WorldWideScience

Sample records for aa motvirke negative

  1. Environmental measures in forest. Realistic measures for counteracting negative effects of acid precipitation in forest; Miljoetiltak i skog. Realistiske tiltak for aa motvirke negative effekter av sur nedboer i skog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, P [Norsk Inst. for Skogforskning, Aas (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with an Norwegian research programme concerning environmental measures for decreasing the effects of acidification in forest areas. This programme, which lasts in a period of five years, will terminate in 1997. An important part of the programme has been to investigate other types of measures than the ordinary methods of liming and fertilizing. In the course of the programme, there was determined to put the attention to the increased use of broad-leaved trees as an alternative in a coniferous forest. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  2. The AA genotype of the regulatory BCL2 promoter polymorphism ( 938C>A) is associated with a favorable outcome in lymph node negative invasive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Hagen S; Otterbach, Friedrich; Callies, Rainer; Nückel, Holger; Bau, Maja; Schmid, Kurt W; Siffert, Winfried; Kimmig, Rainer

    2007-10-01

    Expression of the antiapoptotic and antiproliferative protein Bcl-2 has been repeatedly shown to be associated with better clinical outcome in breast cancer. We recently showed a novel regulatory (-938C>A) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the inhibitory P2 BCL2 gene promoter generating significantly different BCL2 promoter activities. Paraffin-embedded neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues from 274 patients (161 still alive after a follow-up period of at least 80 months) with primary unilateral invasive breast carcinoma were investigated. Bcl-2 expression of tumor cells was shown by immunohistochemistry; nonneoplastic tissues were used for genotyping. Both the Bcl-2 expression and the (-938C>A) genotypes were correlated with the patients' survival. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significant association of the AA genotype with increased survival (P = 0.030) in lymph node-negative breast cancer patients, whereas no genotype effect could be observed in lymph node-positive cases. Ten-year survival rates were 88.6% for the AA genotype, 78.4% for the AC genotype, and 65.8% for the CC genotype. Multivariable Cox regression identified the BCL2 (-938CC) genotype as an independent prognostic factor for cancer-related death in lymph node-negative breast carcinoma patients (hazard ratio, 3.59; P = 0.032). Immunohistochemical Bcl-2 expression was significantly associated with the clinical outcome of lymph node-positive but not of lymph node-negative breast cancer patients. In lymph node-negative cases, the (-938C>A) SNP was both significantly related with the immunohistochemically determined level of Bcl-2 expression (P = 0.044) and the survival of patients with Bcl-2-expressing carcinomas (P = 0.006). These results suggest the (-938C>A) polymorphism as a survival prognosticator as well as indicator of a high-risk group within patients with lymph node-negative breast cancer.

  3. The structural basis of the dominant negative phenotype of the Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S heterotrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Jia, Ming-zhu; Zhou, X Edward; De Waal, Parker W; Dickson, Bradley M; Liu, Bo; Hou, Li; Yin, Yan-ting; Kang, Yan-yong; Shi, Yi; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric; Jiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Dominant negative mutant G proteins have provided critical insight into the mechanisms of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, but the mechanisms underlying the dominant negative characteristics are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the dominant negative Gαi1β1γ2 G203A/A326S complex (Gi-DN) and to reveal the structural basis of the mutation-induced phenotype of Gαi1β1γ2. Methods: The three subunits of the Gi-DN complex were co-expressed with a baculovirus expression system. The Gi-DN heterotrimer was purified, and the structure of its complex with GDP was determined through X-ray crystallography. Results: The Gi-DN heterotrimer structure revealed a dual mechanism underlying the dominant negative characteristics. The mutations weakened the hydrogen bonding network between GDP/GTP and the binding pocket residues, and increased the interactions in the Gα-Gβγ interface. Concomitantly, the Gi-DN heterotrimer adopted a conformation, in which the C-terminus of Gαi and the N-termini of both the Gβ and Gγ subunits were more similar to the GPCR-bound state compared with the wild type complex. From these structural observations, two additional mutations (T48F and D272F) were designed that completely abolish the GDP binding of the Gi-DN heterotrimer. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that the mutations impede guanine nucleotide binding and Gα-Gβγ protein dissociation and favor the formation of the G protein/GPCR complex, thus blocking signal propagation. In addition, the structure provides a rationale for the design of other mutations that cause dominant negative effects in the G protein, as exemplified by the T48F and D272F mutations. PMID:27498775

  4. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  5. Abia, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abia, AA. Vol 4, No 6 (2010) - Articles Studies on the kinetics and intraparticle diffusivities of BOD, colour and TSS reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1996-0786. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  6. Aa Ah Nak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tha, Na Gya; Wus, Thay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Aa Ah Nak, the authors' methodology presents not only various reflections but also diverse contradictions about the Aa Nii language as well as language revitalization. This article explores language foundation and how the Aa Nii language revitalization is inextricably linked to the genocide and resulting historic trauma pervasive…

  7. Detection of AA76, a Common Form of Amyloid A Protein, as a Way of Diagnosing AA Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Junji; Okuda, Yasuaki; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yamada, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Reactive amyloid deposits consist of amyloid A (AA) proteins, the degradation products of serum amyloid A (SAA). Since the most common species of AA is the amino terminal portion produced by cleavage between residues 76 and 77 of SAA (AA76), the presence of AA76 in tissues could be a consequence of AA amyloid deposition. This study assessed the diagnostic significance of the detection of AA76 for AA amyloidosis using two different approaches. Biopsy specimens (n=130 from 54 subjects) from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat (n=9 from 9 subjects) of patients who had already been diagnosed with or were suspected of having AA amyloidosis were used. Fixed mucosal sections were subjected to immunohistochemistry using a newly developed antibody recognizing the carboxyl terminal end of AA76 (anti-AA76). The non-fixed materials from gastroduodenal mucosa or abdominal fat were subjected to immunoblotting for detection of the size of AA76. Among the gastroduodenal specimens (n=115) from already diagnosed patients, the positive rates of Congo red staining, immunohistochemistry using anti-AA76, and immunoblotting were 68.4%, 73.0%, and 92.2%, respectively. The anti-AA76 did not stain the supposed SAA in the blood or leakage, which was stained by anti-SAA antibody. AA76 was not detected either by immunohistochemistry or by immunoblot in the materials from patients in whom AA amyloidosis had been ruled out. In the abdominal fat, the immunoblot detected AA76 in 8 materials from 8 already diagnosed patients and did not in 1 patient whose gastroduodenal mucosa was negative. In conclusion, the detection of AA76 may alter the ability to diagnose AA amyloidosis. In immunohistochemistry for fixed specimens, the new anti-AA76 antibody can improve the specificity. Immunoblot for non-fixed materials, which can considerably improve the sensitivity, should be beneficial for small materials like abdominal fat. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  8. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  9. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  10. AA under construction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA at an early stage of construction, in the newly built AA-Hall. Cable-trays already outline the shape of the accumulator ring. To the right are huge cable-drums for the pulse-forming-network (PFN) of the injection kicker. Seeing this picture, can one imagine that only 8 months later beams were circulating in the completed accumulator ring ?

  11. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  12. Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred-Jaiyesimi, AA. Vol 12 (2008) - Articles Hypoglycaemic And Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activities Of Fermented Seeds Of Parkia Biglobosa (Jacq) Benth Abstract. ISSN: 1118-6267. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  13. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  14. AA, bending magnet, BLG

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.

  15. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  16. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  17. AAS 227: Day 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  18. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  19. AAS 228: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  20. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  1. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  2. Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, Elena; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2018-02-19

    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.

  3. Spontaneous, Experimentally Induced, and Transmissible AA Amyloidosis in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Watanabe, Gen; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2017-11-01

    The authors describe a spontaneous case of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in an adult female Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica). The bird developed AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic peritonitis caused by a Gram-negative bacillus infection. Mild amyloid deposition was also identified in the intestinal tract of apparently healthy adult individuals, suggesting that quail may develop intestinal amyloidosis with age. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that quail can develop AA amyloidosis following inflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, adult quail were repeatedly injected with LPS and the development of AA amyloidosis was confirmed. The amyloid deposition in this model increased when quail amyloid was intravenously injected as an amyloid-enhancing factor. The experiments were repeated with young quail, but amyloid deposits were not observed following LPS injections. However, AA amyloidosis did develop when quail amyloid was injected in addition to LPS. These results indicated that adult quail develop AA amyloidosis after inflammatory stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, quail AA amyloidosis was shown to have transmissibility regardless of age. Interestingly, the authors found that administration of chicken amyloid fibrils also induced AA amyloidosis in young quail. This is the first report of cross-species transmission of avian AA amyloidosis.

  4. A.A., constructivism, and reflecting teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevels, B

    1997-12-01

    Numerous studies and clinical anecdotes reveal a relationship between attendance at A.A. meetings and/or degree of involvement in A.A. and maintenance of sobriety. Hypotheses as to how A.A. and/or the A.A. meeting is helpful to its members have ranged from a focus on factors common to all therapy groups, to aspects of A.A. "treatment" which are behavioral in nature. Presented here is another way of understanding A.A.'s effectiveness within the frame of more recent, constructivistic approaches to family therapy. In particular, the A.A. topic meeting is compared to the reflecting team concept of Tom Anderson.

  5. Constitutive behavior of as-cast AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Magnin, B.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-07-01

    Recent thermomechanical modeling to calculate the stress field in industrially direct-chill (DC) cast-aluminum slabs has been successful, but lack of material data limits the accuracy of these calculations. Therefore, the constitutive behavior of three aluminum alloys (AA1050, AA3104, and AA5182) was determined in the as-cast condition using tensile tests at low strain rates and from room temperature to solidus temperature. The parameters of two constitutive equations, the extended Ludwik equation and a combination of the Sellars-Tegart equation with a hardening law, were determined. In order to study the effect of recovery, the constitutive behavior after prestraining at higher temperatures was also investigated. To evaluate the quantified constitutive equations, tensile tests were performed simulating the deformation and cooling history experienced by the material during casting. It is concluded that both constitutive equations perform well, but the combined hardening-Sellars-Tegart (HST) equation has temperature-independent parameters, which makes it easier to implement in a DC casting model. Further, the deformation history of the ingot should be taken into account for accurate stress calculations.

  6. Large magnetoresistance in (AA')2FeReO6 double perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresa, J.M. de; Serrate, D.; Blasco, J.; Ibarra, M.R.; Morellon, L.

    2005-01-01

    We review the main structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of the intriguing (AA') 2 FeReO 6 magnetic double perovskites. As the average cation size decreases, the crystallographic structure at room temperature evolves from cubic [(AA') 2 =Ba 2 , Ba 1.5 Sr 0.5 , BaSr, Ba 0.5 Sr 1.5 ] to tetragonal [(AA') 2 =Sr 2 ] and monoclinic [(AA') 2 =Ca 0.5 Sr 1.5 , CaSr, Ca 1.5 Sr 0.5 , Ca 2 ]. The Curie temperature increases anomalously from ∼303K for Ba 2 to ∼522K for Ca 2 in sharp contrast with the observed behaviour in the isostructural compounds (AA') 2 FeMoO 6 . Other anomalous features in the (AA') 2 FeReO 6 series are: the large magnetic anisotropy, the large magnetoelastic coupling and the semiconducting behaviour of the monoclinic compounds. The monoclinic compounds undergo a structural/magnetic transition at T S below 125K. Three different magnetoresistance mechanisms have been identified: the intergrain negative magnetoresistance effect, which is present across the whole series of compounds, and in the case of the monoclinic compounds below T S a negative magnetoresistance effect associated to the melting of the low-temperature phase and a positive magnetoresistance effect only present in (AA') 2 =Ca 2 below T∼50K

  7. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  8. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  9. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  10. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  11. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  12. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  13. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  14. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Come visit astrobites at the AAS booth we have swag!Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto hear from undergrads who already know and love the site, educators who want to use it in their classrooms, and students who had not yet been introduced to astrobites and were excited about a new resource!For the rest of the meeting we will be stationed at theAAS booth in the exhibit hall (booth #211-213), so drop by if you want to learn more (or pick up swag: weve got lots of stickers and sunglasses)!Mondaymorning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended this morning.Opening Address(by Susanna Kohler)AAS President Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at 8am with an overview of some of the great endeavors AAS is supporting. We astrobiters had personal motivation to drag ourselves out of bed that early: during this session, Urryannounced the new partnership between AAS and astrobites!Urry touched on some difficult topics in her welcome, including yesterdays tragedy in Orlando. Shereiteratedthe AASs support fortheCommittee for Sexual-Orientation and Gender Minorities in Astronomy (SGMA). She also reminded meeting attendees about the importance ofkeeping conference interactions professional, and pointed to the meetings anti-harassment policy.Partnership Announcement (by Michael Zevin)This morning, the American Astronomical Society announced the new partnership that it will have with Astrobites! We are beyond excited to embark on this new partnership with the

  15. Lamination sheet of AA BST magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame, long and narrow)and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a very wide aperture, 0.564 m of "good field". To demonstrate the size, the petite AA secretary, Val Mansfield, poses with a lamination sheet. See also 7811105, 7906163, 8006050.

  16. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  17. Side effects of AAS abuse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Perilli, G; Di Paolo, M; Neri, M; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic - androgenic steroids (AAS) were originally developed to promote growth of skeletal muscle. AAS abuse is commonly associated with bodybuilders, weightlifters, and other athletes. The issue of AAS toxicity is not yet completely understood since the adverse effects outline a varied scenario with side effects reported affecting many organs and systems in humans. The true incidence of AAS related medical problems is not known, due to several drawbacks in human studies. The entity of side effects depends on the sex, the dose, the duration of treatment, whether they are taken during exercise training or under sedentary conditions, and the susceptibility of the individuals themselves to androgen exposure partly depending on genetic factors. Both the acute and the chronic effects can lead to toxicity, but generally the serious and even fatal effects depend on the time and the duration of AAS administration. A limitation of human studies is represented by the fact that information about the intake of steroids are, generally, self reported and it is hardly possible to assess the exact dosage. AAS are often used in combination with other dugs or substances, so it is difficult to separate their toxic effects from those caused by the other drugs abused. Hence experimental studies conducted on animal models are mandatory to investigate the mechanisms underlying to AAS toxicity and the organ alterations due to these substances. Finally, clinicians should be aware of the complex and varied pattern of toxicity so as to be able to perform correct diagnoses and treatments.

  18. Construction and characterization of the interdomain chimeras using Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis and identification of a possible novel toxic chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunjun; Zhao, Qiang; Zheng, Dasheng; Ding, Xuezhi; Wang, Jingfang; Hu, Quanfang; Yuan, Zhiming; Park, Hyun-Woo; Xia, Liqiu

    2014-01-01

    Three structural domains of mosquitocidal Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba from Bacillus thuringiensis were exchanged to produce interdomain chimeras [BAA (11Ba/11Aa/11Aa), ABA (11Aa/11Ba/11Aa), AAB (11Aa/11Aa/11Ba), ABB (11Aa/11Ba/11Ba), BAB (11Ba/11Aa/11Ba), BBA (11Ba/11Ba/11Aa]. Chimeras BAB, BAA, BBA, and AAB formed inclusion bodies in the crystal-negative B. thuringiensis host and produced expected protein bands on SDS-PAGE gel. However, no inclusion body or target protein could be found for chimeras ABA and ABB. In bioassays using the fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, AAB had ~50 % lethal concentrations of 4.8 and 2.2 μg ml(-1), respectively; however, the rest of chimeras were not toxic. This study thus helps to understand the domain-function relationships of the Cry11Aa and Cry11Ba toxins. The toxic chimera, AAB, might be a candidate for mosquito control as its amino acid sequence is different from the two parental toxins.

  19. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  20. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  1. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  2. Magnetic horn of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1988-01-01

    In the 1960s, the invention of this "current sheet lens" has helped to greatly improve the flux of neutrino beams. It was used again at the AA, collecting antiprotons from the production target at angles too large to fit into the acceptance of the AA. It was machined from aluminium to a thickness of 1.4 mm and pulsed at 400 kA for 15 microseconds (half-sine).

  3. Trust Building Recruitment Strategies for Researchers Conducting Studies in African American (AA) Churches: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Gloria; Williams, Sharon; Wilkie, Diana; Hart, Alysha; Burnett, Glenda; Peacock, Geraldine

    2017-12-01

    An initial and vital important step in recruiting participants for church-based hospice and palliative care research is the establishment of trust and credibility within the church community. Mistrust of medical research is an extremely important barrier hindering recruitment in African American (AA) communities. A church-based EOL dementia education project is currently being conducted at four large urban AA churches. Church leaders voiced mistrust concerns of previous researchers who conducted investigations in their faith-based institutions. We explored strategies to ameliorate the mistrust concerns. Specific aim: To identify trust-rebuilding elements for researchers following others who violated trust of AA church leaders. Face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted from a convenient sample of four established AA church leaders. Interviews were held in the informants' churches to promote candor and comfort in revealing sensitive information about trust /mistrust. Content analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Elements identified from the analysis were then used to create themes. Multidimensional overarching themes emerged from the analysis included: Experience with researchers (positive and extremely negative), violation of trust and trust building strategies. Findings suggest that researchers who wish to conduct successful studies in the AA religious institutions must implement trust rebuilding strategies that include mutual respect, collaboration and partnership building. If general moral practices continue to be violated, threat to future hospice and palliative care research within the institutions may prevail. Thus, potential benefits are thwarted for the church members, AA community, and advancement of EOL care scholarship.

  4. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  5. Dual roles for CoAA and its counterbalancing isoform CoAM in human kidney cell tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Kyoung; Schiff, Rachel; Ko, Lan; Wang, Tao; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; W. O’Malley, Bert

    2008-01-01

    Co-Activator Activator (CoAA) has been reported to be a coactivator that regulates steroid receptor-mediated transcription and alternative RNA splicing. Herein we show that CoAA is a dual-function coregulator that inhibits G1/S transition in human kidney cells and suppresses anchorage independent growth and xenograft tumor formation. Suppression occurs in part by downregulating c-myc and its downstream effectors ccnd1 and skp2, and causing accumulation of p27/Kip1 protein. In this cellular setting, CoAA directly represses the proto-oncogene, c-myc by recruiting HDAC3 protein and decreasing both the acetylation of histone H3 and the presence of RNA polymerase II on the c-myc promoter. Interestingly, a splicing isoform of CoAA, Coactivator Modulator (CoAM), antagonizes CoAA-induced G1/S transition and growth inhibition by negatively regulating the mRNA levels of the endogenous CoAA isoform. In addition, we found that expression of CoAA protein is significantly decreased in human renal cell carcinoma as compared to normal kidney. Our study presents evidence that CoAA is a potential tumor suppressor in renal carcinoma and that CoAM is a counterbalancing splice-isoform. This is so far the only example of a nuclear receptor coregulator involved in suppression of kidney cancer, and suggests potentially significant new roles for coregulators in renal cancer biology. PMID:18829545

  6. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  7. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  8. Obesity is a significant susceptibility factor for idiopathic AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Dietrich, Sascha; Brune, Maik; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O

    2018-03-01

    To investigate obesity as susceptibility factor in patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were obtained from 146 patients with AA amyloidosis. Control groups comprised 40 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 controls without any inflammatory disease. Patients with AA amyloidosis had either familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) or long-standing rheumatic diseases as underlying inflammatory disease (n = 111, median age 46 years). However, in a significant proportion of patients with AA amyloidosis no primary disease was identified (idiopathic AA; n = 37, median age 60 years). Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were more obese and older than patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to FMF or rheumatic diseases. Serum leptin levels correlated with the body mass index (BMI) in all types of AA amyloidosis. Elevated leptin levels of more than 30 µg/l were detected in 18% of FMF/rheumatic + AA amyloidosis and in 40% of patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis (p = .018). Finally, the SAA1 polymorphism was confirmed as a susceptibility factor for AA amyloidosis irrespective of the type of the disease. Obesity, age and the SAA1 polymorphism are susceptibility factors for idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Recent advances in treatment of FMF and rheumatic disorders will decrease the incidence of AA amyloidosis due to these diseases. Idiopathic AA, however, might be an emerging problem in the ageing and increasingly obese population.

  9. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  10. The AA disappearing under concrete shielding

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    When the AA started up in July 1980, the machine stood freely in its hall, providing visitors with a view through the large window in the AA Control Room. The target area, in which the high-intensity 26 GeV/c proton beam from the PS hit the production target, was heavily shielded, not only towards the outside but also towards the AA-Hall. However, electrons and pions emanating from the target with the same momentum as the antiprotons, but much more numerous, accompanied these through the injection line into the AA ring. The pions decayed with a half-time corresponding to approximately a revolution period (540 ns), whereas the electrons lost energy through synchrotron radiation and ended up on the vacuum chamber wall. Electrons and pions produced the dominant component of the radiation level in the hall and the control room. With operation times far exceeding original expectations, the AA had to be buried under concrete shielding in order to reduce the radiation level by an order of magnitude.

  11. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  12. Negative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  13. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  14. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  15. Development of continuous cooling precipitation diagrams for aluminium alloys AA7150 and AA7020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@outlook.com [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Milkereit, B. [University of Rostock, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Materials Science, 18051 Rostock (Germany); University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Polymer Physics Group, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Kessler, O. [University of Rostock, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Chair of Materials Science, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Schick, C. [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics, Polymer Physics Group, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Rometsch, P.A. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • The DSC method was used for developing continuous cooling precipitation diagrams. • The quench-induced particles were observed by SEM for alloys AA7150 and AA7020. • There were more quench-induced particles in alloy AA7150. • Quench sensitivity of Al alloys can be evaluated by using the CCP diagrams. -- Abstract: Two commercial 7xxx series aluminium alloys with different solute contents and different quench-induced precipitation behaviour have been investigated by using a specialised differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique to record exothermal heat outputs during continuous cooling. Together with hardness testing and microstructural analysis, this DSC method was used to develop continuous cooling precipitation (CCP) diagrams for alloys AA7150 and AA7020. The results show that the total precipitation heat for each alloy decreases with increasing cooling rate. However, the excess specific heat at a given cooling rate in alloy AA7150 is much higher than that in alloy AA7020. It is evident that there are atleast three different quench-induced reactions in different temperature regimes for alloy AA7150 cooled at various linear cooling rates, but only equilibrium MgZn{sub 2} (η-phase) and Al{sub 2}CuMg (S-phase) particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There are at least two main precipitation peaks that can be found for alloy AA7020, which correspond to Mg{sub 2}Si and MgZn{sub 2} (η-phase). Furthermore, a method is developed to evaluate the quench sensitivity of an alloy based on a determination of the critical cooling rate. The maximum hardness values are reached at cooling rates that are faster than or similar to the critical cooling rate.

  16. AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.

  17. Overview of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    See photo 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  18. Overall view of AA (Bld 193)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  19. Overall view of AA in Bld. 193

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  20. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  1. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  2. (PCL/AA) hydrogel for controlled drug delivery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    applications, (iii) dental applications, (iv) injectable polymers, (v) ... PCL with AA grafted PCL(PCL-g-AA) on the structure ... porosity. Structure, morphology and crystallinity of PCL/ .... X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded, in reflection,.

  3. [Risk control of traditional Chinese medicines containing aristolochis acids (AAs) based on influencing factors of content of AAs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing-Zhuo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2017-12-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) widely exist in such plants as Aristolochia and Asarum. The renal toxicity of AAs as well as its carcinogenicity to urinary system have been widely known. In 2003 and 2004, China prohibited the use of Aristolochiae Radix, Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis and Aristolochiae Fangchi Radix, and required administering other AAs-containing medicines in accordance with the regulations for prescription drugs. In this paper, we retrieved literatures on the content determination of AAs in recent 10 years in China. It suggested that the AAs content is lower in Asarum herb, especially in its roots and rhizomes, and most of which do not show detectable amount of AA-I. Some of traditional Chinese medicines show fairly small amount of detectable AA-I. The AAs content in Aristolochia herb (including Fructus Aristolochiae, kaempfer dutchmanspipe root) is relatively high; however, there are fewer literatures for studying the content determination of AAs in Chinese patent medicines. There were many factors affecting AAs content, including the parts used, origins, processing methods, extraction process. It suggested that we should pay attention to the toxicity of Chinese medicines containing AAs and use these decoction pieces and traditional Chinese medicines cautiously. In addition, basic studies for the origins, processing methods and extraction process of Chinese patent medicines containing AAs, as well as supervision and detection of AAs content in traditional Chinese medicinal materials, decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicines shall be strengthened for reducing medication risk and guaranteeing clinical medication safety. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Longitudinal study of experimental induction of AA amyloidosis in mice seeded with homologous and heterologous AA fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naeem; Murakami, Tomoaki; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate pathogenesis and kinetics of experimentally induced murine AA amyloidosis seeded with homologous (murine) and heterologous (bovine) AA fibrils. Experimental AA amyloidosis was induced by administration of inflammatory stimulus and preformed AA fibrils to a total of 111 female C57/Black mice. In this longitudinal study, heterologous (bovine) as well as homologous (murine) AA fibrils were injected intraperitoneally to mice in various combinations. Re-stimulation was done at 120 or 300 days post first inoculation. To analyze the intensity of amyloid depositions in mice organs, immunohistochemical techniques and image J software were used. Assessment of cytokines level in sera was done using a Mouse Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine CBA Kit. Incidence and severity of AA amyloidosis were quite low in mice inoculated with heterologous bovine AA fibrils than homologous murine one. Homologous AA fibrils administration at first and second inoculation caused maximum amount of amyloid depositions and severe systemic form of amyloidosis. Increase in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was observed after first inoculation, while second inoculation caused a further increase in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. AA amyloidosis can be induced by heterologous as well as homologous AA fibrils. Severity of AA amyloidosis induced with homologous AA fibrils is higher compared to heterologous AA fibrils.

  5. Negative CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  6. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  7. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  8. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  9. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  10. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  11. AAS Publishing News: Astronomical Software Citation Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    Do you write code for your research? Use astronomical software? Do you wish there were a better way of citing, sharing, archiving, or discovering software for astronomy research? You're not alone! In April 2015, AAS's publishing team joined other leaders in the astronomical software community in a meeting funded by the Sloan Foundation, with the purpose of discussing these issues and potential solutions. In attendance were representatives from academic astronomy, publishing, libraries, for-profit software sharing platforms, telescope facilities, and grantmaking institutions. The goal of the group was to establish “protocols, policies, and platforms for astronomical software citation, sharing, and archiving,” in the hopes of encouraging a set of normalized standards across the field. The AAS is now collaborating with leaders at GitHub to write grant proposals for a project to develop strategies for software discoverability and citation, in astronomy and beyond. If this topic interests you, you can find more details in this document released by the group after the meeting: http://astronomy-software-index.github.io/2015-workshop/ The group hopes to move this project forward with input and support from the broader community. Please share the above document, discuss it on social media using the hashtag #astroware (so that your conversations can be found!), or send private comments to julie.steffen@aas.org.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Aa of... - Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants From Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. AA, App. A Appendix A to Subpart AA of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart A) to Subpart AA 40 CFR...

  13. Type 2C Phosphatase 1 of Artemisia annua L. Is a Negative Regulator of ABA Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA plays an important role in plant development and environmental stress response. Additionally, ABA also regulates secondary metabolism such as artemisinin in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. Although an earlier study showed that ABA receptor, AaPYL9, plays a positive role in ABA-induced artemisinin content improvement, many components in the ABA signaling pathway remain to be elucidated in Artemisia annua L. To get insight of the function of AaPYL9, we isolated and characterized an AaPYL9-interacting partner, AaPP2C1. The coding sequence of AaPP2C1 encodes a deduced protein of 464 amino acids, with all the features of plant type clade A PP2C. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression level of AaPP2C1 is increased after ABA, salt, and drought treatments. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays (BiFC showed that AaPYL9 interacted with AaPP2C1. The P89S, H116A substitution in AaPYL9 as well as G199D substitution or deletion of the third phosphorylation site-like motif in AaPP2C1 abolished this interaction. Furthermore, constitutive expression of AaPP2C1 conferred ABA insensitivity compared with the wild type. In summary, our data reveals that AaPP2C1 is an AaPYL9-interacting partner and involved in the negative modulation of the ABA signaling pathway in A. annua L.

  14. Ascorbic acid (AA) metabolism in protection against radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.C.; Koch, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility is considered that AA protects tissues against radiation damage by scavenging free radicals that result from radiolysis of water. A physiologic buffer (pH 6.7) was incubated with 14 C-AA and 1 mM thiourea (to slow spontaneous oxidation of AA). Aliquots were assayed by HPLC and scintillation spectrometry to identify the 14 C-label. Samples exposed to Cobalt-60 radiation had a half time of AA decay of 30 minutes) indicating that AA scavenges radiation-induced free radicals and forms the ascorbate free radical (AFR). Pairs of 14 C-AFR disproportionate, with the net effect of 14 C-dehydroascorbic acid formation from 14 C-AA. Having established that AFR result from ionizing radiation in an aqueous solution, the possibility was evaluated that a tissue factor reduces AFR. Cortical tissue from the kidneys of male rats was minced, homogenized in buffer and centrifuged at 8000 xg. The supernatant was found to slow the rate of radiation-induced AA degradation by > 90% when incubated at 23 0 C in the presence of 15 μM 14 C-AA. Samples of supernatant maintained at 100 0 C for 10 minutes or precipitated with 5% PCA did not prevent radiation-induced AA degradation. AA may have a specific role in scavenging free radicals generated by ionizing radiation and thereby protect body tissues

  15. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  16. Microstructural features of friction stir welded dissimilar Aluminium alloys AA2219-AA7475

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman Khan, Noor; Ubaid, Mohammed; Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Khan, Zahid A.; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman; Chen, Xizhang; Haider Abidi, Mustufa

    2018-05-01

    High strength, good corrosion resistance, light weight make aluminium alloys a material of choice in many industrial sectors like aerospace, marine etc. Problems associated with welding of these alloys by fusion welding processes restricted their use in various industries. Friction stir welding (FSW), a clean solid-state joining process, easily overcomes various difficulties encountered during conventional fusion welding processes. In the present work, the effect of rotational speed (710 rpm, 900 rpm and 1120 rpm) on micro-hardness distribution and microstructure of FSWed dissimilar aluminium alloy joints were analyzed. Plates of AA7475-T761 and AA2219-O having thickness of 2.5 mm were welded by fixing AA7475 on retreating side (RS) and AA2219 on advancing side (AS). Welded joints were characterized by Vickers micro-hardness testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). Results revealed that rotational speed significantly affects the micro-hardness due to increase in grain size, coarsening and dissolution of strengthening precipitates and re-precipitation. Higher micro-hardness values were observed in stir zone due to grain refinement and re-precipitation. Minimum micro-hardness value was observed at the TMAZ/HAZ of advancing side due to thermal softening.

  17. Experimental immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice: cyclosporin A fails to protect against AA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knospe, W.H.; Steinberg, D.; Gratwohl, A.; Speck, B.

    1984-01-01

    Immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice was induced by the i.v. injection of 10(7) lymph node cells (LNC) from H-2k identical but Mls mismatched CBA/J donor mice into previously irradiated (600 rad total body gamma) C3H/HeJ mice. Cyclosporin A (CsA), 25 mg/kg, was administered subcutaneously from day -1 to day 30. Control mice included C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad alone, C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad plus CsA as above, and C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad total body irradiation followed by 10(7) LNC from CBA/J donors. CsA failed to prevent lethal AA. These results suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms operating in immunologically mediated AA differ from the mechanisms operating in rodents transplanted with allogeneically mismatched marrow or spleen cells which develop graft-versus-host disease. The results are consistent with a non-T cell-dependent mechanism causing the AA

  18. Simon van der Meer in the AA Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1984-01-01

    Simon van der Meer, spiritus rector of the Antiproton Accumulator, in the AA Control Room. Inventor of stochastic cooling, on which the AA was based, and of the magnetic horn, with which the antiprotons were focused, he also wrote most of the software with which the AA was controlled, and spent uncountable numbers of hours in this chair to tickle the AA to top performance. 8 months after this picture was taken, he received, in October 1984, the Nobel prize, together with Carlo Rubbia, the moving force behind the whole Proton-Antiproton Collider project that led to the discovery, in 1983, of the W and Z intermediate bosons.

  19. Mechanical and corrosion properties of AA8011 sheets and foils:

    OpenAIRE

    Asanović, Vanja; Dalijić, Kemal; Radonjić, Dragan

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical and corrosion properties of a twin-roll cast Al-Fe-Si aluminum alloy with 0.74 % Fe and 0.52 % Si (AA8011) were investigated. The influence of the thermo-mehanical processing route on the mechanical behavior of AA8011 sheets was determined. Comparisons were made with AA3003 and A199.5 sheets. The restoration of the mechanical properties was used in the analysis of the recrystallization behavior of the twin-roll cast AA8011 alloy deformed under cold-working conditions and subseq...

  20. Detection of AA-type amyloid protein in labial salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacsaquispe, Sonia-Julia; Antúnez-de Mayolo, Eleazar-Antonio; Vicetti, Rodolfo; Delgado, Wilson-Alejandro

    2011-03-01

    Among the diverse forms of amyloidosis, secondary type is the most frequent one. Diagnosis of amyloid deposition is based on the identification of the fibrillary protein amyloid by means of Congo Red (CR) or crystal violet (CV) stains, but these techniques do not differentiate between the different types of amyloid fibrils. The aim of this study was to identify by immunofluorescence (IF) AA amyloid a pathological fibrillar low-molecular-weight protein formed by cleavage of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein in labial salivary gland (LSG) biopsies from patients with secondary amyloidosis. 98 LSG were studied, 65 were from patients with secondary amyloidosis and 33 from subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases without evidence of this anomaly. All sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H &E), CV, CR and IF using anti-AA antibodies. Positive and negative controls were used for all techniques. CV and CR demonstrated that the amyloid substance was found mainly distributed periductally (93.8%), followed by periacinar and perivascular locations (p <0.001); however, the IF demonstrated that amyloid AA substance predominates in the periacinar area (73.8%), followed by periductal and perivascular locations (p <0.001). IF has a sensitivity of 83%, 100% of specificity, 100% of predictive positive value and 75% of predictive negative value. The results of this study confirm the efficacy of the LSG biopsy as a highly reliable method for diagnosis of secondary amyloidosis.

  1. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An update on the correlation between the cosmic radiation intensity and the geomagnetic AA index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    A statistical study between the cosmic ray intensity, as observed by a neutron monitor, and of the geomagnetic aa index, as representative of perturbations in the plasma and interplanetary magnetic field in the heliosphere, has been updated to specifically exclude time periods around the reversal of the solar magnetic field. The results of this study show a strong negative correlation for the period 1960 through 1968 with a correlation coefficient of approximately -0.86. However, there is essentially no correlation between the cosmic ray intensity and the aa index for the period 1972-1979 (i.e. correlation coefficient less than 0.16). These results would appear to support the theory of preferential particle propagation into the heliosphere vis the ecliptic during the period 1960-1968 and via the solar polar regions during 1972-1979.

  3. Update on the correlation between the cosmic radiation intensity and the geomagnetic AA index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    A statistical study between the cosmic ray intensity, as observed by a neutron monitor, and of the geomagnetic aa index, as representative of perturbations in the plasma and interplanetary magnetic field in the heliosphere, has been updated to specifically exclude time periods around the reversal of the solar magnetic field. The results of this study show a strong negative correlation for the period 1960 through 1968 with a correlation coefficient of approximately -0.86. However, there is essentially no correlation between the cosmic ray intensity and the aa index for the period 1972-1979 (i.e. correlation coefficient less than 0.16). These results would appear to support the theory of preferential particle propagation into the heliosphere vis the ecliptic during the period 1960-1968 and via the solar polar regions during 1972-1979

  4. Hot tearing studies in AA5182

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-10-01

    One of the major problems during direct chill (DC) casting is hot tearing. These tears initiate during solidification of the alloy and may run through the entire ingot. To study the hot tearing mechanism, tensile tests were carried out in semisolid state and at low strain rates, and crack propagation was studied in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These experimentally induced cracks were compared with hot tears developed in an AA5182 ingot during a casting trial in an industrial research facility. Similarities in the microstructure of the tensile test specimens and the hot tears indicate that hot tearing can be simulated by performing tensile tests at semisolid temperatures. The experimental data were compared with existing hot tearing models and it was concluded that the latter are restricted to relatively high liquid fractions because they do not take into account the existence of solid bridges in the crack.

  5. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  6. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  7. Partially melted zone cracking in AA6061 welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad Rao, K.; Ramanaiah, N.; Viswanathan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Partially melted zone (PMZ) cracking susceptibility in AA6061 alloy was studied. Role of prior thermal history, gas tungsten arc welding techniques such as continuous current (CC) and pulsed current (PC) and use of different fillers (AA4043 and AA5356) were studied. Role of different grain refiners such as scandium, zirconium and Tibor in the above fillers was studied. Varestraint test was used to study the PMZ cracking susceptibility. Metallurgical analysis was done to corroborate the results. PMZ cracking was severe in T6 temper than in T4 irrespective of filler material. PMZ cracking susceptibility was more with AA5356 than in AA4043. It was less with pulsed current GTAW. PMZ cracking susceptibility was reduced with addition of grain refiners. Out of all, lowest PMZ cracking susceptibility was observed with 0.5%Sc addition to fusion zone through AA4043 filler and PC technique. The concentrations of magnesium and silicon were reduced at the PMZ grain boundaries with grain refiner additions to fusion zone through AA5356 or AA4043

  8. Partially melted zone cracking in AA6061 welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad Rao, K. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)], E-mail: kpr@iitm.ac.in; Ramanaiah, N. [Sri Kalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti (India); Viswanathan, N. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    2008-07-01

    Partially melted zone (PMZ) cracking susceptibility in AA6061 alloy was studied. Role of prior thermal history, gas tungsten arc welding techniques such as continuous current (CC) and pulsed current (PC) and use of different fillers (AA4043 and AA5356) were studied. Role of different grain refiners such as scandium, zirconium and Tibor in the above fillers was studied. Varestraint test was used to study the PMZ cracking susceptibility. Metallurgical analysis was done to corroborate the results. PMZ cracking was severe in T6 temper than in T4 irrespective of filler material. PMZ cracking susceptibility was more with AA5356 than in AA4043. It was less with pulsed current GTAW. PMZ cracking susceptibility was reduced with addition of grain refiners. Out of all, lowest PMZ cracking susceptibility was observed with 0.5%Sc addition to fusion zone through AA4043 filler and PC technique. The concentrations of magnesium and silicon were reduced at the PMZ grain boundaries with grain refiner additions to fusion zone through AA5356 or AA4043.

  9. INAA and flame AAS of various vegetable reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djingova, R.; Arpadjan, S.; Kuleff, I.

    1991-01-01

    INAA and flame AAS have been used for the analysis of a large number of vegetable reference materials. Out of all determined elements (28 by INAA and 11 by AAS) nine are common for both methods (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn) and for these the possibilities of the two methods have been compared. (orig.)

  10. Failure analysis of fusion clad alloy system AA3003/AA6xxx sheet under bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y., E-mail: shiyh@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Jin, H. [Novelis Global Technology Center, P.O. Box 8400, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 5L9 (Canada); Wu, P.D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Lloyd, D.J. [Aluminum Materials Consultants, 106 Nicholsons Point Road, Bath, Ontario, Canada K0H 1G0 (Canada); Embury, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-07-29

    An ingot of AA6xxx Al–Si–Mg–Cu alloy clad with AA3003 Al–Mn alloy was co-cast by Fusion technology. Bending tests and numerical modeling were performed to investigate the potential for sub-surface cracking for this laminate system. To simulate particle-induced crack initiation and growth, both random and stringer particles have been selected to mimic the particle distribution in the tested samples. The morphology of cracking in the model was similar to that observed in clad sheet tested in the Cantilever bend test. The crack initiated in the core close to the clad-core interface where the strain in the core is highest, between particles or near particles and propagates along local shear bands in the core, while the clad layer experiences extreme thinning before failure.

  11. Inhibitory effect of propolis on the development of AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harata, Daichi; Tsuchiya, Yuya; Miyoshi, Tomoyuki; Yanai, Tokuma; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2018-04-01

    In the several types of amyloidoses, participation of oxidative stresses in the pathogenesis and the effect of antioxidants on amyloidosis have been reported. Meanwhile, the relationship between oxidative stresses and pathogenesis of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is still unclear. In this study, we used an antioxidant, Brazilian propolis, to investigate the inhibitory effects on AA amyloidosis. The results showed that AA deposition was inhibited by administration of propolis. Increased expression of antioxidant markers was detected in molecular biological examinations of mice treated with propolis. Although serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were strongly correlated with the immunoreactive area of AA deposits in the control group, the correlation was weaker in the propolis-treated groups. In addition, there were no changes in SAA levels between the control group and the propolis-treated groups. The results indicate that propolis, an antioxidant, may induce inhibitory effects against AA amyloidosis.

  12. States' Flexibility Waiver Plans for Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). Synthesis Report 96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Edwards, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    All states have alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. For accountability purposes, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allows up to 1% of students to be counted as proficient with this assessment option. In 2011 the U.S. Department of…

  13. Experimental investigation of hardness of FSW and TIG joints of Aluminium alloys of AA7075 and AA6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Patil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports hardness testing conducted on welded butt joints by FSW and TIG welding process on similar and dissimilar aluminium alloys. FSW joints were produced for similar alloys of AA7075T651 and dissimilar alloys of AA7075T651- AA6061T6. The Friction stir welds of AA7075 & AA6061 aluminium alloy were produced at different tool rotational speeds of 650,700, 800, 900, 1000 and transverse speed of 30, 35, 40 mm/min. TIG welding was conducted along the rolling direction of similar and dissimilar aluminium plates. The Brinell hardness testing techniques were employed to conduct the tests; these tests were conducted on the welds to ascertain the joint integrity before characterization to have an idea of the quality of the welds

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0054 gb|AAS74186.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74187.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74231.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74233.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74373.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74186.1 0.0 100% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0048 gb|AAS74186.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74187.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74231.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74233.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74373.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74186.1 1e-163 91% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74196.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74220.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74309.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74310.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74335.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74196.1 1e-176 97% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74184.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74194.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74236.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74326.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74372.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74184.1 1e-177 97% ...

  18. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Akira [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Bainy, Afonso C.D. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Departamento de Bioquímica, CCB, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  19. The cytochrome P450 2AA gene cluster in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Expression of CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2 and response to phenobarbital-type inducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Akira; Bainy, Afonso C.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2 gene family is the largest and most diverse CYP gene family in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we have identified 10 genes in a new subfamily, CYP2AA, which does not show orthology to any human or other mammalian CYP genes. Here we report evolutionary and structural relationships of the 10 CYP2AA genes and expression of the first two genes, CYP2AA1 and CYP2AA2. Parsimony reconstruction of the tandem duplication pattern for the CYP2AA cluster suggests that CYP2AA1, CYP2AA2 and CYP2AA3 likely arose in the earlier duplication events and thus are most diverged in function from the other CYP2AAs. On the other hand, CYP2AA8 and CYP2AA9 are genes that arose in the latest duplication event, implying functional similarity between these two CYPs. A molecular model of CYP2AA1 showing the sequence conservation across the CYP2AA cluster reveals that the regions with the highest variability within the cluster map onto CYP2AA1 near the substrate access channels, suggesting differing substrate specificities. Zebrafish CYP2AA1 transcript was expressed predominantly in the intestine, while CYP2AA2 was most highly expressed in the kidney, suggesting differing roles in physiology. In the liver CYP2AA2 expression but not that of CYP2AA1, was increased by 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) and, to a lesser extent, by phenobarbital (PB). In contrast, pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) increased CYP2AA1 expression, but not CYP2AA2 in the liver. The results identify a CYP2 subfamily in zebrafish that includes genes apparently induced by PB-type chemicals and PXR agonists, the first concrete in vivo evidence for a PB-type response in fish. - Highlights: • A tandemly duplicated cluster of ten CYP2AA genes was described in zebrafish. • Parsimony and duplication analyses suggest pathways to CYP2AA diversity. • Homology models reveal amino acid positions possibly related to functional diversity. • The CYP2AA locus does not share synteny with

  20. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  1. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  2. Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections in AA collisions at high energies are considered in the Glauber multiple scattering theory taking into account many-nucleon collisions. Correspondence is found between the AA amplitude and the effective action of the two-dimensional quantum field theory with exponential interaction. The tree and one-loop contributions are calculated in this formalism. The rules are derived, which relate the absorption part of the AA-collision amplitudes associated with various inclusive cross sections to the absorption parts of NN amplitudes. These rules generalize the well-known Agranowsky-Gribov-Kanchelli rules for hh and hA collisions. Formulas are written for single and double inclusive cross sections in AA collisions

  3. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail ( at Low Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks were equally divided into three groups (20/group based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1 obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05 in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01 to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

  4. Bake hardening of nanograin AA7075 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The bake hardening behavior of AA7075 was studied and compared with its coarse-grain counterpart. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 88–100% increase in bake hardenability. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 36–38% increase in final yield strength after baking. ► Maximum bake hardenability and final yield stress were about 185 MPa and 719 MPa. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of nanostructured AA7075 aluminum alloy was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. Surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD) was used to produce nanograin layers on both surfaces of workpieces. The nanostructured layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The thickness of nanostructured layer, having the grains of 50–110 nm, was about 75 μm on each side of workpiece. The bake hardenability of nanograin and coarse-grain AA7075 was then compared by pre-straining to 2, 4 and 6% followed by baking at 100 °C and 200 °C for 20 min. Comparing to coarse-grain case, there was about 88–100% increase in bake hardenability and about 36–38% increase in yield strength after the bake hardening of present nanograin AA7075. Such an increase in bake hardenability and strength was achieved when the thickness of two nanograin layers was about only one-tenth of the whole thickness.

  5. Characteristics of AA amyloidosis patients in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejmi, Hiba; Jen, Kuang-Yu; Olson, Jean L; James, Sam H; Sam, Ramin

    2016-04-01

    AA amyloidosis due to subcutaneous injection of drugs of abuse has been described in the USA, but all the existing literature is from more than 20 years ago. There is more recent literature from Europe. We have observed a high incidence of AA amyloidosis in the county hospital in San Francisco. Here, we describe 24 patients who had kidney biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis from our hospital from 1998 to 2013. All the patients were thought to have AA amyloidosis from skin popping of illicit drugs after having exhausted the intravenous route. These patients with biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis were analysed further. All patients were found to have hepatitis C infection, hypertension was not common, most had advanced kidney failure, and acidosis was common as was tubulointerstitial involvement on the kidney biopsy. Other organ involvement included hepatomegaly and splenomegaly in a number of patients; direct myocardial involvement was not seen, but pulmonary hypertension, history of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism were common. The prognosis of these patients was poor. The mortality rate approached 50% 1 year after biopsy, and most of the patient needed dialysis shortly after diagnosis. Cessation of drug use seemed beneficial but rarely achievable. AA amyloidosis from skin popping is common in San Francisco. Most patients with renal involvement end up on dialysis, and mortality rates are exceedingly high. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74380.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74382.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74389.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74402.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74403.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74405.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74406.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74411.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74412.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74413.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0049 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0053 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 gb|AAS74960.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74962.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74964.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74966.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74970.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74972.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS74976.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74978.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74979.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74980.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0001 gb|AAS74999.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75013.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS75024.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75026.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS75043.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75052.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS75056.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75073.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS75095.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74999.1 1e-156 96% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74384.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74386.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74388.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74390.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74392.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74394.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74395.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74396.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74404.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74408.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74185.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74209.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74210.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74211.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74224.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74234.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74254.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74258.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74262.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74278.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0056 gb|AAS74383.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74385.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74397.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74398.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74401.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74414.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74416.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74418.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74419.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74424.1| 5-HT1B [Drosophila mela

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-04-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-04-0001 gb|AAS74999.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75013.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS75024.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75026.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS75043.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75052.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster]... gb|AAS75056.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS75073.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS75095.1| 5-HT2 [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74999.1 1e-165 100% ...

  16. Effect of quenching rate on precipitation kinetics in AA2219 DC cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgallad, E.M., E-mail: eelgalla@uqac.ca; Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.-G.

    2017-06-01

    Slow quenching of direct chill (DC) cast aluminum ingot plates used in large mold applications is often used to decrease quench-induced residual stresses, which can deteriorate the machining performance of these plates. Slow quenching may negatively affect the mechanical properties of the cast plates when using highly quench-sensitive aluminum alloys because of its negative effect on the precipitation hardening behavior of such alloys. The effect of the quenching rate on precipitation kinetics in AA2219 DC cast alloy was systematically studied under water and air quenching conditions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to characterize the precipitate microstructure. The results showed that the precipitation kinetics of the θ′ phase in the air-quenched condition was mostly slower than that in the water-quenched one. Air quenching continuously increased the precipitation kinetics of the θ phase compared to water quenching. These results revealed the contributions of the inadequate precipitation of the strengthening θ′ phase and the increased precipitation of the equilibrium θ phase to the deterioration of the mechanical properties of air-quenched AA2219 DC cast plates. The preexisting GP zones and quenched-in dislocations affected the kinetics of the θ′ phase, whereas the preceding precipitation of the θ′ phase affected the kinetics of the θ phase by controlling its precipitation mechanism.

  17. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This is a final post from the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. This special summary of AAS Hack Day, a meeting of AAS members to collaboratively work on various small projects, was written by Meredith Rawls (@Merrdiff) and was originally posted on astrobites.com.As the 227thAmerican Astronomical Society meeting drew to a close (see highlights from Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, and Day 4), a group of at least 50 attendees spent Day 4working on small projects fondly called hacks. Thanks to sponsorship from LSST and Northrup Grumman, the industrious hackers werewell-caffeinated and fed so we could devote time and energy toworking in groups on one-day projects.TheHack Day beganat 10am with pitches. Anybody with a project idea was welcome to briefly speak and try to convince others to work with them. Only someideas panned out, but the enthusiasm was palpable. Its not every day you get a full room of astronomers and affiliates eager to spend hours working on fun and useful projects to benefit the community.#hackAAS is getting underway! #aas227 pic.twitter.com/yX7jlOnSCK James R A Davenport (@jradavenport) January 8, 2016Here is a rundown of what we accomplished. Pretty impressive for a single day! Many thanks to fellow astrobiter Erika Nesvold (now at Carnegie DTM; @erikanesvold) whose hack was live-documenting all the other hacks. Her tweets as @astrobites appeared with the #hackaas hashtag, and her notes made this recap post infinitely easier to write.Interested in joining the fun? Sign up for Hack Day at the 2017 JanuaryAAS meeting (its free with meeting registration), and consider applying for the .Astronomy conference this summer.Towards Optimal Session Scheduling:Adrian Price-Whelan (Columbia), David Hogg (NYU), and Scott Idem (AAS) began writing a program to take all submitted abstracts to a conference like AAS and sort them using keywords to avoid scheduling similar talks in parallel sessions. Its impossible to make everyone happy, but minimizing conflicts

  18. Yield and flow properties of aluminum alloy AA 8001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.S.; Johnson, H.W.; Han, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloy AA 8001 is being used at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for nuclear reactor fuel and target components. The objective of this research was to determine parameters for predictive models of the compressive flow properties of AA 8001. Seventy-five true strain-rate, hot compression tests were performed. New, quantitative information about the yield and flow behavior of aluminum alloy AA 8001 was determined. Parameters were determined to use in a hyperbolic sine constitutive law so that the yield stress, the peak stress, and the peak strain can be predicted from the temperature-compensated strain-rate, Z. It was found that the onset of strain softening was more strongly dependent on Z than the onset of yielding was

  19. Dissimilar friction stir welds in AA5083-AA6082: The effect of process parameters on residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.J.; Withers, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tool traverse and rotation speeds on the residual stresses are quantified for welds between non-age-hardening AA5083 and age-hardening AA6082 and compared to single alloy joints made from each of the two constituents. The residual stresses have been characterised non-destructively by neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The region around the weld line was characterised by significant tensile residual stress fields which are balanced by compressive stresses in the parent material. The rotation speed of the tool has been found to have a substantially greater influence than the transverse speed on the properties and residual stresses in the welds, particularly on the AA5083 side where the location of the peak stress moves from the stir zone to beyond the edge of the tool shoulder. The changes in residual stress are related to microstructural and hardness changes as determined in a previous study . In particular the larger stresses under the weld tool on the AA5083 side compared to the AA6082 side are related to a transient reduction in yield stress due to dissolution of the hardening precipitates during welding prior to natural aging after welding

  20. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beiru; Une, Yumi; Fu, Xiaoying; Yan, Jingmin; Ge, FengXia; Yao, Junjie; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Kametani, Fuyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which are in danger of extinction, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Given the transmissible characteristics of AA amyloidosis, transmission between captive cheetahs may be a possible mechanism involved in the high incidence of AA amyloidosis. In this study of animals with AA amyloidosis, we found that cheetah feces contained AA amyloid fibrils that were different from those of the liver with regard to molecular weight and shape and had greater transmissibility. The infectious activity of fecal AA amyloid fibrils was reduced or abolished by the protein denaturants 6 M guanidine·HCl and formic acid or by AA immunodepletion. Thus, we propose that feces are a vehicle of transmission that may accelerate AA amyloidosis in captive cheetah populations. These results provide a pathogenesis for AA amyloidosis and suggest possible measures for rescuing cheetahs from extinction. PMID:18474855

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0057 gb|AAS74195.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74276.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74292.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74298.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila mela...nogaster] gb|AAS74303.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74304.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanog...aster] gb|AAS74321.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] gb|AAS74359.1| 5-HT1A [Drosophila melanogaster] AAS74195.1 1e-176 97% ...

  2. Experimental transmission of AA amyloidosis by injecting the AA amyloid protein into interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Uchida, K; Chambers, J K; Tei, M; Shoji, A; Ushio, N; Nakayama, H

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of AA amyloidosis is high in humans with rheumatoid arthritis and several animal species, including cats and cattle with prolonged inflammation. AA amyloidosis can be experimentally induced in mice using severe inflammatory stimuli and a coinjection of AA amyloid; however, difficulties have been associated with transmitting AA amyloidosis to a different animal species, and this has been attributed to the "species barrier." The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mouse, a rodent model of human rheumatoid arthritis, has been used in the transmission of AA amyloid. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with mouse AA amyloid together with a subcutaneous pretreatment of 2% AgNO3, all mice from both strains that were injected with crude or purified murine AA amyloid developed AA amyloidosis. However, the amyloid index, which was determined by the intensity of AA amyloid deposition, was significantly higher in IL-1raKO mice than in BALB/c mice. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified bovine AA amyloid together with the pretreatment, 83% (5/6 cases) and 38% (3/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 17% (1/6 cases) and 0% (0/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. Similarly, when IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified feline AA amyloid, 33% (2/6 cases) and 88% (7/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 0% (0/6 cases) and 29% (2/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. These results indicated that IL-1raKO mice are a useful animal model for investigating AA amyloidogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with AA amyloidosis: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Churg Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic and pulmonary vasculitis exceptionally associated with AA amyloidosis. We report the case of a 65-year old woman with past medical history of asthma. She developed polyarthralgia, headache and purpura. A laboratory workout found hypereosinophilia (1150/μL), positive ...

  4. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. See also 7906190, 7906193.

  5. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Anna; Cederlund, Ella; Palmberg, Carina; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Gaunitz, Stefan; Nordling, Kerstin; Ågren, Erik; Ihse, Elisabet; Westermark, Gunilla T; Tjernberg, Lars; Jörnvall, Hans; Johansson, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2017-11-01

    Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis occurs spontaneously in many mammals and birds, but the prevalence varies considerably among different species, and even among subgroups of the same species. The Blue fox and the Gray fox seem to be resistant to the development of AA amyloidosis, while Island foxes have a high prevalence of the disease. Herein, we report on the identification of AA amyloidosis in the Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Edman degradation and tandem MS analysis of proteolyzed amyloid protein revealed that the amyloid partly was composed of full-length SAA. Its amino acid sequence was determined and found to consist of 111 amino acid residues. Based on inter-species sequence comparisons we found four residue exchanges (Ser31, Lys63, Leu71, Lys72) between the Red and Blue fox SAAs. Lys63 seems unique to the Red fox SAA. We found no obvious explanation to how these exchanges might correlate with the reported differences in SAA amyloidogenicity. Furthermore, in contrast to fibrils from many other mammalian species, the isolated amyloid fibrils from Red fox did not seed AA amyloidosis in a mouse model. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  6. Making ET AAS Determination Less Dependent on Vapourization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The quantification of the analytes in ET AAS is normally attained by the measurement and integration of transient absorbance. High degree of atomization and constant vapour transportation rate for the analyte atoms in the absorption volume are considered to be crucial to grant correctness of the measurements. However ...

  7. Three body abrasion of laser surface alloyed aluminium AA1200

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser to improve the abrasion wear resistance. Aluminium surfaces reinforced with metal matrix composites and intermetallic phases were achieved. The phases present depended...

  8. Contribution to comprehensive study of aluminium alloy Aa 5083 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Corrosion induced by elemental mercury in aqueous media of industrial Aluminium alloys AA5083 used in heat exchanger industries of natural gas liquefaction has been studied by linear sweep voltammétry on ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...

  10. Backend solutions for AA in the MUSE network supporting FMC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerbos, A.N.R. van; Prins, M.; Melander, B.; Pimilla Larrucea, I.; Thakur, M.J.; Fredricx, F.

    2007-01-01

    The European MUSE project investigated fixed-mobile convergence from the perspective of an unbundled fixed network. A major part of the work consisted of finding solutions for the authentication and authorisation of users who roam from their home network to a visited network. This paper shows how AA

  11. A Status Report on the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, Richard Tresch; Fraknoi, Andrew; Gurton, Suzanne; Hurst, Anna; Schatz, Dennis L.

    2014-06-01

    The American Astronomical Society, in partnership with the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), has launched a series of professional-development workshops and a community of practice designed to improve early-career astronomers’ ability to communicate effectively with students and the public. Called AAS Astronomy Ambassadors, the program provides training and mentoring for young astronomers, from advanced undergraduates to beginning faculty; it also provides them access to resources and a network of contacts within the astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) community. Ambassadors are provided with a library of outreach activities and resource materials suitable for a range of venues and audiences. For much of this library we are using resources developed by organizations such as the ASP, the Pacific Science Center, and the Center for Astronomy Education for other outreach programs, though some resources have been created by one of us (AF) specifically for this program. After a period of evaluation and revision, the program’s “Menu of Outreach Opportunities for Science Education” (MOOSE) is now posted on the AAS website at http://aas.org/outreach/moose-menu-outreach-opportunities-science-education.The first two Astronomy Ambassadors workshops were held at AAS meetings in January 2013 and January 2014; each served 30 young astronomers chosen from about twice that many applicants. Web-based follow-up activities are being provided through a website at the ASP designed to keep cohorts of educators trained in their programs in touch with one another. The AAS is exploring ways to fund additional workshops at future winter meetings; suggestions are most welcome. Meanwhile, the Astronomy Ambassadors trained to date have logged more than 150 outreach events, reaching many thousands of children and adults across the U.S. and Canada.

  12. Dynamic Response and Microstructure Evolution of AA2219-T4 and AA2219-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, A.; Owolabi, G.; Odeshi, A.; Zeytinci, A.; Yilmaz, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the dynamic deformation behavior of AA2219 aluminum alloy was investigated in two different temper conditions: T4 and T6, with a view to determining the effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and flow behavior of the material under high strain rates. Split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment was used in determining the dynamic response of the alloy while a digital image correlation system was employed in visualizing and tracking the surface deformation of the specimens. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. The results obtained showed heterogeneous deformation of the alloy in the two temper conditions. It was observed that the dynamic mechanical behavior of each sample preparation was dependent on its strength properties due to aging type, which in turn controls the metamorphosis of the strengthening precipitates and the initial microstructure. At the maximum strain rate of 3500 s-1, transformed bands leading to crack nucleation was observed in the AA2219-T4 aluminum alloy while AA2219-T6 had fractured at the same strain rate. The modes of crack formation and growth in the two alloys were found to be similar: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. However, shear band bifurcation phenomenon was observed only in the AA2219-T6 alloy.

  13. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  14. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  15. ORF Sequence: ch_oct10_gene_aa_db [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GTGMKSFLEKLDEATKEFETQYKKWINDRREAIKKQRENEKLQKWNEISNIFKSDGVELNRDAQTPCIPEHLVEGFEESNESEDLSEIDQIEQVMLNPKGRLNFV* ... ch_oct10_gene_aa_db Chro.50191 >Chro.50191 hypothetical protein MSNSFLRDLKFVGVSSFL

  16. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  17. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  18. An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Edwards, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article…

  19. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. AA amyloidosis complicating the hereditary periodic fever syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Thirusha; Loeffler, Jutta M; Rowczenio, Dorota M; Gilbertson, Janet A; Bybee, Alison; Russell, Tonia L; Gillmore, Julian D; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Hawkins, Philip N; Lachmann, Helen J

    2013-04-01

    AA amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPFS), which are otherwise often compatible with normal life expectancy. This study was undertaken to determine the characteristics, presentation, natural history, and response to treatment in 46 patients who had been referred for evaluation at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. Disease activity was monitored by serial measurement of serum amyloid A. Renal function was assessed by measurement of serum creatinine and albumin levels, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria from 24-hour urine collections. The amyloid load was measured by serum amyloid P scintigraphy. Twenty-four patients had familial Mediterranean fever, 12 patients had tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, 6 patients had cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, and 4 patients had mevalonate kinase deficiency. The median age at onset of HPFS was 5 years; median age at presentation with AA amyloidosis was 38 years. Diagnosis of an HPFS had not been considered prior to presentation with AA amyloidosis in 23 patients (50%). Eleven patients (24%) had end-stage renal failure (ESRF) at presentation; of these, 3 had received transplants prior to referral. A further 13 patients developed ESRF over the followup period, with 10 undergoing renal transplantation. The median time to progression to ESRF from onset of AA amyloidosis was 3.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2-8), with a median time to transplant of 4 years (IQR 3-6). Eleven patients (24%) died. The median survival in the entire cohort was 19 years from diagnosis of AA amyloidosis. Of the 37 patients who were treated successfully, or in whom at least partial suppression of the underlying HPFS was achieved, 17 (46%) showed amyloid regression, 14 (38%) showed a stable amyloid load, and 2 (5%) showed increased amyloid deposition over the followup period. AA amyloidosis remains a challenging and serious late complication

  1. Simultaneous and Sequential Feature Negative Discriminations: Elemental Learning and Occasion Setting in Human Pavlovian Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeyens, Frank; Vervliet, Bram; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Eelen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Using a conditioned suppression task, we investigated simultaneous (XA-/A+) vs. sequential (X [right arrow] A-/A+) Feature Negative (FN) discrimination learning in humans. We expected the simultaneous discrimination to result in X (or alternatively the XA configuration) becoming an inhibitor acting directly on the US, and the sequential…

  2. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  3. Evolutionary status of AA Doradus: still an enigma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarna, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The evolutionary scenarios for AA Dor are reconsidered using new contraction times for degenerate red dwarfs. It is found that both types of models considered by Paczynski (1980) with the primary being either an hydrogen shell burning helium white dwarf or a double shell burning carbon-oxygen white dwarf are consistent with the available data. The second model requires a very narrow range of the initial parameters of the binary system. 26 refs. (author)

  4. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the stochastic cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning, in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. View down the centre of a pickup or kicker. See also 7906189, 7906190, 7906583.

  5. Slot-type pickup/kicker for AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" was used for both pickups and kickers of the cooling systems of the AA. They served for the cooling of the high-density antiproton stack, in momentum and both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 2 bands, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. Here we see the slotted electrodes partly pulled out of the outer casing. See also 7906189, 7906581X, 7896193.

  6. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low) K-activity levels at British (Australian) observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  7. Long-term biases in geomagnetic K and aa indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Love

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is made of the geomagnetic-activity aa index and its source K-index data from groups of ground-based observatories in Britain, and Australia, 1868.0–2009.0, solar cycles 11–23. The K data show persistent biases, especially for high (low K-activity levels at British (Australian observatories. From examination of multiple subsets of the K data we infer that the biases are not predominantly the result of changes in observatory location, localized induced magnetotelluric currents, changes in magnetometer technology, or the modernization of K-value estimation methods. Instead, the biases appear to be artifacts of the latitude-dependent scaling used to assign K values to particular local levels of geomagnetic activity. The biases are not effectively removed by weighting factors used to estimate aa. We show that long-term averages of the aa index, such as annual averages, are dominated by medium-level geomagnetic activity levels having K values of 3 and 4.

  8. Cell volume regulation in hemoglobin CC and AA erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, L.R.; Orringer, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    Swelling hemoglobin CC erythrocytes stimulates a ouabain-insensitive K flux that restores original cell volume. Studies were performed with the K analog, 86 Rb. This volume regulatory pathway was characterized for its anion dependence, sensitivity to loop diuretics, and requirement for Na. The swelling-induced K flux was eliminated if intracellular chloride was replaced by nitrate and both swelling-activated K influx and efflux were partially inhibited by 1 mM furosemide or bumetanide. K influx in swollen hemoglobin CC cells was not diminished when Na in the incubation medium was replaced with choline, indicating Na independence of the swelling-induced flux. Identical experiments with hemoglobin AA cells also demonstrated a swelling-induced increase in K flux, but the magnitude and duration of this increase were considerably less than that seen with hemoglobin CC cells. The increased K flux in hemoglobin AA cells was likewise sensitive to anion replacement and to loop diuretics and did not require the presence of Na. These data indicate that a volume-activated K pathway with similar transport characteristics exists in both hemoglobin CC and AA red cells

  9. Effect of gaussian beam on microstructural and mechanical properties of dissimilarlaser welding ofAA5083 and AA6061 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, B.; Cheepu, Muralimohan; Sivaprasad, K.; Muthupandi, V.

    2018-03-01

    The present study focuses on a sheet thickness of 4 mm using different laser power and welding rate by the laser beam welding (LBW) at a beam size180 μm. The observations on the weldments are showing that thermal conductivity of the materials plays a major role on microstructural changes. The as-welded mechanical properties were studied by correlation with its microstructures. Due to the steeper temperature gradient during the laser beam welding AA6061 was showing the greater variation compares with AA5083 side in the micro hardness studies.Also, the tensile strength of 241 MPa has been reported as highest with the welds made of laser powerat 3.5 kW and welding rate at 3.5 mmin-1.

  10. Prediction of shear and tensile strength of the diffusion bonded AA5083 and AA7075 aluminium alloy using ANN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagai Francis Britto, A.; Raj, R. Edwin; Mabel, M. Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion bonding is a pressure welding technique to establish bonds by inter diffusion of atoms. Bonding characteristics were generated by varying the significant process conditions such as the bonding temperature, the pressing load and the duration of pressure while bonding the aluminium alloys AA5083 and AA7075. Deriving analytical correlation with the process variables to weld strength is quite involved due to the non-linear dependency of the process variables with the mechanical strength of the joints. An arbitrary function approximation mechanism, the artificial neural network (ANN) is therefore employed to develop the models for predicting the mechanical properties of the bonded joints. Back propagation technique, which alters the network weights to minimize the mean square error was used to develop the ANN models. The models were tested, validated and found to be satisfactory with good prediction accuracy.

  11. Prediction of shear and tensile strength of the diffusion bonded AA5083 and AA7075 aluminium alloy using ANN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagai Francis Britto, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, St.Xavier' s Catholic College of Engineering, Nagercoil 629003,Tamil Nadu (India); Raj, R. Edwin, E-mail: redwinraj@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, St.Xavier' s Catholic College of Engineering, Nagercoil 629003,Tamil Nadu (India); Mabel, M. Carolin [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, St.Xavier' s Catholic College of Engineering, Nagercoil 629003,Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-04-24

    Diffusion bonding is a pressure welding technique to establish bonds by inter diffusion of atoms. Bonding characteristics were generated by varying the significant process conditions such as the bonding temperature, the pressing load and the duration of pressure while bonding the aluminium alloys AA5083 and AA7075. Deriving analytical correlation with the process variables to weld strength is quite involved due to the non-linear dependency of the process variables with the mechanical strength of the joints. An arbitrary function approximation mechanism, the artificial neural network (ANN) is therefore employed to develop the models for predicting the mechanical properties of the bonded joints. Back propagation technique, which alters the network weights to minimize the mean square error was used to develop the ANN models. The models were tested, validated and found to be satisfactory with good prediction accuracy.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF EFFECT OF COOLING CONDITIONS ON HARDNESS OF THE AA 2024 AND AA 2014 WROUGHT ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya KAÇAR DURMUŞ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of some aluminum alloys can be changed with precipitation hardening. This intermetallic precipitates are incoherent with the main structure and increased mechanical properties. Cooling rates after solid solution process effects properties after precipitation. In applications, however this is not taken into consideration. In this study, AA 2014 and AA 2024 Aluminium Alloy specimens were hold for one hour at 495±3 0C and formed a solid solution. Specimens were quenched at this temperature with different cooling rtes . later artificial aging was applied at 150 0C and 180 0C. The hardness and microstructure variations of the specimens were investigated depending on the cooling rates and artificial aging temperatures.

  13. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  14. Microstructure, mechanical properties and texture of an AA6061/AA5754 composite fabricated by cross accumulative roll bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, K., E-mail: kevin.verstraete@u-psud.fr [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Helbert, A.L. [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Brisset, F. [Université Paris-Sud, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Benoit, A.; Paillard, P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502, Polytech’Nantes, Nantes Cedex (France); Baudin, T. [Université Paris-Sud, SP2M, ICMMO, UMR CNRS 8182, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2015-07-29

    AA6061 alloy is a widely used material in the automotive and aerospace industries, but is prone to hot cracking, which limits its weldability. To prevent this phenomenon, the AA6061/AA5754 composite was formed using a severe plastic deformation technique, Cross Accumulative Roll Bonding (CARB), at an elevated temperature (350 °C) to ensure good bonding between layers. This technique was efficient to maintain a small grain size, even under the process temperature conditions, and consequently, preserve good mechanical properties. The composite had better mechanical properties than the initial aluminium alloys. Microstructure and texture remained stable after two cycles and yield stress tended towards an equal value in the rolling and the transverse directions. After two cycles, the main component was the {001}〈110〉 rotated Cube, which was maintained for up to 10 cycles. Diffusion was more effective as the strain increased. Finally, a tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process was performed on the composite and confirmed resistance to hot cracking.

  15. [A review for recent advances in AA amyloid research and therapeutic approach to AA amyloidosis complicating rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroaki; Hasegawa, Kiminori

    2009-02-01

    AA amyloidosis is a life threatening clinical complication of chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. It has been demonstrated biochemically that amyloidosis resulted from abnormal folding of proteins, which are deposited as insoluble fibrils in extracellular tissue, leading to the disruption of their normal function. In this regard, amyloidosis has been recognized as a conformation disorder. Interestingly, genetic polymorphisms of amyloid precursor protein (SAA) have been reported to associate with increased risk for AA amyloidosis. Also recent biochemical research revealed that SAA is synthesized under the influence of the proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1. Additionally, it was suggested that amyloid deposits in extracellular tissue could reflect to the serum level of SAA in the reversible fashion, leading to the hypothesis that the control of the SAA synthesis could be beneficial to the treatment of amyloidosis. In this context, anti-cytokine therapies may be most effective. Especially the inhibition of IL-6 is critical to suppression of SAA production, so treatment with a humanized monoclonal antibody against human IL-6 receptor may not only ameliorate RA disease activity but also pave the way for the treatment of AA amyloidosis.

  16. A Modality Called 'Negation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, F.

    2015-01-01

    I propose a comprehensive account of negation as a modal operator, vindicating a moderate logical pluralism. Negation is taken as a quantifier on worlds, restricted by an accessibility relation encoding the basic concept of compatibility. This latter captures the core meaning of the operator. While

  17. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  18. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology... submission of requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The... for ONC-AA status may be submitted. The 30-day period for submission of requests for ONC-AA status...

  19. [AA amyloidosis: a little-known complication of chronic leg ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waton, J; Fays-Michel, S; Chandeclerc, M L; Corby, S; Cuny, J F; Barbaud, A; Schmutz, J-L

    2008-02-01

    AA amyloidosis, secondary to inflammatory chronic diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, is often complicated by renal failure. Chronic inflammatory dermatoses constitute rare causes of AA amyloidosis. We describe two cases of AA amyloidosis discovered after renal failure in patients presenting leg ulcers for several years. AL amyloidosis was suspected in both cases because of a history of monoclonal gammopathy in one patient and of plasmocytoma in the other. The diagnosis of AA amyloidosis was confirmed on renal histology through the detection of AA antibodies in amyloid deposits. No extrarenal amyloidosis was seen in either patient and there were no inflammatory diseases other than chronic leg ulcers. AA amyloidosis is caused by serum amyloid protein A (SAA), a reactive inflammatory protein. AA amyloidosis is thus caused by chronic inflammatory diseases, but only rarely by cutaneous inflammatory diseases. To our knowledge, the literature contains only seven other published cases of AA amyloidosis secondary to chronic leg ulcers. A review of the literature does not indicate whether cure of ulcers has any effect on the accompanying renal failure. We imagine that AA amyloidosis secondary to leg ulcer is in fact under-diagnosed. However, since the first specific treatment for AA amyloidosis is currently being evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration, it is essential that this serious complication of chronic leg ulcers be widely recognised.

  20. Core–corona PSt/P(BA–AA) composite particles by two-stage emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Delong; Ren, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xinya, E-mail: cexyzh@scut.edu.cn; Liao, Shijun [South China University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2016-03-15

    Raspberry-shaped composite particles with polystyrene (PSt) as core and poly(n-butyl acrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(BA–AA)) as corona were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The random copolymer, P(BA–AA), was pre-prepared and used as a polymeric surfactant, its emulsifying properties adjusted by changing the mass ratio of BA and AA. The morphology of the resulting core–corona composite particles, P(St/P(BA–AA)), could be regulated and controlled by varying the concentrations of P(BA–AA) or the mass ratio of BA:AA in P(BA–AA). The experimental results indicate that 3.0–6.0 wt% of P(BA–AA) is required to obtain stable composite emulsions, and P(BA–AA) with a mass ratio of BA:AA = 1:2 is able to generate distinct core–corona structures. A mechanism of composite particle formation is proposed based on the high affinity between the PSt core and the hydrophobic segments of P(BA–A). The regular morphology of the colloidal film is expected to facilitate potential application of core–corona particles in the field of light scattering. Furthermore, the diversity of core–corona particles can be expanded by replacing P(BA–AA) corona particles with other amphiphilic particles.

  1. AA Attendance and Abstinence for Dually Diagnosed Patients: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tonigan, J; Pearson, Matthew R; Magill, Molly; Hagler, Kylee J

    2018-05-29

    There is consensus that best clinical practice for dual diagnosis (DD) is integrated mental health and substance use treatment augmented with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance. This is the first quantitative review of the direction and magnitude of the association between AA attendance and alcohol abstinence for DD patients. A systematic literature search (1993-2017) identified 22 studies yielding 24 effect sizes that met our inclusion criteria (8,075 patients). Inverse-variance weighting of correlation coefficients (r) was used to aggregate sample-level findings and study aims were addressed using random and mixed effect models. Sensitivity and publication bias analyses were conducted to assess the likelihood of bias in the overall estimate of AA-related benefit. AA exposure and abstinence for DD patients were significantly and positively associated (r w =.249; 95% CI.203-.293; Tau=.097). There was also significant heterogeneity in the distribution of effect sizes, (Q(23)=90.714, pAA-related benefit did not differ between 6 (k=7) and 12 (k=12) month follow-up, (Q=.068, pAA benefit was not adversely or substantively impacted by pooling RCT and observational samples (Q=.763, pAA (Q=.023, pAA) is common and, in many cases, DD patients who attend AA will report higher rates of alcohol abstinence relative to DD patients who do not attend AA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Role and mechanism of AT1-AA in the pathogenesis of HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Shurui; Wang, Yuxian; Sun, Shuqing; Zheng, Yanqian; Jin, Zhu; Zhi, Jianming

    2018-01-10

    HELLP syndrome remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, which symptoms include hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. The objective of this study was to determine whether HELLP is associated with AT1-AA. The positive rate and titer of AT1-AA in plasma from pregnant women were determined, and the correlation of AT1-AA titer with the grade of HELLP was analyzed. A HELLP rat model established by intravenous injection of AT1-AA. Our experimental results show the AT1-AA titer and positive rate were significantly higher in HELLP group, and AT1-AA titer were positively correlated with the level of TNF-α and ET-1 in plasma and the grade of HELLP syndrome. The results of animal experiments showed that the typical features of HELLP in the pregnant rats after AT1-AA injection. The levels of TNF-α and ET-1 in plasma and liver tissue were significantly increased in AT1-AA-treated rats compared with control rats. The HELLP syndrome induced by AT1-AA was attenuated markedly after administration of losartan. These data support the hypothesis that one the potential pathway that AT1-AA induce damage to capillary endothelial cells and liver during pregnancy is through activation of TNF-α and ET-1.

  3. Effect of precipitates on mechanical properties of AA2195

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Hee; Jeun, Jeong-Hoon; Chun, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Ye Rim; Yoo, Joon-Tae; Yoon, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Addition of 1–4 wt.% lithium into a conventional Al–Cu–Mg alloy allows lower density and higher mechanical properties, which are attractive for aerospace applications. In this study, fundamental investigations including phase and microstructure evolution, resulting in strengthening, of the AA2195 are conducted to observe a possibility of production with commercial level. Precipitation sequence and kinetics during post-annealing were evaluated with variations of temperature and holding time. Microstructures revealed formation and evolution in representative precipitates including θ (Al_2Cu), ß′ (Al_3Zr), and T (Al_xLi_yCu) series. Aluminum alloys have low hardness, modulus, and strength before aging, but precipitates such as θ′ (Al_2Cu), ß′ (Al_3Zr), and T_1 (Al_2LiCu) show enhanced mechanical properties of AA2195 tempered because of their interaction with dislocation. However, longer holding time and higher annealing temperature result in significant decreases in mechanical properties due to the presence of incoherent precipitates (θ phase) and coarsening of the precipitates via grain-boundary diffusion. In the current study, the tensile strength of 560 MPa was obtained with post-heat treatment without work hardening. This value has never been achieved in other studies. The maximum strength was reported as 500 MPa without a work hardening process. - Highlights: • A relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties to post annealing AA2195. • A formation and dissolution of the precipitates were observed for various treatment. • An optimum post-annealing condition was obtained.

  4. Introducing the AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezic, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    In response to two White Papers submitted to the Astro2010 Decadal Survey (1,2), a new AAS Working Group on Astroinformatics and Astrostatistics (WGAA) has been approved by the AAS Council at the 220th Meeting, June 2012, in Anchorage. The motivation for this WG is the growing importance of the interface between astronomy and various branches of applied mathematics, computer science and the emerging field of data science. With the new data-intensive projects envisioned for the coming decade, the need for advice derived from the focused attention of a group of AAS members who work in these areas is bound to increase. The Working Group is charged with spreading awareness of rapidly advancing computational techniques, sophsticated statistical methods, and highly capble software to further the goals of astronomical and astrophysical research. The three main strategic goals adopted by the WGAA Steering Committee for the next few years are to: (i) develop, organize and maintain methodological resources (such as software tools, papers, books, and lectures); (ii) enhance human resources (such as foster the creation of career paths, establish a Speakers' Bureau, establish and maintain an archived discussion forum, enable periodic news distribution); and (iii) organize topical meetings. The WGAA Steering Committee at this time includes twelve members: Kirk Borne, George Djorgovski, Eric Feigelson, Eric Ford, Alyssa Goodman, Joe Hilbe, Zeljko Ivezic (chair), Ashish Mahabal, Aneta Siemiginowska, Alex Szalay, Rick White, and Padma Yanamandra-Fisher. I will summarize our accomplishments since July 2012. (1) Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy (Borne & 90 coauthors), (2) The Astronomical Information Sciences: A Keystone for 21st-Century Astronomy (Loredo & 72 coauthors)

  5. Effect of precipitates on mechanical properties of AA2195

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Hee [Launcher Structure and Materials Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeun, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Hyun-Jin [Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Lee, Ye Rim [Department of Aerospace System Engineering, University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Joon-Tae [Launcher Structure and Materials Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jong-Hoon [Launcher Structure and Materials Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Aerospace System Engineering, University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Sung, E-mail: hslee@kari.re.kr [Launcher Structure and Materials Team, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Aerospace System Engineering, University of Science & Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-05

    Addition of 1–4 wt.% lithium into a conventional Al–Cu–Mg alloy allows lower density and higher mechanical properties, which are attractive for aerospace applications. In this study, fundamental investigations including phase and microstructure evolution, resulting in strengthening, of the AA2195 are conducted to observe a possibility of production with commercial level. Precipitation sequence and kinetics during post-annealing were evaluated with variations of temperature and holding time. Microstructures revealed formation and evolution in representative precipitates including θ (Al{sub 2}Cu), ß′ (Al{sub 3}Zr), and T (Al{sub x}Li{sub y}Cu) series. Aluminum alloys have low hardness, modulus, and strength before aging, but precipitates such as θ′ (Al{sub 2}Cu), ß′ (Al{sub 3}Zr), and T{sub 1} (Al{sub 2}LiCu) show enhanced mechanical properties of AA2195 tempered because of their interaction with dislocation. However, longer holding time and higher annealing temperature result in significant decreases in mechanical properties due to the presence of incoherent precipitates (θ phase) and coarsening of the precipitates via grain-boundary diffusion. In the current study, the tensile strength of 560 MPa was obtained with post-heat treatment without work hardening. This value has never been achieved in other studies. The maximum strength was reported as 500 MPa without a work hardening process. - Highlights: • A relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties to post annealing AA2195. • A formation and dissolution of the precipitates were observed for various treatment. • An optimum post-annealing condition was obtained.

  6. Slot-type kicker for the AA stochastic cooling

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1979-01-01

    A "slotted transmission line" structure was used for both pickups and the kicker of one of the stochastic cooling systems of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA). They served for the cooling of the high-density stack, in momentum and in both transverse planes. In the beginning in a single band, 1-2 GHz, later in 3 bands, 1-2, 2-4 and 4-8 GHz. The kicker of the first generation, shown here, was located where the dispersion was zero and the beam size small, and thus had a quadratic cross-section. The pickups were rectangular and wider in the horizontal plane. See also 7906193

  7. Qualitative soil mineral analysis by EDXRF, XRD and AAS probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Virendra; Agrawal, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil minerals study is vital in terms of investigating the major soil forming compounds and to find out the fate of minor and trace elements, essential for the soil–plant interaction purpose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a popular technique to search out the phases for different types of samples. For the soil samples, however, employing XRD is not so straightforward due to many practical problems. In the current approach, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to have an idea of the minerals present, in qualitative manner, in the soil under study. PCA was used on the elemental concentrations data of 17 elements, determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. XRD analysis of soil samples has been done also to identify the minerals of major elements. Some prior treatments, like removal of silica by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) slurry and grinding with alcohol, were given to samples to overcome the peak overlapping problems and to attain fine particle size which is important to minimize micro-absorption corrections, to give reproducible peak intensities and to minimize preferred orientation. A 2θ step of 0.05°/min and a longer dwell time than normal were used to reduce interferences from background noise and to increase the counting statistics. Finally, the sequential extraction procedure for metal speciation study has been applied on soil samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to find the concentrations of metal fractions bound to various forms. Applying all the three probes, the minerals in the soils can be studied and identified, successfully. - Highlights: ► Qualitative soil minerals analysis by EDXRF, AAS and XRD methods. ► There is a requirement of other means and methods due to inadequacy of XRD. ► Principal component analysis (PCA) provides an idea of minerals present in soil. ► Trace elements complexes can be determined by AAS probe. ► EDXRF, AAS and XRD, in combination, enable

  8. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  9. Langevin dynamics of A+A reactions in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, J M; Romero, A H; Lacasta, A M; Lindenberg, Katja

    2007-01-01

    We propose a set of Langevin equations of motion together with a reaction rule for the study of binary reactions. Our scheme is designed to address this problem for arbitrary friction γ and temperature T. It easily accommodates the inclusion of a substrate potential, and it lends itself to straightforward numerical integration. We test this approach on diffusion-limited (γ → ∞) as well as ballistic (γ = 0) A+A → P reactions for which there are extensive exact and approximate theoretical results as well as extensive Monte Carlo results. We reproduce the known results using our integration scheme, and also present new results for the ballistic reactions

  10. Inside Hall 193 for the Antiproton Accumulator (AA) ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Installation work is in full swing. A model quadrupole on the left shows where the magnet ring will be. The cables wound on drums are part of the pulse-forming network for the injection kicker. See Annual Report 1979 p. 103, Fig. 9 and photo 7911303. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  11. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FI-AAS) -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    One of the advantages of the flow injection (FI) concept is that it is compatible with virtually all detection techniques. Being a versatile vehicle for enhancing the performance of the individual detection devices, the most spectacular results have possibly been obtained in conjunction with atomic...... the point of sample injection/introduction to the point of detection. Hence, in FI-fAAS this feature allows not only to obtain improved repeatability but also improved accuracy, and because the wash to sample ratio is high it permits the handling of samples with elevated salt contents - which...

  12. Atomic negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given

  13. Antiangiogenic effects of AA-PMe on HUVECs in vitro and zebrafish in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yue Jing,1,2,* Gang Wang,1,* Qi Xiao,1 Yachun Zhou,1 Yingjie Wei,3 Zhunan Gong1 1Center for New Drug Research and Development, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China; 2Central Laboratory of Stomatology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; 3Key Laboratory of Oral Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Branch of China Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Angiogenesis plays a vital role in many physiological and pathological processes and several diseases are connected with its dysregulation. Asiatic acid (AA has demonstrated anticancer properties and we suspect this might be attributable to an effect on angiogenesis. A modified derivative of AA, N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl-L-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe, has improved efficacy over its parent compound, but its effect on blood vessel development remains unclear. Methods: In this study, we investigated the antiangiogenic activity of AA and AA-PMe in zebrafish embryos and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. First of all, we treated HUVECs with increasing concentrations of AA-PMe or AA, with or without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF present, and assessed cell viability, tube formation, and cell migration and invasion. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were later used to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2-mediated signaling in AA-PMe inhibition of angiogenesis. We extended these studies to follow angiogenesis using Tg(fli:EGFP transgenic zebrafish embryos. For these experiments, embryos were treated with varying concentrations of AA-PMe or AA from 24 to 72 hours postfertilization prior to morphological observation, angiogenesis assessment, and endogenous alkaline

  14. Microstructural characterization of fly ash particulate reinforced AA6063 aluminium alloy for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, A. M.; Majid, D. L. Abang Abdul; Ishak, M. R.; Uday, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Aluminium-fly ash (FA) particulate reinforced composites (AA6063-FA) have been used in automotive and aerospace industries because of their low density and good mechanical properties. Three different weight fraction of FA: 2%, 4% and 6% are added to AA6063 alloy using compocasting method. The effect of FA particulates on microstructure, density and compression strength of AA6063- FA composites are investigated. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) micrographs reveal that the FA particulates are uniformly distributed in AA6063 alloy. The results also show that density, compression strength and microstructure of the AA6063-FA composites are significantly influenced by the FA amount. The increase in the weight fraction of FA will improve the microstructure and enhance the compression strength. The density of AA6063-FA composites decreases as the incorporation of FA increases.

  15. Comparison of calculated and experimentally determined SID of CP and AA in complex diets differing in AA contents for grower finisher pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsing, K; Berk, A; Müller, S; Kieckhäven, S; Krüger, K; Zeyner, A

    2017-10-01

    In practice, the content of standardized ileal digestible AA in complex feeds for pigs is calculated on the basis of tabulated values for individual feedstuffs. It comes into question, however, whether this truly reflects an accurate content based upon the estimate made for the individual feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and selected AA in complex feeds for grower and finisher pigs either calculated or experimentally determined. Six diets with increasing AA levels were prepared for grower (BW from 30 to 70 kg) and finisher (BW from 70 to 120 kg) feed. Crystalline L-lys, DL-met and L-thr were added to both diets, L-trp and L-val only to the grower feed. SID of both CP and AA was calculated from feed tables and experimentally determined in six adult minipigs (MINILEWE) with ileorectal anastomosis. With increasing AA levels, experimentally determined SID of supplemented AA increased (p AA via tabulated values for individual feedstuffs, however, seems to be acceptable for practical use. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The Effect of Applied Tensile Stress on Localized Corrosion in Sensitized AA5083

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    corrosion, but if exposed to elevated temperature for prolonged periods of time the alloy becomes sensitized. Since the β phase is more anodic than the...degree of localized corrosion for sensitized AA5083 under an applied tensile stress. AA5083 is an aluminum -magnesium alloy that experiences severe...direction. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Aluminum alloy , AA5083, IGSCC, intergranular stress corrosion cracking, localized corrosion, sensitized aluminum 15

  17. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

  18. AAS Publishing News: Preparing Your Manuscript Just Got Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Watermarking using the command watermark{DRAFT, v2}.Are you an astronomer considering submitting a paper to an AAS journal (i.e., AJ, ApJ, ApJ Letters, or ApJ Supplements)? If so, this post is for you! Read on to find out about the exciting new things you can do with the AASs newest LaTeX class file, available for download now.Why the Update?AAS publishing has maintained a consistent class file for LaTeX manuscript preparation for the past decade. But academic publishing is changing rapidly in todays era of electronic journals! Since its journals went fully electronic, the AAS has been continuously adding new publishing capabilities based on the recommendations of the Journals Task Force and the needs and requests of AAS authors. The AASs manuscript preparation tools are now being updated accordingly.Whats New in AASTex 6.0?There are many exciting new features and capabilities in AASTex 6.0. Here are just a few:Tracking options for author revisions include added{text}, deleted{text}, replaced{old}{new}, and explain{text}.Based on emulateapjDo you use the popular class file emulateapj to prepare your manuscripts? AASTex 6.0 is based on emulateapj, rather than on the older AASTex 5.2 (though 5.2 is still supported). This means that it is easy to produce a double-columned, single-spaced, and astro-ph-ready manuscript. Since two thirds of the AAS journals authors use emulateapj, this transition was designed to make manuscript preparation and sharing an easier and more seamless process.Tools for collaborationsDo you work in a large collaboration? AASTex now includes new tools to make preparing a manuscript within a collaboration easier. Drafts can now be watermarked to differentiate between versions. New markup for large author lists streamlines the display so that readers can access article information immediately, yet they can still access the full author list and affiliations at the end of the paper. And author revision markup allows members of a collaboration to

  19. Anodising and corrosion resistance of AA 7050 friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atz Dick, Pedro; Knörnschild, Gerhard H.; Dick, Luís F.P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sulphuric Anodizing films of AA7050 friction stir welds are 25% thinner on the nugget zone. • Semicoherent MgZn_2 precipitates locally pin the formation of anodic oxide film. • Coarse Al_7Cu_2Fe precipitates anodize irregularly and produces locally thicker films. • Localized corrosion occurs preferentially on the nugget zone and is related to the thinner oxide film and irregular anodizing on stirring voids. - Abstract: The influence of friction stir welding on the sulphuric anodising and corrosion of AA7050 was studied in 0.1 M NaCl by the scanning vibrating electrode technique under simultaneous polarization. The oxide films obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porous oxide films are up to 25% thicker on the thermomechanically and heat affected zones and 25% thinner on the nugget. This thinner defective oxide film explains the lower pitting resistance of the nugget zone. Individual pit current transients were indirectly determined from current maps. However, the calculated values are lower than expected, due to underestimation of electrolyte conductivity near pits.

  20. Antiangiogenic effects of AA-PMe on HUVECs in vitro and zebrafish in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Qi; Zhou, Yachun; Wei, Yingjie; Gong, Zhunan

    2018-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a vital role in many physiological and pathological processes and several diseases are connected with its dysregulation. Asiatic acid (AA) has demonstrated anticancer properties and we suspect this might be attributable to an effect on angio-genesis. A modified derivative of AA, N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-L-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), has improved efficacy over its parent compound, but its effect on blood vessel development remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the antiangiogenic activity of AA and AA-PMe in zebrafish embryos and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). First of all, we treated HUVECs with increasing concentrations of AA-PMe or AA, with or without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) present, and assessed cell viability, tube formation, and cell migration and invasion. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were later used to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-mediated signaling in AA-PMe inhibition of angiogenesis. We extended these studies to follow angiogenesis using Tg(fli:EGFP) transgenic zebrafish embryos. For these experiments, embryos were treated with varying concentrations of AA-PMe or AA from 24 to 72 hours postfertilization prior to morphological observation, angiogenesis assessment, and endogenous alkaline phosphatase assay. VEGFR2 expression in whole embryos following AA-PMe treatment was also determined. We found AA-PMe decreased cell viability and inhibited migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent manner in HUVECs. Similarly, AA-PMe disrupted the formation of intersegmental vessels, the dorsal aorta, and the posterior cardinal vein in zebrafish embryos. Both in vitro and in vivo AA-PMe surpassed AA in its ability to block angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and disrupting downstream extracellular regulated protein kinase and AKT signaling. For the first time

  1. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  2. Microsolvation of the acetanilide cation (AA(+)) in a nonpolar solvent: IR spectra of AA(+)-L(n) clusters (L = He, Ar, N2; n ≤ 10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmies, Matthias; Patzer, Alexander; Schütz, Markus; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Dopfer, Otto

    2014-05-07

    Infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra of mass-selected cluster ions of acetanilide (N-phenylacetamide), AA(+)-Ln, with the ligands L = He (n = 1-2), Ar (n = 1-7), and N2 (n = 1-10) are recorded in the hydride stretch (amide A, νNH, νCH) and fingerprint (amide I-III) ranges of AA(+) in its (2)A'' ground electronic state. Cold AA(+)-Ln clusters are generated in an electron impact ion source, which predominantly produces the most stable isomer of a given cluster ion. Systematic vibrational frequency shifts of the N-H stretch fundamentals (νNH) provide detailed information about the sequential microsolvation process of AA(+) in a nonpolar (L = He and Ar) and quadrupolar (L = N2) solvent. In the most stable AA(+)-Ln clusters, the first ligand forms a hydrogen bond (H-bond) with the N-H proton of trans-AA(+) (t-AA(+)), whereas further ligands bind weakly to the aromatic ring (π-stacking). There is no experimental evidence for complexes with the less stable cis-AA(+) isomer. Quantum chemical calculations at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level confirm the cluster growth sequence derived from the IR spectra. The calculated binding energies of De(H) = 720 and 1227 cm(-1) for H-bonded and De(π) = 585 and 715 cm(-1) for π-bonded Ar and N2 ligands in t-AA(+)-L are consistent with the observed photofragmentation branching ratios of AA(+)-Ln. Comparison between charged and neutral AA((+))-L dimers indicates that ionization switches the preferred ion-ligand binding motif from π-stacking to H-bonding. Electron removal from the HOMO of AA(+) delocalized over both the aromatic ring and the amide group significantly strengthens the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond and weakens the N-H bond of the amide group.

  3. Comparison of susceptibility to pitting corrosion of AA2024-T4, AA7075-T651 and AA7475-T761 aluminium alloys in neutral chloride solutions using electrochemical noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung-Hwan; Pyun, Su-Il

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility to pitting corrosion of AA2024-T4, AA7075-T651 and AA7475-T761 aluminium alloys was investigated in aqueous neutral chloride solution for the purpose of comparison using electrochemical noise measurement. The experimentally measured electrochemical noises were analysed based upon the combined stochastic theory and shot-noise theory using the Weibull distribution function. From the occurrence of two linear regions on one Weibull probability plot, it was suggested that there existed two stochastic processes of uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion; pitting corrosion was distinguished from uniform corrosion in terms of the frequency of events in the stochastic analysis. Accordingly, the present analysis method allowed us to investigate pitting corrosion independently. The susceptibility to pitting corrosion was appropriately evaluated by determining pit embryo formation rate in the stochastic analysis. The susceptibility was decreased in the following order: AA2024-T4 (the naturally aged condition), AA7475-T761 (the overaged condition) and AA7075-T651 (the near-peak-aged condition)

  4. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  5. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  6. Effect of pin tool design on the material flow of dissimilar AA7075-AA6061 friction stir welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammed M.; Ishak, M.; Rejab, M. R. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tool design is the most influential aspect in the friction stir welding (FSW) technology. Influence of pin tool geometry on material flow pattern are studied in this work during the FSW of dissimilar AA7075 and AA6061 aluminium alloys. Three truncated pin tool profiles (threaded, threaded with single flat, and unthreaded with single flat) were used to prepare the weldments. The workpieces were joined using a custom-made clamping system under 1100 rpm of spindle speed, 300 mm/min of traverse rate and 3° of tilt angle. The metallographic analysis showed that defect-free welds can be produced using the three pin tools with significant changes in the mixing stir zone structure. The results declared that the introducing of the flat on the cone of the probe deviates the pattern of the onion rings without changing the chemical composition of the created layers. This in turn improves the hardness distribution and tensile strength of the welded joint. It was also noted that both heat affected zone (HAZ) and thermal-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) are similar in composition to their corresponding base materials (BM).

  7. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  8. Reinforcement with alumina particles at the interface region of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 alloys during friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, R.; Thansekhar, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals the combinational effect of friction stir welding and friction stir processing on dissimilar AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys. For that, alumina particles are reinforced at interface region of AA6101-T6 and AA1350 aluminium alloys. Friction Stir Welding and Friction Stir Processing are done simultaneously for various sizes of groove. To analyze the welding quality and surface modifications, mechanical, wear and microstructural tests are carried out. Among these, smallest groove of 0.5 mm width and 1 mm depth reveals highest tensile and bending strengths and largest groove of 2 mm width and 3 mm depth gives maximum hardness and wear resistance. Taguchi technique shows that groove width is most influencing parameter. Developed second order models with interaction predict the responses with minimum error.

  9. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  10. The roles of the AAS Journals' Data Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, August; NASA/SAO ADS, CERN/Zenodo.org, Harvard/CfA Wolbach Library

    2018-01-01

    I will summarize the community services provided by the AAS Journals' Data Editors to support authors’ when citing and preserving the software and data used in the published literature. In addition I will describe the life of a piece of code as it passes through the current workflows for software citation in astronomy. Using this “lifecycle” I will detail the ongoing work funded by a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the American Astronomical Society to improve the citation of software in the literature. The funded development team and advisory boards, made up of non-profit publishers, literature indexers, and preservation archives, is implementing the Force11 Software citation principles for astronomy Journals. The outcome of this work will be new workflows for authors and developers that fit in their current practices while enabling versioned citation of software and granular credit for its creators.

  11. Newer trace elements measured by RNAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Very recently, quite attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intake. These traces are: aluminum, nickel, vanadium and tin. Al and Ni have been measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and the two latter ones measured by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) in few references laboratories. Here, scandium was also analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These measurements were made for the most of the Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets under the framework of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA during the period 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of above mentioned trace elements are given and discussed while the results of 20 other nutritionally important trace elements appeared somewhere else. (author)

  12. AA, radiation shielding curtain along the target area

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    At the far left is the beam tube for the high-intensity proton beam from the 26 GeV PS. The tube ends in a thin window and the proton beam continues in air through a hole in the shielding blocks (see also 8010308), behind which the target (see 7905091, 7905094)was located. After the target followed the magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons, and the first part of the injection line with a proton dump. The antiprotons, deflected by a magnet, left the target area through another shielding wall, to make their way to the AA ring. Laterally, this sequence of components was shielded with movable, suspended, concrete blocks: the "curtain". Balasz Szeless, who had constructed it, is standing at its side.

  13. A profile of Keith AA Fox, cardiologist and researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Keith A A; Telfer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Professor Keith AA Fox speaks to Caroline Telfer, Commissioning Editor. Professor Keith AA Fox is the British Heart Foundation and the Duke of Edinburgh Professor of Cardiology at the University of Edinburgh (UK). He is a founding fellow of the European Society of Cardiology and is currently Chair of the Programme of the European Society of Cardiology. In addition, he was President of the British Cardiovascular Society from 2009 to 2012. Professor Fox gave the State-of-the-Art lecture on acute coronary syndromes at the American Heart Association, as well as the 2009 Plenary lecture at the European Society of Cardiology-American College of Cardiology Symposium, the Lord Rayner lecture of the Royal College of Physicians (London, UK) and the Sir Stanley Davidson Lecture of the Royal College (Edinburgh, UK). He was awarded the Silver Medal of the European Society of Cardiology in 2010. Professor Fox's major research interest lies in the mechanisms and manifestations of acute coronary arterial disease; his work extends from underlying biological mechanisms to in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials. He is the author of more than 587 scientific papers (H-index Web of Science 73, Citations: 30,261 to March 2013). Professor Fox is chairman of the RITA program, co-chairman of ROCKET-AF and OASIS program, and chair of the GRACE program (the largest multinational study in acute coronary syndromes), and a lead investigator for studies on novel antithrombins, anticoagulants and antiplatelets. He is an International Associate Editor of the European Heart Journal and a member of the editorial boards of a number of journals. His current areas of research include the inhibition of coronary thrombosis and the role of platelets and inflammation in acute coronary syndromes.

  14. An Update on the AAS Astronomy Ambassadors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienberg, Richard T.; Gurton, S.; Fraknoi, A.; Prather, E. E.; Hurst, A.; Schatz, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    The American Astronomical Society, partnering with organizations active in science education and public outreach (EPO), has launched a series of professional-development workshops and a community of practice designed to help improve early-career astronomers’ ability to effectively communicate with students and the public. Called Astronomy Ambassadors, the program provides mentoring and training experiences for young astronomers, from advanced undergraduates to beginning faculty; it also provides access to resources and a network of contacts within the astronomy EPO community. By learning how to implement effective education and outreach strategies, Astronomy Ambassadors become better teachers, better presenters at meetings, and better representatives of our science to the public and to government. And because young astronomers are a more diverse group than those who currently do the majority of outreach, they help the astronomical community present a more multicultural and gender-balanced face to the public, enabling members of underserved groups to see themselves as scientists. Ambassadors are provided with a large library of outreach activities and materials that are suitable for a range of venues and audiences and that will grow with time. For much of this library we are using resources developed by organizations such as the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, the Pacific Science Center, and the Center for Astronomy Education for other outreach programs, though some resources have been created by one of us (AF) specifically for this program. The first Astronomy Ambassadors workshop was held at the 221st meeting of the AAS in January 2013 and served 30 young astronomers chosen from more than 75 applicants. Incorporating feedback from workshop participants and lessons learned from the reports they’ve submitted after conducting their own outreach events, we are now planning the second annual workshop to be held 4-5 January 2014 at the 223rd AAS meeting in

  15. Recent Insights into the Pathogenesis of Type AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. H. van der Hilst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloidoses are a group of life-threatening diseases in which fibrils made of misfolded proteins are deposited in organs and tissues. The fibrils are stable, insoluble aggregates of precursor proteins that have adopted an antiparallel β-sheet structure. In type AA, or reactive, amyloidosis, the precursor protein of the fibrils is serum amyloid A (SAA. SAA is a 104-amino-acid protein that is produced in the liver in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Although the protein that is produced by the liver contains 104 amino acids, only the N-terminal 66–76 amino acids are found in amyloid fibrils. Furthermore, SAA has been shown to have an α-helical structure primarily. Thus, for SAA to be incorporated into an amyloid fibril, two processes have to occur: C-terminal cleavage and conversion into a β-sheet. Only a minority of patients with elevated SAA levels develop amyloidosis. Factors that contribute to the risk of amyloidosis include the duration and degree of SAA elevation, polymorphisms in SAA, and the type of autoinflammatory syndrome. In the Hyper-IgD syndrome, amyloidosis is less prevalent than in the other autoinflammatory diseases. In vitro work has shown that the isoprenoid pathway influences amyloidogenesis by farnesylated proteins. Although many proteins contain domains that have a potential for self-aggregation, amyloidosis is only a very rare event. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are chaperones that assist other proteins to attain, maintain, and regain a functional conformation. In this review, recent insights into the pathogenesis of amyloidosis are discussed, in addition to a new hypothesis for a role of HSPs in the pathogenesis of type AA.

  16. Experimental immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in H-2k identical, Mls (M) locus different mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knospe, W.H.; Steinberg, D.; Speck, B.

    1983-07-01

    Immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) was experimentally induced in mice by injecting 10(7) lymph node cells (LNC) from donor mice of one inbred strain to another H-2k identical but Mls mismatched strain previously given 600 rad total body gamma irradiation (TBI). AA developed after 2 weeks to 6 months in selected strain combinations used and usually 60 to 90% of the mice died. Clinical signs of graft-versus-host disease did not occur and splenic atrophy rather than splenomegaly was the rule. Histologically these mice had a lesion of the hematopoietic microenvironment characterized by sinusoidal injury and stromal necrosis. Others have demonstrated injury to hematopoietic stem cells. C3H/He LNC induced AA whereas C3H/HeJ LNC failed to induce AA. The C3H/HeJ strain carries a macrophage defect and these results suggest that a macrophage-like cell may be a mediator of immunological injury in this experimental model. Although all strain combinations evaluated were H-2k identical and Mls mismatched, certain Mls combinations resulted in AA and identical Mls mismatched but different strains did not. Both strong (Mlsd) and weak (Mlsc) stimulating LNC induce AA but simple Mls differences do not explain the AA as similar Mls combinations but different strain combinations fail to induce AA.

  17. The Hidden Cost of Untreated Paragangliomas of the Head and Neck: Systemic Reactive (AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Dervisoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 51-year-old man who was diagnosed with systemic reactive (AA amyloidosis in association with untreated glomus jugulare and glomus caroticum tumors. He refused radiotherapy and renal replacement therapy. Paragangliomas, although rare, should be considered one of the tumors that can result in AA amyloidosis.

  18. AR, HEA and AAS in Rural Development Projects--Benchmarking towards the Best Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermarck, Harri

    In most countries, agricultural research (AR), institutions of higher education in agriculture (HEA), and agricultural advisory services (AAS) function as separate agencies. So far, in most countries, AR, HEA, and AAS have not had a common vision for rural development. In Finland, domination of agricultural production in Finland has led to a lack…

  19. Raadioteatril elu sees. Elu sees? / Mart Aas, Tõnis Leemets ; interv. Kutt Kommel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aas, Mart

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Raadio raadioteatri 78. sünnipäeval esietendus Vikerraadios dokumentaalkuuldemäng "Elu sees" Aleksander Alleni (hilisema nimega Aleksander Aas) mälestuste põhjal. Theatrumi lavastuse on raadiole seadnud Mart Aas, Marius Peterson, Toomas Lõhmuste ja Tõnis Leemets

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0674 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0674 ref|YP_001022362.1| putative heme O oxygenase (cytochrome aa3-controlling...) transmembrane protein [Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1] gb|ABM96127.1| putative heme O oxygenase (cytochrome aa3-controlling

  1. Technical feasibility study for a solar energy system at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.N.J.W.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.; Reinders, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work arises within the framework of the introduction of renewable energies at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS) and the focus is on the technical feasibility of a solar energy system (SES) on ground level. The flight safety must always be guaranteed if solar panels are implemented on AAS. The

  2. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status

  3. Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chang'aa Drinking in Kibera Slum: The Harmful Effects of Contemporary Changes in the Production and Consumption of Traditional Spirits. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... This article examines the harmful effects of drinking chang'aa, an illegal spirit produced locally, in Kibera slum in Nairobi, Kenya.

  4. Dualising Intuitionictic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa's motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic Cw was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to CWo Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature 'Brouwerian logic' or 'closed-set logic'.

  5. Dualising Intuitionistic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa’s motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic C! was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to C!. Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature ‘Brouwerian logic’ or ‘closed-set logic’.

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-AA02 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-AA02 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-AA02Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-AA02Z 458 - - - - Show FC-AA02 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-AA02 (Link to dic...linum small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. 149 2e-47 2 AY179984 |AY179984.1 Uncultured alveo... CP000930_2283( CP000930 |pid:none) Heliobacterium modesticaldum Ic... 33 2.3 AP009386_1894( AP009386 |pid:none) Burkholderia multi... EU955514 |pid:none) Zea mays clone 1535262 hypothetica... 50 2e-05 BA000023_1285

  7. Changing epidemiology of AA amyloidosis: clinical observations over 25 years at a single national referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Thirusha; Pinney, Jennifer H; Gilbertson, Janet A; Hutt, David F; Rowczenio, Dorota M; Mahmood, Shameem; Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Fontana, Marianna; Youngstein, Taryn; Quarta, Candida C; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Gillmore, Julian D; Hawkins, Philip N; Lachmann, Helen J

    2017-09-01

    Systemic AA amyloidosis is a serious complication of chronic inflammation; however, there are relatively few published data on its incidence. We investigated the changing epidemiology of AA amyloidosis over a 25-year period at a single national referral centre. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with AA amyloidosis who had attended the centre between 1990 and 2014 inclusive. Six hundred and twenty-five patients were studied in three cohorts: C1: 1990-1997; C2: 1998-2006; C3: 2007-2014. Mean age at presentation increased from 46 in C1 to 56 in C3 (p AA amyloidosis over a quarter of a century, reflecting advances in therapeutics and overall management of complex chronic disease in an ageing population. AA amyloidosis of uncertain aetiology presents an emerging major problem. Newer techniques such as next-generation sequencing may aid diagnosis and effective treatment, thereby improving overall survival.

  8. Effects of chronic ethanol ingestion on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in rat macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanmugam, P.; Boudreau, M.; Hymel, G.; Jeffers, G.; Hwang, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous report, preincubation of rat platelets with ethanol resulted in dose dependent inhibition of AA metabolites whereas chronic ingestion of ethanol enhanced the synthesis of AA metabolites. Thus, the authors studied whether chronic ethanol ingestion also affects AA metabolism in MACS. Two groups of rats (10 each) were fed DeCarli/Lieber liquid diet containing 36 caloric % ethanol for 3 weeks. The control group was pair fed the same diet made isocaloric with dextrin-maltose. Resident MACS were collected by peritoneal lavage. The monolayers of MACS were incubated for 20 min with calcium ionophore (5μg/ml), and the incubation stopped with 4 vol. of ethanol. PGE 2 , LTB 4 and 5-HETE were assayed by radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that chronic ethanol ingestion did not affect the capacity of MACS to synthesize AA metabolites. There was also no difference in the levels of AA metabolites in heart and lung homogenates between the two groups

  9. Helical 1:1 α/Sulfono-γ-AA Heterogeneous Peptides with Antibacterial Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Fengyu; Nimmagadda, Alekhya; Teng, Peng; Su, Ma; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cai, Jianfeng

    2016-05-09

    As one of the greatest threats facing in 21st century, antibiotic resistance is now a major public health concern. Host-defense peptides (HDPs) offer an alternative approach to combat emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria. It is known that helical HDPs such as magainin 2 and its analogs adopt cationic amphipathic conformations upon interaction with bacterial membranes, leading to membrane disruption and subsequent bacterial cell death. We have previously shown that amphipathic sulfono-γ-AApeptides could mimic magainin 2 and exhibit bactericidal activity. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that amphipathic helical 1:1 α/sulfono-γ-AA heterogeneous peptides, in which regular amino acids and sulfono-γ-AApeptide building blocks are alternatively present in a 1:1 pattern, display potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) suggests that the lead sequences adopt defined helical structures. The subsequent studies including 2 fluorescence microscopy and time-kill experiments indicate that these hybrid peptides exert antimicrobial activity by mimicking the mechanism of HDPs. Our findings may lead to the development of HDP-mimicking antimicrobial peptidomimetics that combat drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. In addition, our results also demonstrate the effective design of a new class of helical foldamer, which could be employed to interrogate other important biological targets such as protein-protein interactions in the future.

  10. Molecular characterization of subgenotype A1 (subgroup Aa) of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramvis, Anna; Kew, Michael C

    2007-07-01

    Subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were first recognized after a unique segment of genotype A was identified when sequencing the preS2/S region of southern African HBV isolates. Originally named subgroup A', subsequently called subgroup Aa (for Africa) or subgenotype A1, this subgenotype is found in South Africa, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Yemen, India, Nepal, the Philippines and Brazil. The relatively higher mean nucleotide divergence of subgenotype A1 suggests that it has been endemic and has a long evolutionary history in the populations where it prevails. Distinctive sequence characteristics could account for the high hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) negativity and low HBV DNA levels in carriers of this subgenotype. Substitutions or mutations can reduce HBeAg expression at three levels: (i) 1762T1764A atthe transcriptional level; (ii) substitutions at nt 1809-1812 at the translational level; and (iii) 1862T at the post-translational level. Co-existence of 1762T1764A and nt 1809-1812 mutations reduces HBeAg expression in an additive manner. In addition, subgenotype A1 has unique sequence alterations in the transcriptional regulatory elements and the polymerase coding region. The distinct sequence characteristics of subgenotype A1 may contribute to the 4.5-fold increased risk of heptocellular carcinoma in HBV carriers infected with genotype A, which is entirely attributable to subgenotype A1.

  11. Characterization of AA7050 aluminium alloy processed by ECAP; Caracterizacao da liga de aluminio AA7050 processada por ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, K.R.; Guido, V. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Travessa, D.N. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Jorge Junior, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The commercial AA7050 aluminium alloy in the solution heat treated condition (W) was processed by ECAP through route A. Two pressing temperatures (room and 150 deg C and velocities (5 and 30mm/min) were used, as well as different number of passes. The effect of such variables on the microstructure evolution was evaluated using optical and transmission electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis, and xray diffraction. It was found that the microstructure has been refined by ECAP, as a result of subgrains formed within deformation bands. ECAP at 150 deg C resulted in intense precipitation of plate like {eta} phase, which evolves to equiaxial morphology as the number of passes increases. (author)

  12. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  13. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  14. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  15. The influence of Mg/Si ratio on the negative natural aging effect in Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, G.H.; Liu, C.H.; Chen, J.H.; Lai, Y.X.; Ma, P.P.; Liu, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of natural aging (NA) on subsequent artificial aging (AA) at 180 °C in Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys with varied Mg/Si ratios (0.5, 1 and 2) were systematically studied by Vickers micro-hardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloy with large Mg/Si ratio possesses a significant negative NA effect on the maximum hardness achieved during AA preceded by an extended NA, while the alloy with small Mg/Si ratio shows a negligible negative NA effect. Though few lath-like Q''/L precipitates exist, needle-like β'' precipitates are the primary hardening precipitates in all the peak-aged alloys. The negative NA effect is demonstrated to be determined by precipitate coarsening, which is manifested microscopically as the broader precipitate length distributions (PLD) and shift of PLD toward larger length range, in AA with the prolonging of NA. Our results suggest the nature of NA clusters is quite different in Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy varying in Mg/Si ratio. Only a small fraction of NA clusters in alloy with large Mg/Si ratio are stable and could induce preferential growth of precipitates to be considerably coarsened during AA. A large fraction of stable NA clusters in alloy with low Mg/Si ratio lead to synchronous growth of β'' precipitates, thus restricting the preferential growth

  16. Adhesion of epoxy primer to hydrotalcite conversion coated AA2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Robert Benton, III

    Hydrotalcite-based (HT) conversion coatings are being developed as an environmentally benign alternative to chromate conversion coatings (CCC). Accelerated exposure tests were conducted on epoxy primed, HT-modified AA2024 to gauge service performance. HT-based conversion coatings did not perform as well as the CCC when used with an epoxy primer. The current HT chemistries are optimized for stand-alone corrosion protection, however additional research into the primer/HT interactions is necessary before they can be implemented within a coating scheme. The relative contribution of mechanical and physico-chemical interactions in controlling adhesion has been investigated in this study. Practical adhesion tests were used to assess the dry and wet bond strength of epoxy primer on HT coatings using the pull-off tensile strength (POTS) as the figure of merit. The practical adhesion of HT coated samples generally fell between that observed for the CCC and bare AA2024. Laboratory testing was done to assess the physical and chemical properties of HT coatings. Contact angle measurements were performed using powders representative of different HT chemistries to evaluate the dispersive and acid-base character of the surface. The wet POTS correlated with the electrodynamic (dipole + dispersive) parameter of the surface tension. The HT surfaces were found to be predominantly basic. Given the basicity of epoxy, these results indicate that increasing the acidic character of HT coatings may increase the adhesion performance. This was supported by electrokinetic measurements in which the dry POTS was found to increase with decreasing conversion coating iso-electric point. The correlations with the dry and wet state adhesion are interpreted as indicating that dry state adhesion is optimized by minimizing unfavorable polar interactions between the basic epoxy and HT interfaces. Wet state adhesion, where polar interactions are disrupted, is dictated by non-polar bonding. FTIR

  17. ICP OES and CV AAS in determination of mercury in an unusual fatal case of long-term exposure to elemental mercury in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    In this work, a case of deliberate self-poisoning is presented. A 14-year-old girl suddenly died during one of the several hospitalizations. Abdominal computer tomography showed a large number of metallic particles in the large intestine. Analysis of blood and internal organs for mercury and other toxic metals carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) revealed high concentrations of mercury in kidneys and liver (64,200 and 2470ng/g, respectively), less in stomach (90ng/g), and none in blood. Using cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS), high levels of mercury were confirmed in all examined materials, including blood (87ng/g), and additionally in hair. The results of analysis obtained by two techniques revealed that the exposure to mercury was considerable (some time later, it was stated that the mercury originated from thermometers that had been broken over the course of about 1 year, because of Münchausen syndrome). CV AAS is a more sensitive technique, particularly for blood samples (negative results using ICP OES), and tissue samples - with LOQ: 0.63ng/g of Hg (CV AAS) vis-à-vis 70ng/g of Hg (ICP OES). However, ICP OES may be used as a screening technique for autopsy material in acute poisoning by a heavy metal, even one as volatile as mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in depression mediate the effects of AA attendance on alcohol use outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Tonigan, J Scott

    2018-01-01

    Depression may contribute to increased drinking in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Although Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) attendance predicts drinking reductions, there is conflicting information regarding the intermediary role played by reductions in depression. We explored whether AA attendance reduces depressive symptoms, the degree to which improvement in depression results in reductions in drinking, and in which subgroups these effects occur. 253 early AA affiliates (63% male) were recruited and assessed at baseline 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and was administered at baseline 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. AA attendance and alcohol use outcomes were obtained with the Form 90. Mediation analyses were performed at early (3, 6, and 9 months) and late (12, 18, and 24 months) follow-up to investigate the degree to which reductions in depression mediated the effect of AA attendance on drinking, controlling for concurrent drinking. In addition, a series of moderated mediation analyses were performed using baseline depression severity as a moderator. At early follow-up, reductions in depression (6 months) mediated the effects of AA attendance (3 months) on later drinking (drinks per drinking day) (9 months) (b = -0.02, boot CI [-0.055, -0.0004]), controlling for drinking at 6 months. Baseline depression severity did not moderate the degree to which BDI mediated the effects of AA attendance on alcohol use (ps > .05). These findings provide further evidence that depression reduction is a mechanism by which AA attendance leads to reductions in alcohol use. Improving depression may help reduce alcohol use in individuals with AUD, and AA attendance may be an effective way to achieve that goal.

  19. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  20. Antibacterial effect of PEO coating with silver on AA7075

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerchier, P., E-mail: pietrogiovanni.cerchier@studenti.unipd.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pezzato, L.; Brunelli, K. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dolcet, P. [Department of Chemical Science, University of Padua, INSTM, UdR Padova and ICMATE-CNR, Padova (Italy); Bartolozzi, A.; Bertani, R.; Dabalà, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, Via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    In this work, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were produced on AA7075 using alkaline solution containing silicates compounds and silver micrometric particles in order to give to the coating an antimicrobial effect. In the optic of circular economy, silver chloride derived from the acid pre-treatment of electronic scraps was used as raw material and successively silver powders were synthesized from silver chloride solution using glucose syrup as reducing agent. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and antimicrobial tests. The results evidenced that the obtained coatings were homogenous and give to the samples higher corrosion resistance than untreated alloy. The silver particles, found both inside and outside of the pores that characterize the PEO layer, produced an efficacious antimicrobial effect both against E. coli and S. aureus. - Highlights: • Silver particles were incorporated into PEO coatings produced on aluminum alloys. • The incorporation was performed with direct addition of the particles in the electrolyte. • The particles resulted equally distributed on the samples surfaces. • The obtained coatings show antimicrobial activity with both E. coli and S. aureus. • The obtained coatings were characterized by acceptable corrosion resistance.

  1. Galvanic corrosion of laser weldments of AA6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.B.M. Mujibur; Kumar, S.; Gerson, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Galvanic corrosion of laser welded AA6061 aluminium alloy, arising from the varying rest potentials of the various weldment regions, was examined. The weld fusion zone is found to be the most cathodic region of the weldment while the base material is the most anodic region. The rate of galvanic corrosion, controlled by the cathodic process at the weld fusion zone, increases with time until a steady state maximum is reached. On galvanic corrosion the corrosion potential of the weld fusion zone shifts in the positive direction and the free corrosion current increases. It is proposed that the cathodic process at the weld fusion zone causes a local increase in pH that in turn causes dissolution of the surface film resulting in the loss of Al to solution and the increase of intermetallic phases. The increase in galvanic corrosion may result from either the build up of the intermetallic phases in the surface layer and/or significant increase in surface area of the weld fusion zone due to the porous nature of the surface layer

  2. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Aluminum Alloy Plate AA 7055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junzhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through-thickness microstructure and mechanical property of AA 7055-T7751 aluminum alloy plate were investigated by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of microstructure through the thickness. The degree of recrystallization decreases gradually from 69% to 19.1%, as deepening from the surface to the center of the plate. The size of subgrains decreases from 10 μm at the surface to around 2 μm at the center. Strong texture of rolling type is observed near the center but the intensity decreases gradually as nearing the surface and the shear texture becomes the dominant. High density of plate-like η' phases are observed in the alloy, indicating the sufficient precipitation. η' precipitates of this condition are around 3.7 nm in radius, 1-3 nm in thickness and are found coherent with the Al matrix with a coherent strain of 0.0133, showing a strong strengthening effect. The heterogeneity in grain scale does not influence the distribution and the morphology of precipitates. The yield strength (L direction varies linearly along the thickness direction of the plate, fitting an equation of σy=-38.7S+604.8 (0≤S≤1. The variation of yield strength is related to the heterogeneity of grain structure.

  3. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  4. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, and Karnataka, India – 585106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  5. AAS and spectrophotometric determination of propranolol HCl and metoprolol tartrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ries, M A; Abou Attia, F M; Ibrahim, S A

    2000-12-15

    Two simple and accurate spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of propranolol hydrochloride (I) and metoprolol tartrate (II). The methods are based on the reaction of each drug as a secondary amine: (a) with carbon disulphide, the formed complex extracted into iso-butyl methyl ketone (IBMK) after chelation with Cu(II) ions at pH 7.5, followed by measuring the absorbance at 435.4 nm or indirectly for the drug by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The calibration graph is linear up to 40 and 60 microg ml(-1) with apparent molar absorptivities of 6.89 x 10(3) and 1.08 x 104 l mol(-1) cm(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9994 and 0.9995 for propranolol and metoprolol, respectively; (b) with pi-acceptors, tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), or chloranilic acid (CLA) to give highly coloured complex species. The coloured products are quantitated spectrophotometrically at 415 or 510 nm for the two drugs with TCNE and CLA, respectively, and obey Beer's Law with RSD less than 2.0. The methods were applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical preparation without interferences.

  6. Antibacterial effect of PEO coating with silver on AA7075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerchier, P.; Pezzato, L.; Brunelli, K.; Dolcet, P.; Bartolozzi, A.; Bertani, R.; Dabalà, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were produced on AA7075 using alkaline solution containing silicates compounds and silver micrometric particles in order to give to the coating an antimicrobial effect. In the optic of circular economy, silver chloride derived from the acid pre-treatment of electronic scraps was used as raw material and successively silver powders were synthesized from silver chloride solution using glucose syrup as reducing agent. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), potentiodynamic polarization test and antimicrobial tests. The results evidenced that the obtained coatings were homogenous and give to the samples higher corrosion resistance than untreated alloy. The silver particles, found both inside and outside of the pores that characterize the PEO layer, produced an efficacious antimicrobial effect both against E. coli and S. aureus. - Highlights: • Silver particles were incorporated into PEO coatings produced on aluminum alloys. • The incorporation was performed with direct addition of the particles in the electrolyte. • The particles resulted equally distributed on the samples surfaces. • The obtained coatings show antimicrobial activity with both E. coli and S. aureus. • The obtained coatings were characterized by acceptable corrosion resistance.

  7. Deformation inhomogeneity in large-grained AA5754 sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guozhen; Hu Xiaohua; Kang Jidong; Mishra, Raja K.; Wilkinson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Microstructure and strain relationship at individual grain level was studied. → 'Hot spots' nucleate early and most keep growing throughout deformation stages. → 'Hot spots' are correlated with 'soft' grains and soft-evolution grains. → Grains with high Schmid factors tend to be 'soft' grains. → Grains with the direction close to tensile axis tend to become softer. - Abstract: Models for deformation and strain localization in polycrystals that incorporate microstructural features including particles are computationally intensive due to the large variation in scale in going from particles to grains to a specimen. As a result such models are generally 2-D in nature. This is an issue for experimental validation. We have therefore studied deformation heterogeneities and strain localization behavior of coarse-grained alloys with only two grains across the sample thickness, therefore mimicking 2-D behavior. Aluminum alloy sheets (AA5754) have been investigated by a number of surface techniques, including digital image correlation, slip trace analysis and electron backscattered diffraction, at the individual grain level. Local strain concentration zones appear from the very beginning of deformation, which then maintain sustained growth and lead, in one of these regions, to localization and final fracture. These 'hot spots' occur in areas with locally soft grains (i.e. grains with or close to the tensile direction) and soft-evolution orientations (i.e. grains with close to the tensile direction). These grains can be correlated with Taylor and/or Schmid factors.

  8. Application Of NAA And AAS In Environmental Research In Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florek, M.; Holy, K.; Meresova, J.; Sykora, I.; Frontasveva, M. V.; Ermakova, E.E.; Pavlov, S.S.; Mankovska, B.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 41 chemical elements (heavy metals, rare earths, and actinides) were determined in atmospheric aerosol using nuclear and related analytical techniques. The sampling location was in Bratislava (Slovak Republic). The main goal of this study is the quantification of the atmospheric pollution and its trend. The elemental content in filters was measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) at IBR-2 reactor in JINR Dubna and by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) in Bratislava. The obtained results confirm the decreasing trend of pollution by most of the heavy metals in Bratislava atmosphere, and they are compared with the contents of pollutants in atmosphere of other cities, including Cairo. We determined also the composition of clear filter materials. Results on atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other trace elements in the whole territory Slovakia using the moss bio monitoring technique are presented, too. The level of the elements found in the bryophytes reflects the relative atmospheric deposition loads of the elements at the investigated sites. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of trace element deposition in the Slovakian moss. The marginal hot spots were revealed near nonferrous ores processing and factories and dumps of stone chips. The trans-boundary contamination by Hg through dry and wet deposition from Czech Republic and Polish is evident in the bordering territory in the north-west part of Slovakia (The Small Black Triangle), known for metallurgical works, coal processing and chemical industries

  9. Friction stir welding (FSW) of AA 6061 T6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabot, Pedro; Monglioni, Alberto; Carella, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The friction-stir process (FSW) developed by England's TWI in the last decade is a new concept in solid phase friction welding that is particularly appropriate for soldering aluminum and its alloys. It offers interesting aspects and can advantageously replace the usual arch processes. It is an automatic process that solders together long pieces by butt or lap welding and, therefore, overcomes the greater limitation of the conventional friction process that can be applied only to pieces with revolution symmetry. FSW is based essentially on the use of a cylindrical tool with a special profile, which is inserted between the surfaces where the materials meet to join them together at a certain rotation speed and under a specific force. The pieces must be rigidly butt bonded or overlapped to prevent movement when the tool moves forward along the joint producing the dispersion of oxides, local plastisizing of the material and the weld. Since its creation FSW has been the subject of many international publications, but until the present work there was no technologically relevant data about tools and procedures. For this reason, when its promising and novel nature was noticed, the CNEA began its own development project in 1997. The main characteristics of the tool are reviewed here and the results of tests carried out to evaluate the influence of the feed velocity on the mechanical properties of the butt joining of a 6.25 mm thick AA6061 T6 plate. Different accumulated aspects of the experience are discussed as well (cw)

  10. Association between AA-NAT gene polymorphism and reproductive performance in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Ding-ping,Bai; Cheng-jiang,Yu; Yu-lin,Chen

    2012-01-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is critical enzyme in Melatonin (MLT) biosynthesis for MLT regulating the animal seasonal breeding. In this study, DNA sequencing methods were applied to detect the polymorphisms of the AA-NAT gene in 179 Chinese sheep belonging to two non-seasonal reproduction breeds and two seasonal reproduction breeds. One mutation at exon 3 (NM_001009461:c.486A > G) was firstly described at the sheep AA-NAT locus. Hence, we described the SmaI PCR-RFLP m...

  11. Renal AA amyloidosis in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imed Helal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary complete C4 deficiency has until now been reported in 30 cases only. A disturbed clearance of immune- complexes probably predisposes these individuals to systemic lupus erythematosus, other immune- complex diseases and recurrent microbial infections. We present here a 20- year- old female with hereditary complete C4 deficiency. Renal biopsy demonstrated renal AA amyloidosis. This unique case further substantiates that deficiency of classical pathway components predisposes to the development of recurrent microbial infections and that the patients may develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, in clinical practice, the nephrotic syndrome occurring in a patient with hereditary complete complement C4 deficiency should lead to the suspicion of renal AA amyloidosis.

  12. Pengaruh Rapat Arus Anodizing terhadap Nilai Kekerasan pada Plat Aluminium Paduan Aa Seri 2024-t3

    OpenAIRE

    Fajar Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum alloy AA 2024-T3 is widely applied in the aircraft industry because it has good mechanical properties such as; light weight, good conductivity and the corrosion resistance. However Aluminium 2024-T3 susceptible to wearing. One method to improve the wear resistance o f AA 2024-T3 is the anodizing process. The aims of this research to study the effect of current density and anodizing time against the hardness of aluminum alloy AA 2024-T3. The process of anodizing was carried out using ...

  13. Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressantwith activity exerted through serotonergic targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mork, A.; Pehrson, A.; Montezinho, L. C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lu AA21004 is a multimodal antidepressant that functions as a 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter in vitro. Here we investigated preclinical effects of Lu AA21004 1) on target occupancies, 2...... (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), histamine (Hist)] were measured by microdialysis. Antidepressant potential was assessed in the forced swim test using Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats. Moreover, effects of Lu AA21004 on acquisition, consolidation and recall...

  14. Controlled release of bioactive PDGF-AA from a hydrogel/nanoparticle composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Donaghue, Irja; Shoichet, Molly S

    2015-10-01

    Polymer excipients, such as low molar mass poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), have shown contradictory effects on protein stability when co-encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles. To gain further insight into these effects, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AA) was encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles with vs. without PEG. PDGF-AA is a particularly compelling protein, as it has been demonstrated to promote cell survival and induce the oligodendrocyte differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Here we show, for the first time, the controlled release of bioactive PDGF-AA from an injectable nanoparticle/hydrogel drug delivery system (DDS). PDGF-AA was encapsulated, with high efficiency, in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles, and its release from the drug delivery system was followed over 21 d. Interestingly, the co-encapsulation of low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) increased the PDGF-AA loading but, unexpectedly, accelerated the aggregation of PDGF-AA, resulting in reduced activity and detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the absence of PEG, released PDGF-AA remained bioactive as demonstrated with NSPC oligodendrocyte differentiation, similar to positive controls, and significantly different from untreated controls. This work presents a novel delivery method for differentiation factors, such as PDGF-AA, and provides insights into the contradictory effects reported in the literature of excipients, such as PEG, on the loading and release of proteins from polymeric nanoparticles. Previously, the polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been used in many biomaterials applications, from surface coatings to the encapsulation of proteins. In this work, we demonstrate that, unexpectedly, low molecular weight PEG has a deleterious effect on the release of the encapsulated protein platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA). We also demonstrate release of bioactive PDGF-AA (in the absence of PEG

  15. Overexpression of the protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit a gene ZmPP2AA1 improves low phosphate tolerance by remodeling the root system architecture of maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemin Wang

    Full Text Available Phosphate (Pi limitation is a constraint for plant growth and development in many natural and agricultural ecosystems. In this study, a gene encoding Zea mays L. protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A, designated ZmPP2AA1, was induced in roots by low Pi availability. The function of the ZmPP2AA1 gene in maize was analyzed using overexpression and RNA interference. ZmPP2AA1 modulated root gravitropism, negatively regulated primary root (PR growth, and stimulated the development of lateral roots (LRs. A detailed characterization of the root system architecture (RSA in response to different Pi concentrations with or without indole-3-acetic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid revealed that auxin was involved in the RSA response to low Pi availability. Overexpression of ZmPP2AA1 enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation in transgenic maize in hydroponic and soil pot experiments. An increased dry weight (DW, root-to-shoot ratio, and total P content and concentration, along with a delayed and reduced accumulation of anthocyanin in overexpressing transgenic maize plants coincided with their highly branched root system and increased Pi uptake capability under low Pi conditions. Inflorescence development of the ZmPP2AA1 overexpressing line was less affected by low Pi stress, resulting in higher grain yield per plant under Pi deprivation. These data reveal the biological function of ZmPP2AA1, provide insights into a linkage between auxin and low Pi responses, and drive new strategies for the efficient utilization of Pi by maize.

  16. Modelling and Pareto optimization of mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA7075/AA5083 butt joints using neural network and particle swarm algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hasan; Behnagh, Reza Abdi; Akbari, Mostafa; Givi, Mohammad Kazem Besharati; Farhani, Foad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defect-free friction stir welds have been produced for AA5083-O/AA7075-O. ► Back-propagation was sufficient for predicting hardness and tensile strength. ► A hybrid multi-objective algorithm is proposed to deal with this MOP. ► Multi-objective particle swarm optimization was used to find the Pareto solutions. ► TOPSIS is used to rank the given alternatives of the Pareto solutions. -- Abstract: Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has been successfully used to weld similar and dissimilar cast and wrought aluminium alloys, especially for aircraft aluminium alloys, that generally present with low weldability by the traditional fusion welding process. This paper focuses on the microstructural and mechanical properties of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of AA7075-O to AA5083-O aluminium alloys. Weld microstructures, hardness and tensile properties were evaluated in as-welded condition. Tensile tests indicated that mechanical properties of the joint were better than in the base metals. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to simulate the correlation between the Friction Stir Welding parameters and mechanical properties. Performance of the ANN model was excellent and the model was employed to predict the ultimate tensile strength and hardness of butt joint of AA7075–AA5083 as functions of weld and rotational speeds. The multi-objective particle swarm optimization was used to obtain the Pareto-optimal set. Finally, the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was applied to determine the best compromised solution.

  17. Astrocytes mediated the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of Sarsasapogenin-AA13 via upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dong; Mao, Yu; Huang, Cui; Jiao, Qian; Pan, Hui; Ma, Lei; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Rhizoma Anemarrhena , a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, has previously been shown to have neuroprotective effect. Sarsasapogenin-AA13 (AA13) is a novel synthetic derivative of Sarsasapogenin, which is extracted from Rhizoma Anemarrhena . The aim of this study is to investigate the nootropic and neurotrophic effects of AA13 and underlying mechanisms. In vitro , cell viability of rat primary astrocytes treated with AA13 and neurons cultured with conditioned medium of AA13-treated rat primary astrocytes was tested by MTT assays. In vivo , a pharmacological model of cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine was employed and spatial memory of the mice was assessed by Morris water maze. This study found that AA13 increased cell viability of primary astrocytes and AA13-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium enhanced the survival rate of primary neurons. Interestingly, AA13 markedly enhanced the level of BDNF in astrocytes. Furthermore, AA13 (6 mg/kg) improved the cognitive deficits in animal models (p<0.05) and BDNF and PSD95 levels were increased in brain. Therefore, we hypothesize that AA13 exerts nootropic and neurotrophic activities through astrocytes mediated upregulation of BDNF secretion. The results suggest that AA13 could be a potential compound for cognitive impairment after further research.

  18. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  19. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  20. Negative legacy of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Shirakawa

    Full Text Available Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood. High-fat diet (HFD-fed obese mice were subjected to weight reduction through a switch to a control diet. They lost body weight and visceral fat mass, reaching the same levels as lean mice fed a control diet. However, the VAT of weight reduction mice exhibited denser infiltration of macrophages, which formed more crown-like structures compared to the VAT of obese mice kept on the HFD. Mechanistically, CD153+ PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are long-lived and not easily eliminated, even after weight reduction. Their continued presence maintains a self-sustaining chronic inflammatory loop via production of large amounts of osteopontin. Thus, we concluded that T-cell senescence is essentially a negative legacy effect of obesity.

  1. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.1278 >orf19.1278; Contig19-10104; complement(13162...4..>132028); ; conserved hypothetical protein; truncated protein IQNNKCSGCNLKLDFPVIHFKCKHSFHQKCLSTNLIATSTESS

  2. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.3361 >orf19.3361; Contig19-10173; 157397..>158185;... YAT2*; carnitine acetyltransferase; gene family | truncated protein MSTYRFQETLEKLPIPDLVQTCNAYLEALKPLQTEQEHE

  3. Peaprokurör: kaevake kartellide peale! / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas ; Indrek, Kaju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille kohaselt salajasest kartellileppest esimesena võimudele teatanud ettevõte pääseb vastutasuks karistusest. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ning Neste Eesti peadirektor Indrek Kaju

  4. Siim Kallas seab Lumani argumendid kahtluse alla / Kadri Paas ; kommenteerinud Norman Aas, Juhan Põldroos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    Seaduseelnõust, mille eesmärgiks on tõhustada võitlust kartellidega ja muude raskete konkurentsiõiguse rikkumistega nn leebusprogrammi abil. Kommenteerivad peaprokurör Norman Aas ja Juhan Põldroos

  5. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.7258 >orf19.7258; Contig19-2507; 88880..89851; DDI1*; response to DNA alkyl...ation; MQLTISLDHSGDIISVDVPDSLCLEDFKAYLSAETGLEASVQVLKFNGRELVGNATLSELQIHDNDLLQLSKKQVA

  6. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.2370 >orf19.2370; Contig19-10147; complement(50671..52716); DSL1*; retrogra...de ER-to-golgi transport; MPSIEQQLEDQELYLKDIEQNINKTLSKINKTTLENDNDFRKQFEEIPQDSNTTESN

  7. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ruitment factor; MAKTRSKSAATAAATSPKASPTAAKVTKNKVTKPSTASPSKTTKTKAVKKTTTKKATPKKEEEEKK... Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.124 >orf19.124; Contig19-10035; 67601..68698; CIC1*; protease substrate rec

  8. Microstructure and hardness performance of AA6061 aluminium composite using friction stir processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, C. D.; Fatchurrohman, N.

    2018-04-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA) is an industrial waste that has become a potential reinforced material for aluminium matrix composite (AMCs) due to low cost and abundantly available resources. Friction stir processing (FSP) has been introduced as a method to modify surface properties of the metal and alloy including theirs composite as well. The present work reports the production and characterization of AA6061 and AA6061/5 vol% RHA using FSP using parameters rotation speed 1000 rpm and traversed speed 25 mm/min. The microstructure was studied using optical microscopy (OM). A homogenous dispersion of RHA particles was obtained in the composite. No agglomeration or segregation was observed. The produced composite exhibited a fine grain structure. An improvement in hardness profile was observed as AA6061/5 vol% RHA improves in hardness compared to FSPed of AA6061 without reinforcement.

  9. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other...... basement membrane components, such as type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the present experiments have demonstrated that in addition to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, there are other basement membrane components present in splenic AA amyloid deposits...... and these are present as soon as AA amyloid deposits are detectable. The results indicate that within the time constraints imposed by the experiments, the basement membrane components, fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan are co-deposited 36 to 48 hours after the AgNO3 and amyloid...

  10. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.4748 >orf19.4748; Contig19-10215; complement(47336.....47731); MSL1*; U2 snRNA-associated protein; MPSTKRSSSTEYSHKDSKKKVKLDYVNLKPSQTLYVKNLNTKINKKILLHNLYLLFSAFGDIISINLQNGFAFIIFSNLNSATLALRNLKNQDFFDKPLVLNYAVKESKAISQEKQKLQDENDEEVMPSYE*

  11. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.4711 >orf19.4711; Contig19-10212; complement(29836...7..>300616); ; acidic repetitive protein; truncated protein DRSDYNEEDNNDFTRKLNEIQSKESNHEDLAQSEVQEGQKDEPDSVNQ

  12. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  13. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  14. Experimental study on joining of AA6063 and AISI 1040 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Raja, S.

    2018-05-01

    Feasibility of joining of dissimilar metals with different physical, chemical and thermal properties such as AA6063 alloy and AISI 1040 steel is worthwhile study, since it has tremendous applications in all most of all engineering domains. The mechanism of bonding is studied using scanning electron microscopy. Impact strength of AA2024/AISI joints, axial shortening distance, micro hardness distribution and joint strength are determined. Micro hardness profile shows increased hardness value at the joint interface, due to grain refinement.

  15. Overall view of the AA hall dominated by the 50 ton crane (Donges).

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A 50 ton, 32 metre span overhead travelling cranre was mounted in one of the bays of Hall 193 (AA). An identical crane was mounted on the other bay. See also photo 8004261. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  16. PDGF-AA-induced filamentous mitochondria benefit dermal papilla cells in cellular migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifude, C; Kaseda, K

    2015-06-01

    Human dermal papilla cells (HDPCs) play essential roles in hair follicular morphogenesis and postnatal hair growth cycles. Previous reports demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) enhanced the formation of dermal condensates in hair follicular development. Additionally, PDGF-AA induces/maintains the anagen phase of the hair cycle. It is likely that mitochondrial morphology and functions are tightly coupled with maintenance of these energy-demanding activities. However, little is known about the mitochondrial regulation in HDPCs. Thus, we investigated the PDGF-involved mitochondrial regulation in HDPCs. The mitochondrial morphologies of HDPCs were examined in the presence or absence of PDGF-AA under a fluorescent microscope. ATP production and cellular motility were investigated. The relationship between mitochondrial morphology and the cellular functions was discussed. We observed that primary HDPCs contained mitochondria with filamentous and/or rounded morphologies. Both types of mitochondria showed similar membrane potentials. Interestingly, in the presence of PDGF-AA, but not PDGF-BB, the balance between the two morphologies shifted towards the filamentous form. Concomitantly, both mitochondrial enzymatic activity and total cellular ATP level were augmented by PDGF-AA. These two parameters were closely correlated, suggesting the mitochondrial involvement in the PDGF-augmented ATP production. Moreover, PDGF-AA accelerated the migration of HDPCs in a gap-filling assay, but did not change the rate of cellular proliferation. Notably, filamentous mitochondria dominated migrating HDPCs. PDGF-AA benefits HDPCs in the process of migration, by increasing the number of filamentous mitochondria. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. A Novel Tenebrio molitor Cadherin Is a Functional Receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa Toxin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D.; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. PMID:19416969

  18. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  19. Influence of titanium–boron additions on grain refinement of AA6082 gas tungsten arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore Babu, N.; Talari, Mahesh Kumar; Dayou, Pan; Zheng, Sun; Jun, Wei; SivaPrasad, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ti in the weld metal resulted in grain refinement due to growth restriction effect. ► Weld metal strength improved due to grain refinement caused by Tibor™ addition. ► Weld metal responded to post-weld ageing treatment due to dilution from base metal. ► Weld metal with AA5356 filler are stronger then AA4043 for all Tibor™ additions. -- Abstract: Grain refinement of weld metal plays a vital role in improving mechanical properties (ductility and toughness) as well as weldability. The present study has investigated the influence of Tibor™ additions on the structure and mechanical properties of AA6082 gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments. Controlled amounts of Tibor™ grain refiner (containing Ti and B in a ratio of 5:1) were introduced into the molten pool of AA6082 by pre-deposited cast inserts (AA4043 and AA5356) under different welding conditions by GTA welding. Full penetration GTA welds were prepared using alternating current (AC). It was observed that grain size was decreased with increasing amounts of Tibor™. The grain refinement is mainly caused grain nucleation associated with constitutional undercooling during solidification. It has been shown that welds prepared with 5356 cast insert exhibited high strength and ductility when compared with other welds. The observed grain refinement was shown to result in an appreciable increase in fusion zone hardness, strength and ductility.

  20. Identifying a typology of men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, Renee; McVeigh, Jim; Bates, Geoff; Hope, Vivian; Kean, Joseph; Campbell, John; Smith, Josie

    2018-05-01

    Despite recognition that the Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) using population is diverse, empirical studies to develop theories to conceptualise this variance in use have been limited. In this study, using cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression, we identify typologies of people who use AAS and examine variations in motivations for AAS use across types in a sample of 611 men who use AAS. The cluster analysis identified four groups in the data with different risk profiles. These groups largely reflect the ideal types of people who use AAS proposed by Christiansen et al. (2016): Cluster 1 (You Only Live Once (YOLO) type, n = 68, 11.1%) were younger and motivated by fat loss; Cluster 2 (Well-being type, n = 236, 38.6%) were concerned with getting fit; Cluster 3 (Athlete type, n = 155, 25.4%) were motivated by muscle and strength gains; Cluster 4 (Expert type, n = 152, 24.9%) were focused on specific goals (i.e. not 'getting fit'). The results of this study demonstrate the need to make information about AAS accessible to the general population and to inform health service providers about variations in motivations and associated risk behaviours. Attention should also be given to ensuring existing harm minimisation services are equipped to disseminate information about safe intra-muscular injecting and ensuring needle disposal sites are accessible to the different types. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diplóides (AA de bananeira submetidos ao estresse salino Banana diploids (AA submitted to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Waked Ferreira Gomes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available No Nordeste do Brasil a salinização dos solos é um dos fatores limitantes na produção de bananeira. Estudos quanto à tolerância à salinidade em diplóides de bananeira são importantes para programas de melhoramento genético. Esse trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da salinidade utilizando variáveis químicas e de crescimento, e quantificar, mediante padrões isoenzimáticos, a diversidade genética entre seis genótipos diplóides (AA, associando-os à tolerância à salinidade. As plantas foram tratadas durante 21 dias com 0, 50 e 100 mM de NaCl, num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os diplóides Lidi e Calcuttá apresentaram maiores reduções na área foliar e fortes sintomas de toxidez associados aos maiores acúmulos de Na+ e Cl- no limbo. Os genótipos Borneo e SNº/2 apresentaram discretos sintomas de toxidez e, como o genótipo M-53, demonstraram habilidade de evitar a translocação excessiva de Na+ e Cl- para as folhas preservando o aparelho fotossintético. Nos diplóides SNº/2 e M-53 foi detectada uma banda específica (Po-6 do sistema peroxidase, sob condições de estresse salino. Associando as características isoenzimáticas com as de crescimento, sintomatologia, análise mineral e grau de similaridade genética entre os genótipos, os dendrogramas construídos separam os genótipos mais tolerantes (SNº/2 e M-53 dos mais sensíveis (Lidi e Calcuttá.In the Northeast Region of Brazil, salinization in soils is one of the limiting factors for banana production. Studies regarding tolerance and salt sensitivity in banana diploids are important for genetic breeding programs. This work aimed to evaluate salt stress effects measuring growth and chemicals parameters and to quantify the genetic diversity among six diploids (AA genotypes using isozymic standards relating to salt tolerance. The plants were treated during 21 days under 0, 50 and 100 mM of NaCl in a completely randomized design. The diploids

  2. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  3. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  4. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  5. Maternal and fetal brain contents of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) at various essential fatty acid (EFA), DHA and AA dietary intakes during pregnancy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Iest, Theo Hans; Muskiet, Frits A J

    We investigated essential fatty acids (EFA) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) in maternal and fetal brain as a function of EFA/LCP availability to the feto-maternal unit in mice. Diets varying in parent EFA, arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were administered from

  6. Coarsening of AA6013-T6 Precipitates During Sheet Warm Forming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciano, M.; DiCecco, S.; Esmaeili, S.; Wells, M. A.; Worswick, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    The use of warm forming for AA6xxx-T6 sheet is of interest to improve its formability; however, the effect warm forming may have on the coarsening of precipitates and the mechanical strength of these sheets has not been well studied. In this research, the coarsening behavior of AA6013-T6 precipitates has been explored, in the temperature range of 200-300 °C, and time of 30 s up to 50 h. Additionally, the effect of warm deformation on coarsening behavior was explored using: (1) simulated warm forming tests in a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator and (2) bi-axial warm deformation tests. Using a strong obstacle model to describe the yield strength (YS) evolution of the AA6013-T6 material, and a Lifshitz, Slyozov, and Wagner (LSW) particle coarsening law to describe the change in precipitate size with time, the coarsening kinetics were modeled for this alloy. The coarsening kinetics in the range of 220-300 °C followed a trend similar to that previously found for AA6111 for the 180-220 °C range. There was strong evidence that coarsening kinetics were not altered due to warm deformation above 220 °C. For warm forming between 200 and 220 °C, the YS of the AA6013-T6 material increased slightly, which could be attributed to strain hardening during warm deformation. Finally, a non-isothermal coarsening model was used to assess the potential reduction in the YS of AA6013-T6 for practical processing conditions related to auto-body manufacturing. The model calculations showed that 90% of the original AA6013-T6 YS could be maintained, for warm forming temperatures up to 280 °C, if the heating schedule used to get the part to the warm forming temperature was limited to 1 min.

  7. Efficacy of etanercept in patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Higashi, S; Tomoda, K; Tsukano, M; Baba, S

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of biological therapies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is well known, but their hypothetical benefit in amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis secondary to RA still remains to be considered. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of etanercept in serum amyloid A (SAA) 1.3 allele Japanese patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to RA. Seven RA patients with histologically confirmed AA amyloidosis and renal involvement who were treated with etanercept were enrolled. They all had the SAA1.3 allele, which has been shown to be a risk factor not only for the association of AA amyloidosis but also for a poor prognosis in Japanese RA patients. Efficacy was assessed as a sustained decrease in RA inflammation and an amelioration of renal function. RA inflammation and AA amyloidosis were improved and stabilized after 43.4 +/- 16.5 weeks. At week 20 the number of tender (p = 0.017) and swollen (p = 0.017) joints, and levels of serum C-reactive protein (p = 0.018) and albumin (p = 0.045) had improved. The values for SAA, serum creatinine, calculated creatinine clearance, and proteinuria also ameliorated. No severe adverse events were observed. One patient eventually had to go on hemodialysis but her tolerance of etanercept remained stable. Etanercept can be used safely and effectively in AA amyloidosis secondary to RA with renal involvement, and is of clinical benefit in the short-term, even in patients on hemodialysis. It appears that SAA1.3 allele may be used as a clinical parameter for the introduction of etanercept in Japanese RA with AA amyloidosis.

  8. Profile of renal AA amyloidosis in older and younger individuals: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogmus, Siyar; Kendi Celebi, Zeynep; Akturk, Serkan; Kumru, Gizem; Duman, Neval; Ates, Kenan; Erturk, Sehsuvar; Nergizoglu, Gokhan; Kutlay, Sim; Sengul, Sule; Keven, Kenan

    2018-05-18

    In epidemiological studies of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis from Turkey, the most frequently cause was familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and it occurs generally in young age population. However, there are no sufficient data regarding aetiology, clinical presentation and prognosis of renal AA amyloidosis in advanced age patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate demographic, clinical presentation, aetiology and outcomes of adults aged 60 years or older patients with biopsy-proven renal AA amyloidosis. This is a retrospective study involving 53 patients who were diagnosed with AA amyloidosis by kidney biopsy from 2006 to 2016. In all patients, kidney biopsies were performed due to asymptomatic proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome and/or renal insufficiency. The patients were separated into two groups on the basis of age (group I: ≥60 years and group II: AA amyloidosis were as follows: FMF 16 (50%), bronchiectasis 7 (23%), chronic osteomyelitis 2 (6%), inflammatory bowel disease 2 (6%), rheumatoid arthritis 2 (6%), ankylosing spondylitis 1 (3%) and unknown aetiology 2 (6%). The underlying disorders of AA amyloidosis in group II patients were as follows: FMF 17 (81%), Behcet's disease 1 (5%) and unknown aetiology 3 (14%). No statistically significant differences were detected between two groups with regard to systolic and diastolic blood pressures, albumin, proteinuria and lipids. The combination of chronic kidney disease and nephrotic syndrome was the most common clinical presentation in group I (73%) and group II (43%) (p = .05). Compared to the group II, estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly lower in group I at the time of kidney biopsy (p = .003). At 12-month follow-up, 61% of the group I and 33% of the group II developed end-stage kidney disease requiring dialysis, while 11% of the group I died. Our results indicated that renal AA amyloidosis is a rare disease in advanced age patients. At baseline and follow-up period, advanced age

  9. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R D; Alper, B; Edwards, A W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  11. Mortality Risk from Co-Morbidities independent of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Status: NCI SEER-based Cohort Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swede, Helen; Sarwar, Amna; Magge, Anil; Braithwaite, Dejana; Cook, Linda S.; Gregorio, David I.; Jones, Beth A; Hoag, Jessica; Gonsalves, Lou; Salner, Andrew; Zarfos, Kristen; Andemariam, Biree; Stevens, Richard G; Dugan, Alicia; Pensa, Mellisa; Brockmeyer, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A comparatively high prevalence of co-morbidities among African-American/Blacks (AA/B) has been implicated in disparate survival in breast cancer. There is a scarcity of data, however, if this effect persists when accounting for the adverse triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype which occurs at three-fold the rate in AA/B compared to white breast cancer patients. Methods We reviewed charts of 214 white and 202 AA/B breast cancer patients in the NCI-SEER Connecticut Tumor Registry who were diagnosed in 2000-07. We employed the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index (CCI), a weighted 17-item tool to predict risk of death in cancer populations. Cox Survival Analyses estimated hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality in relation to TNBC and CCI adjusting for clinicopathological factors. Results Among patients with SEER-Local Stage, TNBC increased the risk of death (HR=2.18, 95% CI 1.14-4.16), which was attenuated when the CCI score was added to the model (Adj. HR=1.50, 95% CI 0.74-3.01). Conversely, the adverse impact of the CCI score persisted when controlling for TNBC (Adj. HR=1.49, 95% CI 1.29-1.71; per one point increase). Similar patterns were observed in SEER-Regional Stage but estimated HRs were lower. AA/B patients with a CCI score of ≥3 had a significantly higher risk of death compared to AA/B patients without comorbidities (Adj. HR=5.65, 95% CI 2.90-11.02). A lower and non-significant effect was observed for whites with a CCI of ≥3 (Adj. HR=1.90, 95% CI 0.68-5.29). Conclusions Co-morbidities at diagnosis increase risk of death independent of TNBC, and AA/B patients may be disproportionately at risk. PMID:27000206

  12. Mortality risk from comorbidities independent of triple-negative breast cancer status: NCI-SEER-based cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swede, Helen; Sarwar, Amna; Magge, Anil; Braithwaite, Dejana; Cook, Linda S; Gregorio, David I; Jones, Beth A; R Hoag, Jessica; Gonsalves, Lou; L Salner, Andrew; Zarfos, Kristen; Andemariam, Biree; Stevens, Richard G; G Dugan, Alicia; Pensa, Mellisa; A Brockmeyer, Jessica

    2016-05-01

    A comparatively high prevalence of comorbidities among African-American/Blacks (AA/B) has been implicated in disparate survival in breast cancer. There is a scarcity of data, however, if this effect persists when accounting for the adverse triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype which occurs at threefold the rate in AA/B compared to white breast cancer patients. We reviewed charts of 214 white and 202 AA/B breast cancer patients in the NCI-SEER Connecticut Tumor Registry who were diagnosed in 2000-2007. We employed the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index (CCI), a weighted 17-item tool to predict risk of death in cancer populations. Cox survival analyses estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality in relation to TNBC and CCI adjusting for clinicopathological factors. Among patients with SEER local stage, TNBC increased the risk of death (HR 2.18, 95 % CI 1.14-4.16), which was attenuated when the CCI score was added to the model (Adj. HR 1.50, 95 % CI 0.74-3.01). Conversely, the adverse impact of the CCI score persisted when controlling for TNBC (Adj. HR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.29-1.71; per one point increase). Similar patterns were observed in SEER regional stage, but estimated HRs were lower. AA/B patients with a CCI score of ≥3 had a significantly higher risk of death compared to AA/B patients without comorbidities (Adj. HR 5.65, 95 % CI 2.90-11.02). A lower and nonsignificant effect was observed for whites with a CCI of ≥3 (Adj. HR 1.90, 95 % CI 0.68-5.29). comorbidities at diagnosis increase risk of death independent of TNBC, and AA/B patients may be disproportionately at risk.

  13. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives...

  14. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  15. Distinguishing diffuse alopecia areata (AA) from pattern hair loss (PHL) using CD3(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Athanassios; Thompson, Curtis

    2016-05-01

    Distinguishing between diffuse subacute alopecia areata (AA), in which the peribulbar infiltrate is absent, and pattern hair loss is challenging, particularly in cases that lack marked follicular miniaturization and a marked catagen/telogen shift. We sought to distinguish diffuse AA from pattern hair loss using CD3(+) T lymphocytes. A total of 28 cases of subacute AA and 31 cases of pattern hair loss were selected and a 4-mm punch biopsy was performed. All the specimens were processed using the "HoVert" (horizontal and vertical) technique. In all cases, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical stains for CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20 were performed. The presence of CD3(+) lymphocytes within empty follicular fibrous tracts (stela), even without a concomitant peribulbar infiltrate, is a reliable histopathological clue in supporting a diagnosis of AA (sensitivity 0.964, specificity 1, P ≤ .001). Limited tissue for analysis remained in the clinical sample tissue blocks. The presence of CD3(+) T-cells within empty follicular fibrous tracts (stela) supports a diagnosis of AA. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and Characteristics of Corn Straw-Co-AMPS-Co-AA Superabsorbent Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Min Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the corn straw after removing the lignin was grafted with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS to prepare sulfonated cellulose. The grafting copolymerization between the sulfonated cellulose and acrylic acid (AA was performed using potassium persulfate and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as the initiator and crosslinking agent, respectively, to prepare corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels. The structure and properties of the resulting hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic rheometry. The effects of initiator, crosslinker, monomer neutralization degree, and temperature on the swelling ratio of the hydrogels were studied. The water retention, salt resistance, and recyclability of the corn straw-co-AMPS-co-AA hydrogels were also investigated. The optimum water absorptivity of the corn straw hydrogels was obtained at a polymerization temperature of 50 °C with 1.2% crosslinker, 1:7 ratio of the pretreated corn straw and AA, 2% initiator, and 50% neutralized AA.

  17. Therapeutic Benefits of Tocilizumab Vary in Different Organs of a Patient with AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Matsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic reactive AA amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of chronic inflammatory diseases. Anti-interleukin-6 receptor, tocilizumab (TCZ, has been shown to improve clinical symptoms of patients with AA amyloidosis, accompanied with regression of the amyloid deposition. We report a case of AA amyloidosis evaluated by histology of multiple organs before and after TCZ treatment. A woman in her 60s with rheumatoid arthritis was referred to our hospital because of cardiac and renal dysfunction. A gastric and renal biopsy revealed the deposition of AA amyloid, and echocardiography revealed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Her estimated glomerular filtration rate was decreased to 8.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, and B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A protein were significantly elevated. TCZ treatments markedly decreased her serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels, but hemodialysis was required 1 year later. Endoscopic gastric rebiopsy 3 years after initiation of TCZ treatments revealed the regression of amyloid deposition and echocardiography revealed improvement of her left ventricular hypertrophy. However, a renal rebiopsy revealed that the amyloid deposition had not regressed. In conclusion, these observations suggest that the therapeutic effects of TCZ can vary among organs in patients with AA amyloidosis.

  18. Fabrication of AA6061-T6 Plate Type Fuel Assembly Using Electron Beam Welding Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soosung; Seo, Kyoungseok; Lee, Donbae; Park, Jongman; Lee, Yoonsang; Lee, Chongtak

    2014-01-01

    AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy is easily welded by conventional GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), LBW (Laser Beam Welding) and EBW. However, certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes possess the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the nuclear fuel plate fabrication and assembly, a fundamental EBW experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using an electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the fuel plate assembly has been also studied by the shrinkage measurement and weld inspection using computed tomography. This study was carried out to determine the suitable welding parameters and to evaluate tensile strength of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. In the present experiment, satisfactory electron beam welding process of the full-sized sample was being developed. Based on this fundamental study, fabrication of the plate-type fuel assembly will be provided for the future Ki-Jang research reactor project

  19. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  20. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy.

  1. AA-PMe, a novel asiatic acid derivative, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yue; Wang, Gang; Ge, Ying; Xu, Minjie; Tang, Shuainan; Gong, Zhunan

    2016-01-01

    Asiatic acid (AA; 2α,3β,23-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid) is widely used for medicinal purposes in many Asian countries due to its various bioactivities. A series of AA derivatives has been synthesized in attempts to improve its therapeutic potencies. Herein we investigated the anti-tumor activities of N-(2α,3β,23-acetoxyurs-12-en-28-oyl)-l-proline methyl ester (AA-PMe), a novel AA derivative. AA-PMe exhibited a stronger anti-cancer activity than its parent compound AA. AA-PMe inhibited the proliferation of SGC7901 and HGC27 human gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant toxicity in human gastric mucosa epithelial cells (GES-1). AA-PMe induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and blocked G1-S transition, which correlated well with marked decreases in levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase CKD4, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P15. Further, AA-PMe induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells by affecting Bcl-2, Bax, c-Myc, and caspase-3. Moreover, AA-PMe suppressed the migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cells (SGC7901 and HGC27) cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Overall, this study investigated the potential anti-cancer activities of AA-PMe including inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that AA-PMe is a promising anti-cancer drug candidate in gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27073325

  2. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...

  3. Selection and characterization of resistance to the Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Horikoshi, Renato J; Okuma, Daniela M; Miraldo, Leonardo L; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda Cl; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2016-09-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is one the main target pests of maize events expressing Vip3Aa20 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Brazil. In this study, we selected a resistant strain of S. frugiperda on Bt maize expressing Vip3Aa20 protein and characterized the inheritance and fitness costs of the resistance. The resistance ratio of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain of S. frugiperda was >3200-fold. Neonates of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain were able to survive and emerge as fertile adults on Vip3Aa20 maize, while larvae from susceptible and heterozygous strains did not survive. The inheritance of Vip3Aa20 resistance was autosomal recessive and monogenic. Life history studies to investigate fitness cost revealed an 11% reduction in the survival rate until adult stage and a ∼50% lower reproductive rate of the Vip3Aa20-resistant strain compared with susceptible and heterozygous strains. This is the first characterization of S. frugiperda resistance to Vip3Aa protein. Our results provide useful information for resistance management programs designed to prevent or delay resistance evolution to Vip3Aa proteins in S. frugiperda. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Study of processes of interligand exchange between Cu(AA)2 and Y(DPM)3 in geseous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girichev, G.V.; Giricheva, N.I.; Belova, N.V.; Kuz'mina, N.P.; Kaul', A.R.; Gorbenko, O.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Mass-spectrometric method was used to study the process, proceeding between gaseous copper acetylacetonate and yttrium dipivaloylmethanate in 150-630 deg C range. It was established that intensive ligand exchange with formation of Cu(DPM) (AA), Y(DPM) 2 (AA), Cu(DPM) 2 compounds in gaseous mixture took place between components. Thermal decomposition of copper and yttrium β-diketonates was observed with temperature growth, along with reactions of interligand exchange. Molecular forms of Y(DPM) 2 , Y(DPM)(AA), Cu(DPM) 2 and Cu(DPM)(AA) were the most thermally stable at that

  5. Effect of cryogenic cooling on corrosion of friction stir welded AA7010-T7651

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Davenport, A. J.; Ambat, Rajan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study how cryogenic CO2 cooling during the welding process affects corrosion behaviour of friction stir welding (FSW) AA7010-T7651. Design/methodology/approach - Friction stir welded AA7010-17651 was produced with a rotation speed of 288 rpm and a travel...... speed of 58 mm/min. The liquid CO2 was sprayed onto the weld centre line immediately after the toolpiece. The microstructures of welds in different regions were observed using Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM). The effect on the corrosion susceptibility was investigated using...... a gel visualisation test and potentiodynamic polarisation measurements using a micro-electrochemical technique. Findings - The main corrosion region for both FSWs AA7010-T7651 produced with and without cryogenic CO2 cooling is in the HAZ region, which exhibited intergranular attack. Cryogenic cooling...

  6. Comparison of corrosion behaviour of friction stir processed and laser melted AA 2219 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surekha, K.; Murty, B.S.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Poor corrosion resistance of AA 2219 can be improved by surface treatments. → FSP and LM leads to dissolution of second phase particles. → No literature available on comparison of corrosion behaviour after FSP and LM. → The study implies FSP is as good as LM in improving the corrosion resistance of AA 2219. -- Abstract: Dissolution of second phase particles (CuAl 2 ) present in AA 2219 aluminium improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Two surface treatment techniques, viz., solid state friction stir processing and fusion based laser melting lead to the reduction in CuAl 2 content and the effect of these processes on the corrosion behaviour of the alloy is compared in this study. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were carried out to compare corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance achieved by friction stir processing is comparable to that obtained by the laser melting technique.

  7. Volta potential of clad AA2024 aluminium after exposure to CeCl3 solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, F.; Druart, M.-E.; Marin, E.; Cossement, D.; Olivier, M.-G.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline etch of clad AA2024 enhances precipitation of Ce compounds. • Exposure to CeCl 3 solution decreases Volta potential of alkaline etched substrate. • Ce compounds reduce the driving force for initiation of localized attack. - Abstract: AA2024 clad with AA1050 was immersed in CeCl 3 solution to promote deposition of cerium species. The deposition occurs on the entire sample surface for the alkaline etched substrate, while it is very limited for the degreased substrate. The surface potential (Volta potential) was investigated by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy after different immersion times in CeCl 3 solution. The preferential deposition of Ce compounds at Al–Fe intermetallic sites progressively reduces their Volta potential difference relative to the matrix in the alkaline etched substrate. This reduces the susceptibility to localized attack of the intermetallics as proven by potentiodynamic polarization measurements

  8. A.A. BRUSILOV - FULL GENERAL OF RUSSIAN ARMY AND LAST COMMANDER OF RUSSIAN TSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Сергеевич Синютин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the biography of Russian full general A.A. Brusilov − the hero of World War I, whose name is associated with the term “Brusilov Offensive”. The author exa-mines his views on the new situation which developed in Russia during the two revolutions of 1917, and then in the Soviet period. The author highly appreciates the theoretical preparation level of A.A. Brusilov, who got full military education in tsarist Russia; reveals the pre-sence of numerous analogous episodes in the biographies of A.A. Brusilov and A.V. Suvorov. He focuses on the similar origin of two Russian heroes, whose families belonged to the military dynasties of imperial Russia. The author concludes that the continuity of generations is very important in the issue of effective army’s functioning. This tradition was preserved in the new Soviet state.

  9. FIB-SEM investigation of trapped intermetallic particles in anodic oxide films on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    -containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100?ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14?V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120?min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed......Purpose - The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates. Design/methodology/approach - The morphology and composition of Fe......-shaped particles were embedded in the anodic oxide film as a thin strip structure and located near the top surface of the film, whereas the round-shaped particles were trapped in the film with a spherical structure, but partially dissolved and were located throughout the thickness of the anodic film. The Fe...

  10. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  11. Rectification induced in N2AA-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Ling-Ling; Luo, Kai-Wu; Xu, Liang; Li, Xiao-Fei

    2014-01-01

    By using non-equilibrium Green function formalism in combination with density functional theory, we investigated the electronic transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbon devices in which one lead is undoped and the other is N 2 AA -doped with two quasi-adjacent substitutional nitrogen atoms incorporating pairs of neighboring carbon atoms in the same sublattice A. Two kinds of N 2 AA -doped style are considered, for N dopants substitute the center or the edge carbon atoms. Our results show that the rectification behavior with a large rectifying ratio can be found in these devices and the rectifying characteristics can be modulated by changing the width of graphene nanoribbons or the position of the N 2 AA dopant. The mechanisms are revealed to explain the rectifying behaviors.

  12. Transient thermal analysis during friction stir welding between AA2014-T6 and pure copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhavi, A. R.; Ghetiya, N. D.; Patel, K. M.

    2018-04-01

    AA2xxx-Cu alloys showed larger applications in the defence sectors and in aerospace industries due to high strength to weight ratio and toughness. FSW in a butt joint configuration was carried out between AA2014-T6 and pure Copper placing AA2014 on AS and Cu on RS. Temperature profiles were observed by inserting K-type thermocouples in the mid-thickness at various locations of the plate. A sharp decrease in temperature profiles was observed on Copper side due to its higher thermal conductivity. A thermal numerical model was prepared in ANSYS to compare the simulated temperature profiles with the experimental temperature profiles and both the temperature profiles were found to be in good agreement.

  13. Investigation of Microstructure and Microhardness in Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welded AA2014-T6 and AA2219-T87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, K. Renee; McGill, Preston; Barkey, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. This work reports on the microstructure and microhardness of SR-FSW between two dissimilar aluminum alloys. Specifically, the study examines the cross section of the weld joint formed between an AA2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA2219-T87 plate on the retreating side. The microstructural analysis shows an irregularly displaced weld seam from the advancing side past the thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) into the weld nugget region. There are sharp variations in the microhardness across the weld. These variations are described in the paper and mechanisms for their formation are discussed.

  14. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Scorpion neurotoxin AaIT-expressing Beauveria bassiana enhances the virulence against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sheng-Qun; Cai, Qun-Di; Deng, Ming-Zhi; Huang, Qiang; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2017-12-01

    To improve the insecticidal efficacy of this entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana, the fungus was genetically modified to express an insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin AaIT. The virulence of the recombinant B. bassiana strain (Bb-AaIT) against Aedes albopictus adults (which occurs via penetration through the cuticle during spore germination or by conidia ingestion), and the larvae (by conidia ingestion) was measured with bioassays. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of Bb-AaIT against A. albopictus larvae was 313.3-fold lower on day 4 and 11.3-fold lower on day 10 than that of the wild type (WT). Through conidia feeding or body contact, Bb-AaIT killed 50% of adult female mosquitoes at 3.9- or 1.9-fold reduced concentrations on day 4 and at 2.1- or 2.4-fold reduced concentrations on day 10. Compared with the results for the WT, the median lethal time (LT 50 ) of Bb-AaIT was reduced by 28.6% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 and 34.3% at 1 × 10 6 conidia ml -1 in the larvae bioassay by conidia ingestion, while it decreased 32.3% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 by conidia ingestion and 24.2% at 1 × 10 8 conidia ml -1 by penetrating through the cuticle in the adult bioassay. All the differences were significant. Our findings indicated that Bb-AaIT had higher virulence and faster action than the WT in killing the larval and adult mosquitoes, and therefore, it is valuable for development as a commercial mosquito pesticide.

  16. The use of CR1aa for ovine in vitro embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulnawati

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of CR1aa as a simple medium for maturation, fertilization and culture of ovine embryo in vitro. Oocytes were collected by slicing method in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS supplemented with 5% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS and 100 IU/ml penicillin streptomycin. Oocytes were matured in Tissue Culture Medium (TCM-199 as control or CR1aa as treatment medium. Both maturation medium were supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, 10 IU/ml Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH, 10 IU/ml Luteinizing Hormone (LH, 1 μg/ml Estradiol and 100 IU/ml penicillin-streptomycin. Oocytes were incubated in 5% CO2 incubator, 38˚C for 24 h. Matured oocytes were fertilized in BO or CR1aa medium, supplemented with 2.5 mM caffeine benzoate and 20 mg /ml heparin. After 18 h in vitro fertilization, oocytes were cultured in TCM-199 or CR1aa medium, both supplemented with 5% FBS, 5 mg/ml insulin and 100 IU/ml penicillin streptomycin. Results showed that the highest maturation rate was found in TCM-199 medium (73.27% and significantly different (P0.05 between cleavage rate of ovine embryos in TCM-199 and CR1aa medium (39.45% vs 50.94%. In conclusion, optimum result on ovine in vitro embryo production can be achieved from a combination of TCM-199 as maturation medium and CR1aa as fertilization and culture medium.

  17. Corrosion Susceptibility of AA5083-H116 in Biologically Active Atmospheric Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Ahn, D. J. Quesnel, S. B. Jung, "Behavior of beta phase (A13Mg2) in AA 5083 during friction stir welding ," Intermetallics 35 (2013) p. 120-127. 4. R... Metallurgy and Materials Science 43A, 13 (2012) p. 4933-4939. 7. D. Mizuno, R. G. Kelly, "Galvanically Induced Intergranular Corrosion of AA5083-H131 Under...Behavior of Al-5083," Metallurgical and Materials Transactions a-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 42A, 2 (2011) p. 348-355. 13. R. L. Holtz, P

  18. A Novel Tenebrio molitor Cadherin Is a Functional Receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa Toxin*

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D.; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepid...

  19. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  20. Optimization of pulsed TIG welding process parameters on mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004 (India)], E-mail: adepu_kumar7@yahoo.co.in; Sundarrajan, S. [Scientist ' G' , Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 028 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The present work pertains to the improvement of mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds through pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. Taguchi method was employed to optimize the pulsed TIG welding process parameters of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds for increasing the mechanical properties. Regression models were developed. Analysis of variance was employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The effect of planishing on mechanical properties was also studied and observed that there was improvement in mechanical properties. Microstructures of all the welds were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties.

  1. Optimization of pulsed TIG welding process parameters on mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Sundarrajan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The present work pertains to the improvement of mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds through pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. Taguchi method was employed to optimize the pulsed TIG welding process parameters of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds for increasing the mechanical properties. Regression models were developed. Analysis of variance was employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The effect of planishing on mechanical properties was also studied and observed that there was improvement in mechanical properties. Microstructures of all the welds were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties

  2. Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with AA amyloidosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamar, Mouna; Tazi-Mezalek, Zoubida; Harmouche, Hicham; El Hamany, Zitouna; Adnaoui, Mohammed; Aouni, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Churg Strauss syndrome is a rare systemic and pulmonary vasculitis exceptionally associated with AA amyloidosis. We report the case of a 65-year old woman with past medical history of asthma. She developed polyarthralgia, headache and purpura. A laboratory workout found hypereosinophilia (1150/µL), positive p-ANCA, microscopic haematuria and proteinuria at 2g/day. A diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome was established based on five criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). Renal biopsy showed an important type AA amyloid deposit. The patient was treated with steroids with a good response of the vasculitis and amyloidosis with disappearance of the proteinuria.

  3. The influence of strain on annealing behaviour of heavily rolled aluminium AA1050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Deformation structures and annealing behaviour have been analysed in the centre layer of two AA1050 samples cold-rolled to von Mises strains of 3.6 and 6.4. During annealing at 270-300°C structural coarsening and discontinuous recrystallization occurred in both samples. In the coarsened microstru......Deformation structures and annealing behaviour have been analysed in the centre layer of two AA1050 samples cold-rolled to von Mises strains of 3.6 and 6.4. During annealing at 270-300°C structural coarsening and discontinuous recrystallization occurred in both samples. In the coarsened...

  4. Influencia de los parámetros de la soldadura metálica fría en las aleaciones AA5083 y AA6061//Influence of the colt metal welding parameters on the AA5083 and AA6061 aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Eduardo de‐Luna‐Alanís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la influencia de la velocidad de la soldadura y de las correcciones del arco y pulso en el proceso de Transferencia Metálica Fría sobre las propiedades mecánicas de las aleaciones AA5083 y AA6061. Se desarrolló un diseño experimental de tipo factorial multinivel, con 4 factores independientes (Corrección de Arco, Pulso, Velocidad de Soldadura y Aleación. Los parámetros fundamentales fueron: Corriente de base 250 A; Voltaje de arco 21 V y Polaridad (Direct current electrode positive, DCEP. La evaluación se realizó a través de un ensayo de tracción transversal sobre probetas planas obtenidas de los cupones soldados. Se demuestra que el modelo aplicado es adecuado, revelándose en los experimentos diferencias sustanciales en las propiedades Tensión de fluencia 29,56 %, Módulo de elasticidad 51,16 % y Trabajo específico de deformación elástica 42,30 %, el cual no posee una dependencia lineal con elresto de las propiedades anteriores.Palabras claves: transferencia metálica fría, aleación AA5083, aleación AA6061, propiedades mecánicas._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work objective was to evaluatethe influence of Cold Metal Transfer process arc and pulse corrections and welding speed on the mechanical properties of AA5083 and AA6061 aluminum alloys. For it, a Factorial Multilevel experimental design whit 4 independent factor (arc correction, pulse correction, welding speed and alloy was developed. The essential welding parameters employed were: base current 250 A; arc voltage 21 V and polarity (DCEP. The evaluation was made whit a transverse traction test of plate welded coupons. The experimental model applied wasadequate and substantial differences was showed between yield tensile strength 29,56 %, elasticity module (51,16 % and specific work of elastic deformation 42,30 %, which it does not possess a lineal dependence whit the rest

  5. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  6. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  7. Mathematical modeling and comparison of protein size distribution in different plant, animal, fungal and microbial species reveals a negative correlation between protein size and protein number, thus providing insight into the evolution of proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiessen Axel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sizes of proteins are relevant to their biochemical structure and for their biological function. The statistical distribution of protein lengths across a diverse set of taxa can provide hints about the evolution of proteomes. Results Using the full genomic sequences of over 1,302 prokaryotic and 140 eukaryotic species two datasets containing 1.2 and 6.1 million proteins were generated and analyzed statistically. The lengthwise distribution of proteins can be roughly described with a gamma type or log-normal model, depending on the species. However the shape parameter of the gamma model has not a fixed value of 2, as previously suggested, but varies between 1.5 and 3 in different species. A gamma model with unrestricted shape parameter described best the distributions in ~48% of the species, whereas the log-normal distribution described better the observed protein sizes in 42% of the species. The gamma restricted function and the sum of exponentials distribution had a better fitting in only ~5% of the species. Eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 aa, whereas bacterial (320 aa and archaeal (283 aa proteins are significantly smaller (33-40% on average. Average protein sizes in different phylogenetic groups were: Alveolata (628 aa, Amoebozoa (533 aa, Fornicata (543 aa, Placozoa (453 aa, Eumetazoa (486 aa, Fungi (487 aa, Stramenopila (486 aa, Viridiplantae (392 aa. Amino acid composition is biased according to protein size. Protein length correlated negatively with %C, %M, %K, %F, %R, %W, %Y and positively with %D, %E, %Q, %S and %T. Prokaryotic proteins had a different protein size bias for %E, %G, %K and %M as compared to eukaryotes. Conclusions Mathematical modeling of protein length empirical distributions can be used to asses the quality of small ORFs annotation in genomic releases (detection of too many false positive small ORFs. There is a negative correlation between average protein size and total number of

  8. Recent negative ion source developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes recent results obtained from studies associated with the development of negative ion sources which utilize sputtering in a diffuse cesium plasma as a means of ion beam generation. Data are presented which relate negative ion yield and important operational parameters such as cesium oven temperature and sputter probe voltage from each of the following sources: (1) A source based in principle according to the University of Aarhus design and (2) an axial geometry source. The important design aspects of the sources are given--along with a list of the negative ion intensities observed to date. Also a qualitative description and interpretation of the negative ion generation mechanism in sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of cesium is given

  9. Feasibility of the UV/AA process as a pretreatment approach for bioremediation of dye-laden wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghui; Wu, Bingdang; Li, Qiuhao; Xiong, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Haoran; Tian, Yu; Xie, Jiawen; Huang, Ping; Tan, Suo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shujuan

    2018-03-01

    Biodegradability and toxicity are two important indexes in considering the feasibility of a chemical process for environmental remediation. The acetylacetone (AA) mediated photochemical process has been proven as an efficient approach for dye decolorization. Both AA and its photochemical degradation products had a high bioavailability. However, the biocompatibility and ecotoxicology of the UV/AA treated solutions are unclear yet. In the present work, we evaluated the biocompatibility and toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions at both biochemical and organismal levels. The biodegradability of the treated solution was evaluated with the ratio of 5-d biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) and a 28-d activated sludge assay (Zahn-Wellens tests). The UV/AA process significantly improved the biodegradability of the tested dye solutions. Toxicity was assessed with responses of microorganisms (microbes in activated sludge and Daphnia magna) and plants (bok choy, rice seed, and Arabidopsis thaliana) to the treated solutions, which showed that the toxicity of the UV/AA treated solutions was lower or comparable to that of the UV/H 2 O 2 counterparts. The results are helpful for us to determine whether the UV/AA process is applicable to certain wastewaters and how the UV/AA process could be effectively combined into a sequential chemical-biological water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  11. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2010. Synthesis Report 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.; Price, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation requires that all students participate in state accountability systems. Most students with disabilities participate in the regular assessment, with or without accommodations. Students with more significant cognitive disabilities participate in the Alternate Assessment based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). A few…

  12. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  13. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  14. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  15. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  16. Mechanical properties of aluminium–copper–lithium alloy AA2195 at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayan, Niraj; Narayana Murty, S.V.S.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; Sharma, S.C.; George, Koshy M.; Sastry, G.V.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 4 mm thick sheet of AA2195 was imparted T87 temper. • 7% cold work to impart T87 was given by combination of cold rolling and stretching. • Mechanical properties were evaluated at RT and cryogenic temperatures. • Strength of AA2195 are superior to the conventional aluminum alloy 2219 at all temperatures. • Strength decreases with decrease in temperature whereas ductility remains unchanged. - Abstract: Tensile testing was performed on a 4 mm thick sheet of the aluminum–lithium alloy AA2195 in T87 (solution treatment + water quenching + 7% cold work + peak aging) temper which was subjected to 7% cold working by combination of cold rolling and stretching, over a temperature range from ambient to liquid hydrogen (20 K) conditions. Properties were evaluated in longitudinal as well as transverse directions to characterize anisotropy with respect to strength and ductility. Strength and ductility were compared to the conventional aluminum alloy AA2219-T87, developed for similar cryogenic applications. Decreases in test temperature led to higher strengths with little or no change in ductility. As the temperature decreases, the differences between ultimate tensile strength as well as yield strength for two different combinations of cold roll and stretch studied in the present work, narrows down and become equal at 20 K

  17. Microstructure and microhardness of AA1050/TiC surface composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The surface properties dictate the life span of components in ... the life span. This balance of properties is not achiev- ... It is hard to avoid the excessive ... In the present work, an attempt is made to fabricate AA1050/10wt. ... FSW can be considered as a hot-working process in which severe plastic deformation is imported.

  18. Evaluation of Electron Beam Welding Performance of AA6061-T6 Plate-type Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Sung; Seo, Kyoung-Seok; Lee, Don-Bae; Park, Jong-Man; Lee, Yoon-Sang; Lee, Chong-Tak

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most commonly used heat-treatable aluminum alloys, AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy is available in a wide range of structural materials. Typically, it is used in structural members, auto-body sheet and many other applications. Generally, this alloy is easily welded by conventional GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding), LBW (Laser Beam Welding) and EBW(Electron Beam Welding). However, certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes possess the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the plate-type nuclear fuel fabrication and assembly, a fundamental electron beam welding experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the suitable welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using an electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the plate-type fuel assembly has been also studied by the weld penetrations of side plate to end fitting and fixing bar and weld inspections using computed tomography

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-08-0043 ref|YP_026048.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Speleonectes tulum...ensis] gb|AAS00889.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Speleonectes tulumensis] YP_026048.1 0.41 37% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-08-0245 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-08-0245 ref|YP_045158.1| putative fimbrial usher protein [Acinetobacter s...p. ADP1] gb|AAS90700.1| AcuC [Acinetobacter sp. BD413] emb|CAG67336.1| protein AcuC; putative fimbrial usher protein [Acinetobacter sp. ADP1] YP_045158.1 0.47 32% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0397 ref|YP_005572.1| competence factor comEC [Thermus thermophilus HB...27] gb|AAG34707.1|AF319938_2 competence factor ComEC [Thermus thermophilus] gb|AAS81945.1| competence factor comEC [Thermus thermophilus HB27] YP_005572.1 0.10 31% ...

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Putrescine-Producing Strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel M.; Fernandez, María; Mayo, Baltasar; Martín, M. Cruz

    2015-01-01

    We report here the 2,576,542-bp genome annotated draft assembly sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 1AA59. This strain—isolated from a traditional cheese—produces putrescine, one of the most frequently biogenic amines found in dairy products. PMID:26089428

  3. Seismic analysis of HD 43587Aa, a solar-like oscillator in a multiple system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumier, P.; Benomar, O.; Baudin, F.; Verner, G.; Appourchaux, T.; Lebreton, Y.; Gaulme, P.; Chaplin, W.; García, R.A.; Hekker, S.; Regulo, C.; Salabert, D.; Stahn, T.; Elsworth, Y.; Gizon, L.; Hall, M.; Mathur, S.; Michel, E.; Morel, T.; Mosser, B.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Roxburgh, I.; do Nascimento Jr., J.D.; Samadi, R.; Auvergne, M.; Chaintreuil, S.; Baglin, A.; Catala, C.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The object HD 43587Aa is a G0V star observed during the 145-day LRa03 run of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits space mission (CoRoT), for which complementary High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) spectra with S/N > 300 were also obtained. Its visual magnitude

  4. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda and S. exigua to Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Bel, Yolanda; Caccia, Silvia; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The Vip3Aa protein is an insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. The activity of this protein has been tested after different steps/protocols of purification using Spodoptera frugiperda as a control insect. The results showed that the Vip3Aa protoxin was stable and retained full toxicity after being subjected to common biochemical steps used in protein purification. Bioassays with the protoxin in S. frugiperda and S. exigua showed pronounced differences in LC(50) values when mortality was measured at 7 vs. 10d. At 7d most live larvae were arrested in their development. LC(50) values of "functional mortality" (dead larvae plus larvae remaining in the first instar), measured at 7d, were similar or even lower than the LC(50) values of mortality at 10d. This strong growth inhibition was not observed when testing the trypsin-activated protein (62 kDa) in either species. S. exigua was less susceptible than S. frugiperda to the protoxin form, with LC(50) values around 10-fold higher. However, both species were equally susceptible to the trypsin-activated form. Processing of Vip3Aa protoxin to the activated form was faster with S. frugiperda midgut juice than with S. exigua midgut juice. The results strongly suggest that the differences in the rate of activation of the Vip3Aa protoxin between both species are the basis for the differences in susceptibility towards the protoxin form. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of pH and chloride concentration on pitting corrosion of AA6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, B.; Saidi, D.; Benzaid, A.; Hadji, S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of pH solution and chloride (Cl - ) ion concentration on the corrosion behaviour of alloy AA6061 immersed in aqueous solutions of NaCl have been investigated using measurements of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation, linear polarisation, cyclic polarisation experiment combined with open circuit potential transient technique and optical or scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behaviour of the AA6061 aluminum alloy was found to be dependant on the pH and chloride concentration [NaCl] of solution. In acidic or slightly neutral solutions, general and pitting corrosion occurred simultaneously. In contrast, exposure to alkaline solutions results in general corrosion. Experience revealed that the alloy AA6061 was susceptible to pitting corrosion in all chloride solution of concentration ranging between 0.003 wt% and 5.5 wt% NaCl and an increase in the chloride concentration slightly shifted both the pitting E pit and corrosion E cor potentials to more active values. In function of the conditions of treatment, the sheets of the alloy AA6061 undergo two types of localised corrosion process, leading to the formation of hemispherical and crystallographic pits. Polarisation resistance measurements in acidic (pH = 2) and alkaline chloride solutions (pH = 12) which are in good agreement with those of weight loss, show that the corrosion kinetic is minimised in slightly neutral solutions (pH = 6)

  7. The AAS to BAS Pathway: Heating Up the Educational Aspiration of CTE Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Tricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The enrollment and transfer behaviors of college students are diverse. As a result, college students travel various pathways to the baccalaureate degree. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the lived experience of students who entered higher education through an associate of applied science (AAS) program and then…

  8. Aa ranna veerele kavandatakse kuni 60 elamuga asumit / Külli Kriis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kriis, Külli, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 6. juuli 2007, lk. 1,4. Lüganuse vallavalitsuses ja kohalikes elanikes tekitavad OÜ Eesti Era kavandatavad elamud Aa külla vastuseisu ranna läheduse, juurdepääsu ning veevarustuse ja kanalisatsiooniprobleemide tõttu

  9. Evaluación de la corrosión por picadura en aluminio AA1050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Garita-Arce

    2014-09-01

    Los ensayos realizados según la norma ASTM G100- 89 para las aleaciones consideradas no indicaron diferencias significativas, aunque sí se observó que la aleación AA1050 presenta mayor susceptibilidad a la picadura en ámbitos de un pH= 7 y con deformaciones elevadas.

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3068 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3068 ref|NP_960250.1| AppC [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis... K-10] gb|AAS03633.1| AppC [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis K-10] NP_960250.1 2.1 28% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1284 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1284 ref|NP_962383.1| SugI [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis... K-10] gb|AAS05999.1| SugI [Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis K-10] NP_962383.1 2e-85 55% ...

  12. Biotransformation of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) into lipoxins and lipoxenes by porcine leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.Y.K.; Spur, B.; Hirai, A.; Yoshida, S.; Tamura, Y.; Lam, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Lipoxins and lipoxenes have been reported to be formed after incubation of 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 15-hydroperoxyeicosapentaenoic acid with human leukocytes and porcine leukocytes, respectively. The authors examined the ability of porcine leukocytes to metabolize [ 14 C]-AA and [ 14 C]-EPA (100 μM) to lipoxins and lipoxenes. Incubation products were separated by RP-HPLC and identified by U.V. spectrum and GC/MS. Porcine leukocytes metabolized both AA and EPA to form lipoxins and lipoxenes in addition to mono- and di-hydroxyl fatty acids. Quantitative analysis from U.V. absorbance after RP-HPLC revealed that about 0.05% of AA was converted to lipoxins A and B and 0.1% of EPA was converted to lipoxenes A and B. In addition, treatment of leukotriene A 4 and leukotriene A 5 with 15-lipoxygenase also gave rise to several isomers of lipoxin and lipoxene. Thus, lipoxins and lipoxenes would have been derived from AA and EPA after dioxygenation by 5-lipoxygenase and 15-lipoxygenase, respectively. When tested for biological activity, lipoxene A (2 μM), like lipoxin A, induced superoxide anion generation in canine neutrophils but had no effect on lysosomal enzyme release on neutrophil aggregation

  13. Two distinct clinical courses of renal involvement in rheumatoid patients with AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Hiroshi; Yokota, Akira; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Miyake, Tadao; Fushimi, Hiroaki; Maeda, Akira; Saiki, Osamu

    2006-08-01

    We conducted a prospective study to investigate whether a correlation exists between the clinical course of renal involvement and the pathological findings of renal amyloidosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with RA of more than 5 years' duration and who did not show renal manifestations were selected and received a duodenal biopsy for the diagnosis of amyloidosis. After the diagnosis of AA amyloidosis, patients received a renal biopsy, and patterns of amyloid deposition were examined. We followed the renal functions (serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) of patients diagnosed with AA amyloidosis for 5 years. We diagnosed 53 patients with AA amyloidosis and monitored the renal function of 38 of them for > 5 years. The histological patterns were examined; in the 38 patients there were appreciable variations in the patterns of amyloid deposition. In 27 patients, amyloid deposits were found exclusively in the glomerulus (type 1). In the other 11 patients, however, amyloid deposits were found selectively around blood vessels and were totally absent in the glomerulus (type 2). In type 1 patients with glomerular involvement, renal function deteriorated rapidly regardless of disease state; most patients received hemodialysis. In type 2 patients with purely vascular involvement, however, renal function did not deteriorate significantly. In patients with RA and AA amyloidosis, 2 distinct clinical courses in terms of renal involvement were identified. It is suggested that renal function does not deteriorate when amyloid deposition is totally lacking in the glomerulus.

  14. The AAS Taskforce on Diversity and Inclusion in Graduate Education: a Proposed White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2018-06-01

    At the January 2017 AAS meeting in Texas, the AAS Council approved the creation of a Graduate Education Taskforce focusing on Diversity and Inclusion. This task force is conducting a review of practices in recruiting, admissions, and retention in PhD programs in astronomy (including astronomy programs in departments of physics and astronomy). It is also engaging the broader astronomical community and selected outside experts in diversity in STEM in a discussion of best practices in these activities, with the goal of promoting diversity (race/ethnicity, gender, LGBTQ+, disability status, etc.) and inclusion in astronomy PhD programs. Building on the Nashville Recommendations from the Inclusive Astronomy 2015 meeting, the task force is developing a set of specific recommendations with the aim of endorsement by the AAS, in parallel with a campaign to get them adopted by astronomy departments. Finally, the task force will suggest and push adoption of a set of permanent measurements to be collected by the AAS to track progress on these goals. There is a separate special session at this meeting intended to report on the task force’s progress and to solicit community input on its draft recommendations to date.This presentation will give a brief overview of the task force's charge and activities and their plans to turn their final report into a White Paper for the Decadal Survey.

  15. AA1000 and SA8000 compared: a systematic comparison of contemporary accountability standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbbels, M.; Jonker, J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the ways to deal with stakeholder issues, is the use and application of accountability standards. Two recent accountability standards (AA1000 and SA8000) will be the subject of comparison in this paper. Firstly, the constituent elements of these new standards will be briefly described. The

  16. ORF Alignment: ch_oct10_gene_aa_db [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ch_oct10_gene_aa_db Chro.60303 >1wicA 11 152 1 150 4e-26 ... gb|EAL37012.1| conserverd MSP-domain transme...mbrane protein [Cryptosporidium ... hominis] ... Length = 150 ... Query: 1 ... MSME...GAKLVRVHPEKALEFPLVLYSSVTTPLILENITSSTVAFKIKTTAPRGYLVRPSSG 60 ... MSMEGAKLVRVHPEKALEFPLVLYSSVTTPLIL...ENITSSTVAFKIKTTAPRGYLVRPSSG Sbjct: 1 ... MSMEGAKLVRVHPEKALEFPLVLYSSVTTPLILENITSSTVA

  17. Influence of surface pretreatment in resistance spot welding of aluminum AA1050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Naimi, Ihsan K.; Al Saadi, Moneer H.; Daws, Kasim M.

    2015-01-01

    quality. An experimental study of the influence of pretreatment on weld quality in RSW of AA1050 sheets with three thicknesses, comparing welding of as-received sheet with pretreated sheet by either pickling in NaOH or glass-blasting were investigated. Different weld settings were applied with low...

  18. VR light curves of AA Tau in 2007-2013 (Bouvier+, 2013) [Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvier, J.; Grankin, K.; Ellerbroek, L.; Bouy, H.; Barrado, D.

    2013-01-01

    Optical observations of AA Tau were obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) from October 2007 to February 2013. Additional BVRcIc photometry was obtained on December 23, 2011 using the Cafos focal reducer in direct imaging mode with CCD SITE1d 15 on the 2.2m Calar Alto Telescope.

  19. Effects of equal channel angular extrusion on microstructure, strength and ballistic performance of AA5754 plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Hong, Chuanshi; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness, tensile properties and ballistic performance have been investigated in thick plates of the AA5754 alloy both in a coarse-grained as-received condition and after 4 passes of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) conducted at elevated temperatures. It is found that ECAE...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0804 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0804 ref|YP_073313.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropog...onis] gb|AAS75439.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073313.1 1.8 24% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1349 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1349 ref|YP_073313.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropog...onis] gb|AAS75439.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073313.1 1.8 25% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0135 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0135 ref|YP_073313.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropog...onis] gb|AAS75439.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073313.1 3e-04 28% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0857 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0857 ref|YP_073322.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Neomaskellia andro...pogonis] gb|AAS75448.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073322.1 5e-04 23% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2150 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2150 ref|YP_073317.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andro...pogonis] gb|AAS75443.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073317.1 0.86 27% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2699 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2699 ref|YP_073313.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropog...onis] gb|AAS75439.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073313.1 0.055 30% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-0782 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-0782 ref|YP_073313.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropog...onis] gb|AAS75439.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073313.1 1.9 26% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1417 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1417 ref|YP_073322.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Neomaskellia andro...pogonis] gb|AAS75448.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Neomaskellia andropogonis] YP_073322.1 0.025 25% ...

  8. Partial view of the first quarter of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    See photo 8004261 and Annual Report 1979 p.143, Fig. 1 For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  9. Surface oxide formation during corona discharge treatment of AA 1050 aluminium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Møller, Per; Kingshott, Peter

    2008-01-01

    process modifies aluminium AA 1050 surface, the oxide growth and resulting corrosion properties. The corona treatment is carried out in atmospheric air. Treated surfaces are characterized using XPS, SEM/EDS, and FIB-FESEM and results suggest that an oxide layer is grown, consisting of mixture of oxide...

  10. Partial view of the first quarter of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    See under 8004261. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  11. Considerations for Consortia as States Transition Away from AA-MAS. NCEO Brief. Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, 2014

    2014-01-01

    States with an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) that received a flexibility waiver from some of the requirements of No Child Left Behind are required to phase out their use of this assessment. And, on August 23, 2013, the U.S. Department of Education published a proposed rollback of regulation that allowed the…

  12. Successfully Transitioning from the AA-MAS to the General Assessment. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Shyyan, Vitaliy

    2014-01-01

    Federal policy initiatives such as the flexibility waivers for accountability are requiring that states transition away from the use of an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). It is expected that those students who had participated in that assessment will instead participate in the state's general assessment (or a…

  13. ORF Alignment: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.6649; Contig19-10251; complement(36800..38461); BR...87398.1| ... TFIIB related subunit of TFIIIB (BRF1) [Candida ... albicans] pir||B55483 transcr...L Transcription factor IIIB 70 kDa ... subunit (TFIIIB) (B-related factor)

  14. ORF Sequence: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.710 >orf19.710; Contig19-10065; complement(47186.....>47710); LSC2*; succinate-CoA ligase beta subunit; truncated protein | overlap LGFDDNASFRQEEVFSWRDPTQEDPQEAE

  15. Laser surface alloying of aluminum (AA1200) with Ni and SiC Powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available . The dissociated C reacted with Al to form Al4C3. The addition of Ni resulted in the formation of the Al3Ni phase. A hardness increase of approximately four times that of aluminum AA1200 was achieved in the alloyed layer....

  16. The effect of welding parameters on surface quality of AA6351 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacob, S; Ariffin, N; Ali, R; Arshad, A; Wahab, M I A; Ismail, S A; Roji, NS M; Din, W B W; Zakaria, M H; Abdullah, A; Yusof, M I; Kamarulzaman, K Z; Mahyuddin, A; Hamzah, M N; Roslan, R; MAli, M A; Ahsan, Q

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT) parameters on surface roughness are experimentally assessed. The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of the effects of welding speed, material thickness and contact tip to work distance on the surface roughness. Experiments are conducted using single pass gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT) welding technique to join the material. The material used in this experiment was AA6351 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 5mm and 6mm. A Mahr Marsuft XR 20 machine was used to measure the average roughness (Ra) of AA6351 joints. The main and interaction effect analysis was carried out to identify process parameters that affect the surface roughness. The results show that all the input process parameters affect the surface roughness of AA6351 joints. Additionally, the average roughness (Ra) results also show a decreasing trend with increased of welding speed. It is proven that gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT)welding process has been successful in term of providing weld joint of good surface quality for AA6351 based on the low value surface roughness condition obtained in this setup. The outcome of this experimental shall be valuable for future fabrication process in order to obtained high good quality weld. (paper)

  17. 7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section 51.1176 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards...

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin increases the susceptibility of Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata to Beauveria bassiana infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most devastating pests of asparagus in China and elsewhere. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bas...

  19. Dynamic behaviour of AA 2024 under blast loading : experiments and simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Soetens, F.; van der Meulen, Ronald; Kroon, E.; Aanhold, van J.E.; Soetens, F.; Katgerman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of AA2024-T3 is investigated. Dynamic tensile tests using a servo-hydraulic and a light weight shock testing machine (LSM) have been performed. The servo-hydraulic test machine proves to be more reliable and reaches higher strain rates. Neither test revealed any strain rate

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ETEL-01-1447 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1447 ref|YP_026033.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 [Hutchinsoniella ma...cracantha] gb|AAS00874.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 [Hutchinsoniella macracantha] YP_026033.1 0.92 36% ...

  1. ORF Alignment: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.2029; Contig19-10139; 79190..80278; RFC5*; DNA replicationn factor C | lead...ing strand elongation mismatch repair ... (ATPase); >1a5t0 2 329 7 339 1e-22 ... gb|EAL00

  2. Intergranular corrosion in AA5XXX aluminum alloys with discontinuous precipitation at the grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumiller, Elissa

    The US Navy currently uses AA5xxx aluminum alloys for structures exposed to a marine environment. These alloys demonstrate excellent corrosion resistance over other aluminum alloys (e.g., AA2xxx or AA7xxx) in this environment, filling a niche in the marine structures market when requiring a light-weight alternative to steel. However, these alloys are susceptible to localized corrosion; more specifically, intergranular corrosion (IGC) is of concern. IGC of AA5xxx alloys due to the precipitation of beta phase on the grain boundaries is a well-established phenomenon referred to as sensitization. At high degrees of sensitization, the IGC path is a continuous anodic path of beta phase particles. At lower degrees of sensitization, the beta phase coverage at the grain boundaries is not continuous. The traditional ranges of susceptibility to IGC as defined by ASTM B928 are in question due to recent studies. These studies showed that even at mid range degrees of sensitization where the beta phase is no longer continuous, IGC may still occur. Previous thoughts on IGC of these alloy systems were founded on the idea that once the grain boundary precipitate became discontinuous the susceptibility to IGC was greatly reduced. Additionally, IGC susceptibility has been defined metallurgically by compositional gradients at the grain boundaries. However, AA5xxx alloys show no compositional gradients at the grain boundaries, yet are still susceptible to IGC. The goal of this work is to establish criteria necessary for IGC to occur given no continuous beta phase path and no compositional gradient at the grain boundaries. IGC performance of the bulk alloy system AA5083 has been studied along with the primary phases present in the IGC system: alpha and beta phases using electrochemistry and modeling as the primary tools. Numerical modeling supports that at steady-state the fissure tip is likely saturated with Mg in excess of the 4% dissolved in the matrix. By combining these results

  3. Event-by-Event Hydrodynamics+Jet Energy Loss: A Solution to the R_{AA}⊗v_{2} Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Betz, Barbara; Noronha, Jorge; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2016-06-24

    High p_{T}>10  GeV elliptic flow, which is experimentally measured via the correlation between soft and hard hadrons, receives competing contributions from event-by-event fluctuations of the low-p_{T} elliptic flow and event-plane angle fluctuations in the soft sector. In this Letter, a proper account of these event-by-event fluctuations in the soft sector, modeled via viscous hydrodynamics, is combined with a jet-energy-loss model to reveal that the positive contribution from low-p_{T} v_{2} fluctuations overwhelms the negative contributions from event-plane fluctuations. This leads to an enhancement of high-p_{T}>10  GeV elliptic flow in comparison to previous calculations and provides a natural solution to the decade-long high-p_{T} R_{AA}⊗v_{2} puzzle. We also present the first theoretical calculation of high-p_{T} v_{3}, which is shown to be compatible with current LHC data. Furthermore, we discuss how short-wavelength jet-medium physics can be deconvoluted from the physics of soft, bulk event-by-event flow observables using event-shape engineering techniques.

  4. Somatic effects of AAS abuse: A 30-years follow-up study of male former power sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist Bagge, A S; Rosén, T; Fahlke, C; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Moberg, T; Thiblin, I

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between somatic health and former abuse of AAS in former elite male athletes 30 years after the end of their active sports career. Retrospective follow-up study. N=996 former elite male athletes were sent a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic variables, previous and past sport activity and lifetime prevalence of seeking professional help for health problems. N=683 (68.6%) answered the questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of AAS-abuse was 21% (n=143), while 79% (n=540) did not admit having ever used AAS. Former AAS-abuse was associated with tendon ruptures (p=0.01), depression (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.01) and lower prevalence of prostate hypertrophy (p=0.01) and decreased libido (p=0.01). Former advanced AAS-abusers had higher anxiety (p=0.004) compared to the former less advanced AAS-abusers. Moreover, former advanced AAS-abusers, compared to AAS-naïves, reported more psychiatric problems (p=0.002), depression (p=0.003) and anxiety (p=0.00). A former AAS-abuse seems to be associated with some somatic and mental health problem, although a former less advanced AAS-abuse is related to lower incidence of prostate hypertrophy. The results raise the question whether some of these associations might be dose- and frequency dependent. These findings should however be seen as hypothesis generating and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  6. Effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA2618 DC cast alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgallad, E.M.; Shen, P.; Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.-G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure and mechanical properties of AA2618 DC cast alloy were studied. • The Al 2 CuMg, Al 2 Cu, Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, Al 7 Cu 2 (Fe,Ni) and Al 9 FeNi phases were identified. • Solution treatment at 530 °C for 5 h is the optimum solution treatment. • Different combinations of strength and ductility can be achieved. • The strengthening of AA2618 DC cast alloy was caused by GPB zones and S′ phase. - Abstract: Direct chill (DC) cast ingot plates of AA2618 alloy have been increasingly used for large-mold applications in the plastics and automotive industries. The effects of different heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AA2618 DC cast alloy were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness and tensile testing. The as-cast microstructure contained a considerable amount of coarse intermetallic phases, including Al 2 CuMg, Al 2 Cu, Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, Al 7 Cu 2 (Fe,Ni) and Al 9 FeNi, resulting in poor mechanical properties. Solution treatment at 530 °C for 5 h dissolved the first three phases into the solid solution and consequently improved the mechanical properties of the alloy. By utilizing the appropriate aging temperature and time, different combinations of strength and ductility could be obtained to fulfill the design requirements of large-mold applications. The strengthening of AA2618 DC cast alloy under the aging conditions studied was caused by GPB zones and S′ precipitates. The evolution of both precipitates in terms of their size and density was observed to have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy

  7. Dynamic Response of AA2519 Aluminum Alloy under High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasumboye, Adewale Taiwo

    Like others in the AA2000 series, AA2519 is a heat-treatable Al-Cu alloy. Its excellent ballistic properties and stress corrosion cracking resistance, combined with other properties, qualify it as a prime candidate for armored vehicle and aircraft applications. However, available data on its high strain-rate response remains limited. In this study, AA2519 aluminum alloy was investigated in three different temper conditions: T4, T6, and T8, to determine the effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and dynamic deformation behavior of the material at high strain rates ranging within 1000 ≤ epsilon ≤ 4000 s-1. Split Hopkinson pressure bar integrated with digital image correlation system was used for mechanical response characterization. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the microstructure of the material after following standard metallographic specimen preparation techniques. Results showed heterogeneous deformation in the three temper conditions. It was observed that dynamic behavior in each condition was dependent on strength properties due to the aging type controlling the strengthening precipitates produced and initial microstructure. At 1500 s -1, AA2519-T6 exhibited peak dynamic yield strength and flow stress of 509 and 667 MPa respectively, which are comparable with what were observed in T8 condition at higher rate of 3500 s-1 but AA2519-T4 showed the least strength and flow stress properties. Early stress collapse, dynamic strain aging, and higher susceptibility to shear band formation and fracture were observed in the T6 condition within the selected range of high strain rates. The alloy's general mode of damage evolution was by dispersoid particle nucleation, shearing and cracking.

  8. Avaliação agronômica em híbridos diplóides (AA de bananeira Agronomical evaluation of (AA banana diploid hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Saraiva Lessa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar características agronômicas em híbridos diplóides (AA de bananeira. No experimento, conduzido no campo experimental da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, foram avaliados 11 híbridos diplóides (AA de bananeira (4279-06, TH03-01, 8987-01, 0323-03, 1318-01, 0116-01, 8694-20, 1304-06, 9179-03, 4223-06 e SH3263. Os dados dos caracteres agronômicos avaliados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos genótipos foram agrupadas pelo teste de Scott-Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. O genótipo SH3263 apresentou valores favoráveis ao melhoramento para número de pencas e de frutos por cacho e baixa incidência de Sigatoka-amarela na floração, além de menor número de dias da floração à colheita, maior peso da segunda penca e comprimento de fruto acima de 10 cm. O híbrido 0323-03 apresentou a maior retenção de folhas vivas na colheita do cacho e, também, a menor nota para incidência de sigatoka-amarela na colheita. A alta variabilidade encontrada com a avaliação dos híbridos permite a seleção de diplóides (AA com potencial para utilização em programas de melhoramento da cultura.The aim of the present work was to characterize horticultural characteristics in (AA banana diploid hybrids. The experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits in randomized blocks with four replicates and 11 (AA banana diploid hybrids were evaluated: (4279-06, TH03-01, 8987-01, 0323-03, 1318-01, 0116-01, 8694-20, 1304-06, 9179-03, 4223-06 and SH3263. Data of the agronomical characteristics evaluated were submitted to the analysis of variance and the averages of the genotypes grouped by the Scott-Knott test at 5% of probability. The SH3263 genotype presented favorable values to the breeding for number of hands per bunch, number of fruits per bunch, low yellow-sigatoka incidence during flowering and also lower number of days

  9. Quantum entanglement at negative temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G B; Meerovich, V M; Sokolovsky, V L

    2013-01-01

    An isolated spin system that is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium and that has an upper limit to its allowed energy states can possess a negative temperature. We calculate the thermodynamic characteristics and the concurrence in this system over the entire range of positive and negative temperatures. Our calculation was performed for different real structures, which can be used in experiments. It is found that the temperature dependence of the concurrence is substantially asymmetrical similarly to other thermodynamic characteristics. At a negative temperature the maximum concurrence and the absolute temperature of the entanglement appearance are significantly larger than those at a positive temperature. The concurrence can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio between the Zeeman and dipolar energies and the ratio of the thermal and dipolar energies. It was shown that for all considered structures the dimensionless temperatures of the transition between entanglement and separability of the first and second spins are independent of spin structure and the number of spins. (paper)

  10. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  11. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  12. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  13. Binding specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa for purified, native Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Jeremy L

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the molecular interactions of Bt toxins with non-target insects, we have examined the real-time binding specificity and affinity of Cry1 toxins to native silkworm (Bombyx mori midgut receptors. Previous studies on B. mori receptors utilized brush border membrane vesicles or purifed receptors in blot-type assays. Results The Bombyx mori (silkworm aminopeptidase N (APN and cadherin-like receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin were purified and their real-time binding affinities for Cry toxins were examined by surface plasmon resonance. Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins did not bind to the immobilized native receptors, correlating with their low toxicities. Cry1Aa displayed moderate affinity for B. mori APN (75 nM, and unusually tight binding to the cadherin-like receptor (2.6 nM, which results from slow dissociation rates. The binding of a hybrid toxin (Aa/Aa/Ac was identical to Cry1Aa. Conclusions These results indicate domain II of Cry1Aa is essential for binding to native B. mori receptors and for toxicity. Moreover, the high-affinity binding of Cry1Aa to native cadherin-like receptor emphasizes the importance of this receptor class for Bt toxin research.

  14. Binding specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa for purified, native Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeremy L; Dean, Donald H

    2001-01-01

    Background To better understand the molecular interactions of Bt toxins with non-target insects, we have examined the real-time binding specificity and affinity of Cry1 toxins to native silkworm (Bombyx mori) midgut receptors. Previous studies on B. mori receptors utilized brush border membrane vesicles or purifed receptors in blot-type assays. Results The Bombyx mori (silkworm) aminopeptidase N (APN) and cadherin-like receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin were purified and their real-time binding affinities for Cry toxins were examined by surface plasmon resonance. Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins did not bind to the immobilized native receptors, correlating with their low toxicities. Cry1Aa displayed moderate affinity for B. mori APN (75 nM), and unusually tight binding to the cadherin-like receptor (2.6 nM), which results from slow dissociation rates. The binding of a hybrid toxin (Aa/Aa/Ac) was identical to Cry1Aa. Conclusions These results indicate domain II of Cry1Aa is essential for binding to native B. mori receptors and for toxicity. Moreover, the high-affinity binding of Cry1Aa to native cadherin-like receptor emphasizes the importance of this receptor class for Bt toxin research. PMID:11722800

  15. Lack of evidence for protein AA reactivity in amyloid deposits of lattice corneal dystrophy and amyloid corneal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorevic, P D; Rodrigues, M M; Krachmer, J H; Green, C; Fujihara, S; Glenner, G G

    1984-08-15

    Amyloid fibrils occurring in primary and myeloma-associated (AL), secondary (AA), and certain neuropathic hereditary forms of systemic amyloidosis can be distinguished biochemically or immunohistologically as being composed of immunoglobulin light chain, protein AA, or prealbumin respectively. All types of systemic and several localized forms of amyloidosis contain amyloid P component (protein AP). We studied formalin-fixed tissue from eight cases of lattice corneal dystrophy by the immunoperoxidase method using antisera to proteins AA and AP, to normal serum prealbumin and prealbumin isolated from a case of hereditary amyloidosis, and to light-chain determinants; additional cases were examined by indirect immunofluorescence of fresh-frozen material. We found weak (1:10 dilution) staining with anti-AP, but no reactivity with other antisera. Congo red staining was resistant to pretreatment of sections with potassium permanganate, a characteristic of non-AA amyloid. Two-dimensional gels of solubilized proteins from frozen tissue from two cases of lattice corneal dystrophy resembled those obtained from normal human cornea. Western blots of two cases of polymorphous amyloid degeneration and solubilized protein from normal cornea did not react with radioactive iodine-labeled anti-AA or anti-AP with purified protein AP and unfixed protein AA amyloid tissue as controls. We were unable to corroborate the presence of protein AA in the amyloid deposits of lattice corneal dystrophy. Although staining with antiserum to protein AP was demonstrable, the molecular configuration of this protein in stromal deposits remains to be defined.

  16. Negative energy solutions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)

  17. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  18. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  19. The association between Interleukin (IL)-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism and alopecia areata (AA) in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Göknur; Karakus, Nevin; Baş, Yalçın; Takçı, Zennure; Ozuğuz, Pınar; Ateş, Omer; Yigit, Serbulent

    2013-09-25

    Alopecia areata (AA) is hypothesized to be an organ-specific autoimmune disease of hair follicles mediated by T cells. As immunological and genetic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AA, the purpose of the present study was to investigate possible associations between the functional Interleukin (IL)-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism and AA susceptibility and disease progression in Turkish population. The study group consisted of 116 unrelated patients with AA and 125 unrelated healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated and IL-4 gene 70 bp VNTR polymorphism determined by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. No association was observed between AA patients and controls according to genotype distribution (p=0.051). The allele distribution of IL-4 gene intron 3 VNTR polymorphism was statistically different between AA patients and control group (p=0.026). The frequency of P1 allele in patients was significantly higher than that in the control group. When the P2P2 genotype was compared with P1P2+P1P1 genotypes, a statistically significant difference was observed between patients and controls (p=0.036). Intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the IL-4 gene was found to be associated with AA susceptibility in Turkish population. The results suggest that IL-4 VNTR polymorphism in the intron 3 region may be a risk factor for the development of AA among Turkish population. This is the first to report that intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in the IL-4 gene is associated with AA susceptibility. © 2013.

  20. Clinical implications of eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio (EPA/AA) in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Inai, Kei; Shinohara, Tokuko; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies showed that a low ratio between the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and those of arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) is associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease and poor prognosis of heart failure, arrhythmia, and cardiac sudden death. However, the clinical implications of EPA/AA in adult patients with congenital heart disease remain unclear. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of EPA/AA regarding cardiac events in adult patients with congenital heart disease. We measured the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in 130 adult patients (median age, 31 years) stratified into two groups according to their EPA/AA (low, ≤0.22; high, >0.22). We prospectively analyzed the association between EPA/AA and incidence of cardiac events during a mean observation period of 15 months, expressed in terms of hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In the subgroup of patients with biventricular circulation (2VC) (n = 76), we analyzed the same clinical endpoints. In our study population, EPA/AA was not associated with the incidence of arrhythmic events (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.82-2.85; p = 0.19), but low EPA/AA was a predictor of heart failure hospitalization (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.35-6.30; p AA of ≤0.25 was associated with a significantly higher risk of arrhythmic events (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.11-6.41; p = 0.03) and heart failure hospitalization (HR, 5.20; 95% CI, 1.78-18.1; p AA represents a useful predictor of cardiac events in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

  1. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  2. Multi-Objective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Tamjidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, tilt angle, and tool offset influence the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded joints significantly. A mathematical regression model is developed to determine the empirical relationship between the FSW process parameters and mechanical properties, and the results are validated. In order to obtain the optimal values of process parameters that simultaneously optimize the ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and minimum hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ, a metaheuristic, multi objective algorithm based on biogeography based optimization is proposed. The Pareto optimal frontiers for triple and dual objective functions are obtained and the best optimal solution is selected through using two different decision making techniques, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS and Shannon’s entropy.

  3. Application of full factorial design to study the tribological properties of AA6061-B4C and AA6061-B4C-MoS2 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monikandan V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study statistically analyzes the tribological properties of AA6061-10 wt. % B4C mono composite and AA6061-10 wt.% B4C-7.5 wt. % MoS2 hybrid composite. The tribological behavior of the composites was studied at atmospheric conditions using a pin-on-disk tribo-tester. The tribological experiments were conducted as per the full factorial design (FFD experimental scheme. The ANOVA analysis of the wear rate revealed that the three factors, A (MoS2 particles addition, B (applied load, and D (sliding distance presented the physical and statistical significance on the wear rate. The ANOVA analysis of the friction coefficient revealed that the factors B (applied load and C (sliding speed and interaction AB (interaction of MoS2 particles addition and applied load presented the physical and statistical significance on the friction coefficient. It is observed from the main effects plots of the wear rate and friction coefficient that the increase in the levels of factors B (applied load and D (sliding distance increased the wear rate and friction coefficient. However, the wear rate and friction coefficient decreased with the increase in the level of factor A (MoS2 particles addition.

  4. Multi-Objective Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 Using a Biogeography Based Optimization Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamjidy, Mehran; Baharudin, B T Hang Tuah; Paslar, Shahla; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Sulaiman, Shamsuddin; Fadaeifard, Firouz

    2017-05-15

    The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, tilt angle, and tool offset influence the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded joints significantly. A mathematical regression model is developed to determine the empirical relationship between the FSW process parameters and mechanical properties, and the results are validated. In order to obtain the optimal values of process parameters that simultaneously optimize the ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and minimum hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ), a metaheuristic, multi objective algorithm based on biogeography based optimization is proposed. The Pareto optimal frontiers for triple and dual objective functions are obtained and the best optimal solution is selected through using two different decision making techniques, technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Shannon's entropy.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-04-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-04-0013 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-07-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-07-0067 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-04-0050 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0050 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-12-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-12-0016 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0845 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0845 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0074 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-1883 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-1883 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1734 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1734 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-10-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-10-0006 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OCUN-01-1522 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OCUN-01-1522 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1020 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-18-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-18-0022 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1332 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1332 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-14-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-14-0023 ref|NP_031752.1| cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) [Mus musculus] sp...|P47746|CNR1_MOUSE Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) (CB-R) (Brain-type cannabinoid receptor) gb|AAD34624.1|AF153345_1 CB1 cann...abinoid receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAA64413.1| CB1 cannabinoid receptor gb|AAA91176.1| neuronal cann...abinoid receptor emb|CAB42647.1| cannabinoid CB1 receptor [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91800.1| striatal can...nabinoid receptor type 1 protein [Mus musculus] gb|AAS91801.1| striatal cannabinoid

  19. Work capacity and anticipation in A.A. Ukhtomsky's concept of dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. P.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental investigations of human activity and anticipation based on A.A. Ukhtomsky's concept of brain dominance - a non-equilibrium system-forming factor in living systems. Facts on the stages of dominance formation are presented in relation to the creative abilities of the human brain and the role of fatigue as a "lever" for increasing systems' work capacity on the basis of "trace exaltation". Individually, specific features of dominantogenesis are compared with variations in behavioural types. On the basis of chronotopic EEG analysis, we delineate cortical dominants that underlie individual specifics of cognitive processes. The relation is shown between anticipation and the "expansion of dominants" - the broadening of "distal perception" in time and space, as framed by A.A. Ukhtomsky.

  20. Investigation of AA2024-T3 surfaces modified by cerium compounds: A localized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paussa, L.; Andreatta, F.; De Felicis, D.; Bemporad, E.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The precipitation of cerium compounds occurs on the entire AA2024-T3 surface. •The matrix is less involved in the cerium precipitation. •Cerium intensely precipitates on Mg-rich IM particles. •The electrochemical behavior of Mg-rich IM particles influences the mechanism of cerium precipitation. -- Abstract: The precipitation of cerium compounds on polished AA2024-T3 surfaces was investigated following an electrochemical and microstructural localized approach. It was found that cerium precipitation occurs on the entire surface covering intermetallic particles and the matrix as well. The matrix is the region where the precipitation of cerium is less favoured. The highest amount of cerium was observed on magnesium-rich intermetallic particles. The localized analyses suggest that precipitation of cerium on magnesium-rich intermetallic particles could happen following two mechanisms: the former based on a potential reversal of the intermetallic particles and the latter due to a partial magnesium dissolution

  1. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Komaraiah, M.; Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada

    2013-01-01

    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  2. Prediction of the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes by design of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasulu, M. [Government Polytechnic for Women Badangpet, Hyderabad (India); Komaraiah, M. [Sreenidhi Institute of Science and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Rao, C. S. Krishna Prasada [Bharat Dynamics Limited, Hyderabad (India)

    2013-06-15

    Flow forming is a modern, chipless metal forming process that is employed for the production of thin-walled seamless tubes. Experiments are conducted on AA6082 alloy pre-forms to flow form into thin-walled tubes on a CNC flow-forming machine with a single roller. Design of experiments is used to predict the surface roughness of flow-formed tubes. The process parameters selected for this study are the roller axial feed, mandrel speed, and roller radius. A standard response surface methodology (RSM) called the Box Behnken design is used to perform the experimental runs. The regression model developed by RSM successfully predicts the surface roughness of AA6082 flow-formed tubes within the range of the selected process parameters.

  3. T6 and T78 tempers of AA6065 alloy: a quantitative TEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Warner, T. [Compagnie de Produits Chimiques et Electrometallurgiques Pechiney, Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, 38 (France)

    2000-07-01

    Quantitative transmission electron microscopy is used to characterize the microstructure of an industrial Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy (AA6056) in a state (T78 temper) desensitized to intergranular corrosion in comparison with the peak aged state (T6 temper). Analysis of dark-field images and of zero-loss filtered selected-area-diffraction patterns, along with EDX spectroscopy, indicates an advanced precipitation of the quaternary phase containing Si and Cu in the T78-tempered alloy compared to the T6 one. This supports the current theory of the desensitization of AA6056 alloy. However, the application of EDX analysis to provide direct evidence of the chemical composition variation in the solid solution across the grain boundary appears less satisfactory. (orig.)

  4. Figure Types in the AAS Journals: A Treasure Trove of Unmined Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Greg

    2013-01-01

    I present an analysis of the types of figures submitted to the AAS Journals as the prelude of a long term AAS project to capture more of the supporting data. Figures can be classified into 3 broad categories, diagrams, line art, and images. Diagrams are schematic, drawings, or illustrations and are meant to convey purely visual information. There is no intrinsic machine readable data underlying them. Line art and images, on the other hand, are snapshots of the larger underlying observational and model generated data sets. The advantages of including more data in a Virtual Observatory supported format is obvious for the reader but would also be an advantage for the author through greater visibility and thus higher citation counts. In this poster I present statistics from the August 2012 Astronomical Journal (V144 n2) and September 10th, 2012 Astrophysical Journal (v756 n2) issues and outline the near term challenges in capturing this "missing mass".

  5. Development of an alternative route for recycling AA2050 aluminum alloy by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, V.; Oliveira, A.C. de; Travessa, D.N.; Cardoso, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative solid state route to recycling AA2050 aeronautical aluminium alloy chips. The first stage in the recycling process, reported in this work, is the obtainment of the alloy powder by high energy ball milling to subsequent cold pressing and hot extrusion. The process started with the cleaning of chips with the aim of contaminant removing from machining process and transport, followed by the high energy ball milling to result in the AA2050 alloy powder. The powder obtained was characterized by laser size particle analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (DRX) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results show the feasibility of obtaining a powder having appropriate particle size and chemical composition in accordance with the specification for alloy. (author)

  6. Etanercept In the treatment of AA-amyloidosis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mihels

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study effect of etanercept, an antagonist of serum A amyloid production in the AA amyloidosis treatment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Material and methods. Etanercept was administered to all pts with AA amyloidosis admitted to Garmisch-Paterkirchen pediatric rheumatological clinic beginning with 2000. C-reactive protein (CRP, degree of proteinuria and serum creatinin were used as preliminary outcome measures. Results. 11 pts with seronegative JIA (6 boys and 5 girls were included in the study. Mean follow up duration was l,9±l.01 years. 8 children had systemic, 2 - olygoarticular and one - polyarticular disease onset. Before the study all pts had CRP level elevation (1,03-8,29 mg/dl, mean 4,53 mg/dl. 8 from 11 had marked proteinuria (364-7400 mg/24 hours, mean 1186 mg/24 hours. 2 from 11 had serum creatinin elevation. During etanercept treatment CRP level normalized in 2 and significantly decreased in 4 pts. Proteinuria decreased in 4 from 8 pts. Significant change of creatinin level was not achieved. One girl who did not have improvement during etanercept treatment showed CRP normalization and decrease of proteinuria when the drug was changed to infliximab. Conclusion. Treatment with etanercept provided improvement in almost 2/3 from 11 pts with JIA and AA amyloidosis. Etanercept may be the drug of choice in pts with normal creatinine level in the absence of proteinuria. When it fails another tumor necrosis factor antagonist such as infliximab should be used. It is necessary to extend volume and duration of the study to get more reliable data on etanercept efficacy in JIA pts with AA amyloidosis.

  7. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat input and maximum temperature developed during friction stir welding with different parameters. Aluminium alloy (AA 6061-T6 has been used for experimental and numerical analysis. Experimental analysis is based on temperature measurements by using infrared camera, whereas numerical analysis was based on empirical expressions and finite element method. Different types of defects have been observed in respect to different levels of heat input.

  8. Automatic analysis (aa: efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodri eCusack

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen neuroimaging data becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complex to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted. Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa, to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (redone. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA. However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast and efficient, for simple single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  9. Contents of trace elements in meadow mushrooms as results of PIXE, NAA and AAS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, J.; Sieniawski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Contents of heavy elements in mushrooms from the Dresden area and from some parts of Poland, by use of three methods of measurement (PIXE, AAS and NAA) were determined, with the special interest focused on wild growing and cultivated meadow mushrooms. The ability for accumulation of Se, Cu, Ag and Cu was established. In some wild growing mushrooms the values of Cd, Hg, As and Pb exceeded allowed limits for human nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  10. EDP Sciences and A&A: partnering to providing services to support the scientific community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Agnes

    2015-08-01

    Scholarly publishing is no longer about simply producing and packaging articles and sending out to subscribers. To be successful, as well as being global and digital, Publishers and their journals need to be fully engaged with their stakeholders (authors, readers, funders, libraries etc), and constantly developing new products and services to support their needs in the ever-changing environment that we work in.Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) is a high quality, major international Journal that belongs to the astronomical communities of a consortium of European and South American countries supported by ESO who sponsor the journal. EDP Sciences is a non-profit publisher belonging to several learned societies and is appointed by ESO to publish the journal.Over the last decade, as well as publishing the results of worldwide astronomical and astrophysical research, A&A and EDP Sciences have worked in partnership to develop a wide range of services for the authors and readers of A&A:- A specialist language editing service: to provide a clear and excellent level of English ensuring full understanding of the high-quality science.- A flexible and progressive Open Access Policy including Gold and Green options and strong links with arXiv.- Enriched articles: authors are able to enhance their articles using a wide range of rich media such as 3D models, videos and animations.Multiple publishing formats: allowing readers to browse articles on multiple devices including eReaders and Kindles.- “Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers”: In 2008 EDP Sciences and A&A set up the Scientific Writing for Young Astronomers (SWYA) School with the objective to teach early PhD Students how write correct and efficient scientific papers for different mediums (journals, proceedings, thesis manuscripts, etc.).

  11. Effect of process parameters on the residual stresses in AA5083-H321 friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, H. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hattingh, D.G. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Steuwer, A. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); FaME38 at the ILL-ESRF, 6 rue J Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steuwer@ill.fr; James, M.N. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    This paper investigates the effect of varying welding parameters on the residual stress profiles in friction stir welds of aluminium alloy AA5083-H321, which were created on a fully instrumented friction welding machine. The residual stresses were determined non-destructively using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width and maximum of the residual stress profile show clear correlation with the heat input, and in particular feed rate, which was found to be the dominant parameter.

  12. Inhibition by AA861 of prostaglandin E2 production by activated peritoneal macrophages of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohuchi, K; Watanabe, M; Taniguchi, J; Tsurufuji, S; Levine, L

    1983-10-01

    Prostaglandin E2 production by rat peritoneal activated macrophages was inhibited by AA861 which had been reported as a selective inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase from guinea pig peritoneal leukocytes. At a dose of 3.06 microM, prostaglandin E2 production was decreased to 27% of control. No inhibition of the release of (3H)arachidonic acid from the prelabeled macrophages was observed at the dose.

  13. Automatic analysis (aa): efficient neuroimaging workflows and parallel processing using Matlab and XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Rhodri; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Mitchell, Daniel J; Wild, Conor J; Auer, Tibor; Linke, Annika C; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen neuroimaging data sets becoming richer, with larger cohorts of participants, a greater variety of acquisition techniques, and increasingly complex analyses. These advances have made data analysis pipelines complicated to set up and run (increasing the risk of human error) and time consuming to execute (restricting what analyses are attempted). Here we present an open-source framework, automatic analysis (aa), to address these concerns. Human efficiency is increased by making code modular and reusable, and managing its execution with a processing engine that tracks what has been completed and what needs to be (re)done. Analysis is accelerated by optional parallel processing of independent tasks on cluster or cloud computing resources. A pipeline comprises a series of modules that each perform a specific task. The processing engine keeps track of the data, calculating a map of upstream and downstream dependencies for each module. Existing modules are available for many analysis tasks, such as SPM-based fMRI preprocessing, individual and group level statistics, voxel-based morphometry, tractography, and multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPA). However, aa also allows for full customization, and encourages efficient management of code: new modules may be written with only a small code overhead. aa has been used by more than 50 researchers in hundreds of neuroimaging studies comprising thousands of subjects. It has been found to be robust, fast, and efficient, for simple-single subject studies up to multimodal pipelines on hundreds of subjects. It is attractive to both novice and experienced users. aa can reduce the amount of time neuroimaging laboratories spend performing analyses and reduce errors, expanding the range of scientific questions it is practical to address.

  14. Welding of AA1050 aluminum with AISI 304 stainless steel by rotary friction welding process

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Eder Paduan; Piorino Neto, Francisco; An, Chen Ying

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this work was to assess the development of solid state joints of dissimilar material AA1050 aluminum and AISI 304 stainless steel, which can be used in pipes of tanks of liquid propellants and other components of the Satellite Launch Vehicle. The joints were obtained by rotary friction welding process (RFW), which combines the heat generated from friction between two surfaces and plastic deformation. Tests were conducted with different welding process parameters. The ...

  15. Parameters controlling the performance of AA319-type alloys Part II. Impact properties and fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Samuel, A.M.; Samuel, F.H.; Ravindran, C.; Doty, H.W.; Valtierra, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Charpy impact energy of Al-Si-Cu AA319-type alloys was measured in terms of the total absorbed energy. The Charpy specimens were machined from end-chilled castings to incorporate the effect of cooling rate on the impact properties. Unnotched specimens were used to increase the accuracy of the measurements, and to emphasize the effect of microstructure. The influence of the microconstituents on the impact strength was investigated by adding various alloying elements (i.e. Sr, Fe, and P) to the AA319 base alloy, and applying two different heat treatments (T5, and T6). The results show that strontium-modification enhances the impact properties, so that the Sr-modified AA319 alloy exhibits the highest impact properties compared to the base, and other alloys at any given dendrite arm spacing (DAS). The impact energy increases with increase in cooling rate, while iron, and phosphorus additions have a detrimental influence due, respectively, to the formation of β-Al 5 FeSi, and phosphorus oxide particles during solidification. T6 treatment assists in the even distribution, and dissolution of the microconstituents (including the block-like CuAl 2 particles) into the aluminum matrix. With more Cu available for strengthening during aging, the impact toughness is greatly enhanced. In the unmodified AA319 base alloy, crack initiation, and propagation occur mainly through Si-particle fracture, and the mechanism of void coalescence. In the Sr-modified, 1.2% Fe-containing 319 alloys, however, crack initiation takes place through fragmentation of β-Al 5 FeSi, Si, and CuAl 2 or Cu 2 FeAl 7 particles. Crack propagation occurs through cleavage of the β-Fe platelets, and fracture of the Cu-intermetallics, and brittle Si particles. Such samples exhibit very low impact energies

  16. ORF Alignment: Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chizosaccharomyces pombe] ref|NP_594201.1| spindle poison ... sensitivity related protein. [Schizosac...charomyces pombe] ... pir||T11624 spindle poison sensitivity protein - fis...inger protein | spindle poison sensitivity related protein; >1rgoA 8 70 40 92 2e-04 ... emb|CAB16391.1| scp3 [S... Ca19AnnotatedDec2004aaSeq orf19.7385; Contig19-2513; 105328..106833; LEE1*; zinc f

  17. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  18. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    the rate of surgical wound infection and wound exudate post-caesarean and that wound infection had a negative impact on quality of life one month after surgery. Alongside the clinical trial, a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that the treatment is cost-effective in a high......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced...

  19. Perfect antireflection via negative refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzon, Juan J.; Barriuso, Alberto G.; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a geometrical framework to discuss the action of slabs of negatively refracting materials. We show that these slabs generate the same orbits as normal materials, but traced out in opposite directions. This property allows us to confirm that the action of any lossless multilayer can be optically canceled by putting it together with the multilayer constructed as the inverted mirror image, with ε and μ reversed in sign

  20. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  1. Development of quartz particulate reinforced AA6063 aluminum matrix composites via friction stir processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Joyson Abraham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir processing (FSP has been accepted as a potential method to produce aluminum matrix composites (AMCs without the drawbacks of liquid metallurgy methods. The present work focuses on the development of AMCs reinforced with quartz (SiO2 particles using FSP. Grooves with various dimensions were machined on AA6063 plates and compacted with quartz particles. A single pass FSP was carried out using a combination of optimized process parameters. The volume fraction of quartz particles in the AMCs was varied from 0 to 18 vol.% in steps of 6 vol.%. The developed AA6063/Quartz AMCs were characterized using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The quartz particles were distributed uniformly in the aluminum matrix irrespective of the location within the stir zone. The grains of the AA6063 were extensively refined by the combination of thermomechanical effect of FSP and the pinning effect of quartz particles. The dispersion of the quartz particles improved the microhardness and wear resistance of the AMCs. The role of quartz particles on the worn surface and wear debris is reported.

  2. Anodic galvanostatic polarization of AA2024-T3 aircraft alloy in conventional mineral acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhukharov, S., E-mail: stephko1980@abv.bg [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Girginov, Ch. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria); Avramova, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 11 “Georgi Bonchev” Str., 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria); Machkova, M. [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 “Kliment Okhridski” Blvd, 1756, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the determination of the impact of the anodization of AA2024-T3 alloys in HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the samples’ surface morphology and properties. Subsequent systematic assessments were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). These observations were combined with Linear Voltammetry (LVA) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) after 48 and 168 h of exposure to a 3.5% NaCl model corrosive medium. The main result is, that completely different effects were observed in accordance to the acid used. It was established that the monoprotonic acids have a deep destructive effect due to dissolution of the alloy components, whereas the polyprotonic ones possess either indistinguishable influence, or surface film formation. - Highlights: • AA2024 was polarized anodically in 15%{sub wt} acid solutions at 15 mA cm{sup −2} for 2 h. • Four mineral acids were selected for investigation: HCl, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • SEM, EDX and XPS were applied for morphological description. • Electrochemical characterizations were performed by EIS and linear voltammetry. • The acid used predetermines completely different interaction with the AA2024 alloy.

  3. Interdiffusion studies on hot rolled U-10Mo/AA1050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, A.M.; Martins, I.C.; Carvalho, E.U.; Durazzo, M.; Riella, H.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Combustivel Nuclear], e-mail: saliba@ipen.br

    2010-07-01

    The U-Mo alloys are investigated with the goal of becoming nuclear material to fabricate high-density fuel elements for high performance research reactors. This enrichment level suggests that the U-Mo alloys should be between 6 to 10wt%, which can give up to 9gU/cm{sup 3} as fuel density. Nevertheless, the U-Mo alloys are very reactive with Al. Interdiffusion reaction products are formed since nuclear fission promotes chemical interaction layer during operation, leading to potential structural failure. Present studies were made with treated hot rolled diffusion couples of U-10Mo inserted in Al (AA1050). The U-10Mo/AA1050 pairs were treated in two temperature (150 degree C and 550 degree C) with three soaking times (5h, 40h and 80h). From microstructure analyses, rapid diffusion of Al happened inside U-10Mo in the first heating at 540 degree C during 15 min, reaching 8 at%Al in a range of 200 {mu}m towards U-10Mo. Longer time (5, 40, 80h) at 550 degree C maintain this level of Al-content up to 1000 {mu}m inside U-10Mo. A minor depth ({approx}1 {mu}m) near the interdiffusion contact had higher Al-content, but not sufficient to form identifiable (U,Mo)Al{sub x} structures. Probably, residual elements reduced drastically the interdiffusion phenomena between U-10Mo and AA1050, maybe due to silicon presence. (author)

  4. The effect of drilling parameters for surface roughness in drilling of AA7075 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Nafiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA7075 aluminum alloy has been very popular significantly interest in the production of structural components in automotive and aviation applications due to its high strength, low density, good plasticity and better machinability comparable to many metals. Particularly, final products must have uniformly high quality to ensure essential safety standards in the aircraft industry. The optimization of hole quality which can variable according to tool geometry and drilling parameters is important in spite of high machinability rate of AA7075 alloy. In this study, the effects of drilling parameters on average surface roughness (Ra has been investigated in drilling of AA7075 with tungsten carbide drills. Machining experiments were performed with three different drill point angles and three different levels of cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed. The effects of drilling parameters on thrust force has been determined with ANOVA in %95 confidence level. Feed rate was determined as the most important factor on Ra according to ANOVA results. Moreover, it was shown that increasing feed rate leads to increase of Ra while increasing drill point angle leads to decrease of Ra. The optimum surface roughness was obtained with point angle of 130°, cutting speed of 40 m/min and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, thereby the validity of optimization was confirmed with Taguchi method.

  5. Interdependent effect of chemical composition and thermal history on artificial aging of AA6061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogatscher, S.; Antrekowitsch, H.; Uggowitzer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the interdependent effect of chemical composition and thermal history on artificial aging was investigated for the aluminum alloy AA6061. Based on thermodynamic calculations, including Al, Fe, Cr, Zn, Ti, Mg, Si and Cu, model alloys exhibiting a maximum variation of the reachable solute super-saturation of elements relevant for precipitation hardening within the compositional limits of AA6061 were produced. The artificial aging behavior of these alloys at 175 °C was studied by tensile testing for two thermal histories, including very short- and long-term room temperature storage after quenching. Precipitation during artificial aging was investigated by an analysis of yield strength data. As generally expected, precipitation kinetics was found to depend strongly on the solute super-saturation in the case of very short room temperature storage. For artificial aging after long-term room temperature storage the kinetics showed almost no dependence on the chemical composition. This seems to be an exception from simple precipitation kinetics and can be explained based on the complex role of quenched-in vacancies in artificial aging of AA6061.

  6. Effect of two-step aging on the mechanical properties of AA2219 DC cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgallad, E.M., E-mail: eelgalla@uqac.ca; Zhang, Z.; Chen, X.-G.

    2015-02-11

    With its combination of high specific strength, good machinability and excellent weldability, AA2219 direct chill (DC) cast alloy has become a new category of materials for manufacturing large molds for the plastics and automotive industries. The effect of two-step aging on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of AA2219 DC cast alloy was investigated. The precipitate microstructure was characterized under different heat treatment conditions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The poor mechanical properties of the air-quenched alloy were attributed to the presence of quench-induced coarse θ′ and θ precipitates, which had very limited contribution to the precipitation hardening during the aging treatment. The two-step aging treatment of the air-quenched AA2219 alloy involved the precipitation of GP zones in the first step followed by their transformation into fine θ″ strengthening precipitates in the second step, which considerably improved the mechanical properties. After undergoing 120 °C/36 h+190 °C/8 h two-step aging, the hardness, YS and UTS of the air-quenched alloy were increased by 27%, 46% and 15%, respectively, compared with 190 °C/8 h one-step aging.

  7. The Efficacy of MAG-DHA for Correcting AA/DHA Imbalance of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Morin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementations are thought to improve essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD as well as reduce inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis (CF, but their effectiveness in clinical studies remains unknown. The aim of the study was to determine how the medical food containing docosahexaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-DHA influenced erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and the expression levels of inflammatory circulating mediators. We conducted a randomized, double blind, pilot trial including fifteen outpatients with Cystic Fibrosis, ages 18–48. The patients were divided into 2 groups and received MAG-DHA or a placebo (sunflower oil for 60 days. Patients took 8 × 625 mg MAG-DHA softgels or 8 × 625 mg placebo softgels every day at bedtime for 60 days. Lipid analyses revealed that MAG-DHA increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels and decrease arachidonic acid (AA ratio (AA/DHA in erythrocytes of CF patients following 1 month of daily supplementation. Data also revealed a reduction in plasma human leukocyte elastase (pHLE complexes and interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression levels in blood samples of MAG-DHA supplemented CF patients. This pilot study indicates that MAG-DHA supplementation corrects erythrocyte AA/DHA imbalance and may exert anti-inflammatory properties through the reduction of pHLE complexes and IL6 in blood samples of CF patients. Trial registration: Pro-resolving Effect of MAG-DHA in Cystic Fibrosis (PREMDIC, NCT02518672.

  8. A Multi-ringed, Modestly Inclined Protoplanetary Disk around AA Tau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; MacGregor, Meredith A., E-mail: rloomis@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    AA Tau is the archetype for a class of stars with a peculiar periodic photometric variability thought to be related to a warped inner disk structure with a nearly edge-on viewing geometry. We present high resolution (∼0.″2) ALMA observations of the 0.87 and 1.3 mm dust continuum emission from the disk around AA Tau. These data reveal an evenly spaced three-ringed emission structure, with distinct peaks at 0.″34, 0.″66, and 0.″99, all viewed at a modest inclination of 59.°1 ± 0.°3 (decidedly not edge-on). In addition to this ringed substructure, we find non-axisymmetric features, including a “bridge” of emission that connects opposite sides of the innermost ring. We speculate on the nature of this “bridge” in light of accompanying observations of HCO{sup +} and {sup 13}CO ( J = 3–2) line emission. The HCO{sup +} emission is bright interior to the innermost dust ring, with a projected velocity field that appears rotated with respect to the resolved disk geometry, indicating the presence of a warp or inward radial flow. We suggest that the continuum bridge and HCO{sup +} line kinematics could originate from gap-crossing accretion streams, which may be responsible for the long-duration dimming of optical light from AA Tau.

  9. Inhibition of localized attack on the aluminium alloy AA 6351 in glycol/water solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monticelli, C; Brunoro, G; Zucchi, F; Fagioli, F

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of enhancing pitting resistance of AA 6351 (nominal composition: 1% Si, 0.6% Mg, 0.3% Mn, balance Al) by adding suitable inhibitors to the solutions. The compounds used were two inorganic salts: sodium molybdate and sodium tungstate and two derivatives of pyrimidine: 2-aminopyrimidine (2AP) and 2-hydroxypyrimidine (2HP). The inhibiting efficiencies of these substances were tested by both short-time electrochemical tests (galvanic coupling tests and polarization curves) and long-time immersions under experimental conditions causing the localized attack. Molybdate, tungstate and, to some extent, also 2AP efficiently inhibit AA 6351 localized corrosion in degraded solutions at 80/sup 0/C and in pure boiling solutions, for long exposure periods. The short-time electrochemical tests suggest that molybdate and tungstate are able to retard the electrochemical processes occurring on both the aluminium alloy and the small copper cathodic area produced by copper deposition. On the other hand, the 2AP efficiency is attributed to some complexing capability of this pyrimidine derivative towards dissolved copper ions, that are stabilized in solution. 2HP does not prevent AA 6351 localized attack. (orig./MM).

  10. Microstructure and micro-texture evolution during large strain deformation of aluminium alloy AA 2219

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty, S.V.S. Narayana [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum-695 022 (India); Sarkar, Aditya [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar-382 424 (India); Narayanan, P. Ramesh; Venkitakrishnan, P.V. [Materials and Mechanical Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum-695 022 (India); Mukhopadhyay, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar-382 424 (India)

    2016-11-20

    Aluminium alloy AA2219 is widely used in the fabrication of propellant tanks of cryogenic stages of satellite launch vehicles. These propellant tanks are welded structures and a fine grained microstructure is usually preferred for sheets/plates and ring rolled rings used in their fabrication. In order to study the effect of large strain deformation on the microstructural evolution, hot isothermal plane strain compression (PSC) tests were conducted on AA 2219 in the temperature range of 250 °C–400 °C and at strain rates of 0.01 s{sup −1} and 1 s{sup −1}. Flow curves obtained at different temperatures and strain rates exhibited two types of behavior; one with a clear stress peak followed by softening, occurring below Z=2.5E+15 and steady state flow behavior above it. Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis of the PSC tested samples at the location of maximum strain revealed the presence of lamellar microstructures with very low fraction of transverse high angle boundaries (HABs). The loss of HABs during large strain deformation is attributed to the occurrence of dynamic recovery (DRV) as the ratio of calculated to measured lamellar boundary width is less than unity. Based on detailed microstructure and micro texture analysis, it was concluded that it is very difficult to obtain large fraction of HABs through uniaxial large strain deformation. Therefore, to obtain fine grain microstructure in thermo-mechanically processed AA2219 products, multi-axial deformation is essential.

  11. A Multi-ringed, Modestly Inclined Protoplanetary Disk around AA Tau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; MacGregor, Meredith A.

    2017-01-01

    AA Tau is the archetype for a class of stars with a peculiar periodic photometric variability thought to be related to a warped inner disk structure with a nearly edge-on viewing geometry. We present high resolution (∼0.″2) ALMA observations of the 0.87 and 1.3 mm dust continuum emission from the disk around AA Tau. These data reveal an evenly spaced three-ringed emission structure, with distinct peaks at 0.″34, 0.″66, and 0.″99, all viewed at a modest inclination of 59.°1 ± 0.°3 (decidedly not edge-on). In addition to this ringed substructure, we find non-axisymmetric features, including a “bridge” of emission that connects opposite sides of the innermost ring. We speculate on the nature of this “bridge” in light of accompanying observations of HCO + and 13 CO ( J = 3–2) line emission. The HCO + emission is bright interior to the innermost dust ring, with a projected velocity field that appears rotated with respect to the resolved disk geometry, indicating the presence of a warp or inward radial flow. We suggest that the continuum bridge and HCO + line kinematics could originate from gap-crossing accretion streams, which may be responsible for the long-duration dimming of optical light from AA Tau.

  12. Corrosion Properties of Cryorolled AA2219 Friction Stir Welded Joints Using Different Tool Pin Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Babu, K.; Panneerselvam, K.; Sathiya, P.; Noorul Haq, A.; Sundarrajan, S.; Mastanaiah, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, C. V.

    The purpose of this paper is to present the corrosion behavior of the Cryorolled (CR) material and its Friction Stir Welded joints. Due to the thermal cycles of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process, the corrosion behavior of the material gets affected. Here, the cryorolling process was carried out on AA2219 alloy and CR material was joined by FSW process using four different pin tool profiles such as cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, square and hexagonal pin. The FSW joints were analyzed by corrosion resistance with the help of potentiodynamic polarization test with 3.5% NaCl solution. From the analysis, it is found that CR AA2219 material exhibits good corrosion resistance compared to the base AA2219 material, and also a hexagonal pin profile FSW joint exhibits high corrosion resistance. Among the weld joints created by four different tools, the lowest corrosion resistance was found in the cylindrical pin tool FSW welds. Further, the corroded samples were investigated through metallurgical investigations like OM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). It was found that the amount of dissolution of Al2Cu precipitate was present in the weld nugget. The amount of dissolution of Al2Cu precipitate is higher in the weld nugget produced by hexagonal pin tool. This is due to the enhancement of the corrosion resistance.

  13. Tensile behavior of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidarzadeh, A.; Khodaverdizadeh, H.; Mahmoudi, A.; Nazari, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Range of parameters for defect-free friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 was reached. ► A model was developed for predicting UTS and EL of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4. ► The maximum values of UTS and EL of joints were estimated by developed model. ► The optimum values of FSW process parameters were determined. -- Abstract: In this investigation response surface methodology based on a central composite rotatable design with three parameters, five levels and 20 runs, was used to develop a mathematical model predicting the tensile properties of friction stir welded AA 6061-T4 aluminum alloy joints at 95% confidence level. The three welding parameters considered were tool rotational speed, welding speed and axial force. Analysis of variance was applied to validate the predicted model. Microstructural characterization and fractography of joints were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Also, the effects of the welding parameters on tensile properties of friction stir welded joints were analyzed in detail. The results showed that the optimum parameters to get a maximum of tensile strength were 920 rev/min, 78 mm/min and 7.2 kN, where the maximum of tensile elongation was obtained at 1300 rev/min, 60 mm/min and 8 kN.

  14. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mida arvatakse omavalitsustes koolivõrgu optimeerimisest? / Mart Järvik, Maris Liiders, Peeter Aas, Kaarin Veinbergs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2012-01-01

    Arvamust avaldasid Järvakandi vallavanem, Raplamaa omavalitsuste liidu esimees Mart Järvik, Harju maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Maris Liiders, Põlva maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas, Ida-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Kaarin Veinbergs

  16. Storage Stability Improvement of Copolymer Grafted Polypropylene-AcrylicAcid (PP-AA), by means of Various After Treatment Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitopadmojo, Isminingsih

    2000-01-01

    Polypropylene yams that have been subjected to irradiation induced graftco-polymerization with acrylic acid, have gained its moisture regain and dyeability, that fulfilled the requirement as textile material for garment.However, the copolymer grafted PP-AA has suffered from degradation in thestorage, which was indicated in the previous study that the strengthretention has dropped tremendously by photo-oxidation or photo-degradation.After treatments of PP-AA yams with chemical compound that was able toprevent further photo-oxidation, will be expected to improve the stability ofPP-AA in storage. In this research activity, the polypropylene (PP) yams weresubjected to irradiation induced graft co-polymerization by means ofγ-Ray Co-60 as irradiation source with acrylic acid (AA) as monomer.Various after treatments were subjected to the grafted PP-AA yams such asalkalisation process; dyeing (anionic dyes, cationic dyes and nonionic dyes);as well as processing with optical brightening agent and UV stabilizer,separately. The PP-AA yams (before and after treatment) were subjected tostorage from 1 month up to 42 months, and then being tested for theirmoisture regain, strength retention and elongation at breaks. The samplesbeing stored for 12 months were subjected to radical analysis. It isconcluded from the experiment that after treatment of grafted PP-AA by meansof those various processes were able to improve the stability of copolymergrafted PP-AA in storage. The presence of peroxide radical in the ESR(electron spin resonance) spectrum on PP-AA yams before treatment and theones after treated with alkaline and being stored for 12 months haveindicated the presence of photo oxidation or photo degradation, while thepresence of poly enyl radical in the ESR spectrum of after treated PP-AA withdyes having azo and azine compound as chromophore, as well as with UVstabilizer with carbonyl as chromophore and being stored for 12 months haveproved that its presence have protected such

  17. Drawing attention to a neglected injecting-related harm: a systematic review of AA amyloidosis among people who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Magdalena; Brathwaite, Rachel; Scott, Jenny; Gilchrist, Gail; Ciccarone, Dan; Hope, Vivian; McGowan, Catherine R

    2018-04-26

    Chronic skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) among people who inject drugs (PWID) can lead to AA amyloidosis: a serious, yet neglected, multi-organ disease. We aim to synthesize findings on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical outcomes, screening recommendations and challenges to treatment for AA amyloidosis among PWID. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). We searched the following bibliographic databases in July 2017: CINAHL Plus, Embase, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRA, PsycINFO and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they investigated AA amyloidosis in PWID. Studies were not restricted to location, study type, year or language of publication. Study heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis; we present a narrative review of the literature. Thirty-seven papers from eight countries met inclusion criteria. A total of 781 PWID are reported on, of whom 177 had AA amyloidosis. Where disease causality is established, it is attributed to chronic inflammation caused by injecting-related SSTIs. Most (88.7%) PWID with AA amyloidosis had SSTIs. The proportion of PWID with AA amyloidosis at post-mortem ranged from 1.6% (Germany) to 22.5% (Serbia). Biopsy studies reported from 5.26% (Portugal) to 50% (Germany) of AA amyloidosis in PWID with suspected or known kidney disease. Following diagnosis, the typical trajectory for PWID with AA amyloidosis was rapid deterioration of renal function requiring haemodialysis. Treatment difficulties, end-stage renal failure and premature death from sepsis were observed. Good outcomes, including reversibility of AA amyloidosis, are attributed to rapid treatment of the underlining inflammation and injecting cessation. Notably, given the population in question, no studies were published in addiction or harm reduction journals; most (92%) appeared in specialist nephrology and medical journals. There is strong evidence of an association between skin

  18. What Astronomers and the AAS Need to be Doing to Curb Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. W. E.

    2001-12-01

    Astronomers and especially the AAS are doing apalling little in the war on light pollution. This is quite surprising, considering that optical groundbased astronomy may become nearly extinct in the 21st century if we don't get more serious about the loss of our night skies to artificial lighting. Part of the blame must be placed on astronomers throughout the 20th century (particularly before 1980), as very few of them seem to have set an example by starting an early crusade against bad outdoor night lighting (save for a handful of important individuals near large U.S. observatories, and a few connected with smaller observatories); this apathy of earlier generations of astronomers fueled the current general apathy within the AAS and aided the opening of the floodgates in terms of the disastrous lighting situation now upon us in terms of drowning out the night sky. There are possible solutions, and they need to be discussed and acted upon quickly. For example, the AAS should require that all members include a useful amount (say, \\$30) in annual membership fees to be directly transmitted to the International Dark Sky Association, and the AAS should make constant visible strides to educate the public and government officials of the absolute need to reduce outdoor lighting levels and to fully shield all outdoor lighting. There are many other areas of research into outdoor lighting that the AAS should fund or officially/strongly support, so that the astronomical community can better be educated (and can better educate the public) on the evils of bad and thoughtless outdoor-lighting practices; such research includes developing a comprehensive database of national statistics on numbers and types of different outdoor lamps, as a function of time (thus, historical), and also a comprehensive database including all local, state, and federal lighting laws and ordinances together with legal court cases (and their outcomes) involving outdoor night lighting. And professional

  19. Ultrasonic evaluation of friction stud welded AA 6063/AISI 1030 steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Nagaraj, P.; Sujana, J. Angela Jennifa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Friction stud welding of AA 6063 and AISI 1030 was done successfully. • Ultrasonic evaluation of interfacial properties. • EDX analysis confirms intermetallic compound (FeAl) in the interfacial region. - Abstract: Friction stud welding is a promising technique in many applications related to oil and gas industries. It is used to attach grating to offshore oil platforms in areas where arc welding is not permitted because of the risk of causing a fire or explosion. Attachment of anodes inside seawater discharge pipelines in a gas processing plant is performed by this process. This solid state joining process permits metal combinations such as welding of aluminum studs to steel which would be problematic with arc welding because of the formation of thick and brittle inter-metallic compounds. In the present work, AA 6063 is joined to AISI 1030 steel using friction stud welding machine. Properties that are of interest to manufacturing applications such as Young’s modulus, longitudinal velocity, bulk modulus and shear modulus are evaluated by means of an ultrasonic flaw detector. At the interface of the joint, there is an increase of 4.4%, 1.8%, 1.15% and 4.42% is observed for the properties Young’s modulus, longitudinal velocity, bulk modulus and shear modulus respectively. This is due to the formation of intermetallic compound and increase in hardness at the interfacial region. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis confirms the presence of FeAl as the intermetallic compound. Scanning Electron Microscope evaluation shows the presence of an unbound zone at the center of the inner region which is due to the minimum rotational speed and low axial load experienced at that point. In the unbound zone, there is an incomplete bond between dissimilar metals and it is detrimental to joint strength. Optimum value of friction time and usage of pure aluminum interlayer during the friction stud welding process hinders the formation of unbound zone and enhances the

  20. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) ameliorates aristolochic acid (AA)-induced acute kidney injury through Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Liu, Xinhui; Fan, Jinjin; Chen, Wenfang; Wang, Juan; Zeng, Youjia; Feng, Xiaorang; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    2014-04-06

    Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) is an antioxidant modulator that acts through induction of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. This study aimed to investigate the role of BARD in protecting kidneys from aristolochic acid (AA)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). Male C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of aristolochic acid I (AAI) (5mg/kg/day) for 5 days to produce acute AA nephropathy (AAN) model. BARD (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for 7 consecutive days, starting 2 days prior to AAI administration. The mice in the AA group showed AKI as evidenced by worsening kidney function evaluated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels, and severe tubulointerstitial injury marked by massive tubule necrosis in kidney tissues. BARD significantly reduced BUN and SCr levels which were elevated by AAI. Additionally, AAI-induced histopathological renal damage was ameliorated by BARD. Furthermore, the expression of Nrf2 was reduced, and its repressor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) was increased significantly, whereas heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) was barely increased in the cytoplasm of tubules in kidneys after treatment with AAI. BARD significantly upregulated renal Nrf2, NQO1 and HO-1 expression and downregulated Keap1 expression compared with those in the AA group. Moreover, it was found that Nrf2 was expressed both in the cytoplasm and nuclear of glomeruli and tubules, whereas NQO1 and HO-1 were localized in the cytoplasm of tubules only. In conclusion, AA-induced acute renal injury was associated with impaired Nrf2 activation and expression of its downstream target genes in renal tissues. BARD prevented renal damage induced by AAI, and this renoprotective effect may be exerted by activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway and increasing expression of the downstream target genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Valsartan reduces AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through suppression oxidative stress mediated ER stress in endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z-C; Qi, J; Liu, L-M; Li, J; Xu, H-Y; Liang, B; Li, B

    2017-03-01

    Valsartan has been reported to have the function of treating hypertension and improving the prognosis of patients. Many studies indicated that valsartan can also increase angiotensin II, andosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA). Autoantibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) have been showed to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium (Ca2+) and result in apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of valsartan on AT1-AA-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were cultured. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. EPCs apoptosis was determined by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium concentration and calpain activity were measured using Fluostar Omega Spectrofluorimeter. The expression of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a, CHOP, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. MTT assays showed valsartan significantly inhibited AT1-AA- induced decline of the viability of EPCs. DAPI staining and flow cytometry results indicated valsartan inhibited AT1-AA-induced decline of the viability of EPCs via inhibiting AT1-AA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the increasing of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium and calpain activity induced by AT1-AA in EPCs were also recovered after pre-treated with valsartan. Meanwhile, the upregulation of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a and CHOP, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of Caspase-3 caused by AT1-AA were reversed after pre-incubated with valsartan. Valsartan could inhibit AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated ER stress in EPCs.

  2. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 induces cancer cell death via apoptosis inducing factor through a caspase-3-independent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bing; Wang, Tong-Dan; Shen, Shao-Ming; Yu, Yun; Mao, Chan; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Wang, Li-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Background Annonaceous acetogenins are a family of natural products with antitumor activities. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 reportedly inhibits mammalian mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and induces gastric cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying its cell-death-inducing activity are unclear. Methods We used SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells to study AA005 cytotoxic activity. Cell deaths were determined by Trypan blue assay and flow cytometry, and rel...

  3. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 induces cancer cell death via apoptosis inducing factor through a caspase-3-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Wang, Tong-Dan; Shen, Shao-Ming; Yu, Yun; Mao, Chan; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Wang, Li-Shun

    2015-03-18

    Annonaceous acetogenins are a family of natural products with antitumor activities. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 reportedly inhibits mammalian mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and induces gastric cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying its cell-death-inducing activity are unclear. We used SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells to study AA005 cytotoxic activity. Cell deaths were determined by Trypan blue assay and flow cytometry, and related proteins were characterized by western blot. Immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation were used to evaluate AIF nuclear translocation. Reactive oxygen species were assessed by using redox-sensitive dye DCFDA. AA005 induces a unique type of cell death in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, characterized by lack of caspase-3 activation or apoptotic body formation, sensitivity to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor Olaparib (AZD2281) but not pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, and dependence on apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). AA005 treatment also reduced expression of mitochondrial Complex I components, and leads to accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the early stage. Blocking ROS formation significantly suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells. Moreover, blocking activation of RIP-1 by necroptosis inhibitor necrotatin-1 inhibits AIF translocation and partially suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells demonstrating that RIP-1 protein may be essential for cell death. AA005 may trigger the cell death via mediated by AIF through caspase-3 independent pathway. Our work provided new mechanisms for AA005-induced cancer cell death and novel clues for cancer treatment via AIF dependent cell death.

  4. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical surface composition by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) showed that no delignification of the lignocellulose took place during ...

  5. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2013-01-01

    and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  6. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-chrome titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating is prepared on AA6063 at room temperature. • The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating is produced on AA6063 within 50 s. • The adhesion strength between epoxy coating and AA6063 is improved significantly after the Ti/Zr/V conversion treatment. - Abstract: An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , V 2 O 5 , Al 2 O 3 , etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF 4 , AlF 3 , etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  7. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang, E-mail: mewfli@scut.edu.cn; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • A non-chrome titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating is prepared on AA6063 at room temperature. • The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating is produced on AA6063 within 50 s. • The adhesion strength between epoxy coating and AA6063 is improved significantly after the Ti/Zr/V conversion treatment. - Abstract: An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF{sub 4}, AlF{sub 3}, etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  8. CSI 2264: Probing the inner disks of AA Tauri-like systems in NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, P. T.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Guimarães, M. M.; Sousa, A. P.; Stauffer, J.; Bouvier, J.; Rebull, L.; Fonseca, N. N. J.; Venuti, L.; Hillenbrand, L.; Cody, A. M.; Teixeira, P. S.; Aigrain, S.; Favata, F.; Fűrész, G.; Vrba, F. J.; Flaccomio, E.; Turner, N. J.; Gameiro, J. F.; Dougados, C.; Herbst, W.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Micela, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The classical T Tauri star (CTTS) AA Tau has presented photometric variability that was attributed to an inner disk warp, caused by the interaction between the inner disk and an inclined magnetosphere. Previous studies of the young cluster NGC 2264 have shown that similar photometric behavior is common among CTTS. Aims: The goal of this work is to investigate the main causes of the observed photometric variability of CTTS in NGC 2264 that present AA Tau-like light curves, and verify if an inner disk warp could be responsible for their observed variability. Methods: In order to understand the mechanism causing these stars' photometric behavior, we investigate veiling variability in their spectra and u - r color variations and estimate parameters of the inner disk warp using an occultation model proposed for AA Tau. We also compare infrared Spitzer IRAC and optical CoRoT light curves to analyze the dust responsible for the occultations. Results: AA Tau-like variability proved to be transient on a timescale of a few years. We ascribe this variability to stable accretion regimes and aperiodic variability to unstable accretion regimes and show that a transition, and even coexistence, between the two is common. We find evidence of hot spots associated with occultations, indicating that the occulting structures could be located at the base of accretion columns. We find average values of warp maximum height of 0.23 times its radial location, consistent with AA Tau, with variations of on average 11% between rotation cycles. We also show that extinction laws in the inner disk indicate the presence of grains larger than interstellar grains. Conclusions: The inner disk warp scenario is consistent with observations for all but one star with AA Tau-like variability in our sample. AA Tau-like systems are fairly common, comprising 14% of CTTS observed in NGC 2264, though this number increases to 35% among systems of mass 0.7 M⊙ ≲ M ≲ 2.0 M⊙. Assuming random

  9. The Influences of Artificial Aging Temperature and Time on Pitting Susceptibility of SiCp/ AA2024 MMCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Jo, C. J.; Kwon, B. H.; Hwang, W. S.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of artificial aging temperature and time were investigated on the pitting behaviors of SiCp/ AA2024 composites through measuring the changes of open circuit potential, pitting potential, and repassivation potential in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. And, the influence of microstructure on the pitting susceptibility was studied by measurement of TEM images. AA2024 Al alloy and 15vol%SiCp/ AA2024 composites were fabricated by vacuum hot pressing and hot extrusion with an extrusion ratio of 25 : 1. They were solutionized at 495 .deg. C for 4 hours, and aged at 130, 150, 170, and 190 .deg. C for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 hours. In aerated 3.5% NaCl solutions, the open circuit potential and pitting potential of both AA2024 alloy and composites were similar each other, and pitting occurred immediately at immersed condition. The pitting potential was decreased with increasing aging temperature and time. Also, the repassivation potential of SiCp/ AA2024 composites was decreased as increasing aging temperature and time. It was concluded that formation and growth of S' and S phase by artificial aging promoted the pitting susceptibility of SiCp/ AA2024 composites because these phases, easily soluble by forming galvanic couples with substrate Al alloy, served as preferential sites for nucleation of pits

  10. Cold metal transfer spot plug welding of AA6061-T6-to-galvanized steel for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, R.; Huang, Q.; Chen, J.H.; Wang, Pei-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two Al-to-galvanized steel spot plug welding joints were studied by CMT method. • The optimum process variables for the two joints were gotten by orthogonal test. • Connection mechanism of the two joints were discussed. -- Abstract: In this study, cold metal transfer (CMT) spot plug joining of 1 mm thick Al AA6061-T6 to 1 mm thick galvanized steel (i.e., Q235) was studied. Welding variables were optimized for a plug weld in the center of a 25 mm overlap region with aluminum 4043 wire and 100% argon shielding gas. Microstructures and elemental distributions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Mechanical testing of CMT spot plug welded joints was conducted. It was found that it is feasible to join Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized steel by CMT spot plug welding method. The process variables for two joints with Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel and galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 are optimized. The strength of CMT spot welded Al AA6061T6-to-galvanized mild steel is determined primarily by the strength and area of the brazed interface. While, the strength of the galvanized mild steel-to-Al AA6061T6 joint is mainly dependent upon the area of the weld metal

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the aqp1aa gene in half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    Full Text Available Aquaporin 1 (AQP1 is a member of the transmembrane water channel family of proteins with special structural features, and two AQP1 paralogous genes (aqp1aa and aqp1ab are reported in teleosts. In the present study, the aqp1aa gene of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of aqp1aa is 1411 bp with a 786 bp open reading frame encoding a 261-amino acid putative protein with a characteristic structure consisting of 6 membrane-spanning α-helical domains and two highly conserved asparagine-proline-alanine motifs. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that aqp1aa mRNA is expressed predominantly in the testis of males and pseudo-males, while its expression is low in the ovary and lowest in doublesex and mab-3-related transcription factor 1(DMRT1 knock out fish and triploid males. In situ hybridization indicated that aqp1aa mRNA is expressed mainly in the germ cells of males and pseudo-males, especially in spermatozoa and spermatids. These results suggest that the aqp1aa may play a role in spermatogenesis of C. semilaevis.

  12. Study of the effect of cerium nitrate on AA2024-T3 by means of electrochemical micro-cell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paussa, L.; Andreatta, F.; Rosero Navarro, N.C.; Durán, A.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate the cerium nitrate effect on the electrochemical behavior of AA2024-T3. ► We examine how AA2024-T3 microstructure affects cerium precipitation mechanism. ► The entire AA2024-T3 surface is involved in cerium precipitation. ► Anodic and cathodic inhibitions are both provided by cerium precipitation. ► Mg-rich intermetallics are preferential sites for cerium precipitation. - Abstract: This work evaluates the effect of cerium nitrate as corrosion inhibitor for AA2024-T3 in the view of its introduction in sol–gel coatings able to provide self-healing ability. Since it is well established that deposition of Ce species is activated by the local pH increase, the objective of this paper is to investigate the behavior of AA2024-T3 (open circuit potential and polarization curves) in the presence of Ce species in aggressive solutions by means of a local technique, the electrochemical micro-cell. This technique enables the investigation of small areas with resolution in the micrometer range by the use of glass capillaries to define the working electrode area. The micro-cell results clearly displayed that the entire AA2024-T3 area exposed to the cerium-containing electrolyte was involved in the cerium precipitation mechanism. The heterogeneous electrochemical behavior of the microstructure is minimized by the formation of a cerium-containing layer able to protect the metal substrate.

  13. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...

  14. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional (2D) integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the 2D Helmholtz equation.

  15. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  16. Negative mass solitons in gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    We first reconstruct the conserved (Abbott-Deser) charges in the spin-connection formalism of gravity for asymptotically (Anti)-de Sitter spaces, and then compute the masses of the AdS soliton and the recently found Eguchi-Hanson solitons in generic odd dimensions, unlike the previous result obtained for only five dimensions. These solutions have negative masses compared to the global AdS or AdS/Z p spacetimes. As a separate note, we also compute the masses of the recent even dimensional Taub-NUT-Reissner-Nordstroem metrics

  17. Imam, AA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of homogenates of avocado pear (Persea americana) seeds and fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves coadministered with anti-tuberculosis drugs on liver enzymes of albino rats. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-6996. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  18. Optimization of negative ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have started to study negative ion extraction and acceleration systems in view of designing a 1 MeV D - accelerator. This study is being made with a two-Dimensional code that has been specifically developed in our laboratory and validated by comparison to three sets of experimental data. We believe that the criteria for negative ion accelerator design optimization should be: (i) to provide the best optics; (ii) to reduce the power load on the extraction grid; (iii) to allow operation with low electric fields in order to reduce the problem of breakdowns. We show some results of optics calculations performed for two systems that will be operational in the next months: the CEA-JAERI collaboration at Cadarache and the european DRAGON experiment at Culham. Extrapolations to higher energies of 500 to 1100 keV have also been conducted. All results indicate that the overall accelerator length, whatever be the number of gaps, is constrained by space charge effects (Child-Langmuir). We have combined this constraint with high-voltage hold-off empirical laws. As a result, it appears that accelerating 10 mA/cm 2 of D - at 1 MeV with good optics, as required for NET or ITER, is close to the expected limit of high-voltage hold-off

  19. Dominant negative phenotype of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba mutants suggest hetero-oligomer formation among different Cry toxins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, D.; Rodriguez-Almazan, C.; Munoz-Garay, C.; Portugal, L.; Perez, C.; Maagd, de R.A.; Bakker, P.; Soberon, M.; Bravo, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used worldwide in the control of different insect pests important in agriculture or in human health. The Cry proteins are pore-forming toxins that affect the midgut cell of target insects. It was shown that non-toxic Cry1Ab helix a-4 mutants had a

  20. Bone Morphogenic Protein 4-Smad-Induced Upregulation of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor AA Impairs Endothelial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weining; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Li; Lau, Chi Wai; Xu, Jian; Luo, Jiang-Yun; Gou, Lingshan; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) is an important mediator of endothelial dysfunction in cardio-metabolic diseases, whereas platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are major angiogenic and proinflammatory mediator, although the functional link between these 2 factors is unknown. The present study investigated whether PDGF mediates BMP4-induced endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. We generated Ad-Bmp4 to overexpress Bmp4 and Ad-Pdgfa-shRNA to knockdown Pdgfa in mice through tail intravenous injection. SMAD4-shRNA lentivirus, SMAD1-shRNA, and SMAD5 shRNA adenovirus were used for knockdown in human and mouse endothelial cells. We found that PDGF-AA impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in aortas and mesenteric resistance arteries. BMP4 upregulated PDGF-AA in human and mouse endothelial cells, which was abolished by BMP4 antagonist noggin or knockdown of SMAD1/5 or SMAD4. BMP4-impared relaxation in mouse aorta was also ameliorated by PDGF-AA neutralizing antibody. Tail injection of Ad-Pdgfa-shRNA ameliorates endothelial dysfunction induced by Bmp4 overexpression (Ad-Bmp4) in vivo. Serum PDGF-AA was elevated in both diabetic patients and diabetic db/db mice compared with nondiabetic controls. Pdgfa-shRNA or Bmp4-shRNA adenovirus reduced serum PDGF-AA concentration in db/db mice. PDGF-AA neutralizing antibody or tail injection with Pdgfa-shRNA adenovirus improved endothelial function in aortas and mesenteric resistance arteries from db/db mice. The effect of PDGF-AA on endothelial function in mouse aorta was also inhibited by Ad-Pdgfra-shRNA to inhibit PDGFRα. The present study provides novel evidences to show that PDGF-AA impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation and PDGF-AA mediates BMP4-induced adverse effect on endothelial cell function through SMAD1/5- and SMAD4-dependent mechanisms. Inhibition of PGDF-AA ameliorates vascular dysfunction in diabetic mice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Junction region of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein has a dominant negative effect in Ewing's sarcoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jully, Babu; Vijayalakshmi, Ramshankar; Gopal, Gopisetty; Sabitha, Kesavan; Rajkumar, Thangarajan

    2012-11-12

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignancy characterized by a specific 11:22 chromosomal translocation which generates a novel EWS-FLI1 fusion protein functioning as an aberrant transcription factor. In the present study, we have further characterized the junction region of the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. In-silico model of EWS-FLI1 fusion protein was analysed for ligand binding sites, and a putative region (amino acid (aa) 251-343 of the type 1 fusion protein) in the vicinity of the fusion junction was cloned and expressed using bacterial expression. The recombinant protein was characterized by Circular Dichroism (CD). We then expressed aa 251-280 ectopically in Ewing's sarcoma cell-line and its effect on cell proliferation, tumorigenicity and expression of EWS-FLI1 target genes were analysed. Our modelling analysis indicated that Junction region (aa 251-343) encompasses potential ligand biding sites in the EWS-FLI1 protein and when expressed in bacteria was present as soluble form. Ectopically expressing this region in Ewing's sarcoma cells inhibited tumorigenicity, and EWS-FLI1 target genes indicating a dominant negative biological effect. Junction region can be exploited further as target for drug development in future to specifically target EWS-FLI1 in Ewing's Sarcoma.

  2. Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…

  3. Coinductive Logic Programming with Negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Richard; Gupta, Gopal

    We introduce negation into coinductive logic programming (co-LP) via what we term Coinductive SLDNF (co-SLDNF) resolution. We present declarative and operational semantics of co-SLDNF resolution and present their equivalence under the restriction of rationality. Co-LP with co-SLDNF resolution provides a powerful, practical and efficient operational semantics for Fitting's Kripke-Kleene three-valued logic with restriction of rationality. Further, applications of co-SLDNF resolution are also discussed and illustrated where Co-SLDNF resolution allows one to develop elegant implementations of modal logics. Moreover it provides the capability of non-monotonic inference (e.g., predicate Answer Set Programming) that can be used to develop novel and effective first-order modal non-monotonic inference engines.

  4. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  5. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  6. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse

  7. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  8. Negative meson capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of deexcitation and capture of negative mesons and hadrons in atomic hydrogen are investigated. Only slow collisions in which the projectile-atom relative velocity is less than one atomic unit are considered, and the motion of the incident particle is treated classically. For each classical trajectory the probability of ionizing the hydrogen atom is determined, together with the energy spectrum of the emitted electron. Ionization probabilities are calculated using the time-dependent formulation of the perturbed stationary state method. Exact two-center electronic wave functions are used for both bound and continuum states. The total ionization cross section and electron energy spectrum have been calculated for negative muons, kaons and antiprotons at incident relative velocities between 0.04 and 1.0 atomic units. The electron energy spectrum has a sharp peak for electron kinetic energies on the order of 10 -3 Rydbergs. The ionization process thus favors the emission of very slow electrons. The cross section for ionization with capture of the incident particle was calculated for relative kinetic energies greater than 1.0 Rydberg. Since ionization was found to occur with the emission of electrons of nearly zero kinetic energy, the fraction of ionizing collisions which result in capture decreases very rapidly with projectile kinetic energy. The energy distributions of slowed down muons and hadrons were also computed. These distributions were used together with the capture cross section to determine the distribution of kinetic energies at which capture takes place. It was found that most captures occur for kinetic energies slightly less than 1.0 Rydbergs with relatively little capture at thermal energies. The captured particles therefore tend to go into very large and loosely found orbits with binding energies less than 0.1 Rydbergs

  9. Heavy quarkonium production: Nontrivial transition from pA to AA collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan; Pirner, H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Two novel QCD effects, double-color filtering and mutual boosting of the saturation scales in colliding nuclei, affect the transparency of the nuclei for quark dipoles in comparison with proton-nucleus collisions. The former effect increases the survival probability of the dipoles, since color filtering in one nucleus makes the other one more transparent. The second effect acts in the opposite direction and is stronger; it makes the colliding nuclei more opaque than in the case of pA collisions. As a result of parton saturation in nuclei the effective scale is shifted upward, which leads to an increase of the gluon density at small x. This in turn leads to a stronger transverse momentum broadening in AA compared with pA collisions, i.e., to an additional growth of the saturation momentum. Such a mutual boosting leads to a system of reciprocity equations, which result in a saturation scale, a few times higher in AA than in pA collisions at the energies of the large hadron collider (LHC). Since the dipole cross section is proportional to the saturation momentum squared, the nuclei become much more opaque for dipoles in AA than in pA collisions. For the same reason gluon shadowing turns out to be boosted to a larger magnitude compared with the product of the gluon shadowing factors in each of the colliding nuclei. All these effects make it more difficult to establish a baseline for anomalous J/Ψ suppression in heavy ion collisions at high energies.

  10. The effects of various reinforcements on dry sliding wear behaviour of AA 6061 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyasimman, D.; Narayanasamy, R.; Ponalagusamy, R.; Anandakrishnan, V.; Kamaraj, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wear and friction coefficient of nanocomposites were investigated. • The worn surface morphologies of nanocomposites were analysed. • The wear rate was increased with increasing load and sliding velocity. • The friction coefficient was decreased with increasing load and sliding velocity. - Abstract: The present work aims to investigate the dry sliding wear behaviour of AA 6061 nanocomposites reinforced with various nanolevel reinforcements, such as titanium carbide (TiC), gamma phase alumina (γ-Al 2 O 3 ) and hybrid (TiC + Al 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles with two weight percentages (wt.%) prepared by 30 h of mechanical alloying (MA). The tests were performed using a pin-on-disk wear tester by sliding these pin specimens at sliding speeds of 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 m/s against an oil-hardened non-shrinking (OHNS) steel disk at room temperature. Wear tests were conducted for normal loads of 5, 7 and 10 N at different sliding speeds at room temperature. The variations of the friction coefficient and the wear rate with the sliding distances (500 m, 1000 m and 1600 m) for different normal loads and sliding velocities were plotted and investigated. To observe the wear characteristics and to investigate the wear mechanism, the morphologies of the worn surfaces were analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The formation of an oxide layer on the worn surface was examined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The wear rate was found to increase with the load and sliding velocity for all prepared nanocomposites. Hybrid (TiC + Al 2 O 3 ) reinforced AA 6061 nanocomposites had lower wear rates and friction coefficients compared with TiC and Al 2 O 3 reinforced AA 6061 nanocomposites

  11. Insights into the Structure of the Vip3Aa Insecticidal Protein by Protease Digestion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins are secretable proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis whose mode of action is still poorly understood. In this study, the activation process for Vip3 proteins was closely examined in order to better understand the Vip3Aa protein stability and to shed light on its structure. The Vip3Aa protoxin (of 89 kDa was treated with trypsin at concentrations from 1:100 to 120:100 (trypsin:Vip3A, w:w. If the action of trypsin was not properly neutralized, the results of SDS-PAGE analysis (as well as those with Agrotis ipsilon midgut juice equivocally indicated that the protoxin could be completely processed. However, when the proteolytic reaction was efficiently stopped, it was revealed that the protoxin was only cleaved at a primary cleavage site, regardless of the amount of trypsin used. The 66 kDa and the 19 kDa peptides generated by the proteases co-eluted after gel filtration chromatography, indicating that they remain together after cleavage. The 66 kDa fragment was found to be extremely resistant to proteases. The trypsin treatment of the protoxin in the presence of SDS revealed the presence of secondary cleavage sites at S-509, and presumably at T-466 and V-372, rendering C-terminal fragments of approximately 29, 32, and 42 kDa, respectively. The fact that the predicted secondary structure of the Vip3Aa protein shows a cluster of beta sheets in the C-terminal region of the protein might be the reason behind the higher stability to proteases compared to the rest of the protein, which is mainly composed of alpha helices.

  12. Dopaminergic modulation of reward-guided decision making in alcohol-preferring AA rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinio, Ville; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2017-05-30

    R**esults from animal gambling models have highlighted the importance of dopaminergic neurotransmission in modulating decision making when large sucrose rewards are combined with uncertainty. The majority of these models use food restriction as a tool to motivate animals to accomplish operant behavioral tasks, in which sucrose is used as a reward. As enhanced motivation to obtain sucrose due to hunger may impact its reward-seeking effect, we wanted to examine the decision-making behavior of rats in a situation where rats were fed ad libitum. For this purpose, we chose alcohol-preferring AA (alko alcohol) rats, as these rats have been shown to have high preference for sweet agents. In the present study, AA rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellet rewards in a two-lever choice task (one pellet vs. three pellets). Once rational choice behavior had been established, the probability of gaining three pellets was decreased over time (50%, 33%, 25% then 20%). The effect of d-amphetamine on decision making was studied at every probability level, as well as the effect of the dopamine D 1 receptor agonist SKF-81297 and D 2 agonist quinpirole at probability levels of 100% and 25%. d-Amphetamine increased unprofitable choices in a dose-dependent manner at the two lowest probability levels. Quinpirole increased the frequency of unprofitable decisions at the 25% probability level, and SKF-82197 did not affect choice behavior. These results mirror the findings of probabilistic discounting studies using food-restricted rats. Based on this, the use of AA rats provides a new approach for studies on reward-guided decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The strain path dependence of plastic deformation response of AA5754: Experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Minh-Son; Hu, Lin; Iadicola, Mark; Creuziger, Adam; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents modeling of experiments on a balanced biaxial (BB) pre-strained AA5754 alloy, subsequently reloaded uniaxially along the rolling direction and transverse direction. The material exhibits a complex plastic deformation response during the change in strain path due to 1) crystallographic texture, 2) aging (interactions between dislocations and Mg atoms) and 3) recovery (annihilation and re-arrangement of dislocations). With a BB prestrain of about 5 %, the aging process is dominant, and the yield strength for uniaxially deformed samples is observed to be higher than the flow stress during BB straining. The strain hardening rate after changing path is, however, lower than that for pre-straining. Higher degrees of pre-straining make the dynamic recovery more active. The dynamic recovery at higher strain levels compensates for the aging effect, and results in: 1) a reduction of the yield strength, and 2) an increase in the hardening rate of re-strained specimens along other directions. The yield strength of deformed samples is further reduced if these samples are left at room temperature to let static recovery occur. The synergistic influences of texture condition, aging and recovery processes on the material response make the modeling of strain path dependence of mechanical behavior of AA5754 challenging. In this study, the influence of crystallographic texture is taken into account by incorporating the latent hardening into a visco-plastic self-consistent model. Different strengths of dislocation glide interaction models in 24 slip systems are used to represent the latent hardening. Moreover, the aging and recovery effects are also included into the latent hardening model by considering strong interactions between dislocations and dissolved atom Mg and the microstructural evolution. These microstructural considerations provide a powerful capability to successfully describe the strain path dependence of plastic deformation behavior of AA5754

  14. Microstructure Stability During Creep of Friction Stir Welded AA2024-T3 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Michael; Rashkovsky, Tal; Cabibbo, Marcello; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The poor weldability of the AA2024 aluminum alloy limits its use in industrial applications. Because friction stir welding (FSW) is a non-fusion welding process, it seems to be a promising solution for welding this alloy. In the current study, FSW was applied to butt weld AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy plates. Creep tests were conducted at 250 and at 315 °C on both the parent material and the friction stir welded specimens. The microstructures of the welded and non-welded AA2024-T3 specimens before and after the creep tests were studied and compared. A comprehensive transmission electron microscopy study together with a high-resolution scanning electron microscopy study and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to investigate the microstructure stability. The parent material seems to contain two kinds of Cu-rich precipitates—coarse precipitates of a few microns each and uniformly dispersed fine nanosized precipitates. Unlike the parent material, the crept specimens were found to contain the two kinds of precipitates mentioned above together with platelet-like precipitates. In addition, extensive decoration of the grain boundaries with precipitates was clearly observed in the crept specimens. Controlled aging experiments for up to 280 h at the relevant temperatures were conducted on both the parent material and the welded specimens in order to isolate the contribution of exposure to high temperatures to the microstructure changes. TEM study showed the development of dislocation networks into a cellular dislocation structure in the case of the parent metal. Changes in the dislocation structure as a function of the creep strain and the FSW process were recorded. A detailed creep data analysis was conducted, taking into account the instability of the microstructure.

  15. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  16. The speciation of Si and other alloying elements in the oxide surface film of galvanically corroded weld fusion zone of laser welded AA6061 aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujibur Rahman, A.B.M.; Kumar, Sunil [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Gerson, Andrea R. [Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia)], E-mail: Andrea.Gerson@unisa.edu.au

    2008-05-15

    It has recently been proposed that on galvanic corrosion of laser weldments of AA6061 aluminium alloy the temporal increase in galvanic corrosion resulted from either the build up of intermetallic phases in the surface oxide layer and/or a significant increase in the surface area of the cathodic weld fusion zone due to the porous nature of the surface layer. This proposition has motivated a comprehensive surface analytical study of the incorporation of alloying elements into the oxide surface film, which is composed predominately of alumina. Si is found to be present as silicate and silicides. The Gibbs free energy of formation, per cation, of silicate is more negative than that for alumina and hence silicate formation is thermodynamically, relatively, favourable. In contrast the Gibbs free energy for oxide formation, per cation, for the other alloying elements is less negative and hence relatively unfavourable compared to the formation of alumina. We propose therefore that Fe, Cu and Cr are present in the metallic form, possibly as silicides, within the oxide surface layer. Magnesium is found to be depleted relative to the weld fusion zone presumably due to dissolution within the electrolyte.

  17. The speciation of Si and other alloying elements in the oxide surface film of galvanically corroded weld fusion zone of laser welded AA6061 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujibur Rahman, A.B.M.; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that on galvanic corrosion of laser weldments of AA6061 aluminium alloy the temporal increase in galvanic corrosion resulted from either the build up of intermetallic phases in the surface oxide layer and/or a significant increase in the surface area of the cathodic weld fusion zone due to the porous nature of the surface layer. This proposition has motivated a comprehensive surface analytical study of the incorporation of alloying elements into the oxide surface film, which is composed predominately of alumina. Si is found to be present as silicate and silicides. The Gibbs free energy of formation, per cation, of silicate is more negative than that for alumina and hence silicate formation is thermodynamically, relatively, favourable. In contrast the Gibbs free energy for oxide formation, per cation, for the other alloying elements is less negative and hence relatively unfavourable compared to the formation of alumina. We propose therefore that Fe, Cu and Cr are present in the metallic form, possibly as silicides, within the oxide surface layer. Magnesium is found to be depleted relative to the weld fusion zone presumably due to dissolution within the electrolyte

  18. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively. Moreover, the use of sodium silicate resulted in the formation of distinct microstructure and incorporation of silicate into the oxide film. These oxide films reduced the anodic activity 4 times, while the corrosion protection by silicate containing oxide was the function of its concentration. Further, in acid salt spray and filiform corrosion tests, oxide layer containing silicate exhibited two times higher corrosion resistance.

  19. A computational study of low-head direct chill slab casting of aluminum alloy AA2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mainul; Begum, Latifa

    2016-04-01

    The steady state casting of an industrial-sized AA2024 slab has been modeled for a vertical low-head direct chill caster. The previously verified 3-D CFD code is used to investigate the solidification phenomena of the said long-range alloy by varying the pouring temperature, casting speed and the metal-mold contact heat transfer coefficient from 654 to 702 °C, 60-180 mm/min, and 1.0-4.0 kW/(m2 K), respectively. The important predicted results are presented and thoroughly discussed.

  20. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  1. Aluminium Alloy AA6060 surface treatment with high temperature steam containing chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    The steam treatment process was employed to produce a conversion coating on aluminium alloy AA6060. The changes in microstructure and its effect on corrosion resistance properties were investigated. Various concentrations of KMnO4 containing Ce(NO3)3 was injected into the steam and its effect...... on the formation of steam-based conversion coating was evaluated. The use of Mn-Ce into the steam resulted in incorporation of these species into the conversion coating, which resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the alloy substrate....

  2. The role of silicon in the corrosion of AA6061 aluminium alloy laser weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A.B.M. Mujibur; Kumar, Sunil [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gerson, Andrea R. [Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)], E-mail: Andrea.Gerson@unisa.edu.au

    2010-06-15

    The galvanic corrosion temporal increase observed on examination of the weld fusion zone (WFZ) of AA6061 laser weldments in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution cannot be attributed to electron tunnelling as the surface oxide layer is too thick, or the presence of Cl{sup -} within the surface layer as this element was not found to be present. Aluminium alloy and WFZ galvanic and surface analyses indicate that the cathodic WFZ corrosion characteristics are due to increases in silicate concentrations in the surface oxide layer, leading to increased ionic and/or p-type semi-conductor conductivity, intermetallic concentrations and surface area.

  3. The role of silicon in the corrosion of AA6061 aluminium alloy laser weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.B.M. Mujibur; Kumar, Sunil; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2010-01-01

    The galvanic corrosion temporal increase observed on examination of the weld fusion zone (WFZ) of AA6061 laser weldments in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution cannot be attributed to electron tunnelling as the surface oxide layer is too thick, or the presence of Cl - within the surface layer as this element was not found to be present. Aluminium alloy and WFZ galvanic and surface analyses indicate that the cathodic WFZ corrosion characteristics are due to increases in silicate concentrations in the surface oxide layer, leading to increased ionic and/or p-type semi-conductor conductivity, intermetallic concentrations and surface area.

  4. Identification of sigma and OMEGA phases in AA2009/SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo, P., E-mail: pilar.rodrigo@urjc.e [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Poza, P.; Utrilla, M.V.; Urena, A. [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-12

    The microstructure evolution during ageing treatment at 170 and 190 deg. C of AA2009/SiC composites, reinforced with 15 vol.% particulates and whiskers, was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Besides theta' and S' phases, the typical hardening precipitates on Al-Cu-Mg alloys, it was found the presence of OMEGA and sigma (Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 6}Mg{sub 2}) phases in the matrix. sigma phase was only found in the matrix of particulate composite, while OMEGA phase appeared in both. This phase has not been previously observed in Al matrix composites based on conventional Al-Cu-Mg alloys.

  5. aaBBB: The Strophic Form of Fernan Rodriguez de Calheiros 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rip Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The refrain of a cantiga d’amigo by Fernan Rodriguez Calheiros (B 632/V 233, heretofore misunderstood as consisting of five verses, should be taken as a 3-verse refrain with two internal rhymes in the middle verse, conforming to the strophic form aaBBB. This analysis is confirmed by two virtuoso features: the middle verse of the BBB refrain scans longer than the outer ones but corresponds to the verses of the distich; and the text constitutes an example of a BBB refrain where the third verse repeats the first.

  6. Corrosion monitoring of the AA2024 alloy in NaCl solutions by electrochemical noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aballe, A.; Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Marcos, M.; Rodriguez-Chacon, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviour of the AA2024 alloy against corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution has been monitored. In this environment the alloy can be easily damaged under small anodic polarizations. Linear Polarization, electrochemical impedance, spectroscopy and electrochemical noise measurement have been used as experimental techniques. Data from ENM have been analyzed using statistical parameters and Chaos Theory. The results here obtained suggest that ENM is particularly useful to monitored systems that can be modified using other electrochemical techniques. (Author) 11 refs

  7. Rare earth conversion coatings grown on AA6061 aluminum alloys. Corrosion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachetti S, S. B. [Instituto Tecnologico de Ciudad Madero, Av. 1o. de Mayo y Sor Juana I. de la Cruz, Col. Los Mangos, 89440 Ciudad Madero, Tanaulipas (Mexico); Dominguez C, M. A.; Torres H, A. M.; Onofre B, E. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - Altamira, Carretera Tampico-Puerto Industrial Altamira Km. 14.5, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); De la Cruz H, W., E-mail: mdominguezc@ipn.mx [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Apdo. Postal 2681, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance of rare earth protective coatings deposited by spontaneous deposition on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrates. Coatings were deposited from water-based Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and La(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions by varing parameters such as rare earth solution concentration, bath temperature and immersion time. The values of the Tafel slopes indicate that the cathodic process is favored by concentration polarization rather than activation polarization. Chemical and morphological characterizations of the surface before and after electrochemical evaluations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  8. Influence of Retrogression and Re-aging on the Exfoliation Corrosion Behavior of AA 7085 Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Ajay; Raja, V. S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Mukhopadhyay, A. K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad (India)

    2016-08-15

    An attempt has been made to understand the influence of retrogression and re-aging (RRA) on the exfoliation corrosion behaviour of AA 7085 alloy in comparison with the peak aged condition (PA). Immersion tests using ASTM G34 and studies involving electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the RRA treated alloy provided higher resistance to exfoliation corrosion than the PA treated alloy. The improved resistance was attributed to the enhanced Cu content and the discontinuous nature of the grain boundary precipitate, which was revealed through transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Active Moss Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Trace Element Deposition in Belgrade Urban Area using ENAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, M.; Tasic, M.; Tomasevic, M.; Rajsic, S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Strelkova, L. P.; Steinnes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Active biomonitoring of air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation respectively for four consecutive 3-month periods at three urban sites. Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by ENAA and three (Cu, Cd, and Pb) by AAS. The relative accumulation factor (RAF) was greater than 1 for the majority of elements. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs, however, leached from the moss tissue during the exposure time. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, and Cd

  10. Why is the radial flow in central pA collisions stronger than in AA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Both the transverse size and entropy density per area in central pA collisions is smaller than in central AA, and yet the radial flow is stronger. We propose an explanation to this puzzle. Using a weak attraction between strings through the σ-meson exchange, fitted to the lattice data, we find collective implosion of the “spaghetti” multi-string state. Collectivization of the sigma field of the strings is the QCD analog of the black hole formation occurring in holographic models

  11. Comet Kohoutek, The Arab Oil Embargo, and the Jan 1974 AAS Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D. K.

    1999-05-01

    An unlikely combination of factors, including Comet Kohoutek and the Arab Oil embargo, combined to make my first AAS Meeting my most memorable. Three young graduate students confronted lack of gas, lack of money, and lack of planning to attend the Jan 1974 meeting in Tucson, AZ. One, Steve Hawley, displayed skills which would later be valuable when he became the astronaut who launched HST. Although we became stranded in the desert, two of the three of us made it to the meeting, and only one didn't....

  12. Rare earth conversion coatings grown on AA6061 aluminum alloys. Corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachetti S, S. B.; Dominguez C, M. A.; Torres H, A. M.; Onofre B, E.; De la Cruz H, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the corrosion resistance of rare earth protective coatings deposited by spontaneous deposition on AA6061 aluminum alloy substrates. Coatings were deposited from water-based Ce(NO 3 ) 3 and La(NO 3 ) 3 solutions by varing parameters such as rare earth solution concentration, bath temperature and immersion time. The values of the Tafel slopes indicate that the cathodic process is favored by concentration polarization rather than activation polarization. Chemical and morphological characterizations of the surface before and after electrochemical evaluations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (Author)

  13. One of the 10 cells of AA Injection Kicker K4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The 3.5 GeV/c Antiproton Accumulator (AA) had 2 delay-line type injection kickers, K3 (12 cells) and K4 (10 cells). Here we see one of the K4 cells, with ferrite between stainless-steel plates. Pulse voltage: 61 kV; rise/fall-time 86 ns; flat-top 460 ns; top flatness +-2%. During injection, the open side of the C-shaped kickers was closed off with a fast shutter, so that their stray field would not perturb the stack of already accumulated antiprotons.

  14. Through thickness property variations in a thick plate AA7050 friction stir welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Clinton T.; Moore, Matthew A.; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, moderately thick (32 mm) AA7050 plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). Various methods were used to characterize the welded joints, including nugget grain size measurements at different locations through the thickness, micro-hardness indentation through nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ) at different cross section heights, and residual stress measurement using the cut compliance method with full thickness and partial thickness specimens. All testing results are consistent with the presence of a strong gradient in peak temperature through the plate thickness during FSW.

  15. Differentially expressed miRNAs in triple negative breast cancer between African-American and non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Bruna; Gill, Mandeep; Mahajan, Akanskha; Duttargi, Anju; Kirolikar, Saurabh; Almeida, Rodrigo; Regis, Kenny; Oluwasanmi, Olusayo L; Marchi, Fabio; Marian, Catalin; Makambi, Kepher; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Sheahan, Laura; Cavalli, Iglenir J; Ribeiro, Enilze M; Madhavan, Subha; Boca, Simina; Gusev, Yuriy; Cavalli, Luciane R

    2016-11-29

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), a clinically aggressive subtype of breast cancer, disproportionately affects African American (AA) women when compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). MiRNAs(miRNAs) play a critical role in these tumors, through the regulation of cancer driver genes. In this study, our goal was to characterize and compare the patterns of miRNA expression in TNBC of AA (n = 27) and NHW women (n = 30). A total of 256 miRNAs were differentially expressed between these groups, and distinct from the ones observed in their respective non-TNBC subtypes. Fifty-five of these miRNAs were mapped in cytobands carrying copy number alterations (CNAs); 26 of them presented expression levels concordant with the observed CNAs. Receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed a good power (AUC ≥ 0.80; 95% CI) for over 65% of the individual miRNAs and a high combined power with superior sensitivity and specificity (AUC = 0.88 (0.78-0.99); 95% CI) of the 26 miRNA panel in discriminating TNBC between these populations. Subsequent miRNA target analysis revealed their involvement in the interconnected PI3K/AKT, MAPK and insulin signaling pathways. Additionally, three miRNAs of this panel were associated with early age at diagnosis. Altogether, these findings indicated that there are different patterns of miRNA expression between TNBC of AA and NHW women and that their mapping in genomic regions with high levels of CNAs is not merely physical, but biologically relevant to the TNBC phenotype. Once validated in distinct cohorts of AA women, this panel can potentially represent their intrinsic TNBC genome signature.

  16. Negative numbers and antimatter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2012-01-01

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter

  17. Role of N-Arachidonoyl-Serotonin (AA-5-HT in Sleep-Wake Cycle Architecture, Sleep Homeostasis, and Neurotransmitters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Murillo-Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system comprises several molecular entities such as endogenous ligands [anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG], receptors (CB1 and CB2, enzymes such as [fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAHH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL], as well as the anandamide membrane transporter. Although the role of this complex neurobiological system in the sleep–wake cycle modulation has been studied, the contribution of the blocker of FAAH/transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT in sleep has not been investigated. Thus, in the present study, varying doses of AA-5-HT (5, 10, or 20 mg/Kg, i.p. injected at the beginning of the lights-on period of rats, caused no statistical changes in sleep patterns. However, similar pharmacological treatment given to animals at the beginning of the dark period decreased wakefulness (W and increased slow wave sleep (SWS as well as rapid eye movement sleep (REMS. Power spectra analysis of states of vigilance showed that injection of AA-5-HT during the lights-off period diminished alpha spectrum across alertness in a dose-dependent fashion. In opposition, delta power spectra was enhanced as well as theta spectrum, during SWS and REMS, respectively. Moreover, the highest dose of AA-5-HT decreased wake-related contents of neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA, norepinephrine (NE, epinephrine (EP, serotonin (5-HT whereas the levels of adenosine (AD were enhanced. In addition, the sleep-inducing properties of AA-5-HT were confirmed since this compound blocked the increase in W caused by stimulants such as cannabidiol (CBD or modafinil (MOD during the lights-on period. Additionally, administration of AA-5-HT also prevented the enhancement in contents of DA, NE, EP, 5-HT and AD after CBD of MOD injection. Lastly, the role of AA-5-HT in sleep homeostasis was tested in animals that received either CBD or MOD after total sleep deprivation (TSD. The

  18. Transcriptome profiling of the intoxication response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda; Dowd, Scot E; Bouffard, Pascal; Li, Lewyn; Conesa, Ana; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Toutges, Michelle; Marshall, Jeremy; Huestis, Diana L; Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against a select number of insect pests, but improvements are needed to increase efficacy and decrease time to mortality for coleopteran pests. To gain insight into the Bt intoxication process in Coleoptera, we performed RNA-Seq on cDNA generated from the guts of Tenebrio molitor larvae that consumed either a control diet or a diet containing Cry3Aa protoxin. Approximately 134,090 and 124,287 sequence reads from the control and Cry3Aa-treated groups were assembled into 1,318 and 1,140 contigs, respectively. Enrichment analyses indicated that functions associated with mitochondrial respiration, signalling, maintenance of cell structure, membrane integrity, protein recycling/synthesis, and glycosyl hydrolases were significantly increased in Cry3Aa-treated larvae, whereas functions associated with many metabolic processes were reduced, especially glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fatty acid synthesis. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate temporal changes in gene expression after 6, 12 or 24 h of Cry3Aa exposure. Overall, microarray analysis indicated that transcripts related to allergens, chitin-binding proteins, glycosyl hydrolases, and tubulins were induced, and those related to immunity and metabolism were repressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. The 24 h microarray data validated most of the RNA-Seq data. Of the three intoxication intervals, larvae demonstrated more differential expression of transcripts after 12 h exposure to Cry3Aa. Gene expression examined by three different methods in control vs. Cry3Aa-treated larvae at the 24 h time point indicated that transcripts encoding proteins with chitin-binding domain 3 were the most differentially expressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. Overall, the data suggest that T. molitor larvae mount a complex response to Cry3Aa during the initial 24 h of intoxication. Data from this study represent the largest genetic sequence dataset for T. molitor

  19. Transcriptome profiling of the intoxication response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Oppert

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crystal (Cry proteins are effective against a select number of insect pests, but improvements are needed to increase efficacy and decrease time to mortality for coleopteran pests. To gain insight into the Bt intoxication process in Coleoptera, we performed RNA-Seq on cDNA generated from the guts of Tenebrio molitor larvae that consumed either a control diet or a diet containing Cry3Aa protoxin. Approximately 134,090 and 124,287 sequence reads from the control and Cry3Aa-treated groups were assembled into 1,318 and 1,140 contigs, respectively. Enrichment analyses indicated that functions associated with mitochondrial respiration, signalling, maintenance of cell structure, membrane integrity, protein recycling/synthesis, and glycosyl hydrolases were significantly increased in Cry3Aa-treated larvae, whereas functions associated with many metabolic processes were reduced, especially glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and fatty acid synthesis. Microarray analysis was used to evaluate temporal changes in gene expression after 6, 12 or 24 h of Cry3Aa exposure. Overall, microarray analysis indicated that transcripts related to allergens, chitin-binding proteins, glycosyl hydrolases, and tubulins were induced, and those related to immunity and metabolism were repressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. The 24 h microarray data validated most of the RNA-Seq data. Of the three intoxication intervals, larvae demonstrated more differential expression of transcripts after 12 h exposure to Cry3Aa. Gene expression examined by three different methods in control vs. Cry3Aa-treated larvae at the 24 h time point indicated that transcripts encoding proteins with chitin-binding domain 3 were the most differentially expressed in Cry3Aa-intoxicated larvae. Overall, the data suggest that T. molitor larvae mount a complex response to Cry3Aa during the initial 24 h of intoxication. Data from this study represent the largest genetic sequence

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin intoxication of Tenebrio molitor induces widespread changes in the expression of serine peptidase transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda; Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N

    2012-09-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a pest of stored grain products and is sensitive to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin. As digestive peptidases are a determining factor in Cry toxicity and resistance, we evaluated the expression of peptidase transcripts in the midgut of T. molitor larvae fed either a control or Cry3Aa protoxin diet for 24 h (RNA-Seq), or in larvae exposed to the protoxin for 6, 12, or 24 h (microarrays). Cysteine peptidase transcripts (9) were similar to cathepsins B, L, and K, and their expression did not vary more than 2.5-fold in control and Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Serine peptidase transcripts (48) included trypsin, chymotrypsin and chymotrypsin-like, elastase 1-like, and unclassified serine peptidases, as well as homologs lacking functional amino acids. Highly expressed trypsin and chymotrypsin transcripts were severely repressed, and most serine peptidase transcripts were expressed 2- to 15-fold lower in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Many serine peptidase and homolog transcripts were found only in control larvae. However, expression of a few serine peptidase transcripts was increased or found only in Cry3Aa-treated larvae. Therefore, Bt intoxication significantly impacted the expression of serine peptidases, potentially important in protoxin processing, while the insect maintained the production of critical digestive cysteine peptidases. Published by Elsevier Inc.