. Whether this dysfunction extends to remitted depressed (RD) subjects with a history of MDD is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in RD and control subjects using a probabilistic punishment learning task. Despite equivalent behavioral performance, RD subjects showed larger FRNs to negative feedback relative to controls; group differences remained after accounting for residual anxiety and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that abnormal responses to negative feedback extend to samples at increased risk for depressive episodes in the absence of current symptoms. PMID:18580576

  17. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  18. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  19. Methodological issues in negative symptom trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Stephen R; Daniel, David G; Alphs, Larry; Awad, A George; Keefe, Richard S E

    2011-03-01

    Individuals from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and the US Food and Drug Administration used a workshop format to discuss important methodological issues in the design of trials of pharmacological agents for improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The issues addressed included the need for a coprimary functional measure for registration trials; the characteristics of individuals who should enter negative symptom trials; the optimal duration for a proof-of-concept or registration trial; the optimal design of a study of a broad-spectrum agent that treats both positive and negative symptoms or a co-medication that is added to an antipsychotic; the relative strengths and weaknesses of available instruments for measuring negative symptoms; the definition of clinically meaningful improvement for these trials; and whether drugs can be approved for a subdomain of negative symptoms.

  20. The entanglement negativity in random spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the logarithmic negativity in strongly-disordered spin chains in the random-singlet phase. We focus on the spin-1/2 random Heisenberg chain and the random XX chain. We find that for two arbitrary intervals the disorder-averaged negativity and the mutual information are proportional to the number of singlets shared between the two intervals. Using the strong-disorder renormalization group (SDRG), we prove that the negativity of two adjacent intervals grows logarithmically with the intervals length. In particular, the scaling behavior is the same as in conformal field theory, but with a different prefactor. For two disjoint intervals the negativity is given by a universal simple function of the cross ratio, reflecting scale invariance. As a function of the distance of the two intervals, the negativity decays algebraically in contrast with the exponential behavior in clean models. We confirm our predictions using a numerical implementation of the SDRG method. Finally, we also implement DMRG simula...