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Sample records for aa household alkaline

  1. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  2. Crystal structure determination of alkaline haemorrhagin AaHⅢ from snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚为民; 滕脉坤; 牛立文

    1997-01-01

    The haemorrhagin AaH Ⅲ isolated from the snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus is one of the few al-kaline ones in snake venoms. Its crystals belong to space group P212121 with a = 9. 573 4 nm, b = 4. 996 7 nm and c = 4. 728 8 nm. Its crystal structure was determined by the molecular replacement method according to the model of metalloproteinase Adamalysin n from eastern rattlesnake venom. The AaHⅢ structure has been refined by PROLSQ. The final R factor was 0.254 and the RMS deviations of bond lengths and angles were 0. 001 8 nm and 1.5°. The structure comparison suggested that AaHⅢ has a similar structure to other snake venom zinc-metalloproteinases. They all belong to matrix metalloproteinases super-family.

  3. Simultaneous recovery of zinc and manganese dioxide from household alkaline batteries through hydrometallurgical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Cleusa Cristina Bueno Martha; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    This paper describes the leaching experiments and the electrowinning tests to recover Zn and Mn from spent household alkaline batteries. After the dismantling of the batteries, the black powder was analyzed and found to contain 21 wt.% Zn and 45%wt. Mn. Therefore, it was considered that recovery of these metals would be interesting due to their relatively large amounts in this kind of waste. Batch laboratory experiments were carried out to develop an acid leaching procedure and to determine appropriate leaching conditions to maximize zinc extraction and to study the leaching behavior of Mn. An experimental study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous recovery of zinc and particulate manganese dioxide using a laboratory cell. The results from these electrowinning experiments are also presented in this paper.

  4. A GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is a functional midgut receptor of Cry11Aa toxin in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Luisa E; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2006-02-15

    A 65 kDa GPI (glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol)-anchored ALP (alkaline phosphatase) was characterized as a functional receptor of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin in Aedes aegypti midgut cells. Two (a 100 kDa and a 65 kDa) GPI-anchored proteins that bound Cry11Aa toxin were preferentially extracted after treatment of BBMV (brush boder membrane vesicles) from Ae. aegypti midgut epithelia with phospholipase C. The 65 kDa protein was further purified by toxin affinity chromatography. The 65 kDa protein showed ALP activity. The peptide-displaying phages (P1.BBMV and P8.BBMV) that bound to the 65 kDa GPI-ALP (GPI-anchored ALP) and competed with the Cry11Aa toxin to bind to BBMV were isolated by selecting BBMV-binding peptide-phages by biopanning. GPI-ALP was shown to be preferentially distributed in Ae. aegypti in the posterior part of the midgut and in the caeca, by using P1.BBMV binding to fixed midgut tissue sections to determine the location of GPI-ALP. Cry11Aa binds to the same regions of the midgut and competed with P1.BBMV and P8.BBMV to bind to BBMV. The importance of this interaction was demonstrated by the in vivo attenuation of Cry11Aa toxicity in the presence of these phages. Our results shows that GPI-ALP is an important receptor molecule involved in Cry11Aa interaction with midgut cells and toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae.

  5. Alkaline phosphatases and aminopeptidases are altered in a Cry11Aa resistant strain of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Bum; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is widely used for the biological control of mosquito populations. However, the mechanism of Bti toxins is still not fully understood. To further elucidate the mechanism of Bti toxins, we developed an Aedes aegypti resistant strain that shows high-level resistance to Cry11Aa toxin. After 27 selections with Cry11Aa toxin, the larvae showed a 124-fold resistance ratio for Cry11Aa (strain G30). G30 larvae showed cross-resistance to Cry4Aa (66-fold resistance), less to Cry4Ba (13-fold), but not to Cry11Ba (2-fold). Midguts from these resistant larvae did not show detectable difference in the processing of the Cry11Aa toxin compared to that in susceptible larvae (WT). Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant larvae bound slightly less Cry11Aa compared to WT BBMV. To identify potential proteins associated with Cry11A resistance, not only transcript changes in the larval midgut were analyzed using Illumina sequencing and qPCR, but alterations of previously identified receptor proteins were investigated using immunoblots. The transcripts of 375 genes were significantly increased and those of 208 genes were down regulated in the resistant larvae midgut compared to the WT. None of the transcripts for previously identified receptors of Cry11Aa (Aedes cadherin, ALP1, APN1, and APN2) were altered in these analyses. The genes for the identified functional receptors in resistant larvae midgut did not contain any mutation in their sequences nor was there any change in their transcript expression levels compared to WT. However, ALP proteins were expressed at reduced levels (∼ 40%) in the resistant strain BBMV. APN proteins and their activity were also slightly reduced in resistance strain. The transcript levels of ALPs (AAEL013330 and AAEL015070) and APNs (AAEL008158, AAEL008162) were significantly reduced. These results strongly suggest that ALPs and APNs could be associated with Cry11Aa resistance in Ae. aegypti

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigation on corrosion inhibition of AA5052 aluminium alloy by L-cysteine in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng; Gao, Lixin [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Zhang, Daquan, E-mail: zhangdaquan@shiep.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yang, Dong [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Hongxia; Lin, Tong [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    The corrosion inhibition of L-cysteine on AA5052 aluminium alloy in 4 mol/L NaOH solution was investigated by hydrogen gas evolution experiment, polarisation curve, galvanostatic discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of L-cysteine on aluminium alloy surface obeyed the amended Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The polarisation curves indicated that L-cysteine acted as a cathodic inhibitor to inhibit cathodic reaction. The inhibition mechanism was dominated by the geometric covering effect. The galvanostatic discharge shows that the additives restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate. Quantum chemical calculations indicated that L-cysteine molecules mainly interacted with on the carboxyl groups on the aluminium alloy surface. A strong hybridization occurred between the s-orbital and p-orbital of reactive sites in the L-cysteine molecule and the sp-orbital of Aluminium. - Highlights: • L-cysteine was used as corrosion inhibitor for Al alloy in alkaline solution. • Adsorption of L-cysteine on Al alloy surface obeyed the amended Langmuir's isotherm. • L-cysteine molecules interacted with the carboxyl groups on the Al alloy surface. • A strong orbital hybridization occurred between the reactive sites in L-cysteine and Al.

  7. A Tenebrio molitor GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is involved in binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa to brush border membrane vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Gómez, Isabel; Peña, Guadalupe; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins recognizes their target cells in part by the binding to glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchored proteins such as aminopeptidase-N (APN) or alkaline phosphatases (ALP). Treatment of Tenebrio molitor brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with phospholipase C that cleaves out GPI-anchored proteins from the membranes, showed that GPI-anchored proteins are involved in binding of Cry3Aa toxin to BBMV. A 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was shown to bind Cry3Aa by toxin overlay assays. The 68 kDa GPI-anchored ALP was preferentially expressed in early instar larvae in comparison to late instar larvae. Our work shows for the first time that GPI-anchored ALP is important for Cry3Aa binding to T. molitor BBMV suggesting that the mode of action of Cry toxins is conserved in different insect orders.

  8. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  9. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...

  10. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  11. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  12. Rating AAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan J.

    2001-01-01

    Why alternative investments? In a word: performance. Many higher education endowment and foundation managers are making increasing commitments to alternative investments, or AAs, in order to obtain higher returns and broader diversification for their investment portfolios than public securities instruments can usually provide. Learn how to handle…

  13. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chenju, E-mail: cliang@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ya-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Jia-Wei [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK{sub a2} of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK{sub a2} of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −4} mM{sup 1−(a} {sup +} {sup b)} h{sup −1}) × [NB]{sup a} {sup =} {sup 1.35} {sup ±} {sup 0.10}[AA]{sup b} {sup =} {sup 0.89} {sup ±} {sup 0.01}. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  14. 75 FR 72987 - Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 371, 375, 386, and 387 RIN 2126-AA84 Brokers of Household Goods Transportation by Motor Vehicle AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... household goods brokers which ``shall provide for the protection of shippers by motor vehicle'' (49...

  15. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  16. Effects of antiserums of cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase on the toxicities of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%棉铃虫中肠钙粘蛋白、氨肽酶N及碱性磷酸酯酶的抗血清对Cry1Ac和Cry2Aa毒力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰洁; 袁向东; 赵曼; 刘臣; 陈琳; 梁革梅

    2016-01-01

    [Aim] Cry1A and Cry2A toxins play insecticidal roles by specifically binding with receptor proteins on insect midgut,and are widely used in Bt transgenic crops now.This study aims to further understand the action mechanisms of Cry2A and the roles of the functional receptor proteins of Cry1 A in the toxicity of Cry2A.[Methods] We firstly extracted brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of midgut,prepared antibody and antiserums of cadherin (CAD),aminopeptidase N (APN),and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in Helicoverpa armigera.Then,after detecting the antiserums of these three receptor proteins in BBMV by Western blot,we compared the effects of antiserums of these three receptor proteins on the toxicities of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant H.armigera (BtR) by the antibody blocking technology.[Results] For the susceptible H.armigera,the antiserums of these three receptor proteins not only significantly reduced the toxicity of Cry1 Ac,but also remarkably reduced the toxicity of Cry2Aa.Among them,anti-APN antiserum had the biggest impact on the toxicity of Cry1Ac,causing the mortality of H.armigera larvae to be reduced by 84.44%,and anti-ALP antiserum had the greatest effect on the toxicity of Cry2Aa,causing the larval mortality to be reduced by 71.04% compared with the control (without treatment by antiserum).The toxicity of Cry1Ac to Cry1Ac-resistant H.armigera (BtR) was obviously reduced and the toxicity of Cry2Aa also became less to these resistant larvae.The influences of the antiserums of these three receptors on the toxicity of Cry1Ac to the Cry1Acresistant strain of H.armigera (BtR) were smaller than those to the susceptible strain.Especially,the inhibition percentage of anti-CAD and-APN antiserums to the toxicity of Cry1 Ac decreased significantly.The effects of anti-CAD and-ALP antiserums on the toxicity of Cry2Aa to the Cry1Ac-resistant strain (BtR) and the susceptible strain were not significantly different,but the anti-APN antiserum

  17. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  18. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  19. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial planni

  20. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  1. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  2. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  3. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, e...

  4. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  5. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  6. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  7. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  8. Antibacterials in Household Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue-producing ). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban, and benzalkonium chloride. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products ...

  9. Alkaline earth metal thioindates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov-Ehmin, B.N.; Ivlieva, V.I.; Filatenko, L.A.; Zajtsev, B.E.; Kaziev, G.Z.; Sarabiya, M.G.

    1984-08-01

    Alkaline earth metal thioindates of MIn/sub 2/S/sub 4/ composition were synthesized by interaction of alkaline earth metal oxoindates with hydrogen sulfide during heating. Investigation into the compounds by X-ray analysis showed that calcium compound crystallizes in cubic crystal system and strontium and barium compounds in rhombic crystal system. Lattice parameters and the number of formula units were determined. Thioindates of M/sub 3/In/sub 2/S/sub 6/ composition were synthesized, their individuality was shown.

  10. [Advances of alkaline amylase production and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline amylase is one of alkaline enzymes with optimum pH in the alkaline range, and it could keep stability and efficiently hydrolyze starch under alkaline conditions. Alkaline amylase finds wide applications in textile, detergent, pharmaceutical, food and other fields. Alkaline amylases could be produced by alkaliphilic microorganisms. In this work, the advances of alkaline amylase production and applications were reviewed.

  11. Household food security, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetebo, R

    1997-12-01

    Two major projects incorporating household food security components have been implemented since the ICN. The first is a UNICEF-funded project that addresses community participation in development. The second is a FAO-funded project: "Promoting Household Food Security and Improving Nutrition through Nutrition Education and Training." This project examines the effects of processing and storage procedures on the nutrient quality of traditional and indigenous fruits and vegetables. It is a young project, but much is being learned from it. Other projects aim to minimize food wastage during processing and storage by developing new processing machinery for use by rural households. Women's issues have become central since the ICN and there is increased support from both government and nongovernment sources to help women with food production and processing.

  12. Reconstructing Pompeian Households

    CERN Document Server

    Mimno, David

    2012-01-01

    A database of objects discovered in houses in the Roman city of Pompeii provides a unique view of ordinary life in an ancient city. Experts have used this collection to study the structure of Roman households, exploring the distribution and variability of tasks in architectural spaces, but such approaches are necessarily affected by modern cultural assumptions. In this study we present a data-driven approach to household archeology, treating it as an unsupervised labeling problem. This approach scales to large data sets and provides a more objective complement to human interpretation.

  13. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  14. Promoting household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discus

  15. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  16. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  17. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  18. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  19. Households, Migration, and Community Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Janet E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies why Vietnamese and Laotian refugee households take the forms they do in a small southwestern Kansas community. Argues that extended family and other nonnuclear family households facilitate refugee adaptation. Economic conditions, labor and housing markets, and refugee legal status all influence household composition, members' roles, and…

  20. Household Characteristics That Influence Simple Household Demand on Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongam Sihol Nababan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the characteristics of households that affect the electric energy consumption of simple households. The second objective is to analyze the probability of each of the factors affecting the electricity energy consumption of small household. The research was conducted in Medan City in the period of March 2014 to November 2014 with samples of 143 small households, the customer of PT. PLN (Persero Medan, which use the power of electricity for TR-1 /450VA. Data were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. The estimation results indicated that (1 the higher the willingnes to pay (WTP of households, the higher the tendency to consume elec trical energy per month. (2 the closer the households residence to the city center, the higher the tendency to consume electrical energy than of the households residence in the suburbs, (3 increasingly unfavourable response to electrical quality, the higher the opportunity to consume a greater electric power monthly.

  1. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Two common reasons why people end up in personal financial problems are either because they have not learned to manage a budget, or because they have unrealistic expectations of what they can afford to buy. To assess potential level for risk-seeking behavior in daily life, we created a novel test...... - The Household Planning Game (HPG) - modelled upon the well-known Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The basic foundations of the HPG were largely the same as the IGT, however illustrations of consumer goods were positioned at the top of the cards, and the participant's task was to select a card as if it was a natural...... on the same schedule as in the IGT. Eighteen university students performed the HPG, which was separated into three conditions containing 100 trials. During the game, participants were asked to; 1) pay a number of fixed monthly costs or save money for various household costs; 2) purchase a number of consumer...

  2. Lumped Thermal Household Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a lumped model approach as an alternative to the individual models. In the lumped model, the portfolio is seen as baseline consumption superimposed with an ideal storage of limited power and energy capacity. The benefit of such a lumped model is that the computational effort of flexibility optimization......In this paper we discuss two different approaches to model the flexible power consumption of heat pump heated households: individual household modeling and lumped modeling. We illustrate that a benefit of individual modeling is that we can overview and optimize the complete flexibility of a heat...... pump portfolio. Following, we illustrate two disadvantages of individual models, namely that it requires much computational effort to optimize over a large portfolio, and second that it is difficult to accurately model the houses in certain time periods due to local disturbances. Finally, we propose...

  3. Safety and Abuse Testing of Energizer LiFeS2 AA Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Baldwin, Laura; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2003-01-01

    The LiFeS2 test program was part of the study on state-of-the-art batteries/cells available in the commercial market. It was carried out in an effort to replace alkaline AA cells for Shuttle and Station applications. A large number of alkaline cells are used for numerous Shuttle and Station applications as loose cells. Other government agencies reported good performance and abuse tolerance of the AA LiFeS2 cells. In this study, only abuse testing was performed on the cells to determine their tolerance. The tests carried out were over-discharge, external short circuit, heat-to-vent, vibration and drop.

  4. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  5. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    The excavation of six courtyard houses at Pella in the Jordan Valley, destroyed in a massive earthquake in the mid-eighth century AD, gives an exceptional opportunity to study a wide range of objectives from daily life within a secure archaeological context. The recovery of detailed information...... about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...

  6. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  7. AAS 227: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Greetings from the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting in Kissimmee, Florida! This week, along with several fellow authors from astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre an author or referee (or plan to be!) and youre here at the meeting, consider joining us at our Author and Referee Workshop on Wednesday in the Tallahassee room, where well be sharingsome of the exciting new features of the AAS journals. You can drop intoeither of the two-hour sessions(10 AM 12 PM or 1 PM 3 PM), and there will be afree buffet lunch at noon.Heres the agenda:Morning SessionTopic Speaker10:00 am 10:05 amIntroductionsJulie Steffen10:05 am 10:35 amChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac10:35 am 11:00 amThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton11:00 am 11:15 amAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler11:15 am 11:30 amFixing Software and Instrumentation Publishing: New Paper Styles in AAS JournalsChris Lintott11:30 am 11:45 amMaking Article Writing Easier with the New AASTeX v6.0Greg Schwarz11:45 am 12:00 pmBringing JavaScript and Interactivity to Your AAS Journal FiguresGus MuenchLunch SessionTopic Speaker12:00 pm 12:15 pmUnified Astronomy ThesaurusKatie Frey12:15 pm 12:30 pmAAS/ADS ORCID Integration ToolAlberto Accomazzi12:30 pm 12:45 pmWorldWide Telescope and Video AbstractsJosh Peek12:45 pm 01:00 pmArizona Astronomical Data Hub (AADH)Bryan HeidornAfternoon SessionTopic Speaker01:00 pm 01:05 pmIntroductionsJulie Steffen01:05 pm 01:35 pmChanges at AAS Journals; How to Be a Successful AAS AuthorEthan Vishniac01:35 pm 02:00 pmThe Peer Review ProcessButler Burton02:00 pm 02:15 pmAAS Nova: Sharing AAS Authors Research with the Broader CommunitySusanna Kohler02:15 pm 02:30 pm

  8. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  9. AAS 228: Welcome!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Greetings from the 228th American Astronomical Society meeting in San Diego, California! This week, along with a team of fellow authorsfrom astrobites, Iwill bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. You can follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.If youre at the meeting, come stop by the AAS booth (Booth #211-213) to learn about the newly-announced partnership between AAS and astrobites and pick up some swag.And dont forget to visit the IOP booth in the Exhibit Hall (Booth #223) to learn more about the new corridors for AAS Journals and to pick up a badge pin to representyour corridor!

  10. Promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap Region, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) seeks to reduce poverty and improve food security for many small-scale fishers and farmers who are dependent on aquatic agriculture systems by partnering with local, national and international partners to achieve large-scale development impact. This study on promising practices in food security and nutrition assistance to vulnerable households in the Tonle Sap region forms part of the preliminary research that informs AAS work i...

  11. Household fuel demand analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.; Hirst, E.; Jackson, J.

    1976-01-01

    This study develops econometric models of residential demands for electricity, natural gas, and petroleum products. Fuel demands per household are estimated as functions of fuel prices, per capita income, heating degree days, and mean July temperature. Cross-sectional models are developed using a large data base containing observations for each state and year from 1951 through 1974. Long-run own-price elasticities for all three fuels are greater than unity with natural gas showing the greatest sensitivity to own-price changes. Cross-price elasticities are all less than unity except for the elasticity of demand for oil with respect to the price of gas (which is even larger than the own-price elasticity of demand for oil). The models show considerable stabiity with respect to own-price elasticities but much instability with respect to the cross-price and income elasticities.

  12. Characterization and function analysis of a Halo-alkaline-adaptable Trk K~+ uptake system in Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO YongHao; XUE YanFen; LIU Jun; WANG QuanHui; MA YanHe

    2009-01-01

    By functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants defective in potassium (K~+) uptake, two genes that are required for K~+ uptake in halo-alkaliphilic Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10 were cloned. These two genes, Aa-trkA (1337 bp) and Aa-trkH (1452 bp), were adjacent on the A. amylolytica N10 chromosome and transcribed in opposite directions. Complementation experiments revealed that Aa-TrkA and Aa-TrkH from A. amylolytica strain N10 restored the ability to grow at low K~+ concentration in E. coli △trkA and △trkG △trkH strains, respectively. In addition, Aa-TrkAH supported the growth of an E. coli △sapD strain, indicating that the ATP-binding protein TrkE was dispensable for the Trk system of A. amylolytica strain N10. The net K~+ uptake was detected at different pH levels and the critical NaCl concentration indicated that Aa-TrkAH is an alkaline-adaptable and partially halo-adaptable K~+ transporter. Kinetics determined by heterogeneous K~+ transport experiments with an E. coli △trkA strain revealed that Aa-TrkAH has an alkaline pH optimum close to 8.5 or higher. Site-directed mutagenesis of Aa-TrkH showed that Phe103 and Ser229 play certain key roles in K~+ selection and transportation. The molecular chaperones groES-groEL and tig promoted Aa-TrkH and Aa-TrkA overexpression in vitro.

  13. Characterization and function analysis of a Halo-alkaline-adaptable Trk K~+ uptake system in Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants defective in potassium (K+) uptake, two genes that are required for K+ uptake in halo-alkaliphilic Alkalimonas amylolytica strain N10 were cloned. These two genes, Aa-trkA (1337 bp) and Aa-trkH (1452 bp), were adjacent on the A. amylolytica N10 chromosome and transcribed in opposite directions. Complementation experiments revealed that Aa-TrkA and Aa-TrkH from A. amylolytica strain N10 restored the ability to grow at low K+ concentration in E. coli △trkA and △trkG △trkH strains, respectively. In addition, Aa-TrkAH supported the growth of an E. coli △sapD strain, indicating that the ATP-binding protein TrkE was dispensable for the Trk system of A. amylolytica strain N10. The net K+ uptake was detected at different pH levels and the critical NaCl concentration indicated that Aa-TrkAH is an alkaline-adaptable and partially halo-adaptable K+ transporter. Kinetics determined by heterogeneous K+ transport experiments with an E. coli △trkA strain revealed that Aa-TrkAH has an alkaline pH optimum close to 8.5 or higher. Site-directed mutagenesis of Aa-TrkH showed that Phe103 and Ser229 play certain key roles in K+ selection and transportation. The molecular chaperones groES-groEL and tig promoted Aa-TrkH and Aa-TrkA overexpression in vitro.

  14. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  15. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    consumption, we evaluate the effects of giving households detailed feedback about their electricity consumption on a small liquid crystal display (LCD) screen. Twenty Danish households participated in the study over a 5-month period. A new feedback system was developed in a user-involved innovation process...

  16. AAS Career Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2012-08-01

    The American Astronomical Society provides substantial programs in the area of Career Services.Motivated by the Society's mission to enhance and share humanity's understanding of the Universe, the AAS provides a central resource for advertising positions, interviewing opportunities at its annual winter meeting and information, workshops and networks to enable astronomers to find employment.The programs of the Society in this area are overseen by an active committee on employment and the AAS Council itself.Additional resources that help characterize the field, its growth and facts about employment such as salaries and type of jobs available are regularly summarized and reported on by the American Institute of Physics.

  17. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  18. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food security status based on Dietary Energy Consumed (DEC) per Adult Equivalent (AE) per day, identifies ..... also conducted to supplement information collected through the ...... self-sufficient households to sustain their lives but not to make ...

  19. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  20. Coral calcification under environmental change: a direct comparison of the alkalinity anomaly and buoyant weight techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepf, Verena; Hu, Xinping; Holcomb, Michael; Cai, Wei-Jun; Li, Qian; Wang, Yongchen; Xu, Hui; Warner, Mark E.; Melman, Todd F.; Hoadley, Kenneth D.; Pettay, D. Tye; Matsui, Yohei; Baumann, Justin H.; Grottoli, Andréa G.

    2017-03-01

    Two primary methods—the buoyant weight (BW) and alkalinity anomaly (AA) techniques—are currently used to quantify net calcification rates ( G) in scleractinian corals. However, it remains unclear whether they are directly comparable since the few method comparisons conducted to date have produced inconsistent results. Further, such a comparison has not been made for tropical corals. We directly compared G BW and G AA in four tropical and one temperate coral species cultured under various pCO2, temperature, and nutrient conditions. A range of protocols for conducting alkalinity depletion incubations was assessed. For the tropical corals, open-top incubations with manual stirring produced G AA that were highly correlated with and not significantly different from G BW. Similarly, G AA of the temperate coral was not significantly different from G BW when incubations provided water motion using a pump, but were significantly lower than G BW by 16% when water motion was primarily created by aeration. This shows that the two techniques can produce comparable calcification rates in corals but only when alkalinity depletion incubations are conducted under specific conditions. General recommendations for incubation protocols are made, especially regarding adequate water motion and incubation times. Further, the re-analysis of published data highlights the importance of using appropriate regression statistics when both variables are random and measured with error. Overall, we recommend the AA technique for investigations of community and short-term day versus night calcification, and the BW technique to measure organism calcification rates integrated over longer timescales due to practical limitations of both methods. Our findings will facilitate the direct comparison of studies measuring coral calcification using either method and thus have important implications for the fields of ocean acidification research and coral biology in general.

  1. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  2. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult......AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  3. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films.

  4. AAS 228: Day 1 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    extraterrestrial life. The jets are highly alkaline and may contain molecular hydrogen, which links the inorganic and living worlds as a reactant and energy source. Although Cassinis very fruitful mission will come to a close in 2017 with a death spiral into Saturn, the future is still bright for Enceladus. Glein closed with a preview of the next mission to this special moon: ELF, the Enceladus Life Finder, will fly through and analyze Enceladuss icy plume in unprecedented detail using state-of-the-art instruments and is predicted to fly in 2031. 102: The NASA K2 Mission (by Meredith Rawls)Everyones favorite planet finding telescope continues to impress. In this morning session, we heard highlights about how the repurposed Kepler mission (K2) is contributing to research in areas ranging from nearby brown dwarfs to extragalactic supernovae. The session kicked off with an overview by Knicole Colon, who happily reported extended funding for K2 through 2018, when its fuel is projected to run out. Colon: despite a glitch in the celebratory cake, #K2mission has been extended until the end of life! #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9umZozOy0n Geert Barentsen (@GeertHub) June 13, 2016Bradley Tucker discussed recent extragalactic results from K2, and supernovae in particular. So far, the Kepler Extragalactic Survey has found 17 supernovae and they hope to find at least 20 more in the next three years. Because Kepler observations are so frequent, they reveal previously hidden subtleties in how supernovae fade over time..@btucker22: #K2mission is providing a statistical sample of high-precision supernova lightcurves! #aas228 pic.twitter.com/GWZUJhtmRW Geert Barentsen (@GeertHub) June 13, 2016Of course, exoplanet science is still a primary goal for the K2 team. Matthew Penny updated us on the status of the in-progress microlensing campaign, which uses Kepler to search for one-off brightening events that indicate the presence of a planet due to gravitational microlensing. Work is also underway by

  5. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  6. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  7. Household food wastage in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenlock, R W; Buss, D H; Derry, B J

    1980-01-01

    1. The total food and drink available for human consumption in the United Kingdom would provide approximately 13 MJ (3100 kcal)/person per d, while the energy intake recommended for the population is approximately 9.6 MJ (2300 kcal)/person per d. A proportion of this substantial difference must be due to wastage in the home as well as in catering establishments and during the storage, distribution and processing of food. 2. As part of a general investigation of this problem, a representative sample of 100 British households was asked to collect all the potentially-edible food wasted in their homes during 1 week, and to keep a record of the food, other than commercial pet food, which they gave to pets and wild birds. A total of 672 households co-operated fully, 338 in summer and 334 in winter. Each food sample received was weighed, and its energy content was determined calorimetrically. 3. Significantly more waste food was collected in summer than in winter, equivalent to 9.3 MJ (2220 kcal)/household per week and 7.1 MJ (1700 kcal)/household per week respectively. In terms of energy, cereals, fat and meat wastage predominated, while in terms of weight, milk was more important and fat less so. 4. Considerable quantities of otherwise edible food were also given to pets and birds, accounting on average for a further 2.4 MJ (570 kcal) and 3.0 MJ (710 kcal)/household per week in summer and winter respectively. The energy content of all food wasted in the home therefore averaged 11.7 MJ (2790 kcal)/household per week in summer and 10.1 MJ (2410 kcal)/households per week in winter, equivalent to 0.6 MJ (150 kcal) and 0.5 MJ (130 kcal)/person per d respectively. This is less than one-quarter of the gap between food supplies and the amount of food thought to be eaten in the UK. 5. Food wastage was significantly influenced by the composition of the family, with adults wasting more in absolute terms than children, and larger households wasting less per person than smaller

  8. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank;

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  9. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Despite durability in several environments, ceramics and refractories can not endure alkaline environments at high temperature. An example of such an environment is when burning biofuel in modern heat and power plants in which the demand for increasing efficiency results in higher combustion temperatures and content of alkaline substances in the flue gas. Some experiences of these environments has been gained from such vastly different equipment as regenerator chambers in the glass industry and MHD-generators. The grains of a ceramic material are usually bonded together by a glassy phase which despite it frequently being a minor constituent render the materials properties and limits its use at elevated temperature. The damage is usually caused by alkaline containing low-melting phases and the decrease of the viscosity of the bonding glass phase which is caused by the alkaline. The surfaces which are exposed to the flue gas in a modern power plant are not only exposed to the high temperature but also a corroding and eroding, particle containing, gas flow of high velocity. The use of conventional refractory products is limited to 1300-1350 deg C. Higher strength and fracture toughness as well as durability against gases, slag and melts at temperatures exceeding 1700 deg C are expected of the materials of the future. Continuous transport of corrosive compounds to the surface and corrosion products from the surface as well as a suitable environment for the corrosion to occur in are prerequisites for extensive corrosion to come about. The highest corrosion rate is therefore found in a temperature interval between the dew point and the melting point of the alkaline-constituent containing compound. It is therefore important that the corrosion resistance is sufficient in the environment in which alkaline containing melts or slag may appear. In environments such as these, even under normal circumstances durable ceramics, such as alumina and silicon carbide, are attacked

  10. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  11. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of househo

  12. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on tax revenues and welfare expenditures in Denmark caused by changes in age and household structures over the years 1982-2007. During that period, there has been a minor fall in the old-age dependency ratio, and a major increase in the number of people living alone...

  13. Making Psychology a Household Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses Ronald F. Levant's four APA presidential initiatives for 2005. "Making Psychology a Household Word" was both the general theme for his presidency as well as an initiative in its own right. The other three initiatives were "Promoting Health Care for the Whole Person," "Enhancing Diversity Within APA," and "Developing an APA…

  14. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  15. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  16. AA quadrupole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Focusing magnet used for the AA (antiproton accumulator).Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 - three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. About focusing magnets (quadrupoles): Quadrupole magnets are needed to focus the particle beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams cross. Particle beams are stored for about 10 hours in the LHC. During this time, the particles make four hundred million revolutions around the machine, travelling a distance equivalent to the diameter of the solar system.

  17. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  18. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  19. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  20. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...

  1. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  2. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider w...

  3. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  4. AAS 227: Day 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  5. AAS 227: Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  6. Aspects of Household Cooling Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mrzyglod, Matthias; Holzer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Actually available household cooling appliances in the highest efficiency class may consume less then 10W average electrical power. To achieve such power consumptions special challenges for the cooling system had to overcome. The related cooling system design has to consider several effects, which arise from the corresponding low cooling capacity demand, start/stop cycles and additional power consumptions by control accessories. The lecture provides symptomatic aspects of cooling technology, ...

  7. AAS 227: Day 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  8. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  9. Households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    It is a widespread assumption within the energy sector that the “smart grid” will be a crucial element of a future low-carbon energy system, and households are assigned an important role in this (particularly in relation to balancing consumption and production). However, this raises questions about...... the integration of consumers’ everyday life practices in this system. This paper introduces the ideas of the smart grid and review relevant demonstration projects. Special focus is on the role of consumers and electric vehicles. The paper ends with introducing major research questions and presents a new research...

  10. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  11. Households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    It is a widespread assumption within the energy sector that the “smart grid” will be a crucial element of a future low-carbon energy system, and households are assigned an important role in this (particularly in relation to balancing consumption and production). However, this raises questions about...... the integration of consumers’ everyday life practices in this system. This paper introduces the ideas of the smart grid and review relevant demonstration projects. Special focus is on the role of consumers and electric vehicles. The paper ends with introducing major research questions and presents a new research...

  12. Estrogenic effects from household stoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W Z; Chen, J; Rehmann, K; Schramm, K W; Kettrup

    2002-09-01

    With the application of a genetically modified yeast, estrogen receptor-activating compounds were detected in the soot and emission gas of a wood-burning household stove. The EC50 value of 17beta-estradiol was divided by the EC50 value of soot, and the obtained relative estrogenic value for raw soot was 2.37E-5, indicating that soot was about 100,000 times less estrogenic than 17beta-estradiol. Chemical analysis revealed that alkyl phenol, benzonic acid, and PAHs represented the major constituents in the most potent fractions of the soot. Along with PAHs, other constituents might also contribute to the estrogenicity of soot.

  13. AAS 228: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  14. Fuel choices in urban Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsi, Mehdi; Filippini, Massimo [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Economics, University of Lugano, (Switzerland); Pachauri, Shonali [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, A-2361, Laxenburg, (Austria)

    2007-12-15

    This paper applies an ordered discrete choice framework to model fuel choices and patterns of cooking fuel use in urban Indian households. The choices considered are for three main cooking fuels: firewood, kerosene, and LPG (liquid petroleum gas). The models, estimated using a large microeconomic dataset, show a reasonably good performance in the prediction of households' primary and secondary fuel choices. This suggests that ordered models can be used to analyze multiple fuel use patterns in the Indian context. The results show that lack of sufficient income is one of the main factors that retard households from using cleaner fuels, which usually also require the purchase of relatively expensive equipment. The results also indicate that households are sensitive to LPG prices. In addition to income and price, several socio-demographic factors such as education and sex of the head of the household are also found to be important in determining household fuel choice. (Author).

  15. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of alkaline volcanic rocks in the Antarctic Peninsula: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smellie, J. L.

    1987-06-01

    The numerous Miocene-Recent alkaline volcanic outcrops in the Antarctic Peninsula form a substantial volcanic province, the least well-known part of a major belt of alkaline volcanism that extends between South America and New Zealand. The outcrops consists mainly of aa and pahoehoe lavas and hyaloclastites which locally contain accidental nodules of spinel lherzolite and other mantle-derived lithologies. The province is predominantly basaltic with two major differentiation lineages: (1) a sodic series of olivine and alkali basalt, hawaiite, mugearite, trachy-phonolite and trachyte; and (2) a relatively potassic, highly undersaturated series of basanite, tephrite and phono-tephrite. All the lavas show varying effects of fractionation by crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene, joined by plagioclase in the hawaiites to trachytes. Fractional crystallization can probably explain most of the chemical variation observed within each outcrop, but variable partial melting is necessary to account for the differences in incompatible element enrichment between the two series, and between the individual outcrops. The degree of partial melting may not have exceeded 3%, as is the case for many other alkaline magmas. The volcanism is an intraplate phenomenon but there is no correlation in timing between the cessation of subduction and the inception of alkaline volcanism. The activity cannot be related to the passage of the coupled Pacific-Antarctic plate over a stationary mantle hot-spot. Although the precise causal relationship with tectonic setting is unknown, regional extension was a prerequisite for giving the magmas rapid access to the surface.

  16. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant m

  17. Financial Satisfaction from Intra-Household Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Namkee Ahn; Victoria Ateca; Arantza Ugidos

    2007-01-01

    We address individuals’ financial satisfaction from the intra-household perspective. Our purpose is twofold. First, we want to contrast the hypothesis of relative income within the household. Does the income level of one individual relative to that of other members of the same household matter in his/her income satisfaction? Second, we want to test procedural utility hypothesis in that different sources of income may contribute differentially to individuals’ income satisfaction. In particular...

  18. AAS 227: Day 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  19. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account.Problem statementThe goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  20. Multisystemic functions of alkaline phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchet, René; Millán, José Luis; Magne, David

    2013-01-01

    Human and mouse alkaline phosphatases (AP) are encoded by a multigene family expressed ubiquitously in multiple tissues. Gene knockout (KO) findings have helped define some of the precise exocytic functions of individual isozymes in bone, teeth, the central nervous system, and in the gut. For instance, deficiency in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in mice (Alpl (-/-) mice) and humans leads to hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism characterized by epileptic seizures in the most severe cases, caused by abnormal metabolism of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the predominant form of vitamin B6) and by hypomineralization of the skeleton and teeth featuring rickets and early loss of teeth in children or osteomalacia and dental problems in adults caused by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP prevented all the manifestations of HPP in mice, and clinical trials with this protein therapeutic are showing promising results in rescuing life-threatening HPP in infants. Conversely, TNAP induction in the vasculature during generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), type II diabetes, obesity, and aging can cause medial vascular calcification. TNAP inhibitors, discussed extensively in this book, are in development to prevent pathological arterial calcification. The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an important role in fatty acid (FA) absorption, in protecting gut barrier function, and in determining the composition of the gut microbiota via its ability to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice (Akp3 (-/-)) deficient in duodenal-specific IAP (dIAP) become obese, and develop hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). These changes are accompanied by upregulation in the jejunal-ileal expression of the Akp6 IAP isozyme (global IAP, or gIAP) and concomitant upregulation of FAT/CD36, a phosphorylated fatty acid

  1. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. Economic Information Bulletin Number 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of U.S. households with children were food secure throughout 2007, meaning that they had consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members. Nearly 16 percent of households with children were food insecure sometime during the year, including 8.3 percent in which children were food insecure…

  2. Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions

  3. Association of alkaline phosphatase phenotypes with arthritides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthritides, a symmetrical polyarticular disease of the bone are a heterogenous group of disorders in which hereditary and environmental factors in combination with an altered immune response appear to play a causative and pathogenic role in its occurrence. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP is an enzyme found in all tissues, with particularly high concentrations of ALP observed in the liver, bile ducts, placenta, and bone.Alkaline phosphatase is an orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase catalyzing the hydrolysis of organic esters at alkaline pH, indicating that alkaline phosphatase is involved in fundamental biological processes.1 The present study envisages on identifying the specific electromorphic association of alkaline phosphatase with arthritides. Phenotyping of serum samples was carried out by PAGE (Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis following Davies (19642 protocol on 41 juvenile arthritis, 150 rheumatoid arthritis and 100 osteo arthritis apart from, 25 normal children and 100 adult healthy subjects. Phenotyping of alkaline phosphatase revealed an increase in preponderance of p+ and p++ phenotypes in juvenile, rheumatoid and osteo arthritic patients. However a significant association of these phenotypes was observed only with rheumatoid arthritis condition (c2:17.46. Similarly, a significant increase of p+ phenotypes in female rheumatoid arthritis patients was observed (c2:14.973, suggesting that the decrease in p° (tissue non specific synthesis/secretion of alkaline phosphatase could be associated with decreased mineralization and ossification process in arthritis condition.

  4. Alkaline solution neutralization capacity of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-10-01

    Alkaline eluate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration residue deposited in landfill alkalizes waste and soil layers. From the viewpoint of accelerating stability and preventing heavy metal elution, pH of the landfill layer (waste and daily cover soil) should be controlled. On the other hand, pH of leachate from existing MSW landfill sites is usually approximately neutral. One of the reasons is that daily cover soil can neutralize alkaline solution containing Ca(2+) as cation. However, in landfill layer where various types of wastes and reactions should be taken into consideration, the ability to neutralize alkaline solutions other than Ca(OH)(2) by soil should be evaluated. In this study, the neutralization capacities of various types of soils were measured using Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH solutions. Each soil used in this study showed approximately the same capacity to neutralize both alkaline solutions of Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH. The cation exchange capacity was less than 30% of the maximum alkali neutralization capacity obtained by the titration test. The mechanism of neutralization by the pH-dependent charge can explain the same neutralization capacities of the soils. Although further investigation on the neutralization capacity of the soils for alkaline substances other than NaOH is required, daily cover soil could serve as a buffer zone for alkaline leachates containing Ca(OH)(2) or other alkaline substances.

  5. Which U.S. Households Use Education Loans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chungwen; Fisher, Patti J.

    2016-01-01

    This empirical study uses the 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) to investigate the characteristics of households that hold at least one loan for educational expenses. The benefit of using household-level data is that a single household may have education loans for multiple people in the household, including the household head, spouse/partner,…

  6. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher fem

  7. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  8. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  9. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  10. Fuzzy classification for farm household characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salasya, B.D.S.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Most household classifications use hard classification procedures that limit a household to only one cluster. In this paper, fuzzy classification, in which individuals can belong totally, partially or not at all to a particular cluster, with membership showing how well they fit in each cluster, was

  11. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  12. Household income distribution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Costas J.; Wearne, Adam

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present an alternative model for the distribution of household incomes in the United States. We provide arguments from two differing perspectives which both yield the proposed income distribution curve, and then fit this curve to empirical data on household income distribution obtained from the United States Census Bureau.

  13. Poverty and household consumption patterns in Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub-PREALC pub. Working paper, statistical analysis of poverty and household consumption patterns in rural areas and urban areas Ecuador - considers consumer expenditure on basic food requirements and housing; outlines regional disparities, rural urban disparities and disparities associated with family size, men or female headed households, occupational structure, educational level, age, etc. References, statistical tables.

  14. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on nee

  15. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  16. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  17. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  18. Measuring sustainability in households: Interpretations and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    The paper discusses the connection between “green behaviour” and the metering data of household consumption (electricity, heating, water), based on experiences on this from recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how everyday understandings of “green behaviour” are related to the overall household...

  19. Are we safe? NLM's household products database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson Fitzpatrick, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This column features an overview of the Division of Specialized Information Services, National Library of Medicine Household Products Database. Basic searching techniques are presented, as well as a brief overview of the data contained in this file. The Household Products Database contains information on chemical ingredients in various products used in U.S. homes.

  20. Does Income Taxation Affect Partners’ Household Chores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of income taxation on both partners‟ allocation of time to market work and unpaid house work in households with two adults. We estimate a structural household utility model in which the marginal utilities of leisure and house work of both partners are modelled as random coefficie

  1. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants....... The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  2. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  3. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  4. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households, Fiscal Year 1998.

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  5. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Castner; Randy Rosso

    2000-01-01

    Examines characteristics of households participating in the Food Stamp Program in 1998, finding that participation decreased by 13 percent from 1997. Fifty-eight percent of participating households contain children, and 68 percent of these are single-parent households.

  6. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  7. A.A., constructivism, and reflecting teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevels, B

    1997-12-01

    Numerous studies and clinical anecdotes reveal a relationship between attendance at A.A. meetings and/or degree of involvement in A.A. and maintenance of sobriety. Hypotheses as to how A.A. and/or the A.A. meeting is helpful to its members have ranged from a focus on factors common to all therapy groups, to aspects of A.A. "treatment" which are behavioral in nature. Presented here is another way of understanding A.A.'s effectiveness within the frame of more recent, constructivistic approaches to family therapy. In particular, the A.A. topic meeting is compared to the reflecting team concept of Tom Anderson.

  8. Characterization and quantification of biochar alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Rivka B; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L; Lawrinenko, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lack of knowledge regarding the nature of biochar alkalis has hindered understanding of pH-sensitive biochar-soil interactions. Here we investigate the nature of biochar alkalinity and present a cohesive suite of methods for its quantification. Biochars produced from cellulose, corn stover and wood feedstocks had significant low-pKa organic structural (0.03-0.34 meq g(-1)), other organic (0-0.92 meq g(-1)), carbonate (0.02-1.5 meq g(-1)), and other inorganic (0-0.26 meq g(-1)) alkalinities. All four categories of biochar alkalinity contributed to total biochar alkalinity and are therefore relevant to pH-sensitive soil processes. Total biochar alkalinity was strongly correlated with base cation concentration, but biochar alkalinity was not a simple function of elemental composition, soluble ash, fixed carbon, or volatile matter content. More research is needed to characterize soluble biochar alkalis other than carbonates and to establish predictive relationships among biochar production parameters and the composition of biochar alkalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2016-04-29

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  11. Information content of household-stratified epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kinyanjui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.

  12. Effects of applied potential on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of 7003 aluminum alloy in acid and alkaline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Song, Ren-guo; Sun, Bin; Lu, Hai; Wang, Chao

    2016-07-01

    Potentiodynamic polarization tests and slow strain rate test (SSRT) in combination with fracture morphology observations were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 7003 aluminum alloy (AA7003) in acid and alkaline chloride solutions under various applied potentials ( E a). The results show that AA7003 is to a certain extent susceptible to SCC via anodic dissolution (AD) at open-circuit potential (OCP) and is highly susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) at high negative E a in the solutions with pH levels of 4 and 11. The susceptibility increases with negative shift in the potential when E a is less than -1000 mV vs. SCE. However, the susceptibility distinctly decreases because of the inhibition of AD when E a is equal to -1000 mV vs. SCE. In addition, the SCC susceptibility of AA7003 in the acid chloride solution is higher than that in the alkaline solution at each potential. Moreover, the effect of hydrogen on SCC increases with increasing hydrogen ion concentration.

  13. Cloning and sequence analysis of complete gene encoding an alkaline lipase from Penicillium cyclopium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H M; Wu, M C; Guo, J; Li, J F

    2011-01-01

    The complete gene (PG37 lipI) encoding an alkaline lipase (PG37 LipI) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Penicillium cyclopium PG37. The cloned PG37 lipI is 2020 bp in length, consisting of 632 bp of the 5' flanking promoter region and 1388 bp of the downstream fragment that contains 6 exons and 5 short introns. The promoter region harbors putative TATA box, CAAT box and several transcription factor binding sites. The open reading frame (ORF) encodes a PG37 LipI of 285 amino acid residues, which was predicted to contain a 20-aa signal peptide, a 7-aa propeptide and a 258-aa mature peptide with a conserved motif Gly-X-Ser-X-Gly. However, PG37 LipI shows only 32%, 30%, 28% and 26% identity with lipases of Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium camembertii, Thermomyces lanuginosus and Rhizomucor miehei, respectively. It was predicted that the main secondary structures of PG37 LipI are alpha-helix and random coil. Three amino acid residues, Ser132-Asp188-His241, compose the enzymatic active center in the tertiary structure.

  14. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  15. [Alkaline phosphatase in Amoeba proteus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopina, V A

    2005-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), 3 phosphatase were found after disc-electrophoresis of 10 microg of protein in PAGE and using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate a pH 9.0. These phosphatases differed in their electrophoretic mobilities - "slow" (1-3 bands), "middle" (one band) and "fast" (one band). In addition to 1-naphthyl phosphate, "slow" phosphatases were able to hydrolyse 2-naphthyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. They were slightly activated by Mg2+, completely inhibited by 3 chelators (EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline), L-cysteine, sodium dodecyl sulfate and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ (50 mM), considerably inactivated by orthovanadate, molybdate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Na2HPO4, DL-dithiothreitol and urea and partly inhibited by H2O2, DL-phenylalanine, 2-mercaptoethanol, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 and Ca2+. Imidazole, L-(+)-tartrate, okadaic acid, NaF and sulfhydryl reagents -p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate and N-ethylmaleimide - had no influence on the activity of "slow" phosphatases. "Middle" and "fast" phosphatases, in contrast to "slow" ones, were not inactivated by 3 chelators. The "middle" phosphatase differed from the "fast" one by smaller resistance to urea, Ca2+, Mn2+, phosphates and H2O2 and greater resistance to dithiothreitol and L-(+)-tartrate. In addition, the "fast" phosphatase was inhibited by L-cysteine but the "middle" one was activated by it. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+), only Zn2+ reactivated "slow" phosphatases after their inactivation by EDTA treatment. The reactivation of apoenzyme was only partial (about 35 %). Thus, among phosphatases found in amoebae at pH 9.0, only "slow" ones are Zn-metalloenzymes and may be considered as alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1). It still remains uncertain, to which particular phosphatase class "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may belong.

  16. Life cycle assessment of three different management options for spent alkaline batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The potential environmental impact of Landfilling, Incineration and Recycling of spent household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal was compared using LCA methodology and the Recipe Impact Assessment method. Major contributors and improvement opportunities for each system were identified and scenarios for 2012 and 2016 legislation targets were evaluated. For 13 out of the 18 impact categories, the Recycling system is the worst alternative, Incineration is the worst option for 4 and Landfill is the worst option only for one impact category. However if additionally in each system the recovery of materials and energy is taken into account there is a noticeable advantage of the Recycling system for all the impact categories. The environmental profiles for 2012 and 2016 scenarios (25% and 45% recycling rates, respectively) show the dominance of the Recycling system for most of the impact categories. Based on the results of this study, it is questioned whether there are environmental benefits of recycling abroad the household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal and, since the low environmental performance of the Recycling system is particularly due to the international transport of the batteries to the recycling plant, is foreseen that a recycling facility located in Portugal, could bring a positive contribution to the environmental impact of the legislation compliance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors of influenza transmission in households

    OpenAIRE

    Viboud, Cécile; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Cauchemez, Simon; Lavenu, Audrey; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Flahault, Antoine; Carrat, Fabrice

    2004-01-01

    Background: Influenza transmission in households is a subject of renewed interest, as the vaccination of children is currently under debate and antiviral treatments have been approved for prophylactic use.

  18. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  19. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  20. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  1. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component (HC) collects data from a sample of families and individuals in selected communities across the...

  2. Households' ICT use in an energy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2008-01-01

    by considering ICT in an energy perspective. In particular, the paper focuses on the integration of ICT in households and the energy impacts related to changing everyday practices. As this has not received much attention in previous research, the paper has an explorative character. Firstly, the paper reviews...... some of the previous studies on ICT and energy and the consumption perspective is introduced. Secondly, the integration of ICT in everyday practices and the dynamics behind the changes are outlined, inspired by a historical perspective. Thirdly, a figure of the relationships between changing everyday...... practices and the related energy impacts is presented, followed by descriptions of direct energy consumption related to household ICT, indirect energy consumption outside households, and derived impacts both within and outside households. The paper concludes with some remarks on political implications...

  3. ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-31

    Mar 31, 2012 ... reducing interest rate on loans for crop production as well as ... Keywords: Climate change, vulnerability, farming households .... tolerant and or resistant to temperature stresses as .... Coping strategy is an adjustment or self.

  4. Policy Analytics, Household Informedness and the Collection of Household Hazardous Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim-Wavde Kustini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper collection of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW is an important action to support environmental sustainability. We investigate the role of household informedness, the degree to which households have the necessary information to make utility-maximizing decisions, as they relate to participation in HHW collection programs. We find two factors that influence household informedness: the provision of public education about HHW and environmental quality information. We conducted an empirical study on HHW collection in California to obtain statistical evidence on the effect of these factors on the amount of HHW collected. The findings of this policy analytics study improve our understanding of how household informedness influences household decision-making in participating in HHW collection programs. This study is useful in the guidance it offers to devise new information policies to maximize households’ participation in HHW collection program.

  5. Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.

  6. Household Water Purification: Low-Cost Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, VK; Bhalwar, R

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that improving the microbiological quality of household water by point-of-use treatment reduces diarrhoea and other waterborne diseases. The most promising and accessible of the technologies for household water treatment are filtration with ceramic filters, chlorination with storage in an improvised vessel, solar disinfection in clear bottles by the combined action of UV radiation and heat, thermal disinfection (pasteurization) in opaque vessels with sunlight from ...

  7. The World Distribution of Household Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    James B. Davies; Sandström, Susanna; Shorrocks, Anthony; Wolff, Edward N.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much recent research on the world distribution of income, but also growing recognition of the importance of other contributions to well-being, including those of household wealth. Wealth is important in providing security and opportunity, particularly in poorer countries that lack full social safety nets and adequate facilities for borrowing and lending. We find, however, that it is precisely in the latter countries where household wealth is the lowest, both in absolute and rel...

  8. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bing, X

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than that of virgin plastics. Therefore, it is environmentally and economically beneficial to improve the plastic recycling system to ensure more plastic waste from households is properly collected and pr...

  9. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies have the potential to significantly reduce household electricity consumption. But adoption of many technologies has been slow. This paper employs a unique dataset of German households to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The 'rebound' effect of increased light luminosity during the transition to energy efficie...

  10. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  11. Uptake of arsenic by alkaline soils near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Amid P; Theis, Thomas L; Murarka, Ishwar P; Naithani, Pratibha; Babaeivelni, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    The attenuation of arsenic in groundwater near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities was evaluated by determining the uptake of arsenic from ash leachates by surrounding alkaline soils. Ten different alkaline soils near a retired coal fly ash impoundment were used in this study with pH ranging from 7.6 to 9.0, while representative coal fly ash samples from two different locations in the coal fly ash impoundment were used to produce two alkaline ash leachates with pH 7.4 and 8.2. The arsenic found in the ash leachates was present as arsenate [As(V)]. Adsorption isotherm experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption parameters required for predicting the uptake of arsenic from the ash leachates. For all soils and leachates, the adsorption of arsenic followed the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, indicative of the favorable adsorption of arsenic from leachates onto all soils. The uptake of arsenic was evaluated as a function of ash leachate characteristics and the soil components. The uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates, which occurred mainly as calcium hydrogen arsenate, increased with increasing clay fraction of soil and with increasing soil organic matter of the alkaline soils. Appreciable uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates with different pH and arsenic concentration was observed for the alkaline soils, thus attenuating the contamination of groundwater downstream of the retired coal fly ash impoundment.

  12. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Birkemoe, Tone; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben

    2011-09-01

    Head lice prevalence varies greatly between and within countries, and more knowledge is needed to approach causes of this variation. In the present study, we investigated head lice prevalence among elementary school students and their households in relation to individual and household characteristics as well as spatial variables. The investigation included households from 5 geographically separated municipalities. Present infestations among household members as well as previous infestations in the household were reported in a questionnaire. In elementary school students prevalence was low (1·63%), but more than one-third of the households (36·43%) had previously experienced pediculosis. Prevalence was higher in elementary school students than in other household members, and highest in third-grade children. Prevalence was also influenced by the school attended, which suggested that interactions between children in the same school are important for head lice transmission. Previous occurrence of head lice in homes also increased the risk of present infestation. Prevalence of previous infestations was higher in households with more children and in more densely populated municipalities, indicating that the density of hosts or groups of hosts influences transmission rates. These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics.

  13. Synergistic effects of carboxymethyl cellulose and ZnO as alkaline electrolyte additives for aluminium anodes with a view towards Al-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2016-12-01

    The synergistic effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been investigated as alkaline electrolyte additives for the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode in aluminium-air battery by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of CMC and ZnO effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. A complex film is formed via the interaction between CMC and Zn2+ ions on the alloy surface. The carboxyl groups adsorbed on the surface of aluminium make the protective film more stable. The cathodic reaction process is mainly suppressed significantly. AA5052 alloy electrode has a good discharge performance in the applied electrolyte containing the composite CMC/ZnO additives.

  14. Impressions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Group Cohesion: A Case for a Nonspecific Factor Predicting Later AA Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samara Lloyd; Tonigan, J Scott

    2012-01-04

    Social support for abstinence in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been reported to be a consistent factor accounting for AA benefit. However, the nonspecific or unintended effects of such support remain poorly understood and rarely investigated. This prospective study investigated how one nonspecific factor-perceived AA group cohesiveness-predicted increased practice of AA-related behaviors. Findings indicated that impressions of AA group cohesion predicted increased AA attendance, the practice of prescribed AA activities, and self-reported AA usefulness. It appears that a sense of belongingness predicts subsequent engagement in the AA social network that, in turn, is predictive of increased abstinence.

  15. Insights from the genome of a high alkaline cellulase producing Aspergillus fumigatus strain obtained from Peruvian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sujay; Zhang, Angel; Ludeña, Yvette; Villena, Gretty K; Yu, Fengan; Sherman, David H; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel

    2017-06-10

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a high alkaline cellulase producing Aspergillus fumigatus strain LMB-35Aa isolated from soil of Peruvian Amazon rainforest. The genome is ∼27.5mb in size, comprises of 228 scaffolds with an average GC content of 50%, and is predicted to contain a total of 8660 protein-coding genes. Of which, 6156 are with known function; it codes for 607 putative CAZymes families potentially involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Several important cellulose degrading genes, such as endoglucanase A, endoglucanase B, endoglucanase D and beta-glucosidase, are also identified. The genome of A. fumigatus strain LMB-35Aa represents the first whole sequenced genome of non-clinical, high cellulase producing A. fumigatus strain isolated from forest soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Household Fuel Use and Fuel Switching in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Household fuel choice in the past, has often been analyzed and understood through the lens of the energy ladder model. This model places relatively heavy emphasis on household fuel switching in response to rising incomes. This report views energy use through a household economics framework. The household economics framework clarifies that, in addition to income and market prices, the oppor...

  17. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  18. Chemical Associations of Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel and Zinc in Household Dust of Kathmandu Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Raj Shakya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust samples were collected from roadside houses of seven major locations in Kathmandu metropolitan area and trace element compositions was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Results show significant concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd in the test household dusts as compared to the undisturbed (control area. The mean concentrations of all the studied locations were found to be 76.2 mg/kg for Zn, 40.6 mg/kg for Pb, 29.9 mg/kg for Cr, 23.9 mg/kg for Ni and 8.2 mg/kg for Cd, respectively. Increase in these trace metals in the dust can most likely be attributed to rapid urbanization, increased vehicle emissions to the atmosphere and other anthropogenic sources. Elevated Zn abundance in household dust probably originates from traffic sources. Besides, enrichment factor reveals that the household dust was most severely affected by Cd in almost all the locations. Also, correlations between metal levels in dust samples for all the metals were investigated.

  19. Some durability aspects of hybrid alkaline cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatello S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blended cements that contain a high content of fly ash and a low content of Portland cement typically suffer from low early strength development and long setting times. Recently, one method of overcoming these problems has been to use an alkali activator to enhance the reactivity of fly ash particles at early ages. Such cements can be grouped under the generic term “hybrid alkaline cements”, where both cement clinker and fly ash, encouraged by the presence of alkalis, are expected to contribute to cementitious gel formation. The work presented here examines some of the durability aspects of high fly ash content hybrid alkaline cement. Specifically, the aspects investigated were: exposure at high temperatures (up to 1000°C, resistance to immersion in aggressive solutions and susceptibility to the alkali aggregate reaction. All tests were repeated with a commercially available sulfate resistant Portland cement for comparison. When exposed to high temperatures, the hybrid alkaline cement showed strikingly different behaviour compared to the control Portland cement, showing fewer micro-cracks and maintaining residual compressive strengths at least equal to original strengths. Beyond 700°C, the hybrid alkaline cement began to sinter, which resulted in shrinkage of around 5% and a 100% increase in residual compressive strengths. No such sintering event was noted in the control Portland cement, which showed a drastic loss in residual compressive strengths upon heating. In immersion tests, the hybrid alkaline cement possessed excellent resistance to sulfate and seawater attack, similar to the control sulfate resistant cement. Both cements were however severely degraded by immersion in 0.1M HCl for 90 days. Both binders complied with the accelerated alkali-aggregate test but when this test was extended, the hybrid alkaline binder showed much greater dimensional stability. Possible reasons for the differences in durability behaviour in both cements

  20. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Aravinda; S M Mayanna; V R Muralidharan

    2000-10-01

    A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the deposition of copper involves the slow formation of a monovalent species. Adsorption of this species obeys Langmuir isotherm. In TEA solutions the deposition involves the formation of monovalent ions obeying the non-activated Temkin isotherm. Conversion of divalent to monovalent copper is also slow. In TEA and TSC alkaline copper solutions, the predominant species that undergo stepwise reduction contain only TEA ligands

  1. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  2. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Cunnyngham; Beth Brown

    2004-01-01

    Summarizes the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 21.3 million people received food stamps each month in 2003. A little more than half of all food stamp households contained children, and most of these households were headed by a single parent. About 18 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $195 per household. Compared with 2002, the number of pr...

  3. Household vulnerability to climate change: examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, F.; Koedam, A.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article examines household perceptions of flooding as part of climate change in two low elevation coastal zone cities in the Caribbean. The research examines differences in vulnerability of households as the combined results of socio-economic inequalities in entitlements and exposure to natural

  4. A household production model of paid labor, household work and child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we use data on time allocation of women to estimate the value of market and non-market work. Four time use categories are distinguished: paid work, household work, care for children, and leisure. The estimation results show that the value of non-market production (household production

  5. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  6. Household extension and reproductive behaviour in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, C S; LeClere, F B; Hsieh, Y S

    1987-07-01

    The inflence of household type on reproductive behavior is examined for a national probability sample of Taiwanese women. Data were derived from a 1980 national household survey of the labor force in Taiwan, focusing on 10,624 couples. Reproductive variables include measures of current and prospective fertility as well as cumulative fertility. In spite of remarkable social and economic development over the past 3 decades, extended families are still widely found in Taiwan. Women in extended households have only slightly higher fertility preferences and current fertility than women in nuclear families once marital duration is controlled. Although women in extended households marry earlier and receive more family help with child care than women in nuclear families, such factors are no longer considered sufficient to produce major differentials in reproductive behavior. Residence and husband's class of work are the strongest correlates of whether a household is currently extended or nuclear. In general, the husband's characteristics are more strongly related to family type than the wife's. Findings suggest that preferences for smaller families and low fertility need not await a transformation to a nuclear family structue.

  7. Unequal household carbon footprints in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Zhu; Meng, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Households' carbon footprints are unequally distributed among the rich and poor due to differences in the scale and patterns of consumption. We present distributional focused carbon footprints for Chinese households and use a carbon-footprint-Gini coefficient to quantify inequalities. We find that in 2012 the urban very rich, comprising 5% of population, induced 19% of the total carbon footprint from household consumption in China, with 6.4 tCO2/cap. The average Chinese household footprint remains comparatively low (1.7 tCO2/cap), while those of the rural population and urban poor, comprising 58% of population, are 0.5-1.6 tCO2/cap. Between 2007 and 2012 the total footprint from households increased by 19%, with 75% of the increase due to growing consumption of the urban middle class and the rich. This suggests that a transformation of Chinese lifestyles away from the current trajectory of carbon-intensive consumption patterns requires policy interventions to improve living standards and encourage sustainable consumption.

  8. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  9. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2016-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  10. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  11. The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  12. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  13. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not appare...

  14. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  15. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management.

  16. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  17. Alkaline Hydrolysis Conversion of Nitrocellulose Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The conversion of 1,125,000 pounds of bone-dry nitrocellulose fines into a liquid fertilizer was documented. Alkaline hydrolysis was the conversion... fertilizer . Fertilizer nutrient value was 1.3% nitrogen (N), 8.0% potassium (K2O) and 0.9% phosphorus (P2O5). Conversion met all applicable federal and state safety and environmental regulations.

  18. Delignification of biomass using alkaline glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucuk, M. [YYU Educational Facility, Van (Turkey)

    2005-10-15

    Ailanthus altissima and Spruce orientalis chips were delignified by using glycerol as a solvent and alkaline-gliycerol with and without catalyst at different temperatures (438, 458, 478, and 498 K) in atmospheric pressure, and results were compared with the other organic solvent systems. (Author)

  19. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  20. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  1. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  2. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  3. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...... such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives...

  4. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  5. Human Capital Diversification within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    Lack of primary schooling among rural children in developing countries is often attributed to credit constraints and household demand for child labour, implying that direct and indirect costs of schooling are high. Surprisingly few studies have considered the importance of parents' expected returns...... of investing in their childrens human capital, despite the fact that most parents rely on their children for old-age support and subsistence. In this paper, I propose an alternative model for human capital investment based on the household, rather than the individual child, incorporating the fact that parents...... bear the costs of educating all their children and face uncertainty about the level and share of future returns. This uncertainty can make it optimal for parents to ensure a certain degree of human capital diversification within the household. The model implications allow me to test whether...

  6. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  7. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  8. Analysis of household energy demand in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Anh Tuan; Lefevre, T. [Institut d`Economie et de Politique de l`Energie, Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-01

    An analysis of household energy consumption in four Vietnamese provinces, Hanoi, Maitay, Haihung and Vinhphu, showed that each province exhibited different energy use patterns but these differences are in a relatively narrow range within urban or rural areas. However, there are big contrasts between rural areas due to availability of resources and income. Coal accounts for 41% of the total energy consumption and fuelwood for 26%, the remainder being kerosene and agricultural residues. Energy consumption for cooking and pigfeed accounts for 91% of total energy use. Households with better incomes are tending to switch from biomass to `modern` fuels with biomass playing a limited role in most urban households. Energy used for cooking was found to increase less readily than income. 21 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs., 1 app.

  9. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  10. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  11. The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy...

  12. Recent Alkaline Lakes: Clues to Understanding the Evolution of Early Planetary Alkaline Oceans and Biogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kazmierczak, J.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract New models suggest that terrestrial weathering consumes 0.26GtC/a (72% silicate-, 28% carbonateweathering), equivalent to a loss of one atmospheric C content every 3700a. Rapid weathering leads in volcanic areas to alkaline conditions, illustrated by the crater lake of Niuafo`ou/Tonga and Lake Van/Turkey, the largest soda lake on Earth. Alkaline conditions cause high CaCO3 supersaturation, permineralization of algal mats and growth of stromatolites. Alkaline conditions can nearly depress free [Ca2+] to levels necessary for proteins to function. Therefore early oceans on Earth (and possibly on Mars) should have been alkaline (i.e. "Soda Oceans"). Recent findings of MgSO4 in top soils on Mars may be misleading about the early history of martian oceans.

  13. Household and Small Business Across the Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Households, which are seen as income pooling units (Wallerstein, Martin, Dickinson 1982, play a crucial role in the world-system analysis. Individuals enjoy income that accrues to their households, a unit embedded in a network of different social relationships among people, kin or not kin, living under the same roof or sharing some important living function. Thus, social relations are seen as ways of obtaining different types of income (wages, rent, pro?t, social exchange, gifts and ways of ensuring different welfare services.

  14. Recent advances of pyrethroids for household use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Kazuya; Mori, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Noritada

    2012-01-01

    Development of pyrethroids for household use and recent advances in the syntheses of (1R)-trans-chrysanthemic acid, the acid moiety of most of the household pyrethroids, are reviewed. As another important acid moiety, we discovered norchrysanthemic acid to have a significant vapor action at room temperature when esterified with fluorobenzyl alcohols. In particular, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methoxymethylbenzyl (1R)-trans-norchrysanthemate (metofluthrin) exhibits the highest potency in mosquito coil formulations as well as the vapor action at room temperature against various mosquitoes. Structure-activity relationships of norchrysanthemic acid esters and synthetic studies of norchrysanthemic acid are discussed.

  15. Human Capital Diversification within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    bear the costs of educating all their children and face uncertainty about the level and share of future returns. This uncertainty can make it optimal for parents to ensure a certain degree of human capital diversification within the household. The model implications allow me to test whether...... it is the need for diversification or the costs of schooling that dominate the human capital investment decision in rural households. Using extraordinary long panel data from a rural region in Northwestern Tanzania, I find strong empirical evidence of diversification effects for rural sons, but not for rural...

  16. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is

  17. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  18. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.;

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  19. AAS 228: Day 3 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Wikipedia Year of Science Editathon (by Meredith Rawls)Whats your first go-to source for an unfamiliar topic on the internet? If you said Wikipedia, youre not alone. For many people, Wikipedia is the primary source of information about astronomy and science. However, many Wikipedia articles about science topics are incomplete or missing, and women are underrepresented among scientists with biographies.To address this, the AAS Astronomy Education Board teamed up with the Wiki Education Foundation to host an edit-a-thon as part of the Wikipedia Year of Science. More than forty attendees spent the better part of three hours working through tutorials, creating new articles, and editing existing ones. The session was generously sponsored by the Simons Foundation.The Year of Science initiative seeks to bring Wikipedia editing skills to the classroom and help new editors find sustainable ways to contribute to Wikipedia in the long term. Anybody can create a free account and start editing!As a first-time Wikipedia contributor, I took the time to go through nearly all the tutorial exercises and familiarize myself with the process of editing a page. I decided to flesh out one section in an existing page about asteroseismology. Others created biography pages from scratch or selected various astronomical topics to write about. To me, the editing process felt like a cross between writing a blog post and a journal article, in a hack day type environment. Working through the tutorial and some examples renewed my empathy for learners who are tackling a new skill set for the first time. A full summary of our

  20. Personal exposure to household particulate matter, household activities and heart rate variability among housewives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between indoor air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV has been well-documented. Little is known about effects of household activities on indoor air quality and HRV alteration. To investigate changes in HRV associated with changes in personal exposure to household particulate matter (PM and household activities. METHODS: We performed 24-h continuous monitoring of electrocardiography and measured household PM exposure among 50 housewives. The outcome variables were log10-transformed standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN intervals (SDNN and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD. Household PM was measured as the mass concentration of PM with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5. We used mixed-effects models to examine the association between household PM2.5 exposure and log10-transformed HRV indices. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounders, an interquartile range change in household PM2.5 with 1- to 4-h mean was associated with 1.25-4.31% decreases in SDNN and 0.12-3.71% decreases in r-MSSD. Stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense may increase household PM2.5 concentrations and modify the effects of household PM2.5 on HRV indices among housewives. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased SDNN and r-MSSD among housewives, especially during stir-frying, cleaning with detergent and burning incense.

  1. [Leucocyte alkaline phosphatase in normal and pathological pregnancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, K H; Zaki, I; Sobolewski, K

    1981-01-01

    The activities of leucocyte alkaline phosphatase were determined in 511 patients with normal and pathological pregnancy. Mean values were compared and the enzyme followed up, and the conclusion was drawn that leucocyte alkaline phosphatase was no safe indicator of foetal condition. No direct relationship were found to exist between leucocyte alkaline phosphatase, total oestrogens, HSAP, HLAP, HPL, and oxytocinase.

  2. Handbook in nonresponse in household surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.G.; Cobben, F.; Schouten, B.

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents an all-inclusive guide to the problem of nonresponse in household surveys, providing an overview of the theory while also describing practical implications. The book begins with a general overview of the nonresponse problem, outlining existing sources of error and guidelines for

  3. Inattention and Inertia in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Campbell, John Y.; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    This paper studies inattention to mortgage refinancing incentives among Danish households. Danish data are particularly suitable for this purpose because there are minimal barriers to refinancing, yet many borrowers fail to refinance optimally, and the characteristics of these borrowers can be ac...

  4. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  5. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  6. Prevalence of Hunger Declines in Rural Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark; Winicki, F. Joshua

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of hunger in rural households declined slightly from 1995 to 1998, and food insecurity rates stayed constant. Food insecurity was almost three times as prevalent among rural Blacks as among rural Whites. For rural Hispanics, the rate was about twice that of Whites. Food insecurity was higher in single-parent families than in any…

  7. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  8. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  9. Steps to Design a Household Energy Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dirk Fijnheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are implemented in a game design. From the review suggestions for the design of a new game have been identified, such as including real life missions in order to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world, feedback from monitoring the electricity meter, the presence of a strong storyline, personalized game characters, social interaction, etc. Based on this comparative analysis, the new game 'Powersaver Game' focused on reducing energy consumption has been designed and its prototype is described. In the next stage of iterative design, end-users evaluated the match between in-game scenes and household energy saving activities. This considerate user-centered design process should allow us to build a serious game that is potentially effective in reducing household energy consumption. 

  10. Household Biogas Digesters—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review is a summary of different aspects of the design and operation of small-scale, household, biogas digesters. It covers different digester designs and materials used for construction, important operating parameters such as pH, temperature, substrate, and loading rate, applications of the biogas, the government policies concerning the use of household digesters, and the social and environmental effects of the digesters. Biogas is a value-added product of anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. Biogas production depends on different factors including: pH, temperature, substrate, loading rate, hydraulic retention time (HRT, C/N ratio, and mixing. Household digesters are cheap, easy to handle, and reduce the amount of organic household waste. The size of these digesters varies between 1 and 150 m3. The common designs include fixed dome, floating drum, and plug flow type. Biogas and fertilizer obtained at the end of anaerobic digestion could be used for cooking, lighting, and electricity.

  11. Himalayan Households, Tamang Demography and Domestic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prasad Sapkota

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomes E. Fricke 1981, Himalayan Households, Tamang Demography and Domestic Process, Book Faith India, 1993 ( pp 227 Price 300 Rs DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v3i0.2789 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.3 2009 201-206

  12. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  13. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  14. Dynamic Stock Market Participation of Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia

    education programs can affect consumers’ investment decisions. Using household data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, I estimate the magnitude of the participation cost, allowing for individual heterogeneity in it. The results show the average stock market articipation cost is about 5% of labor...

  15. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  16. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of rising food prices and coping strategies of 60 female-headed households ... systematic review.8 The rise in food prices will most likely result in a reduction in ... risk of chronic diseases, which was in contrast to lower diet costs associated with ... approach requires diversification into many sources of food as well as building ...

  17. Hazardous household waste management in Vinnytsia region

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Vitalii; Petruk, Roman; Kozak, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes hazardous household waste, including detergents, paints, adhesives, expired medicines, luminescent lamps, pesticides, fertilizers, batteries and accumulators, electrical and electronic waste, mercury-containing materials. Research shows that they contain a large quantity of dangerous and toxic substances (compounds of heavy metals, chlorinated polymers, aromatic hydrocarbons, surfactants, etc.), which pose a significant risk to the environment and ...

  18. Labor Laws Affecting Private Household Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Wages and working conditions for private household workers have not kept pace with other occupations, partly because of lack of coverage by labor laws. This pamphlet describes the protection available to domestics under both federal and state laws. Not only wages and hours, but also coverage by Unemployment Compensation, Workmen's Compensation,…

  19. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than

  20. Household energy isn't all stoves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    When people talk about 'household energy', most people automatically think of stoves. A lot of attention has been paid to improving stoves to make them more energy efficient and to reduce their pollution. This is one side of the 'stoves' approach, whilst others look at the 'supply' side of the probl

  1. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  2. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  3. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  4. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  5. So exactly what is a "household"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, D

    2000-07-01

    The huge increase in HIV/AIDS in southern Africa has disrupted family life and the means of making a living. This has made Oxfam examine its definitions of a ¿household¿ and changed the kind of support it had given people affected by HIV/AIDS. It is shown that there are more than 23 million HIV-positive people living in southern Africa; nearly 70% of global cases in a region which has only 10% of the global population. When chronic illness and death strikes, the composition of a household change dramatically and affects the roles of household members. It is usually the women who have to cope with the increased burden of caring for the sick, and take the greater responsibility of earning money and providing food. Also, girls often take over the roles of their sick mothers and care for other family members and are taken out of school to save money on school expenses so that they can provide care for the sick. In view of this, Oxfam has been working to incorporate a gender analysis and pays more attention to gender roles in both male- and female-headed households.

  6. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste” PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower than th

  7. Distributed Coordination of Household Electricity Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Teixeira, Andre; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a distributed framework for coordination of flexible electricity consumption for a number of households in the distribution grid. We conduct coordination with the purpose of minimizing a trade-off between individual concerns about discomfort and electricity cost, on the one hand...

  8. Rapid dipstick detection of Vibrio cholerae in household stored and municipal water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: CHoBI7 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Rahman, Zillur; Burrowes, Vanessa; Perin, Jamie; Mustafiz, Munshi; Monira, Shirajum; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Sack, R Bradley; Sack, David; Alam, Munirul; George, Christine Marie

    2017-02-01

    In urban Dhaka, Bangladesh, 30% of source water samples collected from the households of patients with cholera had detectable Vibrio cholerae. These findings indicate an urgent need for a public health intervention for this population. The Crystal VC(®) dipstick test is a rapid method for detecting V. cholerae in stool and water. However, to date no study has investigated the use of the rapid dipstick test for household surveillance of stored drinking water. The efficacy of the Crystal VC(®) dipstick test for detecting V. cholerae in the Dhaka city municipal water supply and stored household drinking water sources after enrichment for 18 h in alkaline peptone water (APW) was compared to bacterial culture as the gold standard. A total of 1648 water samples (824 stored household drinking water samples and 824 municipal water supply samples) were collected from households of patients with cholera. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the dipstick test compared to bacterial culture was 99.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 99.2%, 99.9%) and 65.6% (95% CI: 55.2%, 75%), respectively. The specificities for stored household drinking water and Dhaka city municipal supply water compared to bacterial culture were 99.8% (95% CI: 99.1%, 100%) and 99.5% (95% CI: 98.6%, 99.9%), respectively (P = 0.138), and the sensitivities were 66.7% (95% CI: 43.0%, 85.4%) and 65.3% (95% CI: 53.5%, 76.0%), respectively (P = 0.891). The Crystal VC(®) dipstick is a promising screening tool for cholera outbreak surveillance in resource-limited settings where elimination of false-positive results is critical. The lower than expected sensitivity should be further investigated in future studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Economic Nature of Monetary Funds of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Glukhov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a market economy, household is characterized by the situation in which its members become owners of their tangible and intangible assets or are only declared to be them. Many provisions of the macroeconomy could change significantly if the issues of household and family finances were paid as much attention as economic problems of the state and entities. Finance households are an economic basis for the state and for business entities of different ownership forms, because they are managed by people who are part of families representing the interests of certain individuals. The issues of formation and distribution of Russian households’ intra-cash assets, including shadow ones, are now one of the most topical issues, not only in theory but also in practice of economic science. And at the same time these issues remain virtually unexplored. Social risk of intra-family shadow funds consists in the fact that the models of economic behavior acquired by the individual in the household are transferred to an external social field, and implemented according to the occupied power status. Shadow monetary funds created in the household represent part of the money which is derived from the family budget, and they imply the existence of latent side of financial relations among its members. The purpose of this article is studying the mеchanisms of decision-making on the establishment of both collective and individual monetary funds within the family budget, including the shadow funds (so-called “zanachkа” of individuals, not accounted for in the family budget.

  10. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  11. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  12. Alkaline phosphatase of Physarum polycephalum is insoluble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    The plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum grow as multinucleated cells in the presence of sufficient humidity and nutriment. Under non-illuminating conditions, stresses such as low temperature or high concentrations of salts transform the plasmodia into spherules whereas dehydration induces sclerotization. Some phosphatases including protein phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been purified from the plasmodia, but alkaline phosphatase remains to be elucidated. Phosphatase of the plasmodia, spherules and sclerotia was visualized by electrophoresis gel-staining assay using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Insoluble fractions of the sclerotia were abundant in phosphatase activity. The phosphatase which was extracted by nonionic detergent was subjected to column chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. Purified phosphatase showed the highest activity at pH 8.8, indicating that this enzyme belongs to alkaline phosphatase. The apparent molecular mass from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing condition was estimated to be 100 kDa whereas that under reducing was 105 kDa. An amount of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.5 M NaCl had no effects on the activity although the phosphatase showed heat instability, Mg(2+)-dependency and sensitivity to 2-glycerophosphate or NaF. The extracting conditions and enzymatic properties suggest that this alkaline phosphatase which is in a membrane-bound form plays important roles in phosphate metabolism.

  13. Can the 'African household' be presented meaningfully in large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    households, namely by comparing it with a simplified model of Western households, and that clear-cut ... advantages and disadvantages of qualitative and quantitative research. One of .... misconstructions of 'African traditions'. The conjugal ...

  14. Quantifying within-household transmission of ESBL-producing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, Manon R; Platteel, Tamara N; Fluit, A C; Cohen Stuart, James W; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Thijsen, Steven F T; Scharringa, J.; Kloosterman, Fieke R C; Bonten, Marc J M; Bootsma, Martin C J

    OBJECTIVES: Patients can acquire extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae during hospitalisation and colonised patients may transmit these bacteria after discharge, most likely to household contacts. In this study, ESBL transmission was quantified in households. METHODS:

  15. Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... of socio-economic, household and child-related factors on the nutritional status of ...

  16. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  17. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigum, Marianne, E-mail: mkkb@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus, E-mail: claus_petersen@econet.dk [Econet A/S, Strandboulevarden 122, 5, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H., E-mail: thho@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  18. High-rate capability of zinc anodes in alkaline primary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Jean-Yves; Malservisi, Martin

    This work is devoted to the electrochemical aspects of high-power testing of primary alkaline LR6 ("AA") cells and to the factors influencing cell performance, namely the corresponding zinc anode behaviour under such high-rate conditions. The influence of the high-rate testing regime, such as the discharge mode and the end-potential, on zinc utilisation in alkaline cells has been monitored and its behaviour has been isolated by means of a pseudo-reference electrode. As anticipated, anode formulation, including zinc alloy composition and size distribution, is found to affect the cell's discharge curve and the corresponding zinc electrode potential and utilisation. The effects of these parameters on the discharge curve are discussed in terms of three stages of discharge. Finally, the high-rate capability of commercial LR6 cells is analysed in terms of zinc anode formulation. It was concluded that zinc electrode polarisation is very small and is relatively independent of manufacturer, of zinc anode formulation and of zinc alloying. On the other hand, metallic zinc utilisation remains very low under high-rate conditions.

  19. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  20. Seasonal variation of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper analysed the influence of seasonal variation in the generation of the Danish household food waste. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted into six food waste fractions. Vegetable food wastes were the main fraction contributing to the household food waste. Statistical...... analysis showed a significant relationship between avoidable food waste and household size. However, there were no significant seasonal differences in the amount of avoidable food waste....

  1. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  2. Characteristics of Food Stamp Households: Fiscal Year 2002 (Professional Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Faux; Randy Rosso; Daisy Ewell

    2003-01-01

    Provides summary information about the demographic and economic circumstances of food stamp households. On average, about 19 million people received food stamps each month in 2002. About 54 percent of all food stamp households contained children, and most were single-parent households. About 19 percent of food stamp households contained an elderly person, and a quarter contained someone with a disability. Although benefit amounts varied quite a bit, the average monthly benefit was $173 per ho...

  3. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  4. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  5. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg

  6. Towards sustainable household energy use in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, J; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Households consume direct energy, using natural gas, heating oil, gasoline and electricity, and consume indirect energy, the energy related to the production of goods and the delivery of services for the households. Past trends and present-day household energy use (direct and indirect) are analysed

  7. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of…

  8. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  9. Household Expenditures on Private Tutoring: Emerging Evidence from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Private tutoring has been a burgeoning phenomenon in Malaysia for decades. This study examines the determinants of private tutoring expenditures in Malaysia using the 2004/2005 Household Expenditures Survey and applies hurdle regression models to the data. The results indicate that total household expenditures, household head's level of education,…

  10. Utilization of Household Sewage Sludge in Brick making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Household sewage sludge is a kind of solid waste produced in sewage purifying at sewage farm. in procedure of water purifying, which can be used as raw material for producing fired brick. This article compares the chemical composition between household sewage sludge and clay, and explores two kinds of production process for making brick with Household sewage sludge.

  11. Breakup of New Orleans Households after Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and evidence on disaster-induced population displacement have focused on individual and population-subgroup characteristics. Less is known about impacts on households. I estimate excess incidence of household breakup resulting from Hurricane Katrina by comparing a probability sample of pre-Katrina New Orleans resident adult household heads…

  12. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but...

  13. Taxation and the household saving rate: evidence from OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Tanzi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes anew the relationship between taxation and the household saving rate. On the basis of standard savings and tax revenue data from a sample of OECD countries, it provides compelling empirical evidence of a powerful impact of taxes on household savings. In particular, income taxes are shown to affect negatively the household saving rate much more than consumption taxes.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  15. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant.

  16. Friction Stir Weldabilities of AA1050-H24 and AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijie LIU; Hidetoshi FUJIN; Masakatsu MAEDA; Kiyoshi NOGI

    2005-01-01

    The friction stir weldabilities of the strain-hardened AA1050-H24 and precipitate-hardened AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys were examined to reveal the effects of material properties on the friction stir welding behavior. The experimental results are obtlained. (1) For AA1050-H24, the weld can possess smoother surface ripples; there is no elliptical weld nugget in the weld; there is no discernible interface between the stir zone and the thermomechanically affected zone;and the internal defect of the weld looks like a long crack and is located in the lower part of the weld. (2) For AA6061-T6, the weld usually possesses slightly rougher surface ripples; an elliptical weld nugget clearly exists in the weld; there are discernible interfaces among the weld nugget, thermomechanically affected zone and heat affected zone; and the internal defect of the weld is similar to that of the AA1050-H24 weld. (3) The effective range of welding parameters for AA1050-H24 is narrow, while the one for AA6061-T6 is very wide. (4) The maximum tensile strength efficiency of the AA1050-H24 joints is similar to that of the AA6061-T6 joints, i.e. 79% and 77%, respectively.

  17. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding: Buffering at intermediate alkaline pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J.; Wasan, D.T. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The alkaline flooding process involves injecting alkaline agents into the reservoir to produce more oil than is produced through conventional waterflooding. The interaction of the alkali in the flood water with the naturally occurring acids in the reservoir oil results in in-situ formation of soaps, which are partially responsible for lowering IFT and improving oil recovery. The extent to which IFT is lowered depends on the specific oil and injection water properties. Numerous investigators have attempted to clarify the relationship between system chemical composition and IFT. An experimental investigation of buffered alkaline flooding system chemistry was undertaken to determine the influence of various species present on interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of pH and ionic strength. IFT was found to go through an ultralow minimum in certain pH ranges. This synergism results from simultaneous adsorption of un-ionized and ionized acid species on the interface.

  18. The power of alternative assessments (AAs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张千茜

    2013-01-01

    This article starts by discussing the potential disadvantages of traditional assessment towards young English as a Second Language (ESL) learners within the American public school education system. In response to such disadvantages, researchers ’call for the implementation of alternative assessments (AAs) is therefore introduced along with the various benefits of AAs. However, the current mainstream education policy in the US, namely No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Policy, is still largely based on the tra-ditional ways of testing, making policy-oriented implementation of AAs on large scales remarkably difficult. After careful analysis, the author points out several implications concerning how, under such an existing policy of NCLB, can practitioners effectively accommodate young ESL learners by applying the power of AAs.

  19. Measuring sustainability in households: Interpretations and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    consumption. It indicates that the residents “green behaviour” often are overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices often are rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are discussed in the light of Pierre Bourdieu’s “economy......The paper discusses the connection between “green behaviour” and the metering data of household consumption (electricity, heating, water), based on experiences on this from recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how everyday understandings of “green behaviour” are related to the overall household...... of symbolic goods” (Bourdieu, 1998) parallels are drawn between “green behaviour” and gift-giving. It is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of “selling” the green message...

  20. INDIGENOUS HOUSEHOLDS, REMITTANCES AND LIFE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio César Cruz Islas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migration to other countries, primarily United States, is a phenomenon that has been studied from different approaches. It is an important flow of people who, for decades, has left Mexico in search of employment opportunities and higher income. This is due to the weakness of opportunities structure present in Mexico, predominantly in rural areas, as well as budget constraints that prevent households to improve their living conditions. Remittances from other countries, in turn, are an alternative for families to address the lack of employment opportunities and income in their homeland, as well as life-deficit conditions. To see how remittances impact on living conditions of indigenous population, in this paper we analyze living conditions of indigenous households.

  1. Determinants of household energy consumption in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Krey, Volker; Pachauri, Shonali; Riahi, Keywan [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    Improving access to affordable modern energy is critical to improving living standards in the developing world. Rural households in India, in particular, are almost entirely reliant on traditional biomass for their basic cooking energy needs. This has adverse effects on their health and productivity, and also causes environmental degradation. This study presents a new generic modelling approach, with a focus on cooking fuel choices, and explores response strategies for energy poverty eradication in India. The modelling approach analyzes the determinants of fuel consumption choices for heterogeneous household groups, incorporating the effect of income distributions and traditionally more intangible factors such as preferences and private discount rates. The methodology is used to develop alternate future scenarios that explore how different policy mechanisms such as fuel subsidies and micro-financing can enhance the diffusion of modern, more efficient, energy sources in India. (author)

  2. Magnetic horn of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1988-01-01

    In the 1960s, the invention of this "current sheet lens" has helped to greatly improve the flux of neutrino beams. It was used again at the AA, collecting antiprotons from the production target at angles too large to fit into the acceptance of the AA. It was machined from aluminium to a thickness of 1.4 mm and pulsed at 400 kA for 15 microseconds (half-sine).

  3. Household Debt and Foreign Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Primiceri; Andrea Tambalotti; Alejandro Justiniano

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the macroeconomic effects of variations in household leverage in an open economy using a quantitative general equilibrium model. The framework features debt by borrowers limited to a fraction of the market value of their real estate holdings, which serve as collateral. Domestic and foreign savers supply funds through a domestic intermediation sector. The main objective of the study is to characterize the interaction between changes in the supply of foreign capital (the internationa...

  4. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD INSECTICIDE IN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Sih Joharina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most popular and effective vector control is the use of insecticides. Surveywas done in the houses and some supermarket to know many kind of insecticides usedby people. The formulation, active ingredients, and concentration were recorded andanalyzed. Based on the results of the survey, household insecticides formulated invarious formulations such as liquid, mosquito coils, aerosol, mat and liquid vaporizer,chalk and paper burn. In addition to formulation, active ingredients and concentrationalso vary. Almost all household insecticide products on the market using the syntheticpyrethroid. Selection of household insecticides should be adapted to the type of insectpests because each type of active ingredients and formulations have advantages anddisadvantages. Efficacy of various active ingredients in various formulations has beenstudied and the results vary widely. Insecticide efficacy is influenced by the type ofactive ingredient, dosage, concentration, formulation, and the susceptibility of insectspecies, temperature, sunlight, wind, and application method.Key word: household insecticide, insecticides formulation, active ingredientsABSTRAKPengendalian serangga vektor penyakit yang paling efektif dan populer adalahpenggunaan insektisida. Survei dilakukan di masyarakat dan supermarket untuk mengetahuijcnis-jenis insektisida yang digunakan oleh masyarakat. Berdasarkan hasil survei, insektisidarumah tangga terkemas dalam berbagai formulasi antara lain liquid, mosquito coil, aerosol, mat& liquid vaporizer, kapur serangga dan kertas bakar. Disamping formulasi, bahan aktif dankonsentrasi yang digunakan juga bermacam-macam. Hampir semua produk insektisida rumahtangga di pasaran menggunakan bahan aktif golongan piretroid sintetik. Pemilihan insektisidarumah tangga hendaknya disesuaikan dengan jenis serangga sasaran karena tiap jenis bahan aktifdan formulasi memiliki kelcbihan dan kekurangan. Efikasi berbagai bahan aktif dalam berbagaiformulasi telah

  6. Looking at women's poverty in poor households

    OpenAIRE

    Baysu, Gülseli

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the internal dynamics of women’s poverty, and how women experience and cope with poverty in poor households. It mainly deals with two points, one regarding the conceptualization of women’s poverty as content and context, and the other regarding the method of investigation. As for the former, women’s poverty is defined as unequal access to resources (social as well as material), responsibilities (particularly the one...

  7. Rising Food Insecurity: Dimensions in Farm Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okezie C. Austin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nigeria runs the risk of slowing further progress toward the achievement of MDG-1 to eradicate extreme hunger and poverty; the fourth goal, to reduce child mortality since over 30% of child deaths are attributable to malnutrition and the fifth goal relating to reduction in maternal mortality. This study evaluated the manifestation of food insecurity in households in Abia State, Nigeria. Approach: Systematic sampling was adopted in selecting households from the three geopolitical zones in the state. Primary and secondary data were used in the study. Data collection involved the use of structured questionnaires. Food intake, height and weight measures of children were taken Data analysis in involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Results: Domestic food production is increasing but demand remained above production. The shortfall along with food import is on the increase. The composite consumer price index for food has continued to rise over the years. Logistic results show that income significantly reduced exposure to food insecurity while household size was an important determinant of food security. Children were more exposed to the incidence of growth retardation and stunting with increasing household size. Birth order increases the incidence of stunting. As more children come into the family there is increasing marginalization of the subsequent ones. Conclusion: Food insecurity is a developmental challenge in Nigeria. The country is characterized by high food imports and declining productivity of agriculture. Malnutrition is widespread especially among children in rural Nigeria. The study recommends family planning education to stern the over bloated population.

  8. The sequential propensity household projection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The standard method of projecting living arrangements and households in Australia and New Zealand is the 'propensity model', a type of extended headship rate model. Unfortunately it possesses a number of serious shortcomings, including internal inconsistencies, difficulties in setting living arrangement assumptions, and very limited scenario creation capabilities. Data allowing the application of more sophisticated dynamic household projection models are unavailable in Australia. OBJECTIVE The aim was create a projection model to overcome these shortcomings whilst minimising input data requirements and costs, and retaining the projection outputs users are familiar with. METHODS The sequential propensity household projection model is proposed. Living arrangement projections take place in a sequence of calculations, with progressively more detailed living arrangement categories calculated in each step. In doing so the model largely overcomes the three serious deficiencies of the standard propensity model noted above. RESULTS The model is illustrated by three scenarios produced for one case study State, Queensland. They are: a baseline scenario in which all propensities are held constant to demonstrate the effects of population growth and ageing, a housing crisis scenario where housing affordability declines, and a prosperity scenario where families and individuals enjoy greater real incomes. A sensitivity analysis in which assumptions are varied one by one is also presented. CONCLUSIONS The sequential propensity model offers a more effective method of producing household and living arrangement projections than the standard propensity model, and is a practical alternative to dynamic projection models for countries and regions where the data and resources to apply such models are unavailable.

  9. Synthesis of Ethyl Salicylate Using Household Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sally; Hur, Chinhyu; Lee, Alan; Smith, Kurt

    1996-02-01

    Ethyl salicylate is synthesized, isolated, and characterized in a three-step process using simple equipment and household chemicals. First, acetylsalicylic acid is extracted from aspirin tablets with isopropyl alcohol, then hydrolyzed to salicylic acid with muriatic acid, and finally, the salicylic acid is esterified using ethanol and a boric acid catalyst. The experiment can be directed towards high school or university level students who have sufficient background in organic chemistry to recognize the structures and reactions that are involved.

  10. Anticipatory child fostering and household economic security in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Bachan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there is a rich literature on the practice of child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how fostering impacts receiving households, as few studies consider household conditions both before and after fostering. Despite the fact that circumstancessurrounding fostering vary, the literature's key distinction of fostering is often drawn along the simple line of whether or not a household is fostering a child. This paper argues that anticipation of fostering responsibilities, in particular, is a useful dimension to distinguish fostering experiences for receiving households. Objective: This paper examines the relationship between receiving a foster child and subsequent changes in household wealth. Particular emphasis is placed on how these changes are conditioned by differing levels of anticipation of the fostering event. Methods: This study uses data from Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT, a longitudinal survey in Balaka, Malawi. Using data from 1754 TLT respondents, fixed effects pooled time-series models are estimated to assess whether and how receiving a foster child changes household wealth. Results: This paper demonstrates the heterogeneity of fostering experiences for receiving households.The results show that households that anticipate fostering responsibilities experience a greater increase in household wealth than both households that do not foster and those that are surprised by fostering. Conclusions: Households that anticipate fostering responsibilities exhibit the greatest increase in householdwealth. While fostering households that do not anticipate fostering responsibilities may not experience these gains, there is no evidence to indicate that such households are negatively impacted relative to households that do not foster. This finding suggests that additional childcare responsibilities may not be as detrimental to African households as some researchers have feared.

  11. The effect of household income and seasonal price changes on household food expenditure patterns. A case study of Vihiga District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aritho, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of food price changes and relative household incomes on household food expenditure patterns in Kenya. Primary data on household budgets and monthly market prices for selected food items were collected in two agroecological zones of Vihiga

  12. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  13. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products and plant origin (vegetables, fruit waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all household waste used in this experiment was emitted by meat and fish waste (76 444 OUE/m3. Meat and fish waste emits the strongest odour as waste contains proteins, their decomposition releases into the environment a strong unpleasant odour, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Protein degradation releases into the environment are, characterized by a strong unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gas. During the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter a variety of other fragrant compounds: alcohols (e.g., ethanol and methanol, vinegar, formic acid, etc. is found.

  14. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  15. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    the operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... for immobilization of aqueous KOH solutions. Electrolysis cells with this electrolyte and metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes were successfully demonstrated at temperatures up to 250 °C at 40 bar. Different electro-catalysts were tested in order to reduce the oxygen and hydrogen overpotentials. Current...

  16. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  17. Aedes aegypti cadherin serves as a putative receptor of the Cry11Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G.; Fernandez, Luisa E.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberon, Mario; Gill, Sarjeet S.

    2009-01-01

    Cry11Aa of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is the most active toxin to Aedes aegypti in this strain. We previously reported that, in addition to a 65 kDa GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol)-anchored ALP (alkaline phosphatase), the toxin also binds a 250 kDa membrane protein. Since this protein is the same size as cadherin, which in lepidopteran insects is an important Cry toxin receptor, we developed an anti-AaeCad antibody. This antibody detects a 250 kDa protein in immunoblots of l...

  18. Using EIS to study the electrochemical response of alloy AA5083 in solutions of NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aballe, A.; Bethencourt, M.; Botana, F.J.; Osuna, R. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica y Quimica Inorganica; Marcos, M. [Cadiz Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica y Diseno Industrial

    2001-03-01

    The corrosion behavior of alloy AA5083 in aerated solutions of NaCl has been studied. Special attention has been paid to the analysis of the electrochemical response of this alloy using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Analysis of the obtained data has enabled an evaluation of the contributions made by each of the corrosion processes active in the system: localized alkaline corrosion in the areas surrounding the intermetallic precipitates and growth of the layer of oxide on the matrix. It has been determined that the process of localized corrosion has the greatest verifiable intensity, but this process reduces with length of exposure time. (orig.)

  19. AAS 228: Day 3 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session 2015 Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture: The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures (by Leonardo dos Santos)The first session on Wednesday at 228th AAS Meeting was the Newton Lacy Pierce Prize Lecture by Heather Knutson (California Institute of Technology). This talk featured a broad range of research efforts on exoplanets, with the main focus on how we study the composition of their atmospheres, and how multi-body interactions carve the structure of the planetary systems we observe.One of her first points is the well-known idea that the Solar System is an oddball, compared to the exoplanet systems we have found so far: most of these systems contain hot Jupiters and mini-Neptunes at very close-in orbits around their host stars. Moreover, even when studying their transmission spectra, it is difficult to know the exact composition of their atmospheres.Knutson: it is difficult to constrain atmospheric composition of exoplanets (H-poor or H-rich+clouds?) #aas228pic.twitter.com/LdyN4o9RC7 astrobites (@astrobites) June 15, 2016The main proposal on how these systems formed is the migration scenario. In order to validate this idea, Dr. Knutson and her group The Friends of Hot Jupiters study systems with close-in gas giants and their frequency of binary companions, which are supposed to be the main culprits causing gas-giant migration. They found that approximately half of the observed systems have long-distance companions, providing strong validation of the migration scenario. Moreover, Dr. Knutson speculates that wide binaries have more

  20. Negative Affect, Relapse, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): Does AA Work by Reducing Anger?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Magill, Molly; Pagano, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Anger and other indices of negative affect have been implicated in a stress-induced pathway to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) literature states that reduction of anger is critical to recovery, yet this proposed mechanism has rarely been investigated. Using lagged, controlled hierarchical linear modeling analyses, this study investigated whether AA attendance mobilized changes in anger and whether such changes explained AA-related benefit. Method: Alcohol-dependent adults (N = 1,706) receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results: Findings revealed substantially elevated levels of anger compared with the general population (98th percentile) that decreased over 15-month follow-up but remained high (89th percentile). AA attendance was associated with better drinking outcomes, and higher levels of anger were associated with heavier drinking. However, AA attendance was unrelated to changes in anger. Conclusions: Although support was not found for anger as a mediator, there was strong convergence between AA's explicit emphasis on anger and the present findings: Anger appears to be a serious, enduring problem related to relapse and heavy alcohol consumption. Methodological factors may have contributed to the lack of association between AA and anger, but results suggest that AA attendance alone may be insufficient to alleviate the suffering and alcohol-related risks specifically associated with anger. PMID:20409438

  1. Negative affect, relapse, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA): does AA work by reducing anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Tonigan, J Scott; Magill, Molly; Pagano, Maria E

    2010-05-01

    Anger and other indices of negative affect have been implicated in a stress-induced pathway to relapse. The Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) literature states that reduction of anger is critical to recovery, yet this proposed mechanism has rarely been investigated. Using lagged, controlled hierarchical linear modeling analyses, this study investigated whether AA attendance mobilized changes in anger and whether such changes explained AA-related benefit. Alcohol-dependent adults (N = 1,706) receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Findings revealed substantially elevated levels of anger compared with the general population (98th percentile) that decreased over 15-month follow-up but remained high (89th percentile). AA attendance was associated with better drinking outcomes, and higher levels of anger were associated with heavier drinking. However, AA attendance was unrelated to changes in anger. Although support was not found for anger as a mediator, there was strong convergence between AA's explicit emphasis on anger and the present findings: Anger appears to be a serious, enduring problem related to relapse and heavy alcohol consumption. Methodological factors may have contributed to the lack of association between AA and anger, but results suggest that AA attendance alone may be insufficient to alleviate the suffering and alcohol-related risks specifically associated with anger.

  2. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  3. The legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This scholarly work treats only the legal structure of households in Serbia and Bulgaria in the 19th century. The author's intention is to describe and present similarities and differences between the most important household's structural elements (Household Council, Household Head, Household Woman and Household Members, their relationships and status in the Ottoman legal-political order.

  4. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, W A; Bhatt, H; Combes, B

    1986-01-01

    Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed early in the course of two patients with Wilson's disease presenting with the combination of severe liver disease and Coombs' negative acute hemolytic anemia. A review of other cases of Wilson's disease revealed that 11 of 12 patients presenting with hemolytic anemia had values for serum alkaline phosphatase less than their respective sex- and age-adjusted mean values; in eight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was less than the lower value for the normal range of the test. Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase were much less common in Wilson's disease patients with more chronic forms of presentation. Copper added in high concentration to serum in vitro did not have an important effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in patients is uncertain.

  5. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation...... and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... significantly among the studies and differ from one country to another. Here, we provide a consistent methodology for characterization of household food waste, so that data comparability and source information are ensured. In this study, residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from more than...

  6. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  7. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session: From Space Archeology to Serving the World Today: A 20-year Journey from the Jungles of Guatemala to a Network of Satellite Remote Sensing Facilities Around the World(by Michael Zevin)In the conferences second plenary session, NASAs Daniel Irwin turned the eyes of the conference back to Earth by highlighting the huge impact that NASA missions play in protecting and developing our own planet.Daniel Irwin: using satellite imagery to detect differences in vegetation and find ancient Mayan cities. #aas228 pic.twitter.com/9LFPQdCHTM astrobites (@astrobites) June 13, 2016Irwin came to be involved in NASA through his work mapping Guatemalan jungles, where he would spend 22 days at a time exploring the treacherous jungles on foot armed with a 1st generation GPS, a compass, and a machete. A colleague introduced Irwin to the satellite imagery thathe was exploring, demonstratinghow these images are a strong complement to field work. The sharing of this satellite data with nearby villages helped to show the encroachment of agriculture and the necessity of connecting space to the village. Satellite imagery also played a role in archeological endeavors, uncovering dozens of Mayan cities that have been buried for over a millennia by vegetation, and it provided evidence that the fall of the Mayan civilization may have been due to massive deforestation that ledto drought.Glacial retreat in Chile imaged by ISERV.Irwin displayed the constellation of NASAs Earth-monitoring satellites that have played an integral role in conserving our planet and alerting the world of natural disasters. He also showed

  9. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  10. Household response to environmental incentives for rain garden adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, David A.; Alberini, Anna

    2016-02-01

    A decentralized approach to encourage the voluntary adoption of household stormwater management practices is increasingly needed to mitigate urban runoff and to comply with more stringent water quality regulations. We analyze the household response to a hypothetical rebate program to incentivize rain garden adoption using household survey data from the Baltimore-Washington corridor. We asked respondents whether the household would adopt a rain garden without a rebate or when offered a randomly assigned rebate. An interval-data model is used to estimate household demand on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a rain garden as a function of demographic factors, gardening activities, environmental attitudes, and other household characteristics. Estimation results indicate that mean WTP for a rain garden in our sample population is approximately $6.72 per square foot, corresponding to almost three-fourths of the installation cost. The expected adoption rate more than tripled when comparing no rebate versus a government rebate set at one-third of the installation cost, indicating that economic incentives matter. There is substantial heterogeneity in the WTP among households. Higher levels of WTP are estimated for households with higher environmental concern for the Chesapeake Bay and local streams, garden experience, higher income, and non-senior citizen adults. We conclude that a cost-share rebate approach is likely to significantly affect household adoption decisions, and the partial contributions paid by households can assist with lowering the substantial compliance costs for local governments to meet water quality requirements.

  11. Thermochemical valorization and characterization of household biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Vekkos, K; Baratieri, M

    2016-04-15

    Valorization of municipal solid waste (MSW), by means of energy and material recovery, is considered to be a crucial step for sustainable waste management. A significant fraction of MSW is comprised from food waste, the treatment of which is still a challenge. Therefore, the conventional disposal of food waste in landfills is being gradually replaced by recycling aerobic treatment, anaerobic digestion and waste-to-energy. In principle, thermal processes like combustion and gasification are preferred for the recovery of energy due to the higher electrical efficiency and the significantly less time required for the process to be completed when compared to biological process, i.e. composting, anaerobic digestion and transesterification. Nonetheless, the high water content and the molecular structure of biowaste are constraining factors in regard to the application of thermal conversion pathways. Investigating alternative solutions for the pre-treatment and more energy efficient handling of this waste fraction may provide pathways for the optimization of the whole process. In this study, by means of utilizing drying/milling as an intermediate step, thermal treatment of household biowaste has become possible. Household biowaste has been thermally processed in a bench scale reactor by means of torrefaction, carbonization and high temperature pyrolysis. According to the operational conditions, fluctuating fractions of biochar, bio-oil (tar) and syngas were recovered. The thermochemical properties of the feedstock and products were analyzed by means of Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA), Ultimate and Proximate analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR). The analysis of the products shows that torrefaction of dried household biowaste produces an energy dense fuel and high temperature pyrolysis produces a graphite-like material with relatively high yield.

  12. How Financial Literacy Affects Household Wealth Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Jere R.; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Soo, Cindy K.; Bravo, David

    2012-01-01

    This study isolates the causal effects of financial literacy and schooling on wealth accumulation using a new household dataset and an instrumental variables (IV) approach. Financial literacy and schooling attainment are both strongly positively associated with wealth outcomes in linear regression models, whereas the IV estimates reveal even more potent effects of financial literacy. They also indicate that the schooling effect only becomes positive when interacted with financial literacy. Estimated impacts are substantial enough to imply that investments in financial literacy could have large wealth payoffs. PMID:23355747

  13. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  14. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  15. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...... to the fuel price; the difference strongly increases at the highest deciles of the distribution of kilometre demand. Extending the model to account for driver heterogeneity and the role of car characteristics confirmed the relevance of substitution between cars within the household. We found strong evidence......’ fuel efficiency choices are related to their price sensitivity....

  16. Investigating design issues in household environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, Lynne; Benyon, David; Macauley, Catriona

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the current involvement of end users in the design of technological artefacts is too superficial. It is common to involve people in requirements generation, but rarely in product inception or design. A study is reported involving five households in central Scotland, who were...... each visited on three occasions, using a new investigative framework. Illustrative examples are provided of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods used. Despite the latter, it is demonstrated that the general public can both generate and critique design ideas and that valuable contributions...... to understanding people's relationships with technologies can be expected both from children and from the elderly....

  17. Household Financial Distress and Initial Endowments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Arna

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies in utero exposure to the 2008 financial crisis. Exploiting the sudden and unexpected collapse of the Icelandic economy, I find that first-trimester exposure to the crisis led to a sizable and significant reduction in birth weight, increased the probability of a low birth weight...... – because children with worse health at birth can expect substantially lower lifetime earnings – and suggest that economic hardships may in general exacerbate income inequalities in the long run as low-income households are typically more exposed to financial distress....

  18. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  19. Asbestos, lead, and the family: household risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Cohn, J.; Ackerman, G.

    1980-06-01

    Although the intrafamilial transmission of infectious diseases has long been recognized, the induction of environmental disease in household contacts is being increasingly documented and requires a higher index of suspicion. An incidental radiographic finding, such as pleural thickening or calcification, or even interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in a young person without obvious occupational exposure to asbestos, should prompt the physician to clarify the parental occupational history. Likewise, unexpected evidence of lead induced abnormalities, such as elevated blood lead and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels, should focus the examiner's attention on possible intrafamilial transmission, treatment, and prevention.

  20. The AA disappearing under concrete shielding

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    When the AA started up in July 1980, the machine stood freely in its hall, providing visitors with a view through the large window in the AA Control Room. The target area, in which the high-intensity 26 GeV/c proton beam from the PS hit the production target, was heavily shielded, not only towards the outside but also towards the AA-Hall. However, electrons and pions emanating from the target with the same momentum as the antiprotons, but much more numerous, accompanied these through the injection line into the AA ring. The pions decayed with a half-time corresponding to approximately a revolution period (540 ns), whereas the electrons lost energy through synchrotron radiation and ended up on the vacuum chamber wall. Electrons and pions produced the dominant component of the radiation level in the hall and the control room. With operation times far exceeding original expectations, the AA had to be buried under concrete shielding in order to reduce the radiation level by an order of magnitude.

  1. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigum, Marianne; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-11-01

    A total of 26.1Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11kg of batteries, 2.2kg of toners and 16kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1g of toners and 7g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these findings are taken into account when designing new or improving existing special waste collection schemes. Improving the collection of WEEE is also recommended as one way to also improve the collection of batteries due to the large fraction of batteries found as built-in. The findings in this study were comparable to other western European studies, suggesting that the recommendations made in this study could apply to other

  2. Food Insecurity in Households with Children: Prevalence, Severity, and Household Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Food security is especially important for children because their nutrition affects not only their current health, but also their future health and well-being. Previous studies that used various data sources suggest that children in food-insecure households face elevated risks of health and development problems, compared with children in otherwise…

  3. Stochastic Production Frontier Models to Explore Constraints on Household Travel Expenditures Considering Household Income Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan M. Saleh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variation of household travel expenditure frontiers (HTEFs prior to CC reform in Jakarta. This study incorporates the variation of household income classes into the modeling of HTEFs and investigates the degree to which various determinants influence levels of HTEF. The HTEF is defined as an unseen maximum (capacity amount of money that a certain income class is willing to dedicate to their travel. A stochastic production frontier is applied to model and explore upper bound household travel expenditure (HTE. Using a comprehensive household travel survey (HTS in Jakarta in 2004, the observed HTE spending in a month is treated as an exogenous variable. The estimation results obtained using three proposed models, for low, medium and high income classes, show that HTEFs are significantly associated with life stage structure attributes, socio-demographics and life environment factors such as professional activity engagements, which is disclosed to be varied across income classes. Finding further reveals that considerable differences in average of HTEFs across models. This finding calls for the formulation of policies that consider the needs to be addressed for low and medium income groups in order to promote more equity policy thereby leading to more acceptable CC reform.

  4. Getting outside help : How trust problems explain household differences in household outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, E.H.M. de; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of trust problems on the use of domestic outsourcing by couples from a gender perspective. The authors argue that trust problems matter in outsourcing decisions, because an outsider enters the privacy of the household and takes over tasks of special value. Analyse

  5. "Raising Him . . . to Pull His Own Weight": Boys' Household Work in Single-Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Clara W.; Romich, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine boys' household work in low- and moderate-income single-mother families. Through describing the work that boys do, why they do this work, and the meaning that they and their mothers give to this work, they add to the understanding of housework as an arena for gender role reproduction or interruption. Their data…

  6. Getting outside help : How trust problems explain household differences in household outsourcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, E.H.M. de; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of trust problems on the use of domestic outsourcing by couples from a gender perspective. The authors argue that trust problems matter in outsourcing decisions, because an outsider enters the privacy of the household and takes over tasks of special value. Analyse

  7. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  8. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd., Calgary (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of {approx} pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu{sub 2}O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool (<40 deg C), whilst there is still O{sub 2} available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O{sub 2} will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl{sub 2} - and of the reduction of O{sub 2}. The development

  9. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank

    and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures and pressures. To perform measurements under high pressure and at elevated temperatures it was necessary to build a measurement system around an autoclave which could stand high temperatures up to 250 °C and pressures up to 200 bar...... as well as extremely caustic environments. Based on a literature study to identify resistant materials for these conditions, Inconel 600 was selected among the metals which are available for autoclave construction. An initial single atmosphere high temperature and pressure measurement setup was build...... comprising this autoclave. A second high temperature and pressure measurement setup was build based on experiences from the first setup in order to perform automatized measurements. The conductivity of aqueous KOH at elevated temperatures and high concentrations was investigated using the van der Pauw method...

  10. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  11. Acylglucuronide in alkaline conditions: migration vs. hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Meo, Florent; Steel, Michele; Nicolas, Picard; Marquet, Pierre; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Trouillas, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This work rationalizes the glucuronidation process (one of the reactions of the phase II metabolism) for drugs having a carboxylic acid moiety. At this stage, acylglucuronides (AG) metabolites are produced, that have largely been reported in the literature for various drugs (e.g., mycophenolic acid (MPA), diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylacetic acids). The competition between migration and hydrolysis is rationalized by adequate quantum calculations, combing MP2 and density functional theory (DFT) methods. At the molecular scale, the former process is a real rotation of the drug around the glucuconic acid. This chemical-engine provides four different metabolites with various toxicities. Migration definitely appears feasible under alkaline conditions, making proton release from the OH groups. The latter reaction (hydrolysis) releases the free drug, so the competition is of crucial importance to tackle drug action and elimination. From the theoretical data, both migration and hydrolysis appear kinetically and thermodynamically favored, respectively.

  12. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  13. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley;

    including BoP. Investigation of cathodes revealed highly heterogeneous microstructures and 3D microstructure quantification methods were developed. Nanometre scale -Ni(OH)2 formation was identified on tested cathode surfaces and is considered a potential degradation mechanism that is not presently well......The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure...... and reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  14. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  15. Household time allocation – Theoretical and empirical results from Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bonke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a sample of households in 1994 we find that Danish household labour allocation choices are bestdescribed by a collective model in which decisions are made cooperatively. Individual preferences are similar butthere are important differences due to the differences in educational attainment. Households can be characterized as utilitarian with a sharing rule which depends on household income and is feminist rather than egalitarian. The allocation of tasks within the family depends on both the individuals’ comparative advantage in labour markets andindividual preferences for paid work as well as the intra-household distribution of income. These results do not require explicit assumptions about labour supply that are often employed in the household time allocation literature.

  16. Survey of rural household energy-consumption in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xh; Fend Zm [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., JS (China)

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive energy surveys of 3240 households in six different regions, we present the level and structure of rural household energy consumption. There are large differences among regions which depend on locality and available fuels. Energy consumption per household accounts for 700-1200 kgce (we use 7000 kcal/kgce), 40-60% of which is used for cooking; 60-90% of total household energy consumption is in the form of biomass. The average energy-conversion efficiency using biomass fuels is in the range 10-20%. Where the strain of traditional patterns of biomass use on the resource base became too severe, the balance between local agricultural and hillside ecosystems has unraveled and caused accelerating destruction of limited land resources. Higher income households need more commercial energy, especially in the form of electricity. Rural household energy will continue to depend mainly on biomass. (UK)

  17. Stochastic SIR epidemics in a population with households and schools

    CERN Document Server

    Ouboter, Tanneke; Trapman, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    We study the spread of stochastic SIR (Susceptible $\\to$ Infectious $\\to$ Recovered) epidemics in two types of structured populations, both consisting of schools and households. In each of the types, every individual is part of one school and one household. In the independent partition model, the partitions of the population into schools and households are independent of each other. This model corresponds to the well-studied household-workplace model. In the hierarchical model which we introduce here, members of the same household are also members of the same school. We introduce computable branching process approximations for both types of populations and use these to compare the probabilities of a large outbreak. The branching process approximation in the hierarchical model is novel and of independent interest. We prove by a coupling argument that if all households and schools have the same size, an epidemic spreads easier (in the sense that the number of individuals infected is stochastically larger) in th...

  18. Definition of Household Membership in International Migration Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ünalan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data from national surveys conducted within the scope of the Eurostat project titled “Push and Pull Factors of International Migration”, analyses are presented using different definitions (narrow versus wide of household membership in migrant-sending countries (Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, Senegal and Turkey to see if different definitions are helpful in identifying and increasing the number of migrants who are or was a part of those households. When broad definition was used, the increase in the international migrant members was especially considerable in recent and current migrant households. The findings demonstrated that it was possible to trace an important number of international migrants back in their country of origin and to collect data using proxy interviews. However, it was still impossible to survey emigrants who left the country as a household, those who were not expected to return to the household, those belonging to some dissolved households, or those who died.

  19. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  20. On electrochemical devices using alkaline polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, L. [Wuhan Univ., Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) enable a compact assembly of fuel cells and electrolyzers, thereby increasing the space-specific conversion efficiency and avoiding electrolyte leakage. The most widely used SPE in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and chloro-alkali electrolyzers is Nafion. However, this strongly acidic polyelectrolyte allows only noble metals to be used as the catalysts in the electrochemical devices, which poses a problem in terms of price and resource limits. In principle, alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) should be used to eliminate the dependence on noble metal catalysts. The general structure of alkaline polymer electrolytes is a positively charged polymer, notably, a polymer chain attached with fixed cations such as quaternary ammonia group, and dissociated anion, OH-, to act as the charge carrier. This presentation described the challenges of developing APEs in terms of the chemical stability of quaternary ammonia group, the mobility of OH-, and high ionic concentration. The authors have been working on developing high-performance APEs since 2001. The most recent APEs were quaternary ammonia polysulfone (QAPS), which were found to be suitable for fuel cell and electrolyzer applications. The ionic conductivity was high and the crosslinked membrane had excellent mechanical strength, enabling operation at 90 degrees C. Non-precious metal catalysts were used in the APEs. For APE-based fuel cells (APEFC), chromium decorated nickel was used as the anode catalyst for hydrogen oxidation, and silver was used as the cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction. The preliminary performance of such an APEFC with non-Pt catalysts was found to be much better than that of traditional water electrolyzers using KOH solutions. 2 refs.

  1. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering. PMID:26696989

  2. Microbiological safety of household membrane water filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Wang, Qing; Lou, Wei; Wang, Yuxin; Zhu, Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Waterborne pathogens outbreaks are major reasons of diarrhea disease worldwide. Detecting and monitoring emerging waterborne pathogens (EWPs) is important for drinking water microbiological safety. The microbiological safety of household water hollow fiber membrane filter which is the end of drinking water treatment process was studied with heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and real-time PCR method. The effect of the flow rate, idle time and washing fashion were investigated. Among the selected filters from three manufacturers, only the PVDF membrane water filter (Brand B) could achieve a good water purification criteria. Brand A was found a certain degree of EWPs in its effluent. The lowest bacteria-removing efficiency of the PVC membrane water filter was found Brand C. Our study showed that the microorganisms could reach up to 10(6) CFU ml(-1) and the 16s rDNA could reach up to 10(6) copies ml(-1) in the initial filtrate of Brand C. More species and amounts of EWPs were detected in the washing water. These results suggested that the popular household membrane filters might cause microbiological risks at certain circumstances such as the shock load of EWPs and leakage of the membranes in the case of abnormal source water or poor membrane filter quality.

  3. Measuring consumption in households. Interpretations and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-12-01

    The paper discusses the connection between environmental awareness and metering data on household consumption (electricity, heating, water), and it is based on recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how families' understanding of environmental awareness and environmental practices relates to their overall household consumption. The paper indicates that residents' environmental practices in everyday life are often overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices are often rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are seen as an example of what Pierre Bourdieu calls the 'economy of symbolic goods', offering an explanation for why some symbolic actions apparently play a larger role than other, more environmentally serious consumption practices. From this, it is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of using sustainable practices such as 'environmental awareness' as a sales argument, more reflexive strategies that take consumers' preferences into account should be considered. (author)

  4. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. ...

  5. Standby-consumption in households; Standby-Verbrauch im Haushalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, U.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made in five types of housing on the standby-consumption of various household appliances. 461 measurements were made in 37 households, whereby three modes - ready-for-use, standby and sleep - were examined. 71 different appliances were looked at in six consumer groups. These included entertainment, hygiene/health, kitchen/household, communication, office and garage. Data is presented in tabular form and commented on.

  6. Unbanked Households: Evidence of Supply-Side Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Matray , Adrien; Celerier , Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that supply-side factors significantly drive the high share of unbanked households. Using interstate branching deregulation in the U.S. after 1994 as an exogenous shock, the authors show that an increase in bank competition is associated with a large drop in the share of unbanked households. The authors find that the effect is even stronger for populations that are more likely to be rationed by banks, such as black households living in "high racial bias'' states. ...

  7. Household waste recycling: National survey evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the determinants of household recycling in Italy with particular emphasis on social behaviour. The econometric analysis is based on two waves - 1998 and 2000 - of the Multipurpose Household Survey conducted annually by the Italian Central Statistics Office. In Italy household recycling was substantially voluntary in the years from 1998 to 2000 with no monetary incentives or pecuniary sanctions. Five different materials are investigated: paper, glass, plastic, aluminium and ...

  8. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  9. Investigating moral identity in child-headed households / J. Pretorius.

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The development of a moral identity has been closely linked with parental care. Within the HIV/Aids context, concern about the moral actions of South Africans inspired an investigation into the Gestalt field of Zulu child-headed households, as the lack of adequate parental care threatens the development of moral identity in these households. As substitute parents, the adolescents in the Zulu child-headed households are responsible for enhancing moral identity in their siblings while their own...

  10. Advanced membranes for alkaline primary and rechargeable alkaline cells with zinc anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Harlan; Jackson, Patricia; Salkind, Alvin; Danko, Thomas; Bell, Roger

    Several advanced cellulosic and radiation grafted polypropylene membrane materials are currently under evaluation in the laboratories at Navsea Crane and Rutgers University, for application to alkaline primary and rechargeable cell chemistries which employ zinc as the anode material. A portion of these tests involve model cell evaluations of cellulosic membranes for silver migration rates through the membranes as a function of separation layers and changes in the degree of polymerisation (DP), wet tensile strength (WTS) and voltage changes at both electrodes as a function of model rechargeable cell life cycle. Other testing on the actual membranes is generating data for both cellulosic and polypropylene materials on impedance, swelling properties, and silver and zinc penetration rates. The overall goal of these investigations is to obtain candidate separation membranes which will reduce zinc anode shape change and shedding and resist alkaline oxidative degradation to extend the active wet life in primary cells and both wet and life cycle in rechargeable cells.

  11. AAS Nova and Astrobites: Making current astronomy research accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2016-10-01

    AAS Nova and Astrobites are two resources available for astronomers, astronomy students, and astronomy enthusiasts to keep up with some of the most recent research published across the field of astronomy. Both supported by the AAS, these two daily astrophysical literature blogs provide accessible summaries of recent publications on the arXiv and in AAS journals. We present the goals, content, and readership of AAS Nova and Astrobites, and discuss how they might be used as tools in the undergraduate classroom.

  12. The thesis of the alkaline milieu in oncology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S L

    1993-02-01

    An alkaline milieu is a common factor in some carcinomas of the oropharynx and oesophagus, the stomach, the bronchus, the cervix and the large bowel. The hypothesis is advanced that a change to an alkaline pH enhances the mitotic activity of mucous cells and that this change can be often avoided by alterations in diet and habit.

  13. Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cossarini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas, where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 μmol kg−1 that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

  14. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Likens, G. E.; Utz, R.; Pace, M.; Grese, M.; Yepsen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km2. We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These 3 variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  15. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  16. Barriers to household investment in residential energy conservation: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, W.L.

    1982-12-01

    A general assessment of the range of barriers which impede household investments in weatherization and other energy efficiency improvements for their homes is provided. The relationship of similar factors to households' interest in receiving a free energy audits examined. Rates of return that underly household investments in major conservation improvements are assessed. A special analysis of household knowledge of economically attractive investments is provided that compares high payback improvements specified by the energy audit with the list of needed or desirable conservation improvements identified by respondents. (LEW)

  17. Household crowding and psychosocial health among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    using logistic regression models, adjusting for individuals' characteristics. RESULTS: Household crowding was associated with poorer mental well-being. Binge drinking was more common among people living in households without children. These effects were more important for women than for men....... The association between household crowding and mental well-being was significantly mediated by social support. This suggests that having a strong social network may buffer the deleterious impacts of household crowding. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting housing conditions and fostering social support as part of population...

  18. FEMA Registration Intake and Individuals Household Program - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The dataset is composed of Registration Intake and Individuals and Households Program (IHP) Information from the Individual Assistance (IA) reporting authority where...

  19. Household Life Cycle: The Case Of Customer Satisfaction In Restaurants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cindy Erdis; Michael du Toit

    2014-01-01

    ... on customer satisfaction in restaurants. This article examines the influence of household life cycle on customer satisfaction in selected restaurants in the Tshwane area of Gauteng, South Africa...

  20. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  1. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    , and increasing the distance to forests. The total household annual income subjects to ELCs were estimated to decrease by 15–19%. While providing some employment opportunities, we find no evidence of positive income effects of ELCs on households in the areas where ELCs are located....... and the contribution of each major product to income inequality; and identified the main household characteristics influencing absolute and relative incomes. ELCs were found to consistently have negative impacts on household total income, environmental income, size of available cultivable land and livestock holdings...

  2. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  3. Migrant remittances and household wellbeing in urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracking, Sarah; Sachikonye, Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from household surveying in December 2005 in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, indicates that a wide network of international migrant remitters are ameliorating the economic crisis in Zimbabwe by sending monetary and in-kind transfers to over 50 per cent of urban households. The research combines quantitative measurement of scale and scope, with demographic and qualitative narrative to build a holistic picture of the typography of receiving and non-receiving households. A complex set of interrelated variables helps to explain why some households do and others do not receive income and goods from people who are away, and the economic and social extent of their subsequent benefit from them. Moreover, the mixed methods approach is designed to capture inter-household and likely macroeconomic effects of how households receive their goods and money; and of how they subsequently exchange (if applicable), store and spend it. Evidence emerges of a largely informal, international social welfare system, but one which is not without adverse inter-household effects for some. These include suffering exclusion from markets suffering from inflationary pressures, not least as a result of other people’s remittances. This paper explores the role of remittances, within this internationalised informal welfare system which we can map from our household survey, in reframing vulnerability and marginalization differentially among and between our subject households.

  4. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  5. Alkaline stability of quaternary ammonium cations for alkaline fuel cell membranes and ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, M G; Kreuer, K D

    2015-02-01

    The alkaline stability of 26 different quaternary ammonium groups (QA) is investigated for temperatures up to 160 °C and NaOH concentrations up to 10 mol L(-1) with the aim to provide a basis for the selection of functional groups for hydroxide exchange membranes in alkaline fuel cells and of ionic-liquid cations stable in basic conditions. Most QAs exhibit unexpectedly high alkaline stability with the exception of aromatic cations. β-Protons are found to be far less susceptible to nucleophilic attack than previously suggested, whereas the presence of benzyl groups, nearby hetero-atoms, or other electron-withdrawing species promote degradation reactions significantly. Cyclic QAs proved to be exceptionally stable, with the piperidine-based 6-azonia-spiro[5.5]undecane featuring the highest half-life at the chosen conditions. Absolute and relative stabilities presented herein stand in contrast to literature data, the differences being ascribed to solvent effects on degradation.

  6. AAS 228: Day 2 afternoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.The Limits of Scientific Cosmology: Setting the Stage: Accepted Facts, and Testing Limitations in Theory and Data (by Gourav Khullar)With a stellar lineup of speakers to talk about current and future prospects of cosmology and its limits (or lack thereof), the first session kicked off with talks by Risa Wechsler, Joseph Silk, and Sean Carroll (his talk on Multiverses is described below, by Nathan Sanders). Risa set the stage with an elaborate description of the current accepted facts in the era of precision cosmology including the standard model of concordance cosmology, described by seven parameters and an accepted Lambda-CDM paradigm (with a cosmological constant and cold dark matter). The talk stressed on the fact that all these parameters are understood to a percent order precision, which is a remarkable deviation from the time in 1990s when according to Risa, Alan Guth never thought that any of these numbers could be measured precisely!Risa Wechsler describing our current constraints on what Dark Matter could constitute.Joseph Silk discussing limits on cosmological parameters.The CMB measurements, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis estimates and galaxy clustering statistics all contribute to locking down the description of our universe. She emphasized on the tensions between different probes to measure expansion rate H0 of the universe, and small scale predictions of cold dark matter simulations, but she is hopeful that these shall be resolved eventually. Joe Silk followed this up with his interpretation of trying to understand our place in the universe and placing limits on different parameters and

  7. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  8. A two-dimensional mathematical model of a Zn-MnO2 alkaline cell(1)%A two-dimensional mathematical model of a Zn-MnO2 alkaline cell (1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue-min; CHEH Huk-yuk

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional mathematical model based on the macrohomogeneous theory of porous electrodes was developed for a cylindrical Zn-MnO2 alkaline cell. The model was applied to understand the effect of the length of the anode current collector on the cell performance. Results are presented for the continuous discharge at a high rate of lA and a moderate rate of 0.2A for a AA - sized cell.With a typical length of an anode current collector at about 70% of the cell height, the analysis showed that an increase in the length of the anode current collector would benefit the lower rate of discharge more than the higher rate of discharge.

  9. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done w

  10. Reforming the household registration system: a preliminary glimpse of the blue chop household registration system in Shanghai and Shenzhen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L; Wai-po, H

    1998-01-01

    "For decades, the household registration system has functioned as a powerful device in halting rural influxes into Chinese cities. The exigencies of the reform call for reform of the hukou system [China's household registration]. One of the many attempts is the blue chop household registration system. Both Shanghai and Shenzhen have introduced this practice. In addition to promotion of real estate and investment, it creams off those more desirable migrants into the permanent population of the two cities. In view of the present situation of linking welfare provision with household registration status, this selective migration policy seems to be a sensible step forward."

  11. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  12. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests.

  13. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  14. Poverty Analysis of Rice Farming Households: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenuga A. H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The official measurement and analysis of poverty in Nigeria has historically relied upon the single dimension, consumption based monetary approach with little attention on multidimensional poverty assessment. This study was therefore carried out to assess the multidimensional poverty index of rice farming households in Nasarawa/Benue Rice Hub, Nigeria. The study employed stratified random sampling technique to select 149 rice farming households in the study area. Descriptive statistics, the Alkire and Foster Multidimensional Poverty Index Methodology using two different cut-off points and the Tobit regression model were the main analytical tools employed for the study. The results of the multidimensional poverty index analysis revealed that female headed households were poorer than the male headed households. On the overall, 66 percent of the rice farming households was multidimensionally poor. The study also showed that the rice farming households were deprived in 48 percent of the dimensions. A multidimensional poverty index of 0.32 was obtained for the rice farming households in the study area with varying values obtained for the male and female headed households. The result of the Tobit regression model showed that gender of the household head, health, marital status and membership of association were the major determinants of multidimensional poverty of the rice farming households in the study area. The study concluded that the rice farming households in the study area were multidimensionally poor. It was recommended that the government should give priorities to the development of the rural areas with special consideration for women through the provision of essential infrastructural facilities.

  15. Household transmission of leptospira infection in urban slum communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elves A P Maciel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, is the cause of epidemics associated with high mortality in urban slum communities. Infection with pathogenic Leptospira occurs during environmental exposures and is traditionally associated with occupational risk activities. However, slum inhabitants reside in close proximity to environmental sources of contamination, suggesting that transmission during urban epidemics occurs in the household environment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A survey was performed to determine whether Leptospira infection clustered within households located in slum communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hospital-based surveillance identified 89 confirmed cases of leptospirosis during an outbreak. Serum samples were obtained from members of 22 households with index cases of leptospirosis and 52 control households located in the same slum communities. The presence of anti-Leptospira agglutinating antibodies was used as a marker for previous infection. In households with index cases, 22 (30% of 74 members had anti-Leptospira antibodies, whereas 16 (8% of 195 members from control households had anti-Leptospira antibodies. Highest titres were directed against L. interrogans serovars of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in 95% and 100% of the subjects with agglutinating antibodies from case and control households, respectively. Residence in a household with an index case of leptospirosis was associated with increased risk (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.13-13.12 of having had a Leptospira infection. Increased infection risk was found for all age groups who resided in a household with an index case, including children <15 years of age (P = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified significant household clustering of Leptospira infection in slum communities where recurrent epidemics of leptospirosis occur. The findings support the hypothesis that the household environment is an important transmission determinant in the urban slum

  16. Household Metabolism in the Five Cities. Swedish National Report - Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Karlsson, Rebecka [Stockholm Univ. and Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group; Moll, Henri; Kok, Rixt [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). IVEM; Wadeskog, Anders [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    The study present results from a European project, ToolSust, in which direct and indirect energy use of household consumption is quantified. The focus is on households in Stockholm and how their spending contributes to energy use. A Dutch energy analyses programme, EAP, was modified to portray Swedish conditions, and analyses of more than 300 consumer goods were performed. These data were matched with information about family expenditure patterns from 1996. Six households were analysed, Swedish average, Stockholm City average and four households from Stockholm City. The results show that it is possible to portray households' total energy use, even the indirect one, with the help of the EAP programme and Swedish statistics. Further, indirect energy use may account for more than half of households total energy use and therefore it needs to be considered in policy making. The total primary energy use for the average households varied from 240 to 260 GJ during 1996. Heating, food and transportation were large contributors. The energy efficiency of total household spending varied from 8.8 MJ per Euro 13 MJ per Euro. Information about the energy efficiency on spending is valuable but cannot be presented and used without considering basic needs and quality of life. The total energy use per person varied from 50 to 350 GJ per year, a difference of factor seven. The analyses of energy efficiency of spending, MJ per SEK, indicate important opportunities for less energy demanding spending patterns, but those with low incomes have fewer opportunities than those with high incomes. The energy profiles for different households show that the individual ones may differ a lot from the average picture. There is a need for individual household advice about how to find more energy efficient spending patterns. Large cuts in household energy use means substantial changes in both energy intensity of goods and services and expenditure profiles. Expenditure levels should also be

  17. Integration of Smart Grid Technologies in Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Freja; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between new smart grid technologies and households everyday practices. The research focuses on how Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Dynamic Pricing influence on Danish households’ everyday life and how these technologies constitutes and change routines and practices......, is analysed from the analytical concept offered by the Social Practice Theory. Overall, the case-study demonstrates that the smart grid technologies influence the ‘way of driving’ and changed the temporal patterns of consumption in the families during the test-period. The inquiry attempts to contribute...... to a more complex and multiple consideration of the interplay between households’ social practices and new smart grid technologies - and thereby helps to fill out the lack of research on the integration of peak-shaving technologies in the end-user design....

  18. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.;

    2016-01-01

    with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...... and on the incidence of human infections attributable to pets. In order to address these gaps in knowledge, and to minimize the risk of human infection, actions at several levels are recommended, including: (1) coordinated surveillance of zoonotic pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in household pets, (2) studies....... Disease-specific recommendations include incentives to undertake research aimed at the development of new diagnostic tests, veterinary-specific antimicrobial products and vaccines, as well as initiatives to promote best practices in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and prudent antimicrobial usage....

  19. Household's use of information and communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said....... Through presentation and discussion of qualitative interviews with families having extensive ICT use in their everyday lives, the interviews illustrate how users domesticate and use technologies in many different ways. The interviews reveal a variety of practices and dynamics in different aspects...... of everyday life, including sport, shopping, entertainment and different hobbies. The growing electricity consumption related to ICT is thus as dependent on the consumers' use and domestication of the technologies as on the energy efficiency of the appliances. By analysing the interviews with the use...

  20. On measuring energy poverty in Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, S.; Mueller, A.; Kemmler, A.; Spreng, D. [Swiss Federal institutes of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The relationship between energy and poverty is obvious and goes both ways. Recognizing this, this paper provides a short overview of different approaches to measuring energy poverty. It then presents a novel two-dimensional measure of energy poverty and energy distribution that combines the elements of access to different energy types and quantity of energy consumed. An assessment of the extent of energy poverty and changes in energy distribution pattern are analyzed by applying this measure to Indian household survey data for 1983-2000. The analysis shows a significant reduction in the level of energy poverty and a rapidly developing subcontinent. The new measure is a good complement to conventional monetary measures and is general enough to be applied to other developing countries. (author)

  1. HOUSEHOLD PURIFICATION OF FLUORIDE CONTAMINATED MAGADI (TRONA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Purification of fluoride contaminated magadi is studied using bone char sorption and calcium precipitation. The bone char treatment is found to be workable both in columns and in batches where the magadi is dissolved in water prior to treatment. The concentrations in the solutions were 89 g magadi....../L and 95 and 400 mg F/L respectively in natural and synthetic solutions. The fluoride removal capacities observed were 4.6 mg F/g bone char for the column system and 2.7 mg F/g bone char for the batch system in case of synthetic magadi solution. It is however concluded that the batch system is the best...... treatment method. A procedure for purification of fluoride contaminated magadi at household level is described....

  2. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  3. AA, vacuum tank for stochastic precooling

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The vaccum tank in which the fast stochastic precooling kicker was installed. It is clad with heating jackets for bake-out to 200 deg C, indispensable for reaching the operational vacuum of 7E-11 Torr. Alain Poncet, responsible for AA vacuum, is looking on. See also 7910268, 8002234.

  4. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  5. Processing and Optimization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, D.; Nageswara rao, P.; Mahapatra, M. M.; Harsha, S. P.; Mandal, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper discusses the optimization of dissimilar friction stir welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys with respect to tool design issues including microstructural study of weld. The optimized ultimate tensile strength was ~280 MPa, and % elongation was ~11.5. It was observed that the extent of tool shoulder flat surface and tool rotational speed influenced the weld quality significantly. A mathematical model was also developed using response surface regression analysis to predict the effects of tool geometry and process variables on dissimilar AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys welds. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were investigated by employing electron backscatter diffraction technique, Vickers microhardness, and tensile testing, respectively. The microstructural observations indicated that the grain size obtained at advancing side (AA 2219 alloy side) was much finer compared to the retreating side (AA 7039 alloy side). Hardness distribution in the stir zone was inhomogeneous, which might be due to inadequate mixing of weld zone material. The hardness values observed at the weld zone were lower than that in the base materials.

  6. TRANSMISSION OF NOROVIRUS WITHIN HOUSEHOLDS IN QUININDE, ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gastañaduy, Paul A.; Vicuña, Yosselin; Salazar, Fabian; Broncano, Nely; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Chico,Martha; Parashar, Umesh D; Cooper,Philip J; Lopman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We studied the transmission of norovirus infection in households in Quininde, Ecuador. Among household contacts of norovirus positive children with diarrhea, norovirus negative children with diarrhea and asymptomatic controls, infection attack rates were 33%, 8% and 18%, respectively (N = 45, 36, 83). Infection attack rates were higher when index children had a higher viral load.

  7. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy fram

  8. Household Schooling and Child Labor Decisions in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2007-01-01

    Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…

  9. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  10. Detecting patterns in household electricity consumption after behavioural interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhushan, Nitin; Albers, Casper; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The global consensus on climate change today agrees that climate warming trends are very likely due to human activities. Households account for 26% of the total primary energy consumption in Europe. The relevance of households in the climate change mitigation debate is reflected in the rising intere

  11. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    potent for factor of production and rural household income enhancement. The policy ... production intended to meet national food security needs. But, output per ... from difference sources to averse the risk associated in agricultural farm sector. ... Agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia and more.

  12. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  13. Household energy use in Asian cities: Responding to development success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Stephen R.

    In the past 10-15 years, gains in household income and urban development in many countries in Asia have led to significant shifts in household use of fuels away from traditional, biomass-based household fuels to modern, fossil fuels. These results suggest that, while the global atmospheric emissions implications need further analysis, the local air quality effects of urban household fuel use changes have been positive. These changes also demonstrate improvements in living conditions, particularly for poor women and children most affected by indoor air quality. However, for electricity use, where there is evidence of dramatic increases in household consumption, the longer term implications for atmospheric emissions are more troubling. Rapid demand growth in the urban household sector is contributing to huge increases in thermal electric generating capacity needs in Asia. Improving technologies of electricity use in the household sector appears to be easily achievable and could be stimulated through market and policy mechanisms which have been used elsewhere. These measures offer the prospect of real environmental and economic gains without sacrificing lifestyle advantages of electrical appliance use in households.

  14. Transmission of Norovirus Within Households in Quininde, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Vicuña, Yosselin; Salazar, Fabian; Broncano, Nely; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Chico, Martha; Parashar, Umesh D; Cooper, Philip J; Lopman, Ben

    2015-09-01

    We studied the transmission of norovirus infection in households in Quininde, Ecuador. Among household contacts of norovirus positive children with diarrhea, norovirus negative children with diarrhea and asymptomatic controls, infection attack rates were 33%, 8% and 18%, respectively (N = 45, 36, 83). Infection attack rates were higher when index children had a higher viral load.

  15. The Impact of Child SSI Enrollment on Household Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Mark G.; Kearney, Melissa Schettini

    2007-01-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to investigate the impact that child Supplemental Security Income (SSI) enrollment has on household outcomes, including poverty, household earnings, and health insurance coverage. The longitudinal nature of the SIPP allows us to control for unobserved, time-invariant…

  16. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  17. Patterns of Vulnerability to Aids Impacts in Zambian Households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, E.S.; Curry, J.; Garbero, G.; Hourihan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Using household data from Northern Zambia, this article looks at HIV/AIDS impacts on different aspects of people's access to food. The findings draw particular attention to the variances in vulnerability among households burdened by illness and orphans that are headed by men, women and the elderly.

  18. Ambiguity Aversion and Household Portfolio Choice Puzzles: Empirical Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Dimmock (Stephen); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); O.S. Mitchell (Olivia); K. Peijnenburg (Kim)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractWe test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambig

  19. 31 CFR 560.524 - Household goods and personal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Household goods and personal effects... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY IRANIAN TRANSACTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.524 Household goods and personal...

  20. 31 CFR 538.518 - Household goods and personal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Household goods and personal effects... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.518 Household goods and personal...

  1. Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, J.; Lu Yonglong,; He Guizhen,; Bluemling, B.; Beckers, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy

  2. The Effect of Personality Traits on Households' Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjisakikool, Teerapong

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at finding the relationship between households' personality traits and their financial literacy level. The data in this research are from the household survey which can represent the population in Dutch. Using the Big Five personality traits and economic locus of control--extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional…

  3. Defining and using the concept of household: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casimir, G.J.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption and/or domestic activities in the private domain are much studied subjects. In the field of home economics and related fields of study, the household is the main unit of analysis. This paper focuses on how the household is conceptualized in literature during 2000–2010. The paper contains

  4. Household Energy Conservation from Elementary Science Teacher Candidates' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Elvan

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand the complex nature of gender differentiation in household energy consumption, and uncover the factors characterizing Turkish female university students' contribution on household energy conservation. Specifically, the study hypothesized that energy-related attributes would significantly differentiate female…

  5. Equity, Emotion, and Household Division of Labor Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kathryn J.; Steelman, Lala Carr; Powell, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Building upon insights generated by social psychological scholarship on equity, emotions, and identity, we use the General Social Survey (1996) Modules on Emotion and Gender and the National Survey of Family and Households (1992-1994) to investigate the relationship between perceived inequity in the household division of labor and emotion. These…

  6. Shared Learning: Feminist Student Research on Household Reuse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Kimberly E.; Zhou, Ying; Condon, Darcy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes collaborative student research on waste management that first compiled home interviews with women professors in Oxford, Ohio, USA, and Beijing, China, on household reuse for a graduate thesis and then communicated the findings in a handbook for undergraduate students. The women participants described diverse household reuse…

  7. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Wesley R; Sharkey Joseph R; Johnson Cassandra M; John Julie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities) along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of tech...

  8. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    OpenAIRE

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Food waste prevention remains the first priority in the European Waste Framework Directive, which aimed to halve the amount of food wasted within the EU Member States by 2025. Thus, reliable data on food waste composition and quantity are crucial for assessing the current food waste situation and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studie...

  9. Titratable Acidity and Alkalinity of Red Soil Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOZONG-CHEN; HEQUN; 等

    1993-01-01

    The surfaces of red soils have an apparent amphoteric character,carrying titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity simultaneously.The titratable acidity arises from deprotonation of hydroxyl groups of hydrous oxide-type surfaces and dissociation of weak-acid functional groups of soil organic matter,while the titratable alkalinity is derived from release of hydroxyl groups of hydrous oxide-type surfaces.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity mainly depended on the composition and content of iron and aluminum oxides in the soils.The results showed that the titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity were in significantly positive correlation not only with the content of amorphous aluminum oxide(Alo) and iron oxide(Feo) extracted with acid ammonium oxalate solution,free iron oxide(Fed) extracted with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) and clays,but also with the zero point of charge (ZPC) of the samples.Organic matter made an important contribution to the titratable acidity.the titratable alkalinity was closely correlated with the amount of fluoride ions adsorbed.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity of red soils were influenced by parent materials,being in the order of red soil derived from basalt> that from tuff> that from granite.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity ware closely related with origination of the variable charges of red soils,and to a certain extent were responsible for variable negative and positive charges of the soils.

  10. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  11. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Bethany A

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs), revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP) proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) and intestinal AP (IAP). This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  12. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Bethany A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs), revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP) proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP) and intestinal AP (IAP). This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont. PMID:28824625

  13. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  14. Alkaline phosphatase as a periodontal disease marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The potential of alkaline phosphatase (ALP as an important diagnostic marker of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF has been the subject to investigation since 1970. ALP is stored in specific granules and secretory vesicles of the neutrophils and is mainly released during their migration to the site of infection. It is also present in bacteria within dental plaque, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. It has, thus, become important to elucidate whether GCF levels of ALP are potential measures of the inflammatory activity occurring in the adjacent periodontal tissues. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the total activity of ALP in the GCF collected from healthy sites, sites with gingivitis and with chronic adult periodontitis. An attempt was also made to establish the correlation of ALP activity with plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index and probing depth. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 patients were divided into three groups: viz., healthy sites, Group I; gingivitis, Group II; chronic periodontitis, Group III. Clinical parameters like plaque index, bleeding index, gingival index and probing depth were recorded. The ALP level in GCF of all three groups was determined by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Total enzyme activity of ALP was significantly higher in periodontitis as compared with that in healthy and gingivitis sites, and was significantly and positively correlated with probing depth. Conclusion: ALP can be considered as a periodontal disease marker as it can distinguish between healthy and inflamed sites. However, to better define its capacity for periodontal diagnosis, additional longitudinal studies are required.

  15. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Rader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs, revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP and intestinal AP (IAP. This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  16. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The overall purpose of this project has been to contribute to this load management by developing a 2{sup nd} generation of alkaline electrolysis system characterized by being compact, reliable, inexpensive and energy efficient. The specific targets for the project have been to: 1) Increase cell efficiency to more than 88% (according to the higher heating value (HHV)) at a current density of 200 mA /cm{sup 2}; 2) Increase operation temperature to more than 100 degree Celsius to make the cooling energy more valuable; 3) Obtain an operation pressure more than 30 bar hereby minimizing the need for further compression of hydrogen for storage; 4) Improve stack architecture decreasing the price of the stack with at least 50%; 5) Develop a modular design making it easy to customize plants in the size from 20 to 200 kW; 6) Demonstrating a 20 kW 2{sup nd} generation stack in H2College at the campus of Arhus University in Herning. The project has included research and development on three different technology tracks of electrodes; an electrochemical plating, an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and finally a high temperature and pressure (HTP) track with operating temperature around 250 deg. C and pressure around 40 bar. The results show that all three electrode tracks have reached high energy efficiencies. In the electrochemical plating track a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C has been shown. The APS track showed cell efficiencies of 97%, however, coatings for the anode side still need to be developed. The HTP cell has reached 100 % electric efficiency operating at 1.5 V (the thermoneutral voltage) with a current density of 1. 1 A/cm{sup 2}. This track only tested small cells in an externally heated laboratory set-up, and thus the thermal loss to surroundings cannot be given. The goal set for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser system, has been to generate 30 bar pressure in the cell stack. An obstacle to be

  17. Engineering challenges of ocean alkalinity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, T.; Renforth, P.

    2012-04-01

    The addition of calcium oxide (CaO) to the ocean as a means of enhancing the capacity of the ocean as a carbon sink was first proposed by Haroon Kheshgi in 1995. Calcium oxide is created by heating high purity limestone in a kiln to temperatures of approximately 1000°C. Addition of this material to the ocean draws carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (approximately 1 tonne of CaO could sequester 1.3 tonnes of CO2). Abiotic carbonate precipitation is inhibited in the surface ocean. This is a carbon and energy expensive process, where approximately 0.8 tonnes of CO2 are produced at a point source for every tonne sequestered. The feasibility of ocean alkalinity enhancement requires capture and storage of the point source of CO2. We present details of a feasibility study of the engineering challenges of Kheshgi's method focusing on the potential scalability and costs of the proposed process. To draw down a PgC per year would require the extraction and processing of ~6Pg of limestone per year, which is similar in scale to the current coal industry. Costs are estimated at ~USD30-40 per tonne of CO2 sequestered through the process, which is favourable to comparative processes. Kheshgi, H. (1995) Energy 20 (9) 915-922

  18. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  19. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  20. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    and pressures. Two measurement systems were built to perform measurements under high pressures and at elevated temperatures of up to 95 bar and 250 °C, respectively. The conductivity of aqueous KOH and aqueous KOH immobilized in a porous SrTiO3 structure were investigated at elevated temperatures and high...... the operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... concentrations of the electrolyte using the van der Pauw method in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Conductivity values as high as 2.9 S cm-1 for 45 wt% KOH aqueous KOH and 0.84 S cm-1 for the immobilized KOH of the same concentration were measured at 200 °C. Porous SrTiO3 was used...

  1. Household Portfolio Choice Before and After House Purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Ran Sun; Zhou, Jie

    2017-01-01

    We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...... after house purchases, the diversification benefits and the debt retirement channels dominate the concern of liquidity demand. Liquidity demand, however, does have a larger effect on the portfolio choice of poorer households after a house purchase.......We study the temporal patterns of household portfolio choice of liquid wealth over a 7-year period around house purchase, using unique administrative panel data from Denmark. We find that (i) households accumulate significantly more liquid wealth in a few years before a house purchase and convert...

  2. Optimization of Soilless Media for Alkaline Irrigation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tramp, Cody Alexander; Chard, Julie K.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    High root zone pH reduces nutrient availability and high alkalinity water is strongly buffered around an alkaline pH. Soilless media can be altered to improve nutrient availability. This study was conducted to optimize the composition of soilless media for use with high alkalinity water. Mixes of peat and/or perlite or vermiculite in 50/50 and 33/33/33 volumetric ratios were tested. In some studies, mixes were also amended with up to 2.4 g/L of dolomite limestone to neutralize the initial aci...

  3. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NMR...... spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural and topological features of these glasses, and hence into the mixed alkaline earth effect. We demonstrate that the mixed alkaline earth effect manifests itself as a maximum in the amount of bonded tetrahedral units and as a minimum in liquid fragility index...

  4. Household costs of leprosy reactions (ENL in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a common immune-mediated complication of lepromatous (LL and borderline lepromatous (BL leprosy. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives. Understanding the economic burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated.Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Cases (n = 53 were identified as those who had one or more episodes of ENL within the last 3 years. Controls (n = 38 had LL or BL leprosy but no history of ENL. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies.The total household cost was Rs 1543 per month or 27.9% (IQR 13.2-52.6 of monthly household income for cases, and Rs 237 per month or 4.9% (IQR 1.7-13.4 of monthly household income for controls. Indirect costs accounted for 65% of total household costs for cases. Direct costs accounted for the remaining 35% of household costs, and resulted almost entirely from treatment-seeking in the private sector. Total household costs exceeded 40% of household income for 37.7% of cases (n = 20 and 2.6% of controls (n = 1 [1 USD = 59 INR].Households affected by ENL face significant economic burden and are at risk of being pushed further into poverty. Health policy should acknowledge the importance of private sector provision and the significant contribution to total household costs of lost productivity (indirect cost. Further work is needed to explore this area and identify solutions.

  5. A woman's place: household labour allocation in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, M

    1994-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on household labor allocation. The review reveals that development policies impacting on the labor market favor men over women. Male favoritism also occurs in household decision-making. Data from the 1988 Rural Labor Force Survey were used to examine rural household labor allocation in 1988 and the extent of female and male participation in home and market production and the degree of labor market discrimination against women. It is argued that the standard neoclassical model of economics does not recognize the unequal bargaining power of each member of the household in arriving at a solution to the joint welfare maximization problem. Women's position is expected to worsen during economic development. Women will have less than full participation in the labor market. Women's distinct role in household welfare provision is often disregarded. Development policy mainly focuses on market activities where women hold few positions. Labor allocation in the empirical analysis pertains to the mean hours per week in farm activities, household activities, schooling, and paid or unpaid non-farm work. Findings indicate that average earnings were lower for females than males and that returns to education and training were higher for males than females. Wage discrimination accounted for 30-66% of the earnings gap between rural men and women. Women faced discrimination on their returns to human capital and occupational choices. The concentration of women in low-paying jobs accounted for 21% of the wage gap. Women's lower education accounted for over 10%. Findings suggest that Kenyan households respond to market incentives. Women worked longer hours than men and contributed more to household welfare. Policy should focus on models of household provisioning and not on a joint utility function. Policy should encourage households to revise labor allocation strategies.

  6. Obesity and household food insecurity: evidence from a sample of rural households in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Z Mohd; Khor, G L

    2005-09-01

    The study examined nutritional outcomes related to body fat accumulation of food insecurity among women from selected rural communities in Malaysia. Cross-sectional study. Rural communities (seven villages and two palm plantations) in a district with high percentage of welfare recipients. Malay (n = 140) and Indian (n = 60) women were interviewed and measured for demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and physical activity information. The women were measured for their body mass index and waist circumference (WC). Energy and nutrient intakes, food group intake and food variety score were analyzed from 24 h dietary recalls and food-frequency questionnaire. Daily physical activity of the women was examined as the number of hours spent in economic, domestic, leisure and sport activities. Using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument, 58% of the women reported some degree of food insecurity (household insecure 14%, adult insecure 9.5% and child hunger 34.5%). In general, food-insecure women had lower years of education, household income and income per capita, more children and mothers as housewives. More than 50% of food-insecure women were overweight and obese than women from food-secure households (38%). Similarly, more food-insecure women (32-47%) had at-risk WC (> or = 88 cm) than food-secure women (29%). Food-insecure women spent significantly more time in domestic and leisure activities than food-secure women. Overweight and abdominal adiposity among the women were associated with a number of independent variables, such as women as housewives, women with more children, larger household size, food insecurity, shorter time spent in economic activities, longer time spent in leisure activities and lower food variety score. After adjusting for factors that are related to both adiposity and food insecurity, women from food-insecure households were significantly more likely to have at-risk WC, but not obese. Among this sample of rural

  7. Household food wastage – a case study of middle to high income urban households in the City of Tshwane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ). This paper investigates the types of food wasted and self-reported percentage of purchased food wasted at household level in a sample of 301 urban households in the City of Tshwane. The results indicate that fruit and vegetables are the most wasted food...

  8. The alkaline comet assay as a method to investigate the DNA strand breaking effect of phenylpropanoids in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Haupenthal

    2015-05-01

    Therefore, a modified alkaline comet assay to investigate DNA strand breaking effects of the asarone isomers in hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells and with human cytochrome P450 1A2 and human sulfotransferase 1C2 transfected V79 cells was used. Furthermore, the DNA repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG as a marker for oxidative DNA damage was also included in our test system. aA, bA as well as gA significantly induce DNA damage in V79 cells at concentrations > 10 µM. However, no enhanced DNA damage was observed after FPG-incubation of V79 cells. In contrast, in metabolic competent transfected V79 cells both propenylic asarone derivatives aA and bA significantly increase the amount of FPG-sensitive sites, whereas the allylic compound gA was not effective. This study assumes that an impact on the cellular redox status of the propenylic asarone isomers and their respective metabolites might contribute to their genotoxic properties. In conclusion, further in vitro studies on DNA damage and repair to elucidate the mechanism of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of these carcinogenic plant constituents are still under investigation.

  9. Sulfate—Exchange Alkalinity of Ferralsol Colloid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGGANGYA; ZHANGXIAONIAN

    1999-01-01

    The amount of OH- replaced by sulfate,i.e.,sulfate-exchange alkalinity,from the electric double layer of ferralsol colloid was measured quantitatively in different conditions with an automatic titration equipment.The amount of OH- release increased with the amount of Na2SO4 added and decreased with raising pH in the suspension of ferralsol colloid.The exchange acidity was displayed as pH was higher than 5.6,If the negative effect of sodium ions was offset,the amount of OH- replaced by sulfate was larger than the original amount of OH- released in the pH range of lower than 5.8.The amount of OH- released decreased rapidly as pH was higher than 6.0 and dropped to zero when pH reached 6.5.In the solution of 2.0molL-1 NaClO4,the amount of OH- repleaced by sulfate from the surface of ferralsol colloid could be considered as the amount of OH- adsorbed by ligand exchange reaction.The amount of OH- released in the solution of NaClO4 concentration below 2.0mol L-1 from which the amount of OH- adsorbed by ligand exchange reaction was subtracted could be conidered as the OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force,The OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force decreased with increases in the concentration of NaClO4 and pH and increased almost linearly with the increasing amount of Na2SON4 added.The percentages of OH- adsorbed by electrostatic force in water and in the electrolyte solutions of 0.05 and 0.5mol L-1 NaClO4 in the total OH- released were calculated,respectively.

  10. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  11. Chlorine solubility in evolved alkaline magmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Carroll

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of Cl solubility in trachytic to phonolitic melts provide insights into the capacity of alkaline magmas to transport Cl from depth to the earth?s surface and atmosphere, and information on Cl solubility variations with pressure, temperature and melt or fluid composition is crucial for understanding the reasons for variations in Cl emissions at active volcanoes. This paper provides a brief review of Cl solubility experiments conducted on a range of trachytic to phonolitic melt compositions. Depending on the experimental conditions the melts studied were in equilibrium with either a Cl-bearing aqueous fluid or a subcritical assemblage of low- Cl aqueous fluid + Cl-rich brine. The nature of the fluid phase(s was identified by examination of fluid inclusions present in run product glasses and the fluid bulk composition was calculated by mass balance. Chlorine concentrations in the glass increase with increasing Cl molality in the fluid phase until a plateau in Cl concentration is reached when melt coexists with aqueous fluid + brine. With fluids of similar Cl molality, higher Cl concentrations are observed in peralkaline phonolitic melts compared with peraluminous phonolitic melts; overall the Cl concentrations observed in phonolitic and trachytic melts are approximately twice those found in calcalkaline rhyolitic melts under similar conditions. The observed negative pressure dependence of Cl solubility implies that Cl contents of melts may actually increase during magma decompression if the magma coexists with aqueous fluid and Cl-rich brine (assuming melt-vapor equilibrium is maintained. The high Cl contents (approaching 1 wt% Cl observed in some melts/glasses from the Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei areas suggest saturation with a Cl-rich brine prior to eruption.

  12. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-12-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  13. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  14. Microstructure analysis of aluminum extrusion: grain size distribution in AA6060, AA6082 and AA7075 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikorra, M.; Tekkaya, A. E. [Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction, Dortmund (Germany); Donate, L.; Iomesani, L. [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    Microstructure and material flow of aluminum alloys have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and surface quality. In extrusion of aluminum billets at high temperatures the microstructure is dependent on the alloy and the forming and temperature history. A prediction of grain size and precipitation is of increasing importance in order to design the process by adjustment of parameters such as punch speed, temperatures, and quenching. To give references for microstructure prediction based on material flow, and with it strain and strain rate history, this paper deals with the microstructure during the extrusion process of AA6060, AA6082, and AA7075 alloys. Billets have been partly extruded to axisymmetric round profiles and the microstructure of the press rests consisting of the billet rests in container and die has been considered. Furthermore, these rests have been analyzed to show the material flow, dynamic and static recrystallization based on macro etchings and visible microstructure under different conditions, e.g. as in the area of high strain rate near the container wall, or in dead zones. To allow an accurate simulation of the extrusion process, punch force and temperature conditions during the tests have been measured and are presented in this paper, too.

  15. Severity of household food insecurity and lifetime racial discrimination among African-American households in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michael P; Jones, Sonya J; Frongillo, Edward A; Fram, Maryah S; Blake, Christine E; Freedman, Darcy A

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, 30% of African-American households with children had low or very low food security, a rate double that of white households with children. A household has low food security if its members experience food shortages and reductions in food quality attributable to a lack of household resources or access and very low food security if its members also experience reductions in food intake and disrupted eating patterns. Households that are either low or very low food secure are known collectively as food insecure. We examined the association between the severity of household food insecurity and reports of lifetime racial discrimination among a sample of food-insecure African-American households in South Carolina. Data were collected from 154 African-American respondents. Food insecurity was measured using the US Department of Agriculture's Household Food Security Survey Module. Lifetime racial discrimination was measured using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV). We used logistic regression to test the association between severity of food insecurity (low vs. very low food secure), PEDQ-CV score and PEDQ-CV subscales. All models were adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic variables. A one-unit increase in the frequency of lifetime racial discrimination was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of being very low food secure (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, P discrimination that were stigmatizing or devaluing (OR 1.16, P racial discrimination that were excluding or rejecting did not significantly increase the odds of being very low food secure (OR 1.07, P > .05). Severity of household food insecurity is associated with lifetime racial discrimination among African-American households in South Carolina.

  16. Marked Transient Alkaline Phosphatemia Following Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Baburao; Carone, Eduardo; Malatack, J. Jeffrey; Esquivel, Carlos O.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    An isolated marked transient rise in serum alkaline phosphatase levels in otherwise healthy children is a well-documented occurrence. However, in children undergoing liver transplantation, elevated alkaline phosphatase values raise the possibility of biliary obstruction, rejection, or both. During a 6-year period, 6 of 278 children undergoing liver transplantation exhibited a similar phenomenon as an isolated abnormality. None had rejection, biliary obstruction, or other allograft dysfunction during a long follow-up. Eventually and without intervention, the alkaline phosphatase levels returned to normal. These instructive cases suggest that caution be used in advocating Invasive procedures if elevated alkaline phosphatase levels are an isolated abnormality, and close observation with noninvasive testing is recommended. PMID:2658549

  17. Isolation of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis AKRS3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ashok

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... sodium chloride concentration), production by submerged fermentation and analytical ... subtilis AKRS3 for alkaline protease production indicated that 3% of .... using eight different carbon sources namely, glucose, lactose,.

  18. Stability and selectivity of alkaline proteases in hydrophilic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haastrup; Ritthitham, Sinthuwat; Pleissner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    proteases, but at higher concentrations and particularly in anhydrous systems most enzymes including alkaline proteases will denature and consequently loose activity [1]. However, partial denaturing and increased structural flexibility due to the interaction between hydrophilic solvents and alkaline...... proteases has been agued as the primary reasons for increasing activity, influencing regio-selectivity and improving the enantio-selectivity of these enzymes [2]. Alkaline proteases have been shown to be active not only on peptides, but on a wide range of renewable resources for synthesis of biologically...... active molecules and carriers, and in synthesis of carbohydrate derivatives with designed functional properties.  When it comes to regio-selectivity of alkaline proateses on carbohydrates both the properties of the particular enzyme and the influence of the solvent is determining for the position...

  19. Microbial alkaline pectinases and their industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoondal, G S; Tiwari, R P; Tewari, R; Dahiya, N; Beg, Q K

    2002-08-01

    The biotechnological potential of pectinolytic enzymes from microorganisms has drawn a great deal of attention from various researchers worldwide as likely biological catalysts in a variety of industrial processes. Alkaline pectinases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in the current biotechnological arena with wide-ranging applications in textile processing, degumming of plant bast fibers, treatment of pectic wastewaters, paper making, and coffee and tea fermentations. The present review features the potential applications and uses of microbial alkaline pectinases, the nature of pectin, and the vast range of pectinolytic enzymes that function to mineralize pectic substances present in the environment. It also emphasizes the environmentally friendly applications of microbial alkaline pectinases thereby revealing their underestimated potential. The review intends to explore the potential of these enzymes and to encourage new alkaline pectinase-based industrial technology.

  20. Combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis of polyvinylchloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the widespread aversion to burning polyvinylchloride (PVC) together with municipal waste, we have attempted an alternative approach to its decomposition. This paper describes a combined wet oxidation/alkaline hydrolysis yielding water soluble, biodegradable products. Experiments were...

  1. Effects of alkaline treatment for fibroblastic adhesion on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam Cuellar-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of Ti plates with NaOH enhances cell adhesion and the proliferation of HPLF cells. Clinically, the alkaline treatment of Ti-based implants could be an option to improve and accelerate osseointegration.

  2. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... activity and stability towards anionic surfactants like SDS and oxidants ... Alkaline protease activity was determined by the method of. Higahara et al. ... rpm, the media was analyzed for cell mass, total protein concentration ...

  3. Optimization of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hacene

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... The results showed the presence of an alkaline protease with optimal pH and ... significant effect on the production of the enzyme (fructose and malt extract), then defining theirs ..... Urease test. + ..... terminating inhibitors. Proc.

  4. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct alcohol alkaline fuel cells (DAAFCs) are potential power sources for a variety of portable applications as they provide unique advantages over hydrogen-based fuel cell devices. Alcohols (such as methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol...

  5. Acid and alkaline dual stimuli-responsive mechanized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles as smart nanocontainers for intelligent anticorrosion coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, JiaJun; Chen, Tao; Wang, MingDong; Yang, NianWang; Li, SuNing; Wang, Ying; Liu, XiaoDong

    2013-12-23

    The present paper introduces an intelligent anticorrosion coating, based on the mechanized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSs) as smart nanocontainers implanted into the self-assembled nanophase particles (SNAP) coating. As the key component, smart nanocontainers assembled by installing supramolecular nanovalves in the form of the bistable pseudorotaxanes on the external surface of HMSs realize pH-responsive controlled release for corrosion inhibitor, caffeine molecules. The smart nanocontainers encapsulate caffeine molecules at neutral pH, and release the molecules either under acidic or alkaline conditions, which make them spontaneously experience the pH excursions arisen from corrosion process and respond quickly. The intelligent anticorrosion coating was deposited on the surface of aluminum alloy AA2024 and investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). Compared with the pure SNAP coating, the well-dispersed smart nanocontainers not only delay the penetration rate of corrosive species but also repair damaged aluminum oxide layer to maintain the long term anticorrosion behavior. From the experimental results of SVET, the smart nanocontainers with the acid and alkaline dual stimuli-responsive characteristics can simultaneously suppress corrosion activities on microanodic and microcathodic regions, demonstrating an excellent self-healing functionality.

  6. Alkaline mineral water lowers bone resorption even in calcium sufficiency: alkaline mineral water and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Emma; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Aeschlimann, Jean-Marc; Burckhardt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Dietary acid charge enhances bone loss. Bicarbonate or alkali diet decreases bone resorption in humans. We compared the effect of an alkaline mineral water, rich in bicarbonate, with that of an acid one, rich in calcium only, on bone markers, in young women with a normal calcium intake. This study compared water A (per litre: 520 mg Ca, 291 mg HCO(3)(-), 1160 mg SO(4)(-), Potential Renal Acid load (PRAL) +9.2 mEq) with water B (per litre: 547 mg Ca, 2172 mg HCO(3)(-), 9 mg SO(4)(-), PRAL -11.2 mEq). 30 female dieticians aged 26.3 yrs (SD 7.3) were randomized into two groups, followed an identical weighed, balanced diet (965 mg Ca) and drank 1.5 l/d of the assigned water. Changes in blood and urine electrolytes, C-telopeptides (CTX), urinary pH and bicarbonate, and serum PTH were measured after 2 and 4 weeks. The two groups were not different at baseline, and showed a similar increase in urinary calcium excretion. Urinary pH and bicarbonate excretion increased with water B, but not with water A. PTH (p=0.022) and S-CTX (p=0.023) decreased with water B but not with water A. In calcium sufficiency, the acid calcium-rich water had no effect on bone resorption, while the alkaline water rich in bicarbonate led to a significant decrease of PTH and of S-CTX.

  7. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-de...

  8. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral,Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  9. HOUSEHOLD SAVINGS AS A SOURCE OF INVESTMENT RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The approaches of scientists in definition of the household savings, the motives of their creation and the role they perform are identified; the role of household savings in the economy is described; the importance of household saving transformation from unorganized to organized forms is analyzed; the size of saving in financial and nonfinancial forms, its dynamics and structure are characterized; comparison between household savings and main macroeconomic indicators is conducted; ways of investment of households savings are discussed; the dynamics of deposits in banks and credit unions, the participation of households in collective investment schemes (private and corporate investment funds is characterized; the dynamics of household deposits in national and foreign currencies is shown; the dynamics of nominal value of investment fund’s securities, that have been placed among resident individuals are characterized; the dynamics of deposit accounts and the number of credit unions members are described; the comparative characteristics of different ways to invest money is given; the reasons of unorganized savings existence are marked; barriers to convert savings into investments and the ways of overcoming them are identified.

  10. Rainwater harvesting: theorising and modelling issues that influence household adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, I

    2010-01-01

    Household adoption of rainwater harvesting (RH) systems recently boomed in Australian urban centres. As a sustainable supplement to the mains supply, water authorities regarded RH as a demand management device. Yet what actually motivated household RH adoption was not well understood. Burawoy's 'extended case method' was used to link grounded enquiry with 13 core theoretical concepts drawn from an original synthesis of ecological modernisation and diffusion of innovation theories. This framework means the household experience extends ideas drawn from existing theory to explore issues that influence the household RH adoption decision. The framework was interrogated with data drawn from a self-report survey of 560 homes. It accommodated 100% of the RH adoption issues identified by households. Further staged quantitative and qualitative analyses particularized these core concepts out to 36 discrete 'subfactors' which were used in discriminant function analyses. 17 subfactors contribute to a discriminant function grouping 89.2% of households to the correct 'adopter' or 'nonadopter' category (pRH adoption and can be applied to social marketing aimed at facilitating further penetration of household RH.

  11. Household food insecurity during childhood and adolescent misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    A large body of research has found that household food insecurity can interfere with the healthy development of children. The link between household food insecurity during childhood and misbehaviors during adolescence, however, is not commonly explored. The objective of the current study is to assess whether household food insecurity across childhood predicts four different forms of misconduct during early adolescence. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of U.S. children, were employed in the present study. Associations between household food insecurity during childhood and adolescent misconduct were examined using Logistic and Negative Binomial Regression. Analyses were performed separately for males and females. The results revealed that household food insecurity and food insecurity persistence were predictive of most forms of misconduct for males, and were consistently predictive of engagement in multiple forms of misconduct and a greater variety of forms of misconduct for males. For females, however, household food insecurity generally failed to predict adolescent misconduct. The behavioral development of males during adolescence appears to be sensitive to the presence and persistence of household food insecurity during childhood. Future research should seek to replicate and extend the present findings to late adolescence and adulthood.

  12. Estimating individual and household reproduction numbers in an emerging epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fraser

    Full Text Available Reproduction numbers, defined as averages of the number of people infected by a typical case, play a central role in tracking infectious disease outbreaks. The aim of this paper is to develop methods for estimating reproduction numbers which are simple enough that they could be applied with limited data or in real time during an outbreak. I present a new estimator for the individual reproduction number, which describes the state of the epidemic at a point in time rather than tracking individuals over time, and discuss some potential benefits. Then, to capture more of the detail that micro-simulations have shown is important in outbreak dynamics, I analyse a model of transmission within and between households, and develop a method to estimate the household reproduction number, defined as the number of households infected by each infected household. This method is validated by numerical simulations of the spread of influenza and measles using historical data, and estimates are obtained for would-be emerging epidemics of these viruses. I argue that the household reproduction number is useful in assessing the impact of measures that target the household for isolation, quarantine, vaccination or prophylactic treatment, and measures such as social distancing and school or workplace closures which limit between-household transmission, all of which play a key role in current thinking on future infectious disease mitigation.

  13. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  14. Analysis of Capability of Households to Finance Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasenko Yuliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses possibilities of financing higher education by households, it proves, using example of households of Ukraine and Russia, wish and capability of households to finance higher education. Analysis of such a capability of households reveals both possibilities for development of the education system and possibilities of overcoming problems in the structure of own finances. In the result of the analysis, the article identifies problems that require solution for adjustment of stable financing. One of the main problems is imbalance of household expenditures. The structure of these expenditures, which is individual for each country, should be taken into account when identifying cost of education, since household finances become one of the priority sources of financing higher education. Due to this, the article identifies a formula of the cost of education, which should be taken into account when it is established and which includes household capabilities. The article identifies a model, with the help of which it is possible to assess the quality of financing higher education when combining various sources of financing.

  15. Drivers behind energy consumption by rural households in Shanxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is widely used by households for cooking and heating in rural China. Along with rapid economic growth over the last three decades, increasing rural households tend to use less biomass and more commercial energy such as coal and electricity. In this paper, we analyzed the key drivers behind energy consumption and switching by rural households based on survey data of energy consumption by rural households in ten villages of Shanxi province in China. Our econometric results show that income growth can induce less use of biomass and more use of coal and modern fuels. However, no evidence shows that even wealthy households has abandoned biomass use in Shanxi, mainly due to the “free” access to land and agricultural resources in these villages. Previous wealth of a household represented by house value can lead to more time spent on biomass collection. Access to land resources has positive effects on biomass use and collection. Other key variables include education, household size, the number of elderly members, and coal price. We also find huge differences between villages, indicating the importance of access to agricultural resources and markets.

  16. What’s the Score? Walkable Environments and Subsidized Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood walkability can influence individual health, social interactions, and environmental quality, but the relationships between subsidized households and their walkable environment have not been sufficiently examined in previous empirical studies. Focusing on two types of subsidized housing developments (Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC and Public Housing (PH in Austin, Texas, this study evaluates the neighborhood walkability of place-based subsidized households, utilizing objectively measured Walk Score and walking-related built environment data. We also used U.S. Census block group data to account for the socio-demographic covariates. Based on various data, we employed bivariate and multivariate analyses to specify the relationships between subsidized households and their neighborhood walkable environment. The results of our bivariate analyses show that LIHTC households tend to be located in car-dependent neighborhoods and have more undesirable walking-related built environment conditions compared with non-LIHTC neighborhoods. Our regression results also represent that LIHTC households are more likely to be exposed to neighborhoods with low Walk Score, less sidewalk coverage, and more highways and major roads, while there are no significant associations for PH households. These findings imply that more attention and effort toward reducing the inequitable distributions of walkable neighborhood features supporting rather than hindering healthy lifestyles must be provided to subsidized households.

  17. Degradation of household biowaste in reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystek, L; Ledakowicz, S; Kahle, H J; Kaczorek, K

    2001-12-28

    Household derived biowaste was degraded by biological methods. The system involves the combined method of low-solids (up to 10% w/v of total solids (TS)) anaerobic digestion and aerobic degradation for the recovery of energy (biogas) and the production of fine humus-like material which can be used as a soil amender or a substrate for further thermal treatment (pyrolysis, gasification). The performance of batch and continuous processes carried out in bioreactors (stirred tank reactor, air-lift) of working volume 6 and 18 dm(3), at different temperatures (25-42 degrees C) was monitored by reduction of TS, volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, C/N in time. The application of continuous process with recirculation (33%) caused that for residence time of 8-16 h the obtained degree of organic load reduction was similar to that obtained after 72-96 h of the batch process. The experimental data of batch aerobic degradation was also subjected to kinetic analysis. The sequence of the two processes: aerobic and anaerobic or anaerobic and aerobic showed that the degree of organic load reduction was similar in both cases, while the amount of produced biogas was four times higher when the first stage was anaerobic. The final product after dewatering was subjected to pyrolysis and gasification. The gases obtained were characterised by a high heat of combustion of about 11-15 MJ Nm(-3).

  18. Social Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Ali Nor Eeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the world’s population, coupled with increasing urbanization, and rising standards of living, have all contributed to the increase in solid waste generation. Solid waste disposal is becoming a difficult problem for many countries. Thus, efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable solid waste management. Solid waste minimization is one of the ways of reducing the quantity of wastes for disposal. This study examines the perception of households towards solid waste minimization. 100 respondents were randomly selected from Section 7 housing area in Shah Alam city, Malaysia. Descriptive statistical technique was used in analysing the data. Findings from the study showed that respondent’s knowledge on waste minimization was above average. However, their level of knowledge as revealed further by the results is not in tandem with their attitude on waste minimization, which suggests that their attitude towards waste minimization is low. People who showed higher knowledge do not necessarily show concern or perform in solid waste minimisation. Therefore, local authorities must develop appropriate policy strategies to change the attitude and behaviour towards waste minimisation if they are to reach their statutory targets.

  19. Colchicine use in isolated renal AA amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Carlos F; Egües, César A; Uriarte, Miren; Belzunegui, Joaquín; Rezola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old woman, with two-year history of chronic renal insufficiency and proteinuria. A kidney biopsy showed the presence of AA amyloidosis (positive Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry). There was no evidence of amyloid deposits in other organs and there was no underlying disease. AA amyloidosis normally is secondary to chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases. High levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α play a role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis and induce the synthesis of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a precursor of tissue amyloid deposits. We empirically treated the patient with a low dose colchicine. The patient responded well. Colchicine has been used for the treatment of Familiar Mediterranean Fever and related auto-inflammatory diseases. To monitor treatment responses, we measured SAA finding low titers. Soon after treatment onset there were signs of improvement pertaining to proteinuria and stabilization of renal function.

  20. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Shyu, F L, E-mail: fl.shyu@msa.hinet.ne, E-mail: mflin@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Physics, ROC Military Academy, 830 Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  1. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acid/alkaline ash diets: time for assessment and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J; Foulkes, E; Evans, M; Ausman, L

    1985-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review critically the assumptions made to predict the effects of different diets on the pH of urine by calculations from food tables and lists of acid or alkaline ash in foods. Acid/alkaline ash calculations were completed for 7 days' worth of omnivore, lacto-ovo, and vegan diets. The vegetarian diets were significantly more alkaline than the omnivore diets, and the vegan diets were more alkaline than lacto-ovo vegetarian diets. The article discusses the history of the acid/alkaline ash concept, assumptions underlying it, mechanisms by which urine is acidified, how the acid/alkaline ash content of diets is calculated from food tables, difficulties arising in acid/ash calculations, and their validity in predicting urine pH. The authors conclude that while diet does influence the pH of urine, present calculation methods are time consuming, imprecise, and do not permit quantitative prediction of urine pH. Better methods for calculating the effects of diet on acid-base balance are needed.

  3. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  4. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  5. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  6. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.5 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are to numerous to name them all. Heribert Koziol, apparently asleep, is answering the call from an impatient director. See also 8007094.

  7. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see a wooden model, built in 1978, to gain dimensional experience with such a monster.

  8. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  9. AAS Oral History Project - Seeking Planetary Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita

    2016-10-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 100 space scientists from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from space scientists at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees' personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one's family, childhood, strong influences on one's scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. We will present preliminary analysis of those interviewed including characterizing career status, age range, nationality, and primary field. Additionally, we will discuss trends beginning to emerge in analysis of participants' responses about data driven science and advice to the next generation. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of space scientists and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are actively recruiting individuals to be interviewed at this meeting from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. We are especially interested in interviewing 40+E members of DPS. Contact Sanlyn Buxner to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (buxner@psi.edu). Contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com).

  10. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  11. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, María V., E-mail: plapimu@yahoo.com.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Falco, Lorena R., E-mail: mlfalco@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Peluso, Miguel A., E-mail: apelu@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sambeth, Jorge E., E-mail: sambeth@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas, “Dr. J. Ronco” CINDECA (CONICET CCT La Plata), 47 N°257, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Thomas, Horacio J. [Pla.Pi.Mu-Planta Piloto Multipropósito, (CICPBA-UNLP) Cno. Centenario y 505, M.B. Gonnet, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  12. Household debt and consumption during the financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Duus, Charlotte; Jensen, Thais Lærkholm

    2014-01-01

    We use data for nearly 800,000 Danish families to examine whether high household leverage prior to the financial crisis may have amplified the reduction in household spending over the course of the crisis. We find a strong negative correlation between pre-crisis leverage and the change in non......-housing consumption during the crisis, conditional on a range of other household characteristics. The larger drop in spending among the highly leveraged families reflects that these families consumed a larger fraction of their income than their less-leveraged peers prior to the crisis. But as the crisis unfolded...

  13. Modern Trends in the Formation of Household Incomes in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Zaika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modern trends in the formation of household incomes in Ukraine, finding the relation between different types of income on the basis of statistical and financial classification. Identifying modern trends in the generation of household income is important for the disclosure of labour market formation. Formation of a diversified system of household incomes, harmoniously combining both primary and secondary incomes, incomes from the payment of wage labour, entrepreneurship and self-employment, as well as other types of income, can protect people during crises in the financial and real sectors of the economy.

  14. Agricultural use of household compost in Brazzaville market gardening belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matondo, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available After the finalization of the household filth processing through aerobic fermentation or compostage, which allowed us to get an organic tool, so important in the plant production, the following communication studies the fertilising values of compost from household filth and raw wastes. Conducted in the fields, the study has revelead being successful with positive effects of the burying of compost upon the output of gardenmarket cultivation (in the Brazzaville poor soil. More over, the direct burying of household filth go along with depressive effects mainly on short-cycle vegetative cultivation.

  15. Economic aspects of provision country household with food

    OpenAIRE

    Brunšek, Urška

    2016-01-01

    Food provides us satisfaction for our basic needs. We can buy or produce food, which is healthy and safe. Production of food can provide satisfaction for food for household or local population, such food is also easy to get. The purpose of diploma is to determinate if household save money with producing food and how much is it. I have analysed self providing rural household.. I collected information about quantity and sort of produced food and gained prices on the current market. This way ...

  16. Income as a factor of consumer behaviour in Latvian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov V. V., Krasko V. D.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Socially oriented public policy in the area of household consumption plays an important role in achieving stable socio-economic development. At the macroeconomic level, the state regulates the process of consumption based on fiscal policy and fair taxation of households, encouraging domestic demand and economic activity. Therefore, the urgent task of modern macroeconomic policy in Latvia is the development and support of socially relevant tools and methods of state regulation of consumption and consumer behaviour of the households, taking into account its main factors: income and taxation.

  17. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  18. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  19. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mexican-origin women in the U.S. living in colonias (new-destination Mexican-immigrant communities along the Texas-Mexico border suffer from a high incidence of food insecurity and diet-related chronic disease. Understanding environmental factors that influence food-related behaviors among this population will be important to improving the well-being of colonia households. This article focuses on cultural repertoires that enable food choice and the everyday uses of technology in food-related practice by Mexican-immigrant women in colonia households under conditions of material hardship. Findings are presented within a conceptual framework informed by concepts drawn from sociological accounts of technology, food choice, culture, and material hardship. Methods Field notes were provided by teams of promotora-researchers (indigenous community health workers and public-health professionals trained as participant observers. They conducted observations on three separate occasions (two half-days during the week and one weekend day within eight family residences located in colonias near the towns of Alton and San Carlos, Texas. English observations were coded inductively and early observations stressed the importance of technology and material hardship in food-related behavior. These observations were further explored and coded using the qualitative data package Atlas.ti. Results Technology included kitchen implements used in standard and adapted configurations and household infrastructure. Residents employed tools across a range of food-related activities identified as forms of food acquisition, storage, preparation, serving, feeding and eating, cleaning, and waste processing. Material hardships included the quality, quantity, acceptability, and uncertainty dimensions of food insecurity, and insufficient consumption of housing, clothing and medical care. Cultural repertoires for coping with material hardship included reliance on

  20. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiza Abdul Razak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  1. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-05-21

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  2. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  3. Transferring 2001 National Household Travel Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Patricia S [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    Policy makers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and to accommodate future demand. These data are also needed to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-mitigating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, and intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. In 2001, the survey was renamed the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) and it collected both daily and long-distance trips. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel were not part of the survey. Due to the survey's design, data in the NHTS survey series were not recommended for estimating travel statistics for categories smaller than the combination of Census division (e.g., New

  4. Comparison between ARB and CARB processes on an AA5754/AA6061 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, K.; Helbert, A.-L.; Brisset, F.; Baudin, T.

    2014-08-01

    The present work aims to compare two processes: Accumulative Roll Bonding and Cross Accumulative Roll Bonding (CARB). Both processes consist in the repetition of rolling but the second technique adds a 90° rotation of the sheet around its normal direction between each rolling. Microstructure, mechanical properties and texture were compared for both processes on an AA5754/AA6061 composite. As a result a thinner and less elongated microstructure was obtained in the CARB process leading to an isotropy and an improvement of the mechanical properties. Besides, the texture was characterized by the rotated Cube component for both processes but for CARB it is of less strength.

  5. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%, followed by small retailers (25.2%, direct purchase from producers (16%, and local or itinerant markets (5.8%. It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of households store them in the refrigerator, although this percentage varies considerably, according to the type of presentation (packaged or loose and the number of eggs bought. Italian households mainly eat eggs cooked (48.9%, followed by partly cooked (35.0% and raw (16.1%.

  6. The Impact of Microfinance on Household Welfare in Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education level, household assets and being in paid employment in the ... Poverty is a development problem that Botswana also faces despite being classified as ... the relatively poor people due to high administration costs relative to potential ...

  7. Pittsburgh American Community Survey Data 2015 - Household Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to Question 2 in the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS), which was asked of all people in...

  8. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  9. Teenage pregnancy in adolescents with an incarcerated household member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Mathilde Logan; Loper, Ann Booker

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the association between the incarceration of a household member and adolescent pregnancy, and evaluates whether this association extends beyond that of other variables associated with sexual health. We used data from 12 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: Child and Young Adult. After eliminating males and individuals who did not respond to key questions, a sample of 1,229 girls (ages 14-19) was analyzed. Girls who experienced the incarceration of a household member faced more demographic and family environment risk factors than those who did not. Regression analyses demonstrated that the addition of a household incarceration variable afforded superior prediction of teenage pregnancy relative to the prediction based on demographic and family features alone. Programs that are directed toward reducing teen pregnancy will benefit from attention to the home situation of the at-risk girl, particularly the experience of household member incarceration and related family dynamics.

  10. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  11. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-1999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  12. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA-2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...

  13. Climate Change and Variability: Implications for Household Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    most vulnerable but least prepared for adverse global environmental change .... with no children and 18 questions for households with children. The food security ...... require strengthening early warning and disaster risk reduction institutions.

  14. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Departement Consumer Study: Food, Clothing, Housing. University of ..... Norum (1989) used the age of the household head .... necessarily made purchases known to the ..... children on family life cycle spending behavior: theory and.

  15. Households' Perceived Responsibilities in Flood Risk Management in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Teun; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Flood risk management in the Netherlands is on the eve of shifting primarily from prevention towards risk management, including disaster preparedness and response and citizen participation. This study explores Dutch households' perceived responsibility for taking private protection measures. Survey

  16. 7 CFR 253.6 - Eligibility of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program income eligibility limits and standard deductions. (2) Definition of income. Household income... curriculum. For example, uniforms, lab fees, or equipment charged to all students to enroll in a chemistry...

  17. Rural Household Attitude towards Traditional Methods of Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    shocks. However, at the household level, malaria risk and disease burden is ... health promoting and disease preventing activities, increasing risk in some instances ..... HIV and AIDS and farm labour productivity: A review of recent evidence in ...

  18. The Impact of International Remittance on Poverty, Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: International remittance, poverty and household consumption and. Investment ... living abroad. This number is growing at a higher rate since then. ...... urban areas by adjusting the rate of inflation between 2010/11 and 2011/12.

  19. Food consumption pattern in urban households: The case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food consumption pattern in urban households: The case study of Uyo ... The problem highlighted include efforts toward equitable redistribution of income among all income earners. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Determinants of Vulnerability to Livelihood Insecurity at Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Household Level: Evidence from Maphutseng, Lesotho. Kanono ... information on how people access food and cash based on multi-level analysis ...... husbandry, management, and marketing knowledge, requiring changes in crop mix.

  1. 77 FR 32901 - State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... regulatory authorities and State attorneys general the right to enforce certain consumer protection... Household Goods Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... goods regulatory authorities and State attorneys general may enforce certain consumer protection...

  2. EFFECTS OF MIGRANT REMITTANCES ON FARM HOUSEHOLD WELFARE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbe BASSEY ETOWA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available International remittances are now a mechanism in development financing and a welfare strategy. Growing trends of these money transfers by migrants to their families back home in developing nations have been proven by evidences in literature and many empirical findings. This research analysed the effects of migrant remittances on the welfare of farm households in Nigeria. Welfare was measurable in terms of the households’ real per capita consumption. Cross sectional data were pooled from two sources. The data sources were Nigerian General Household Survey conducted in 2010/2011 and the Nigerian Living Standard Survey carried out in 2003/2004. The analytical technique adopted was the poverty profile function within the framework of multiple regression analysis. Results showed that four exogenous variables, including household real per capita remittances were significant determinants of household real per capita consumption (welfare.

  3. Household energy use and the environment - a conflicting issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anker-Nilssen, P. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvika (Norway). Centre for Energy and Environment, Department of Leadership Management

    2003-11-01

    The concept of sustainable economic development, parallel to a further improvement in the quality of life, conflicts with energy-driven changes in life-styles. In order to gain time, convenience, comfort and mobility, households are steadily increasing their energy use, neglecting economic and environmental concerns. This paper scrutinises Norwegian households' use of energy and the consequences of price (and climate) changes. Less well-off households were found vulnerable to energy-price hikes: households' attitudes towards energy use and their actual behaviour were inconsistent. Any measures to curb end-users energy demand must consider, besides distribution effects, that energy substitutes not only for capital and labour, but also for time and space. (author)

  4. An iterative approach for generating statistically realistic populations of households

    CERN Document Server

    Gargiulo, Floriana; Huet, Sylvie; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many different simulation frameworks, in different topics, need to treat realistic datasets to initialize and calibrate the system. A precise reproduction of initial states is extremely important to obtain reliable forecast from the model. Methodology/Principal Findings: This paper proposes an algorithm to create an artificial population where individuals are described by their age, and are gathered in households respecting a variety of statistical constraints (distribution of household types, sizes, age of household head, difference of age between partners and among parents and children). Such a population is often the initial state of microsimulation or (agent) individual-based models. To get a realistic distribution of households is often very important, because this distribution has an impact on the demographic evolution. Usual techniques from microsimulation approach cross different sources of aggregated data for generating individuals. In our case the number of combinations of different hous...

  5. Farmers' Perception of Water Contribution to Household and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... rainfall pattern adversely affected their crops yield which has implication ... Keywords: Water Resources, Rainfall, Climate Change, Farming Households, ..... No.2 depend on a stream which is situated close to a very big tree.

  6. Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Among Farming Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation Among Farming Households of Southern ... The major factors constraining farmers from adapting to climate change impacts ... government irresponsiveness to climate change risk management, (e) credit ...

  7. Household responses to malaria: cost implications in Anantigha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household responses to malaria: cost implications in Anantigha area of Calabar South lga ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... people will form baseline data for more research in the control of malaria in the community.

  8. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    and poverty dynamics. Poverty incidence and dynamics models including environmental income perform better than those without. Rural poverty studies based on welfare measures excluding environmental income may thus be inaccurate for environmental reliant communities.......Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...

  9. The politics of reproduction: households in the Mexican industrial transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, A J

    1997-04-01

    "A household-level analysis helps to reveal the dynamics of a transition in Mexican industrial strategy from the state-led import substitution strategy dominant from 1930 to 1976 to the neoliberal one dominant today. The results suggest that gender restructuring was a crucial element of industrial restructuring. The new industrial strategy, which relies on substantial foreign investment and adopts many of the norms of maquiladora production, has reshaped the industrial household into a multitude of forms. In the case study presented, these range from huge company-run single-sex dormitories to a variety of extended family households. In these new households the gender division of domestic labor has been renegotiated. In-depth interviews reveal that such micro-scale struggles result from, and influence, the new factory regime."

  10. Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program FY 2008 Household Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State-reported annual data collected on the presence of elderly, disabled, and young children in eligible households receiving Low Income Home Energy Assistance...

  11. Household linkages in dispersed settlement around Pietersburg and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    privaat

    the consumer market (distribution, packaging, ser- vice industries). ... in turn surrounded by the macroenvironment. The ... microenvironment include the housing, goods or other evidences ... The household's macroenvironment is composed of.

  12. Alkalinity Enrichment Enhances Net Calcification of a Coral Reef Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, R.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean acidification is projected to shift reefs from a state of net accretion to one of net dissolution sometime this century. While retrospective studies show large-scale changes in coral calcification over the last several decades, it is not possible to unequivocally link these results to ocean acidification due to confounding factors of temperature and other environmental parameters. Here, we quantified the calcification response of a coral reef flat to alkalinity enrichment to test whether reef calcification increases when ocean chemistry is restored to near pre-industrial conditions. We used sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to increase the total alkalinity of seawater flowing over a reef flat, with the aim of increasing carbonate ion concentrations [CO32-] and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) to values that would have been attained under pre-industrial atmospheric pCO2 levels. We developed a dual tracer regression method to estimate alkalinity uptake (i.e., calcification) in response to alkalinity enrichment. This approach uses the change in ratios between a non-conservative tracer (alkalinity) and a conservative tracer (a non-reactive dye, Rhodamine WT) to assess the fraction of added alkalinity that is taken up by the reef as a result of an induced increase in calcification rate. Using this method, we estimate that an average of 17.3% ± 2.3% of the added alkalinity was taken up by the reef community. In providing results from the first seawater chemistry manipulation experiment performed on a natural coral reef community (without artificial confinement), we demonstrate that, upon increase of [CO32-] and Ωarag to near pre-industrial values, reef calcification increases. Thus, we conclude that, the impacts of ocean acidification are already being felt by coral reefs. This work is the culmination of years of work in the Caldeira lab at the Carnegie Institution for Science, involving many people including Jack Silverman, Kenny Schneider, and Jana Maclaren.

  13. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  15. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C T

    1985-06-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on

  16. Simon van der Meer in the AA Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1984-01-01

    Simon van der Meer, spiritus rector of the Antiproton Accumulator, in the AA Control Room. Inventor of stochastic cooling, on which the AA was based, and of the magnetic horn, with which the antiprotons were focused, he also wrote most of the software with which the AA was controlled, and spent uncountable numbers of hours in this chair to tickle the AA to top performance. 8 months after this picture was taken, he received, in October 1984, the Nobel prize, together with Carlo Rubbia, the moving force behind the whole Proton-Antiproton Collider project that led to the discovery, in 1983, of the W and Z intermediate bosons.

  17. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    The comparative wave planetology [1, 5] successfully overcomes the most principal martian test having now analyses of alkaline rocks from Columbia Hills [2, 3, 4]. This kind of rocks was predicted earlier on basis of the wave paradigm having stated that "the higher planetary relief range - the higher density difference between lithologies composing hypsometrically (tectonically) contrasting blocks [5]. This paradigm declares that "celestial bodies are dichotomic"(Theorem 1), "celestial bodies are sectoral" (Theorem 2), "celestial bodies are granular"(Theorem 3), "angular momenta of different level blocks tend to be equal" (Theorem 4)[1, 5]. Mars is a typical terrestrial planet but the farthest from Sun and thus with the smallest tide effects. Nevertheless it has the highest relief range and seems to be most distorted (ellipsoid in shape) and broken by deep fissures. The wave approach explains this by a warping action of standing waves of 4 ortho- and diagonal directions - they are the longest and highest in the martian case. These interfering warping waves caused by the elliptic keplerian orbits implying periodically changing accelerations and inertia-gravity forces produce inevitable tectonic dichotomy (the fundamental wave 1 long 2πR), sectoring (wave 2, πR, and other overtones), granulation. A granule size depends on an orbital frequency: the higher frequency the smaller granule. The Earth's granule, as a scale, is πR/4 (see it in NASA's PIA04159), Venus ` πR/6, Mercury's πR/16, Mars' πR/2 (the sizes are strictly tied to orb. fr.). Along with the granule sizes increase relief ranges ( Mercury ˜5 km, Venus 14, Earth 20, Mars ˜30) and compositional (density) difference between lowland and highland lithologies [5]. The lowland compositions become Fericher and denser: enstatite (Mercury), Mg-basalt (Venus), tholeiite (Earth), Fe-basalt (Mars). The highland compositions get less dense, lighter: anorthosite, alkaline basalt, andesite and conditional "albitite

  18. Models of irrational behaviour of household and firm

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić, Bojan; Krstić, Miloš; id_orcid 0000-0002-5256-8613

    2015-01-01

    To study the basic characteristics of impulsive household, economists use probabilistic different models, These models are stylized and lack many details. Despite the fact that these models lack realism, studying these models will enable economists to see what is really important for them. For example, increasing the relative price of commodity X decrease the consumption of commodity X. The model of irrational household behaviour indicates that the irrational economic subjects will be forced ...

  19. Marriage Market, Divorce Legislation and Household Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Andre Chiappori; Bernard Fortin; Guy Lacroix

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical framework for analyzing the impact of the marriage market and divorce legislation on household labor supply. In our approach, the sex ratio on the marriage market and the rules governing divorce are examples of "distribution factors". The latter are defined as variables that affect the household members' bargaining position but neither preferences nor the joint budget set. We extend the collective labor supply model developed by Chiappori (JPE, 1992) to allow...

  20. Belief dispersion among household investors and stock trading volume

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of belief dispersion on stock trading volume. Unlike most of the existing work on the subject, our paper focuses on how household investors' disagreements on macroeconomic variables influence market-wide trading volume. We show that greater belief dispersion among household investors is associated with significantly higher trading volume, even after controlling for the disagreements among professional forecasters. Further, we find that the belief dispersion among househol...